WorldWideScience

Sample records for model solids sediments

  1. Sedimentation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, D.R.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-09-01

    The nuclear wastes currently stored in tanks at the Hanford site contain complex mixtures of insoluble sludge particles, salts, and supernatant liquids. Treatment and ultimate disposal of these tank wastes will require that the complex solid-liquid mixtures be dispersed in aqueous solutions for retrieval and transport. The mixtures will then require pretreatment steps that will ultimately require the isolation of insoluble particles from supernatant liquids via solid-liquid separation steps such as settle-decant operations, centrifugation, or filtration. There is a perception that sludge treatment in general, and solid-liquid separations in particular, are relatively trivial operations that can easily be transferred to private industry to initiate tank cleanup. Experiences gained over the past few years at Hanford suggest that waste processing is not as trivial as it seems

  2. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  3. Surface complexation modeling for predicting solid phase arsenic concentrations in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.S.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential health impact of As in drinking water supply systems in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the state of Arkansas, USA is significant. In this context it is important to understand the occurrence, distribution and mobilization of As in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Application of surface complexation models (SCMs) to predict the sorption behavior of As and hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) in the laboratory has increased in the last decade. However, the application of SCMs to predict the sorption of As in natural sediments has not often been reported, and such applications are greatly constrained by the lack of site-specific model parameters. Attempts have been made to use SCMs considering a component additivity (CA) approach which accounts for relative abundances of pure phases in natural sediments, followed by the addition of SCM parameters individually for each phase. Although few reliable and internally consistent sorption databases related to HFO exist, the use of SCMs using laboratory-derived sorption databases to predict the mobility of As in natural sediments has increased. This study is an attempt to evaluate the ability of the SCMs using the geochemical code PHREEQC to predict solid phase As in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Arkansas. The SCM option of the double-layer model (DLM) was simulated using ferrihydrite and goethite as sorbents quantified from chemical extractions, calculated surface-site densities, published surface properties, and published laboratory-derived sorption constants for the sorbents. The model results are satisfactory for shallow wells (10.6. m below ground surface), where the redox condition is relatively oxic or mildly suboxic. However, for the deep alluvial aquifer (21-36.6. m below ground surface) where the redox condition is suboxic to anoxic, the model results are unsatisfactory. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Solid-waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Conca, J.L.; Wood, M.I.

    1993-10-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development of conceptual-release models for Hanford Site defense solid-waste forms; (2) optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release from contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments; and (3) creation of empirical data for use as provisional source term and retardation factors that become input parameters for performance assessment analyses for future Hanford disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing disposal units

  5. Fine-Grid Eulerian Simulation of Sedimenting Particles: Liquid-Solid and Gas-Solid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Muhammad; Hamid, Adnan; Ullah, Atta

    2017-06-01

    A computational study of mono-dispersed spherical sedimenting particles was performed with Eulerian two-fluid model (TFM). The aim was to investigate the applicability and accuracy of TFM with proper closure laws from kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) for sedimentation studies. A three-dimensional cubical box with full periodic boundaries was employed. The volume fraction of particles (ϕs) was varied from very low (ϕs = 0.01) to dense regimes (ϕs = 0.4), for two different types of fluids, i.e., gas and liquid. It is observed that the results for liquid-solid sedimentation are in good agreement with simulation studies and experimental correlation of Richardson and Zaki. However, for gas-solid system, results show different behavior at low volume fractions, which is more pronounced with increasing Stokes number. This can be attributed to inhomogeneous distribution of solid particles in gas phase at dilute concentrations, which causes meso-scale clusters and streamers formation. It is concluded that the ratio of density of particles to density of fluid which appears in Stokes number plays critical role in settling behavior of particles.

  6. Monitoring and statistical modelling of sedimentation in gully pots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.A.B.; Pothof, I.W.M.; Dirksen, J.; Baars, E. J.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2016-01-01

    Gully pots are essential assets designed to relief the downstream system by trapping solids and attached pollutants suspended in runoff. This study applied a methodology to develop a quantitative gully pot sedimentation and blockage model. To this end, sediment bed level time series from 300

  7. Kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comans, R.N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments have been reviewed and interpreted in terms of a mechanistic framework. This framework is based on the premise that radiocaesium is almost exclusively and highly-selectively bound to the frayed particle edges of illitic clay minerals in the sediments. Several processes with distinctly different rates can be distinguished in radiocaesium sorption to sediments. 2- and 3-box kinetic models can describe both the overall solid/liquid partitioning in sediments and the reversible (exchangeable) and irreversible (nonexchangeable or 'fixed') fractions of radiocaesium in sediments over time scales relevant for natural aquatic systems. The obtained rate parameters indicate that reversible partitioning of radiocaesium dominates over the first few days following a contamination event, whereas irreversible kinetics becomes important over time scales of weeks to months. The slow process, which reduces the exchangeability of sediment-bound radiocaesium over time, is believed to result from a migration of radiocaesium from exchangeable sites on the frayed edges of illite towards less-exchangeable interlayer sites. Long-term extraction of radiocaesium from historically contaminated sediments has given evidence for a reverse (remobilization) process with a half-life of the order of tens of years. These findings suggest that the long-term exchangeability of radiocaesium in sediments may be higher than the few % which is generally assumed. (orig.)

  8. Solid modeling of fossil small mammal teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschallinger, Robert; Hofmann, Peter; Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; Ketcham, Richard A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to create solid models of fossil small mammal teeth using a combination of microcomputed tomography, object based image analysis and voxel modeling. Small mammal teeth, because of their durability, are widely found in Cenozioc sediments the world over and play a key role in stratigraphy as well as in researching the rapid evolution and the paleogeographic spreading of small mammals. Recent advances in microcomputed tomography make this non-destructive analysis method an ideal data source for high-resolution 3D models of fossil small animal teeth. To derive internally consistent solid models of such fossils from micro-CT imagery, we propose a combination of 3D object based image analysis and solid modeling. Incorporating paleontological expert knowledge in the image processing cycle, object based image analysis yields topologically consistent image stacks classified by the main tooth components—enamel, dentine and pulp. Forwarding these data to a voxel modeling system, they can be quantitatively analyzed in an unprecedented manner: going beyond the possibilities of the state-of-art surface models, solid models are capable of unambiguously portraying the entire object volume—teeth can be peeled by material properties, subvolumes can be extracted and automatically analyzed by Boolean operations. The proposed method, which can be flexibly extended to handle a range of paleontological and geological micro-objects, is demonstrated with two typical fossil small mammal teeth.

  9. A sediment resuspension and water quality model of Lake Okeechobee

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R.T.; Martin, J.; Wool, T.; Wang, P.-F.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of sediment resuspension on the water quality of shallow lakes is well documented. However, a search of the literature reveals no deterministic mass-balance eutrophication models that explicitly include resuspension. We modified the Lake Okeeehobee water quality model - which uses the Water Analysis Simulation Package (WASP) to simulate algal dynamics and phosphorus, nitrogen, and oxygen cycles - to include inorganic suspended solids and algorithms that: (1) define changes in depth with changes in volume; (2) compute sediment resuspension based on bottom shear stress; (3) compute partition coefficients for ammonia and ortho-phosphorus to solids; and (4) relate light attenuation to solids concentrations. The model calibration and validation were successful with the exception of dissolved inorganic nitrogen species which did not correspond well to observed data in the validation phase. This could be attributed to an inaccurate formulation of algal nitrogen preference and/or the absence of nitrogen fixation in the model. The model correctly predicted that the lake is lightlimited from resuspended solids, and algae are primarily nitrogen limited. The model simulation suggested that biological fluxes greatly exceed external loads of dissolved nutrients; and sedimentwater interactions of organic nitrogen and phosphorus far exceed external loads. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that parameters affecting resuspension, settling, sediment nutrient and solids concentrations, mineralization, algal productivity, and algal stoichiometry are factors requiring further study to improve our understanding of the Lake Okeechobee ecosystem.

  10. Selective quantification of DOSS in marine sediment and sediment-trap solids by LC-QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matt J; Joye, Samantha B; Field, Jennifer A

    2017-02-01

    At the onset of the 2010 Gulf oil spill, analytical methods for the quantification of the surfactants in Corexit did not exist in the peer-reviewed literature. To date, only a single study reports the presence of bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS) in deep-sea Gulf sediment collected in 2010 from a single location. There are no data on the occurrence of DOSS in association with settling solids (i.e., sediment-trap solids). To address this data gap, DOSS was initially quantified by liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sediment and sediment-trap solids collected from multiple sites in the Gulf between 2010 and 2013. However, interferences confounded analyses using only a quadrupole (MS/MS) system; therefore, a LC-high mass accuracy quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) method was developed. The LC-QTOF method was validated and applied to eight representative samples of sediment and of sediment-trap solids. The presented method quantifies DOSS in solids of marine origin at concentrations above the limit of quantification of 0.23 μg kg -1 with recoveries of 97 ± 20 % (mean ± 95 CI). Gulf sediment and sediment-trap solids gave DOSS concentrations of Sediment core and sediment trap materials were collected in the Gulf and analyzed for DOSS by LCQTOF.

  11. A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model...

  12. Theoretical Evaluation of the Sediment/Water Exchange Description in Generic Compartment Models (SimpleBox)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Fauser, P.; Carlsen, L.

    It is shown how diffusion and deposition of solids drive the flux of substance between the water column and the sediment. The generic compartment models (Mackay type) use a one box model for the sediment in order to keep the calculations simple. However, when diffusion needs to be included...... where diffusion or deposition is negligible or where both processes must be included in order to describe the sediment-water substance exchange most appropriately....

  13. A combined model of sediment production, supply and transport

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fujita; K. Yamanoi; H. Izumiyama

    2015-01-01

    In previous sediment-runoff models, the sediment production rates of mountain slopes, and the sediment supply rates to streams typically have been developed using empirical methods. A process-based model for sediment production and supply is, however, required for more exact simulations of sediment runoff. In this study, we develop a method to calculate the sediment production rate due to both freeze-thaw action and the sediment supply rate (i.e. erosion rate of talus). These numerical models...

  14. System Model of Daily Sediment Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, T. C.; Dickinson, W. T.

    1980-06-01

    Input-output systems concepts have been applied to the modeling of daily runoff-sediment yield of the Thames River in southern Ontario, Canada. Spectral and correlation techniques have been used to construct a parsimonious model of daily sediment yields. It is shown that a linear discrete dynamic model is possible in terms of the log-transformed daily runoff and sediment yield sequences. The fluvial system of the Thames River watershed exhibits a weak memory on a daily basis, and the noise component corrupting the watershed fluvial system resembles a white noise process.

  15. Solid Waste Projection Model: Model user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, D.L.; Crow, V.L.

    1990-08-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) specifically to address solid waste management issues at the Hanford Central Waste Complex (HCWC). This document, one of six documents supporting the SWPM system, contains a description of the system and instructions for preparing to use SWPM and operating Version 1 of the model. 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Enhanced electroforced sedimentation of various solid- liquid systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... constant electric current density of zinc oxide and kaolin suspended in aqueous media with and without ... Dewatering by conventional ... Water. Sediment. Figure 1. Experimental set up. material, zinc oxide and kaolin were used. The slurry was kept until gravitational sedimentation was completed and ...

  17. Mathematical modelling in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sofonea, Mircea; Steigmann, David

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new research results in multidisciplinary fields of mathematical and numerical modelling in mechanics. The chapters treat the topics: mathematical modelling in solid, fluid and contact mechanics nonconvex variational analysis with emphasis to nonlinear solid and structural mechanics numerical modelling of problems with non-smooth constitutive laws, approximation of variational and hemivariational inequalities, numerical analysis of discrete schemes, numerical methods and the corresponding algorithms, applications to mechanical engineering numerical aspects of non-smooth mechanics, with emphasis on developing accurate and reliable computational tools mechanics of fibre-reinforced materials behaviour of elasto-plastic materials accounting for the microstructural defects definition of structural defects based on the differential geometry concepts or on the atomistic basis interaction between phase transformation and dislocations at nano-scale energetic arguments bifurcation and post-buckling a...

  18. A Spatial Model of Erosion and Sedimentation on Continental Margins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratson, Lincoln

    1999-01-01

    .... A computer model that simulates the evolution of continental slope morphology under the interaction of sedimentation, slope failure, and sediment flow erosion has been constructed and validated...

  19. Influence of sediment composition on apparent toxicity in a solid-phase test using bioluminescent bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, M.J. [East Tennessee State Univ., Johnson City, TN (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Malott, M.L. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)]|[Dept. of Agriculture, Oxford, MS (United States); Knight, S.S.; Cooper, C.M. [Dept. of Agriculture, Oxford, MS (United States); Benson, W.H. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Clean and spiked sediment formulations of various silt:sand and clay:sand ratios were tested for toxicity using a bioassay that utilizes bioluminescent bacteria. Measured toxicities of clean and copper sulfate-spiked sediments were negatively but nonlinearly related with percent silt and percent clay, but no significant relationship existed between measured toxicity and sediment composition for methyl parathion-spiked formulations. Results suggest that solid-phase sediment bioassays using bioluminescence bacteria may be useful for testing the toxicities of single contaminants in formulated artificial sediments of known particle-size composition, and for repeated samples collected from the same site. However, extreme caution must be taken when testing sediments of varying composition or which may be differentially contaminated or contain a suite of contaminants.

  20. A combined model of sediment production, supply and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fujita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In previous sediment-runoff models, the sediment production rates of mountain slopes, and the sediment supply rates to streams typically have been developed using empirical methods. A process-based model for sediment production and supply is, however, required for more exact simulations of sediment runoff. In this study, we develop a method to calculate the sediment production rate due to both freeze-thaw action and the sediment supply rate (i.e. erosion rate of talus. These numerical models were then connected to an existing sediment transport model. The integrated model presented here was applied to a small mountainous watershed. We found that the calculated sediment production rate was within the range of values typically observed for this region. Additionally, the estimated annual sediment discharge using the model agreed with observational results. Lastly, we found that the model can be used to qualitatively characterize typical features of the actual sediment routine in mountainous watersheds.

  1. A comparison of solids collected in sediment traps and automated water samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, L.A.; Rada, R.G.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment traps are being used in some pollution monitoring programs in the USA to sample suspended solids for contaminant analyses. This monitoring approach assumes that the characteristics of solids obtained in sediment traps are the same as those collected in whole-water sampling devices. We tested this assumption in the upper Mississippi River, based on the inorganic particle-size distribution (determined with a laser particle- analyzer) and volatile matter content of solids (a surrogate for organic matter). Cylindrical sediment traps (aspect ratio 3) were attached to a rigid mooring device and deployed in a flowing side channel in Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River. On each side of the mooring device, a trap was situated adjacent to a port of an autosampler that collected raw water samples hourly to form 2-d composite samples. Paired samples (one trap and one raw water, composite sample) were removed from each end of the mooring device at 2-d intervals during the 30-d study period and compared. The relative particle collection efficiency of paired samplers did not vary temporally. Particle-size distributions of inorganic solids from sediment traps and water samples were not significantly different. The volatile matter content of solids was lesser in sediment traps (mean, 9.5%) than in corresponding water samples (mean, 22.7%). This bias may have been partly due to under-collection of phytoplankton (mainly cyanobacteria), which were abundant in the water column during the study. The positioning of water samplers and sediment traps in the mooring device did not influence the particle-size distribution or total solids of samples. We observed a small difference in the amount of organic matter collected by water samplers situated at opposite ends of the mooring device.

  2. Enhanced electroforced sedimentation of various solid- liquid systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... In the process of sludge handling, disposal and re-use of biosolids is one of the most significant challenges in wastewater management. Dewatering by conventional belt press filters can achieve only small solids contents leading to high expenditure for the transport and disposal of these materials. Another ...

  3. Calibration suspended sediment model Markermeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boderie, P.; Van Kessel, T.; De Boer, G.

    2009-01-01

    In deze studie is een computermodel voor het Markermeer opgezet, ingeregeld en gevalideerd. Het model beschrijft dynamsch de stroming van water, waterpeilen, golven en slib in het water en in de bodem. Het model is gecalibreerd voorde periode augustus 2007 - april 2008 en gevalideerd voor de periode

  4. Gravitational sedimentation of cloud of solid spherical particles at small Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results of study of gravitational sedimentation of highly-concentrated systems of solid spherical particles at small Reynolds numbers Re<1 are presented. Empirical equation for drag coefficient of the particle assembly has been obtained. The influence of initial particle concentration in the cloud on its dynamics and velocity has been analysed.

  5. System Identification Theory Approach to Cohesive Sediment Transport Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, HUIXIN

    1997-01-01

    Two aspects of the modelling sediment transport are investigated. One is the univariate time series modelling the current velocity dynamics. The other is the multivariate time series modelling the suspended sediment concentration dynamics. Cohesive sediment dynamics and numerical sediment transport model are reviewed and investigated. The system identification theory and time series analysis method are developed and applied to set up the time series model for current velocity a...

  6. Modelling of sediment transport at Muria peninsula coastal, Jepara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Yarianto SBS; Wahyu Pandoe; Eko Kusratmoko; Aris Poniman

    2010-01-01

    Modelling of transport sediment modelling at Muria Peninsula have been done. In this study we had been used mathematical model that consist of hydrodynamics and sediment transport . Data input for modelling has been used tidal, monsoon wind, and river debit. Simulation result of sediment transport modelling showed that tides pattern and seasonal variations are the main causes of variations in the suspended sediment distribution in Muria Peninsula. (author)

  7. Multispecies reactive transport modelling of electrokinetic remediation of harbour sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Ceccarini, Alessio; Iannelli, Renato

    2017-03-15

    We implemented a numerical model to simulate transport of multiple species and geochemical reactions occurring during electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated porous media. The main phenomena described by the model were: (1) species transport by diffusion, electromigration and electroosmosis, (2) pH-dependent buffering of H + , (3) adsorption of metals onto particle surfaces, (4) aqueous speciation, (5) formation and dissolution of solid precipitates. The model was applied to simulate the electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Ni) from marine harbour sediments, characterized by a heterogeneous solid matrix, high buffering capacity and aged pollution. A good agreement was found between simulations of pH, electroosmotic flow and experimental results. The predicted residual metal concentrations in the sediment were also close to experimental profiles for all of the investigated metals. Some removal overestimation was observed in the regions close to the anode, possibly due to the significant metal content bound to residual fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metal-solid interactions controlling the bioavailability of mercury from sediments to clams and sipunculans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2006-06-15

    The bioavailability of sedimentary Hg(II) and methylmercury (MeHg) was quantified by measuring the assimilation efficiency (AE) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the extraction of the gut juices from the sipunculan Sipunculus nudus. Three factors (Hg concentration in sediment, Hg sediment contact time, and organic content of sediments) were modified to examine metal-solid interactions in controlling Hg bioavailability. The Hg AEs in the clams were strongly correlated with the extraction from the sipunculan gut juices for both Hg species. The bioavailability of both Hg(II) and MeHg generally increased with increased sediment Hg concentration but decreased with sedimentmetal contact time and increasing organic content (except that MeHg was not influenced by organic content). Hg(II) speciation in sediments, quantified by sequential chemical extraction (SCE), was dependent on geochemical conditions and greatly controlled the mobility and bioavailability of Hg(II) in sediments. Most bioavailable Hg(II) originated from the strongly complexed phase (e.g., Hg bound up in Fe/Mn oxide, amorphous organosulfur, or mineral lattice), whereas Hg bound with the organocomplexed phase (Hg humic and Hg2Cl2) was not bioavailable. Hg bound with the other geochemical phases (water soluble, HgO, HgSO4, and HgS) contributed very little to the bioavailable Hg due to their low partitionings. Further, the amount of bioavailable Hg was inversely related to the particle reactivity of Hg with the sediments. Detailed analyses of metal-solid interactions provide a better understanding of how Hg in sediments can predict Hg concentration and therefore bioavailability in benthic invertebrates.

  9. Modelling sediment export, retention and reservoir sedimentation in drylands with the WASA-SED model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Mueller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Current soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation modelling at the meso-scale is still faced with intrinsic problems with regard to open scaling questions, data demand, computational efficiency and deficient implementations of retention and re-mobilisation processes for the river and reservoir networks. To overcome some limitations of current modelling approaches, the semi-process-based, spatially semi-distributed modelling framework WASA-SED (Vers. 1 was developed for water and sediment transport in large dryland catchments. The WASA-SED model simulates the runoff and erosion processes at the hillslope scale, the transport and retention processes of suspended and bedload fluxes in the river reaches and the retention and remobilisation processes of sediments in reservoirs. The modelling tool enables the evaluation of management options both for sustainable land-use change scenarios to reduce erosion in the headwater catchments as well as adequate reservoir management options to lessen sedimentation in large reservoirs and reservoir networks. The model concept, its spatial discretisation scheme and the numerical components of the hillslope, river and reservoir processes are described and a model application for the meso-scale dryland catchment Isábena in the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees (445 km2 is presented to demonstrate the capabilities, strengths and limits of the model framework. The example application showed that the model was able to reproduce runoff and sediment transport dynamics of highly erodible headwater badlands, the transient storage of sediments in the dryland river system, the bed elevation changes of the 93 hm3 Barasona reservoir due to sedimentation as well as the life expectancy of the reservoir under different management options.

  10. Combining sediment fingerprinting and a conceptual model for erosion and sediment transfer to explore sediment sources in an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A.; Stutenbecker, L.; Anghileri, D.; Bakker, M.; Lane, S. N.; Molnar, P.; Schlunegger, F.

    2017-12-01

    In Alpine basins, sediment production and transfer is increasingly affected by climate change and human activities, specifically hydropower exploitation. Changes in sediment sources and pathways significantly influence basin management, biodiversity and landscape evolution. We explore the dynamics of sediment sources in a partially glaciated and highly regulated Alpine basin, the Borgne basin, by combining geochemical fingerprinting with the modelling of erosion and sediment transfer. The Borgne basin in southwest Switzerland is composed of three main litho-tectonic units, which we characterised following a tributary-sampling approach from lithologically characteristic sub-basins. We analysed bulk geochemistry using lithium borate fusion coupled with ICP-ES, and we used it to discriminate the three lithologic sources using statistical methods. Finally, we applied a mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of the three sources to the sediment sampled at the outlet. We combine results of the sediment fingerprinting with simulations of a spatially distributed conceptual model for erosion and transport of fine sediment. The model expresses sediment erosion by differentiating the contributions of erosional processes driven by erosive rainfall, snowmelt, and icemelt. Soil erodibility is accounted for as function of land-use and sediment fluxes are linearly convoluted to the outlet by sediment transfer rates for hillslope and river cells, which are a function of sediment connectivity. Sediment connectivity is estimated on the basis of topographic-hydraulic connectivity, flow duration associated with hydropower flow abstraction and permanent storage in hydropower reservoirs. Sediment fingerprinting at the outlet of the Borgne shows a consistent dominance (68-89%) of material derived from the uppermost, highly glaciated reaches, while contributions of the lower part (10-25%) and middle part (1-16%), where rainfall erosion is predominant, are minor. This result is

  11. Integrated Model for the Acoustics of Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    the solid material. This model has been associated with seismic wave propagation in essentially dry soil . A second loss mechanism in fluid-saturated...method ( FEM ) for four cases. [The left and right panels show results at a frequency of 100 and 3000 Hz, respectively. The kh values increase from

  12. The erythrocyte sedimentation rates: some model experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, L C; Cerny, E L; Granley, C R; Compolo, F; Vogels, M

    1988-01-01

    In order to obtain a better understanding of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), several models are presented. The first directs attention to the importance of geometrical models to represent the structure of mixtures. Here it is our intention to understand the effect of the structure on the packing of red blood cells. In this part of the study, "Cheerios" (trademark General Mills) are used as a macroscopic model. It is interesting that a random sampling of "Cheerios" has the same volume distribution curve that is found for erythrocytes with a Coulter Sizing Apparatus. In order to examine the effect of rouleaux formation, the "Cheerios" are stacked one on top of another and then glued. Rouleaux of 2,3,4,5, 7 and 10 discs were used. In order to examine a more realistic biological model, the experiments of Dintenfass were used. These investigations were performed in a split-capillary photo viscometer using whole blood from patients with a variety of diseases. The novel part of this research is the fact that the work was performed at 1g and at near zero gravity in the space shuttle "Discovery." The size of the aggregates and/or rouleaux clearly showed a dependence upon the gravity of the experiment. The purpose of this model was to examine the condition of self-similarity and fractal behavior. Calculations are reported which clearly indicate that there is general agreement in the magnitude of the fractal dimension from the "Cheerios" model, the "Discovery" experiment with those determined with the automatic sedimentimeter. The final aspect of this work examines the surface texture of the sedimention tube. A series of tubes were designed with "roughened" interiors. A comparison of the sedimentation rates clearly indicates a more rapid settling in "roughened" tubes than in ones with a smooth interior surface.

  13. Building Mathematical Models Of Solid Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Donald P.; Jones, Kennie H.; Von Ofenheim, William H.; Gates, Raymond L.; Matthews, Christine G.

    1989-01-01

    Solid Modeling Program (SMP) version 2.0 provides capability to model complex solid objects mathematically through aggregation of geometric primitives (parts). System provides designer with basic set of primitive parts and capability to define new primitives. Six primitives included in present version: boxes, cones, spheres, paraboloids, tori, and trusses. Written in VAX/VMS FORTRAN 77.

  14. Modelling nutrient exchange at the sediment water interface of river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenot, Marie; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette

    2007-07-01

    SummaryIn-stream benthic processes can play a significant role on the water quality of overlying waters flowing through a river network. In order to better understand and quantify the fate of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and silica) during their travel through the river continuum, a deterministic benthic sub-model was developed with the purpose of being connected to a drainage network model. This benthic sub-model resolves the differential equations representing early diagenesis in the sediment, linking the sedimentation rate of organic matter onto the sediment to the resulting flux of nutrients across the sediment-water interface. The model has been developed for conditions where sedimentation prevails as well as for situations where net erosion prevents the built-up of a significant sediment layer and where only a biofilm can develop, attached to solid substrates. The benthic model was tested independently of the main water column biological-hydrological model to which it is intended to be coupled. For this, three case studies were chosen from the literature representing various sedimentation/erosion conditions: the 8th order river Seine (France), the water storage basin of Méry s/Oise (France), and the headwater stream Orneau (Belgium). The general benthic model has been validated for ammonium, nitrate, oxygen and phosphorus fluxes across the sediment-water interface. The capability of the model to correctly predict the observed nutrients profiles within the sediment was also validated for organic carbon, ammonium and phosphorus. An uncertainty analysis showed that using two modelling objectives (observed fluxes and concentration profiles in the sediment) strongly reduces the uncertainty in parameters calibration. A sensitivity analysis illustrated the complexity of the interacting reactions driving each variable, and justifies the usefulness of the model as a tool for understanding and predicting the behaviour of the benthic compartment of river systems.

  15. Modelling sediment clasts transport during landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretier, Sébastien; Martinod, Pierre; Reich, Martin; Godderis, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Over thousands to millions of years, the landscape evolution is predicted by models based on fluxes of eroded, transported and deposited material. The laws describing these fluxes, corresponding to averages over many years, are difficult to prove with the available data. On the other hand, sediment dynamics are often tackled by studying the distribution of certain grain properties in the field (e.g. heavy metals, detrital zircons, 10Be in gravel, magnetic tracers). There is a gap between landscape evolution models based on fluxes and these field data on individual clasts, which prevent the latter from being used to calibrate the former. Here we propose an algorithm coupling the landscape evolution with mobile clasts. Our landscape evolution model predicts local erosion, deposition and transfer fluxes resulting from hillslope and river processes. Clasts of any size are initially spread in the basement and are detached, moved and deposited according to probabilities using these fluxes. Several river and hillslope laws are studied. Although the resulting mean transport rate of the clasts does not depend on the time step or the model cell size, our approach is limited by the fact that their scattering rate is cell-size-dependent. Nevertheless, both their mean transport rate and the shape of the scattering-time curves fit the predictions. Different erosion-transport laws generate different clast movements. These differences show that studying the tracers in the field may provide a way to establish these laws on the hillslopes and in the rivers. Possible applications include the interpretation of cosmogenic nuclides in individual gravel deposits, provenance analyses, placers, sediment coarsening or fining, the relationship between magnetic tracers in rivers and the river planform, and the tracing of weathered sediment.

  16. Discrete element modelling of sediment falling in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Ho-Minh, Dao; Tan, Danielle S

    2016-11-01

    The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a discrete, particle-based method commonly used in studies involving granular media, e.g. sediment transport, and geomechanics. It is heavily dependent on particle properties, and one important component is the force model, which relates the relative positions and velocities of the simulated particles to the forces they experience. In this paper we model a collection of lightly compacted granular material, released at a short distance above a flat base in a quiescent fluid --similar to the process whereby sediment tailings are released back into the sea during nodule harvesting. We employ different typical force models, and consider how their varying components affect the simulated outcome. The results are compared with a physical experiment of similar dimensions. We find that a realistic simulation is achieved when the force model considers the local solid fraction in the drag force, and incorporates the hydrodynamic effect of neighbouring particles. The added mass effect increases the accuracy of the outcome, but does not contribute significantly in a qualitative sense.

  17. Sediment interactions in a new ocean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Gurbutt, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    A new ocean model has been developed jointly by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). It has been used in 1985 for the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) review of the NE Atlantic site for low-level radioactive waste disposal. The circulation model, which covers the world's oceans, is overlaid with a sediment model, which includes particle interactions in the ocean interior and in the seabed. The ocean interior processes feature movements with water, two particle size ranges, equilibrium distribution coefficients, gravitational settling and dissolution during descent. In the seabed there is a stack of compartments consisting of an interface between bottom waters and the seabed surface, a well mixed or bioturbated layer, a diffusive layer and a sediment sink from which activity does not return. The processes connecting the seabed compartments are burial, bioturbation and pore water diffusion. Model predictions for an arbitrary release from the dump site are presented. Distribution coefficients are shown to be an important factor in determining water concentrations. (author)

  18. Uptake, translocation and elimination in sediment-rooted macrophytes: A model-supported analysis of whole sediment toxicity test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, N.J.; Arts, G.H.P.; Focks, A.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding bioaccumulation in sediment-rooted macrophytes is crucial for the development of sediment toxicity tests using macrophytes. Here we explore bioaccumulation in sediment-rooted macrophytes by tracking and modelling chemical flows of chlorpyrifos, linuron, and six PCBs in

  19. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Mailapalli, Damodhara R.; Raghuwanshi, Narendra S.; Singh, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in fur...

  20. A model for sedimentation in inhomogeneous media. I. Dynamic density gradients from sedimenting co-solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Macromolecular sedimentation in inhomogeneous media is of great practical importance. Dynamic density gradients have a long tradition in analytical ultracentrifugation, and are frequently used in preparative ultracentrifugation. In this paper, a new theoretical model for sedimentation in inhomogeneous media is presented, based on finite element solutions of the Lamm equation with spatial and temporal variation of the local solvent density and viscosity. It is applied to macromolecular sedimentation in the presence of a dynamic density gradient formed by the sedimentation of a co-solute at high concentration. It is implemented in the software SEDFIT for the analysis of experimental macromolecular concentration distributions. The model agrees well with the measured sedimentation profiles of a protein in a dynamic cesium chloride gradient, and may provide a measure for the effects of hydration or preferential solvation parameters. General features of protein sedimentation in dynamic density gradients are described.

  1. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  2. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Capitol Lake was created in 1951 with the construction of a concrete dam and control gate that prevented salt-water intrusion into the newly formed lake and regulated flow of the Deschutes River into southern Puget Sound. Physical processes associated with the former tidally dominated estuary were altered, and the dam structure itself likely caused an increase in retention of sediment flowing into the lake from the Deschutes River. Several efforts to manage sediment accumulation in the lake, including dredging and the construction of sediment traps upriver, failed to stop the lake from filling with sediment. The Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS) was carried out to evaluate the possibility of removing the dam and restoring estuarine processes as an alternative ongoing lake management. An important component of DEFS was the creation of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the restored Deschutes Estuary. Results from model simulations indicated that estuarine processes would be restored under each of four restoration alternatives, and that over time, the restored estuary would have morphological features similar to the predam estuary. The model also predicted that after dam-removal, a large portion of the sediment eroded from the lake bottom would be deposited near the Port of Olympia and a marina located in lower Budd Inlet seaward of the present dam. The volume of sediment transported downstream was a critical piece of information that managers needed to estimate the total cost of the proposed restoration project. However, the ability of the model to predict the magnitude of sediment transport in general and, in particular, the volume of sediment deposition in the port and marina was limited by a lack of information on the erodibility of fine-grained sediments in Capitol Lake. Cores at several sites throughout Capitol Lake were collected between October 31 and November 1, 2007. The erodibility of sediments in the cores was later determined in the

  3. Solid waste forecasting using modified ANFIS modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; K N A, Maulud

    2015-10-01

    Solid waste prediction is crucial for sustainable solid waste management. Usually, accurate waste generation record is challenge in developing countries which complicates the modelling process. Solid waste generation is related to demographic, economic, and social factors. However, these factors are highly varied due to population and economy growths. The objective of this research is to determine the most influencing demographic and economic factors that affect solid waste generation using systematic approach, and then develop a model to forecast solid waste generation using a modified Adaptive Neural Inference System (MANFIS). The model evaluation was performed using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and the coefficient of determination (R²). The results show that the best input variables are people age groups 0-14, 15-64, and people above 65 years, and the best model structure is 3 triangular fuzzy membership functions and 27 fuzzy rules. The model has been validated using testing data and the resulted training RMSE, MAE and R² were 0.2678, 0.045 and 0.99, respectively, while for testing phase RMSE =3.986, MAE = 0.673 and R² = 0.98. To date, a few attempts have been made to predict the annual solid waste generation in developing countries. This paper presents modeling of annual solid waste generation using Modified ANFIS, it is a systematic approach to search for the most influencing factors and then modify the ANFIS structure to simplify the model. The proposed method can be used to forecast the waste generation in such developing countries where accurate reliable data is not always available. Moreover, annual solid waste prediction is essential for sustainable planning.

  4. Assessment of Land Use Change and Sedimentation Modelling on Environmental Health in Tropical River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Sansena, T.; Bhaktikuld, K.; Roslan Umar; Asyaari Muhamad; Nor Azlina Abd Aziz; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Sediments are defined as the organic and inorganic materials or solid fragments derived from the weathering processes of sand, pebbles, silt, mud and loess. The objective of this research is to forecast sediment volume in the Lam Phra Phloeng reservoir by using the Neuro-genetic Optimizer model to calculate the sediment volume from runoff, rainfall, and sediment volume data. The results from satellite imagery interpretation elucidated that from 2002 to 2005, forest area decreased approximately 50,220 km 2 or 36 %, and was converted to agricultural land. By applying the USLE equation, the soil erosion area was found to increase approximately 185,341 tons/ year between 2002 and 2005. This result illustrated that the impact of land use change greatly increased sedimentation volume. In applying the Neuro-genetic Optimizer model, the learning rate and momentum of this model was 0.9 and 0.1, respectively, and the initial weight value was ± 3. The model forecasted the annual sediment volume in the Lam Phra Phloeng reservoir in 2005 to be 49,855 tons with R 2 equals to 0.9994. The regression model, on the other hand, forecasted the sediment volume using the equation Y=198.48 x 1.1783 with R 2 equals to 0.9974, and the annual sediment volume was estimated to be 45,346 tons. The actual sediment volume in the reservoir in 2005 was obtained from The Royal Irrigation Department, which was found to be 48,697 tons. (author)

  5. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  6. A constitutive mechanical model for gas hydrate bearing sediments incorporating inelastic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez, Marcelo

    2016-11-30

    Gas hydrate bearing sediments (HBS) are natural soils formed in permafrost and sub-marine settings where the temperature and pressure conditions are such that gas hydrates are stable. If these conditions shift from the hydrate stability zone, hydrates dissociate and move from the solid to the gas phase. Hydrate dissociation is accompanied by significant changes in sediment structure and strongly affects its mechanical behavior (e.g., sediment stiffenss, strength and dilatancy). The mechanical behavior of HBS is very complex and its modeling poses great challenges. This paper presents a new geomechanical model for hydrate bearing sediments. The model incorporates the concept of partition stress, plus a number of inelastic mechanisms proposed to capture the complex behavior of this type of soil. This constitutive model is especially well suited to simulate the behavior of HBS upon dissociation. The model was applied and validated against experimental data from triaxial and oedometric tests conducted on manufactured and natural specimens involving different hydrate saturation, hydrate morphology, and confinement conditions. Particular attention was paid to model the HBS behavior during hydrate dissociation under loading. The model performance was highly satisfactory in all the cases studied. It managed to properly capture the main features of HBS mechanical behavior and it also assisted to interpret the behavior of this type of sediment under different loading and hydrate conditions.

  7. Development of three dimensional solid modeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, R.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at developing a three dimensional solid modeler employing computer graphics techniques using C-Language. Primitives have been generated, by combination of plane surfaces, for various basic geometrical shapes including cylinder, cube and cone. Back face removal technique for hidden surface removal has also been incorporated. Various transformation techniques such as scaling, translation, and rotation have been included for the object animation. Three dimensional solid modeler has been created by the union of two primitives to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed program. (author)

  8. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales

  9. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396-10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure-activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales.

  10. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M., E-mail: fmarassi@sbmri.org [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales.

  11. A general mixture model for sediment laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lixin; Yu, Xiping; Bombardelli, Fabián

    2017-09-01

    A mixture model for general description of sediment-laden flows is developed based on an Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase flow theory, with the aim at gaining computational speed in the prediction, but preserving the accuracy of the complete two-fluid model. The basic equations of the model include the mass and momentum conservation equations for the sediment-water mixture, and the mass conservation equation for sediment. However, a newly-obtained expression for the slip velocity between phases allows for the computation of the sediment motion, without the need of solving the momentum equation for sediment. The turbulent motion is represented for both the fluid and the particulate phases. A modified k-ε model is used to describe the fluid turbulence while an algebraic model is adopted for turbulent motion of particles. A two-dimensional finite difference method based on the SMAC scheme was used to numerically solve the mathematical model. The model is validated through simulations of fluid and suspended sediment motion in steady open-channel flows, both in equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, as well as in oscillatory flows. The computed sediment concentrations, horizontal velocity and turbulent kinetic energy of the mixture are all shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data, and importantly, this is done at a fraction of the computational efforts required by the complete two-fluid model.

  12. Modeling transport and deposition of the Mekong River sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Liu, J. Paul; Warner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    A Coupled Wave–Ocean–SedimentTransport Model was used to hindcast coastal circulation and fine sedimenttransport on the Mekong shelf in southeastern Asian in 2005. Comparisons with limited observations showed that the model simulation captured the regional patterns and temporal variability of surface wave, sea level, and suspended sediment concentration reasonably well. Significant seasonality in sedimenttransport was revealed. In summer, a large amount of fluvial sediments was delivered and deposited near the MekongRiver mouth. In the following winter, strong ocean mixing, and coastal current lead to resuspension and southwestward dispersal of a small fraction of previously deposited sediments. Model sensitivity experiments (with reduced physics) were performed to investigate the impact of tides, waves, and remotely forced ambient currents on the transport and dispersal of the fluvial sediment. Strong wave mixing and downwelling-favorable coastal current associated with the more energetic northeast monsoon in the winter season are the main factors controlling the southwestward along-shelf transport.

  13. Design and modeling of reservoir operation strategies for sediment management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Heynert, K.V.; Mohamed, Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate operation strategies that allow for sediment flushing and sluicing (sediment routing) can reduce rapid storage losses of (hydropower and water-supply) reservoirs. In this study we have shown, using field observations and computational models, that the efficiency of these operations

  14. Numerical modeling of episodic sediment supply events to headwater channels and subsequent fluvial sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T.; Hassan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    In steep headwater catchments episodic events can rapidly contribute large amounts of sediment to the channel network. The fluvial system may react to this input in different ways, ranging from a swift evacuation of the contributed material to a long term morphological adjustment of the channel. How this response affects fluvial sediment transport is poorly understood and is scope of our study. We set up a numerical model to investigate how different magnitudes, frequencies and grain size distributions (GSD) of sediment supply events influence the sediment dynamics in the fluvial system. We used a randomized time series of disturbances and simulated subsequent fluvial reworking using a bed load transport model. Besides tracking the volume of stored sediment, we investigate changes in the GSD of the channel. In our model, the GSD of the fluvial channel approaches the GSD of the sediment input under high supply conditions, in which large quantities of material are supplied by a high frequency of events. This results in an exceedance of the ability of the fluvial system to significantly evacuate the supply. On the other hand, if the fluvial system is given enough time to rework the input material, the GSD of the channel gets coarser with time, as the smaller grain sizes are transported away. We further analyze the conditions under which the system is stable or more sensitive to changes in the magnitude or frequency of sediment supply. Our model shows how the combination of episodic time scales of disturbances and constant time scales of fluvial reworking results in temporal patterns of fluvial sediment transport.

  15. Modeling the electrified solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Skulason, Egill; Björketun, Mårten

    2008-01-01

    A detailed atomistic model based on density functional theory calculations is presented of the charged solid-electrolyte interface. Having protons solvated in a water bilayer outside a Pt(111) slab with excess electrons, we show how the interface capacitance is well described and how the work...

  16. Consistency between 2D-3D Sediment Transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaret, Catherine; Jodeau, Magali

    2017-04-01

    Sediment transport models have been developed and applied by the engineering community to estimate transport rates and morphodynamic bed evolutions in river flows, coastal and estuarine conditions. Environmental modelling systems like the open-source Telemac modelling system include a hierarchy of models from 1D (Mascaret), 2D (Telemac-2D/Sisyphe) and 3D (Telemac-3D/Sedi-3D) and include a wide range of processes to represent sediment flow interactions under more and more complex situations (cohesive, non-cohesive and mixed sediment). Despite some tremendous progresses in the numerical techniques and computing resources, the quality/accuracy of model results mainly depend on the numerous choices and skills of the modeler. In complex situations involving stratification effects, complex geometry, recirculating flows… 2D model assumptions are no longer valid. A full 3D turbulent flow model is then required in order to capture the vertical mixing processes and to represent accurately the coupled flow/sediment distribution. However a number of theoretical and numerical difficulties arise when dealing with sediment transport modelling in 3D which will be high-lighted : (1) Dependency of model results to the vertical grid refinement and choice of boundary conditions and numerical scheme (2) The choice of turbulence model determines also the sediment vertical distribution which is governed by a balance between the downward settling term and upward turbulent diffusion. (3) The use of different numerical schemes for both hydrodynamics (mean and turbulent flow) and sediment transport modelling can lead to some inconsistency including a mismatch in the definition of numerical cells and definition of boundary conditions. We discuss here those present issues and present some detailed comparison between 2D and 3D simulations on a set of validation test cases which are available in the Telemac 7.2 release using both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments.

  17. Environmental modeling and exposure assessment of sediment-associated pyrethroids in an agricultural watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhou Luo

    Full Text Available Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides have generated public concerns due to their increasing use and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. A modeling system was developed in this study for simulating the transport processes and associated sediment toxicity of pyrethroids at coupled field/watershed scales. The model was tested in the Orestimba Creek watershed, an agriculturally intensive area in California' Central Valley. Model predictions were satisfactory when compared with measured suspended solid concentration (R(2 = 0.536, pyrethroid toxic unit (0.576, and cumulative mortality of Hyalella azteca (0.570. The results indicated that sediment toxicity in the study area was strongly related to the concentration of pyrethroids in bed sediment. Bifenthrin was identified as the dominant contributor to the sediment toxicity in recent years, accounting for 50-85% of predicted toxicity units. In addition, more than 90% of the variation on the annual maximum toxic unit of pyrethroids was attributed to precipitation and prior application of bifenthrin in the late irrigation season. As one of the first studies simulating the dynamics and spatial variability of pyrethroids in fields and instreams, the modeling results provided useful information on new policies to be considered with respect to pyrethroid regulation. This study suggested two potential measures to efficiently reduce sediment toxicity by pyrethroids in the study area: [1] limiting bifenthrin use immediately before rainfall season; and [2] implementing conservation practices to retain soil on cropland.

  18. Environmental Modeling and Exposure Assessment of Sediment-Associated Pyrethroids in an Agricultural Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuzhou; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides have generated public concerns due to their increasing use and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. A modeling system was developed in this study for simulating the transport processes and associated sediment toxicity of pyrethroids at coupled field/watershed scales. The model was tested in the Orestimba Creek watershed, an agriculturally intensive area in California' Central Valley. Model predictions were satisfactory when compared with measured suspended solid concentration (R2 = 0.536), pyrethroid toxic unit (0.576), and cumulative mortality of Hyalella azteca (0.570). The results indicated that sediment toxicity in the study area was strongly related to the concentration of pyrethroids in bed sediment. Bifenthrin was identified as the dominant contributor to the sediment toxicity in recent years, accounting for 50–85% of predicted toxicity units. In addition, more than 90% of the variation on the annual maximum toxic unit of pyrethroids was attributed to precipitation and prior application of bifenthrin in the late irrigation season. As one of the first studies simulating the dynamics and spatial variability of pyrethroids in fields and instreams, the modeling results provided useful information on new policies to be considered with respect to pyrethroid regulation. This study suggested two potential measures to efficiently reduce sediment toxicity by pyrethroids in the study area: [1] limiting bifenthrin use immediately before rainfall season; and [2] implementing conservation practices to retain soil on cropland. PMID:21246035

  19. Kinetics of Uranium(VI) Desorption from Contaminated Sediments: Effect of Geochemical Conditions and Model Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shi, Zhenqing; Zachara, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Stirred-flow cell experiments were performed to investigate the kinetics of uranyl (U(VI)) desorption from a contaminated sediment collected from the Hanford 300 Area at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, Washington. Three influent solutions of variable pH, Ca and carbonate concentrations that affected U(VI) aqueous and surface speciation were used under dynamic flow conditions to evaluate the effect of geochemical conditions on the rate of U(VI) desorption. The measured rate of U(VI) desorption varied with solution chemical composition that evolved as a result of thermodynamic and kinetic interactions between the influent solutions and sediment. The solution chemical composition that led to a lower equilibrium U(VI) sorption to the solid phase yielded a faster desorption rate. The experimental results were used to evaluate a multi-rate, surface complexation model (SCM) that has been proposed to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in the Hanford sediment that contained complex sorbed U(VI) species in mass transfer limited domains. The model was modified and supplemented by including multi-rate, ion exchange reactions to describe the geochemical interactions between the solutions and sediment. With the same set of model parameters, the modified model reasonably well described the evolution of major ions and the rates of U(VI) desorption under variable geochemical and flow conditions, implying that the multi-rate SCM is an effective way to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in subsurface sediments

  20. Sediment cascade modelling for stochastic torrential sediment transfers forecasting in a changing alpine climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaz, Benjamin; Bardou, Eric; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Alpine ephemeral streams act as links between high altitude erosional processes, slope movements and valley-floor fluvial systems or fan storage. Anticipating future mass wasting from these systems is crucial for hazard mitigation measures. Torrential activity is highly stochastic, with punctual transfers separating long periods of calm, during which the system evolves internally and recharges. Changes can originate from diffuse (rock faces, sheet erosion of bared moraines), concentrated external sources (rock glacier front, slope instabilities) or internal transfers (bed incision or aggradation). The proposed sediment cascade model takes into account those different processes and calculates sediment transfer from the slope to the channel reaches, and then propagates sediments downstream. The two controlling parameters are precipitation series (generated from existing rain gauge data using Gumbel and Extreme Probability Distribution functions) and temperature (generated from local meteorological stations data and IPCC scenarios). Snow accumulation and melting, and thus runoff can then be determined for each subsystem, to account for different altitudes and expositions. External stocks and sediment sources have each a specific response to temperature and precipitation. For instance, production from rock faces is dependent on frost-thaw cycles, in addition to precipitations. On the other hand, landslide velocity, and thus sediment production is linked to precipitations over longer periods of time. Finally, rock glaciers react to long-term temperature trends, but are also prone to sudden release of material during extreme rain events. All those modules feed the main sediment cascade model, constructed around homogeneous torrent reaches, to and from which sediments are transported by debris flows and bedload transport events. These events are determined using a runoff/erosion curve, with a threshold determining the occurrence of debris flows in the system. If a debris

  1. 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in Sedimentation Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan Dhemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal operation sedimentation basin flushing systems require large volumes of water, typically up ten times of the deposited sediment volume for efficient flushing. A complete sediment removal, can only be realized by combination of mechanical removal with drawdown flushing. This operation reaches much longer operation time resulting in water loss and reducing power and energy production of Mini Hydro Power Plant (MHPP. The objective of this study is to improve the flushing system of sedimentation basin based on a numerical approach. Fluid motion is described with non-linear, transient, second-order differential equations. A numerical solution of these equations involves approximating the various terms with algebraic expressions. The resulting equations are then solved to yield an approximate solution to the original problem. The simulation result shows that the 3D numerical modeling of flow in sedimentation basin gives the reasonable result to predict the suspended load movement in the flow.

  2. Modelling of Sediment Transport in Beris Fishery Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ardani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the large amount of sedimentation and the resultant shoreline advancements at the breakwaters of Beris Fishery Port are studied. A series of numerical modeling of waves, sediment transport, and shoreline changes were conducted to predict the complicated equilibrium shoreline. The outputs show that the nearshore directions of wave components are not perpendicular to the coast which reveals the existence of longshore currents and consequently sediment transport along the bay. Considering the dynamic equilibrium condition of the bay, the effect of the existing sediment resources in the studied area is also investigated. The study also shows that in spite of the change of the diffraction point of Beris Bay after the construction of the fishery port, the bay is approaching its dynamic equilibrium condition, and the shoreline advancement behind secondary breakwater will stop before blocking the entrance of the port. The probable solutions to overcome the sedimentation problem at the main breakwater are also discussed.

  3. Modelling of Suspended Sediment Discharge for Masinga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Masinga reservoir is experiencing high rates of siltation due to accelerated soil erosion in the catchment occasioned by rapid deforestation. There is ... basins at the two mouths of the reservoir and flushing out sediments through bottom outlet gates are suggested to provide solution to Masinga's myriad siltation problems.

  4. Ensemble Modeling of Suspended Sediment in Steep Mountain Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Raseman, W. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Livneh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Climatic and land cover changes present important uncertainties into the rates of soil erosion and sedimentation in watersheds. Soil erosion adds constituents to streams, altering water chemistry and streambed morphology, which can adversely affect aquatic life and poses a critical challenge for water treatment and reservoir management. The goal of this research is to establish estimates of sediment transport within large-scale mountainous catchments (>1000 km2). As sedimentation rates are impacted by numerous physical processes including soil, land cover, slope and climate; the results from seven models will be presented to quantify uncertainty and improve predictability. A broader inquiry made here is into the efficacy of model structure under different conditions. We present the results from empirical, stochastic, conceptual and physical models. These include empirical models: monovariate rating curve, multivariate regression and the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE), to models with conceptual components: Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to more physically based models: Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP), Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Key uncertainties will be characterized resulting from forcing inputs, parameter selection, scale discretization, and model structure. Calibration results from a multi-objective optimization routine will be presented that optimize parameters and identify performance trade-offs that will be used to develop uncertainty estimates in both streamflow and sediment projections. The outcomes of this research will highlight critical issues relevant to large-scale hydrologic and suspended sediment prediction initiatives.

  5. Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  6. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, R. A.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    A diagenetic model is used to simulate the diagenesis and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and phosphorus (P) in marine sediments underlying anoxic versus oxic bottom waters. The latter are physically mixed by animals moving through the surface sediment (bioturbation) and ventilated...... P pump) allows preferential mineralization of the bulk Porg pool relative to Corg during both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and is consistent with the database. Results with this model show that P burial is strongly enhanced in sediments hosting fauna. Animals mix highly labile Porg away from....... The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd....

  7. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) specifically to address Hanford solid waste management issues. This document is one of a set of documents supporting the SWPM system and providing instructions in the use and maintenance of SWPM components. This manual contains instructions for using Version 1.4 of the SWPM database: system requirements and preparation, entering and maintaining data, and performing routine database functions. This document supports only those operations which are specific to SWPM database menus and functions and does not Provide instruction in the use of Paradox, the database management system in which the SWPM database is established

  8. Stochastic Modelling of the Hydraulic Anisotropy of Ash Impoundment Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slávik, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    In the case reported here the impoundments of a 400 MW coal heated power plant with an annual production of about 1.5 million tons of fuel ash are of the cross-valley type, operated by the simple and cheap „upstream method”. The aim of the research was to determine overall and local values of the permeability in horizontal as well as in vertical direction and the anisotropy of the thin-layered sedimented ash. The coal ashes are hydraulically transported through pipelines in form of a slurry and periodically floated on the beach of the impoundment. The ashes are deposited in the form of a thin-layered sediment, with random alternation of layers with a coarser or finer granularity. The ash impoundment sediment is anthropogenic sediment with horizontally laminated texture. Therefore, the sediment is anisotropic from the viewpoint of water seepage. The knowledge of the permeability and the seepage anisotropy of the sediment is a basic requirement for the design of an appropriate dewatering system. The seepage anisotropy of the ash sediment has been checked by means of stochastic modelling, based on the correlation between the effective grain diameter and the coefficient of permeability of the ash: the effective grain diameter and the thickness of individual layers have been proposed to be random events.

  9. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p′-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p′-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases.

  10. Ill-posedness in modeling mixed sediment river morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarrías, Víctor; Stecca, Guglielmo; Blom, Astrid

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we analyze the Hirano active layer model used in mixed sediment river morphodynamics concerning its ill-posedness. Ill-posedness causes the solution to be unstable to short-wave perturbations. This implies that the solution presents spurious oscillations, the amplitude of which depends on the domain discretization. Ill-posedness not only produces physically unrealistic results but may also cause failure of numerical simulations. By considering a two-fraction sediment mixture we obtain analytical expressions for the mathematical characterization of the model. Using these we show that the ill-posed domain is larger than what was found in previous analyses, not only comprising cases of bed degradation into a substrate finer than the active layer but also in aggradational cases. Furthermore, by analyzing a three-fraction model we observe ill-posedness under conditions of bed degradation into a coarse substrate. We observe that oscillations in the numerical solution of ill-posed simulations grow until the model becomes well-posed, as the spurious mixing of the active layer sediment and substrate sediment acts as a regularization mechanism. Finally we conduct an eigenstructure analysis of a simplified vertically continuous model for mixed sediment for which we show that ill-posedness occurs in a wider range of conditions than the active layer model.

  11. Solid mechanics theory, modeling, and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    This textbook offers an introduction to modeling the mechanical behavior of solids within continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. To illustrate the fundamental principles, the book starts with an overview of the most important models in one dimension. Tensor calculus, which is called for in three-dimensional modeling, is concisely presented in the second part of the book. Once the reader is equipped with these essential mathematical tools, the third part of the book develops the foundations of continuum mechanics right from the beginning. Lastly, the book’s fourth part focuses on modeling the mechanics of materials and in particular elasticity, viscoelasticity and plasticity. Intended as an introductory textbook for students and for professionals interested in self-study, it also features numerous worked-out examples to aid in understanding.

  12. Inference-based procedural modeling of solids

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, Keith

    2011-11-01

    As virtual environments become larger and more complex, there is an increasing need for more automated construction algorithms to support the development process. We present an approach for modeling solids by combining prior examples with a simple sketch. Our algorithm uses an inference-based approach to incrementally fit patches together in a consistent fashion to define the boundary of an object. This algorithm samples and extracts surface patches from input models, and develops a Petri net structure that describes the relationship between patches along an imposed parameterization. Then, given a new parameterized line or curve, we use the Petri net to logically fit patches together in a manner consistent with the input model. This allows us to easily construct objects of varying sizes and configurations using arbitrary articulation, repetition, and interchanging of parts. The result of our process is a solid model representation of the constructed object that can be integrated into a simulation-based environment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical Model-Based Investigation of Reservoir Sedimentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water supplies. According to the field record, the average annual sediment deposition observed in several regional reservoirs in Taiwan has been increased. For instance, the typhoon event recorded in 2008 at the Wushe Reservoir, Taiwan, produced a 3 m sediment deposit upstream of the dam. The remaining storage capacity in the Wushe Reservoir was reduced to 35.9% or a volume of 53.79 million m3 for flood water detention in 2010. It is urgent that research should be conducted to understand the sediment movement in the Wushe Reservoir. In this study, a scale physical model was built to reproduce the flood flow through the reservoir, investigate the long-term depositional pattern, and evaluate sediment trap efficiency. This allows us to estimate the residual life of the reservoir by proposing a modification of Brune’s method. It can be presented to predict the lifespan of Taiwan reservoirs due to higher applicability in both the physical model and the observed data.

  14. The Chameleon Solid Rocket Propulsion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2010-01-01

    The Khoury and Weltman (2004a and 2004b) Chameleon Model presents an addition to the gravitation force and was shown by the author (Robertson, 2009a and 2009b) to present a new means by which one can view other forces in the Universe. The Chameleon Model is basically a density-dependent model and while the idea is not new, this model is novel in that densities in the Universe to include the vacuum of space are viewed as scalar fields. Such an analogy gives the Chameleon scalar field, dark energy/dark matter like characteristics; fitting well within cosmological expansion theories. In respect to this forum, in this paper, it is shown how the Chameleon Model can be used to derive the thrust of a solid rocket motor. This presents a first step toward the development of new propulsion models using density variations verse mass ejection as the mechanism for thrust. Further, through the Chameleon Model connection, these new propulsion models can be tied to dark energy/dark matter toward new space propulsion systems utilizing the vacuum scalar field in a way understandable by engineers, the key toward the development of such systems. This paper provides corrections to the Chameleon rocket model in Robertson (2009b).

  15. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Maloney, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Development of predictive techniques, with regard to cell behavior, under various operating conditions is needed to improve cell performance, increase energy density, reduce manufacturing cost, and to broaden utilization of various fuels. Such technology would be especially beneficial for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at it early demonstration stage. The development of computer models to calculate the temperature, CD, reactant distributions in the tubular and monolithic SOFCs. Results indicate that problems of nonuniform heat generation and fuel gas depletion in the tubular cell module, and of size limitions in the monolithic (MOD 0) design may be encountered during FC operation.

  16. Hydrological modelling of fine sediments in the Odzi River, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The required length of data for calibration purposes was evaluated and model validation through split sample and proxy basin comparison was performed. Furthermore, since the empirical model was dependent on monitored runoff and fine sediment concentrations for calibration purposes, a field measurement campaign ...

  17. Numerical Modeling of Subglacial Sediment Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Glacier and ice sheet mass balance is sensitive to climate change. The geological record has revealed that the polar ice sheets in the past responded rapidly to periods of warming, most likely caused by dynamic changes in ice flow patterns. The rapid ice-sheet dynamical changes observed in the past...... a majority of the ice-sheet mass flux. Understanding their physical behavior and sensitivity to changes is of greatest importance for describing ice sheet configuration in the past, present and future. In-situ measurements and interpretations from the Pleistocene sedimentary record have revealed that many....... The mechanical behavior is likely very important for the evolution of ice-sheet flow in a changing climate, and secondly directly influences the genesis of subglacial landforms seen in previously glaciated areas. Previous studies of subglacial sediment mechanics have relied on field and laboratory experiments...

  18. Numerical Modeling of Subglacial Sediment Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Glacier and ice sheet mass balance is sensitive to climate change. The geological record has revealed that the polar ice sheets in the past responded rapidly to periods of warming, most likely caused by dynamic changes in ice flow patterns. The rapid ice-sheet dynamical changes observed in the past....... The mechanical behavior is likely very important for the evolution of ice-sheet flow in a changing climate, and secondly directly influences the genesis of subglacial landforms seen in previously glaciated areas. Previous studies of subglacial sediment mechanics have relied on field and laboratory experiments...... during shear deformation is dependent on effective pressure, potentially causing unstable growth of bumps at the ice-bed interface. The process creates wavy subglacial bumps similar to common geomorphological features in past glaciated areas, but the proposed instability mechanism was until now...

  19. On integrated sediment transport modelling for flash events in mountain environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Alessio; Giorgetti, Elisa; Brambilla, Davide; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica

    2012-02-01

    Sediment production and transport in mountain basins during short-term, intense events depend on a variety of processes. Available models typically consider a limited portion of the phenomenological chain, frequently either sediment supply or solid transport along the waterways. On the other hand, proper depiction of on-site processes requires ability to model all the process stages and suitable integration between different models. In this manuscript, an integrated modelling is attempted for small catchments in Italian Alpine foothills. The integrated approach has involved: (i) hydrologic estimation of peak discharge, (ii) evaluation of the volumetric sediment supply into the stream, and (iii) computation of the morphologic evolution of the river bed. The results are discussed focussing on: (i) the feasibility of a joint modelling like the one presented, in the light of all the limitations imposed by the different nature of hillslope-devoted and river-devoted models; and (ii) the sensitivity of the obtained results to some parameters, for an assessment of result reliability.

  20. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    , such as straightforward calibration, a high sample throughput, sufficient precision, suitable limits of detection, appropriate for monitoring studies concentration range and reduced risk of analyte loss and contamination. This approach allows comparatively simple and reliable evaluation of uncertainty of the results and the basic validation parameters and in a natural way provides traceability of the obtained results. A comparison between the proposed fast programs with solid standard calibration and the conventional ones with liquid standard calibration demonstrates advantages of the new methodology. It provides faster, accurate and unbiased results typically with significantly lower uncertainties. The potential of the HR CS AAS technique is demonstrated by direct analysis of marine sediments form the Caribbean region and various sediment CRMs within the frame of monitoring program for this region. - Highlights: • Analytical method based on solid sampling HR CS AAS for trace elements in marine sediments is presented. • Full validation process for “fit-for-purpose” analytical procedure is described. • Number of important validation parameters was systematically assessed. • Modeling and single laboratory validation approaches for measurement uncertainty are presented. • Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also provided

  1. SIMPLE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS ON SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825368)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  2. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for selected soils and sediments at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Long, Jeff; Sanipelli, Barb; Sohlenius, Gustav

    2009-03-01

    Soil and sediment solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. The Kd data are inherently extremely variable, but also vary systematically with key environmental attributes. For soil Kd, the key variables are pH, clay content and organic carbon content. For sediment Kd, water type (freshwater versus marine) and sediment type (benthic versus suspended) are important. This report summarized Kd data for soils and sediments computed from indigenous stable element concentrations measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites. These were then compared to several literature sources of Kd data for Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, Tm, U and Yb. The Kd data computed from indigenous stable element concentrations may be especially relevant for assessment of long-lived radionuclides from deep disposal of waste, because the long time frame for the potential releases is more consistent with the steady state measured using indigenous stable elements. For almost every one of these elements in soils, a statistically meaningful regression equation was developed to allow estimation of Kd for any soil given a modest amount of information about the soil. Nonetheless, the median residual geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 4.3-fold, implying confidence bounds of about 18-fold above and below the best estimate Kd. For sediment, the values are categorised simply by water type and sediment type. The median GSD for sediment Kd as measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites was 2.5-fold, but the median GSD among literature values was as high as 8.6-fold. Clearly, there remains considerable uncertainty in Kd values, and it is important to account for this in assessment applications

  3. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for selected soils and sediments at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve; Long, Jeff; Sanipelli, Barb (ECOMatters Inc., Pinawa (Canada)); Sohlenius, Gustav (Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Soil and sediment solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. The Kd data are inherently extremely variable, but also vary systematically with key environmental attributes. For soil Kd, the key variables are pH, clay content and organic carbon content. For sediment Kd, water type (freshwater versus marine) and sediment type (benthic versus suspended) are important. This report summarized Kd data for soils and sediments computed from indigenous stable element concentrations measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites. These were then compared to several literature sources of Kd data for Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, Tm, U and Yb. The Kd data computed from indigenous stable element concentrations may be especially relevant for assessment of long-lived radionuclides from deep disposal of waste, because the long time frame for the potential releases is more consistent with the steady state measured using indigenous stable elements. For almost every one of these elements in soils, a statistically meaningful regression equation was developed to allow estimation of Kd for any soil given a modest amount of information about the soil. Nonetheless, the median residual geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 4.3-fold, implying confidence bounds of about 18-fold above and below the best estimate Kd. For sediment, the values are categorised simply by water type and sediment type. The median GSD for sediment Kd as measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites was 2.5-fold, but the median GSD among literature values was as high as 8.6-fold. Clearly, there remains considerable uncertainty in Kd values, and it is important to account for this in assessment applications

  4. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Anil V. Virkar; Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2010-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic no equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, , within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, no equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  5. Modeling alignment enhancement for solid polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    A model of dynamic orientation using optimized radiofrequency (RF) irradiation produced perpendicular to the holding field is developed for the spin-1 system required for tensor-polarized fixed-target experiments. The derivation applies to RF produced close to the Larmor frequency of the nucleus and requires the electron spin-resonance linewidth to be much smaller than the nuclear magnetic resonance frequency. The rate equations are solved numerically to study a semi-saturated steady-state resulting from the two sources of irradiation: microwave from the DNP process and the additional RF used to manipulate the tensor polarization. The steady-state condition and continuous-wave NMR lineshape are found that optimize the spin-1 alignment in the polycrystalline materials used as solid polarized targets in charged-beam nuclear and particle physics experiments. (orig.)

  6. SPATIAL MODELING OF SOLID-STATE REGULAR POLYHEDRA (SOLIDS OF PLATON IN AUTOCAD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bezditko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the technology of modeling regular polyhedra by graphic methods. The authors came to the conclusion that in order to create solid models of regular polyhedra the method of extrusion is best to use.

  7. Sedimentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    through the water column but their trapping efficiency, and thus, their accuracy can be biased by hydrodynamic and biological effects (Lee et al., 1988; Gust et al., 1992; 1994). Scholten et al. (2001) showed that the 230 Thorium trapping efficiency... of sediment traps moored at different sites and water depths in eastern North Atlantic Ocean varies between 9 and 143%. In general, these trapping efficiencies increase with increasing water-depth (Scholten et al., 2001). By comparing data from various ocean...

  8. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia CUDA C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a linear-elastic soft-body contact model. We have coupled the DEM model to a model for porewater flow, and we present early results of particle......The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. In the DEM, the material is simulated on a grain-by-grain basis, and defining the micromechanical properties...... of the inter-particle contacts parameterizes the model. For validating the numerical approach, the macromechanical behavior of the numerical material is compared to the results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments. Overall, there is a good agreement between the geotechnical behavior of the real...

  9. Interactive 4D Visualization of Sediment Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkiewicz, T.; Englert, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal sediment transport models simulate the effects that waves, currents, and tides have on near-shore bathymetry and features such as beaches and barrier islands. Understanding these dynamic processes is integral to the study of coastline stability, beach erosion, and environmental contamination. Furthermore, analyzing the results of these simulations is a critical task in the design, placement, and engineering of coastal structures such as seawalls, jetties, support pilings for wind turbines, etc. Despite the importance of these models, there is a lack of available visualization software that allows users to explore and perform analysis on these datasets in an intuitive and effective manner. Existing visualization interfaces for these datasets often present only one variable at a time, using two dimensional plan or cross-sectional views. These visual restrictions limit the ability to observe the contents in the proper overall context, both in spatial and multi-dimensional terms. To improve upon these limitations, we use 3D rendering and particle system based illustration techniques to show water column/flow data across all depths simultaneously. We can also encode multiple variables across different perceptual channels (color, texture, motion, etc.) to enrich surfaces with multi-dimensional information. Interactive tools are provided, which can be used to explore the dataset and find regions-of-interest for further investigation. Our visualization package provides an intuitive 4D (3D, time-varying) visualization of sediment transport model output. In addition, we are also integrating real world observations with the simulated data to support analysis of the impact from major sediment transport events. In particular, we have been focusing on the effects of Superstorm Sandy on the Redbird Artificial Reef Site, offshore of Delaware Bay. Based on our pre- and post-storm high-resolution sonar surveys, there has significant scour and bedform migration around the

  10. A Discrete Approach to Meshless Lagrangian Solid Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Marko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The author demonstrates a stable Lagrangian solid modeling method, tracking the interactions of solid mass particles rather than using a meshed grid. This numerical method avoids the problem of tensile instability often seen with smooth particle applied mechanics by having the solid particles apply stresses expected with Hooke’s law, as opposed to using a smoothing function for neighboring solid particles. This method has been tested successfully with a bar in tension, compression, and shear, as well as a disk compressed into a flat plate, and the numerical model consistently matched the analytical Hooke’s law as well as Hertz contact theory for all examples. The solid modeling numerical method was then built into a 2-D model of a pressure vessel, which was tested with liquid water particles under pressure and simulated with smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This simulation was stable, and demonstrated the feasibility of Lagrangian specification modeling for fluid–solid interactions.

  11. Sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst (Part 2): Numerical model development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Ford, W.; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J.; Taylor, C.

    2017-06-01

    The authors develop a numerical model to elucidate time-distributed processes controlling sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst. Sediment carbon processes simulated in the new numerical model include in-conduit erosion and deposition, sediment carbon transport, surficial fine grained laminae evolution, carbon pool mixing, microbial oxidation, and the understudied process of sediment carbon exchange during equilibrium transport. The authors perform a model evaluation procedure that includes generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation to quantify uncertainty of the model results. Modeling results suggest that phreatic karst conduits sustain sediment transport activity long after surface storm events cease. The sustained sediment transport has the potential to shift the baseflow sediment yield of the phreatic karst to be on par with stormflow sediment yield. The sustained activity is suggested to promote the exchange of sediment carbon between the water column and subsurface karst deposits during equilibrium sediment transport conditions. In turn, the sediment carbon exchange impacts the mixing of new and old carbon pools and the flux of carbon from phreatic karst. Integrated numerical model results from this study support the concept that phreatic karst act as a biologically active conveyor of sediment carbon that temporarily stores sediment, turns over carbon at higher rates than surface streams, and recharges degraded carbon back to the fluvial system. The numerical modeling method adopted in this paper shows the efficacy of coupling carbon isotope fingerprinting with water quality modeling to study sediment carbon in phreatic karst.

  12. NOAA ESRI Grid - sediment size predictions model in New York offshore planning area from Biogeography Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents sediment size predictions from a sediment spatial model developed for the New York offshore spatial planning area. The model also includes...

  13. A Tidally Averaged Sediment-Transport Model for San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A tidally averaged sediment-transport model of San Francisco Bay was incorporated into a tidally averaged salinity box model previously developed and calibrated using salinity, a conservative tracer (Uncles and Peterson, 1995; Knowles, 1996). The Bay is represented in the model by 50 segments composed of two layers: one representing the channel (>5-meter depth) and the other the shallows (0- to 5-meter depth). Calculations are made using a daily time step and simulations can be made on the decadal time scale. The sediment-transport model includes an erosion-deposition algorithm, a bed-sediment algorithm, and sediment boundary conditions. Erosion and deposition of bed sediments are calculated explicitly, and suspended sediment is transported by implicitly solving the advection-dispersion equation. The bed-sediment model simulates the increase in bed strength with depth, owing to consolidation of fine sediments that make up San Francisco Bay mud. The model is calibrated to either net sedimentation calculated from bathymetric-change data or measured suspended-sediment concentration. Specified boundary conditions are the tributary fluxes of suspended sediment and suspended-sediment concentration in the Pacific Ocean. Results of model calibration and validation show that the model simulates the trends in suspended-sediment concentration associated with tidal fluctuations, residual velocity, and wind stress well, although the spring neap tidal suspended-sediment concentration variability was consistently underestimated. Model validation also showed poor simulation of seasonal sediment pulses from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta at Point San Pablo because the pulses enter the Bay over only a few days and the fate of the pulses is determined by intra-tidal deposition and resuspension that are not included in this tidally averaged model. The model was calibrated to net-basin sedimentation to calculate budgets of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants. While

  14. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  15. Uptake, translocation, and elimination in sediment-rooted macrophytes: a model-supported analysis of whole sediment test data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Arts, Gertie H P; Focks, Andreas; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    Understanding bioaccumulation in sediment-rooted macrophytes is crucial for the development of sediment toxicity tests using macrophytes. Here, we explore bioaccumulation in sediment-rooted macrophytes by tracking and modeling chemical flows of chlorpyrifos, linuron, and six PCBs in water-sediment-macrophyte systems. Chemical fluxes across the interfaces between pore water, overlying water, shoots, and roots were modeled using a novel multicompartment model. The modeling yielded the first mass-transfer parameter set reported for bioaccumulation by sediment-rooted macrophytes, with satisfactory narrow confidence limits for more than half of the estimated parameters. Exposure via the water column led to rapid uptake by Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum shoots, followed by transport to the roots within 1-3 days, after which tissue concentrations gradually declined. Translocation played an important role in the exchange between shoots and roots. Exposure via spiked sediment led to gradual uptake by the roots, but subsequent transport to the shoots and overlying water remained limited for the chemicals studied. These contrasting patterns show that exposure is sensitive to test set up, chemical properties, and species traits. Although field-concentrations in water and sediment will differ from those in the tests, the model parameters can be assumed applicable for modeling exposure to macrophytes in the field.

  16. Shape and size of methane bubbles in muddy aquatic sediments and their dependence on sediment fracture toughness: a modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsman, Regina

    2014-05-01

    Shallow gassy marine sediments abundantly found on continental margins of Israel and worldwide, are a source of a major concern for their contribution to the destabilization of coastal and marine infrastructure, air pollution, and global warming. Bubbles are different in the different sediment types. Size of the bubbles residing in the fine-grained muddy sediment exceeds significantly the grain size of sediment, and its shape can be approximated by a large oblate spheroid surrounded by sediment saturated with water. Experimental results indicate that bubble growth is accompanied by fracturing of the fine-grained muddy sediment. Modeling reveals that fracture toughness of the muddy sediments significantly affects bubble shape and size evolution prior its ascent. Small fracture toughness is responsible for generation of the small bubbles with highly asymmetric configuration and with fracturing concentrated mostly on the bubble head. In contrast, bigger fracture toughness is responsible for generation of the large, more symmetric bubbles. Moreover, growing bubble demonstrates a positive allometry resulting in a bigger rate of growth of its surface area that is responsible for the effectiveness of the solute supply from pore water to the bubble interior. This scaling demonstrates a strong correlation with sediment fracture toughness as well. Cross-section of the buoyant bubbles evolves from the elliptic profile to the one resembling an 'inverted tear drop'. Calculated bubbles characteristics in different sediments types demonstrate a good agreement with values reported in the literature.

  17. Modeling solid-state boron carbide low energy neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.; Harken, A.; Day, E.; Robertson, B.W.; Adenwalla, S.

    2006-01-01

    Two independent techniques for modeling boron-based solid-state neutron detectors are presented-one using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit and the other one an analytical approach using a simplified physical model. Results of these techniques are compared for three different types of solid-state boron carbide detector. These results provide the basis for distinguishing between conversion layer and other solid-state detectors

  18. Glider observations and modeling of sediment transport in Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Seroka, Greg; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Regional sediment resuspension and transport are examined as Hurricane Sandy made landfall on the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) in October 2012. A Teledyne-Webb Slocum glider, equipped with a Nortek Aquadopp current profiler, was deployed on the continental shelf ahead of the storm, and is used to validate sediment transport routines coupled to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The glider was deployed on 25 October, 5 days before Sandy made landfall in southern New Jersey (NJ) and flew along the 40 m isobath south of the Hudson Shelf Valley. We used optical and acoustic backscatter to compare with two modeled size classes along the glider track, 0.1 and 0.4 mm sand, respectively. Observations and modeling revealed full water column resuspension for both size classes for over 24 h during peak waves and currents, with transport oriented along-shelf toward the southwest. Regional model predictions showed over 3 cm of sediment eroded on the northern portion of the NJ shelf where waves and currents were the highest. As the storm passed and winds reversed from onshore to offshore on the southern portion of the domain waves and subsequently orbital velocities necessary for resuspension were reduced leading to over 3 cm of deposition across the entire shelf, just north of Delaware Bay. This study highlights the utility of gliders as a new asset in support of the development and verification of regional sediment resuspension and transport models, particularly during large tropical and extratropical cyclones when in situ data sets are not readily available.

  19. Coarse sediment and oil database and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, B.; Owens, E.H.; Patrick, G.

    1992-09-01

    Oil spills in Canadian waters have a high probability of impacting coarse sediment beaches, and there is a need to be able to predict oil fate and estimate natural self-cleaning rates. Data are lacking on many oil-sediment interactions and shoreline interactions have historically been considered using fairly simple concepts. The processes which may occur on a coarse sediment beach were examined. Those considered important are developed into a fate and persistence model for stranded oil. The processes are divided into stages relative to the spill event, and the factors which affect each stage were evaluated. Three areas of special interest are the capacity of a beach to hold oil, the residual capacity of a beach for oil, and the long-term fate of the oil. Model algorithms are developed and the outputs compared to a database of information collected during the Exxon Valdez spill. The database includes files relating to the location and wave energy of beach sediments, surface oil cover for the segments at various times, subsurface oil character, and pit oiling data. Over 10,000 oil cover records are included, from January 1990 to August 1991, along with some total hydrocarbon data. The model provides information at two levels: a general level which can be used for planning and sensitivity mapping, and a more detailed model for prediction of oil fate on specific known beaches. The strengths and weaknesses of the model are assessed in terms of data deficiencies. The type and nature of data most useful for spill planning and monitoring are identified. 42 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs

  20. A GUIDED SWAT MODEL APPLICATION ON SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING IN PANGANI RIVER BASIN: LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis Marco Ndomba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to report on the lessons learnt from applying Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT in a well guided sediment yield modelling study. The study area is the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM reservoir catchment, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. It should be noted that, previous modeling exercises in the region applied SWAT with preassumption that inter-rill or sheet erosion was the dominant erosion type. In contrast, in this study SWAT model application was guided by results of analysis of high temporal resolution of sediment flow data and hydro-meteorological data. The runoff component of the SWAT model was calibrated from six-years (i.e. 1977–1982 of historical daily streamflow data. The sediment component of the model was calibrated using one-year (1977–1988 daily sediment loads estimated from one hydrological year sampling programme (between March and November, 2005 rating curve. A long-term period over 37 years (i.e. 1969–2005 simulation results of the SWAT model was validated to downstream NYM reservoir sediment accumulation information. The SWAT model captured 56 percent of the variance (CE and underestimated the observed daily sediment loads by 0.9 percent according to Total Mass Control (TMC performance indices during a normal wet hydrological year, i.e., between November 1, 1977 and October 31, 1978, as the calibration period. SWAT model predicted satisfactorily the long-term sediment catchment yield with a relative error of 2.6 percent. Also, the model has identified erosion sources spatially and has replicated some erosion processes as determined in other studies and field observations in the PRB. This result suggests that for catchments where sheet erosion is dominant SWAT model may substitute the sediment-rating curve. However, the SWAT model could not capture the dynamics of sediment load delivery in some seasons to the catchment outlet.

  1. A GUIDED SWAT MODEL APPLICATION ON SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING IN PANGANI RIVER BASIN: LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis M. Ndomba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to report on the lessons learnt from applying Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT in a well guided sediment yield modelling study. The study area is the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM reservoir catchment, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. It should be noted that, previous modeling exercises in the region applied SWAT with preassumption that inter-rill or sheet erosion was the dominant erosion type. In contrast, in this study SWAT model application was guided by results of analysis of high temporal resolution of sediment flow data and hydro-meteorological data. The runoff component of the SWAT model was calibrated from six-years (i.e. 1977¿1982 of historical daily streamflow data. The sediment component of the model was calibrated using one-year (1977-1988 daily sediment loads estimated from one hydrological year sampling programme (between March and November, 2005 rating curve. A long-term period over 37 years (i.e. 1969-2005 simulation results of the SWAT model was validated to downstream NYM reservoir sediment accumulation information. The SWAT model captured 56 percent of the variance (CE and underestimated the observed daily sediment loads by 0.9 percent according to Total Mass Control (TMC performance indices during a normal wet hydrological year, i.e., between November 1, 1977 and October 31, 1978, as the calibration period. SWAT model predicted satisfactorily the long-term sediment catchment yield with a relative error of 2.6 percent. Also, the model has identified erosion sources spatially and has replicated some erosion processes as determined in other studies and field observations in the PRB. This result suggests that for catchments where sheet erosion is dominant SWAT model may substitute the sediment-rating curve. However, the SWAT model could not capture the dynamics of sediment load delivery in some seasons to the catchment outlet.

  2. Occurrence of tributyltin (TBT)-resistant bacteria is not related to TBT pollution in Mekong River and coastal sediment: with a hypothesis of selective pressure from suspended solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Fujiyo; Mochizuki, Hiroko; Nakamura, Shinji; Iwata, Hisato; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Fumitake; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Tana, Touch Seang; Suzuki, Satoru

    2007-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is organotin compound that is toxic to aquatic life ranging from bacteria to mammals. This study examined the concentration of TBT in sediment from and near the Mekong River and the distribution of TBT-resistant bacteria. TBT concentrations ranged from TBT-resistant bacteria ranged TBT-resistant bacteria ranged from TBT in the sediment and of TBT-resistant bacteria were unrelated, and chemicals other than TBT might induce TBT resistance. TBT-resistant bacteria were more abundant in the dry season than in the rainy season. Differences in the selection process of TBT-resistant bacteria between dry and rainy seasons were examined using an advection-diffusion model of a suspended solid (SS) that conveys chemicals. The estimated dilution-diffusion time over a distance of 120 km downstream from a release site was 20 days during dry season and 5 days during rainy season, suggesting that bacteria at the sediment surface could be exposed to SS for longer periods during dry season.

  3. Towards Quantitative Spatial Models of Seabed Sediment Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stephens

    Full Text Available There is a need for fit-for-purpose maps for accurately depicting the types of seabed substrate and habitat and the properties of the seabed for the benefits of research, resource management, conservation and spatial planning. The aim of this study is to determine whether it is possible to predict substrate composition across a large area of seabed using legacy grain-size data and environmental predictors. The study area includes the North Sea up to approximately 58.44°N and the United Kingdom's parts of the English Channel and the Celtic Seas. The analysis combines outputs from hydrodynamic models as well as optical remote sensing data from satellite platforms and bathymetric variables, which are mainly derived from acoustic remote sensing. We build a statistical regression model to make quantitative predictions of sediment composition (fractions of mud, sand and gravel using the random forest algorithm. The compositional data is analysed on the additive log-ratio scale. An independent test set indicates that approximately 66% and 71% of the variability of the two log-ratio variables are explained by the predictive models. A EUNIS substrate model, derived from the predicted sediment composition, achieved an overall accuracy of 83% and a kappa coefficient of 0.60. We demonstrate that it is feasible to spatially predict the seabed sediment composition across a large area of continental shelf in a repeatable and validated way. We also highlight the potential for further improvements to the method.

  4. A mathematical model of combustion kinetics of municipal solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Municipal Solid Waste has become a serious environmental problem troubling many cities. In this paper, a mathematical model of combustion kinetics of municipal solid waste with focus on plastic waste was studied. An analytical solution is obtained for the model. From the numerical simulation, it is observed that the ...

  5. Improving Sediment Transport Prediction by Assimilating Satellite Images in a Tidal Bay Model of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models being one of the major tools for sediment dynamic studies in complex coastal waters are now benefitting from remote sensing images that are easily available for model inputs. The present study explored various methods of integrating remote sensing ocean color data into a numerical model to improve sediment transport prediction in a tide-dominated bay in Hong Kong, Deep Bay. Two sea surface sediment datasets delineated from satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectra-radiometer (MODIS were assimilated into a coastal ocean model of the bay for one tidal cycle. It was found that remote sensing sediment information enhanced the sediment transport model ability by validating the model results with in situ measurements. Model results showed that root mean square errors of forecast sediment both at the surface layer and the vertical layers from the model with satellite sediment assimilation are reduced by at least 36% over the model without assimilation.

  6. Geochemical modeling of reactions and partitioning of trace metals and radionuclides during titration of contaminated acidic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C; Spalding, Brian P; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Gu, Baohua

    2008-11-01

    Many geochemical reactions that control aqueous metal concentrations are directly affected by solution pH. However, changes in solution pH are strongly buffered by various aqueous phase and solid phase precipitation/dissolution and adsorption/desorption reactions. The ability to predict acid-base behavior of the soil-solution system is thus critical to predict metal transport under variable pH conditions. This studywas undertaken to develop a practical generic geochemical modeling approach to predict aqueous and solid phase concentrations of metals and anions during conditions of acid or base additions. The method of Spalding and Spalding was utilized to model soil buffer capacity and pH-dependent cation exchange capacity by treating aquifer solids as a polyprotic acid. To simulate the dynamic and pH-dependent anion exchange capacity, the aquifer solids were simultaneously treated as a polyprotic base controlled by mineral precipitation/ dissolution reactions. An equilibrium reaction model that describes aqueous complexation, precipitation, sorption and soil buffering with pH-dependent ion exchange was developed using HydroGeoChem v5.0 (HGC5). Comparison of model results with experimental titration data of pH, Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co, and SO4(2-) for contaminated sediments indicated close agreement suggesting that the model could potentially be used to predictthe acid-base behavior of the sediment-solution system under variable pH conditions.

  7. Procedures for Geometric Data Reduction in Solid Log Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Occeña; Wenzhen Chen; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    One of the difficulties in solid log modelling is working with huge data sets, such as those that come from computed axial tomographic imaging. Algorithmic procedures are described in this paper that have successfully reduced data without sacrificing modelling integrity.

  8. Modeling chemical accumulation in sediment of small waterbodies accounting for sediment transport and water-sediment exchange processes over long periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David Albert; Strehmel, Alexander; Erzgräber, Beate; Hammel, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    In a recent scientific opinion of the European Food Safety Authority it is argued that the accumulation of plant protection products in sediments over long time periods may be an environmentally significant process. Therefore, the European Food Safety Authority proposed a calculation to account for plant protection product accumulation. This calculation, however, considers plant protection product degradation within sediment as the only dissipation route, and does not account for sediment dynamics or back-diffusion into the water column. The hydraulic model Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS; US Army Corps of Engineers) was parameterized to assess sediment transport and deposition dynamics within the FOrum for Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS) scenarios in simulations spanning 20 yr. The results show that only 10 to 50% of incoming sediment would be deposited. The remaining portion of sediment particles is transported across the downstream boundary. For a generic plant protection product substance this resulted in deposition of only 20 to 50% of incoming plant protection product substance. In a separate analysis, the FOCUS TOXSWA model was utilized to examine the relative importance of degradation versus back-diffusion as loss processes from the sediment compartment for a diverse range of generic plant protection products. In simulations spanning 20 yr, it was shown that back-diffusion was generally the dominant dissipation process. The results of the present study show that sediment dynamics and back-diffusion should be considered when calculating long-term plant protection product accumulation in sediment. Neglecting these may lead to a systematic overestimation of accumulation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3223-3231. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. How to bridge the gap between "unresolved" model and "resolved" model in CFD-DEM coupled method for sediment transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Fu, X.; Liu, X.

    2016-12-01

    In nature, granular materials exist widely in water bodies. Understanding the fundamentals of solid-liquid two-phase flow, such as turbulent sediment-laden flow, is of importance for a wide range of applications. A coupling method combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) is now widely used for modeling such flows. In this method, when particles are significantly larger than the CFD cells, the fluid field around each particle should be fully resolved. On the other hand, the "unresolved" model is designed for the situation where particles are significantly smaller than the mesh cells. Using "unresolved" model, large amount of particles can be simulated simultaneously. However, there is a gap between these two situations when the size of DEM particles and CFD cell is in the same order of magnitude. In this work, the most commonly used void fraction models are tested with numerical sedimentation experiments. The range of applicability for each model is presented. Based on this, a new void fraction model, i.e., a modified version of "tri-linear" model, is proposed. Particular attention is paid to the smooth function of void fraction in order to avoid numerical instability. The results show good agreement with the experimental data and analytical solution for both single-particle motion and also group-particle motion, indicating great potential of the new void fraction model.

  10. Modelling global anthropogenic sediment fluxes in the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengang; Van Oost, Kristof

    2017-04-01

    A large fraction of natural vegetation has been cleared to provide agricultural cropland, which accelerates erosion by one to two orders of magnitude. Quantification of the accelerated erosion flux is important in order to understand the role of human activities in ecosystem evolution given that soil erosion not only causes on site effects on soil degradation and soil organic carbon (SOC) cycling but also off site effects on the water quality. In this study, we first evaluated and constrained existing ALCC scenarios by comparing observed cumulative sediment fluxes with our model simulations. We further applied a spatially distributed erosion model under the optimized land use scenario at the global scale. Simulation shows that conversion from natural vegetation to cropland has caused a global cumulative agricultural sediment flux of 28000 Pg for the period of agriculture. This results in an average cumulative sediment mobilization of 1890 kg m-2 on the croplands, i.e. a soil truncation of ca. 1.3 m. Regions of early civilization and high cropland fractions such as South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central America have higher area-averaged anthropogenic erosion than other regions.

  11. Motion of cells sedimenting on a solid surface in a laminar shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, O; Pierres, A; Foa, C; Delaage, M; Bongrand, P

    1992-01-01

    Cell adhesion often occurs under dynamic conditions, as in flowing blood. A quantitative understanding of this process requires accurate knowledge of the topographical relationships between the cell membrane and potentially adhesive surfaces. This report describes an experimental study made on both the translational and rotational velocities of leukocytes sedimenting of a flat surface under laminar shear flow. The main conclusions are as follows: (a) Cells move close to the wall with constant velocity for several tens of seconds. (b) The numerical values of translational and rotational velocities are inconsistent with Goldman's model of a neutrally buoyant sphere in a laminar shear flow, unless a drag force corresponding to contact friction between cells and the chamber floor is added. The phenomenological friction coefficient was 7.4 millinewton.s/m. (c) Using a modified Goldman's theory, the width of the gap separating cells (6 microns radius) from the chamber floor was estimated at 1.4 micron. (d) It is shown that a high value of the cell-to-substrate gap may be accounted for by the presence of cell surface protrusions of a few micrometer length, in accordance with electron microscope observations performed on the same cell population. (e) In association with previously reported data (Tissot, O., C. Foa, C. Capo, H. Brailly, M. Delaage, and P. Bongrand. 1991. Biocolloids and Biosurfaces. In press), these results are consistent with the possibility that cell-substrate attachment be initiated by the formation of a single molecular bond, which might be considered as the rate limiting step.

  12. Hydrate-CASM for modeling Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente Ruiz, M.; Vaunat, J.; Marin Moreno, H.

    2017-12-01

    A clear understanding of the geomechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) is crucial to assess the stability of the seafloor and submarine infrastructures to human and natural loading changes. Here we present the Hydrate-CASM, a new elastoplastic constitutive model to predict the geomechanical behavior of MHBS. Our model employs the critical state model CASM (Clay and Sand Model) because of its flexibility in describing the shape of the yield surface and its proven ability to predict the mechanical behavior of sands, the most commercially viable hydrate reservoirs. The model considers MHBS as a deformable elastoplastic continuum, and hydrate-related changes in the stress-strain behavior are predicted by a densification mechanism. The densification attributes the mechanical contribution of hydrate to; a reduction of the available void ratio; a decrease of the swelling line slope; and an increase of the volumetric yield stress. It is described by experimentally derived physical parameters except from the swelling slope coefficient that requires empirical calibration. The Hydrate-CASM is validated against published triaxial laboratory tests performed at different confinement stresses, hydrate saturations, and hydrate morphologies. During the validation, we focused on capturing the mechanical behavior of the host sediment and consider perturbations of the sediment's mechanical properties that could result from the sample preparation. Our model successfully captures the experimentally observed influence of hydrate saturation in the magnitude and trend of the stiffness, shear strength, and dilatancy of MHBS. Hence, we propose that hydrate-related densification changes might be a major factor controlling the geomechanical response of MHBS.

  13. Modelling the landslide area and sediment discharge in landslide-dominated region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tse-Yang; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Chen, Yi-Chin; Jan, Ming-Young; Liu, Cheng-Chien

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have indicated the magnified increase of rainfall intensification, landsliding and subsequent sediment discharge due to the global warming effect. However, a few works synthesized the "chain reaction" from rainfall, landsliding to sediment discharge at the same time because of the limited observations of landslide area and sediment discharge during episodes. Besides, the sediment transport strongly depends on the sediment supply and stream power which interact conditionally. In this study, our goal is to build a model that can simulate time-series landslide area and subsequent sediment discharge. The synthesized model would be applied onto Tsengwen Reservoir watershed in southern Taiwan, where lots of landslides occur every year. Unlike other studies, our landslide model considers not only rainfall effect but also previous landslide status, which may be applied to landslide-dominated regions and explains the irrelevant relationship between typhoon rainfall and landslide area. Furthermore, our sediment transport model considers the sediment budget which couples transport- and supply-limited of sediment. The result shows that the simulated time-series landslide area and the sediment transport agree with the observation and the R2 are 0.88 and 0.56, respectively. Reactivated ratio of previous landslide area is 72.7% which indicates the high reoccurrence of historical landslide in landslide-dominated regions. We divided nine historical typhoons into three periods to demonstrate the effect of sediment supply/supply-limited condition upon sediment transport. For instance, the rainfall is smaller in period 3 than in period 1 but the sediment transport is higher in period 3 due to the catastrophic landslide (typhoon Morakot) during period 2. We argue that quantifying sediment transport should couple not only with water discharge but sediment budget, which is rarely considered in calculating sediment transport. Moreover, the parameterization of the controlling

  14. Sediment Transport and erosion modeling at Heaundae Beach in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, K.; Yoo, J.; McCall, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    The sand pocket beaches with two headlands are global features, but it's not easy to predict berm and dune erosion due to alongshore variation of water depth. This study investigates the sediment transport and morphological change using available wave and beach profile data, as well as to assess the applicability of the XBeach morphological model (Roelvink et al., 2009). The Haeundae is small pocket beach, 1.4 km long, located in the southern corner of the Korean Peninsula. The Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) measured beach profile along 27 survey lines. The beach profiles were surveyed five times from 17 June 2014 to 10 October 2014. For this duration, a wave gauge (AWAC) was installed at a depth about 23 m off the coast of Haeundae Beach. Severe four storms attacked Haeundae Beach for this duration and these storms lasted about 1 2 days with a peak significant wave height of 2.5 4.0 m. The placed sand is fairly sorted and its median diameter is 0.23 mm. 2DH coastal morphological model, XBeach developed to simulate dune erosion due to storm impacts. The model is based on the nonlinear shallow water equation and resolves nearshore hydrodynamics by employing a 2DH description of wave groups and infragravity motions. In this study, the numerical model XBeach was compared with the field data and used to estimate the sediment transport pattern on the sand pocket beach. The numerical model resulted in a comparable prediction in the west-part, but the east-part cannot reproduce the erosion and accretion of the sand, partly due to complex bathymetry and the lack of sediment. This limitation needs to be improved to use measured sand thickness data in future study

  15. Use of spatially distributed time-integrated sediment sampling networks and distributed fine sediment modelling to inform catchment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, M T; Warburton, J; Bracken, L J; Reaney, S M; Emery, S B; Hirst, S

    2017-11-01

    Under the EU Water Framework Directive, suspended sediment is omitted from environmental quality standards and compliance targets. This omission is partly explained by difficulties in assessing the complex dose-response of ecological communities. But equally, it is hindered by a lack of spatially distributed estimates of suspended sediment variability across catchments. In this paper, we demonstrate the inability of traditional, discrete sampling campaigns for assessing exposure to fine sediment. Sampling frequencies based on Environmental Quality Standard protocols, whilst reflecting typical manual sampling constraints, are unable to determine the magnitude of sediment exposure with an acceptable level of precision. Deviations from actual concentrations range between -35 and +20% based on the interquartile range of simulations. As an alternative, we assess the value of low-cost, suspended sediment sampling networks for quantifying suspended sediment transfer (SST). In this study of the 362 km 2 upland Esk catchment we observe that spatial patterns of sediment flux are consistent over the two year monitoring period across a network of 17 monitoring sites. This enables the key contributing sub-catchments of Butter Beck (SST: 1141 t km 2 yr -1 ) and Glaisdale Beck (SST: 841 t km 2 yr -1 ) to be identified. The time-integrated samplers offer a feasible alternative to traditional infrequent and discrete sampling approaches for assessing spatio-temporal changes in contamination. In conjunction with a spatially distributed diffuse pollution model (SCIMAP), time-integrated sediment sampling is an effective means of identifying critical sediment source areas in the catchment, which can better inform sediment management strategies for pollution prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geometric data transfer between CAD systems: solid models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri; Palstroem, Bjarne; Trostmann, Erik

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of the ESPRIT project CAD*I resulted in a specification for the exchange of solid models as well as in some pilot implementations of processors based on this specification. The authors summarize the CAD*I approach, addressing the structure of neutral files for solids, entities, an...

  17. ON THE USE OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID FOR DETERMINING SOLID-PHASE ARSENIC PARTITIONING IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the challenges in assessing the current impact of the discharge of arsenic contaminated ground water into a surface water body is differentiating the arsenic ground water flux versus dissolution of in-place contaminated sediments. Results from a field study at a Superfund...

  18. A Local Composition Model for Paraffinic Solid Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, A.P. João; Knudsen, Kim; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    1996-01-01

    The description of the solid-phase non-ideality remains the main obstacle in modelling the solid-liquid equilibrium of hydrocarbons. A theoretical model, based on the local composition concept, is developed for the orthorhombic phase of n-alkanes and tested against experimental data for binary sy...... systems. It is shown that it can adequately predict the experimental phase behaviour of paraffinic mixtures. This work extends the applicability of local composition models to the solid phase. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  19. Modeling of liquid phase formation due to the solid zircaloy-4/solid stainless steel interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, G.E.; Piotrkowski, R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Combustibles Nucleares; Moyano, E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Calculo Cientifico; Garcia, E.A. [Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza

    1995-12-31

    A diffusion model that describes the eutectic interaction between both as received and oxidized Zry-4 and AISI 316 stainless steel at temperatures between 1000 to 1300{sup 0} C is presented. The instantaneous positions of the two solid/liquid interfaces, are input data. The interdiffusion coefficients are calculated in the melt and the solid/liquid interfaces concentration values for different temperatures. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Modeling sediment transport with an integrated view of the biofilm effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H. W.; Lai, H. J.; Cheng, W.; Huang, L.; He, G. J.

    2017-09-01

    Most natural sediment is invariably covered by biofilms in reservoirs and lakes, which have significant influence on bed form dynamics and sediment transport, and also play a crucial role in natural river evolution, pollutant transport, and habitat changes. However, most models for sediment transport are based on experiments using clean sediments without biological materials. In this study, a three-dimensional mathematical model of hydrodynamics and sediment transport is presented with a comprehensive consideration of the biofilm effects. The changes of the bed resistance mainly due to the different bed form dynamics of the biofilm-coated sediment (biosediment), which affect the hydrodynamic characteristics, are considered. Moreover, the variations of parameters related to sediment transport after the biofilm growth are integrated, including the significant changes of the incipient velocity, settling velocity, reference concentration, and equilibrium bed load transport rate. The proposed model is applied to evaluate the effects of biofilms on the hydrodynamic characteristics and sediment transport in laboratory experiments. Results indicate that the mean velocity increases after the biofilm growth, and the turbulence intensity near the river bed decreases under the same flow condition. Meanwhile, biofilm inhibits sediment from moving independently. Thus, the moderate erosion is observed for biosediment resulting in smaller suspended sediment concentrations. The proposed model can reasonably reflect these sediment transport characteristics with biofilms, and the approach to integration of the biological impact could also be used in other modeling of sediment transport, which can be further applied to provide references for the integrated management of natural aqueous systems.

  1. Solid-phase arsenic speciation in aquifer sediments: A micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach for quantifying trace-level speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Sarah L.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Knaeble, Alan R.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Lynch, Joshua K.; Toner, Brandy M.

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a geogenic contaminant affecting groundwater in geologically diverse systems globally. Arsenic release from aquifer sediments to groundwater is favored when biogeochemical conditions, especially oxidation-reduction (redox) potential, in aquifers fluctuate. The specific objective of this research is to identify the solid-phase sources and geochemical mechanisms of release of As in aquifers of the Des Moines Lobe glacial advance. The overarching concept is that conditions present at the aquifer-aquitard interfaces promote a suite of geochemical reactions leading to mineral alteration and release of As to groundwater. A microprobe X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS) approach is developed and applied to rotosonic drill core samples to identify the solid-phase speciation of As in aquifer, aquitard, and aquifer-aquitard interface sediments. This approach addresses the low solid-phase As concentrations, as well as the fine-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity of the sediments. The spectroscopy data are analyzed using novel cosine-distance and correlation-distance hierarchical clustering for Fe 1s and As 1s μXAS datasets. The solid-phase Fe and As speciation is then interpreted using sediment and well-water chemical data to propose solid-phase As reservoirs and release mechanisms. The results confirm that in two of the three locations studied, the glacial sediment forming the aquitard is the source of As to the aquifer sediments. The results are consistent with three different As release mechanisms: (1) desorption from Fe (oxyhydr)oxides, (2) reductive dissolution of Fe (oxyhydr)oxides, and (3) oxidative dissolution of Fe sulfides. The findings confirm that glacial sediments at the interface between aquifer and aquitard are geochemically active zones for As. The diversity of As release mechanisms is consistent with the geographic heterogeneity observed in the distribution of elevated-As wells.

  2. Numerical modelling of hydro-morphological processes dominated by fine suspended sediment in a stormwater pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mingfu; Ahilan, Sangaralingam; Yu, Dapeng; Peng, Yong; Wright, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Fine sediment plays crucial and multiple roles in the hydrological, ecological and geomorphological functioning of river systems. This study employs a two-dimensional (2D) numerical model to track the hydro-morphological processes dominated by fine suspended sediment, including the prediction of sediment concentration in flow bodies, and erosion and deposition caused by sediment transport. The model is governed by 2D full shallow water equations with which an advection-diffusion equation for fine sediment is coupled. Bed erosion and sedimentation are updated by a bed deformation model based on local sediment entrainment and settling flux in flow bodies. The model is initially validated with the three laboratory-scale experimental events where suspended load plays a dominant role. Satisfactory simulation results confirm the model's capability in capturing hydro-morphodynamic processes dominated by fine suspended sediment at laboratory-scale. Applications to sedimentation in a stormwater pond are conducted to develop the process-based understanding of fine sediment dynamics over a variety of flow conditions. Urban flows with 5-year, 30-year and 100-year return period and the extreme flood event in 2012 are simulated. The modelled results deliver a step change in understanding fine sediment dynamics in stormwater ponds. The model is capable of quantitatively simulating and qualitatively assessing the performance of a stormwater pond in managing urban water quantity and quality.

  3. Deschutes estuary feasibility study: hydrodynamics and sediment transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Douglas A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Lesser, Giles; Stevens, Andrew W.

    2006-01-01

    Continual sediment accumulation in Capitol Lake since the damming of the Deschutes River in 1951 has altered the initial morphology of the basin. As part of the Deschutes River Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was tasked to model how tidal and storm processes will influence the river, lake and lower Budd Inlet should estuary restoration occur. Understanding these mechanisms will assist in developing a scientifically sound assessment on the feasibility of restoring the estuary. The goals of the DEFS are as follows. - Increase understanding of the estuary alternative to the same level as managing the lake environment.

  4. Determination of solid flow for bottom sediment drag of Parana river using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Pedro E.; Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rocca, Hector C.C.; Bittencourt, Andre V.L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive tracing technique with labeled sand was employed to evaluate the bottom sediment drag of Parana River, near Guaira City, State of Parana. 198 Au radioisotope was used and measurements have been performed for a period of fifteen days. A bed load rate of 914,8 t/day was obtained for a laminar layer of 0,33 mean thickness and 1,65 m/day mean velocity. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Sensitivity of fluvial sediment source apportionment to mixing model assumptions: A Bayesian model comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Krueger, Tobias; Hiscock, Kevin M; Rawlins, Barry G

    2014-11-01

    Mixing models have become increasingly common tools for apportioning fluvial sediment load to various sediment sources across catchments using a wide variety of Bayesian and frequentist modeling approaches. In this study, we demonstrate how different model setups can impact upon resulting source apportionment estimates in a Bayesian framework via a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) sensitivity analysis. We formulate 13 versions of a mixing model, each with different error assumptions and model structural choices, and apply them to sediment geochemistry data from the River Blackwater, Norfolk, UK, to apportion suspended particulate matter (SPM) contributions from three sources (arable topsoils, road verges, and subsurface material) under base flow conditions between August 2012 and August 2013. Whilst all 13 models estimate subsurface sources to be the largest contributor of SPM (median ∼76%), comparison of apportionment estimates reveal varying degrees of sensitivity to changing priors, inclusion of covariance terms, incorporation of time-variant distributions, and methods of proportion characterization. We also demonstrate differences in apportionment results between a full and an empirical Bayesian setup, and between a Bayesian and a frequentist optimization approach. This OFAT sensitivity analysis reveals that mixing model structural choices and error assumptions can significantly impact upon sediment source apportionment results, with estimated median contributions in this study varying by up to 21% between model versions. Users of mixing models are therefore strongly advised to carefully consider and justify their choice of model structure prior to conducting sediment source apportionment investigations. An OFAT sensitivity analysis of sediment fingerprinting mixing models is conductedBayesian models display high sensitivity to error assumptions and structural choicesSource apportionment results differ between Bayesian and frequentist approaches.

  6. A Spatially Distributed Conceptual Model for Estimating Suspended Sediment Yield in Alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Anghileri, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Suspended sediment is associated with nutrient and contaminant transport in water courses. Estimating suspended sediment load is relevant for water-quality assessment, recreational activities, reservoir sedimentation issues, and ecological habitat assessment. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) along channels is usually reproduced by suspended sediment rating curves, which relate SSC to discharge with a power law equation. Large uncertainty characterizes rating curves based only on discharge, because sediment supply is not explicitly accounted for. The aim of this work is to develop a source-oriented formulation of suspended sediment dynamics and to estimate suspended sediment yield at the outlet of a large Alpine catchment (upper Rhône basin, Switzerland). We propose a novel modelling approach for suspended sediment which accounts for sediment supply by taking into account the variety of sediment sources in an Alpine environment, i.e. the spatial location of sediment sources (e.g. distance from the outlet and lithology) and the different processes of sediment production and transport (e.g. by rainfall, overland flow, snowmelt). Four main sediment sources, typical of Alpine environments, are included in our model: glacial erosion, hillslope erosion, channel erosion and erosion by mass wasting processes. The predictive model is based on gridded datasets of precipitation and air temperature which drive spatially distributed degree-day models to simulate snowmelt and ice-melt, and determine erosive rainfall. A mass balance at the grid scale determines daily runoff. Each cell belongs to a different sediment source (e.g. hillslope, channel, glacier cell). The amount of sediment entrained and transported in suspension is simulated through non-linear functions of runoff, specific for sediment production and transport processes occurring at the grid scale (e.g. rainfall erosion, snowmelt-driven overland flow). Erodibility factors identify different lithological units

  7. Longshore sediment transport model for the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B

    Longshore sediment transport rates for the Indian west coast from Cochin to Porbandar are estimated from ship observed wave data (1968 to 1986). The sediment transport rate is relatively high during the southwest monsoon period from June...

  8. Erosion and Sediment Transport Modelling in Shallow Waters: A Review on Approaches, Models and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajigholizadeh, Mohammad; Melesse, Assefa M; Fuentes, Hector R

    2018-03-14

    The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent. This paper attempts to review the related literature concerning sediment transport modelling in shallow waters. A classification based on the representational processes of the soil erosion and sediment transport models (empirical, conceptual, physical and hybrid) is adopted, and the commonly-used models and their characteristics are listed. This review is expected to be of interest to researchers and soil and water conservation managers who are working on erosion and sediment transport phenomena in shallow waters. The paper format should be helpful for practitioners to identify and generally characterize the types of available models, their strengths and their basic scope of applicability.

  9. Erosion and Sediment Transport Modelling in Shallow Waters: A Review on Approaches, Models and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Hector R.

    2018-01-01

    The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent. This paper attempts to review the related literature concerning sediment transport modelling in shallow waters. A classification based on the representational processes of the soil erosion and sediment transport models (empirical, conceptual, physical and hybrid) is adopted, and the commonly-used models and their characteristics are listed. This review is expected to be of interest to researchers and soil and water conservation managers who are working on erosion and sediment transport phenomena in shallow waters. The paper format should be helpful for practitioners to identify and generally characterize the types of available models, their strengths and their basic scope of applicability. PMID:29538335

  10. Advanced methods of solid oxide fuel cell modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Jaroslaw; Santarelli, Massimo; Leone, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells are widely regarded as the future of the power and transportation industries. Intensive research in this area now requires new methods of fuel cell operation modeling and cell design. Typical mathematical models are based on the physical process description of fuel cells and require a detailed knowledge of the microscopic properties that govern both chemical and electrochemical reactions. ""Advanced Methods of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modeling"" proposes the alternative methodology of generalized artificial neural networks (ANN) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modeling. ""Advanced Methods

  11. Event-based total suspended sediment particle size distribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer; Sattar, Ahmed M. A.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Warner, Richard C.

    2016-05-01

    One of the most challenging modelling tasks in hydrology is prediction of the total suspended sediment particle size distribution (TSS-PSD) in stormwater runoff generated from exposed soil surfaces at active construction sites and surface mining operations. The main objective of this study is to employ gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) to develop a new model with the ability to more accurately predict the TSS-PSD by taking advantage of both event-specific and site-specific factors in the model. To compile the data for this study, laboratory scale experiments using rainfall simulators were conducted on fourteen different soils to obtain TSS-PSD. This data is supplemented with field data from three construction sites in Ontario over a period of two years to capture the effect of transport and deposition within the site. The combined data sets provide a wide range of key overlooked site-specific and storm event-specific factors. Both parent soil and TSS-PSD in runoff are quantified by fitting each to a lognormal distribution. Compared to existing regression models, the developed model more accurately predicted the TSS-PSD using a more comprehensive list of key model input parameters. Employment of the new model will increase the efficiency of deployment of required best management practices, designed based on TSS-PSD, to minimize potential adverse effects of construction site runoff on aquatic life in the receiving watercourses.

  12. Energy recovery from solid waste. [production engineering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, C.; Huang, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A recent group study on the problem of solid waste disposal provided a decision making model for a community to use in determining the future for its solid waste. The model is a combination of the following factors: technology, legal, social, political, economic and environmental. An assessment of local or community needs determines what form of energy recovery is desirable. A market for low pressure steam or hot water would direct a community to recover energy from solid waste by incineration to generate steam. A fuel gas could be produced by a process known as pyrolysis if there is a local market for a low heating value gaseous fuel. Solid waste can also be used directly as a fuel supplemental to coal in a steam generator. An evaluation of these various processes is made.

  13. Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments 1. Conceptual model of gas hydrate growth conditioned by host sediment properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clennell, M.B.; Hovland, M.; Booth, J.S.; Henry, P.; Winters, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The stability of submarine gas hydrates is largely dictated by pressure and temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of deep marine sediments may also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our conceptual model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in a freezing soil. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments by a combination of reduced pore water activity in the vicinity of hydrophilic mineral surfaces, and the excess internal energy of small crystals confined in pores. The excess energy can be thought of as a "capillary pressure" in the hydrate crystal, related to the pore size distribution and the state of stress in the sediment framework. The base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature (nearer to the seabed) than would be calculated from bulk thermodynamic equilibrium. Capillary effects or a build up of salt in the system can expand the phase boundary between hydrate and free gas into a divariant field extending over a finite depth range dictated by total methane content and pore-size distribution. Hysteresis between the temperatures of crystallization and dissociation of the clathrate is also predicted. Growth forms commonly observed in hydrate samples recovered from marine sediments (nodules, and lenses in muds; cements in sands) can largely be explained by capillary effects, but kinetics of nucleation and growth are also important. The formation of concentrated gas hydrates in a partially closed system with respect to material transport, or where gas can flush through the system, may lead to water depletion in the host sediment. This "freeze-drying" may be detectable through physical changes to the sediment (low water content and overconsolidation) and/or chemical anomalies in the pore waters and metastable

  14. Development of impact water-jet for washing away of solid sludge of pulp sediments in depository-reservoirs for following processing of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, V.L.; Sergeev, N.N.

    2005-01-01

    Impact water-jet for washing away of solid sludge of pulp sediments in depository-reservoirs for following processing of radioactive wastes are developed. Tests show efficiency and reliability of impact water-jet construction. Results of the tests show that there is a possibility to use impact water-jet for washing out of radioactive pulps in depository-reservoirs [ru

  15. Theoretical, experimental and field studies concerning molecular diffusion of radioisotopes in sediments and suspended solid particles of the sea Part A: Theories and mathematical calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duursma, E.K.; Hoede, C.

    1967-01-01

    The best way to describe the kinetics of the uptake of radioisotopes from sea water by bottom sediments and suspended solid matter is by molecular diffusion. The basic diffusion laws can be applied for finding the important parameter of the diffusion, the diffusion coefficient, which will

  16. WATEQ3 geochemical model: thermodynamic data for several additional solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.

    1982-09-01

    Geochemical models such as WATEQ3 can be used to model the concentrations of water-soluble pollutants that may result from the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. However, for a model to competently deal with these water-soluble pollutants, an adequate thermodynamic data base must be provided that includes elements identified as important in modeling these pollutants. To this end, several minerals and related solid phases were identified that were absent from the thermodynamic data base of WATEQ3. In this study, the thermodynamic data for the identified solids were compiled and selected from several published tabulations of thermodynamic data. For these solids, an accepted Gibbs free energy of formation, ΔG 0 /sub f,298/, was selected for each solid phase based on the recentness of the tabulated data and on considerations of internal consistency with respect to both the published tabulations and the existing data in WATEQ3. For those solids not included in these published tabulations, Gibbs free energies of formation were calculated from published solubility data (e.g., lepidocrocite), or were estimated (e.g., nontronite) using a free-energy summation method described by Mattigod and Sposito (1978). The accepted or estimated free energies were then combined with internally consistent, ancillary thermodynamic data to calculate equilibrium constants for the hydrolysis reactions of these minerals and related solid phases. Including these values in the WATEQ3 data base increased the competency of this geochemical model in applications associated with the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. Additional minerals and related solid phases that need to be added to the solubility submodel will be identified as modeling applications continue in these two programs

  17. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  18. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Yde, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribut......Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids...... associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM......(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full...

  19. Mud, models, and managers: Reaching consensus on a watershed strategy for sediment load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, P. R.; Cho, S. J.; Gran, K.; Belmont, P.; Hobbs, B. F.; Heitkamp, B.; Marr, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source sediment pollution is a leading cause of impairment of U.S. waters. Sediment sources are often on private land, such that solutions require not only considerable investment, but broad acceptance among landowners. We present the story of a participatory modeling exercise whose goal was to develop a consensus strategy for reducing sediment loading from the Greater Blue Earth River Basin, a large (9,200 km2) watershed in southern Minnesota dominated by row crop agriculture. The Collaborative for Sediment Source Reduction was a stakeholder group of farmers, industry representatives, conservation groups, and regulatory agencies. We used a participatory modeling approach to promote understanding of the problem, to define the scope of solutions acceptable to farmers, to develop confidence in a watershed model, and to reach consensus on a watershed strategy. We found that no existing watershed model could provide a reliable estimate of sediment response to management actions and developed a purpose-built model that could provide reliable, transparent, and fast answers. Because increased stream flow was identified as an important driver of sediment loading, the model and solutions included both hydrologic and sediment transport components. The model was based on an annual sediment budget with management actions serving to proportionally reduce both sediment sources and sediment delivery. Importantly, the model was developed in collaboration with stakeholders, such that a shared understanding emerged regarding of the modeling challenges and the reliability of information used to strongly constrain model output. The simplicity of the modeling approach supported stakeholder engagement and understanding, thereby lowering the social barrier between expert modeler and concerned stakeholder. The consensus strategy focused on water storage higher in the watershed in order to reduce river discharge and the large supply of sediment from near

  20. MODELLING OF SEDIMENTS CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTION IN DREDGED CANALS OF THE NIGER DELTA ESTUARINE REGION, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Chizom Dike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous sediments concentration distributi on models used in the study of sediment characteristics of the dredged canals in the Niger-Delta estuarine region, Nigeria; did not take into consideration the lateral in flow due to tidal effects, which affects tremendously, the sediment intake into the estuarine waters. In the current research, existing models are modified by incorpora ting the missing lateral inflow parameters, which are peculiar to the Niger Delta environment, to obtain more accurate model results. Details are given herein, of the deve lopment and application of a 3-dimensional numerical model (EKU 2.8 Models to predict sediment concentration distribution (total suspended sediment & bed sediment load s in the Niger Delta estuarine canals, with Ekulama well 19 access canal as a case study. The approach in this paper involved coupling a sediment transport equation (w ith the inclusion of lateral inflow parameters, with an estuarine hydro-dy namics equation to generate a generic 3- dimensional sediment concentration distribu tion model, using deterministic approach. Predicted results using this model compar ed favorably with measured field results. Average sediment concentration of 29mg/l was obtained compared with 31mg/l measured in the field for bed sediment loads. Finally, the predicted sediment concentration distribution (TSS, when comp ared with field results, gave average correlation coefficient of 0.9.; hence, the present model will assist in generating adequate information /data on sediment ch aracteristics and transport mechanism, required for effective design of canals to redu ce rate of siltation. The application of the above knowledge/parameters generated from this model to effectively design canals to reduce siltation will be treated in subsequent articles.

  1. A modified Activated Sludge Model to estimate solids production at low and high solids retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Caffaz, S; Gori, R; Munz, G

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, a modified version of the IWA-ASM1 model capable of correctly simulating the production of solids over a wide range of solids retention time (SRT) is presented. The parameters of the modified model have been estimated by integrating the results of respirometric and titrimetric tests with those of studies conducted on pilot scale plants that treat industrial wastewaters of differing characteristics. On the basis of the experimental results and their subsequent processing, it appears that the production of solids may be satisfactorily estimated using the modified model in which fractions X(P) and X(I) are supposed to be hydrolysable with a first-order kinetic. In the cases that were examined, the constant of the aforementioned kinetics was estimated to be k(i)=0.012 d(-1) and k(i)=0.014 d(-1), for tannery and textile wastewater respectively. A reliable calibration of the parameter k(i) was possible when data relative to the experiment conducted in the pilot plants for no less than 60 d and in conditions of complete solid retention was utilized.

  2. A Thermodynamic Mixed-Solid Asphaltene Precipitation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeloff, Niels; Heidemann, R.A.; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    1998-01-01

    A simple model for the prediction of asphaltene precipitation is proposed. The model is based on an equation of state and uses standard thermodynamics, thus assuming that the precipitation phenomenon is a reversible process. The solid phase is treated as an ideal multicomponent mixture. An activity...

  3. THCM Coupled Model for Hydrate-Bearing Sediments: Data Analysis and Design of New Field Experiments (Marine and Permafrost Settings)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marcelo J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-02-14

    Gas hydrates are solid compounds made of water molecules clustered around low molecular weight gas molecules such as methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Methane hydrates form under pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions that are common in sub-permafrost layers and in deep marine sediments. Stability conditions constrain the occurrence of gas hydrates to submarine sediments and permafrost regions. The amount of technically recoverable methane trapped in gas hydrate may exceed 104tcf. Gas hydrates are a potential energy resource, can contribute to climate change, and can cause large-scale seafloor instabilities. In addition, hydrate formation can be used for CO2 sequestration (also through CO2-CH4 replacement), and efficient geological storage seals. The experimental study of hydrate bearing sediments has been hindered by the very low solubility of methane in water (lab testing), and inherent sampling difficulties associated with depressurization and thermal changes during core extraction. This situation has prompted more decisive developments in numerical modeling in order to advance the current understanding of hydrate bearing sediments, and to investigate/optimize production strategies and implications. The goals of this research has been to addresses the complex thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical THCM coupled phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments, using a truly coupled numerical model that incorporates sound and proven constitutive relations, satisfies fundamental conservation principles. Analytical solutions aimed at verifying the proposed code have been proposed as well. These tools will allow to better analyze available data and to further enhance the current understanding of hydrate bearing sediments in view of future field experiments and the development of production technology.

  4. Fixation of Cs to marine sediments estimated by a stochastic modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børretzen, Peer; Salbu, Brit

    2002-01-01

    Dumping of nuclear waste in the Kara Sea represents a potential source of radioactive contamination to the Arctic Seas in the future. The mobility of 137Cs ions leached from the waste will depend on the interactions with sediment particles. Whether sediments will act as a continuous permanent sink for released 137Cs, or contaminated sediments will serve as a diffuse source of 137Cs in the future, depends on the interaction kinetics and binding mechanisms involved. The main purpose of this paper is to study the performance of different stochastic models using kinetic information to estimate the time needed for Cs ions to become irreversibly fixed within the sediments. The kinetic information was obtained from 134Cs tracer sorption and desorption (sequential extractions) experiments, conducted over time, using sediments from the Stepovogo Fjord waste dumping site, on the east coast of Novaya Zemlya. Results show that 134Cs ions interact rapidly with the surfaces of the Stepovogo sediment, with an estimated distribution coefficient Kd(eq) of 300 ml/g (or 13m2/g), and the 134Cs ions are increasingly irreversibly fixed to the sediment over time. For the first time, stochastic theory has been utilised for sediment-seawater systems to estimate the mean residence times (MRTs) of Cs ions in operationally defined sediment phases described by compartment models. In the present work, two different stochastic models (i) a Markov process model (MP) being analogous to deterministic compartment models, and (ii) a semi-Markov process model (SMP) which should be physically more relevant for inhomogeneous systems, have been compared. As similar results were obtained using the two models, the less complicated MP model was utilised to predict the time needed for an average Cs ion to become irreversibly fixed in the Stepovogo sediments. According the model, approximately 1100 days of contact time between Cs ions and sediments is needed before 50% of the 134Cs ion becomes fixed in the

  5. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement

  6. Temperature coefficient for modeling denitrification in surface water sediments using the mass transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Appelboom; G.M. Chescheir; F. Birgand; R.W. Skaggs; J.W. Gilliam; D. Amatya

    2010-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers. Modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks requires quantifying the denitrification within the sediments in canals and streams. In a previous study, several of the authors developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment denitrification....

  7. Temperature Coefficient for Modeling Denitrification in Surface Water Sediments Using the Mass Transfer Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. W. Appelboom; G. M. Chescheir; R. W. Skaggs; J. W. Gilliam; Devendra M. Amatya

    2006-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers with the high costs of water quality monitoring. When modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks, denitrification within the sediments needs to be accounted for. Birgand et. al. developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment...

  8. A modeling framework for evaluating streambank stabilization practices for reach-scale sediment reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streambank stabilization techniques are often implemented to reduce sediment loads from unstable streambanks. Process-based models can predict sediment yields with stabilization scenarios prior to implementation. However, a framework does not exist on how to effectively utilize these models to evalu...

  9. Application of sedimentation model to uniform and segregated fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippy, J.L. III; Watson, J.S.

    1990-10-24

    This paper incorporates concepts of unimodal and bimodal sedimentation to develop a model that accurately predicts bed expansion during particulate fluidization. During bed expansion a particle is considered to be fluidized not by the pure fluid, but by a slurry consisting of the pure fluid and other surrounding particles. The contributions of the other surrounding particles to the additional buoyant and drag forces are accounted for with the use of effective fluid or slurry properties, density and viscosity. As bed expansion proceeds, influences of the surrounding particles decrease; therefore, these effective properties are functions of the changing void fraction of the suspension. Furthermore, the expansion index, which empirically represents the degree to which viscous and inertial forces are present, is traditionally a function of a constant terminal Reynold's number. Because the effective fluid properties are considered to be changing as fluidization proceeds, the degree to which viscous and inertial forces also changes; therefore, the expansion index is written as a function of a local or intermediate Reynold's number. These concepts are further extended to bimodal fluidization in which small or light particles aid in the fluidization of the large or heavy particles. The results indicate that the proposed model more accurately predicts particulate bed expansion for a wider range of systems (gas -- liquid, low Reynold's number -- high Reynold's number) than other analytical or empirical models.

  10. Phase field modeling of flexoelectricity in solid dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. T.; Zhang, S. D.; Soh, A. K.; Yin, W. Y.

    2015-07-01

    A phase field model is developed to study the flexoelectricity in nanoscale solid dielectrics, which exhibit both structural and elastic inhomogeneity. The model is established for an elastic homogeneous system by taking into consideration all the important non-local interactions, such as electrostatic, elastic, polarization gradient, as well as flexoelectric terms. The model is then extended to simulate a two-phase system with strong elastic inhomogeneity. Both the microscopic domain structures and the macroscopic effective piezoelectricity are thoroughly studied using the proposed model. The results obtained show that the largest flexoelectric induced polarization exists at the interface between the matrix and the inclusion. The effective piezoelectricity is greatly influenced by the inclusion size, volume fraction, elastic stiffness, and the applied stress. The established model in the present study can provide a fundamental framework for computational study of flexoelectricity in nanoscale solid dielectrics, since various boundary conditions can be easily incorporated into the phase field model.

  11. Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines

  12. Antifouling booster biocide extraction from marine sediments: a fast and simple method based on vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Soares, Bruno Meira; Abreu, Fiamma; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the development of an analytical method employing vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole), DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-(2H)-isothiazolin-3-one), and dichlofluanid from sediment samples. Separation and determination were performed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Important MSPD parameters, such as sample mass, mass of C18, and type and volume of extraction solvent, were investigated by response surface methodology. Quantitative recoveries were obtained with 2.0 g of sediment sample, 0.25 g of C18 as the solid support, and 10 mL of methanol as the extraction solvent. The MSPD method was suitable for the extraction and determination of antifouling biocides in sediment samples, with recoveries between 61 and 103% and a relative standard deviation lower than 19%. Limits of quantification between 0.5 and 5 ng g -1 were obtained. Vortex-assisted MPSD was shown to be fast and easy to use, with the advantages of low cost and reduced solvent consumption compared to the commonly employed techniques for the extraction of booster biocides from sediment samples. Finally, the developed method was applied to real samples. Results revealed that the developed extraction method is effective and simple, thus allowing the determination of biocides in sediment samples.

  13. Modeling and Decision Support Tools Based on the Effects to Sediment Geochemistry and Microbial Populations on Contaminant Reactions in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    macroinvertebrates with different PCB sources. Phytophilous macroinvertebrates (PMI) primarily accumulate PCBs from the water column, while benthic... macroinvertebrates (BMI) primarily accumulate PCBs from the sediment. Thus, processes will be written to describe the uptake of PCBs from the water and...Carlo Techniques for Water - Quality Model Uncertainty." Ecological Modeling 62(1-3): 149- 162. Duhamel, M., K. Mo and E. A. Edwards (2004

  14. Numerical modelling of solid transport caused by an extreme flood: Case of the Hamiz dam failure (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Study of solid transport caused by the flow of an extreme flood such as the propagation of dam failure wave aims to simulate the hydrodynamics behaviour of the solid particles contained in the valley during the flood passage. With this intention, we have developed a numerical model which is based on the resolution of the one-dimensional Saint Venant–Exner equations by the implicit finite difference scheme. Numerical stability of liquid phase calculation is checked by the Courant number and De Vries condition for the solid phase. The model has been applied to the Hamiz dam (Algeria which is built in the semi arid zone and presents a major risk of failure. The simulation of several scenarios of dam failure has allowed us to trace the cartography of sediment transport in the valley which is induced by the flood of dam failure.

  15. Suspended-sediment concentrations, yields, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, as well as transporting harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples were collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011. Analyses of these data indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. The single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River during the 2011 spring runoff. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been known to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. For this study, comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. Regression analysis indicated that 7 out of 14 sites had poor or no relation between SSC and streamflow. Only two sites, the Knife River and the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, had strong correlations between SSC and streamflow, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, turbidity had moderate to strong

  16. Sediment yield model implementation based on check dam infill stratigraphy in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bussi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss and sediment transport in Mediterranean areas are driven by complex non-linear processes which have been only partially understood. Distributed models can be very helpful tools for understanding the catchment-scale phenomena which lead to soil erosion and sediment transport. In this study, a modelling approach is proposed to reproduce and evaluate erosion and sediment yield processes in a Mediterranean catchment (Rambla del Poyo, Valencia, Spain. Due to the lack of sediment transport records for model calibration and validation, a detailed description of the alluvial stratigraphy infilling a check dam that drains a 12.9 km2 sub-catchment was used as indirect information of sediment yield data. These dam infill sediments showed evidences of at least 15 depositional events (floods over the time period 1990–2009. The TETIS model, a distributed conceptual hydrological and sediment model, was coupled to the Sediment Trap Efficiency for Small Ponds (STEP model for reproducing reservoir retention, and it was calibrated and validated using the sedimentation volume estimated for the depositional units associated with discrete runoff events. The results show relatively low net erosion rates compared to other Mediterranean catchments (0.136 Mg ha−1 yr−1, probably due to the extensive outcrops of limestone bedrock, thin soils and rather homogeneous vegetation cover. The simulated sediment production and transport rates offer model satisfactory results, further supported by in-site palaeohydrological evidences and spatial validation using additional check dams, showing the great potential of the presented data assimilation methodology for the quantitative analysis of sediment dynamics in ungauged Mediterranean basins.

  17. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Modeling Tools: Integration of Advanced Sediment Transport Tools into HEC-RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    channels using this function is depicted in Figure 5. Sluicing and dam removal features. Classical bed change assumptions (i.e., the veneer method where...are encouraged to contact the authors. REGIONAL SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS: As USACE considers aging infrastructure, climate change, limited

  18. A collision model for grain-resolving simulations of flows over dense, mobile, polydisperse granular sediment beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegert, Edward; Vowinckel, Bernhard; Meiburg, Eckart

    2017-07-01

    We present a collision model for phase-resolved Direct Numerical Simulations of sediment transport that couple the fluid and particles by the Immersed Boundary Method. Typically, a contact model for these types of simulations comprises a lubrication force for particles in close proximity to another solid object, a normal contact force to prevent particles from overlapping, and a tangential contact force to account for friction. Our model extends the work of previous authors to improve upon the time integration scheme to obtain consistent results for particle-wall collisions. Furthermore, we account for polydisperse spherical particles and introduce new criteria to account for enduring contact, which occurs in many sediment transport situations. This is done without using arbitrary values for physically-defined parameters and by maintaining the full momentum balance of a particle in enduring contact. We validate our model against several test cases for binary particle-wall collisions as well as the collective motion of a sediment bed sheared by a viscous flow, yielding satisfactory agreement with experimental data by various authors.

  19. Sediment plume model-a comparison between use of measured turbidity data and satellite images for model calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Amir; Hudson, Jeff; Wheater, Howard; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we built a two-dimensional sediment transport model of Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada. It was calibrated by using measured turbidity data from stations along the reservoir and satellite images based on a flood event in 2013. In June 2013, there was heavy rainfall for two consecutive days on the frozen and snow-covered ground in the higher elevations of western Alberta, Canada. The runoff from the rainfall and the melted snow caused one of the largest recorded inflows to the headwaters of the South Saskatchewan River and Lake Diefenbaker downstream. An estimated discharge peak of over 5200 m 3 /s arrived at the reservoir inlet with a thick sediment front within a few days. The sediment plume moved quickly through the entire reservoir and remained visible from satellite images for over 2 weeks along most of the reservoir, leading to concerns regarding water quality. The aims of this study are to compare, quantitatively and qualitatively, the efficacy of using turbidity data and satellite images for sediment transport model calibration and to determine how accurately a sediment transport model can simulate sediment transport based on each of them. Both turbidity data and satellite images were very useful for calibrating the sediment transport model quantitatively and qualitatively. Model predictions and turbidity measurements show that the flood water and suspended sediments entered upstream fairly well mixed and moved downstream as overflow with a sharp gradient at the plume front. The model results suggest that the settling and resuspension rates of sediment are directly proportional to flow characteristics and that the use of constant coefficients leads to model underestimation or overestimation unless more data on sediment formation become available. Hence, this study reiterates the significance of the availability of data on sediment distribution and characteristics for building a robust and reliable sediment transport model.

  20. Impedance Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Søgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    A 1-dimensional impedance model for a solid oxide fuel cell cathode is formulated and applied to a cathode consisting of 50/50 wt% strontium doped lanthanum cobaltite and gadolinia doped ceria. A total of 42 impedance spectra were recorded in the temperature range: 555-852°C and in the oxygen...

  1. Robust model of fresh jujube soluble solids content with near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A robust partial least square (PLS) calibration model with high accuracy and stability was established for the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) of fresh jujube using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Fresh jujube samples were collected in different areas of Taigu and Taiyuan cities, central China in ...

  2. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  3. Conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed, Sierra Nevada, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J.A.; Flint, L.E.; Alpers, Charles N.; Yarnell, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the development of a conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed; and we hypothesize how components of the conceptual model may be spatially distributed using a geographical information system (GIS). The conceptual model illustrates key processes controlling sediment dynamics in the upper Yuba River watershed and was tested and revised using field measurements, aerial photography, and low elevation videography. Field reconnaissance included mass wasting and channel storage inventories, assessment of annual channel change in upland tributaries, and evaluation of the relative importance of sediment sources and transport processes. Hillslope erosion rates throughout the study area are relatively low when compared to more rapidly eroding landscapes such as the Pacific Northwest and notable hillslope sediment sources include highly erodible andesitic mudflows, serpentinized ultramafics, and unvegetated hydraulic mine pits. Mass wasting dominates surface erosion on the hillslopes; however, erosion of stored channel sediment is the primary contributor to annual sediment yield. We used GIS to spatially distribute the components of the conceptual model and created hillslope erosion potential and channel storage models. The GIS models exemplify the conceptual model in that landscapes with low potential evapotranspiration, sparse vegetation, steep slopes, erodible geology and soils, and high road densities display the greatest hillslope erosion potential and channel storage increases with increasing stream order. In-channel storage in upland tributaries impacted by hydraulic mining is an exception. Reworking of stored hydraulic mining sediment in low-order tributaries continues to elevate upper Yuba River sediment yields. Finally, we propose that spatially distributing the components of a conceptual model in a GIS framework provides a guide for developing more detailed sediment budgets or numerical models making it an

  4. Hypolyminetic Oxygen Depletion And Dynamics of P Binding Forms: Insights From Modeling Sediment Early Diagenesis Coupled With Automatic Parameter Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafei, Babak; Schmid, Martin; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    the present and past deposited OM. The results revealed the transient nature of sediment oxygen uptake and existence of temporal lag associated with benthic oxygen consumption for the aerated versus non-aerated scenarios. The model closely reproduced phosphate partitioning among OM and various redox-sensitive inorganic minerals. The results showed that P associated with OM is the dominant pool as inorganic binding P such as apatite, vivinite and adsorbed P contain a minor fraction of solid phase P. The calculated flux of dissolved P through the SWI under seasonal and decadal variations suggest that oxygen concentration at the SWI and the flux of settling OM along with its composition expressed as the ratio of degradable to inert OM are the major factors that control P release to the overlying water under dynamic forcing. References [1] Couture, R., et al. (2009). "Non steady-stae modeling of arsenic diagenesis in lake sediments." Environmental Science and Technology 44 (1): 197-203. [2] Shafei, B., et al. (2010). "Arsenic sorption in aquatic sediments: equilibrium, kinetic and mixed modeling approaches." Geochimica et cosmochimica acta 74 (12): A938-A938. [3] Torres, N. T., et al. (2013). "Sediment porewater extraction and analysis combining filter tube samplers and capillary electrophoresis." Environmental Science-Processes & Impacts 15(4): 715-720.

  5. Structural changes of humic acids from sinking organic matter and surface sediments investigated by advanced solid-state NMR: Insights into sources, preservation and molecularly uncharacterized components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingdong; Tremblay, Luc; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the structural changes that particulate organic matter (POM) undergoes in natural systems is essential for determining its reactivity and fate. In the present study, we used advanced solid-state NMR techniques to investigate the chemical structures of sinking particulate matter collected at different depths as well as humic acids (HAs) extracted from these samples and underlying sediments from the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Lower Estuary (Canada). Compared to bulk POM, HAs contain more non-polar alkyls, aromatics, and aromatic C-O, but less carbohydrates (or carbohydrate-like structures). In the two locations studied, the C and N contents of the samples (POM and HAs) decreased with depth and after deposition onto sediments, leaving N-poor but O-enriched HAs and suggesting the involvement of partial oxidation reactions during POM microbial degradation. Advanced NMR techniques revealed that, compared to the water-column HAs, sedimentary HAs contained more protonated aromatics, non-protonated aromatics, aromatic C-O, carbohydrates (excluding anomerics), anomerics, OC q, O-C q-O, OCH, and OCH 3 groups, but less non-polar alkyls, NCH, and mobile CH 2 groups. These results are consistent with the relatively high reactivity of lipids and proteins or peptides. In contrast, carbohydrate-like structures were selectively preserved and appeared to be involved in substitution and copolymerization reactions. Some of these trends support the selective degradation (or selective preservation) theory. The results provide insights into mechanisms that likely contribute to the preservation of POM and the formation of molecules that escape characterization by traditional methods. Despite the depletion of non-polar alkyls with depth in HAs, a significant portion of their general structure survived and can be assigned to a model phospholipid. In addition, little changes in the connectivities of different functional groups were observed. Substituted and copolymerized

  6. An integration scheme for stiff solid-gas reactor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne A. Foss

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Many dynamic models encounter numerical integration problems because of a large span in the dynamic modes. In this paper we develop a numerical integration scheme for systems that include a gas phase, and solid and liquid phases, such as a gas-solid reactor. The method is based on neglecting fast dynamic modes and exploiting the structure of the algebraic equations. The integration method is suitable for a large class of industrially relevant systems. The methodology has proven remarkably efficient. It has in practice performed excellent and been a key factor for the success of the industrial simulator for electrochemical furnaces for ferro-alloy production.

  7. A simple model for low energy ion-solid interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajerzadeh, S.; Selvakumar, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A simple analytical model for ion-solid interactions, suitable for low energy beam depositions, is reported. An approximation for the nuclear stopping power is used to obtain the analytic solution for the deposited energy in the solid. The ratio of the deposited energy in the bulk to the energy deposited in the surface yields a ceiling for the beam energy above which more defects are generated in the bulk resulting in defective films. The numerical evaluations agree with the existing results in the literature. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Observations and modeling of fjord sedimentation during the 30 year retreat of Columbia Glacier, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Katherine B; Hallet, Bernard; Pratt, Thomas L.; O'Neel, Shad

    2016-01-01

    To explore links between glacier dynamics, sediment yields and the accumulation of glacial sediments in a temperate setting, we use extensive glaciological observations for Columbia Glacier, Alaska, and new oceanographic data from the fjord exposed during its retreat. High-resolution seismic data indicate that 3.2 × 108 m3 of sediment has accumulated in Columbia Fjord over the past three decades, which corresponds to ~5 mm a−1 of erosion averaged over the glaciated area. We develop a general model to infer the sediment-flux history from the glacier that is compatible with the observed retreat history, and the thickness and architecture of the fjord sediment deposits. Results reveal a fivefold increase in sediment flux from 1997 to 2000, which is not correlated with concurrent changes in ice flux or retreat rate. We suggest the flux increase resulted from an increase in the sediment transport capacity of the subglacial hydraulic system due to the retreat-related steepening of the glacier surface over a known subglacial deep basin. Because variations in subglacial sediment storage can impact glacial sediment flux, in addition to changes in climate, erosion rate and glacier dynamics, the interpretation of climatic changes based on the sediment record is more complex than generally assumed.

  9. Modeling of ionic transport in solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheang, P L; Teo, L L; Lim, T L

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model describing the ionic trans port in solid polyme relectrolyte is developed. Single cation simulation is carried out using hopping rate to study the transport mechanism of a thermally activated ion in solid polymer electrolyte. In our model, the ion is able to hop along a polymer chain and to jump between different chains, surmounting energy barriers that consist of polymer's activation energy and the externally applied electric field. The model is able to trace the motion of ion across polymer electrolyte. The mean hopping distance is calculated based on the available open bond in the next nearest side. Random numbers are used to determine the hopping distances, free flight times, final energy and direction of the cation after successful hop. Drift velocity and energy of cation are simulated in our work. The model is expected to be able to simulate the lithium-polymer battery in future.

  10. Modeling steel deformation in the semi-solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Hojny, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses selected aspects of steel-deformation modelling, both at very high temperatures and under the conditions in which the liquid and the solid phases coexist. Steel-deformation modelling with its simultaneous solidification is particularly difficult due to its specificity and complexity. With regard to industrial applications and the development of new, integrated continuous casting and rolling processes, the issues related to modelling are becoming increasingly important. Since the numerous industrial tests that are necessary when traditional methods are used to design the process of continuous casting immediately followed by rolling are expensive, new modelling concepts have been sought. Comprehensive tests were applied to solve problems related to the deformation of steel with a semi-solid core. Physical tests using specialist laboratory instruments (Gleeble 3800thermo-mechanical simulator, NANOTOM 180 N computer tomography, Zwick Z250 testing equipment, 3D blue-light scanning systems), and...

  11. A phase resolving cross-shore sediment transport model for beach profile evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakha, Karim A.; Deigaard, Rolf; Brøker, Ida

    1997-01-01

    -wave sediment concentrations are calculated. The net sediment transport rates are calculated, and the equation for conservation of sediment is solved to predict the beach profile evolution, The results of the present paper showed that the undertow contribution to the sediment transport rates is not dominating...... in all parts of the surf zone, even for eroding beaches, suggesting that other contributions should not be neglected. The present model also showed that for the same offshore wave energy the time series of the oscillatory motion is important and that the effect of wave groups cannot be disregarded. (C...

  12. Vertical Distribution of Suspended Sediment under Steady Flow: Existing Theories and Fractional Derivative Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional advection-diffusion equation (fADE model is a new approach to describe the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration in steady turbulent flow. However, the advantages and parameter definition of the fADE model in describing the sediment suspension distribution are still unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study first reviews seven models, including the fADE model, for the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration in steady turbulent flow. The fADE model, among others, describes both Fickian and non-Fickian diffusive characteristics of suspended sediment, while the other six models assume that the vertical diffusion of suspended sediment follows Fick’s first law. Second, this study explores the sensitivity of the fractional index of the fADE model to the variation of particle sizes and sediment settling velocities, based on experimental data collected from the literatures. Finally, empirical formulas are developed to relate the fractional derivative order to particle size and sediment settling velocity. These formulas offer river engineers a substitutive way to estimate the fractional derivative order in the fADE model.

  13. Wave Induced Mine Burial and Sediment Transport in Coastal Environment: Wave and Sediment Transport Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    predicting ripple and dune formation and evolution (e.g., Voropayev et al., 1999). In a larger context, this work will yield an experimentally...Engng. (in revision). Voropayev, S.I., McEachern, G.B., Boyer, D.L. and Fernando, H.J.S. (1999). “Dynamics of sand ripples and burial/scouring of...changes, in coastal and estuarine environments of active sediment transport (e.g., ripple migration). OBJECTIVE In the past year, our objective

  14. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  15. Complexities in coastal sediment transport studies by numerical modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ilangovan, D.; ManiMurali, R.

    authors have tried to convey the complexities involved in accurate prediction of coastal sediment transport studies by numerical methods due to some unpredictable variations in the input parameters pertaining to the challenging coastal environments...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling approaches for evaluating the transport and fate of sediment and associated contaminants are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is on: 1) the application of EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code), the state-of-the-art contaminated sediment transport and fate public do...

  17. Distribution of longshore sediment transport along the Indian coast based on empirical model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    An empirical sediment transport model has been developed based on longshore energy flux equation. Study indicates that annual gross sediment transport rate is high (1.5 x 10 super(6) cubic meters to 2.0 x 10 super(6) cubic meters) along the coasts...

  18. Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Modelling in the Pra River Basin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters of the model were formatted as raster layers and multiplied using the raster calculator module in ArcGIS to produce a soil erosion map. The concept of sediment delivery ratio (SDR) was used to determine the annual sediment yield of the catchment by integrating a raster SDR layer with that of the soil erosion ...

  19. A hybrid model of swash-zone longshore sediment transport on refelctive beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, A.W.; Hughes, M.; Cowell, P.; Gordon, A.; Savioli, J.C.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrodynamics and sediment transport in the swash zone is currently outside the domain of coastal-area models, which is a significant limitation in obtaining littoral sediment-transport estimates, especially on steep reflective beaches where the waves practically break on the beachface. In this

  20. Conceptual model of sedimentation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Wright, Scott A.; Drexler, Judith Z.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentation in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta builds the Delta landscape, creates benthic and pelagic habitat, and transports sediment-associated contaminants. Here we present a conceptual model of sedimentation that includes submodels for river supply from the watershed to the Delta, regional transport within the Delta and seaward exchange, and local sedimentation in open water and marsh habitats. The model demonstrates feedback loops that affect the Delta ecosystem. Submerged and emergent marsh vegetation act as ecosystem engineers that can create a positive feedback loop by decreasing suspended sediment, increasing water column light, which in turn enables more vegetation. Sea-level rise in open water is partially countered by a negative feedback loop that increases deposition if there is a net decrease in hydrodynamic energy. Manipulation of regional sediment transport is probably the most feasible method to control suspended sediment and thus turbidity. The conceptual model is used to identify information gaps that need to be filled to develop an accurate sediment transport model.

  1. Simulating Landscape Sediment Transport Capacity by Using a Modified SWAT Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonumá, Nadia B; Rossi, Colleen G; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Reichert, José M; Minella, Jean P; Allen, Peter M; Volk, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Sediment delivery from hillslopes to rivers is spatially variable and may lead to long-term delays between initial erosion and related sediment yield at the watershed outlet. Consideration of spatial variability is important for developing sound strategies for water quality improvement and soil protection at the watershed scale. Hence, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified and tested in this study to simulate the landscape transport capacity of sediment. The study area was the steeply sloped Arroio Lino watershed in southern Brazil. Observed sediment yield data at the watershed outlet were used to calibrate and validate a modified SWAT model. For the calibration period, the modified model performed better than the unaltered SWAT2009 version; the models achieved Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values of 0.7 and -0.1, respectively. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies were less for the validation period, but the modified model's NSE was higher than the unaltered model (-1.4 and -12.1, respectively). Despite the relatively low NSE values, the results of this first test are promising because the model modifications lowered the percent bias in sediment yield from 73 to 18%. Simulation results for the modified model indicated that approximately 60% of the mobilized soil is deposited along the landscape before it reaches the river channels. This research demonstrates the modified model's ability to simulate sediment yield in watersheds with steep slopes. The results suggest that integration of the sediment deposition routine in SWAT increases accuracy in steeper areas while significantly improving its ability to predict the spatial distribution of sediment deposition areas. Further work is needed regarding (i) improved strategies for spatially distributed sediment transport measurements (for improving process knowledge and model evaluation) and (ii) extensive model tests in other well instrumented experimental watersheds with differing topographic configurations

  2. Applicability of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography atomic emission detection (GC-MIP AED) for the determination of butyltin compounds in sediment samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpinteiro, J.; Rodriguez, I.; Cela, R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    The performance of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) applied to the determination of butyltin compounds in sediment samples is systematically evaluated. Matrix effects and influence of blank signals on the detection limits of the method are studied in detail. The interval of linear response is also evaluated in order to assess the applicability of the method to sediments polluted with butyltin compounds over a large range of concentrations. Advantages and drawbacks of including an SPME step, instead of the classic liquid-liquid extraction of the derivatized analytes, in the determination of butyltin compounds in sediment samples are considered in terms of achieved detection limits and experimental effort. Analytes were extracted from the samples by sonication using glacial acetic acid. An aliquot of the centrifuged extract was placed on a vial where compounds were ethylated and concentrated on a PDMS fiber using the headspace mode. Determinations were carried out using GC-MIP AED. (orig.)

  3. Modeling the Voltage Dependence of Electrochemical Reactions at Solid-Solid and Solid-Liquid Interfaces in Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Electrochemical reactions at electrode/electrolyte interfaces are critically dependent on the total electrochemical potential or voltage. In this presentation, we briefly review ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD)-based estimate of voltages on graphite basal and edge planes, and then apply similar concepts to solid-solid interfaces relevant to lithium ion and Li-air batteries. Thin solid films on electrode surfaces, whether naturally occuring during power cycling (e.g., undesirable lithium carbonate on Li-air cathodes) or are artificially introduced, can undergo electrochemical reactions as the applied voltage varies. Here the onset of oxidation of lithium carbonate and other oxide thin films on model gold electrode surfaces is correlated with the electronic structure in the presence/absence of solvent molecules. Our predictions help determine whether oxidation first occurs at the electrode-thin film or electrolyte-thin film interface. Finally, we will critically compare the voltage estimate methodology used in the fuel cell community with the lithium cohesive energy calibration method broadly applied in the battery community, and discuss why they may yield different predictions. This work was supported by Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES), an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DESC0001160. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Deparment of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Modeling flow, sediment transport and morphodynamics in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Ichiro; Nabi, Mohamed; Asahi, Kazutake

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the response of natural or man-made channels to imposed supplies of water and sediment is one of the difficult practical problems commonly addressed by fluvial geomorphologists. This problem typically arises in three situations. In the first situation, geomorphologists are attempting to understand why a channel or class of channels has a certain general form; in a sense, this is the central goal of fluvial geomorphology. In the second situation, geomorphologists are trying to understand and explain how and why a specific channel will evolve or has evolved in response to altered or unusual sediment and water supplies to that channel. For example, this would include explaining the short-term response of a channel to an unusually large flood or predicting the response of a channel to long-term changes in flow or sediment supply due to various human activities such as damming or diversions. Finally, geomorphologists may be called upon to design or assess the design of proposed man-made channels that must carry a certain range of flows and sediment loads in a stable or at least quasi-stable manner. In each of these three situations, the problem is really the same: geomorphologists must understand and predict the interaction of the flow field in the channel, the sediment movement in the channel and the geometry of the channel bed and banks. In general, the flow field, the movement of sediment making up the bed and the morphology of the bed are intricately linked; the flow moves the sediment, the bed is altered by erosion and deposition of sediment and the shape of the bed is critically important for predicting the flow. This complex linkage is precisely what makes understanding channel form and process such a difficult and interesting challenge.

  5. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products...... and current were continuously measured inside the product. The model has been validated using the experimental data. Good agreement was achieved between model predictions and the experimental values. The model has been utilized to predict the temperature distribution and to control the process by tracking...

  6. An approach for modeling sediment budgets in supply-limited rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    Reliable predictions of sediment transport and river morphology in response to variations in natural and human-induced drivers are necessary for river engineering and management. Because engineering and management applications may span a wide range of space and time scales, a broad spectrum of modeling approaches has been developed, ranging from suspended-sediment "rating curves" to complex three-dimensional morphodynamic models. Suspended sediment rating curves are an attractive approach for evaluating changes in multi-year sediment budgets resulting from changes in flow regimes because they are simple to implement, computationally efficient, and the empirical parameters can be estimated from quantities that are commonly measured in the field (i.e., suspended sediment concentration and water discharge). However, the standard rating curve approach assumes a unique suspended sediment concentration for a given water discharge. This assumption is not valid in rivers where sediment supply varies enough to cause changes in particle size or changes in areal coverage of sediment on the bed; both of these changes cause variations in suspended sediment concentration for a given water discharge. More complex numerical models of hydraulics and morphodynamics have been developed to address such physical changes of the bed. This additional complexity comes at a cost in terms of computations as well as the type and amount of data required for model setup, calibration, and testing. Moreover, application of the resulting sediment-transport models may require observations of bed-sediment boundary conditions that require extensive (and expensive) observations or, alternatively, require the use of an additional model (subject to its own errors) merely to predict the bed-sediment boundary conditions for use by the transport model. In this paper we present a hybrid approach that combines aspects of the rating curve method and the more complex morphodynamic models. Our primary objective

  7. Analytical model for thermal boundary conductance and equilibrium thermal accommodation coefficient at solid/gas interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E

    2016-02-28

    We develop an analytical model for the thermal boundary conductance between a solid and a gas. By considering the thermal fluxes in the solid and the gas, we describe the transmission of energy across the solid/gas interface with diffuse mismatch theory. From the predicted thermal boundary conductances across solid/gas interfaces, the equilibrium thermal accommodation coefficient is determined and compared to predictions from molecular dynamics simulations on the model solid-gas systems. We show that our model is applicable for modeling the thermal accommodation of gases on solid surfaces at non-cryogenic temperatures and relatively strong solid-gas interactions (ε(sf) ≳ k(B)T).

  8. Modified finite element transport model, FETRA, for sediment and radionuclide migration in open coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Arnold, E.M.; Mayer, D.W.

    1979-08-01

    The finite element model, FETRA, simulates transport of sediment and radionuclides (and other contaminants, such as heavy metals, pesticides, and other toxic substances) in surface water bodies. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model which consists of the following three submodels coupled to include sediment-contaminant interactions: (1) sediment transport submodel, (2) dissolved contaminant transport submodel, and (3) particulate contaminant (contaminant adsorbed by sediment) transport submodel. Under the current phase of the study, FETRA was modified to include sediment-wave interaction in order to extend the applicability of the model to coastal zones and large lakes (e.g., the Great Lakes) where wave actions can be one of the dominant mechanisms to transport sediment and toxic contaminant. FETRA was further modified to handle both linear and quadratic approximations to velocity and depth distributions in order to be compatible with various finite element hydrodynamic models (e.g., RMA II and CAFE) which supply hydrodynamic input data to FETRA. The next step is to apply FETRA to coastal zones to simulate transport of sediment and radionuclides with their interactions in order to test and verify the model under marine and large lacustrine environments

  9. River suspended sediment modelling using the CART model: A comparative study of machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubin, Bahram; Darabi, Hamid; Rahmati, Omid; Sajedi-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Kløve, Bjørn

    2018-02-15

    Suspended sediment load (SSL) modelling is an important issue in integrated environmental and water resources management, as sediment affects water quality and aquatic habitats. Although classification and regression tree (CART) algorithms have been applied successfully to ecological and geomorphological modelling, their applicability to SSL estimation in rivers has not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated use of a CART model to estimate SSL based on hydro-meteorological data. We also compared the accuracy of the CART model with that of the four most commonly used models for time series modelling of SSL, i.e. adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network and two kernels of support vector machines (RBF-SVM and P-SVM). The models were calibrated using river discharge, stage, rainfall and monthly SSL data for the Kareh-Sang River gauging station in the Haraz watershed in northern Iran, where sediment transport is a considerable issue. In addition, different combinations of input data with various time lags were explored to estimate SSL. The best input combination was identified through trial and error, percent bias (PBIAS), Taylor diagrams and violin plots for each model. For evaluating the capability of the models, different statistics such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE) and percent bias (PBIAS) were used. The results showed that the CART model performed best in predicting SSL (NSE=0.77, KGE=0.8, PBIAS<±15), followed by RBF-SVM (NSE=0.68, KGE=0.72, PBIAS<±15). Thus the CART model can be a helpful tool in basins where hydro-meteorological data are readily available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Constraining denitrification in permeable wave-influenced marine sediment using linked hydrodynamic and biogeochemical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M. B.; Cook, P. L.; Jiang, H.; Traykovski, P.

    2009-12-01

    Permeable marine sediment are ubiquitous complex environments, the biogeochemistry of which are strongly coupled to hydrodynamic process above and within the sediment. The biogeochemical processes in these settings have global scale implications but are poorly understood and challenging to quantify. We present the first simulation of linked turbulent oscillatory flow of the water column, porous media flow, and solute transport in the sediment with oxygen consumption, nitrification, denitrification, and ammonification, informed by field- and/ or experimentally-derived parameters. Nitrification and denitrification were significantly impacted by advective pore water exchange between the sediment and the water column. Denitrification rates showed a maximum at intermediate permeabilities, and were negligible at high permeabilities. Denitrification rates were low, with only ~15% of total N mineralized being denitrified, although this may be increased temporarily following sediment resuspension events. Our model-estimated denitrification rates are about half of previous estimates which do not consider solute advection through the sediment. Given the critical role of sediment permeability, topography, and bottom currents in controlling denitrification rates, an improved knowledge of these factors is vital for obtaining better estimates of denitrification taking place on shelf sediment. Broad application of our approach to myriad conditions will lead to improved predictive capacity, better informed experimental and sampling design, and more holistic understanding of the biogeochemistry of permeable sediment.

  11. Channel responses to varying sediment input: A flume experiment modeled after Redwood Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, M.A.; Sutherland, D.G.; Lisle, T.E.; Pryor, B.

    2009-01-01

    At the reach scale, a channel adjusts to sediment supply and flow through mutual interactions among channel form, bed particle size, and flow dynamics that govern river bed mobility. Sediment can impair the beneficial uses of a river, but the timescales for studying recovery following high sediment loading in the field setting make flume experiments appealing. We use a flume experiment, coupled with field measurements in a gravel-bed river, to explore sediment transport, storage, and mobility relations under various sediment supply conditions. Our flume experiment modeled adjustments of channel morphology, slope, and armoring in a gravel-bed channel. Under moderate sediment increases, channel bed elevation increased and sediment output increased, but channel planform remained similar to pre-feed conditions. During the following degradational cycle, most of the excess sediment was evacuated from the flume and the bed became armored. Under high sediment feed, channel bed elevation increased, the bed became smoother, mid-channel bars and bedload sheets formed, and water surface slope increased. Concurrently, output increased and became more poorly sorted. During the last degradational cycle, the channel became armored and channel incision ceased before all excess sediment was removed. Selective transport of finer material was evident throughout the aggradational cycles and became more pronounced during degradational cycles as the bed became armored. Our flume results of changes in bed elevation, sediment storage, channel morphology, and bed texture parallel those from field surveys of Redwood Creek, northern California, which has exhibited channel bed degradation for 30??years following a large aggradation event in the 1970s. The flume experiment suggested that channel recovery in terms of reestablishing a specific morphology may not occur, but the channel may return to a state of balancing sediment supply and transport capacity.

  12. Modelling land cover change effects on catchment-to-lake sediment transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Peñuela Fernández, Andres; Sellami, Haykel; Sangster, Heather; Boyle, John; Chiverrell, Richard; Riley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of catchment soil erosion and sediment transfer to streams and lakes are limited and typically short duration (physical and social records coupled with high-resolution, sub-annual simulations of catchment-to-lake soil erosion and sedimentation. This choice of modelling period represents a compromise between the length of record and data availability for model parameterisation. We combine historic datasets for climate and land cover from four lake catchments in Britain with a fully revised catchment-scale modelling approach based on the Morgan-Morgan-Finney model, called MMF-TWI, that incorporates new elements representing plant growth, soil water balance and variable runoff and sediment contributing areas. The catchments comprise an intensively-farmed lowland agricultural catchment and three upland catchments. Historic change simulations were compared with sedimentation rates determined from multiple dated cores taken from each lake. Our revised modelling approach produced generally comparable rates of lake sediment flux to those based on sediment archives. Moreover, these centennial scale records form the basis for examining hypothetical scenarios linked to changes in crop rotation (lowland) and riparian re-afforestation (uplands), as well as providing an extended historic baseline against which to compare future climate effects on runoff, erosion and lake sediment delivery.

  13. A lumped model for rotational modes in periodic solid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2013-10-01

    We present a lumped model to study the rotational modes in a type of two-dimensional periodic solid composites comprised of a square array of rubber-coated steel cylinders embedded in an epoxy matrix. The model captures the physical essence of rotational modes in such systems for various combinations of material parameters, and, therefore it is able to describe the transition behaviour when the system is gradually adjusted from an elastic metamaterial to an elastic phononic crystal. From the model, we can define a transition zone which separates the typical elastic metamaterials and the phononic crystals.

  14. A Thermodynamic Mixed-Solid Asphaltene Precipitation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeloff, Niels; Heidemann, R.A.; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    1998-01-01

    A simple model for the prediction of asphaltene precipitation is proposed. The model is based on an equation of state and uses standard thermodynamics, thus assuming that the precipitation phenomenon is a reversible process. The solid phase is treated as an ideal multicomponent mixture. An activity......, that out of the total PNA composition of a crude, the asphaltenes and resins are mainly aromatic-naphtenic in their nature. The predictions shows the correct qualitative behavior with respect to temperature and pressure, but due to lack of data the model was not evaluated quantitatively with respect...

  15. Mathematical modeling to predict residential solid waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Sara Ojeda; Lozano-Olvera, Gabriela; Morelos, Raúl Adalberto; Vega, Carolina Armijo de

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges faced by waste management authorities is determining the amount of waste generated by households in order to establish waste management systems, as well as trying to charge rates compatible with the principle applied worldwide, and design a fair payment system for households according to the amount of residential solid waste (RSW) they generate. The goal of this research work was to establish mathematical models that correlate the generation of RSW per capita to the following variables: education, income per household, and number of residents. This work was based on data from a study on generation, quantification and composition of residential waste in a Mexican city in three stages. In order to define prediction models, five variables were identified and included in the model. For each waste sampling stage a different mathematical model was developed, in order to find the model that showed the best linear relation to predict residential solid waste generation. Later on, models to explore the combination of included variables and select those which showed a higher R(2) were established. The tests applied were normality, multicolinearity and heteroskedasticity. Another model, formulated with four variables, was generated and the Durban-Watson test was applied to it. Finally, a general mathematical model is proposed to predict residential waste generation, which accounts for 51% of the total.

  16. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.; Cillan, T.

    1993-09-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.4 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement. Those interested in using the SWPM database should refer to the SWPM Database User's Guide. This document is available from the PNL Task M Project Manager (D. L. Stiles, 509-372-4358), the PNL Task L Project Manager (L. L. Armacost, 509-372-4304), the WHC Restoration Projects Section Manager (509-372-1443), or the WHC Waste Characterization Manager (509-372-1193)

  17. Testing the effects of in-stream sediment sources and sinks on simulated watershed sediment yield using the coupled U.S. Army Corps of Engineers GSSHA Model and SEDLIB Sediment Transport Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, I. E.; Downer, C. W.; Brown, G.; Pradhan, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model is the US Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE)'s only fully coupled overland/in-stream sediment transport model. While the overland sediment transport formulation in GSSHA is considered state of the art, the existing in-stream sediment transport formulation is less robust. A major omission in the formulation of the existing GSSHA in-stream model is the lack of in-stream sources of fine materials. In this effort, we enhanced the in-stream sediment transport capacity of GSSHA by linking GSSHA to the SEDLIB sediment transport library. SEDLIB was developed at the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) under the System Wide Water Resources Program (SWWRP) and Flood and Coastal (F&C) research program. It is designed to provide a library of sediment flux formulations for hydraulic and hydrologic models, such as GSSHA. This new version of GSSHA, with the updated in-stream sediment transport simulation capability afforded by the linkage to SEDLIB, was tested in against observations in an experimental watershed that had previously been used as a test bed for GSSHA. The results show a significant improvement in the ability to model in-stream sources of fine sediment. This improved capability will broaden the applicability of GSSHA to larger watersheds and watersheds with complex sediment dynamics, such as those subjected to fire hydrology.

  18. Modeling sediment transport after ditch network maintenance of a forested peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahti, K.; Marttila, H.; Warsta, L.; Kokkonen, T.; Finér, L.; Koivusalo, H.

    2016-11-01

    Elevated suspended sediment (SS) loads released from peatlands after drainage operations and the resulting negative effect on the ecological status of the receiving water bodies have been widely recognized. Understanding the processes controlling erosion and sediment transport within the ditch network forms a prerequisite for adequate sediment control. While numerous experimental studies have been reported in this field, model based assessments are rare. This study presents a modeling approach to investigate sediment transport in a peatland ditch network. The transport model describes bed erosion, rain-induced bank erosion, floc deposition, and consolidation of the bed. Coupled to a distributed hydrological model, sediment transport was simulated in a 5.2 ha forestry-drained peatland catchment for 2 years after ditch cleaning. Comparing simulation results to measured SS concentrations suggested that the loose peat material, produced during excavation, contributed markedly to elevated SS concentrations immediately after ditch cleaning. Both snowmelt and summer rainstorms contributed critically to annual loads. Springtime peat erosion during snowmelt was driven by ditch flow whereas during summer rainfalls, bank erosion by raindrop impact was identified as an important process. Relating modeling results to observed spatial topographic changes in the ditch network was challenging and the results were difficult to verify. Nevertheless, the model has potential to identify risk areas for erosion. The results demonstrate that modeling is effective in separating the importance of different processes and complements pure experimental approaches. Modeling results can aid planning and designing efficient sediment control measures and guide the focus of experimental studies.

  19. Design Through Manufacturing: The Solid Model - Finite Element Analysis Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Carol

    2003-01-01

    State-of-the-art computer aided design (CAD) presently affords engineers the opportunity to create solid models of machine parts which reflect every detail of the finished product. Ideally, these models should fulfill two very important functions: (1) they must provide numerical control information for automated manufacturing of precision parts, and (2) they must enable analysts to easily evaluate the stress levels (using finite element analysis - FEA) for all structurally significant parts used in space missions. Today's state-of-the-art CAD programs perform function (1) very well, providing an excellent model for precision manufacturing. But they do not provide a straightforward and simple means of automating the translation from CAD to FEA models, especially for aircraft-type structures. The research performed during the fellowship period investigated the transition process from the solid CAD model to the FEA stress analysis model with the final goal of creating an automatic interface between the two. During the period of the fellowship a detailed multi-year program for the development of such an interface was created. The ultimate goal of this program will be the development of a fully parameterized automatic ProE/FEA translator for parts and assemblies, with the incorporation of data base management into the solution, and ultimately including computational fluid dynamics and thermal modeling in the interface.

  20. Sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst (Part 1): Conceptual model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J.; Ford, W.; Taylor, C.

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has paid increased attention to quantifying the fate of carbon pools within fluvial networks, but few, if any, studies consider the fate of sediment organic carbon in fluviokarst systems despite that karst landscapes cover 12% of the earth's land surface. The authors develop a conceptual model of sediment carbon fate in karst terrain with specific emphasis upon phreatic karst conduits, i.e., those located below the groundwater table that have the potential to trap surface-derived sediment and turnover carbon. To assist with their conceptual model development, the authors study a phreatic system and apply a mixture of methods traditional and novel to karst studies, including electrical resistivity imaging, well drilling, instantaneous velocimetry, dye tracing, stage recording, discrete and continuous sediment and water quality sampling, and elemental and stable carbon isotope fingerprinting. Results show that the sediment transport carrying capacity of the phreatic karst water is orders of magnitude less than surface streams during storm-activated periods promoting deposition of fine sediments in the phreatic karst. However, the sediment transport carrying capacity is sustained long after the hydrologic event has ended leading to sediment resuspension and prolonged transport. The surficial fine grained laminae occurs in the subsurface karst system; but unlike surface streams, the light-limited conditions of the subsurface karst promotes constant heterotrophy leading to carbon turnover. The coupling of the hydrological processes leads to a conceptual model that frames phreatic karst as a biologically active conveyor of sediment carbon that recharges degraded organic carbon back to surface streams. For example, fluvial sediment is estimated to lose 30% of its organic carbon by mass during a one year temporary residence within the phreatic karst. It is recommended that scientists consider karst pathways when attempting to estimate organic matter stocks

  1. Characterizing biogenous sediments using multibeam echosounder backscatter data - Estimating power law parameter utilizing various models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Kodagali, V.N.

    In this paper, Helmholtz-Kirchhoff (H-K) roughness model is employed to characterize seafloor sediment and roughness parameters from the eastern sector of the Southern Oceans The multibeam- Hydroswcep system's angular-backscatter data, which...

  2. CAD-based Monte Carlo automatic modeling method based on primitive solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Song, Jing; Yu, Shengpeng; Long, Pengcheng; Wang, Yongliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a method which bi-convert between CAD model and primitive solid. • This method was improved from convert method between CAD model and half space. • This method was test by ITER model and validated the correctness and efficiency. • This method was integrated in SuperMC which could model for SuperMC and Geant4. - Abstract: Monte Carlo method has been widely used in nuclear design and analysis, where geometries are described with primitive solids. However, it is time consuming and error prone to describe a primitive solid geometry, especially for a complicated model. To reuse the abundant existed CAD models and conveniently model with CAD modeling tools, an automatic modeling method for accurate prompt modeling between CAD model and primitive solid is needed. An automatic modeling method for Monte Carlo geometry described by primitive solid was developed which could bi-convert between CAD model and Monte Carlo geometry represented by primitive solids. While converting from CAD model to primitive solid model, the CAD model was decomposed into several convex solid sets, and then corresponding primitive solids were generated and exported. While converting from primitive solid model to the CAD model, the basic primitive solids were created and related operation was done. This method was integrated in the SuperMC and was benchmarked with ITER benchmark model. The correctness and efficiency of this method were demonstrated.

  3. Cleaning sorbents used in matrix solid-phase dispersion with sonication: application to the estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at ng/g levels in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner-Martínez, Y; González-Fuenzalida, R A; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J

    2012-11-09

    This study shows that ultrasonic assisted extraction is a good practise for removing impurities from sorbents used for matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD). A previous washing of the sorbent with an organic solvent or mixture of solvents eliminates part of the interferences, but this treatment is not enough for the quantification of PAHs at ng/g levels. It is demonstrated that the determination of traces of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in solid samples processed by matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD) may be severely affected by the presence of sorbent impurities. Different extraction solvents and sonication conditions have been tested, and on the basis of the results obtained a new approach is presented for cleaning sorbents typically used in MSPD such C(18), silica or Florisil. The utility of the described approach has been illustrated by analysing by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection different marine sediments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional regression models of watershed suspended-sediment discharge for the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, David C.; Vogel, Richard M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of mean annual watershed sediment discharge, derived from long-term measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow, often are not available at locations of interest. The goal of this study was to develop multivariate regression models to enable prediction of mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from available basin characteristics useful for most ungaged river locations in the eastern United States. The models are based on long-term mean sediment discharge estimates and explanatory variables obtained from a combined dataset of 1201 US Geological Survey (USGS) stations derived from a SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) study and the Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow (GAGES) database. The resulting regional regression models summarized for major US water resources regions 1–8, exhibited prediction R2 values ranging from 76.9% to 92.7% and corresponding average model prediction errors ranging from 56.5% to 124.3%. Results from cross-validation experiments suggest that a majority of the models will perform similarly to calibration runs. The 36-parameter regional regression models also outperformed a 16-parameter national SPARROW model of suspended-sediment discharge and indicate that mean annual sediment loads in the eastern United States generally correlates with a combination of basin area, land use patterns, seasonal precipitation, soil composition, hydrologic modification, and to a lesser extent, topography.

  5. Modified effective medium model for gas hydrate bearing,clay-dominated sediments in the Krishna-Godavari Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sriram, G.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.

    of unconsolidated marine sediments as well as with hydrate. In this paper, we study the friction-dependent effective medium model (EMM) to understand these grain interactions. The compressional (P) and shear (S) wave velocities of fluid saturated sediments...

  6. The use of modeling and suspended sediment concentration measurements for quantifying net suspended sediment transport through a large tidally dominated inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Wright, Scott A.; Elias, Edwin; Hanes, Daniel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Largier, John; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sediment exchange at large energetic inlets is often difficult to quantify due complex flows, massive amounts of water and sediment exchange, and environmental conditions limiting long-term data collection. In an effort to better quantify such exchange this study investigated the use of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) measured at an offsite location as a surrogate for sediment exchange at the tidally dominated Golden Gate inlet in San Francisco, CA. A numerical model was calibrated and validated against water and suspended sediment flux measured during a spring–neap tide cycle across the Golden Gate. The model was then run for five months and net exchange was calculated on a tidal time-scale and compared to SSC measurements at the Alcatraz monitoring site located in Central San Francisco Bay ~ 5 km from the Golden Gate. Numerically modeled tide averaged flux across the Golden Gate compared well (r2 = 0.86, p-value

  7. Modeling of Brain Shift Phenomenon for Different Craniotomies and Solid Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Valencia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of different solid models on predictions of brain shift for three craniotomies. We created a generic 3D brain model based on healthy human brain and modeled the brain parenchyma as single continuum and constrained by a practically rigid skull. We have used elastic model, hyperelastic 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Ogden models, and hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin with 2- and 5-parameter models. A pressure on the brain surface at craniotomy region was applied to load the model. The models were solved with the finite elements package ANSYS. The predictions on stress and displacements were compared for three different craniotomies. The difference between the predictions of elastic solid model and a hyperelastic Ogden solid model of maximum brain displacement and maximum effective stress is relevant.

  8. SEM Model Medical Solid Waste Hospital Management In Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Verawaty; Pandia, Setiaty; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    In daily activities, hospitals, as one of the important health care unit, generate both medical solid waste and non-medical solid waste. The occurrence of medical solid waste could be from the results of treatment activities, such as, in the treatment room for a hospital inpatient, general clinic, a dental clinic, a mother and child clinic, laboratories and pharmacies. Most of the medical solid waste contains infectious and hazardous materials. Therefore it should be managed properly, otherwise it could be a source of new infectious for the community around the hospital as well as for health workers themselves. Efforts surveillance of various environmental factors need to be applied in accordance with the principles of sanitation focuses on environmental cleanliness. One of the efforts that need to be done in improving the quality of the environment is to undertake waste management activities, because with proper waste management is the most important in order to achieve an optimal degree of human health. Health development in Indonesian aims to achieve a future in which the Indonesian people live in a healthy environment, its people behave clean and healthy, able to reach quality health services, fair and equitable, so as to have optimal health status, health development paradigm anchored to the healthy. The healthy condition of the individual and society can be influenced by the environment. Poor environmental quality is a cause of various health problems. Efforts surveillance of various environmental factors need to be applied in accordance with the principles of sanitation focuses on environmental cleanliness. This paper proposes a model for managing the medical solid waste in hospitals in Medan city, in order to create healthy environment around hospitals.

  9. MODELING OF TEMPERATURE FIELDS IN A SOLID HEAT ACCUMULLATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Belimenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently, one of the priorities of energy conservation is a cost savings for heating in commercial and residential buildings by the stored thermal energy during the night and its return in the daytime. Economic effect is achieved due to the difference in tariffs for the cost of electricity in the daytime and at night. One of the most common types of devices that allow accumulating and giving the resulting heat are solid heat accumulators. The main purpose of the work: 1 software development for the calculation of the temperature field of a flat solid heat accumulator, working due to the heat energy accumulation in the volume of thermal storage material without phase transition; 2 determination the temperature distribution in its volumes at convective heat transfer. Methodology. To achieve the study objectives a heat transfer theory and Laplace integral transform were used. On its base the problems of determining the temperature fields in the channels of heat accumulators, having different cross-sectional shapes were solved. Findings. Authors have developed the method of calculation and obtained solutions for the determination of temperature fields in channels of the solid heat accumulator in conditions of convective heat transfer. Temperature fields over length and thickness of channels were investigated. Experimental studies on physical models and industrial equipment were conducted. Originality. For the first time the technique of calculating the temperature field in the channels of different cross-section for the solid heat accumulator in the charging and discharging modes was proposed. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental research. Practical value. The proposed technique is used in the design of solid heat accumulators of different power as well as full-scale production of them was organized.

  10. Thermodynamic modeling of algal cell–solid substrate interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Yan; Yuan, Wenqiao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic model was developed to simulate algal cell-substrate attachment. • The number of attached cells was positively correlated to work of attachment. • Algal cell attachment was determined by surface energies of cells and substrata. - Abstract: The process of microalgal cell attachment to solid-carrier surfaces was simulated through a thermodynamic model. The modeling results showed that, for most microbes, when the polar surface energy of the cell is smaller than that of water, cellular attachment would be more favorable on materials with higher dispersive surface energy but lower polar surface energy. If the polar surface energy of the cell is greater than that of water, more cell attachment would be expected on materials that are higher in both dispersive and polar surface energies. Modeling results qualitatively matched experimental data in the attachment of a freshwater alga, Scenedesmus dimorphus, and a marine alga, Nannochloropsis oculata, on five materials (nylon, stainless steel, polycarbonate, polypropylene, and glass). The model was also validated by published literature data on a wider variety of microbes and materials, indicating that the model developed can be applicable in designing, selecting, and matching algal strains and solid carrier materials to enhance cell attachment

  11. A user-friendly modified pore-solid fractal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dian-Yuan; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Hao; Si, Bing-Cheng; Hill, Robert Lee

    2016-12-20

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate a range of calculation points on water retention curves (WRC) instead of the singularity point at air-entry suction in the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model, which additionally considered the hysteresis effect based on the PSF theory. The modified pore-solid fractal (M-PSF) model was tested using 26 soil samples from Yangling on the Loess Plateau in China and 54 soil samples from the Unsaturated Soil Hydraulic Database. The derivation results showed that the M-PSF model is user-friendly and flexible for a wide range of calculation point options. This model theoretically describes the primary differences between the soil moisture desorption and the adsorption processes by the fractal dimensions. The M-PSF model demonstrated good performance particularly at the calculation points corresponding to the suctions from 100 cm to 1000 cm. Furthermore, the M-PSF model, used the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution, exhibited an accepted performance of WRC predictions for different textured soils when the suction values were ≥100 cm. To fully understand the function of hysteresis in the PSF theory, the role of allowable and accessible pores must be examined.

  12. An examination of the factors controlling net methylation in estuarine sediments: Results from measurements and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schartup A. T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the distribution of mercury and methylmercury across estuarine ecosystems in the northeast USA was completed under a number of projects. Sites ranged from Maine to the Chesapeake Bay and included both pristine and contaminated sites. In addition to measurements of bulk sediment and porewater, methylation and demethylation rates were also measured. Results showed that the relationships between sediment-porewater partitioning and methylation potential with sediment organic content are complex and that sediment organic content alone is not always a good predictor of the potential for a system to produce methylmercury. Modeling and correlations between variables suggest that the sulfur content of the system needs to be considered and for high organic content sediments, both sulfur and organic content.

  13. The numerical model of the sediment distribution pattern at Lampulo National fisheries port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irham, M.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distribution of sediment pattern was studied at Lampulo Fisheries Port, Krueng Aceh estuarial area, Banda Aceh. The research was conducted using the numerical model of wave-induced currents at shallow water area. The study aims to understand how waves and currents react to the pattern of sediment distribution around the beach structure in that region. The study demonstrated that the port pool area had no sedimentation and erosion occurred because the port was protected by the jetty as the breakwater to defend the incoming waves toward the pool. The protected pool created a weak current circulation to distribute the sediments. On the other hand, the sediments were heavily distributed along the beach due to the existence of longshore currents near the shoreline (outside the port pool area). Meanwhile, at the estuarial area, the incoming fresh water flow responded to the coastal shallow water currents, generating Eddy-like flow at the mouth of the river.

  14. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Y.S.A.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Crosato, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roseires Reservoir is located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan (figure 1). It is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its storage capacity due to

  15. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omer, A.Y.A.; Ali, Y.S.A.; Roelvink, J.A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion paper. Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its 5 storage capacity due

  16. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omer, A.Y.A.; Ali, Y.S.A.; Roelvink, J.A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the vast upper river catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir has already lost more than one-third of its storage capacity due to

  17. Modelling of Cohesive Sediment Transport in the Maasmond Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.

    2006-01-01

    In the Dutch coastal zone, where the marine environment is highly dynamic owing to tidal currents, wind-driven, wave-driven, and density-driven currents and waves, the cohesive sediment dynamics is always a great concern to transportation authority and coastal managers. So far, a lot research has

  18. experimental verification of discharge sediment model at incipient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... armour on cessation of sediment - feed. The study is being conducted in a laboratory flume because the required tests for the necessary hydraulic quantities like discharge can be scaled down avoiding the necessity for large capital for equipment and personnel that would have been the case in the field.

  19. Modelling of flow and settling in storm water sedimentation tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluck, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the near future in the Netherlands many reservoirs will have to be built to abate the pollution of the surface water by overflowing storm water from combined sewer systems [Kluck, 1992-a]. These reservoirs, called storm water sedimentation tanks, reduce the pollution in two ways. The most

  20. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the appropriate amount of low-level radiological waste that can be safely disposed on site. Parameters are included in these calculations that account for the interaction between the immobile solid phase and the mobile aqueous phase. These parameters are either the distribution coefficient (K{sub d} value) or the apparent solubility value (K{sub sp}). These parameters are readily found in the literature and are used throughout the DOE complex. One shortcoming of K{sub d} values is that they are only applicable to a given set of solid and aqueous phase conditions. Therefore, a given radionuclide may have several K{sub d} values as it moves between formations and comes into contact with different solids and different aqueous phases. It is expected that the K{sub d} construct will be appropriate to use for a majority of the PA and for a majority of the radionuclides. However, semi-mechanistic models would be more representative in isolated cases where the chemistry is especially transitory or the radionuclide chemistry is especially complex, bringing to bear multiple species of varying sorption tendencies to the sediment. Semi-mechanistic models explicitly accommodate the dependency of K{sub d} values, or other sorption parameters, on contaminant concentration, competing ion concentrations, pH-dependent surface charge on the adsorbent, and solute species distribution. Incorporating semi-mechanistic concepts into geochemical models is desirable to make the models more robust and technically defensible. Furthermore, these alternative models could be used to augment or validate a Kd?based DOE Order 435.1 Performance Assessment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a quantitative thermodynamically-based model for neptunium sorption to SRS sediments, and 2) determine a sorption constant from an SRS 11-year lysimeter study. The modeling studies were conducted with

  1. Prediction of sedimentation using integration of RS, RUSLE model and GIS in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, A. H. A.; Lihan, T.; Rahim, S. A.; Musthapha, M. A.; Idris, W. M. R.; Rahman, Z. A.

    2013-11-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are strongly affected by land use change. Spatially distributed erosion models are of great interest to predict soil erosion loss and sediment yield. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine sediment yield using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model in Geographical Information System (GIS) environment at Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia. Sediment yield at the study area was determined using RUSLE model in GIS environment The RUSLE factors were computed by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R) using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K) using soil map and field measurement, vegetation cover (C) using satellite images, length and steepness (LS) using contour map and conservation practices using satellite images based on land use/land cover. Field observations were also done to verify the predicted sediment yield. The results indicated that the rate of sediment yield in the study area ranged from very low to extremely high. The higher SY value can be found at middle and lower catchments of Cameron Highland. Meanwhile, the lower SY value can be found at the north part of the study area. Sediment yield value turned out to be higher close to the river due to the topographic characteristic, vegetation type and density, climate and land use within the drainage basin.

  2. Linking sediment fingerprinting and modeling outputs for a Spanish Pyrenean river catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Gaspar, Leticia; Blake, Williams H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Navas, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Indirect techniques to study fine sediment redistribution in river catchments could provide unique and diverse information, which, when combined become a powerful tool to address catchment management problems. Such combinations could solve limitations of individual techniques and provide different lines of information to address a particular problem. The Barasona reservoir has suffered from siltation since its construction, with the loss of over one third of its storage volume in around 30 study years (period 1972-1996). Information on sediment production from tributary catchments for the reservoir is required to develop management plans for maintaining reservoir sustainability. Large spatial variability in sediment delivery was found in previous studies in the Barasona catchment and the major sediment sources identified included badlands developed in the middle part of the catchment and the agricultural fields in its lower part. From the diverse range of indirect techniques, fingerprinting sediment sources and computer models could be linked to obtain a more holistic view of the processes related to sediment redistribution in the Barasona river catchment (1509 km2, Central Spanish Pyrenees), which comprises agricultural and forest land uses. In the present study, the results from a fingerprinting procedure and the SWAT model were compared and combined to improve the knowledge of land use sediment source contributions to the reservoir. Samples from the study catchment were used to define soil parameters for the model and for fingerprinting the land use sources. The fingerprinting approach provided information about relative contributions from land use sources to the superficial sediment samples taken from the reservoir infill. The calibration and validation of the model provided valuable information, for example on the timescale of sediment production from the different land uses within the catchment. Linking results from both techniques enabled us to achieve a

  3. Modeling of efficient solid-state cooler on layered multiferroics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Ivan; Starkov, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We have developed theoretical foundations for the design and optimization of a solid-state cooler working through caloric and multicaloric effects. This approach is based on the careful consideration of the thermodynamics of a layered multiferroic system. The main section of the paper is devoted to the derivation and solution of the heat conduction equation for multiferroic materials. On the basis of the obtained results, we have performed the evaluation of the temperature distribution in the refrigerator under periodic external fields. A few practical examples are considered to illustrate the model. It is demonstrated that a 40-mm structure made of 20 ferroic layers is able to create a temperature difference of 25K. The presented work tries to address the whole hierarchy of physical phenomena to capture all of the essential aspects of solid-state cooling.

  4. Quasi-Three-Dimensional Mathematical Modeling of Morphological Processes Based on Equilibrium Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafi, My. M.; Sadok, A.; Kamal, A.; Menai, A.

    A quasi-three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed to study the morphological processes based on equilibrium sediment transport method. The flow velocities are computed by a two-dimensional horizontal depth-averaged flow model (H2D) in combination with logarithmic velocity profiles. The transport of sediment particles by a flow water has been considered in the form of bed load and suspended load. The bed load transport rate is defined as the transport of particles by rolling and saltating along the bed surface and is given by the Van Rijn relationship (1987). The equilibrium suspended load transport is described in terms of an equilibrium sediment concentration profile (ce) and a logarithmic velocity (u). Based on the equilibrium transport, the bed change rate is given by integration of the sediment mass-balance equation. The model results have been compared with a Van Rijn results (equilibrium approach) and good agreement has been found.

  5. Past and present of sediment and carbon biogeochemical cycling models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Mackenzie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The global carbon cycle is part of the much more extensive sedimentary cycle that involves large masses of carbon in the Earth's inner and outer spheres. Studies of the carbon cycle generally followed a progression in knowledge of the natural biological, then chemical, and finally geological processes involved, culminating in a more or less integrated picture of the biogeochemical carbon cycle by the 1920s. However, knowledge of the ocean's carbon cycle behavior has only within the last few decades progressed to a stage where meaningful discussion of carbon processes on an annual to millennial time scale can take place. In geologically older and pre-industrial time, the ocean was generally a net source of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere owing to the mineralization of land-derived organic matter in addition to that produced in situ and to the process of CaCO3 precipitation. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations because of fossil fuel combustion and land use changes, the direction of the air-sea CO2 flux has reversed, leading to the ocean as a whole being a net sink of anthropogenic CO2. The present thickness of the surface ocean layer, where part of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions are stored, is estimated as of the order of a few hundred meters. The oceanic coastal zone net air-sea CO2 exchange flux has also probably changed during industrial time. Model projections indicate that in pre-industrial times, the coastal zone may have been net heterotrophic, releasing CO2 to the atmosphere from the imbalance between gross photosynthesis and total respiration. This, coupled with extensive CaCO3 precipitation in coastal zone environments, led to a net flux of CO2 out of the system. During industrial time the coastal zone ocean has tended to reverse its trophic status toward a non-steady state situation of net autotrophy, resulting in net uptake of anthropogenic CO2 and storage of carbon in the coastal ocean, despite the significant calcification

  6. Two-dimensional modeling of sediments deposits in dam reservoirs in Algeria; Modelisation bidimensionnelle du depot de sediments dans un barrage en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessenasse, M. [Universite SAAD Dahleb (Blida), Lab. de Recherche des Sciences de l' Eau LRS EAU ENP, Alger (Algeria); Kettab, A. [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, LRS-EAU, Alger (Algeria); Paquier, A. [Cemagref de Lyon, Unite de Recherche Hydrologie-Hydraulique, 69 (France)

    2004-07-01

    The method to build a numerical model intended to predict the formation and the change of sediment deposits upstream from a dam is presented. From information about the inputs of water and sediments coming from the catchment supported by a QdF type hydrological analysis, a horizontal 2-D hydraulic model which couples shallow water equations and one equation for advection and diffusion of sediment concentration is used. Applying this model to Zardezas reservoir in Skikda (Algeria) region shows, on the one hand, the practical difficulties met on such case and, on the other hand, the potentialities of such a method for the management of Algerian reservoirs. (authors)

  7. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: A first step towards ecological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, F. M.; van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, D.; Jaffe, B.

    2015-01-01

    In estuaries suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. Sediment dynamics differs depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. A robust sediment transport model is a first step in developing a chain of models enabling simulations of contaminants, phytoplankton and habitat conditions. This works aims to determine turbidity levels in the complex-geometry delta of the San Francisco estuary using a process-based approach (Delft3D Flexible Mesh software). Our approach includes a detailed calibration against measured SSC levels, a sensitivity analysis on model parameters and the determination of a yearly sediment budget as well as an assessment of model results in terms of turbidity levels for a single year, water year (WY) 2011. Model results show that our process-based approach is a valuable tool in assessing sediment dynamics and their related ecological parameters over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The model may act as the base model for a chain of ecological models assessing the impact of climate change and management scenarios. Here we present a modeling approach that, with limited data, produces reliable predictions and can be useful for estuaries without a large amount of processes data.

  8. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: a first step towards ecological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, F. M.; van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, D.; Jaffe, B.

    2015-06-01

    In estuaries suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. Sediment dynamics differs depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. A robust sediment transport model is a first step in developing a chain of models enabling simulations of contaminants, phytoplankton and habitat conditions. This works aims to determine turbidity levels in the complex-geometry delta of the San Francisco estuary using a process-based approach (Delft3D Flexible Mesh software). Our approach includes a detailed calibration against measured SSC levels, a sensitivity analysis on model parameters and the determination of a yearly sediment budget as well as an assessment of model results in terms of turbidity levels for a single year, water year (WY) 2011. Model results show that our process-based approach is a valuable tool in assessing sediment dynamics and their related ecological parameters over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The model may act as the base model for a chain of ecological models assessing the impact of climate change and management scenarios. Here we present a modeling approach that, with limited data, produces reliable predictions and can be useful for estuaries without a large amount of processes data.

  9. Estimating sediment loads in an intra-Apennine catchments: balance between modeling and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelacani, Samanta; Cassi, Paola; Borselli, Lorenzo

    2010-05-01

    In this study we compare the results of a soil erosion model applied at watershed scale to the suspended sediment measured in the stream network affected by a motor way construction. A sediment delivery model is applied at watershed scale; the evaluation of sediment delivery is related to a connectivity fluxes index that describes the internal linkages between runoff and sediment sources in upper parts of catchments and the receiving sinks. An analysis of the fine suspended sediment transport and storage was conducted for a streams inlet of the Bilancino reservoir, a principal water supply of the city of Florence. The suspended sediment were collected from a section of river defined as a close systems using a time integrating suspended sediment sampling. The sediment deposited within the sampling traps was recovered after storm events and provide information of the overall contribution of the potential sediment sources. Hillslope gross erosion was assessed by a USLE-TYPE approach. A soil survey at 1:25.000 scale and a soil database was create to calculate, for each soil unit, the erodibility coefficient K using a new algorithm (Salvador Sanchis et al. 2007). Erosivity coefficient R was obtained applying geostatistical methods taking into account elevation and valley morphology. Furthermore, we evaluate a sediment delivery factor (SDR) for the entire watershed. This factor is used to correct the output of the USLE Type model. The innovative approach consist in a SDR factor variable in space and in time because it is related to a fluxes connectivity index IC (Borselli et al. 2008) based on the distribution of land use and topographic features. The aim of this study is to understand how the model simulates the real processes that intervene in the watershed and subsequently to calibrate the model with the result obtained from the monitoring of suspend sediment in the streams. From first results, it appears that human activities by highway construction, have resulted in

  10. Sediment Deposition Risk Analysis and PLSR Model Research for Cascade Reservoirs Upstream of the Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to effectively identify and eliminate the multiple correlation influence among the independent factors by least-squares regression. Focusing on this insufficiency, the sediment deposition risk of cascade reservoirs and fitting model of sediment flux into the reservoir are studied. The partial least-squares regression (PLSR method is adopted for modeling analysis; the model fitting is organically combined with the non-model-style data content analysis, so as to realize the regression model, data structure simplification, and multiple correlations analysis among factors; meanwhile the accuracy of the model is ensured through cross validity check. The modeling analysis of sediment flux into the cascade reservoirs of Long-Liu section upstream of the Yellow River indicates that partial least-squares regression can effectively overcome the multiple correlation influence among factors, and the isolated factor variables have better ability to explain the physical cause of measured results.

  11. Experimental validation of solid rocket motor damping models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, Cristina; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Mastroddi, Franco; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Trequattrini, Francesco; De Vivo, Alessio

    2017-12-01

    In design and certification of spacecraft, payload/launcher coupled load analyses are performed to simulate the satellite dynamic environment. To obtain accurate predictions, the system damping properties must be properly taken into account in the finite element model used for coupled load analysis. This is typically done using a structural damping characterization in the frequency domain, which is not applicable in the time domain. Therefore, the structural damping matrix of the system must be converted into an equivalent viscous damping matrix when a transient coupled load analysis is performed. This paper focuses on the validation of equivalent viscous damping methods for dynamically condensed finite element models via correlation with experimental data for a realistic structure representative of a slender launch vehicle with solid rocket motors. A second scope of the paper is to investigate how to conveniently choose a single combination of Young's modulus and structural damping coefficient—complex Young's modulus—to approximate the viscoelastic behavior of a solid propellant material in the frequency band of interest for coupled load analysis. A scaled-down test article inspired to the Z9-ignition Vega launcher configuration is designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested to obtain data for validation of the equivalent viscous damping methods. The Z9-like component of the test article is filled with a viscoelastic material representative of the Z9 solid propellant that is also preliminarily tested to investigate the dependency of the complex Young's modulus on the excitation frequency and provide data for the test article finite element model. Experimental results from seismic and shock tests performed on the test configuration are correlated with numerical results from frequency and time domain analyses carried out on its dynamically condensed finite element model to assess the applicability of different equivalent viscous damping methods to describe

  12. Conceptual Site Model for Newark Bay—Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeshwar L. Shrestha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual site model (CSM has been developed for the Newark Bay Study Area (NBSA as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS for this New Jersey site. The CSM is an evolving document that describes the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes on contaminant fate and transport. The CSM is initiated at the start of a project, updated during site activities, and used to inform sampling and remediation planning. This paper describes the hydrodynamic and sediment transport components of the CSM for the NBSA. Hydrodynamic processes are influenced by freshwater inflows, astronomical forcing through two tidal straits, meteorological conditions, and anthropogenic activities such as navigational dredging. Sediment dynamics are driven by hydrodynamics, waves, sediment loading from freshwater sources and the tidal straits, sediment size gradation, sediment bed properties, and particle-to-particle interactions. Cohesive sediment transport is governed by advection, dispersion, aggregation, settling, consolidation, and erosion. Noncohesive sediment transport is governed by advection, dispersion, settling, armoring, and transport in suspension and along the bed. The CSM will inform the development and application of a numerical model that accounts for all key variables to adequately describe the NBSA’s historical, current, and future physical conditions.

  13. Advanced impedance modeling of solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Hjelm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a powerful technique for detailed study of the electrochemical and transport processes that take place in fuel cells and electrolysis cells, including solid oxide cells (SOCs). Meaningful analysis of impedance measurements is nontrivial, however, because a large number...... of modeling parameters are fit to the many processes which often overlap in the same frequency ranges. Also, commonly used equivalent circuit (EC) models only provide zero-dimensional (0-D) approximations of the processes of the two electrodes, electrolyte and gas transport. Employing improved analytical...... electrode and 2-D gas transport models which have fewer unknown parameters for the same number of processes, (ii) use of a new model fitting algorithm, “multi-fitting”, in which multiple impedance spectra are fit simultaneously with parameters linked based on the variation of measurement conditions, (iii...

  14. Advanced impedance modeling of solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Hjelm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a powerful technique for detailed study of the electrochemical and transport processes that take place in fuel cells and electrolysis cells, including solid oxide cells (SOCs). Meaningful analysis of impedance measurements is nontrivial, however, because a large number...... techniques to provide good guesses for the modeling parameters, like transforming the impedance data to the distribution of relaxation times (DRT), together with experimental parameter sensitivity studies, is the state-of-the-art approach to achieve good EC model fits. Here we present new impedance modeling......) constraining the parameter values during fitting to ranges of physically reasonable values. Using these methods, the number of fitting parameters for four impedance spectra measured with isolated changes to the fuel and oxidant gas compositions, has been reduced from 80 to 21-34 depending on the model...

  15. A Geographic Information System approach to modeling nutrient and sediment transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunsaker, C.T.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Timmins, S.P. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water quality model to quantify nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution that uses a geographic information system (GIS) to link statistical modeling of nutrient and sediment delivery with the spatial arrangement of the parameters that drive the model. The model predicts annual nutrient and sediment loading and was developed, calibrated, and tested on 12 watersheds within the Lake Ray Roberts drainage basin in north Texas. Three physiographic regions are represented by these watersheds, and model success, as measured by the accuracy of load estimates, was compared within and across these regions.

  16. Modelling of Shaft Orbiting with 3-D Solid Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D solid finite element model which can include bending, torsional, axial and other motions is proposed to analyse dynamic responses of shafts. For uniform shafts, this model shows consistency with beam theories when bending vibration is examined. For non-uniform shafts such as tapered ones, however, this model gives much more reliable and accurate results than beam theories which use an assumption that plane sections remain plane. Reduction procedures can be applied which involve only small matrix operations for such a system with a large number of degrees of freedom. The equations of motion have been consistently derived in a rotating frame. Shaft orbiting motion is then defined in this frame, giving a clear view of its trajectories. Forced responses due to excitation in the rotating frame have been examined to find some characteristics of the orbiting shaft. Resonant orbiting frequencies, i.e., natural frequencies of rotating shafts, can be determined in terms of the rotating or fixed frame. Trajectories of transverse displacements have been found to be varying with the forcing frequencies. At resonance, a uniform shaft will only have forward or backward orbiting motion with circular orbits. For other forcing frequencies, however, even a uniform shaft could present both forward and backward orbiting motions with non-circular orbits at different locations along its length. It is anticipated that modelling of shaft orbiting in the rotating frame with the proposed 3-D solid finite elements will lead to accurate dynamic stress evaluation.

  17. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberman, Ben [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Martinez-Baca, Carlos [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Rush, Greg [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  18. Comparison of HSPF and SWAT models performance for runoff and sediment yield prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sangjun; Brannan, Kevin M; Mostaghimi, Saied; Kim, Sang Min

    2007-09-01

    A watershed model can be used to better understand the relationship between land use activities and hydrologic/water quality processes that occur within a watershed. The physically based, distributed parameter model (SWAT) and a conceptual, lumped parameter model (HSPF), were selected and their performance were compared in simulating runoff and sediment yields from the Polecat Creek watershed in Virginia, which is 12,048 ha in size. A monitoring project was conducted in Polecat Creek watershed during the period of October 1994 to June 2000. The observed data (stream flow and sediment yield) from the monitoring project was used in the calibration/validations of the models. The period of September 1996 to June 2000 was used for the calibration and October 1994 to December 1995 was used for the validation of the models. The outputs from the models were compared to the observed data at several sub-watershed outlets and at the watershed outlet of the Polecat Creek watershed. The results indicated that both models were generally able to simulate stream flow and sediment yields well during both the calibration/validation periods. For annual and monthly loads, HSPF simulated hydrologic and sediment yield more accurately than SWAT at all monitoring sites within the watershed. The results of this study indicate that both the SWAT and HSPF watershed models performed sufficiently well in the simulation of stream flow and sediment yield with HSPF performing moderately better than SWAT for simulation time-steps greater than a month.

  19. Neural networks modelling of streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended solids: application to the Canadian Boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, M H; Smith, D W; Gamal El-Din, M; Prepas, E E

    2006-01-01

    Sediment has long been identified as an important vector for the transport of nutrients and contaminants such as heavy metals and microorganisms. The respective nutrient loading to water bodies can potentially lead to dissolved oxygen depletion, cyanobacteria toxin production and ultimately eutrophication. This study proposed an artificial neural network (ANN) modelling algorithm that relies on low cost readily available meteorological data for simulating streamflow (Q), total suspended solids (TSS) concentration, and total phosphorus (TP) concentration. The models were applied to a 130-km2 watershed in the Canadian Boreal Plain. Our results demonstrated that through careful manipulation of time series analysis and rigorous optimization of ANN configuration, it is possible to simulate Q, TSS, and TP reasonably well. R2 values exceeding 0.89 were obtained for all modelled data cases. The proposed models can provide real time predictions of the modelled parameters, can answer questions related to the impact of climate change scenarios on water quantity and quality, and can be implemented in water resources management through Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Study on p-Wave Attenuation in Hydrate-Bearing Sediments Based on BISQ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In hydrate-bearing sediments, the elastic wave attenuation characteristics depend on the elastic properties of the sediments themselves on the one hand, and on the other hand, they also depend on the hydrate occurrence state and hydrate saturation. Since the hydrate-bearing sediments always have high porosity, so they show significant porous medium characteristics. Based on the BISQ porous medium model which is the most widely used model to study the attenuation characteristics in the porous media, we focused on p-wave attenuation in hydrate-bearing sediments in Shenhu Area, South China Sea, especially in specific seismic frequency range, which lays a foundation for the identification of gas hydrates by using seismic wave attenuation in Shenhu Area, South China Sea. Our results depict that seismic wave attenuation is an effective attribute to identify gas hydrates.

  1. Modelling spatial and temporal variations of annual suspended sediment yields from small agricultural catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymszewicz, A; Bruen, M; O'Sullivan, J J; Turner, J N; Lawler, D M; Harrington, J R; Conroy, E; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2018-04-01

    Estimates of sediment yield are important for ecological and geomorphological assessment of fluvial systems and for assessment of soil erosion within a catchment. Many regulatory frameworks, such as the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, derived from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) require reporting of annual sediment fluxes. While they may be measured in large rivers, sediment flux is rarely measured in smaller rivers. Measurements of sediment transport at a national scale can be also challenging and therefore, sediment yield models are often utilised by water resource managers for the predictions of sediment yields in the ungauged catchments. Regression based models, calibrated to field measurements, can offer an advantage over complex and computational models due to their simplicity, easy access to input data and due to the additional insights into factors controlling sediment export in the study sites. While traditionally calibrated to long-term average values of sediment yields such predictions cannot represent temporal variations. This study addresses this issue in a novel way by taking account of the variation from year to year in hydrological variables in the developed models (using annual mean runoff, annual mean flow, flows exceeded in five percentage of the time (Q5) and seasonal rainfall estimated separately for each year of observations). Other parameters included in the models represent spatial differences influenced by factors such as soil properties (% poorly drained soils and % peaty soils), land-use (% pasture or % arable lands), channel slope (S1085) and drainage network properties (drainage density). Catchment descriptors together with year-specific hydrological variables can explain both spatial differences and inter-annual variability of suspended sediment yields. The methodology is demonstrated by deriving equations from Irish data-sets (compiled in this study) with the best model

  2. ECO: a generic eutrophication model including comprehensive sediment-water interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Johannes G C; van Beek, Jan K L

    2013-01-01

    The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO's calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction.

  3. Space modeling with SolidWorks and NX

    CERN Document Server

    Duhovnik, Jože; Drešar, Primož

    2015-01-01

    Through a series of step-by-step tutorials and numerous hands-on exercises, this book aims to equip the reader with both a good understanding of the importance of space in the abstract world of engineers and the ability to create a model of a product in virtual space – a skill essential for any designer or engineer who needs to present ideas concerning a particular product within a professional environment. The exercises progress logically from the simple to the more complex; while SolidWorks or NX is the software used, the underlying philosophy is applicable to all modeling software. In each case, the explanation covers the entire procedure from the basic idea and production capabilities through to the real model; the conversion from 3D model to 2D manufacturing drawing is also clearly explained. Topics covered include modeling of prism, axisymmetric, symmetric, and sophisticated shapes; digitization of physical models using modeling software; creation of a CAD model starting from a physical model; free fo...

  4. Nitrogen Fate in a Phreatic Fluviokarst Watershed: a Stable Isotope, Sediment Tracing, and Numerical Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Ford, W. I., III; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J. C.; Taylor, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment tracing tools provide an insight into provenance, fate, and transport of sediment and, when coupled to stable isotopes, can elucidate in-stream biogeochemical processes. Particulate nitrogen fate in fluviokarst systems is a relatively unexplored area of research partially due to the complex hydrodynamics at play in karst systems. Karst topography includes turbulent conduits that transport groundwater and contaminants at speeds more typical of open channel flows than laminar Darcian flows. While it is accepted that karst hydro-geomorphology represents a hybrid surface-subsurface system for fluid, further investigation is needed to determine whether, and to what extent, karst systems behave like surface agricultural streams or porous media aquifers with respect to their role in nitrogen cycling. Our objective is to gain an understanding of in-conduit nitrogen processes and their effect on net nitrogen-exports from karst springs to larger waterbodies. The authors apply water, sediment, carbon, and nitrogen tracing techniques to analyze water for nitrate, sediment carbon and nitrogen, and stable sediment nitrogen isotope (δ15N). Thereafter, a new numerical model is formulated that: simulates dissolved inorganic nitrogen and sediment nitrogen transformations in the phreatic karst conduit; couples carbon turnover and nitrogen transformations in the model structure; and simulates the nitrogen stable isotope mass balance for the dissolved and sediment phases. Nitrogen tracing data results show a significant increase in δ15N of sediment nitrogen at the spring outlet relative to karst inputs indicating the potential for isotope fractionation during dissolved N uptake by bed sediments in the conduit and during denitrification within bed sediments. The new numerical modeling structure is then used to reproduce the data results and provide an estimate of the relative dominance of N uptake and denitrification within the surficial sediments of the karst conduit system

  5. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Axisymmetric Lattice Boltzmann Model of Droplet Impact on Solid Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgamoni, Hussein; Yong, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Droplet impact is a ubiquitous fluid phenomena encountered in scientific and engineering applications such as ink-jet printing, coating, electronics manufacturing, and many others. It is of great technological importance to understand the detailed dynamics of drop impact on various surfaces. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) emerges as an efficient method for modeling complex fluid systems involving rapidly evolving fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces with complex geometries. In this work, we model droplet impact on flat solid substrates with well-defined wetting behavior using a two-phase axisymmetric LBM with high density and viscosity contrasts. We extend the two-dimensional Lee and Liu model to capture axisymmetric effect in the normal impact. First we compare the 2D axisymmetric results with the 2D and 3D results reported by Lee and Liu to probe the effect of axisymmetric terms. Then, we explore the effects of Weber number, Ohnesorge number, and droplet-surface equilibrium contact angle on the impact. The dynamic contact angle and spreading factor of the droplet during impact are investigated to qualitatively characterize the impact dynamics.

  7. Trace element-bearing phases during the solid transport: in-situ characterization and temporal variability in the Loire bed-sediments (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbois, Cécile; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra; Dhivert, Elie; Desmet, Marc; Kunz, Martin

    2013-04-01

    As a result of increased of agriculture, land use, urban areas, industry, traffic and population density, trace element inputs have altered considerably fluvial system (sediment, water quality and biota). The Loire River Basin (117,800 km2, total population of 8.4 Mp in 2010), even if it is considered one of the least human-impacted hydrosystem among the 5 large French basins, has been exposed to multiple sources of metals during the last 150 years, originating from major mining districts (coal and non-ferrous metals) and their associated industrial activities (Grosbois et al, 2012; Dhivert et al, 2013). Two major contamination periods were recorded in several core sediments throughout the basin: urban development of the basin. The limited dilution by detrital material (Loire sediment load between1.5 and 3.5 Mt/y) was an additional cause of such severe contamination. After 1950, river eutrophication was well-marked by the general increase of endogenic calcite in the mid and downstream part of the basin, slightly diluting all major and trace element bulk concentrations by 20% (Grosbois et al, 2012). Since 1980, a generalized and gradual decontamination of bed sediments started while mines were gradually closing, urban waste waters collected and treated in addition to new environmental regulations. They aim to limit metallic pollutant dispersion like industrial recycling of metal wastes and to reduce atmospheric emissions and consequently atmospheric fall out wet and dry deposition In-situ chemical and mineralogical techniques (EPMA, SEM-EDS/ACC system and synchrotron based µXRD) were used (i) to highlight anthropogenic activities by a specific mineralogical signature and (ii) to determine potential effects of post-depositional remobilization and access trace element mobility during the solid transport. Trace element-bearing phases were identified at a micron scale during both mechanical erosion and solid transport. However, some others also reflect post

  8. Monitoring accumulation sediment characteristics in full scale sewer physical model with urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro-Picallo, Manuel; Naves, Juan; Anta, Jose; Suárez, Joaquín; Puertas, Jerónimo

    2017-07-01

    A series of experiments were carried out with real wastewater in a pilot flume located at A Coruña wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Spain). A full scale model was developed to test a circular (300 mm inner diameter) and an equivalent area egg-shaped plastic pipe under controlled experimental conditions (pipe slope 2-5‰, averaged discharge Q = 4 L/s). Velocity profiles and sediment accumulation in the pipe invert was daily measured. Within the 7-11 days, the average sediment accumulation rate found in the circular pipe was between 1.4 and 3.8 mm/d. The sediment height depended on the input wastewater sediment distribution and organic content. The egg-shaped pipe presented no sediment deposit for the same downstream boundary conditions, although biofilms were attached to the walls of both pipes. Besides, wastewater quality was monitored continuously and sediment composition was studied at the end of experiments. Two types of sediment were recorded: a granular bed deposit (ρ = 1,460 kg/m 3 , d 50 = 202 μm) and wall biofilms (ρ = 1,190 kg/m 3 , d 50 = 76 μm).

  9. Estimating reservoir sedimentation using bathymetric differencing and hydrologic modeling in data scarce Koga watershed, Upper Blue Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demesew Alemaw Mhiret

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Modeling sediment accumulation in constructed reservoirs is hampered by lack of historic sediment concentration data in developing countries. Existing models simulate sediment concentration using data generated from sediment rating curves usually defined as a power function of the form S = aQb This often results in residual errors that are not identically distributed throughout the range of stream flow values adding to uncertainty in sediment modeling practices. This research measure accumulated sediment in Koga dam in the upper Blue Nile Basin and use the result to validate a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT sediment model that uses sediment data from rating curves. Bathymetric differencing of the original and current storage digital elevation models (DEMs indicate that the sediment was accumulating at a rate of 5 ton/ha/year while a calibrated SWAT model resulted in 8.6 ton/ha/year. Given the complicated sediment transport processes that are not fully understood and comparable rates reported in recent studies these results are satisfactory. Keywords: Reservoir sedimentation, Koga reservoir, bathymetry

  10. Statistical modelling of variability in sediment-water nutrient and oxygen fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetti, Natalia; Witte, Ursula; Heath, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Organic detritus entering, or produced, in the marine environment is re-mineralised to inorganic nutrient in the seafloor sediments. The flux of dissolved inorganic nutrient between the sediment and overlying water column is a key process in the marine ecosystem, which binds the biogeochemical sub-system to the living food web. These fluxes are potentially affected by a wide range of physical and biological factors and disentangling these is a significant challenge. Here we develop a set of General Additive Models (GAM) of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, silicate and oxygen fluxes, based on a year-long campaign of field measurements off the north-east coast of Scotland. We show that sediment grain size, turbidity due to sediment re-suspension, temperature, and biogenic matter content were the key factors affecting oxygen consumption, ammonia and silicate fluxes. However, phosphate fluxes were only related to suspended sediment concentrations, whilst nitrate fluxes showed no clear relationship to any of the expected drivers of change, probably due to the effects of denitrification. Our analyses show that the stoichiometry of nutrient regeneration in the ecosystem is not necessarily constant and may be affected by combinations of processes. We anticipate that our statistical modelling results will form the basis for testing the functionality of process-based mathematical models of whole-sediment biogeochemistry.

  11. A discrete element model for the influence of surfactants on sedimentation characteristics of magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwon Joong

    2018-02-01

    Hindering particle agglomeration and re-dispersion processes, gravitational sedimentation of suspended particles in magnetorheological (MR) fluids causes inferior performance and controllability of MR fluids in response to a user-specified magnetic field. Thus, suspension stability is one of the principal factors to be considered in synthesizing MR fluids. However, only a few computational studies have been reported so far on the sedimentation characteristics of suspended particles under gravity. In this paper, the settling dynamics of paramagnetic particles suspended in MR fluids was investigated via discrete element method (DEM) simulations. This work focuses particularly on developing accurate fluid-particle and particle-particle interaction models which can account for the influence of stabilizing surfactants on the MR fluid sedimentation. Effect of the stabilizing surfactants on interparticle interactions was incorporated into the derivation of a reliable contact-impact model for DEM computation. Also, the influence of the stabilizing additives on fluid-particle interactions was considered by incorporating Stokes drag with shape and wall correction factors into DEM formulation. The results of simulations performed for model validation purposes showed a good agreement with the published sedimentation measurement data in terms of an initial sedimentation velocity and a final sedimentation ratio.

  12. State-of-the-art in modeling solute and sediment transport in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    This overview is structured around a comprehensive general model based on the conservation of mass principle as applied to dissolved and particulate constituents in rivers, with a few restricted but more specific examples that illustrate the state-of-the-art in modeling typical physical, chemical, and biological processes undergone by selected constituents in rivers. These examples include: simplified one- and two-dimensional formulations focusing on the hydrodynamic advection and dispersion mechanisms; a two-dimensional biochemial oxygen demand-dissolved oxygen model; a one-dimensional polychlorinated biphenyl model that includes uptake and release of constituent by suspended sediment, and deposition and erosion of contaminated particles; and a one-dimensional sediment transport model that accounts for interactions between the flow and the bed, and is capable of tracking dispersing slugs of sediment through cycles of erosion, entrainment, transport in suspension and as bed load, and burial and storage in the bed

  13. A spatially explicit suspended-sediment load model for western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Daniel R.; O'Connor, Jim

    2016-06-27

    We calibrated the watershed model SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes) to give estimates of suspended-sediment loads for western Oregon and parts of northwestern California. Estimates of suspended-sediment loads were derived from a nonlinear least squares regression that related explanatory variables representing landscape and transport conditions to measured suspended-sediment loads at 68 measurement stations. The model gives estimates of model coefficients and their uncertainty within a spatial framework defined by the National Hydrography Dataset Plus hydrologic network. The resulting model explained 64 percent of the variability in suspended-sediment yield and had a root mean squared error value of 0.737. The predictor variables selected for the final model were (1) generalized lithologic province, (2) mean annual precipitation, and (3) burned area (by recent wildfire). Other landscape characteristics also were considered, but they were not significant predictors of sediment transport, were strongly correlated with another predictor variable, or were not as significant as the predictors selected for the final model.

  14. Soil erosion and sediment connectivity modelling in Burgundy vineyards: case study of Mercurey, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fressard, Mathieu; Cossart, Étienne; Lejot, Jêrome; Michel, Kristell; Perret, Franck; Christol, Aurélien; Mathian, Hélène; Navratil, Oldrich

    2017-04-01

    This research aims at assessing the impact of agricultural landscape structure on soil erosion and sediment connectivity at the catchment scale. The investigations were conducted the vineyards of Mercurey (Burgundy, France), characterized by important issues related to soil loss, flash floods and associated management infrastructures maintenance. The methodology is based on two main steps that include (1) field investigations and (2) modelling. The field investigations consists in DEM acquisition by LiDAR imaging from a drone, soil mapping and human infrastructures impacting runoff classification and mapping (such as crop rows, storm water-basins, drainage network, roads, etc.). These data aims at supplying the models with field observations. The modelling strategy is based on two main steps: First, the modelling of soil sensitivity to erosion, using the spatial application of the RUSLE equation. Secondly, to assess the sediment connectivity in this area, a model based on graph theory developed by Cossart and Fressard (2017) is tested. The results allow defining the influence of different anthropogenic structures on the sediment connectivity and soil erosion at the basin scale. A set of sub-basins influenced by various anthropogenic infrastructures have been identified and show contrasted sensitivities to erosion. The modelling of sediment connectivity show that the runoff pattern is strongly influenced by the vine rows orientation and the drainage network. I has also permitted to identify non collected (by storm water-basins) areas that strongly contribute to the turbid floods sediment supply and to soil loss during high intensity precipitations events.

  15. Hillslope sediment and soil carbon transport: can we model their movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Greg; Kunkel, Veikko; Dever, Chris; Braggins, Matthew; Willgoose, Garry

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying and predicting the movement of hillslope sediment and soil organic carbon (SOC) is of huge scientific, agronomic and economic benefit. In particular, the movement and fate of SOC has attracted considerable recent attention. However, the reliable modelling and prediction of sediment and SOC movement has proved elusive. Here we examine the movement of sediment and SOC along a grazing hillslope in south-eastern Australia. The slope is linear, uniformly managed and has consistent vegetation (grassland). We quantify sediment and SOC transport using the environmental tracer 137-Ceasium. However, here we collect field samples using the conventional soil cores but also shallow samples to quantify the dynamics of the near surface. We also model the movement of sediment and SOC using a numerically based soil erosion and landscape evolution model. Our results show that the hillslope is erosional which is supported by field observation. However, there was no relationship between SOC and 137-Caesium suggesting that SOC and their movement and fate are not related. Significant relationships were observed between soil texture and SOC for the near surface but not for the deeper cores suggesting any movement and fate of SOC is more controlled by soil particle size at the near surface. The SIBERIA sediment transport model was calibrated and run for the site. Comparing the field derived erosion and SOC data with model prediction found no significant relationship. However, the numerical model was able to predict the cyclic pattern of 137-Ceasium and SOC as well as overall trends. Our findings demonstrate that the movement and fate of sediment and SOC is complex.

  16. Toward multi-day-ahead forecasting of suspended sediment concentration using ensemble models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohamad Javad; Jafari Nodoushan, Ehsan; Kalarestaghi, Naghi; Chau, Kwok Wing

    2017-12-01

    This study explores two ideas to made an improvement on the artificial neural network (ANN)-based models for suspended sediment forecasting in several time steps ahead. In this regard, both observed and forecasted time series are incorporated as input variables of the models when applied for more than one lead time. Secondly, least-square ensemble models employing multiple wavelet-ANN models are developed to increase the performance of the single model. For this purpose, different wavelet families are linked with the ANN model and performance of each model is evaluated using error measures. The Skagit River near Mount Vernon in Washington county is selected as the case study. The daily flow discharge and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the current day are considered as input variables to predict suspended sediment concentration in the next day. For more lead times, the input structure is updated by adding the forecast of SSC in the previous time step. Results of this study demonstrate that incorporating both observed and predicted variables in the input structure improves performance of conventional models in which those only employ observed time series as input variables. Moreover, ensemble model developed for each lead time outperforms the best single wavelet-ANN model which indicates superiority of the ensemble model over the other one. Findings of this study reveal that acceptable forecasts of daily suspended sediment concentration up to 3 days in advance can be achieved using the proposed methodology.

  17. Impact of ground water - surface water interactions on pore-water and solid sediment phase composition of an acidic mining lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, J.; Neumann, C.; Fleckenstein, J.; Peiffer, S.; Blodau, C.

    2009-04-01

    Biogeochemical processes in lake sediments are influenced by diffusive and advective supply of solutes from lake and ground water. It has been demonstrated that the pore-water pH in lake sediments characterized by low pH and high concentrations of iron and sulfur (e.g. acidic mining lakes) are significantly affected by exchange flows with moderately acidic or near-neutral ground water (Blodau 20041). The resulting pore-water pH is a master variable which controls many biogeochemical processes such as mineral transformations, the reduction of iron and sulfate, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inflow of ground water into an acidic mining lake leads to a shift from acidic, iron-reducing to near-neutral, sulfate-reducing and pyrite-precipitating conditions within the lake sediment. Therefore, we investigated ground-water advection rates among different sites and related them to concentration-depth profiles of relevant chemical species, and the composition of the solid sediment phase. We observed a heterogeneous pattern of ground water - surface water exchange within the lake. In shallow areas, ground water inflow occurred in the northern part (up to 7 L m-2 d-1) of the lake and outflow (up to 3 L m-2 d-1) in the southern part. In deeper areas, ground water generally infiltrated into the lake with rates of up to 6 L m-2 d-1except one site (> 200 L m-2 d-1). Advective transport affected pore-water concentrations of ferrous iron and sulfate which both ranged from 5 to 30 mmol L-1. Additionally, concentration-depth profiles of these dissolved species were altered by other processes such as schwertmannite transformation, and iron and sulfate reduction. Ground water - surface water exchange flows caused apparent differences in the pore-water pH: under outflow or low inflow conditions the pore water was more acidic (below pH 3.5) compared to the other sites (pH up to 6). Since sulfate reduction is pH-controlled the observed differences in the pore-water p

  18. Sediment transport and deposition on a river-dominated tidal flat: An idealized model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Chen, Shih-Nan; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Ralston, David K.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-D hydrodynamic model is used to investigate how different size classes of river-derived sediment are transported, exported and trapped on an idealized, river-dominated tidal flat. The model is composed of a river channel flanked by sloping tidal flats, a configuration motivated by the intertidal region of the Skagit River mouth in Washington State, United States. It is forced by mixed tides and a pulse of freshwater and sediment with various settling velocities. In this system, the river not only influences stratification but also contributes a significant cross-shore transport. As a result, the bottom stress is strongly ebb-dominated in the channel because of the seaward advance of strong river flow as the tidal flats drain during ebbs. Sediment deposition patterns and mass budgets are sensitive to settling velocity. The lateral sediment spreading scales with an advective distance (settling time multiplied by lateral flow speed), thereby confining the fast settling sediment classes in the channel. Residual sediment transport is landward on the flats, because of settling lag, but is strongly seaward in the channel. The seaward transport mainly occurs during big ebbs and is controlled by a length scale ratio Ld/XWL, where Ld is a cross-shore advective distance (settling time multiplied by river outlet velocity), and XWL is the immersed cross-shore length of the intertidal zone. Sediment trapping requires Ld/XWL stratification and reducing tidal range both favor sediment trapping, whereas varying channel geometries and asymmetry of tides has relatively small impacts. Implications of the modeling results on the south Skagit intertidal region are discussed.

  19. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: Observations and a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-12-01

    and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and anthropogenic loss.

  20. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: observations and a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and

  1. Tissue Acoustoelectric Effect Modeling From Solid Mechanics Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xizi; Qin, Yexian; Xu, Yanbin; Ingram, Pier; Witte, Russell S; Dong, Feng

    2017-10-01

    The acoustoelectric (AE) effect is a basic physical phenomenon, which underlies the changes made in the conductivity of a medium by the application of focused ultrasound. Recently, based on the AE effect, several biomedical imaging techniques have been widely studied, such as ultrasound-modulated electrical impedance tomography and ultrasound current source density imaging. To further investigate the mechanism of the AE effect in tissue and to provide guidance for such techniques, we have modeled the tissue AE effect using the theory of solid mechanics. Both bulk compression and thermal expansion of tissue are considered and discussed. Computation simulation shows that the muscle AE effect result, conductivity change rate, is 3.26×10 -3 with 4.3-MPa peak pressure, satisfying the theoretical value. Bulk compression plays the main role for muscle AE effect, while thermal expansion makes almost no contribution to it. In addition, the AE signals of porcine muscle are measured at different focal positions. With the same magnitude order and the same change trend, the experiment result confirms that the simulation result is effective. Both simulation and experimental results validate that tissue AE effect modeling using solid mechanics theory is feasible, which is of significance for the further development of related biomedical imaging techniques.

  2. ANN modelling of sediment concentration in the dynamic glacial environment of Gangotri in Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nandita; Chakrapani, G J

    2015-08-01

    The present study explores for the first time the possibility of modelling sediment concentration with artificial neural networks (ANNs) at Gangotri, the source of Bhagirathi River in the Himalaya. Discharge, rainfall and temperature have been considered as the main controlling factors of variations in sediment concentration in the dynamic glacial environment of Gangotri. Fourteen feed forward neural networks with error back propagation algorithm have been created, trained and tested for prediction of sediment concentration. Seven models (T1-T7) have been trained and tested in the non-updating mode whereas remaining seven models (T1a-T7a) have been trained in the updating mode. The non-updating mode refers to the scenario where antecedent time (previous time step) values are not used as input to the model. In case of the updating mode, antecedent time values are used as network inputs. The inputs applied in the models are either the variables mentioned above as individual factors (single input networks) or a combination of them (multi-input networks). The suitability of employing antecedent time-step values as network inputs has hence been checked by comparative analysis of model performance in the two modes. The simple feed forward network has been improvised with a series parallel non-linear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) architecture wherein true values of sediment concentration have been fed as input during training. In the glacial scenario of Gangotri, maximum sediment movement takes place during the melt period (May-October). Hence, daily data of discharge, rainfall, temperature and sediment concentration for five consecutive melt periods (May-October, 2000-2004) have been used for modelling. High Coefficient of determination values [0.77-0.88] have been obtained between observed and ANN-predicted values of sediment concentration. The study has brought out relationships between variables that are not reflected in normal statistical analysis. A

  3. Modeling Input Errors to Improve Uncertainty Estimates for Sediment Transport Model Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J. Y.; Niemann, J. D.; Greimann, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bayesian methods using Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms have recently been applied to sediment transport models to assess the uncertainty in the model predictions due to the parameter values. Unfortunately, the existing approaches can only attribute overall uncertainty to the parameters. This limitation is critical because no model can produce accurate forecasts if forced with inaccurate input data, even if the model is well founded in physical theory. In this research, an existing Bayesian method is modified to consider the potential errors in input data during the uncertainty evaluation process. The input error is modeled using Gaussian distributions, and the means and standard deviations are treated as uncertain parameters. The proposed approach is tested by coupling it to the Sedimentation and River Hydraulics - One Dimension (SRH-1D) model and simulating a 23-km reach of the Tachia River in Taiwan. The Wu equation in SRH-1D is used for computing the transport capacity for a bed material load of non-cohesive material. Three types of input data are considered uncertain: (1) the input flowrate at the upstream boundary, (2) the water surface elevation at the downstream boundary, and (3) the water surface elevation at a hydraulic structure in the middle of the reach. The benefits of modeling the input errors in the uncertainty analysis are evaluated by comparing the accuracy of the most likely forecast and the coverage of the observed data by the credible intervals to those of the existing method. The results indicate that the internal boundary condition has the largest uncertainty among those considered. Overall, the uncertainty estimates from the new method are notably different from those of the existing method for both the calibration and forecast periods.

  4. Dynamic hydraulic models to study sedimentation in drinking water networks in detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. M. Pothof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in drinking water networks can lead to discolouration complaints. A sufficient criterion to prevent sedimentation in the Dutch drinking water networks is a daily maximum velocity of 0.25 m s−1. Flushing experiments have shown that this criterion is a sufficient condition for a clean network, but not a necessary condition. Drinking water networks include many locations with a maximum velocity well below 0.25 m s−1 without accumulated sediments. Other criteria need to be developed to predict which locations are susceptible to sedimentation and to prevent sedimentation in future networks. More distinctive criteria are helpful to prioritise flushing operations and to prevent water quality complaints.

    The authors use three different numerical modelling approaches – quasi-steady, rigid column and water hammer – with a temporal discretisation of 1 s in order to assess the influence of unsteady flows on the wall shear stress, causing resuspension of sediment particles. The model predictions are combined with results from flushing experiments in the drinking water distribution system of Purmerend, the Netherlands. The waterhammer model does not result in essentially different flow distribution patterns, compared to the rigid column and quasi-steady modelling approach. The extra information from the waterhammer model is a velocity oscillation of approximately 0.02 m s−1 around the quasi-steady solution. The presence of stagnation zones and multiple flow direction reversals seem to be interesting new parameters to predict sediment accumulation, which are consistent with the observed turbidity data and theoretical considerations on critical shear stresses.

  5. Metal availability in a highly contaminated, dredged-sediment disposal site: field measurements and geochemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Julie; Guérin, Valérie; Bataillard, Philippe; van der Lee, Jan; Laboudigue, Agnès

    2010-09-01

    Two complementary approaches were used to characterize arsenic and metal mobilizations from a dredged-sediment disposal site: a detailed field study combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. Contaminants in sediments were found to be mainly present as sulfides subject to oxidation. Secondary phases (carbonates, sulfates, (hydr)oxides) were also observed. Oxidative processes occurred at different rates depending on physicochemical conditions and contaminant contents in the sediment. Two distinct areas were identified on the site, each corresponding to a specific contaminant mobility behavior. In a reducing area, Fe and As were highly soluble and illustrated anoxic behavior. In well-oxygenated material, groundwater was highly contaminated in Zn, Cd and Pb. A third zone in which sediments and groundwater were less contaminated was also characterized. This study enabled us to prioritize remediation work, which should aim to limit infiltration and long-term environmental impact. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of 2-D sediment model to fluctuating backwater area of Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Fan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of backflow, a two-dimensional mathematical model of sediment movement was established. The complexity of the watercourse boundary at the confluence of the main stream and the tributary was dealt with using a boundary-fitting orthogonal coordinate system. The basic equation of the two-dimensional total sediment load model, the numerical calculation format, and key problems associated with using the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system were discussed. Water and sediment flow in the Chongqing reach of the Yangtze River were simulated. The calculated water level, flow velocity distribution, amount of silting and scouring, and alluvial distribution are found to be in agreement with the measured data, which indicates that the numerical model and calculation method are reasonable. The model can be used for calculation of flow in a relatively complicated river network.

  7. Estuarine Sediment Deposition during Wetland Restoration: A GIS and Remote Sensing Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Michelle; Kuss, Amber; Kentron, Tyler; Remar, Alex; Choksi, Vivek; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of the industrial salt flats in the San Francisco Bay, California is an ongoing wetland rehabilitation project. Remote sensing maps of suspended sediment concentration, and other GIS predictor variables were used to model sediment deposition within these recently restored ponds. Suspended sediment concentrations were calibrated to reflectance values from Landsat TM 5 and ASTER using three statistical techniques -- linear regression, multivariate regression, and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), to map suspended sediment concentrations. Multivariate and ANN regressions using ASTER proved to be the most accurate methods, yielding r2 values of 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Predictor variables such as sediment grain size and tidal frequency were used in the Marsh Sedimentation (MARSED) model for predicting deposition rates for three years. MARSED results for a fully restored pond show a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 66.8 mm (applied to a pond breached in November 2010 and indicated that the recently breached pond will reach equilibrium levels after 60 months of tidal inundation.

  8. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates...... LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.......e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost...

  9. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    CERN Document Server

    Um, Dugan

    2016-01-01

    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  10. Thermodynamics of a model solid with magnetoelastic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałowski, K.; Balcerzak, T.; Jaščur, M.

    2018-01-01

    In the paper a study of a model magnetoelastic solid system is presented. The system of interest is a mean-field magnet with nearest-neighbour ferromagnetic interactions and the underlying s.c. crystalline lattice with the long-range Morse interatomic potential and the anharmonic Debye model for the lattice vibrations. The influence of the external magnetic field on the thermodynamics is investigated, with special emphasis put on the consequences of the magnetoelastic coupling, introduced by the power-law distance dependence of the magnetic exchange integral. Within the fully self-consistent, Gibbs energy-based formalism such thermodynamic quantities as the entropy, the specific heat as well as the lattice and magnetic response functions are calculated and discussed. To complete the picture, the magnetocaloric effect is characterized by analysis of the isothermal entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change in the presence of the external pressure.

  11. High Power Solid State Retrofit Lamp Thermal Characterization and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakovenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL retrofit LED lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D thermal lamp model for further thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS and CoventorWare software tools to compere different simulation approaches. Simulated thermal distribution has been validated with thermal measurement on a commercial 8W LED lamp. Materials parametric study has been carried out to discover problematic parts for heat transfer from power LEDs to ambient and future solutions are proposed. The objectives are to predict the thermal management by simulation of LED lamp, get more understanding in the effect of lamp shape and used materials in order to design more effective LED lamps and predict light quality, life time and reliability.

  12. Two-phase modeling of turbulence in dilute sediment-laden, open-channel flows

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Sanjeev K.; Bombardelli, Fabián A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on assessing the performance of diverse turbulence closures in the simulation of dilute sediment-laden, open-channel flows. To that end, we base our analysis on a framework developed in a companion paper of this special issue, which puts forward a standard sediment transport model (SSTM), a partial two-fluid model (PTFM) and a complete two-fluid model (CTFM), in three- and one-dimensional (3D and 1D) versions. First, we propose in this paper extensions of the transport...

  13. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H. I.; EI-Ahwany, A.H.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  14. Combined discrete particle and continuum model predicting solid-state fermentation in a drum fermentor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Briels, Willem J.; Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of mathematical models facilitates industrial (large-scale) application of solid-state fermentation (SSF). In this study, a two-phase model of a drum fermentor is developed that consists of a discrete particle model (solid phase) and a continuum model (gas phase). The continuum model

  15. Modeling the formation of methane hydrate-bearing intervals in fine-grained sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinverno, Alberto; Cook, Ann; Daigle, Hugh

    2016-09-30

    Sediment grain size exerts a fundamental control on how methane hydrates are distributed within the pore space. Fine-grained muds are the predominant sediments in continental margins, and hydrates in these sediments have often been observed in semi-vertical veins and fractures. In several instances, these hydrate veins/fractures are found in discrete depth intervals a few tens meters thick within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) surrounded by hydrate-free sediments above and below. As they are not obviously connected with free gas occurring beneath the base of the GHSZ, these isolated hydrate-bearing intervals have been interpreted as formed by microbial methane generated in situ. To investigate further the formation of these hydrate deposits, we applied a time-dependent advection-diffusion-reaction model that includes the effects of sedimentation, solute diffusion, and microbial methane generation. The microbial methane generation term depends on the amount of metabolizable organic carbon deposited at the seafloor, which is degraded at a prescribed rate resulting in methane formation beneath the sulfate reduction zone. In the model, methane hydrate precipitates once the dissolved methane concentration is greater than solubility, or hydrate dissolves if concentration goes below solubility. If the deposition of organic carbon at the seafloor is kept constant in time, we found that the predicted amounts of hydrate formed in discrete intervals within the GHSZ are much less than those estimated from observations. We then investigated the effect of temporal variations in the deposition of organic carbon. If greater amounts of organic carbon are deposited during some time interval, methane generation is enhanced during burial in the corresponding sediment interval. With variations in organic carbon deposition that are consistent with observations in continental margin sediments, we were able to reproduce the methane hydrate contents estimated in discrete depth

  16. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Modelling within a Macro Tidal Estuary: Port Curtis Estuary, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. K. Dunn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of sediment transport processes and resultant concentration dynamics in estuaries is of great importance to engineering design awareness and the management of these environments. Predictive modelling approaches provide an opportunity to investigate and address potential system responses to nominated events, changes, or conditions of interest, often on high temporal and spatial resolution scales. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and wave model were validated and applied to generate forcing conditions for input into a sediment transport model for the period 7 May 2010–30 October 2010 within a macro tidal estuary, Port Curtis estuary (Australia. The hydrodynamic model was verified against surface and near-bottom current measurements. The model accurately reproduced the variations of surface and near-bottom currents at both a mid-estuary and upper-estuary location. Sediment transport model predictions were performed under varying meteorological conditions and tidal forcing over a 180-day period and were validated against turbidity data collected at six stations within Port Curtis estuary. The sediment transport model was able to predict both the magnitudes of the turbidity levels and the modulation induced by the neap and spring tides and wind-wave variations. The model-predicted (converted turbidity levels compared favourably with the measured surface water turbidity levels at all six stations. The study results have useful practical application for Port Curtis estuary, including providing predictive capabilities to support the selection of locations for monitoring/compliance sites.

  17. Modelling daily sediment yield from a meso-scale catchment, a case study in SW Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keesstra, S. D.; Schoorl, J.; Temme, A. J. A. M.

    2009-07-01

    For management purposes it is important to be able to assess the sediment yield of a catchment. however, at this moment models designed for estimating sediment yield are only capable to give either very detailed storm-based information or year averages. The storm-based models require input data that are not available for most catchment. However, models that estimate yearly averages, ignore a lot of other detailed information, like daily discharge and precipitation data. There are currently no models available that model sediment yield on the temporal scale of one day and the spatial scale of a meso-scale catchment, without making use of very detailed input data. To fill this scientific and management gap, landscape evolution model LAPSUS has been adapted to model sediment yield on a daily basis. This model has the water balance as a base. To allow calibration with the discharge at the outlet, a subsurface flow module has been added to the model. (Author) 12 refs.

  18. Assimilation of remote sensing observations into a sediment transport model of China's largest freshwater lake: spatial and temporal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoling; Lu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Numerical models are important tools that are used in studies of sediment dynamics in inland and coastal waters, and these models can now benefit from the use of integrated remote sensing observations. This study explores a scheme for assimilating remotely sensed suspended sediment (from charge-coupled device (CCD) images obtained from the Huanjing (HJ) satellite) into a two-dimensional sediment transport model of Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China. Optimal interpolation is used as the assimilation method, and model predictions are obtained by combining four remote sensing images. The parameters for optimal interpolation are determined through a series of assimilation experiments evaluating the sediment predictions based on field measurements. The model with assimilation of remotely sensed sediment reduces the root-mean-square error of the predicted sediment concentrations by 39.4% relative to the model without assimilation, demonstrating the effectiveness of the assimilation scheme. The spatial effect of assimilation is explored by comparing model predictions with remotely sensed sediment, revealing that the model with assimilation generates reasonable spatial distribution patterns of suspended sediment. The temporal effect of assimilation on the model's predictive capabilities varies spatially, with an average temporal effect of approximately 10.8 days. The current velocities which dominate the rate and direction of sediment transport most likely result in spatial differences in the temporal effect of assimilation on model predictions.

  19. Mechanics and modeling of flow, sediment transport and morphologic change in riverine lateral separation zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Brandy L.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Wright, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Lateral separation zones or eddies in rivers are critically important features for sediment storage and for a variety of roles they play in riparian and aquatic ecology. As part of a larger effort to predict the morphology of lateral separation zones in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon for a selection of sediment supply and discharge scenarios, we evaluated the performance of two modeling techniques for predicting flow, sediment transport, and morphodynamics in eddies using field data. In order to understand the relative roles of various exchange mechanisms between the main channel and eddies, we applied two-dimensional unsteady and three-dimensional unsteady models in a reach containing a lateral separation zone. Both models were developed, calibrated, and evaluated using detailed field data comprising acoustic-Doppler velocity measurements, water-surface elevations, sediment concentration by size class, and bathymetry measured during a flood event in the Colorado River. Model results and measurements are used to develop a better understanding of the mechanics of water and sediment exchange between the eddy and the mainstem and other factors that control the morphology of the reach.

  20. Application of hierarchical Bayesian unmixing models in river sediment source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Will; Smith, Hugh; Navas, Ana; Bodé, Samuel; Goddard, Rupert; Zou Kuzyk, Zou; Lennard, Amy; Lobb, David; Owens, Phil; Palazon, Leticia; Petticrew, Ellen; Gaspar, Leticia; Stock, Brian; Boeckx, Pacsal; Semmens, Brice

    2016-04-01

    Fingerprinting and unmixing concepts are used widely across environmental disciplines for forensic evaluation of pollutant sources. In aquatic and marine systems, this includes tracking the source of organic and inorganic pollutants in water and linking problem sediment to soil erosion and land use sources. It is, however, the particular complexity of ecological systems that has driven creation of the most sophisticated mixing models, primarily to (i) evaluate diet composition in complex ecological food webs, (ii) inform population structure and (iii) explore animal movement. In the context of the new hierarchical Bayesian unmixing model, MIXSIAR, developed to characterise intra-population niche variation in ecological systems, we evaluate the linkage between ecological 'prey' and 'consumer' concepts and river basin sediment 'source' and sediment 'mixtures' to exemplify the value of ecological modelling tools to river basin science. Recent studies have outlined advantages presented by Bayesian unmixing approaches in handling complex source and mixture datasets while dealing appropriately with uncertainty in parameter probability distributions. MixSIAR is unique in that it allows individual fixed and random effects associated with mixture hierarchy, i.e. factors that might exert an influence on model outcome for mixture groups, to be explored within the source-receptor framework. This offers new and powerful ways of interpreting river basin apportionment data. In this contribution, key components of the model are evaluated in the context of common experimental designs for sediment fingerprinting studies namely simple, nested and distributed catchment sampling programmes. Illustrative examples using geochemical and compound specific stable isotope datasets are presented and used to discuss best practice with specific attention to (1) the tracer selection process, (2) incorporation of fixed effects relating to sample timeframe and sediment type in the modelling

  1. Modeling plan-form deltaic response to changes in fluvial sediment supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, J.H.; Ashton, A.D.; Roos, Pieter C.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Giosan, L.; Kranenburg, W.M.; Horstman, E.M.; Wijnberg, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of changes in fluvial sediment supply on the plan-form shape of wave-dominated deltas. We apply a one-line numerical shoreline model to calculate shoreline evolution after (I) elimination and (II) time-periodic variation of fluvial input. Model results suggest four

  2. Saturation Concentrations of Suspended Fine Sediment : Computations with the Prandtl Mixing-Length Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1998-01-01

    Adopting a 1DV numerical model including the standard k-eps turbulence model, Winterwerp et al. (1999) calculated a saturation concentration for an initially uniform distribution of fine sediment concentration in steady flow. At concentrations exceeding the saturation concentration the concentration

  3. Water Quality Research Program. A Model of Manganese and Iron Fluxes from Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    set equal to s = SODIO 2(0), the ratio of the sediment oxygen demand and the overlying water dissolved oxygen concentration, as in the previous models...seasonal variations are reproduced up to 32X. Since the manganese model requires the surface mass transfer coefficient: s = SODIO 2(0), it is important

  4. Modeling of Sediment Transport and Self-Cleansing in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Ibro, I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes an on-going project on modeling of sediment transport in outfalls with special focus on the self-cleansing problem occurring due to the daily flow variations seen in outfalls. The two central elements of the project is the development of the numerical model and a matching phys...

  5. REMOVAL OF TANK AND SEWER SEDIMENT BY GATE FLUSHING: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODEL STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will discuss the application of a computational fluid dynamics 3D flow model to simulate gate flushing for removing tank/sewer sediments. The physical model of the flushing device was a tank fabricated and installed at the head-end of a hydraulic flume. The fl...

  6. Modeling of Elastodynamic Problems in Finite Solid Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youn Ho

    2000-01-01

    Various modeling techniques for ultrasonic wave propagation and scattering problems in finite solid media are presented. Elastodynamic boundary value problems in inhomogeneous multi-layered plate-like structures are set up for modal analysis of guided wave propagation and numerically solved to obtain dispersion curves which show propagation characteristics of guided waves. As a powerful modeling tool to overcome such numerical difficulties in wave scattering problems as the geometrical complexity and mode conversion, the Boundary Element Method(BEM) is introduced and is combined with the normal mode expansion technique to develop the hybrid BEM, an efficient technique for modeling multi mode conversion of guided wave scattering problems. Time dependent wave forms are obtained through the inverse Fourier transformation of the numerical solutions in the frequency domain. 3D BEM program development is underway to model more practical ultrasonic wave signals. Some encouraging numerical results have recently been obtained in comparison with the analytical solutions for wave propagation in a bar subjected to time harmonic longitudinal excitation. It is expected that the presented modeling techniques for elastic wave propagation and scattering can be applied to establish quantitative nondestructive evaluation techniques in various ways

  7. Numerical Simulation of Suspended Sediment Transportation Based on Particle Tracking Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W. W.; Ying, C.; Mu, J. B.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal engineering that carried out on the muddy seabed were always accompanied by diffusion of suspended sediment, and that would impact on the surrounding marine environment. A 2-D tidal flow mathematical model of the Yueqing Bay was established based on the Lagrange particle tracking model, the diffusion of suspended sediment in pile foundation construction process of a new wharf in the Yueqing Bay was simulated through a continuous moving points method, the calculation results were compared with the one calculated by the traditional convection diffusion method, it showed that the results calculated from the two different methods were similar, therefore it proved the suitability of the Lagrange particle tracing model in the suspended sediment diffusion problems.

  8. Applying 1D Sediment Models to Reservoir Flushing Studies: Measuring, Monitoring, and Modeling the Spencer Dam Sediment Flush with HEC-RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    by Paul Boyd and Stanford Gibson PURPOSE: The purposes of this Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) are (1) to summarize the...Kansas River) (Gibson and Boyd 2014; Davis et al. 2014; Shelley and Gibson 2015). However, because these reservoir management strategies are still...as sediment and represented the dam in the model as an inline structure with time-series controlled gates. The unsteady equations required 6-second

  9. Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for industrial and anthropogenic waste-indicator compounds in sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; ReVello, R.C.; Smith, S.G.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    A broad range of organic compounds is recognized as environmentally relevant for their potential adverse effects on human and ecosystem health. This method was developed to better determine the distribution of 61 compounds that are typically associated with industrial and household waste as well as some that are toxic and known (or suspected) for endocrine-disrupting potential extracted from environmental sediment samples. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to reduce sample preparation time, reduce solvent consumption to one-fifth of that required using dichloromethane-based Soxhlet extraction, and to minimize background interferences for full scan GC/MS analysis. Recoveries from spiked Ottawa sand, commercially available topsoil, and environmental stream sediment, fortified at 4-720 ??g per compound, averaged 76 ?? 13%. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds ranged from 12.5 to 520 ??g/kg, based on 25 g samples. Results from 103 environmental sediment samples show that 36 out of 61 compounds (59%) were detected in at least one sample with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected compound, beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol, was detected in 87 of the 103 (84.5%) environmental samples with a concentration range 360-100,000 ??g/kg. Results for a standard reference material using dichloromethane Soxhlet-based extraction are also compared. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Modelling potential impacts of bottom trawl fisheries on soft sediment biogeochemistry in the North Sea†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Ruth

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Bottom trawling causes physical disturbance to sediments particularly in shelf areas. The disturbance due to trawling is most significant in deeper areas with softer sediments where levels of natural disturbance due to wave and tidal action are low. In heavily fished areas, trawls may impact the same area of seabed more than four times per year. A single pass of a beam trawl, the heaviest gear routinely used in shelf sea fisheries, can kill 5–65% of the resident fauna and mix the top few cm of sediment. We expect that sediment community function, carbon mineralisation and biogeochemical fluxes will be strongly affected by trawling activity because the physical effects of trawling are equivalent to those of an extreme bioturbator, and yet, unlike bioturbating macrofauna, trawling does not directly contribute to community metabolism. We used an existing box-model of a generalised soft sediment system to examine the effects of trawling disturbance on carbon mineralisation and chemical concentrations. We contrasted the effects of a natural scenario, where bioturbation is a function of macrobenthos biomass, with an anthropogenic impact scenario where physical disturbance results from trawling rather than the action of bioturbating macrofauna. Simulation results suggest that the effects of low levels of trawling disturbance will be similar to those of natural bioturbators but that high levels of trawling disturbance prevent the modelled system from reaching equilibrium due to large carbon fluxes between oxic and anoxic carbon compartments. The presence of macrobenthos in the natural disturbance scenario allowed sediment chemical storage and fluxes to reach equilibrium. This is because the macrobenthos are important carbon consumers in the system whose presence reduces the magnitude of available carbon fluxes. In soft sediment systems, where the level physical disturbance due to waves and tides is low, model results suggest that intensive trawling

  11. Model Projections of Future Fluvial Sediment Delivery to Major Deltas Under Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, S. E.; Dunn, F.; Nicholls, R. J.; Cohen, S.; Zarfl, C.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are important hot spots for climate change impacts on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Most of the world's deltas are sinking as a result of natural and anthropogenic subsidence and due to eustatic sea level rise. The ability to predict rates of delta aggradation is therefore critical to assessments of the extent to which sedimentation can potentially offset sea level rise, but our ability to make such predictions is severely hindered by a lack of insight into future trends of the fluvial sediment load supplied to their deltas by feeder watersheds. To address this gap we investigate fluvial sediment fluxes under future environmental change for a selection (47) of the world's major river deltas. Specifically, we employed the numerical model WBMsed to project future variations in mean annual fluvial sediment loads under a range of environmental change scenarios that account for changes in climate, socio-economics and dam construction. Our projections indicate a clear decrease (by 34 to 41% on average, depending on the specific scenario) in future fluvial sediment supply to most of the 47 deltas. These reductions in sediment delivery are driven primarily by anthropogenic disturbances, with reservoir construction being the most influential factor globally. Our results indicate the importance of developing new management strategies for reservoir construction and operation.

  12. Modelling bio-irrigation rates in the sediments of Port Phillip Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berelson, W.M.; Townsend, T.; Kilgore, T.; Skyring, G.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of a deuterium-enriched tracer to benthic incubation chambers emplaced on the sea floor of Port Phillip Bay provides a method of modelling bio-irrigation within the sediments. Plots of deuterium v. incubation time reveal that all seven chambers, emplaced at four sites, indicate non-diffusive transport of pore-water solutes across the sediment-water interface. Modelling indicates that advection of overlying chamber water must occur to depths of 20-50 cm below the interface and at rates between 150 and 700 mL h -1 . Multiple chambers deployed in the same region within the bay are consistent with respect to bio-irrigation depth and rate. This indicates that the distribution of infauna responsible for irrigation is quite consistent within regions defined by sediment type and depth. However, various regions in the bay show distinctly different irrigation rates; thus the distribution and/or activity of infauna is not constant throughout the bay. At the lower rate of pore-water advection, the entire water column in Port Phillip Bay passes through the sediments within 200 days. Dissolved caesium, injected into the chamber, is also an effective tracer of bio-irrigation although adsorption onto sediment particles increases the uncertainty of model results. Copyright (1999) CSIRO Publishing

  13. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar Motwani

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential,, within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, non-equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  14. Comparison of Soil Models in the Thermodynamic Analysis of a Submarine Pipeline Buried in Seabed Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Waldemar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with mathematical modelling of a seabed layer in the thermodynamic analysis of a submarine pipeline buried in seabed sediments. The existing seabed soil models: a “soil ring” and a semi-infinite soil layer are discussed in a comparative analysis of the shape factor of a surrounding soil layer. The meaning of differences in the heat transfer coefficient of a soil layer is illustrated based on a computational example of the longitudinal temperaturę profile of a -kilometer long crude oil pipeline buried in seabed sediments.

  15. State-of-the-Art Solid Waste Management Life-Cycle Modeling Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Levis, James W.

    There are many alternatives for the management of solid waste including recycling, biological treatment, thermal treatment and landfill disposal. In many cases, solid waste management systems include the use of several of these processes. Solid waste life-cycle assessment models are often used...... to evaluate the environmental consequences of various waste management strategies. The foundation of every life-cycle model is the development and use of process models to estimate the emissions from solid waste unit processes. The objective of this workshop is to describe life-cycle modeling of the solid...... waste processes and systems. The workshop will begin with an introduction to solid waste life-cycle modeling and available models, which will be followed by sessions on life-cycle process modeling for individual processes (e.g., landfills, biological treatment, and thermal treatment). The first part...

  16. Prediction of Reservoir Sediment Quality Based on Erosion Processes in Watershed Using Mathematical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Junakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion, as a significant contributor to nonpoint-source pollution, is ranked top of sediment sources, pollutants attached to sediment, and pollutants in the solution in surface water. This paper is focused on the design of mathematical model intended to predict the total content of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K in bottom sediments in small water reservoirs depending on water erosion processes, together with its application and validation in small agricultural watershed of the Tisovec River, Slovakia. The designed model takes into account the calculation of total N, P, and K content adsorbed on detached and transported soil particles, which consists of supplementing the soil loss calculation with a determination of the average nutrient content in topsoils. The dissolved forms of these elements are neglected in this model. Validation of the model was carried out by statistical assessment of calculated concentrations and measured concentrations in Kľušov, a small water reservoir (Slovakia, using the t-test and F-test, at a 0.05 significance level. Calculated concentrations of total N, P, and K in reservoir sediments were in the range from 0.188 to 0.236 for total N, from 0.065 to 0.078 for total P, and from 1.94 to 2.47 for total K. Measured nutrient concentrations in composite sediment samples ranged from 0.16 to 0.26% for total N, from 0.049 to 0.113% for total P, and from 1.71 to 2.42% for total K. The statistical assessment indicates the applicability of the model in predicting the reservoir’s sediment quality detached through erosion processes in the catchment.

  17. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of a sediment transport model: a global approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Yang, J.; Tung, Y.

    1993-12-01

    Computerized sediment transport models are frequently employed to quantitatively simulate the movement of sediment materials in rivers. In spite of the deterministic nature of the models, the outputs are subject to uncertainty due to the inherent variability of many input parameters in time and in space, along with the lack of complete understanding of the involved processes. The commonly used first-order method for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses is to approximate a model by linear expansion at a selected point. Conclusions from the first-order method could be of limited use if the model responses drastically vary at different points in parameter space. To obtain the global sensitivity and uncertainty features of a sediment transport model over a larger input parameter space, the Latin hypercubic sampling technique along with regression procedures were employed. For the purpose of illustrating the methodologies, the computer model HEC2-SR was selected in this study. Through an example application, the results about the parameters sensitivity and uncertainty of water surface, bed elevation and sediment discharge were discussed.

  18. Preliminary study on performance of a coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model on small domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyif, Teuku M.; Kato, Shigeru; Syamsidik, Okabe, Takumi

    2017-10-01

    Numerical simulation is one of the useful tools to analyze natural phenomena in the earth such as the tsunami disaster. Several numerical models can simulate the tsunami wave from its generation, propagation, and inundation. However, most tsunami models do not include the sediment transport module. The tsunami wave actually induces a lot of sediment during the propagation in the coastal area. In the case of Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, massive morphological changes were caused by the tsunami waves around Sumatra coast. In Aceh, some areas eroded by the tsunami wave were living place for a local community. It is indispensable for the resident in the coastal area to estimate the risk of morphological changes due to a tsunami wave. Therefore, a model that can investigate the morphological changes due tsunami wave is necessary. The result of this model can be used to consider a countermeasure for tsunami wave impact in the coastal area, such as land-use management and planning. The COMCOT-SED model had been developed by several researchers. This model combines the hydrodynamic module and the sediment module. The aim of this study is to get general information about performance of the COMCOT-SED model and to modify the model for more accurate results. Firstly, the model was demonstrated in the ideal condition to confirm the model validity. Then, we evaluated the model performance comparing the model results and the laboratory experiment data which was conducted by other researcher. The authors found that the results of water level and bottom profile by the original model in the ideal condition are not suitable. The model modification will give us more suitable results. The modified model will be applied to simulate the tsunami wave and sediment transport in the small area.

  19. A Model of Solid Waste Management Based Multilateral Co-Operation in Semi-Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhandhu, Chanchai; Woraphong, Seree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to construct a model of solid waste management based on multilateral cooperation in semi-urban community. Its specific objectives were to 1) study the solid waste situation and involvement of community in the solid waste management in Wangtaku Sub-district, Muang District, Nakhon Pathom Province; 2) construct a…

  20. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  1. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.

    2014-01-01

    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  2. Solid charged-core model of ball lightning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Muldrew

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ball lightning (BL is assumed to have a solid, positively-charged core. According to this underlying assumption, the core is surrounded by a thin electron layer with a charge nearly equal in magnitude to that of the core. A vacuum exists between the core and the electron layer containing an intense electromagnetic (EM field which is reflected and guided by the electron layer. The microwave EM field applies a ponderomotive force (radiation pressure to the electrons preventing them from falling into the core. The energetic electrons ionize the air next to the electron layer forming a neutral plasma layer. The electric-field distributions and their associated frequencies in the ball are determined by applying boundary conditions to a differential equation given by Stratton (1941. It is then shown that the electron and plasma layers are sufficiently thick and dense to completely trap and guide the EM field. This model of BL is exceptional in that it can explain all or nearly all of the peculiar characteristics of BL. The ES energy associated with the core charge can be extremely large which can explain the observations that occasionally BL contains enormous energy. The mass of the core prevents the BL from rising like a helium-filled balloon – a problem with most plasma and burning-gas models. The positively charged core keeps the negatively charged electron layer from diffusing away, i.e. it holds the ball together; other models do not have a mechanism to do this. The high electrical charges on the core and in the electron layer explains why some people have been electrocuted by BL. Experiments indicate that BL radiates microwaves upon exploding and this is consistent with the model. The fact that this novel model of BL can explain these and other observations is strong evidence that the model should be taken seriously.

  3. Solid charged-core model of ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldrew, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, ball lightning (BL) is assumed to have a solid, positively-charged core. According to this underlying assumption, the core is surrounded by a thin electron layer with a charge nearly equal in magnitude to that of the core. A vacuum exists between the core and the electron layer containing an intense electromagnetic (EM) field which is reflected and guided by the electron layer. The microwave EM field applies a ponderomotive force (radiation pressure) to the electrons preventing them from falling into the core. The energetic electrons ionize the air next to the electron layer forming a neutral plasma layer. The electric-field distributions and their associated frequencies in the ball are determined by applying boundary conditions to a differential equation given by Stratton (1941). It is then shown that the electron and plasma layers are sufficiently thick and dense to completely trap and guide the EM field. This model of BL is exceptional in that it can explain all or nearly all of the peculiar characteristics of BL. The ES energy associated with the core charge can be extremely large which can explain the observations that occasionally BL contains enormous energy. The mass of the core prevents the BL from rising like a helium-filled balloon - a problem with most plasma and burning-gas models. The positively charged core keeps the negatively charged electron layer from diffusing away, i.e. it holds the ball together; other models do not have a mechanism to do this. The high electrical charges on the core and in the electron layer explains why some people have been electrocuted by BL. Experiments indicate that BL radiates microwaves upon exploding and this is consistent with the model. The fact that this novel model of BL can explain these and other observations is strong evidence that the model should be taken seriously.

  4. A model problem concerning ionic transport in microstructured solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto Sillamoni, Ignacio J.; Idiart, Martín I.

    2015-11-01

    We consider ionic transport by diffusion and migration through microstructured solid electrolytes. The assumed constitutive relations for the constituent phases follow from convex energy and dissipation potentials which guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The effective response is determined by homogenizing the relevant field equations via the notion ofmulti-scale convergence. The resulting homogenized response involves several effective tensors, but they all require the solution of just one standard conductivity problem over the representative volume element. A multi-scale model for semicrystalline polymer electrolytes with spherulitic morphologies is derived by applying the theory to a specific class of two-dimensional microgeometries for which the effective response can be computed exactly. An enriched model accounting for a random dispersion of filler particles with interphases is also derived. In both cases, explicit expressions for the effective material parameters are provided. The models are used to explore the effect of crystallinity and filler content on the overall response. Predictions support recent experimental observations on doped poly-ethylene-oxide systems which suggest that the anisotropic crystalline phase can actually support faster ion transport than the amorphous phase along certain directions dictated by the morphology of the polymeric chains. Predictions also support the viewpoint that ceramic fillers improve ionic conductivity and cation transport number via interphasial effects.

  5. Daily suspended sediment concentration simulation using ANN and neuro-fuzzy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Taher; Mirbagheri, Seyed Ahmad; Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Nourani, Vahid

    2009-08-15

    In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs), neuro-fuzzy (NF), multi linear regression (MLR) and conventional sediment rating curve (SRC) models are considered for time series modeling of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in rivers. As for the artificial intelligence systems, feed forward back propagation (FFBP) method and Sugeno inference system are used for ANNs and NF models, respectively. The models are trained using daily river discharge and SSC data belonging to Little Black River and Salt River gauging stations in the USA. Obtained results demonstrate that ANN and NF models are in good agreement with the observed SSC values; while they depict better results than MLR and SRC methods. For example, in Little Black River station, the determination coefficient is 0.697 for NF model, while it is 0.457, 0.257 and 0.225 for ANN, MLR and SRC models, respectively. The values of cumulative suspended sediment load estimated by ANN and NF models are closer to the observed data than the other models. In general, the results illustrate that NF model presents better performance in SSC prediction in compression to other models.

  6. Modeled tephra ages from lake sediments, base of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, C J; Kaufman, D S; Wallace, K L; Werner, A; Ku, T L; Brown, T A

    2007-02-25

    A 5.6-m-long lake sediment core from Bear Lake, Alaska, located 22 km southeast of Redoubt Volcano, contains 67 tephra layers deposited over the last 8750 cal yr, comprising 15% of the total thickness of recovered sediment. Using 12 AMS {sup 14}C ages, along with the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb activities of recent sediment, we evaluated different models to determine the age-depth relation of sediment, and to determine the age of each tephra deposit. The age model is based on a cubic smooth spline function that was passed through the adjusted tephra-free depth of each dated layer. The estimated age uncertainty of the 67 tephras averages {+-} 105 yr (1{sigma}). Tephra-fall frequency at Bear Lake was among the highest during the past 500 yr, with eight tephras deposited compared to an average of 3.7 per 500 yr over the last 8500 yr. Other periods of increased tephra fall occurred 2500-3500, 4500-5000, and 7000-7500 cal yr. Our record suggests that Bear Lake experienced extended periods (1000-2000 yr) of increased tephra fall separated by shorter periods (500-1000 yr) of apparent quiescence. The Bear Lake sediment core affords the most comprehensive tephrochronology from the base of the Redoubt Volcano to date, with an average tephra-fall frequency of once every 130 yr.

  7. How sedimentation affects rift segment interaction during oblique extension: a 4D analogue modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Adam, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    During the early stages of rifting, rift segments may form along non-continuous and/or offset pre-existing weaknesses. It is important to understand how these initial rift segments interact and connect to form a continuous rift system. Previous modelling of rift interaction structures has shown the dominant influence of oblique extension, promoting rift segment linkage (e.g. Zwaan et al., 2016) and eventual continent break-up (Brune et al., 2012). However, these studies did not incorporate sedimentation, which can have important implications for rift evolution (e.g. Bialas and Buck, 2009). Here we present a series of analogue model experiments investigating the influence of sedimentation on rift interaction structures under oblique extension conditions. Our set-up involves a base of compressed foam and plexiglass that forces distributed extension in the overlying analogue materials when the model sidewalls move apart. A sand layer simulates the brittle upper crust and a viscous sand/silicone mixture the ductile lower crust. One of the underlying base plates can move laterally allowing oblique extension. Right-stepping offset and disconnected lines of silicone (seeds) on top of the basal viscous serve as inherited structures since the strong sand cover is locally thinner. We apply syn-rift sediments by filling in the developing rift and transfer zone basins with sand at fixed time steps. Models are run either with sedimentation or without to allow comparison. The first results suggest that the gross structures are similar with or without sedimentation. As seen by Zwaan et al. (2016), dextral oblique extension promotes rift linkage because rift propagation aligns itself perpendicular to the extension direction. This causes the rift segments to grow towards each other and to establish a continuous rift structure. However, the structures within the rift segments show quite different behaviour when sedimentation is applied. The extra sediment loading in the rift basin

  8. Size graded sediment dynamics: from the processes characterization to the transport modelling in the English Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanpain, O.

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of a sediment transport model in the English Channel. The design of such a model requires the identification of the physical processes, their modelling and their in-situ validation. Because of the sedimentary particularities of the study area, modelling of the mechanical behaviour of a non uniform mixture of sediments and particularly of the fine grains within a coarse matrix is required. This study focused on the characterization of the relevant processes by acquisition of experimental and in-situ data. Data acquired in hydro-sedimentary conditions comparable to those found in the English Channel are scarce. A new instrument and image processing technique were specifically conceived and implemented in-situ to observe and measure, with a high temporal resolution, the dynamics of a strongly heterogeneous mixture of particles in a grain-size scale. The data collected compared well with several existing formulations. One of these formulations was chosen to be adapted. The transfer dynamics of fine grains in coarse sediments and their depth of penetration were acquired from stratigraphic samples. The sediment transport model deals with multi-size grains and multi sedimentary layers, it is forced by swell and currents, and accounts for bead load and suspended load transports. It was applied to realistic scenarios for the English Channel. (author)

  9. GeoFramework: A Modeling Framework for Solid Earth Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnis, M.; Aivazis, M.; Tromp, J.; Tan, E.; Thoutireddy, P.; Liu, Q.; Choi, E.; Dicaprio, C.; Chen, M.; Simons, M.; Quenette, S.; Appelbe, B.; Aagaard, B.; Williams, C.; Lavier, L.; Moresi, L.; Law, H.

    2003-12-01

    As data sets in geophysics become larger and of greater relevance to other earth science disciplines, and as earth science becomes more interdisciplinary in general, modeling tools are being driven in new directions. There is now a greater need to link modeling codes to one another, link modeling codes to multiple datasets, and to make modeling software available to non modeling specialists. Coupled with rapid progress in computer hardware (including the computational speed afforded by massively parallel computers), progress in numerical algorithms, and the introduction of software frameworks, these lofty goals of merging software in geophysics are now possible. The GeoFramework project, a collaboration between computer scientists and geoscientists, is a response to these needs and opportunities. GeoFramework is based on and extends Pyre, a Python-based modeling framework, recently developed to link solid (Lagrangian) and fluid (Eulerian) models, as well as mesh generators, visualization packages, and databases, with one another for engineering applications. The utility and generality of Pyre as a general purpose framework in science is now being recognized. Besides its use in engineering and geophysics, it is also being used in particle physics and astronomy. Geology and geophysics impose their own unique requirements on software frameworks which are not generally available in existing frameworks and so there is a need for research in this area. One of the special requirements is the way Lagrangian and Eulerian codes will need to be linked in time and space within a plate tectonics context. GeoFramework has grown beyond its initial goal of linking a limited number of exiting codes together. The following codes are now being reengineered within the context of Pyre: Tecton, 3-D FE Visco-elastic code for lithospheric relaxation; CitComS, a code for spherical mantle convection; SpecFEM3D, a SEM code for global and regional seismic waves; eqsim, a FE code for dynamic

  10. Dynamic modeling of environmental risk associated with drilling discharges to marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgut, İsmail; Rye, Henrik; Reed, Mark; Smit, Mathijs G D; Ditlevsen, May Kristin

    2015-10-15

    Drilling discharges are complex mixtures of base-fluids, chemicals and particulates, and may, after discharge to the marine environment, result in adverse effects on benthic communities. A numerical model was developed to estimate the fate of drilling discharges in the marine environment, and associated environmental risks. Environmental risk from deposited drilling waste in marine sediments is generally caused by four types of stressors: oxygen depletion, toxicity, burial and change of grain size. In order to properly model these stressors, natural burial, biodegradation and bioturbation processes were also included. Diagenetic equations provide the basis for quantifying environmental risk. These equations are solved numerically by an implicit-central differencing scheme. The sediment model described here is, together with a fate and risk model focusing on the water column, implemented in the DREAM and OSCAR models, both available within the Marine Environmental Modeling Workbench (MEMW) at SINTEF in Trondheim, Norway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mathematical modeling of oxygen transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ann Mari

    1997-12-31

    This thesis develops mathematical models to describe the electrochemical performance of a solid oxide fuel cell cathode based on electrochemical kinetics and mass transfer. The individual effects of various coupled processes are investigated. A one-dimensional model is developed based on porous electrode theory. Two different mechanisms are investigated for the charge transfer reaction. One of these assumes that intermediately adsorbed oxygen atoms are reduced at the electrode/electrolyte interface, similar to the models proposed for metal electrodes. Simulated polarization curves exhibit limited currents due to depletion of oxygen adsorbates at high cathodic overvoltages. An empirical correlation is confirmed to exist between the limiting current an the oxygen partial pressure, however, a similar correlation often assumed to exist between the measured polarization resistance and the oxygen partial pressure could not be justified. For the other model, oxygen vacancies are assumed to be exchanged directly at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The electrochemical behaviour is improved by reducing the oxygen partial pressure, due to increased vacancy concentration of the electrode material. Simulated polarization curves exhibit Tafel-like slopes in the cathodic direction, which are due to polarization concentration, and not activation polarization in the conventional sense. Anodic limiting currents are predicted due to lack of available free sites for vacancy exchange at the cathode side. The thesis also presents a theoretical treatment of current and potential distributions in simple two-dimensional cell geometries, and a two-dimensional model for a porous electrode-electrolyte system for investigation of the effect of interfacial diffusion of adsorbates along the electrode/electrolyte interface. 172 refs., 60 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Numerical modeling of fluid flow in solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of interstitial fluid flow is developed, based on the application of the governing equations for fluid flow, i.e., the conservation laws for mass and momentum, to physiological systems containing solid tumors. The discretized form of the governing equations, with appropriate boundary conditions, is developed for a predefined tumor geometry. The interstitial fluid pressure and velocity are calculated using a numerical method, element based finite volume. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a homogeneous solid tumor demonstrate that, in a uniformly perfused tumor, i.e., one with no necrotic region, because of the interstitial pressure distribution, the distribution of drug particles is non-uniform. Pressure distribution for different values of necrotic radii is examined and two new parameters, the critical tumor radius and critical necrotic radius, are defined. Simulation results show that: 1 tumor radii have a critical size. Below this size, the maximum interstitial fluid pressure is less than what is generally considered to be effective pressure (a parameter determined by vascular pressure, plasma osmotic pressure, and interstitial osmotic pressure. Above this size, the maximum interstitial fluid pressure is equal to effective pressure. As a consequence, drugs transport to the center of smaller tumors is much easier than transport to the center of a tumor whose radius is greater than the critical tumor radius; 2 there is a critical necrotic radius, below which the interstitial fluid pressure at the tumor center is at its maximum value. If the tumor radius is greater than the critical tumor radius, this maximum pressure is equal to effective pressure. Above this critical necrotic radius, the interstitial fluid pressure at the tumor center is below effective pressure. In specific ranges of these critical sizes, drug amount and therefore therapeutic effects are higher because the opposing force, interstitial fluid

  13. A conceptual model of pore-space blockage in mixed sediments using a new numerical approach, with implications for sediment bed stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzke, Gerhard; Huhn, Katrin

    2015-06-01

    In mixed sediment beds, erosion resistance can change relative to that of beds composed of a uniform sediment because of varying textural and/or other grain-size parameters, with effects on pore water flow that are difficult to quantify by means of analogue techniques. To overcome this difficulty, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed using a finite difference method (FDM) flow model coupled with a distinct element method (DEM) particle model. The main aim was to investigate, at a high spatial resolution, the physical processes occurring during the initiation of motion of single grains at the sediment-water interface and in the shallow subsurface of simplified sediment beds under different flow velocities. Increasing proportions of very fine sand (D50=0.08 mm) were mixed into a coarse sand matrix (D50=0.6 mm) to simulate mixed sediment beds, starting with a pure coarse sand bed in experiment 1 (0 wt% fines), and proceeding through experiment 2 (6.5 wt% fines), experiment 3 (10.5 wt% fines), and experiment 4 (28.7 wt% fines). All mixed beds were tested for their erosion behavior at predefined flow velocities varying in the range of U 1-5=10-30 cm/s. The experiments show that, with increasing fine content, the smaller particles increasingly fill the spaces between the larger particles. As a consequence, pore water inflow into the sediment is increasingly blocked, i.e., there is a decrease in pore water flow velocity and, hence, in the flow momentum available to entrain particles. These findings are portrayed in a new conceptual model of enhanced sediment bed stabilization.

  14. Sediment-hosted gold deposits of the world: database and grade and tonnage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vladimir I.; Mosier, Dan L.; Bliss, James D.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    All sediment-hosted gold deposits (as a single population) share one characteristic—they all have disseminated micron-sized invisible gold in sedimentary rocks. Sediment-hosted gold deposits are recognized in the Great Basin province of the western United States and in China along with a few recognized deposits in Indonesia, Iran, and Malaysia. Three new grade and tonnage models for sediment-hosted gold deposits are presented in this paper: (1) a general sediment-hosted gold type model, (2) a Carlin subtype model, and (3) a Chinese subtype model. These models are based on grade and tonnage data from a database compilation of 118 sediment-hosted gold deposits including a total of 123 global deposits. The new general grade and tonnage model for sediment-hosted gold deposits (n=118) has a median tonnage of 5.7 million metric tonnes (Mt) and a gold grade of 2.9 grams per tonne (g/t). This new grade and tonnage model is remarkable in that the estimated parameters of the resulting grade and tonnage distributions are comparable to the previous model of Mosier and others (1992). A notable change is in the reporting of silver in more than 10 percent of deposits; moreover, the previous model had not considered deposits in China. From this general grade and tonnage model, two significantly different subtypes of sediment-hosted gold deposits are differentiated: Carlin and Chinese. The Carlin subtype includes 88 deposits in the western United States, Indonesia, Iran, and Malaysia, with median tonnage and grade of 7.1 Mt and 2.0 g/t Au, respectively. The silver grade is 0.78 g/t Ag for the 10th percentile of deposits. The Chinese subtype represents 30 deposits in China, with a median tonnage of 3.9 Mt and medium grade of 4.6 g/t Au. Important differences are recognized in the mineralogy and alteration of the two sediment-hosted gold subtypes such as: increased sulfide minerals in the Chinese subtype and decalcification alteration dominant in the Carlin type. We therefore

  15. Dynamic linear models to explore time-varying suspended sediment-discharge rating curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kuk-Hyun; Yellen, Brian; Steinschneider, Scott

    2017-06-01

    This study presents a new method to examine long-term dynamics in sediment yield using time-varying sediment-discharge rating curves. Dynamic linear models (DLMs) are introduced as a time series filter that can assess how the relationship between streamflow and sediment concentration or load changes over time in response to a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic watershed disturbances or long-term changes. The filter operates by updating parameter values using a recursive Bayesian design that responds to 1 day-ahead forecast errors while also accounting for observational noise. The estimated time series of rating curve parameters can then be used to diagnose multiscale (daily-decadal) variability in sediment yield after accounting for fluctuations in streamflow. The technique is applied in a case study examining changes in turbidity load, a proxy for sediment load, in the Esopus Creek watershed, part of the New York City drinking water supply system. The results show that turbidity load exhibits a complex array of variability across time scales. The DLM highlights flood event-driven positive hysteresis, where turbidity load remained elevated for months after large flood events, as a major component of dynamic behavior in the rating curve relationship. The DLM also produces more accurate 1 day-ahead loading forecasts compared to other static and time-varying rating curve methods. The results suggest that DLMs provide a useful tool for diagnosing changes in sediment-discharge relationships over time and may help identify variability in sediment concentrations and loads that can be used to inform dynamic water quality management.

  16. Laboratory Modeling of Self-Formed Leveed Channels From Sediment-Laden Flows Entering Still Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Self-formed leveed channels constructed by deposition of suspended sediment from sediment-laden flows entering still water are common features in nature. Such channels drive delta progradation, develop at tidal inlets and occur where mainstem river flows empty into oxbows and blocked valley lakes. Presently there is no theory for the formation of such channels. This lack of theory is partly due to a lack of field or laboratory studies that provide insight about the mechanism controlling these self-formed, propagating channels. The creation of such features in the laboratory, have proved illusive to date. Our ongoing experiments aimed at modeling the formation of floodplain tie channels provide insight into the necessary conditions for levee formation and channel growth. Under conditions of steady water discharge, constant sediment feed rate, unimodal sediment distribution and invariant basin stage we are able to create subaqueous lateral bars (submerged levees) along the margins of a sediment laden jet. Our results highlight the sensitivity of channel formation to issues of scaling and experimental design. In the laboratory, levee formation has only been possible with the use of plastic particles (specific gravity ~1.5); complete bed alluviation and dune formation results from the use of particles with specific gravities of ~ 2.65 across a range grain diameters and shapes. We hypothesize this effect is related to high entrainment thresholds relative to suspension thresholds of small (< 100 mm) natural particles under conditions of reduced turbulence in laboratory scaled flows. Additionally, both the width to depth ratio and the form of the outlet channel introducing the sediment laden flow into the experimental basin exert a strong control on sedimentation pattern and levee growth. Continuing experiments are focused on generating emergent channel levees and a basin ward propagation of the channel by adjusting the form of the feed channel, varying basin stage, and

  17. Multiphase Modeling of Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid rocket motor (SRM) design requires thorough understanding of the slag accumulation process in order to: predict thrust continuity, optimize propellant...

  18. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  19. Simplifying modeling of nanoparticle aggregation-sedimentation behavior in environmental systems: A theoretical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, J.T.K.; Meent, van de D.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Parameters and simplified model approaches for describing the fate of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are crucial to advance the risk assessment of these materials. Sedimentation behavior of ENPs in natural waters has been shown to follow apparent first order behavior, a ‘black box’ phenomenon that

  20. Quantitative analysis of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments: a modeling perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regnier, P.; Dale, A.W.; Arndt, S.; LaRowe, D.E.; Mogollon, J.M.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the quantitativemodeling of methane dynamics and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments are critically reviewed. The first part of the review begins with a comparison of alternative kinetic models for AOM. The roles of bioenergetic limitations, intermediate

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Hydraulics and Sedimentation in Process Reactors during Aeration Tank Settling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.D.; Ingildsen, P.; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    haveshown to be more effective than others. To improve the design of less effective plants, computational fluiddynamics (CFD) modelling of hydraulics and sedimentation has been applied. This paper discusses theresults at one particular plant experiencing problems with partly short-circuiting of the inlet...

  2. Modeling suspended sediment discharge from the Waipaoa River system, New Zealand : The last 3000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kettner, A.J.; Gomez, B.; Syvitski, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    HydroTrend, a hydrologic-transport model, is used to simulate the water and suspended sediment discharge of the Waipaoa River system over the last 3 Kyr, a time period in which a well-documented sequence of natural events and anthropogenic activities that profoundly impacted drainage basin processes

  3. Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Modelling in the Pra River Basin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kusimi

    are applicable at catchment scale; event based; and continuous models of spatially and temporally distribution (i.e., 2D) (e.g., Amore et al., 2004; Fistikoglu ..... the integration of RUSLE into GIS give a vivid spatial dimension in soil erosion and sediment yield in the Pra Basin. Given the elements and processes prevailing in ...

  4. Modelling centennial sediment waves in an eroding landscape – catchment complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, J.M.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment flux dynamics in fluvial systems have often been related to changes in external drivers of topography, climate or land cover. It is well known that these dynamics are non-linear. Recently, model simulations of fluvial activity and landscape evolution have suggested that self-organization in

  5. A model for early diagenetic processes in sediments of the continental shelf of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model for early diagenetic processes in the sediments of the north-western continental shelf of the Black Sea is presented. The north-western shelf area is influenced by nutrient, organic matter and reactive iron inputs from major rivers such as the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester. Low

  6. Quantifying particle dispersal in aquatic sediments at short time scales: model selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Malyuga, V.; Boudreau, B.P.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    In a pulse-tracer experiment, a layer of tracer particles is added to the sediment-water interface, and the down-mixing of these particles is followed over a short time scale. Here, we compare different models (biodiffusion, telegraph, CTRW) to analyse the resulting tracer depth profiles. The

  7. Constraining biogenic silica dissolution in marine sediments: a comparison between diagenetic models and experimental dissolution rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, K.; Rabouille, C.; Gallinari, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; DeMaster, D.J.; Ragueneau, O.

    2007-01-01

    The processes controlling preservation and recycling of particulate biogenic silica in sediments must be understood in order to calculate oceanic silica mass balances. The new contribution of this work is the coupled use of advanced models including reprecipitation and different phases of biogenic

  8. Modelling of Sediment Transport of the Mehadica River, Caras Severin County, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozav, Adia; Beilicci, Robert; Beilicci, Erika

    2017-10-01

    Study case is situated in Caras-Severin County. Every sediment transport model application is different both in terms of time and space scale, study objectives, required accuracy, allocated resources, background of the study team etc. For sediment transport modelling, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the sediment in the river bed. Therefore, it is recommended to collect a number of bed sediment grap samples. These samples should be analysing in terms of grain size distribution. To solve theoretical problems of movement of water in the river Mehadica, it requires modelling of water flow in this case. Numerical modelling was performed using the program MIKE11. MIKE 11 is a user-friendly, fully dynamic, one-dimensional modelling tool for the detailed analysis, design, management and operation of both simple and complex river and channel systems. With its exceptional flexibility, speed and user friendly environment, MIKE 11 provides a complete and effective design environment for engineering, water resources, water quality management and planning applications. The Hydrodynamic (HD) module is the nucleus of the MIKE 11 modelling system and forms the basis for most modules including Flood Forecasting, Advection- Dispersion, Water Quality and Non-cohesive sediment transport modules. The MIKE 11 HD module solves the vertically integrated equations for the conservation of mass and momentum, i.e. the Saint-Venant equations. The input data are: area plan with location of cross sections; cross sections topographical data and roughness of river bed; flood discharge hydrograph. Advanced computational modules are included for description of flow over hydraulic structures, including possibilities to describe structure operation.

  9. A regression model using sediment chemistry for the evaluation of marine environmental impacts associated with salmon aquaculture cage wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.L.; Haya, K.; Paon, L.A.; Moffatt, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop an approach for modelling changes of sediment chemistry related to the accumulation of aquaculture waste. Metal composition of sediment Al, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, and Zn; organic carbon and 2 =0.945 compared to R 2 =0.653 for the regression model using unadjusted EMP for assessing the environmental conditions

  10. Sensitivity analysis of a sediment dynamics model applied in a Mediterranean river basin: global change and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Canales, M; López-Benito, A; Acuña, V; Ziv, G; Hamel, P; Chaplin-Kramer, R; Elorza, F J

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and land-use change are major factors influencing sediment dynamics. Models can be used to better understand sediment production and retention by the landscape, although their interpretation is limited by large uncertainties, including model parameter uncertainties. The uncertainties related to parameter selection may be significant and need to be quantified to improve model interpretation for watershed management. In this study, we performed a sensitivity analysis of the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs) sediment retention model in order to determine which model parameters had the greatest influence on model outputs, and therefore require special attention during calibration. The estimation of the sediment loads in this model is based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The sensitivity analysis was performed in the Llobregat basin (NE Iberian Peninsula) for exported and retained sediment, which support two different ecosystem service benefits (avoided reservoir sedimentation and improved water quality). Our analysis identified the model parameters related to the natural environment as the most influential for sediment export and retention. Accordingly, small changes in variables such as the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events could cause major changes in sediment dynamics, demonstrating the sensitivity of these dynamics to climate change in Mediterranean basins. Parameters directly related to human activities and decisions (such as cover management factor, C) were also influential, especially for sediment exported. The importance of these human-related parameters in the sediment export process suggests that mitigation measures have the potential to at least partially ameliorate climate-change driven changes in sediment exportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aquatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, J.S.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Schreiber, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a literature review concerning sediment properties, interactions, and conditions. Topics of discussion include the following: biological activity and toxicity; nutrients; metals; organic compounds; dredging; radionuclides; oxygen demand and organic carbon; mathematical modeling; sediment transport and suspension; and paleolimnology

  12. Storm-driven delivery of sediment to the continental slope: Numerical modeling for the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. K.; Kniskern, T. A.; Arango, H.

    2016-02-01

    The supply of sediment from the continental shelf to deeper waters is of critical importance for building continental margin repositories of sediment, and may also factor into episodic events on the continental slope such as turbidity currents and slope failures. While numerical sediment transport models have been developed for coastal and continental shelf areas, they have not often been used to infer sediment delivery to deeper waters. A three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic - suspended sediment transport model for the northern Gulf of Mexico has been developed and run to evaluate the types of conditions that are associated with delivery of suspended sediment to the continental slope. Accounting for sediment delivery by riverine plumes and for sediment resuspension by energetic waves and currents, the sediment transport calculations were implemented within the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model domain represents the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf and slope including the Mississippi birdfoot delta and the Mississippi and DeSoto Canyons. To investigate the role of storms in driving down-slope sediment fluxes, model runs that encompassed fall, 2007 through late summer, 2008 the summer and fall of 2008 were analyzed. This time period included several winter storms, and the passage of two hurricanes (Ike and Gustav) over the study area. Preliminary results indicated that sediment delivery to the continental slope was triggered by the passage of these storm events, and focused at certain locations, such as submarine canyons. Additionally, a climatological analysis indicates that storm track influences both the wind-driven currents and wave energy on the shelf, and as such plays an important role in determining which storms trigger delivery of suspended continental shelf sediment to the adjacent slope.

  13. Evaluation of 10 cross-shore sediment transport morphological models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoonees, JS

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available different purpose another model may be better. Data are generally lacking for accretionary events and for erosion cases where the significant wave heights exceed 2.5 m. Aspects presently usually not included in these models are also listed. Without direct...

  14. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Armitage

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An

  15. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, John J.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Zakari, Mustapha; Campforts, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic) response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An important finding is that

  16. Geological modeling of a stratified deposit with CAD-Based solid model automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Eser

    Full Text Available Abstract The planning stages of mining activities require many comprehensive and detailed analyses. Determining the correct orebody model is the first stage and one of the most important. Three-dimensional solid modeling is one of the significant methods that can examine the position and shape of the ore deposit. Although there are many different types of mining software for determining a solid model, many users try to build geological models in the computer without knowing how these software packages work. As researchers on the subject, we wanted to answer the question "How would we do it". For this purpose, a system was developed for generating solid models using data obtained from boreholes. Obtaining this model in an AutoCAD environment will be important for geologists and engineers. Developed programs were first tested with virtual borehole data belonging to a virtual deposit. Then the real borehole data of a cement raw material site were successfully applied. This article allows readers not only to see a clear example of the programming approach to layered deposits but also to produce more complicated software in this context. Our study serves as a window to understanding the geological modeling process.

  17. Characterization and modeling of sediment settling, consolidation, and suspension to optimize coastal Louisiana restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, X.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Robichaux, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    Many research efforts have been undertaken over many decades in the field of Louisiana coastal restoration, but long-term experiments for sediment suspension and consolidation in diversion-receiving basins are still limited, despite significance of this topic to ongoing restoration strategies. Sediment samples were collected from two active diversions on the Mississippi River: West Bay, a semi-enclosed bay located on the Mississippi River Delta and fed by the West Bay Diversion, and from Big Mar pond, a receiving basin of the Caernarvon freshwater diversion from the lower Mississippi River, Louisiana, USA. A dual-core Gust Erosion Microcosm System was used to measure time-series (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6-months after initial settling) erodibility at seven shear stress regimes (0.01-0.60 Pa) using experimental cores prepared with two initial sediment concentrations (60 and 120 kg m-3). A 230-cm tall settling column with nine sampling ports was used to measure the consolidation rates for initial sediment concentrations ranging from fluid mud (10 kg m-3) to dredge effluent (120 kg m-3), in combination with two levels of salinity (1 and 5). The erodibility of West Bay sediment decreased with increasing time of consolidation. The critical shear stress for resuspension increased from 0.2 Pa after 2 months to 0.45 Pa after 4 months of consolidation. The consolidation rates were inversely and exponentially related to initial sediment concentrations. Consolidation tests in salinity of 1 generally settled faster than that in salinity of 5, and consolidation tests with low sediment concentration tests generally settled faster than high-concentration tests. An exponential coefficient was added in the Sanford (2008) model to better predict the consolidation profile of both rapid early settling and slow self-weight consolidation processes. Our study suggests that enclosed basin, low salinity, relatively low sediment concentration and minimized disturbance for 4 months all favor

  18. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  19. Bedforms as Biocatalytic Filters: A Pumping and Streamline Segregation Model for Nitrate Removal in Permeable Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Morvarid; Grant, Stanley B; Kessler, Adam J; Cook, Perran L M; Rippy, Megan A; Stewardson, Michael J

    2015-09-15

    Bedforms are a focal point of carbon and nitrogen cycling in streams and coastal marine ecosystems. In this paper, we develop and test a mechanistic model, the "pumping and streamline segregation" or PASS model, for nitrate removal in bedforms. The PASS model dramatically reduces computational overhead associated with modeling nitrogen transformations in bedforms and reproduces (within a factor of 2 or better) previously published measurements and models of biogeochemical reaction rates, benthic fluxes, and in-sediment nutrient and oxygen concentrations. Application of the PASS model to a diverse set of marine and freshwater environments indicates that (1) physical controls on nitrate removal in a bedform include the pore water flushing rate, residence time distribution, and relative rates of respiration and transport (as represented by the Damkohler number); (2) the biogeochemical pathway for nitrate removal is an environment-specific combination of direct denitrification of stream nitrate and coupled nitrification-denitrification of stream and/or sediment ammonium; and (3) permeable sediments are almost always a net source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. The PASS model also provides a mechanistic explanation for previously published empirical correlations showing denitrification velocity (N2 flux divided by nitrate concentration) declines as a power law of nitrate concentration in a stream (Mulholland et al. Nature, 2008, 452, 202-205).

  20. A multi basin SWAT model analysis of runoff and sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Easton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. The model simulates saturation excess runoff from the landscape using a simple daily water balance coupled to a topographic wetness index in ways that are consistent with observed runoff processes in the basin. The spatial distribution of landscape erosion is thus simulated more correctly. The model was parameterized in a nested design for flow at eight and sediment at three locations in the basin. Subbasins ranged in size from 1.3 to 174 000 km2, and interestingly, the partitioning of runoff and infiltrating flow could be predicted by topographic information. Model predictions showed reasonable accuracy (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies ranged from 0.53–0.92 with measured data across all sites except Kessie, where the water budget could not be closed; however, the timing of flow was well captured. Runoff losses increased with rainfall during the monsoonal season and were greatest from areas with shallow soils and large contributing areas. Analysis of model results indicate that upland landscape erosion dominated sediment delivery to the main stem of the Blue Nile in the early part of the growing season when tillage occurs and before the soil was wetted up and plant cover was established. Once plant cover was established in mid August landscape erosion was negligible and sediment export was dominated by channel processes and re-suspension of landscape sediment deposited early in the growing season. These results imply that targeting small

  1. Model of the discrete destruction process of a solid body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagolev, V. V.; Markin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Destruction is considered as a discrete thermomechanical process, in which the deformation of a solid body is achieved by changing the boundary stresses acting on the part of the volume being destroyed with the external load unchanged. On the basis of the proposed concept, a model for adhesive stratification of a composite material is constructed. When adhesive stratification is used, the stress state of one or two boundaries of the adhesive layer changes to zero if the bonds with the joined body are broken. As a result of the stratification, the interaction between the part of the composite, which may include an adhesive layer and the rest of the body stops. When solving the elastoplastic problem of cohesive stratification, the region in which the destruction criterion is achieved is identified. With the help of a repeated solution of the problem of subcritical deformation with the known law of motion of the boundary of the region, the distribution of the load (nodal forces) acting from the region to the body is located. The next step considers the change in the stress–strain state of the body in the process of destruction of the selected area. The elastoplastic problem is solved with a simple unloading of the formed surface of the body and preservation of the external load corresponding to the beginning of the process of destruction.

  2. Mathematical modeling of solid cancer growth with angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hyun M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer arises when within a single cell multiple malfunctions of control systems occur, which are, broadly, the system that promote cell growth and the system that protect against erratic growth. Additional systems within the cell must be corrupted so that a cancer cell, to form a mass of any real size, produces substances that promote the growth of new blood vessels. Multiple mutations are required before a normal cell can become a cancer cell by corruption of multiple growth-promoting systems. Methods We develop a simple mathematical model to describe the solid cancer growth dynamics inducing angiogenesis in the absence of cancer controlling mechanisms. Results The initial conditions supplied to the dynamical system consist of a perturbation in form of pulse: The origin of cancer cells from normal cells of an organ of human body. Thresholds of interacting parameters were obtained from the steady states analysis. The existence of two equilibrium points determine the strong dependency of dynamical trajectories on the initial conditions. The thresholds can be used to control cancer. Conclusions Cancer can be settled in an organ if the following combination matches: better fitness of cancer cells, decrease in the efficiency of the repairing systems, increase in the capacity of sprouting from existing vascularization, and higher capacity of mounting up new vascularization. However, we show that cancer is rarely induced in organs (or tissues displaying an efficient (numerically and functionally reparative or regenerative mechanism.

  3. An environmentally sustainable decision model for urban solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costi, P.; Minciardi, R.; Robba, M.; Rovatti, M.; Sacile, R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the structure and the application of a decision support system (DSS) designed to help decision makers of a municipality in the development of incineration, disposal, treatment and recycling integrated programs. Specifically, within a MSW management system, several treatment plants and facilities can generally be found: separators, plants for production of refuse derived fuel (RDF), incinerators with energy recovery, plants for treatment of organic material, and sanitary landfills. The main goal of the DSS is to plan the MSW management, defining the refuse flows that have to be sent to recycling or to different treatment or disposal plants, and suggesting the optimal number, the kinds, and the localization of the plants that have to be active. The DSS is based on a decision model that requires the solution of a constrained non-linear optimization problem, where some decision variables are binary and other ones are continuous. The objective function takes into account all possible economic costs, whereas constraints arise from technical, normative, and environmental issues. Specifically, pollution and impacts, induced by the overall solid waste management system, are considered through the formalization of constraints on incineration emissions and on negative effects produced by disposal or other particular treatments

  4. Sediment depositions upstream of open check dams: new elements from small scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Le Guern, Jules; Carbonari, Costanza; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    numbers that the flows tend to adopt? New small scale model experiments have been undertaken focusing on depositions processes and their related hydraulics. Accurate photogrammetric measurements allowed us to better describe the deposition processes3. Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LS-PIV) was performed to determine surface velocity fields in highly active channels with low grain submersion4. We will present preliminary results of our experiments showing the new elements we observed in massive deposit dynamics. REFERENCES 1.Armanini, A., Dellagiacoma, F. & Ferrari, L. From the check dam to the development of functional check dams. Fluvial Hydraulics of Mountain Regions 37, 331-344 (1991). 2.Piton, G. & Recking, A. Design of sediment traps with open check dams: a review, part I: hydraulic and deposition processes. (Accepted by the) Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 1-23 (2015). 3.Le Guern, J. Ms Thesis: Modélisation physique des plages de depot : analyse de la dynamique de remplissage.(2014) . 4.Carbonari, C. Ms Thesis: Small scale experiments of deposition processes occuring in sediment traps, LS-PIV measurments and geomorphological descriptions. (in preparation).

  5. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Sohlenius, Gustav; Omberg, Lars-Gunnar; Borgiel, Mikael; Grolander, Sara; Norden, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d ) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K d data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K d values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K d resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K d values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K d values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K d values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  6. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve (ECOMatters Inc. (Canada)); Sohlenius, Gustav (Sveriges geologiska undersoekning (Sweden)); Omberg, Lars-Gunnar (ALS Scandinavia AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden)); Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K{sub d} data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K{sub d} values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K{sub d} resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K{sub d} values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K{sub d} values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K{sub d} values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  7. Nutrients and sediment in frozen-ground runoff from no-till fields receiving liquid-dairy and solid-beef manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiskey, Matthew J.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Frame, Dennis R.; Madison, Fred W.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and sediment in surface runoff from frozen agricultural fields were monitored within three small (16.0 ha [39.5 ac] or less), adjacent basins at a no-till farm in southwest Wisconsin during four winters from 2003 to 2004 through 2006 to 2007. Runoff depths and flow-weighted constituent concentrations were compared to determine the impacts of surface-applied liquid-dairy or solid-beef manure to frozen and/or snow-covered ground. Despite varying the manure type and the rate and timing of applications, runoff depths were not significantly different among basins within each winter period. Sediment losses were low (generally less than 22 kg ha−1 [20 lb ac−1] in any year) and any statistical differences in sediment concentrations among basins were not related to the presence or absence of manure or the amount of runoff. Concentrations and losses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were significantly increased in basins that had either manure type applied less than one week preceding runoff. These increases occurred despite relatively low application rates. Lower concentrations and losses were measured in basins that had manure applied in fall and early winter and an extended period of time (months) had elapsed before the first runoff event. The highest mean, flow-weighted concentrations of total nitrogen (31.8 mg L−1) and total phosphorus (10.9 mg L−1) occurred in winter 2003 to 2004, when liquid-dairy manure was applied less than one week before runoff. On average, dissolved phosphorus accounted for over 80% of all phosphorus measured in runoff during frozen-ground periods. The data collected as part of this study add to the limited information on the quantity and quality of frozen-ground runoff at field edges, and the results highlight the importance of manure management decisions during frozen-ground periods to minimize nutrients lost in surface runoff.

  8. BeachWin: Modelling groundwater effects on swash sediment transport and beach profile changes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L.; Barry, D. A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Masselink, G.

    2002-01-01

    Field and laboratory observations have shown that a relatively low beach groundwater table enhances beach accretion. These observations have led to the beach dewatering technique (artificially lowering the beach water table) for combating beach erosion. Here we present a process-based numerical model that simulates the interacting wave motion on the beach, coastal groundwater flow, swash sediment transport and beach profile changes. Results of model...

  9. Quantitative analysis of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments: A modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, P.; Dale, A. W.; Arndt, S.; LaRowe, D. E.; Mogollón, J.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2011-05-01

    Recent developments in the quantitative modeling of methane dynamics and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments are critically reviewed. The first part of the review begins with a comparison of alternative kinetic models for AOM. The roles of bioenergetic limitations, intermediate compounds and biomass growth are highlighted. Next, the key transport mechanisms in multi-phase sedimentary environments affecting AOM and methane fluxes are briefly treated, while attention is also given to additional controls on methane and sulfate turnover, including organic matter mineralization, sulfur cycling and methane phase transitions. In the second part of the review, the structure, forcing functions and parameterization of published models of AOM in sediments are analyzed. The six-orders-of-magnitude range in rate constants reported for the widely used bimolecular rate law for AOM emphasizes the limited transferability of this simple kinetic model and, hence, the need for more comprehensive descriptions of the AOM reaction system. The derivation and implementation of more complete reaction models, however, are limited by the availability of observational data. In this context, we attempt to rank the relative benefits of potential experimental measurements that should help to better constrain AOM models. The last part of the review presents a compilation of reported depth-integrated AOM rates (ΣAOM). These rates reveal the extreme variability of ΣAOM in marine sediments. The model results are further used to derive quantitative relationships between ΣAOM and the magnitude of externally impressed fluid flow, as well as between ΣAOM and the depth of the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ). This review contributes to an improved understanding of the global significance of the AOM process, and helps identify outstanding questions and future directions in the modeling of methane cycling and AOM in marine sediments.

  10. Numerical Modelling of Suspended Transport and Deposition of Highway Deposited Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Bach, Christine

    Good data for calibration and validation of numerical models are of high importance. In the natural environment data can be hard to archive and the stochastic nature have governing influence on the data archived. Hence for modelling of suspended transport and deposition of particles, originating...... from the highway surfaces, in highway detention ponds, four experiments are carried out. To simplify the complexity of a real pond and for easy control and measurement the sediment transports where carried out in two rectangular channels....

  11. 3D CFD Modeling of Local Scouring, Bed Armoring and Sediment Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely T. Török

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D numerical models are increasingly used to simulate flow, sediment transport and morphological changes of rivers. For the simulation of bedload transport, the numerical flow model is generally coupled with an empirical sediment transport model. The application range of the most widely used empirical models is, however, often limited in terms of hydraulic and sedimentological features and therefore the numerical model can hardly be applied to complex situations where different kinds of morphological processes take place at the same time, such as local scouring, bed armoring and aggradation of finer particles. As a possible solution method for this issue, we present the combined application of two bedload transport formulas that widens the application range and thus gives more appropriate simulation results. An example of this technique is presented in the paper by combining two bedload transport formulas. For model validation, the results of a laboratory experiment, where bed armoring, local scouring and local sediment deposition processes occurred, were used. The results showed that the combined application method can improve the reliability of the numerical simulations.

  12. Hybrid sediment transport model for the “linguado” channel, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Conde Perez dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study involves an assessment of various artificial intelligence-related techniques which aim to produce a more robust system for sediment transport modeling. The intelligent systems developed in this research are directly applicable to academic knowledge and use data from a report on "water circulation assessment in the “Linguado” Channel and Babitonga Bay ,”Santa Catarina”, Brazil, developed by  Military Engineering Institute (IME. The solution employed for sediment transport was built using an intelligent system from the conception of two hybrid models. The first was a Neuro-Fuzzy (ANFIS hybrid model for the study of hydrodynamic behavior, aiming to determine flow rate in the channel. The second was a fuzzy genetic model, able to assess sediment transport in the “Linguado” Channel. The study's conclusion compares the different effects involved in the dredging equilibrium in the “Linguado” Channel according to this hybrid model with the results obtained using a finite element model in the MIKE21® software.

  13. LOSCAR: Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    The LOSCAR model is designed to efficiently compute the partitioning of carbon between ocean, atmosphere, and sediments on time scales ranging from centuries to millions of years. While a variety of computationally inexpensive carbon cycle models are already available, many are missing a critical sediment component, which is indispensable for long-term integrations. One of LOSCAR's strengths is the coupling of ocean-atmosphere routines to a computationally efficient sediment module. This allows, for instance, adequate computation of CaCO3 dissolution, calcite compensation, and long-term carbon cycle fluxes, including weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks. The ocean component includes various biogeochemical tracers such as total carbon, alkalinity, phosphate, oxygen, and stable carbon isotopes. We have previously published applications of the model tackling future projections of ocean chemistry and weathering, pCO2 sensitivity to carbon cycle perturbations throughout the Cenozoic, and carbon/calcium cycling during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. The focus of the present contribution is the detailed description of the model including numerical architecture, processes and parameterizations, tuning, and examples of input and output. Typical CPU integration times of LOSCAR are of order seconds for several thousand model years on current standard desktop machines. The LOSCAR source code in C can be obtained from the author by sending a request to loscar.model@gmail.com.

  14. Modeling Swash zone sediment transport at Truc Vert beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooijen, A.; Reniers, A.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.; Blenkinsopp, C.; McCall, R.

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional hydrostatic version of the XBeach model (Roelvink et al., 2009) is applied to hindcast swash morphodynamics measured during an accretive, and an erosive tide at Le Truc Vert beach (France) in early spring 2008 (Masselink et. al, 2009; Blenkinsopp et al., 2011). Swash hydrodynamics

  15. Multiphase CFD modeling of nearfield fate of sediment plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saremi, Sina; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    . The two-phase mixture solution based on the drift-flux method is evaluated for 3D simulation of material disposal and overflow discharge from the hoppers. The model takes into account the hindrance and resistance mechanisms in the mixture and is capable of describing the flow details within the plumes...

  16. PALYNOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE LATE NEOGENE SEDIMENTS OF EASTERN SLAVONIA (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Pecimotika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By applying a palynological analysis of the Late Neogene sediments from one exploration well in the area of Eastern Slavonia, three vegetation zones (Z1, Z2, Z3 as conditioned by climate sensitivity were set. On the basis of mutual percentage relations of the occurrence of individual form-species and grouping them according to the results of cluster analysis, these zones reflect the changes of warm-cold and variable humidity periods. The age of zones has been determined: zone Z1 is Pontian, zone Z2 is Pliocene and zone Z3 is Pleistocene-Holocene. In the Pontian, 13 form-species of spores were determined that do not cross the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. In the Pliocene, 4 index form-species of spores were determined that were not found in the Quaternary in the study area. In the youngest sediments of the study area, i.e. Pleistocene and Holocene, 7 index form-species of spores were determined. Together with well logging (gamma ray and specific resistivity logs of the formation, a model was constructed for the local routine provision of age in the study area. The results are generally consistent with other results obtained from Early Neogene sediments in adjacent areas in the central part of Paratethys, and may serve as a model for the correlation of contemporaneous sediments in other areas of Croatia, e.g. Sava and Drava Depressions , which in effect may contribute to the more efficient investigation of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  17. Additive surface complexation modeling of uranium(VI) adsorption onto quartz-sand dominated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenming; Wan, Jiamin

    2014-06-17

    Many aquifers contaminated by U(VI)-containing acidic plumes are composed predominantly of quartz-sand sediments. The F-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina (USA) is an example. To predict U(VI) mobility and natural attenuation, we conducted U(VI) adsorption experiments using the F-Area plume sediments and reference quartz, goethite, and kaolinite. The sediments are composed of ∼96% quartz-sand and 3-4% fine fractions of kaolinite and goethite. We developed a new humic acid adsorption method for determining the relative surface area abundances of goethite and kaolinite in the fine fractions. This method is expected to be applicable to many other binary mineral pairs, and allows successful application of the component additivity (CA) approach based surface complexation modeling (SCM) at the SRS F-Area and other similar aquifers. Our experimental results indicate that quartz has stronger U(VI) adsorption ability per unit surface area than goethite and kaolinite at pH ≤ 4.0. Our modeling results indicate that the binary (goethite/kaolinite) CA-SCM under-predicts U(VI) adsorption to the quartz-sand dominated sediments at pH ≤ 4.0. The new ternary (quartz/goethite/kaolinite) CA-SCM provides excellent predictions. The contributions of quartz-sand, kaolinite, and goethite to U(VI) adsorption and the potential influences of dissolved Al, Si, and Fe are also discussed.

  18. Multivariate geostatistical modeling of the spatial sediment distribution in a large scale drainage basin, Upper Rhone, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Anna; Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schrott, Lothar

    2018-02-01

    There is a notable discrepancy between detailed sediment budget studies in small headwater catchments ( 103 km2) in higher order catchments applying modeling and/or remote sensing based approaches for major sediment storage delineation. To bridge the gap between these scales, we compiled an inventory of sediment and bedrock coverage from field mapping, remote sensing analysis and published data for five key sites in the Upper Rhone Basin (Val d'Illiez, Val de la Liène, Turtmanntal, Lötschental, Goms; 360.3 km2, equivalent to 6.7% of the Upper Rhone Basin). This inventory was used as training and testing data for the classification of sediment and bedrock cover. From a digital elevation model (2 × 2 m ground resolution) and Landsat imagery we derived 22 parameters characterizing local morphometry, topography and position, contributing area, and climatic and biotic factors on different spatial scales, which were used as inputs for different statistical models (logistic regression, principal component logistic regression, generalized additive model). Best prediction results with an excellent performance (mean AUROC: 0.8721 ± 0.0012) and both a high spatial and non-spatial transferability were achieved applying a generalized additive model. Since the model has a high thematic consistency, the independent input variables chosen based on their geomorphic relevance are suitable to model the spatial distribution of sediment. Our high-resolution classification shows that 53.5 ± 21.7% of the Upper Rhone Basin are covered with sediment. These are by no means evenly distributed: small headwaters (< 5 km2) feature a very strong variability in sediment coverage, with watersheds drowning in sediments juxtaposed to watersheds devoid of sediment cover. In contrast, larger watersheds predominantly show a bimodal distribution, with highest densities for bedrock (30-40%) being consistently lower than for sediment cover (60-65%). Earlier studies quantifying sedimentary cover and

  19. Modelling the transport of solid contaminants originated from a point source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Dora V.; Conde, Daniel A. S.; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton J.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    The solid phases of natural flows can comprise an important repository for contaminants in aquatic ecosystems and can propagate as turbidity currents generating a stratified environment. Contaminants can be desorbed under specific environmental conditions becoming re-suspended, with a potential impact on the aquatic biota. Forecasting the distribution of the contaminated turbidity current is thus crucial for a complete assessment of environmental exposure. In this work we validate the ability of the model STAV-2D, developed at CERIS (IST), to simulate stratified flows such as those resulting from turbidity currents in complex geometrical environments. The validation involves not only flow phenomena inherent to flows generated by density imbalance but also convective effects brought about by the complex geometry of the water basin where the current propagates. This latter aspect is of paramount importance since, in real applications, currents may propagate in semi-confined geometries in plan view, generating important convective accelerations. Velocity fields and mass distributions obtained from experiments carried out at CERIS - (IST) are used as validation data for the model. The experimental set-up comprises a point source in a rectangular basin with a wall placed perpendicularly to the outer walls. Thus generates a complex 2D flow with an advancing wave front and shocks due to the flow reflection from the walls. STAV-2D is based on the depth- and time-averaged mass and momentum equations for mixtures of water and sediment, understood as continua. It is closed in terms of flow resistance and capacity bedload discharge by a set of classic closure models and a specific high concentration formulation. The two-layer model is derived from layer-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, resulting in a system of layer-specific non-linear shallow-water equations, solved through explicit first or second-order schemes. According to the experimental data for mass distribution, the

  20. Sources of suspended-sediment flux in streams of the chesapeake bay watershed: A regional application of the sparrow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J.W.; Ator, S.W.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the sources and transport of fluvial suspended sediment in nontidal streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed and vicinity. We applied SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes, which spatially correlates estimated mean annual flux of suspended sediment in nontidal streams with sources of suspended sediment and transport factors. According to our model, urban development generates on average the greatest amount of suspended sediment per unit area (3,928 Mg/km2/year), although agriculture is much more widespread and is the greatest overall source of suspended sediment (57 Mg/km2/year). Factors affecting sediment transport from uplands to streams include mean basin slope, reservoirs, physiography, and soil permeability. On average, 59% of upland suspended sediment generated is temporarily stored along large rivers draining the Coastal Plain or in reservoirs throughout the watershed. Applying erosion and sediment controls from agriculture and urban development in areas of the northern Piedmont close to the upper Bay, where the combined effects of watershed characteristics on sediment transport have the greatest influence may be most helpful in mitigating sedimentation in the bay and its tributaries. Stream restoration efforts addressing floodplain and bank stabilization and incision may be more effective in smaller, headwater streams outside of the Coastal Plain. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association. No claim to original U.S. government works.

  1. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  2. Localized Carbon Deposition in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Studied By Multiphysics Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navasa, Maria; Graves, Christopher R.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    Modeling for optimizing performance has attracted substantial research efforts in the last twenty years with special focus on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, limited amount of the modeling work has been focused on the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) operation mode and even less...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity fluxes from coastal marine sediments: Model estimates for different shelf environments and sensitivity to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumins, V.; Gehlen, M.; Arndt, S.; Van Cappellen, P.; Regnier, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional reactive transport model to estimate benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity (AT) from coastal marine sediments. The model incorporates the transport processes of sediment accumulation, molecular diffusion, bioturbation and bioirrigation,

  4. Modelling the impact of forest loss on shallow landslide sediment yield, Ijuez river catchment, Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The SHETRAN model for simulating the sediment yield arising from shallow landslides at the scale of a river catchment was applied to the 45-km2 Ijuez catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees, to investigate the effect of loss of forest cover on landslide and debris flow incidence and on catchment sediment yield. The application demonstrated how such a model, with a large number of parameters to be evaluated, can be used even when directly measured data are not available: rainfall and discharge time series were generated by reference to other local records and data providing the basis for a soil map were obtained by a short field campaign. Uncertainty bounds for the outputs were determined as a function of the uncertainty in the values of key model parameters. For a four-year period and for the existing forested state of the catchment, a good ability to simulate the observed long term spatial distribution of debris flows (represented by a 45-year inventory and to determine catchment sediment yield within the range of regional observations was demonstrated. The lower uncertainty bound on simulated landslide occurrence approximated the observed annual rate of landsliding and suggests that landslides provide a relatively minor proportion of the total sediment yield, at least in drier years. A scenario simulation in which the forest cover was replaced by grassland indicated an increase in landsliding but a decrease in the number of landslides which evolve into debris flows and, at least for drier years, a reduction in sediment delivery to the channel network.

  5. Investigating conceptual models for physical property couplings in solid solution models of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbow, Steven; Watson, Claire; Savage, David

    2005-11-01

    The long-term behaviour of cementitious engineered barriers is an important process to consider when modelling the migration of radionuclides from a geological repository for nuclear waste. The modelling of cement is complicated by the fact that the cement is dominated by the behaviour of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel which is a complex solid exhibiting incongruent dissolution behaviour. In this report, we have demonstrated the implementation of a solid-solution CSH gel model within a geochemical transport modelling framework using the Raiden computer code to investigate cement/concrete-groundwater interactions. The modelling conducted here shows that it is possible to couple various conceptual models for the evolution of physical properties of concrete with a solid solution model for cement degradation in a fully coupled geochemical transport model to describe the interaction of cement/concrete engineered barriers with groundwater. The results show that changes to the conceptual models and flow rates can give rise to very different evolutions. Most simulations were carried out at a reduced 'experimental' scale rather than full repository scale. The work has shown the possibility to investigate also the changing physical properties of degrading cement. To further develop the model more emphasis is needed on kinetics and the detailed development of a nearly clogged pore space. Modelling of the full repository scale could be another way forward to understand the behaviour of degrading concrete. A general conclusion is that the combined effects of chemical evolution and physical degradation should be analysed in performance assessments of cementitious repositories. Moreover, the project results will be used as one basis in coming reviews of SKB's safety assessments of repositories for spent fuel and low-and intermediate level waste

  6. Investigating conceptual models for physical property couplings in solid solution models of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbow, Steven; Watson, Claire; Savage, David [Quintesssa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    The long-term behaviour of cementitious engineered barriers is an important process to consider when modelling the migration of radionuclides from a geological repository for nuclear waste. The modelling of cement is complicated by the fact that the cement is dominated by the behaviour of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel which is a complex solid exhibiting incongruent dissolution behaviour. In this report, we have demonstrated the implementation of a solid-solution CSH gel model within a geochemical transport modelling framework using the Raiden computer code to investigate cement/concrete-groundwater interactions. The modelling conducted here shows that it is possible to couple various conceptual models for the evolution of physical properties of concrete with a solid solution model for cement degradation in a fully coupled geochemical transport model to describe the interaction of cement/concrete engineered barriers with groundwater. The results show that changes to the conceptual models and flow rates can give rise to very different evolutions. Most simulations were carried out at a reduced 'experimental' scale rather than full repository scale. The work has shown the possibility to investigate also the changing physical properties of degrading cement. To further develop the model more emphasis is needed on kinetics and the detailed development of a nearly clogged pore space. Modelling of the full repository scale could be another way forward to understand the behaviour of degrading concrete. A general conclusion is that the combined effects of chemical evolution and physical degradation should be analysed in performance assessments of cementitious repositories. Moreover, the project results will be used as one basis in coming reviews of SKB's safety assessments of repositories for spent fuel and low-and intermediate level waste.

  7. Assessing sediment yield in Kalaya gauged watershed (Northern Morocco using GIS and SWAT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Briak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An efficient design for erosion-control structures of any watershed in the world is entrusted with the delicate forecasting of sediment yields. These outlook yields are usually inferred by extrapolations from past observations. Because runoff, as the transporting vehicle, is more closely correlated with sediment yields than any other variable. So, calibration as well as validation of process-based hydrological models are two major processes while estimating the sediment yield in watershed. The actual survey is fulfilled with the aim of developing a trustworthy hydrologic model simulating stream flow discharge and sediment concentration with least uncertainty among the parameters picked out for calibration so as to verify the effect of the scenarios on the spatial distribution of sediment yield (sediments transported from sub-basins to the main channel during the step of time. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, version 2012 model integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS, version 10.1 was used to simulate the stream flow and sediment concentration of Kalaya catchment situated in north of Morocco for the period from 1971 to 1993. Model calibration and validation were performed for monthly time periods using Sequential Uncertainty Fitting 2 (SUFI-2, version 2 within SWAT-CUP using 16 parameters. Our calibration outputs for monthly simulation for the period from 1976 to 1984 showed a good model performance for flow rates with NSE and PBIAS values of 0.76 and −11.80, respectively; also a good model performance for sediment concentration with NSE and PBIAS values of 0.69 and 7.12, respectively. Nonetheless, during validation period (1985–1993 for monthly time step, the NSE and PBIAS values were 0.67 and −14.44, respectively for flow rates and these statistical values were 0.70 and 15.51, respectively for sediment concentration; which also means a good model performance for both. Following calibration, the inclusive effect of each

  8. Investigation of binary solid phases by calorimetry and kinetic modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Matovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional methods for the determination of liquid-solid phase diagrams are based on the assumption that the overall equilibrium is established between the phases. However, the result of the crystallization of a liquid mixture will typically be a non-equilibrium or metastable state of the solid. For a proper description of the crystallization process the equilibrium approach is insufficient and a kinetic approach is actually required. In this work, we show that during slow crystallizatio...

  9. Application of a surface complexation model to the interactions of Pu and Am with Esk Estuary sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.R.; Knox, S.; Titley, J.G.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Kelly, M.; Williams, G.

    1990-10-01

    Previous work has shown that Pu is remobilised from Esk sediments at low salinities of overlying water. A constant capacitance surface complexation model has been developed in order to understand and model the chemical processes occurring. The model is based on detailed chemical characterisation of sediment samples from the estuary. The following measurements were carried out to provide input parameters for the model: specific surface area; total surface sites (tritium exchange); proton and major ion exchange (potentiometric titration); and actinide (Pu and Am) partition coefficient as a function of pH and salinity at sediment and actinide concentrations typical of the Esk. (author)

  10. Modeling radiocesium transport from a river catchment based on a physically-based distributed hydrological and sediment erosion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Omata, Teppei

    2015-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 resulted in the deposition of large quantities of radionuclides, such as (134)Cs and (137)Cs, over parts of eastern Japan. Since then high levels of radioactive contamination have been detected in large areas, including forests, agricultural land, and residential areas. Due to the strong adsorption capability of radiocesium to soil particles, radiocesium migrates with eroded sediments, follows the surface flow paths, and is delivered to more populated downstream regions and eventually to the Pacific Ocean. It is therefore important to understand the transport of contaminated sediments in the hydrological system and to predict changes in the spatial distribution of radiocesium concentrations by taking the land-surface processes related to sediment migration into consideration. In this study, we developed a distributed model to simulate the transport of water and contaminated sediment in a watershed hydrological system, and applied this model to a partially forested mountain catchment located in an area highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout. Observed discharge, sediment concentration, and cesium concentration measured from June 2011 until December 2012 were used for calibration of model parameters. The simulated discharge and sediment concentration both agreed well with observed values, while the cesium concentration was underestimated in the initial period following the accident. This result suggests that the leaching of radiocesium from the forest canopy, which was not considered in the model, played a significant role in its transport from the catchment. Based on the simulation results, we quantified the long-term fate of radiocesium over the study area and estimated that the effective half-life of (137)Cs deposited in the study area will be approximately 22 y due to the export of contaminated sediment by land-surface processes, and the amount of (137)Cs remaining in the

  11. Synthesis of Hydrodynamic and Wave Models with Sediment Data in a Shallow Tidal Embayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, N. G.; Kaergaard, K.; Jensen, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrodynamic and wave models have been established for Tampa Bay in Florida and the approaches to the Bay on the west Florida Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico. It uses an unstructured, bathymetry-following flexible mesh (bffm) which adapts to the complex coastline and inter-connected navigation channels. The model packages came from DHI Water & Environment. The hydrodynamics were calibrated against tidal currents in the main navigation channel supplied by the NOAA/NOS PORTS system operated by the University of South Florida. The model was validated for a period in September 2004 (including the passing of the hurricane Frances) using data from six tidal gauges in the Bay. Wave data were collected at several stations around the Bay in 2004 and from June 2005 to December 2006. These data were compared with both a full spectrum and parametric wave model. Production runs of all models were made for a 9 month period using measured surface elevation as boundary conditions extending from spring 2004 to winter 2005 and measured wind data at a station within the Bay. The results were used to derive exchange times and local wave climates around the Bay. The hydrodynamic and wave models were then used to determine sediment mobility. It is found that current is the most important influence on sediments in the deeper parts of the Bay but waves dominate sediment dynamics in the shallow regions of the Bay. Swell waves penetrate only a limited distance into the Bay. Comparisons are made with maps of bottom sediment and coastal habitat obtained from various data sources.

  12. Morphodynamic Modeling of the Lower Yellow River, China: Flux (Equilibrium) Form or Entrainment (Nonequilibrium) Form of Sediment Mass Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, C.; Parker, G.; Ma, H.; Naito, K.; Moodie, A. J.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Models of river morphodynamics consist of three elements: (1) a treatment of flow hydraulics, (2) a formulation relating some aspect of sediment transport to flow hydraulics, and (3) a description of sediment conservation. In the case of unidirectional river flow, the Exner equation of sediment conservation is commonly described in terms of a flux-based formulation, in which bed elevation variation is related to the streamwise gradient of sediment transport rate. An alternate formulation of the Exner equation, however, is the entrainment-based formulation in which bed elevation variation is related to the difference between the entrainment rate of bed sediment into suspension and the deposition rate of suspended sediment onto the bed. In the flux-based formulation, sediment transport is regarded to be in a local equilibrium state (i.e., sediment transport rate locally equals sediment transport capacity). However, the entrainment-based formulation does not require this constraint; the sediment transport rate may lag in space and time behind the changing flow conditions. In modeling the fine-grained Lower Yellow River, it is usual to treat sediment conservation in terms of an entrainment-based (nonequilibrium) rather than a flux-based (equilibrium) formulation with the consideration that fine-grained sediment may be entrained at one place but deposited only at some distant location downstream. However, the differences in prediction between the two formulations are still not well known, and the entrainment formulation may not always be necessary for the Lower Yellow River. Here we study this problem by comparing the results of flux-based and entrainment-based morphodynamics under conditions typical of the Yellow River, using sediment transport equations specifically designed for the Lower Yellow River. We find, somewhat unexpectedly, that in a treatment of a 200-km reach using uniform sediment, there is little difference between the two formulations unless the

  13. Benthic metal fluxes and sediment diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage: A laboratory experiment and reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Ayora, C.; Jiménez-Arias, J. L.; García-Robledo, E.; Papaspyrou, S.; Corzo, A.

    2014-08-01

    Reservoirs are one of the primary water supply sources. Knowledge of the metal fluxes at the water-sediment interfaces of reservoirs is essential for predicting their ecological quality. Redox oscillations in the water column are promoted by stratification; turnover events may significantly alter metal cycling, especially in reservoirs impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). To study this phenomenon, an experiment was performed under controlled laboratory conditions. Sediment cores from an AMD-affected reservoir were maintained in a tank with reservoir water for approximately two months and subjected to alternating oxic-hypoxic conditions. A detailed metal speciation in solid phases of the sediment was initially performed by sequential extraction, and pore water was analyzed at the end of each redox period. Tank water metals concentrations were systematically monitored throughout the experiment. The experimental results were then used to calibrate a diffusion-reaction model and quantify the reaction rates and sediment-water fluxes. Under oxic conditions, pH, Fe and As concentrations decreased in the tank due to schwertmannite precipitation, whereas the concentrations of Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co increased due to Al(OH)3 and sulfide dissolution. The reverse trends occurred under hypoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions, the fluxes calculated by applying Fick’s first law to experimental concentration gradients contradicted the fluxes expected based on the evolution of the tank water. According to the reactive transport calculations, this discrepancy can be attributed to the coarse resolution of sediment sampling. The one-cm-thick slices failed to capture effectively the notably narrow (1-2 mm) concentration peaks of several elements in the shallow pore water resulting from sulfide and Al(OH)3 dissolution. The diffusion-reaction model, extended to the complete year, computed that between 25% and 50% of the trace metals and less than 10% of the Al that precipitated under

  14. Modeling the sensitivity of sediment and water runoff dynamics to Holocene climate and land use changes at the catchment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notebaert, B.; Verstraeten, G.; Ward, P.J.; Renssen, H.; Van Rompaey, A.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have indicated that soil erosion, sediment redistribution and water discharge during the Holocene have varied greatly under influence of environmental changes. In this paper we have used a modeling approach to study the driving forces for soil erosion and sediment

  15. Sediment Acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoll, R

    2001-01-01

    ... variables such as porosity and grain-size distribution. The model is based on the classical Biot theory extended to take into account various mechanisms of energy loss that are known to be important in marine sediments...

  16. Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Sediment and Soil by Pressurized Solvent Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction, and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 61 compounds in environmental sediment and soil samples is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater and wastewater-impacted sediment on aquatic organisms. This method also may be used to evaluate the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water and sediment quality of urban streams. Method development focused on the determination of compounds that were chosen on the basis of their endocrine-disrupting potential or toxicity. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and their degradates, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from interfering matrix components by high-pressure water/isopropyl alcohol extraction. The compounds were isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing chemically modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. The cartridges were dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds were eluted with methylene chloride (80 percent)-diethyl ether (20 percent) through Florisil/sodium sulfate SPE cartridge, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-sand samples fortified at 4 to 72 micrograms averaged 76 percent ?13 percent relative standard deviation for all method compounds. Initial method reporting levels for single-component compounds ranged from 50 to 500 micrograms per kilogram. The concentrations of 20 out of 61 compounds initially will be reported as estimated with the 'E' remark code for one of three reasons: (1) unacceptably low-biased recovery (less than 60 percent) or highly variable method performance

  17. Mixing Model Analysis of Suspended Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Sources in White Clay Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwan, D. L.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Aalto, R. E.; Marquard, J.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Newbold, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Material exports from watersheds have consequences to upstream catchment elemental budgets, downstream ecosystem processes and water resources management. Despite this importance, quantifying exports of all major and trace elements associated with suspended sediments is challenging due to the highly episodic nature of that export. Constraining sediment sources using various mixing model approaches is further complicated by the diversity of potential sources. In this study, we leveraged the infrastructure of the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (CRB-CZO) to collect large volume (200 L) samples from 17 storms, including some of the biggest storms of the decade (i.e. Hurricane Irene and Sandy), and 95 potential source soils and sediments within the White Clay Creek watershed, a third-order watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania. On all samples we analyzed major and minor elements, rare earth elements, and radioisotopes in order to determine the erosional source category of stream suspended material, such that differences in the chemical composition of source materials can be used in a multivariate statistical model to predict the chemical composition of suspended sediment. For example, 137Cs is higher in surface and near-surface terrestrial soils and low in streambanks, deeper soils, road cuts, and road dust. Elemental chromium is much higher in road dust than any other source. We integrate sediment fingerprinting analyses common in geomorphological studies of mineral suspended material with biological and ecological characterizations of particulate organic carbon. Through this combination, we determine particle source, a necessary first step to calculating the amount of excess carbon that has complexed with particles during erosion and transit through the watershed. This interdisciplinary project is conducted as one of many studies in the CRB-CZO and directly contributes to the overall research focus of this CZO: to quantify the net carbon sink or

  18. A thermodynamic model for solid solutions and its application to the C-Fe-Co, C-Fe-Ni and Mn-Cr-Pt solid dilutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the free volume theory and the lattice model, the partition functions of pure solids and their mixtures were expressed. This resulted in the establishment of a thermodynamic model for solid solutions. The model naturally combines the excess entropy and excess enthalpy of a solution by means of new expressions of the configurational partition functions of solids and their mixtures derived from statistical thermodynamics, which is approximate to real solid solutions, that is S E ≠0 (V E ≠0) and H E ≠0. It can describe the thermodynamic properties of partially miscible systems and predict the thermodynamic properties in a multicomponent solid solution system using only the related binary infinite dilute activity coefficients. The predicted activity coefficients from the model are in good agreement with the experimental data of the ternary solid dilutions. This shows that the prediction effect of the proposed model is of better stability and reliability because it has a good physical basis

  19. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: The case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are projected to increase with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budget for collection capacity alone does not improve environmental quality; rather an increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a computer laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis

  20. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: the case of Dhaka city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufian, M A; Bala, B K

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are projected to increase with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budget for collection capacity alone does not improve environmental quality; rather an increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a computer laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis.

  1. Adapting SWAT hillslope erosion model to predict sediment concentrations and yields in large Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigiak, Olga; Malagó, Anna; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean

    2015-12-15

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used worldwide for water quality assessment and planning. This paper aimed to assess and adapt SWAT hillslope sediment yield model (Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation, MUSLE) for applications in large basins, i.e. when spatial data is coarse and model units are large; and to develop a robust sediment calibration method for large regions. The Upper Danube Basin (132,000km(2)) was used as case study representative of large European Basins. The MUSLE was modified to reduce sensitivity of sediment yields to the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) size, and to identify appropriate algorithms for estimating hillslope length (L) and slope-length factor (LS). HRUs gross erosion was broadly calibrated against plot data and soil erosion map estimates. Next, mean annual SWAT suspended sediment concentrations (SSC, mg/L) were calibrated and validated against SSC data at 55 gauging stations (622 station-years). SWAT annual specific sediment yields in subbasin reaches (RSSY, t/km(2)/year) were compared to yields measured at 33 gauging stations (87station-years). The best SWAT configuration combined a MUSLE equation modified by the introduction of a threshold area of 0.01km(2) where L and LS were estimated with flow accumulation algorithms. For this configuration, the SSC residual interquartile was less than +/-15mg/L both for the calibration (1995-2004) and the validation (2005-2009) periods. The mean SSC percent bias for 1995-2009 was 24%. RSSY residual interquartile was within +/-10t/km(2)/year, with a mean RSSY percent bias of 12%. Residuals showed no bias with respect to drainage area, slope, or spatial distribution. The use of multiple data types at multiple sites enabled robust simulation of sediment concentrations and yields of the region. The MUSLE modifications are recommended for use in large basins. Based on SWAT simulations, we present a sediment budget for the Upper Danube Basin. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Simulation of the fate of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters based on a fractionated sediment transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Liu, Ying

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional depth-integrated numerical model is refined in this paper to simulate the hydrodynamics, graded sediment transport process and the fate of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters. The sediment mixture is divided into several fractions according to the grain size. A bed evolution model is adopted to simulate the processes of the bed elevation change and sediment grain size sorting. The faecal bacteria transport equation includes enhanced source and sink terms to represent bacterial kinetic transformation and disappearance or reappearance due to sediment deposition or re-suspension. A novel partition ratio and dynamic decay rates of faecal bacteria are adopted in the numerical model. The model has been applied to the turbid water environment in the Bristol Channel and Severn estuary, UK. The predictions by the present model are compared with field data and those by non-fractionated model.

  3. Deposition and flux of sediment from the Po River, Italy: An idealized and wintertime numerical modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, A.J.; Harris, C.K.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies of sediment dynamics and clinoform development in the northern Adriatic Sea focused on winter 2002-2003 and provided the data and motivation for development of a detailed sediment-transport model for the area near the Po River delta. We used both idealized test cases and more realistic simulations to improve our understanding of seasonal sediment dynamics there. We also investigated the relationship between physical processes and the observed depositional products; e.g. the accumulation of sediment very near the Po River distributary mouths. Sediment transport near the Po River was evaluated using a three-dimensional ocean model coupled to sediment-transport calculations that included wave- and current-induced resuspension, suspended-sediment transport, multiple grain classes, and fluvial input from the Po River. High-resolution estimates from available meteorological and wave models were used to specify wind, wave, and meteorological forcing. Model results indicated that more than half of the discharged sediment remained within 15??km of the Po River distributary mouths, even after two months of intensive reworking by winter storms. During floods of the Po River, transport in the middle to upper water column dominated sediment fluxes. Otherwise, sediment fluxes from the subaqueous portion of the delta were confined to the bottom few meters of the water column, and correlated with increases in current speed and wave energy. Spatial and temporal variation in wind velocities determined depositional patterns and the directions of sediment transport. Northeasterly Bora winds produced relatively more eastward transport, while southwesterly Sirocco winds generated fluxes towards both the north and the south. Eastward transport accounted for the majority of the sediment exported from the subaqueous delta, most likely due to the frequent occurrence of Bora conditions. Progradation of the Po River delta into the Adriatic Sea may restrict the formation of the

  4. Sediment transport processes in the Pearl River Estuary as revealed by grain-size end-member modeling and sediment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Tuan-Jie

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of grain-size distribution enables us to decipher sediment transport processes and understand the causal relations between dynamic processes and grain-size distributions. In the present study, grain sizes were measured from surface sediments collected in the Pearl River Estuary and its adjacent coastal areas. End-member modeling analysis attempts to unmix the grain sizes into geologically meaningful populations. Six grain-size end-members were identified. Their dominant modes are 0 Φ, 1.5 Φ, 2.75 Φ, 4.5 Φ, 7 Φ, and 8 Φ, corresponding to coarse sand, medium sand, fine sand, very coarse silt, silt, and clay, respectively. The spatial distributions of the six end-members are influenced by sediment transport and depositional processes. The two coarsest end-members (coarse sand and medium sand) may reflect relict sediments deposited during the last glacial period. The fine sand end-member would be difficult to transport under fair weather conditions, and likely indicates storm deposits. The three remaining fine-grained end-members (very coarse silt, silt, and clay) are recognized as suspended particles transported by saltwater intrusion via the flood tidal current, the Guangdong Coastal Current, and riverine outflow. The grain-size trend analysis shows distinct transport patterns for the three fine-grained end-members. The landward transport of the very coarse silt end-member occurs in the eastern part of the estuary, the seaward transport of the silt end-member occurs in the western part, and the east-west transport of the clay end-member occurs in the coastal areas. The results show that grain-size end-member modeling analysis in combination with sediment trend analysis help to better understand sediment transport patterns and the associated transport mechanisms.

  5. Sediment transport processes in the Pearl River Estuary as revealed by grain-size end-member modeling and sediment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Tuan-Jie

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of grain-size distribution enables us to decipher sediment transport processes and understand the causal relations between dynamic processes and grain-size distributions. In the present study, grain sizes were measured from surface sediments collected in the Pearl River Estuary and its adjacent coastal areas. End-member modeling analysis attempts to unmix the grain sizes into geologically meaningful populations. Six grain-size end-members were identified. Their dominant modes are 0 Φ, 1.5 Φ, 2.75 Φ, 4.5 Φ, 7 Φ, and 8 Φ, corresponding to coarse sand, medium sand, fine sand, very coarse silt, silt, and clay, respectively. The spatial distributions of the six end-members are influenced by sediment transport and depositional processes. The two coarsest end-members (coarse sand and medium sand) may reflect relict sediments deposited during the last glacial period. The fine sand end-member would be difficult to transport under fair weather conditions, and likely indicates storm deposits. The three remaining fine-grained end-members (very coarse silt, silt, and clay) are recognized as suspended particles transported by saltwater intrusion via the flood tidal current, the Guangdong Coastal Current, and riverine outflow. The grain-size trend analysis shows distinct transport patterns for the three fine-grained end-members. The landward transport of the very coarse silt end-member occurs in the eastern part of the estuary, the seaward transport of the silt end-member occurs in the western part, and the east-west transport of the clay end-member occurs in the coastal areas. The results show that grain-size end-member modeling analysis in combination with sediment trend analysis help to better understand sediment transport patterns and the associated transport mechanisms.

  6. Experimental study and modelling of mixed particulate lubrication with MoS2 powder solid lubricant

    OpenAIRE

    H. Wiśniewska-Weinert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is experimental study and modelling of mixed particulate lubrication with MoS2 powder solid lubricant.Design/methodology/approach: In the present investigation, ball-on-disc experiments were carried out to determine the lubrication performance of MoS2 solid lubricant powder that could be used for hard PVD coatings applied for forging and stamping tools.Findings: The proposed solid lubricant nano- and submicroparticles mixture demonstrates excellent potential...

  7. Modeling and simulation of liquid diffusion through a porous finitely elastic solid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Qiangsheng

    2013-01-29

    A new theory is proposed for the continuum modeling of liquid flow through a porous elastic solid. The solid and the voids are assumed to jointly constitute the macroscopic solid phase, while the liquid volume fraction is included as a separate state variable. A finite element implementation is employed to assess the predictive capacity of the proposed theory, with particular emphasis on the mechanical response of Nafion® membranes to the flow of water. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Modeling artifacts in the simulation of the sedimentation of raindrops with a Quadrature Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Jasor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Quadrature Method of Moments (QMoM is applied to a one-dimensional test case for sedimentation of raindrops. Comparison of the results with a reference spectral method exhibits discrepancies (“step patterns” that must be considered as modeling artifacts. As the QMoM has been demonstrated to be effective and accurate in various contexts, the origin of these artifacts is investigated and found to be related to the transport of the quadrature abscissas. Further test cases are considered to examine the influence of different initial conditions on the development of the modeling artifacts. The study shows that these artifacts are inherent to the application of QMoM in pure sedimentation context.

  9. Sediment heterogeneity and mobility in the morphodynamic modelling of gravel-bed braided rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Umesh; Crosato, A.; Giri, Sanjay; Hicks, Murray

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sediment heterogeneity and sediment mobility on the morphology of braided rivers are still poorly studied, especially when the partial sediment mobility occurs. Nevertheless, increasing the bed sediment heterogeneity by coarse sediment supply is becoming a common practice in river

  10. A regional sediment transport modeling for fluvial influx and redistribution of suspended radionuclide in the Fukushima coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Yamanishi, Takafumi; Tsumune, Daisuke; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial discharge from the rivers is viewed as a missing piece for the inventory of the radionuclides in the ocean during the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The land-derived input introduces a time lag behind the direct release through hydrological process because these radionuclides mostly attach to suspended particles (sediments) that are transported quite differently to the dissolved matter in the ocean. We therefore develop a regional sediment transport model consisting of a multi-class non-cohesive sediment transport module, a wave-enhanced bed boundary layer model and a stratigraphy model proposed by Blaas et al. (2007) based on ROMS. (author)

  11. Multivariate Analysis and Modeling of Sediment Pollution Using Neural Network Models and Geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, Jean; Kanevski, Mikhaïl

    2013-04-01

    The present research deals with the exploration and modeling of a complex dataset of 200 measurement points of sediment pollution by heavy metals in Lake Geneva. The fundamental idea was to use multivariate Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) along with geostatistical models and tools in order to improve the accuracy and the interpretability of data modeling. The results obtained with ANN were compared to those of traditional geostatistical algorithms like ordinary (co)kriging and (co)kriging with an external drift. Exploratory data analysis highlighted a great variety of relationships (i.e. linear, non-linear, independence) between the 11 variables of the dataset (i.e. Cadmium, Mercury, Zinc, Copper, Titanium, Chromium, Vanadium and Nickel as well as the spatial coordinates of the measurement points and their depth). Then, exploratory spatial data analysis (i.e. anisotropic variography, local spatial correlations and moving window statistics) was carried out. It was shown that the different phenomena to be modeled were characterized by high spatial anisotropies, complex spatial correlation structures and heteroscedasticity. A feature selection procedure based on General Regression Neural Networks (GRNN) was also applied to create subsets of variables enabling to improve the predictions during the modeling phase. The basic modeling was conducted using a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) which is a workhorse of ANN. MLP models are robust and highly flexible tools which can incorporate in a nonlinear manner different kind of high-dimensional information. In the present research, the input layer was made of either two (spatial coordinates) or three neurons (when depth as auxiliary information could possibly capture an underlying trend) and the output layer was composed of one (univariate MLP) to eight neurons corresponding to the heavy metals of the dataset (multivariate MLP). MLP models with three input neurons can be referred to as Artificial Neural Networks with EXternal

  12. The need for the solid modelling of structure in the archaeology of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniels

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional modelling is an attempt to represent the world in three dimensions, simplifying through deliberate assumptions. In archaeology, this has developed as an extension of the traditional use of three-dimensional drawings to help present and record data. The debate in the archaeological literature over whether surface or solid modellers should be used is one based on the premise that the purpose of three-dimensional modelling is data visualisation. This concentration on perception modelling has been at the expense of research on the modelling of structure. Surface and Solid Modellers are introduced and defined. I argue that developments in modelling software mean that there is no longer a clear distinction between the two types of software along application lines. We should think of models in terms of their applications rather than the software which generates them. Although data visualisation (including virtual reality is an important part of three-dimensional modelling, I argue that it should be explicitly divorced from the related field of photo-realism at a research level. Perception modelling can be performed by surface or solid modellers. Modelling structure is better performed with a solid modeller, if we wish to be as explicit as possible in our modelling. A structural model can be used as a spatial database. If we wish to ask questions about the physical properties of a structure, then we must use solid modellers. In addition to the engineering properties of structures, solid modellers can also be used to answer questions about the economics of construction. For historical reasons, the construction industry has preferred to use surface modellers, but I argue for the advantages of solid modelling in the archaeological study of construction.

  13. A framework for using connectivity to measure and model water and sediment fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keessta, Saskia; Saco, Patricia; Nunes, Joao; Parsons, Tony; Poeppl, Ronny; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Jordán, Antonio; Masselink, Rens; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    For many years, scientists have tried to understand, describe and quantify water and sediment fluxes at multiple scales (Cerdà et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; Poeppl et al., 2016; Masselink et al., 2016a; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). In the past two decades, a new concept called connectivity has been used by Earth Scientists as a means to describe and quantify the influences on the fluxes of water and sediment on different scales: aggregate, pedon, location on the slope, slope, watershed, and basin (Baartman et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; López-Vicente et al., 2015; 2016; Masselink 2016b; Marchamalo et al., 2016; Mekonnen et al., 2016). A better understanding of connectivity can enhance our comprehension of landscape processes and provide a basis for the development of better measurement and modelling approaches, further leading to a better potential for implementing this concept as a management tool. Our research provides a short review of the State-of-the-Art of the connectivity concept, from which we conclude that scientists have been struggling to find a way to quantify connectivity so far. We adapt the knowledge of connectivity to better understand and quantify water and sediment transfers in catchment systems. First, we introduce a new approach to the concept of connectivity to study water and sediment transfers. In this approach water and sediment dynamics are divided in two parts: the system consists of phases and fluxes, each being separately measurable. This approach enables us to: i) better conceptualize our understanding of system dynamics at different timescales, including long timescales; ii) identify the main parameters driving system dynamics, and devise monitoring strategies which capture them; and, iii) build models with a holistic approach to simulate system dynamics without excessive complexity. Secondly, we discuss the role of system boundaries in designing measurement schemes and models. Natural systems have boundaries within which

  14. Numerical modelling of biomass combustion: Solid conversion processes in a fixed bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Naser, Jamal

    2017-06-01

    Increasing demand for energy and rising concerns over global warming has urged the use of renewable energy sources to carry a sustainable development of the world. Bio mass is a renewable energy which has become an important fuel to produce thermal energy or electricity. It is an eco-friendly source of energy as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Combustion of solid biomass is a complex phenomenon due to its large varieties and physical structures. Among various systems, fixed bed combustion is the most commonly used technique for thermal conversion of solid biomass. But inadequate knowledge on complex solid conversion processes has limited the development of such combustion system. Numerical modelling of this combustion system has some advantages over experimental analysis. Many important system parameters (e.g. temperature, density, solid fraction) can be estimated inside the entire domain under different working conditions. In this work, a complete numerical model is used for solid conversion processes of biomass combustion in a fixed bed furnace. The combustion system is divided in to solid and gas phase. This model includes several sub models to characterize the solid phase of the combustion with several variables. User defined subroutines are used to introduce solid phase variables in commercial CFD code. Gas phase of combustion is resolved using built-in module of CFD code. Heat transfer model is modified to predict the temperature of solid and gas phases with special radiation heat transfer solution for considering the high absorptivity of the medium. Considering all solid conversion processes the solid phase variables are evaluated. Results obtained are discussed with reference from an experimental burner.

  15. Pollution history of a tropical estuary revealed by combined hydrodynamic modelling and sediment geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. E.; Greenaway, A. M.; Bigg, G. R.; Webber, D. F.; Dennis, P. F.; Guthrie, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrodynamic modelling of water movement in Hunts Bay, a protected part of Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, shows that depth averaged tidal flows are very low. In the northeast corner of Hunts Bay, water is essentially stagnant. Even under high flow conditions, much of the Bay bottom water is `bypassed' by buoyant, lower salinity surface flows. The muddy sediments of Hunts Bay reflect these sluggish to stagnant conditions; sediment cores from the northeast corner of the Bay contain progressively higher amounts of organic matter in their upper parts (˜last 15-20 years sedimentation). Combined C/N ratios and stable carbon isotope compositions of this organic matter imply a sewage origin. Both lead and chromium metal concentrations and enrichment factors relative to average crustal shales show geographically related patterns that reflect hydrodynamic circulation predicted by modelling. In particular, metal concentrations and enrichment factors are highest at the northern end of the bay, especially in the northeast corner. Modelling confirms that stagnant conditions would occur in the northeast part of the bay even without the presence of a major causeway. The causeway may contribute to low flow conditions, but is not the principal cause of organic contamination, which is simply an excessive input of sewage.

  16. Sensitivity-Based Modeling of Evaluating Surface Runoff and Sediment Load using Digital and Analog Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of runoff- sediment measurement and evaluation using automated and convectional runoff-meters was carried out at Meteorological and Hydrological Station of Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi using two runoff plots (ABCDa and EFGHm of area 2m 2 each, depth 0.26 m and driven into the soil to the depth of 0.13m. Runoff depths and intensities were measured from each of the positioned runoff plot. Automated runoff-meter has a measuring accuracy of ±0.001l/±0.025 mm and rainfall depth-intensity was measured using tipping-bucket rainguage during the period of 14-month of experimentation. Minimum and maximum rainfall depths of 1.2 and 190.3 mm correspond to measured runoff depths (MRo of 0.0 mm for both measurement approaches and 60.4 mm and 48.9 mm respectively. Automated runoffmeter provides precise, accurate and instantaneous result over the convectional measurement of surface runoff. Runoff measuring accuracy for automated runoff-meter from the plot (ABCDa produces R 2 = 0.99; while R 2 = 0.96 for manual evaluation in plot (EFGHm. WEPP and SWAT models were used to simulate the obtained hydrological variables from the applied measurement mechanisms. The outputs of sensitivity simulation analysis indicate that data from automated measuring systems gives a better modelling index and such could be used for running robust runoff-sediment predictive modelling technique under different reservoir sedimentation and water management scenarios.

  17. Sediment mobility and bed armoring in the St Clair River: insights from hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Parker, Gary; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Oberg, Kevin; Mier, Jose M.; Best, James L.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Ashmore, Peter; Krishnappan, Bommanna G.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2012-01-01

    The lake levels in Lake Michigan-Huron have recently fallen to near historical lows, as has the elevation difference between Lake Michigan-Huron compared to Lake Erie. This decline in lake levels has the potential to cause detrimental impacts on the lake ecosystems, together with social and economic impacts on communities in the entire Great Lakes region. Results from past work suggest that morphological changes in the St Clair River, which is the only natural outlet for Lake Michigan-Huron, could be an appreciable factor in the recent trends of lake level decline. A key research question is whether bed erosion within the river has caused an increase in water conveyance, therefore, contributed to the falling lake level. In this paper, a numerical modeling approach with field data is used to investigate the possibility of sediment movement in the St Clair River and assess the likelihood of morphological change under the current flow regime. A two-dimensional numerical model was used to study flow structure, bed shear stress, and sediment mobility/armoring over a range of flow discharges. Boundary conditions for the numerical model were provided by detailed field measurements that included high-resolution bathymetry and three-dimensional flow velocities. The results indicate that, without considering other effects, under the current range of flow conditions, the shear stresses produced by the river flow are too low to transport most of the coarse bed sediment within the reach and are too low to cause substantial bed erosion or bed scour. However, the detailed maps of the bed show mobile bedforms in the upper St Clair River that are indicative of sediment transport. Relatively high shear stresses near a constriction at the upstream end of the river and at channel bends could cause local scour and deposition. Ship-induced propeller wake erosion also is a likely cause of sediment movement in the entire reach. Other factors that may promote sediment movement, such as ice

  18. Nitrate removal in deep sediments of a nitrogen-rich river network: A test of a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Robert S.; Bartsch, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Many estimates of nitrogen removal in streams and watersheds do not include or account for nitrate removal in deep sediments, particularly in gaining streams. We developed and tested a conceptual model for nitrate removal in deep sediments in a nitrogen-rich river network. The model predicts that oxic, nitrate-rich groundwater will become depleted in nitrate as groundwater upwelling through sediments encounters a zone that contains buried particulate organic carbon, which promotes redox conditions favorable for nitrate removal. We tested the model at eight sites in upwelling reaches of lotic ecosystems in the Waupaca River Watershed that varied by three orders of magnitude in groundwater nitrate concentration. We measured denitrification potential in sediment core sections to 30 cm and developed vertical nitrate profiles to a depth of about 1 m with peepers and piezometer nests. Denitrification potential was higher, on average, in shallower core sections. However, core sections deeper than 5 cm accounted for 70%, on average, of the depth-integrated denitrification potential. Denitrification potential increased linearly with groundwater nitrate concentration up to 2 mg NO3-N/L but the relationship broke down at higher concentrations (> 5 mg NO3-N/L), a pattern that suggests nitrate saturation. At most sites groundwater nitrate declined from high concentrations at depth to much lower concentrations prior to discharge into the surface water. The profiles suggested that nitrate removal occurred at sediment depths between 20 and 40 cm. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were much higher in deep sediments than in pore water at 5 cm sediment depth at most locations. The substantial denitrification potential in deep sediments coupled with the declines in nitrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations in upwelling groundwater suggest that our conceptual model for nitrate removal in deep sediments is applicable to this river network. Our results suggest that nitrate removal rates

  19. Landscape evolution in tidal embayments: modeling the interplay of erosion, sedimentation, and vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alpaos, A.; Lanzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2006-12-01

    Modeling the long-term landscape evolution of tidal embayments requires a holistic eco-geomorphological approach to incorporate the description of the delicate balance and strong feedbacks characterizing hydrodinamic and sediment transport processes on the one hand, and ecological dynamics on the other. In order to address issues of conservation of these delicate systems and predict their future fate we have set up a process-based eco-morphodynamic model which conceptualizes the chief landforming processes operating on the intertwined, long-term evolution of marsh platforms and tidal networks cutting through them. Such a model is aimed at improving our understanding of the main processes shaping the geomorphological and biological characters of the tidal landscape. Based on observational evidence indicating the existence of different time scales governing the various landscape-forming processes, the model decouples the initial rapid network incision from its subsequent slower elaboration and from the eco-morphological evolution of intertidal areas, governed by sediment erosion and deposition and crucially affected by the presence of vegetation. This allows us to investigate the response of tidal morphologies to different scenarios of sediment supply, colonization by halophytes and changing sea level. Different morphological evolutionary regimes are shown to depend on marsh ecology. Marsh accretion rates, enhanced by vegetation growth, and the related platform elevations are found to decrease with distance from the creek, measured along suitably defined flow paths. The negative feedback between surface elevation and its inorganic accretion rate is reinforced by the relation between plant productivity and soil elevation in Spartina-dominated marshes, whereas counteracted by positive feedbacks in marshes populated by a variety of vegetation species. When evolving under constant sea level, unvegetated and Spartina-dominated marshes asymptotically tend to mean high

  20. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  1. Investigation of binary solid phases by calorimetry and kinetic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional methods for the determination of liquid-solid phase diagrams are based on the assumption that the overall equilibrium is established between the phases. However, the result of the crystallization of a liquid mixture will typically be a non-equilibrium or metastable state of the

  2. Approaches to surface complexation modeling of Uranium(VI) adsorption on aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.A.; Meece, D.E.; Kohler, M.; Curtis, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium(VI) adsorption onto aquifer sediments was studied in batch experiments as a function of pH and U(VI) and dissolved carbonate concentrations in artificial groundwater solutions. The sediments were collected from an alluvial aquifer at a location upgradient of contamination from a former uranium mill operation at Naturita, Colorado (USA). The ranges of aqueous chemical conditions used in the U(VI) adsorption experiments (pH 6.9 to 7.9; U(VI) concentration 2.5 ?? 10-8 to 1 ?? 10-5 M; partial pressure of carbon dioxide gas 0.05 to 6.8%) were based on the spatial variation in chemical conditions observed in 1999-2000 in the Naturita alluvial aquifer. The major minerals in the sediments were quartz, feldspars, and calcite, with minor amounts of magnetite and clay minerals. Quartz grains commonly exhibited coatings that were greater than 10 nm in thickness and composed of an illite-smectite clay with occluded ferrihydrite and goethite nanoparticles. Chemical extractions of quartz grains removed from the sediments were used to estimate the masses of iron and aluminum present in the coatings. Various surface complexation modeling approaches were compared in terms of the ability to describe the U(VI) experimental data and the data requirements for model application to the sediments. Published models for U(VI) adsorption on reference minerals were applied to predict U(VI) adsorption based on assumptions about the sediment surface composition and physical properties (e.g., surface area and electrical double layer). Predictions from these models were highly variable, with results overpredicting or underpredicting the experimental data, depending on the assumptions used to apply the model. Although the models for reference minerals are supported by detailed experimental studies (and in ideal cases, surface spectroscopy), the results suggest that errors are caused in applying the models directly to the sediments by uncertain knowledge of: 1) the proportion and types of

  3. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  4. Modelling elasticity in solids using active cubes - application to simulated operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to elastic modelling of human tissue based on the use of 3D solid active models-active cubes (M. Bro-Nielsen, 1994)-and a shape description based on the metric tensor in a solid. Active cubes are used because they provide a natural parameterization of the surface a....... The application of this approach to modelling the elastic deformation of human tissue in response to movement of bones is demonstrated...

  5. Integrated Models for Solid Waste Management in Tourism Regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiry, Elmira; Nadi, Behzad; Bin Mokhtar, Mazlin; Komoo, Ibrahim; Saadiah Hashim, Halimaton; Yahaya, Nadzri

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island. PMID:21904559

  6. Integrated Models for Solid Waste Management in Tourism Regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Shamshiry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island.

  7. Integrated models for solid waste management in tourism regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiry, Elmira; Nadi, Behzad; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Komoo, Ibrahim; Hashim, Halimaton Saadiah; Yahaya, Nadzri

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island.

  8. Modelling the Solid Waste Flow into Sungai Ikan Landfill Sites by Material Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Latifah A.; Ali, Nora'aini; Hassan, Nur Syafiqah A.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the material flow of solid waste flows at Kuala Terengganu by using Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method, generated by STAN Software Analysis. Sungai Ikan Landfill has been operated for about 10 years. Average, Sungai Ikan Landfill receive an amount around 260 tons per day of solid waste. As for the variety source of the solid waste coming from, leachates that accumulated has been tested and measured. Highest reading of pH of the leachate is 8.29 which is still in the standard level before discharging the leachate to open water which pH in between 8.0-9.0. The percentages of the solid waste has been calculated and seven different types of solid waste has been segregated. That is, plastics, organic waste, paper, polystyrene, wood, fabric and can. The estimation of the solid waste that will be end as a residue are around 244 tons per day.

  9. A reduced complexity discrete particle model for understanding the sediment dynamics of steep upland river confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancock, M. J.; Lane, S. N.; Hardy, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    There has been a significant amount of research conducted in order to understand the flow fields at natural river confluences. Much of this has been made possible due to advances in the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). However, much of this research has been conducted on river confluences with negligible water surface slopes and any understanding of the sediment dynamics is largely implied from the flow fields. Therefore, a key challenge is to understand the flow and sediment dynamics of steep river confluences with dynamic boundaries. Two numerical modelling developments are presented which together are capable of increasing our understanding of the sediment dynamics of steep river confluences. The first is the application of a Height-of-Liquid (HOL) model within a CFD framework to explicitly solve the water surface elevation. This is a time-dependent, multiphase treatment of the fluid dynamics which solves for the change in volume of water and air in each vertical column of the mesh. The second is the development of a reduced complexity discrete particle transport model which uses the change in momentum on a spherical particle to predict the transport paths through the flow field determined from CFD simulations. The performance of the two models is tested using field data from a series of highly dynamic, steep gravel-bed confluences on a braidplain of the Borgne d'Arolla, Switzerland. The HOL model is validated against the water surface elevation and flow velocity data and is demonstrated to provide a reliable representation of the flow field in fast-flowing, supercritical flows. In order to validate the discrete particle model, individual particles were tracked using electronic tacheometry. The model is demonstrated to accurately represent the particle tracks obtained in the field and provides a new methodology to understand the dynamic morphology of braid plains.

  10. Modelling of interactions between variable mass and density solid particles and swirling gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardach-Święcicka, I; Kardaś, D; Pozorski, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the solid particles - gas interactions. For this purpose, numerical modelling was carried out by means of a commercial code for simulations of two-phase dispersed flows with the in-house models accounting for mass and density change of solid phase. In the studied case the particles are treated as spherical moving grains carried by a swirling stream of hot gases. Due to the heat and mass transfer between gas and solid phase, the particles are losing their mass and they are changing their volume. Numerical simulations were performed for turbulent regime, using two methods for turbulence modelling: RANS and LES.

  11. Numerical model of turbulence, sediment transport, and morphodynamics tested in the Colorado River at Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. V.; Grams, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present a parallelized, three-dimensional, turbulence-resolving model using the Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) technique, tested at the scale of the river-reach in the Colorado River. DES is a hybrid large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS). RANS is applied to the near-bed grid cells, where grid resolution is not sufficient to fully resolve wall turbulence. LES is applied in the flow interior. We utilize the Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence closure with a rough wall extension. The model resolves large-scale turbulence using DES and simultaneously integrates the suspended sediment advection-diffusion equation. The Smith and McLean suspended sediment boundary condition is used to calculate the upward and downward settling of sediment fluxes in the grid cells attached to the bed. Model results compare favorably with ADCP measurements of flow taken on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon during the High Flow Experiment (HFE) of 2008. The model accurately reproduces the size and position of the major recirculation currents, and the error in velocity magnitude was found to be less than 17% or 0.22 m/s absolute error. The mean deviation of the direction of velocity with respect to the measured velocity was found to be 20 degrees. Large-scale turbulence structures with vorticity predominantly in the vertical direction are produced at the shear layer between the main channel and the separation zone. However, these structures rapidly become three-dimensional with no preferred orientation of vorticity. Cross-stream velocities, into the main recirculation zone just upstream of the point of reattachment and out of the main recirculation region just downstream of the point of separation, are highest near the bed. Lateral separation eddies are more efficient at storing and exporting sediment than previously modeled. The input of sediment to the eddy recirculation zone occurs in the interface of the eddy and main channel. Pulsation of the

  12. Using high-performance mathematical modelling tools to predict erosion and sediment fluxes in peri-urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Conde, Daniel; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation and urbanization generally lead to increased soil erosion andthrough the indirect effect of increased overland flow and peak flood discharges. Mathematical modelling tools can be helpful for predicting the spatial distribution of erosion and the morphological changes on the channel network. This is especially useful to predict the impacts of land-use changes in parts of the watershed, namely due to urbanization. However, given the size of the computational domain (normally the watershed itself), the need for high spatial resolution data to model accurately sediment transport processes and possible need to model transcritical flows, the computational cost is high and requires high-performance computing techniques. The aim of this work is to present the latest developments of the hydrodynamic and morphological model STAV2D and its applicability to predict runoff and erosion at watershed scale. STAV2D was developed at CEris - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa - as a tool particularly appropriated to model strong transient flows in complex and dynamic geometries. It is based on an explicit, first-order 2DH finite-volume discretization scheme for unstructured triangular meshes, in which a flux-splitting technique is paired with a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, yielding a model applicable to discontinuous flows over time-evolving geometries. STAV2D features solid transport in both Euleran and Lagrangian forms, with the aim of describing the transport of fine natural sediments and then the large individual debris. The model has been validated with theoretical solutions and laboratory experiments (Canelas et al., 2013 & Conde et al., 2015). STAV-2D now supports fully distributed and heterogeneous simulations where multiple different hardware devices can be used to accelerate computation time within a unified Object-Oriented approach: the source code for CPU and GPU has the same compilation units and requires no device specific branches, like

  13. Solid modeling research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1982-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has sponsored solid modeling research for the past four years to assess this new technology and to determine its potential benefits to the Nuclear Weapons Complex. We summarize here the results of five projects implemented during our effort. First, we have installed two solid modeler codes, TIPS-1 (Technical Information Processing System-1) and PADL-2 (Part and Assembly Description Language), on the Laboratory's CRAY-1 computers. Further, we have extended the geometric coverage and have enhanced the graphics capabilities of the TIPS-1 modeler. To enhance solid modeler performance on our OCTOPUS computer system, we have also developed a method to permit future use of the Laboratory's network video system to provide high-resolution, shaded images at users' locations. Finally, we have begun to implement code that will link solid-modeler data bases to finite-element meshing codes

  14. Hydraulic sediment remotion in physical models; Aplicacion en modelos fisicos de la remocion hidraulica de sedimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo Mogollon, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    Sediment remotion in reservoirs has received an increased attention worldwide because of the difficulty to build new dams. This paper shows the application of some flushing techniques in two hydraulic experimental models that were used in order to estimate the efficiency in sediment remotion, as well as feasible solutions to be applied in our country. [Spanish] La remocion de sedimentos que se acumulan en los embalses ha recibido recientemente una gran atencion en diversas partes del mundo debido fundamentalmente a la dificultad de construir nuevas presas. Este articulo muestra el uso de la remocion hidraulica de sedimentos en embalses aplicados a dos modelos hidraulicos experimentales que se emplearon para estimar la eficiencia de dicha remocion, ademas de posibles soluciones que se consideran factibles de utilizarse en nuestro pais.

  15. A comparison of acoustic and observed sediment classifications as predictor variables for modelling biotope distributions in Galway Bay, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Jack P. J.; Kennedy, Robert; Ren, Lei; Nash, Stephen; Hartnett, Michael; Brown, Colin

    2017-10-01

    The INFOMAR (Integrated Mapping For the Sustainable Development of Ireland's Marine Resource) initiative has acoustically mapped and classified a significant proportion of Ireland's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and is likely to be an important tool in Ireland's efforts to meet the criteria of the MSFD. In this study, open source and relic data were used in combination with new grab survey data to model EUNIS level 4 biotope distributions in Galway Bay, Ireland. The correct prediction rates of two artificial neural networks (ANNs) were compared to assess the effectiveness of acoustic sediment classifications versus sediments that were visually classified by an expert in the field as predictor variables. To test for autocorrelation between predictor variables the RELATE routine with Spearman rank correlation method was used. Optimal models were derived by iteratively removing predictor variables and comparing the correct prediction rates of each model. The models with the highest correct prediction rates were chosen as optimal. The optimal models each used a combination of salinity (binary; 0 = polyhaline and 1 = euhaline), proximity to reef (binary; 0 = within 50 m and 1 = outside 50 m), depth (continuous; metres) and a sediment descriptor (acoustic or observed) as predictor variables. As the status of benthic habitats is required to be assessed under the MSFD the Ecological Status (ES) of the subtidal sediments of Galway Bay was also assessed using the Infaunal Quality Index. The ANN that used observed sediment classes as predictor variables could correctly predict the distribution of biotopes 67% of the time, compared to 63% for the ANN using acoustic sediment classes. Acoustic sediment ANN predictions were affected by local sediment heterogeneity, and the lack of a mixed sediment class. The all-round poor performance of ANNs is likely to be a result of the temporally variable and sparsely distributed data within the study area.

  16. Numerical model calibration with the use of an observed sediment mobility mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javernick, Luke; Redolfi, Marco; Bertoldi, Walter

    2017-04-01

    Two-dimensional numerical models' use and accuracy has greatly increased over the last decade partially due ease of topographic data access and acquisition. This is largely due to the surge in survey technologies such as GPS, LiDAR, terrestrial laser scanners (TLS), and Structure-from-Motion (SfM). As many studies have shown, topography is often the greatest influence on a model's predictive accuracy. Recently, studies have shown the use of accurate topographic datasets for numerical modeling yields appreciable accuracies in both depth and inundation patterns when compared to observed data, even in highly complicated planforms such as shallow braided rivers. Model calibration is typically limited by data availability, data quality, and the user's experience. Hydraulic calibrations with a fixed bed mode often focuses purely on depth predictions using gauge data and more rarely spatial depth data, velocity data, and inundation patterns. Morphological models with bed updating and erosion are often calibrated using erosion and deposition patterns and more rarely consider sediment transport acquired field data. Transitioning from a hydraulic to morphological calibration includes a considerable increase in complicated processes, model parameters, assumptions, and sources of errors. With morphological observed data limited to documented topographic changes, a model's 'performance' is merely based on replicating results instead of processes, and thus it is difficult to fully evaluate the model's true ability. With the increase in data acquisition and model usage, there is a need to push numerical model testing beyond traditional performance metrics and toward process evaluations. To address this need, instantaneous morphology processes must be evaluated. Flume experiments of a 24 m x 1.6 m wide channel with 1 mm sediment and a 1% slope were ran to develop a braided river and fully documented with: i) highly accurate Structure-from-Motion derived topography (average errors

  17. Development of a time-stepping sediment budget model for assessing land use impacts in large river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S N; Dougall, C; Kinsey-Henderson, A E; Searle, R D; Ellis, R J; Bartley, R

    2014-01-15

    The use of river basin modelling to guide mitigation of non-point source pollution of wetlands, estuaries and coastal waters has become widespread. To assess and simulate the impacts of alternate land use or climate scenarios on river washload requires modelling techniques that represent sediment sources and transport at the time scales of system response. Building on the mean-annual SedNet model, we propose a new D-SedNet model which constructs daily budgets of fine sediment sources, transport and deposition for each link in a river network. Erosion rates (hillslope, gully and streambank erosion) and fine sediment sinks (floodplains and reservoirs) are disaggregated from mean annual rates based on daily rainfall and runoff. The model is evaluated in the Burdekin basin in tropical Australia, where policy targets have been set for reducing sediment and nutrient loads to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon from grazing and cropping land. D-SedNet predicted annual loads with similar performance to that of a sediment rating curve calibrated to monitored suspended sediment concentrations. Relative to a 22-year reference load time series at the basin outlet derived from a dynamic general additive model based on monitoring data, D-SedNet had a median absolute error of 68% compared with 112% for the rating curve. RMS error was slightly higher for D-SedNet than for the rating curve due to large relative errors on small loads in several drought years. This accuracy is similar to existing agricultural system models used in arable or humid environments. Predicted river loads were sensitive to ground vegetation cover. We conclude that the river network sediment budget model provides some capacity for predicting load time-series independent of monitoring data in ungauged basins, and for evaluating the impact of land management on river sediment load time-series, which is challenging across large regions in data-poor environments. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Antarctic Subglacial Lake Drainage Via Canals Incised Into Sediment: Progress From Modelling And Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S. P.; Fricker, H. A.; Siegfried, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional models for the subglacial drainage of ice-dammed lakes in temperate environments invoke a channel eroded into the deformable ice above the bed. In Antarctica, however, modelling studies imply that conditions are more favourable to the drainage of water through channels eroded into the underlying sediments or till, commonly referred to as "canals". We have developed a model for the discharge of "active" subglacial lakes in Antarctica employing drainage through canals and tested its predictions for ice surface drawdown and rate of outflow against satellite- and ground-based observations. Our modeled outflow from a lake begins as a distributed flow, which evolves to incise a channel into the sediment as outflow rates increase. With further erosion, the canal aperture increases and soon quickly become the dominant flow mechanism, pulling water away from the distributed system. Lower pressure within the canal allows the lake to drain to levels below that necessary to initiate outflow, but also allows the sediment to flow into the canal. This deformational closure of the canal typically, ends lake drainage before all water is evacuated. The observed ice speedups associated with lake drainage appear to correlate not with peak total outflow, but with the peak in distributed outflow that before an effective channel is incised. Peak channelized flow reduces water pressure leading to a net slowdown relative to a steady-state distributed drainage. Although sensitivity studies indicate that rate of channel grown and contraction are highly dependent on relatively unconstrained sediment properties (e.g. grain size, porosity), the total drawdown and peak outflow rates for nearly every active lake identified in Antarctica so far all fall within 2 orders of magnitude of one another. The small spread of observations compared to the parameter space of the sensitivity study may indicate either that there is a feedback mechanism for maintaining optimal sediment properties

  19. A visual LISP program for voxelizing AutoCAD solid models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschallinger, Robert; Jandrisevits, Carmen; Zobl, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    AutoCAD solid models are increasingly recognized in geological and geotechnical 3D modeling. In order to bridge the currently existing gap between AutoCAD solid models and the grid modeling realm, a Visual LISP program is presented that converts AutoCAD solid models into voxel arrays. Acad2Vox voxelizer works on a 3D-model that is made up of arbitrary non-overlapping 3D-solids. After definition of the target voxel array geometry, 3D-solids are scanned at grid positions and properties are streamed to an ASCII output file. Acad2Vox has a novel voxelization strategy that combines a hierarchical reduction of sampling dimensionality with an innovative use of AutoCAD-specific methods for a fast and memory-saving operation. Acad2Vox provides georeferenced, voxelized analogs of 3D design data that can act as regions-of-interest in later geostatistical modeling and simulation. The Supplement includes sample geological solid models with instructions for practical work with Acad2Vox.

  20. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zeli [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Leung, L. Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Li, Hongyi [Montana State University, Bozeman MT USA; Tesfa, Teklu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Vanmaercke, Matthias [Département de Géographie, Université de Liège, Liege Belgium; Poesen, Jean [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Division of Geography, KU Leuven, Leuven Belgium; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lu, Hui [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Hartmann, Jens [Institute for Geology, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg Germany

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km27 ), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  1. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zeli; Leung, L. Ruby; Li, Hongyi; Tesfa, Teklu; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Zhang, Xuesong; Lu, Hui; Hartmann, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1,081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km2), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  2. Rock physics modeling of shallow marine sediments in the eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Sriram, G.; RamPrasad, T.

    for the intermediate porosity are calculated using lower Hashin-Shtrikman bound. The fluid-saturated moduli are estimated using Gassmann’s equation. The main limitation of this model is that it requires a lot of apriori information and is computationally involved... that are in a state of suspension, i.e. having no frame stiffness. The EMM model can be extended to estimate the hydrate and free gas concentration in marine sediments from porosity and velocity profiles (Helgerud, 1999). Lee (2006) showed that shear wave...

  3. 3D Modelling of Transport, Deposition and Resuspension of Highway Deposited Sediments in wet Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2010-01-01

    concrete channel with width of 0.8m and a water depth of approximately 0.8m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With a fairly good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved...... pollutants and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account....

  4. Reconstruction of lake history using nondestructive methods. A first record of organic endmember in sediments using solid phase fluorescence (Lake Noir Inférieur, Aiguilles Rouges Massif, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiers, Marine; Develle, Anne-Lise; Perette, Yves; Sabatier, Pierre; Belle, Simon; Pignol, Cécile; Millet, Laurent; Arnaud, Fabien

    2015-04-01

    Mountain areas are known to be highly sensitive to environmental perturbations driven by climate changes and human activities. Thus, high altitude lake sediments represent interesting archives to reconstruct past environmental variations. Because of their difficult access and their low sedimentation rate, high resolution nondestructive methods are required to limit the loss of information induced by the use of destructive analyses. Moreover, when they are located at the top of drainage basins, their reduced catchment area leads to the dominance of organic matter in the sediment which would make interesting to complete the use of traditional high resolution sedimentary geochemistry tools, such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) logging, by organic matter-borne high resolution signals. Here we attempt to use UV-induced solid phase fluorescence (SPF) as a promising way to analyze the organic component of environmental archives as we already showed on speleothem records. A 70cm-long core was retrieved in 2012 from the high altitude Lake Noir Inférieur (2495 a.s.l.), located in the Aiguilles Rouges Massif (Northern French Alps). The catchment area, made by gneiss and amphibolites, is almost devoid of vegetation. Thus, the high OM content (up to 23.6%) of the homogenous dark brown sediments is assumed to be essentially related to autochtonous production. The preliminary age model suggests that the core spans the last 8000 yrs. In this work, we investigated the upper 15 cm of the core which represents the last 1300 yrs. We combined the two spectroscopic methods (XRF and SPF) at a 100µm step, in order to provide a high resolution overview of both mineral and organic endmembers. The XRF core scanner analytical settings were adjusted at 10 kV and 30kV in order to detect elements from Al to Pb. SPF measurements were performed with a spectrofluorimeter and emission spectra were recorded at 256 nm and 325 nm excitation wavelengths. Different organic matter types (chlorophyll

  5. SedFoam-2.0: a 3-D two-phase flow numerical model for sediment transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chauchat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a three-dimensional two-phase flow solver, SedFoam-2.0, is presented for sediment transport applications. The solver is extended from twoPhaseEulerFoam available in the 2.1.0 release of the open-source CFD (computational fluid dynamics toolbox OpenFOAM. In this approach the sediment phase is modeled as a continuum, and constitutive laws have to be prescribed for the sediment stresses. In the proposed solver, two different intergranular stress models are implemented: the kinetic theory of granular flows and the dense granular flow rheology μ(I. For the fluid stress, laminar or turbulent flow regimes can be simulated and three different turbulence models are available for sediment transport: a simple mixing length model (one-dimensional configuration only, a k − ε, and a k − ω model. The numerical implementation is demonstrated on four test cases: sedimentation of suspended particles, laminar bed load, sheet flow, and scour at an apron. These test cases illustrate the capabilities of SedFoam-2.0 to deal with complex turbulent sediment transport problems with different combinations of intergranular stress and turbulence models.

  6. Thermal, chemical, and mass transport processes induced in abyssal sediments by the emplacement of nuclear wastes: Experimental and modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Erickson, K.L.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter the authors discuss the current status of heat and mass transport studies in the marine red clay sediments that are being considered as a nuclear waste isolation medium and review analytical and experimental studies. Calculations based on numerical models indicate that for a maximum allowable sediment-canister interface temperatures of 200 0 to 250 0 C, the sediment can absorb about 1.5kW initial power from waste buried 30 m in the sediment in a canister that is 3 m long and 0.3 m in diameter. The resulting fluid displacement due to convections is found to be small, less than 1 m. Laboratory studies of the geochemical effects induced by heating sediment-seawater mixtures indicate that the canister and waste form should be designed to resist a hot, relatively acidic oxidizing environment. Since the thermally altered sediment volume of about 5.5 m/sup 3/ is small relative to the sediment volume overlying the canister, the acid and oxidizing conditions should significantly affect the properties of the far field only if thermodiffusional process (Soret effect) prove to be significant. If thermodiffusional effects are important, however, near-field chemistry will differ considerably from that predicted from results of constant temperature sediment-seawater interaction experiments

  7. Modeling the Seasonal Response of Sediment Yield to Climate Change in the Laos-Vietnam Transnational Upper Ca River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Quy Giang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in stream sediment yield impact material fluxes, water quality, aquatic geochemistry, stream morphology, and aquatic habitats. Quantifying sediment yield is important for predicting watershed erosion and understanding sediment transport processes. In the context of a changing climate, this is important for the management and conservation of soil and water to cope with the effects of increasingly severe climate conditions that are likely to occur in the near future. This study aims to predict seasonal trends in sediment yield under climate change impacts in the Laos-Vietnam transnational Upper Ca River Watershed. The SWAT model was used for hydrological simulation, coupled with future climate projections under three IPCC emission scenarios, B1, B2, and A2. We found an increase in the seasonality of sediment yield due to increases in the seasonality of both rainfall and runoff. However, the increase of sediment yield in the wet season appeared more significant than its decrease in the dry season, due to more significant increases in rainfall as well as runoff in that season compared to decreases in these factors in the dry season. Consequently, annual sediment yield is predicted to increase, with a rate ranging from 12.1% to 16.5% by the end of this century, depending on emission scenario. The seasonal sensitivity of sediment yield to climate change found in this study is expected to be useful in collaborative management initiatives related to soil and water resources in the watershed.

  8. Modeling of vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium in gas - aqueous electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for the description of vapor-liquid-solid equilibria is introduced. This model is a combination of the extended UNIQUAC model for electrolytes and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equation of state. The model has been applied to aqueous systems containing ammonia and/or carbon ...

  9. Geological evidence and sediment transport modelling for the 1946 and 1960 tsunamis in Shinmachi, Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Catherine; Sugawara, Daisuke; Goto, Kazuhisa; Goff, James; Dudley, Walter; Gadd, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    The Japanese community of Shinmachi, established on low-lying land between downtown Hilo and Waiakea, Hawaii, was obliterated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami but was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by the 1960 Chilean tsunami. The aim of this study was to find out if any geological evidence of these well documented events had been preserved in the sedimentary record in Wailoa River State Park, which replaced Shinmachi after the 1960 tsunami. This was achieved by collecting cores in the park and performing sedimentological, chronological and geochemical analyses, the latter also processed by principal component analysis. Sediment transport modelling was carried out for both tsunamis, to infer the source of the sediment and areas of deposition on land. The field survey revealed two distinct units within peat and soil, a thin lower unit composed of weathered basalt fragments within mud (Unit 1) and an upper unit dominated by fine volcanic sand within fine silt exhibiting subtle upward fining and coarsening (Unit 2, consisting of Unit 2A and Unit 2B), although these two anomalous units only occur on the western shore of Waiakea Mill Pond. Analysis with an ITRAX core scanner shows that Unit 1 is characterised by high Mn, Fe, Rb, La and Ce counts, combined with elevated magnetic susceptibility. Based on its chemical and sedimentological characteristics, Unit 1 is attributed to a flood event in Wailoa River that occurred around 1520-1660 CE, most probably as a result of a tropical storm. The sharp lower contact of Unit 2 coincides with the appearance of arsenic, contemporaneous with an increase in Ca, Sr, Si, Ti, K, Zr, Mn, Fe, La and Ce. In this study, As is used as a chronological and source material marker, as it is known to have been released into Wailoa River Estuary and Waiakea Mill Pond by the Canec factory between 1932 and 1963. Thus, not only the chemical and sedimentological evidence but also sediment transport modelling, corroborating the historical record

  10. Tracking acid mine-drainage in Southeast Arizona using GIS and sediment delivery models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Gray, F.; Guertin, D.P.; Wissler, C.; Bliss, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the application of models traditionally used to estimate erosion and sediment deposition to assess the potential risk of water quality impairment resulting from metal-bearing materials related to mining and mineralization. An integrated watershed analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based tools was undertaken to examine erosion and sediment transport characteristics within the watersheds. Estimates of stream deposits of sediment from mine tailings were related to the chemistry of surface water to assess the effectiveness of the methodology to assess the risk of acid mine-drainage being dispersed downstream of abandoned tailings and waste rock piles. A watershed analysis was preformed in the Patagonia Mountains in southeastern Arizona which has seen substantial mining and where recent water quality samples have reported acidic surface waters. This research demonstrates an improvement of the ability to predict streams that are likely to have severely degraded water quality as a result of past mining activities. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  11. Coupled numerical modeling of gas hydrates bearing sediments from laboratory to field-scale conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M. J.; Santamarina, C.; Gai, X., Sr.; Teymouri, M., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Stability and behavior of Hydrate Bearing Sediments (HBS) are characterized by the metastable character of the gas hydrate structure which strongly depends on thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) actions. Hydrate formation, dissociation and methane production from hydrate bearing sediments are coupled THCM processes that involve, amongst other, exothermic formation and endothermic dissociation of hydrate and ice phases, mixed fluid flow and large changes in fluid pressure. The analysis of available data from past field and laboratory experiments, and the optimization of future field production studies require a formal and robust numerical framework able to capture the very complex behavior of this type of soil. A comprehensive fully coupled THCM formulation has been developed and implemented into a finite element code to tackle problems involving gas hydrates sediments. Special attention is paid to the geomechanical behavior of HBS, and particularly to their response upon hydrate dissociation under loading. The numerical framework has been validated against recent experiments conducted under controlled conditions in the laboratory that challenge the proposed approach and highlight the complex interaction among THCM processes in HBS. The performance of the models in these case studies is highly satisfactory. Finally, the numerical code is applied to analyze the behavior of gas hydrate soils under field-scale conditions exploring different features of material behavior under possible reservoir conditions.

  12. Key parameters of the sediment surface morphodynamics in an estuary - An assessment of model solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, D. M. R.; Boski, T.

    2018-05-01

    Large-scale geomorphological evolution of an estuarine system was simulated by means of a hybrid estuarine sedimentation model (HESM) applied to the Guadiana Estuary, in Southwest Iberia. The model simulates the decadal-scale morphodynamics of the system under environmental forcing, using a set of analytical solutions to simplified equations of tidal wave propagation in shallow waters, constrained by empirical knowledge of estuarine sedimentary dynamics and topography. The key controlling parameters of the model are bed friction (f), current velocity power of the erosion rate function (N), and sea-level rise rate. An assessment of sensitivity of the simulated sediment surface elevation (SSE) change to these controlling parameters was performed. The model predicted the spatial differentiation of accretion and erosion, the latter especially marked in the mudflats within mean sea level and low tide level and accretion was mainly in a subtidal channel. The average SSE change mutually depended on both the friction coefficient and power of the current velocity. Analysis of the average annual SSE change suggests that the state of intertidal and subtidal compartments of the estuarine system vary differently according to the dominant processes (erosion and accretion). As the Guadiana estuarine system shows dominant erosional behaviour in the context of sea-level rise and sediment supply reduction after the closure of the Alqueva Dam, the most plausible sets of parameter values for the Guadiana Estuary are N = 1.8 and f = 0.8f0, or N = 2 and f = f0, where f0 is the empirically estimated value. For these sets of parameter values, the relative errors in SSE change did not exceed ±20% in 73% of simulation cells in the studied area. Such a limit of accuracy can be acceptable for an idealized modelling of coastal evolution in response to uncertain sea-level rise scenarios in the context of reduced sediment supply due to flow regulation. Therefore, the idealized but cost

  13. Numerical modeling of suspended sediment tansfers at the catchment scale with TELEMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccone, Florent; Antoine, Germain; Delestre, Olivier; Goutal, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    In the mountainous regions, the filling of reservoirs is an important issue in terms of efficiency and environmental acceptability for producing hydro-electricity. Thus, the modelling of the sediment transfers on highly erodible watershed is a key challenge from both economic and scientific points of view. The sediment transfers at the watershed scale involve different local flow regimes due to the complex topography of the field and the time and space variability of the meteorological conditions, as well as several physical processes, because of the heterogeneity of the soil composition and cover. A physically-based modelling approach, associated with a fine discretization of the domain, provides an explicit representation of the hydraulic and sedimentary variables, and gives the opportunity to river managers to simulate the global effects of local solutions for decreasing erosion. On the other hand, this approach is time consuming, and needs both detailed data set for validation and robust numerical schemes for simulating various hydraulic and sediment transport conditions. The erosion processes being heavily reliant on the flow characteristics, this paper focus on a robust and accurate numerical resolution of the Shallow Water equations using TELEMAC 2D (www.opentelemac.org). One of the main difficulties is to have a numerical scheme able to represent correctly the hydraulic transfers, preserving the positivity of the water depths, dealing with the wet/dry interface and being well-balanced. Few schemes verifying these properties exist, and their accuracy still needs to be evaluated in the case of rain induced runoff on steep slopes. First, a straight channel test case with a variable slope (Kirstetter et al., 2015) is used to qualify the properties of several Finite Volume numerical schemes. For this test case, a steady rain applied on a dry domain has been performed experimentally in laboratory, and this configuration gives an analytical solution of the Shallow

  14. The use of sediment deposition maps as auxiliary data for hydraulic model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukolwe, Micah; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2013-04-01

    One aspect of the French disaster mitigation setup is the statutory Risk Prevention Plans (PPR, Plans de Prévention des Risques); i.e. spatial identification of potential disasters and mitigation measures. The maps are categorised into three zones depicting increasing disaster severity and potential mitigation measures (RTM, 1999). Taking the example of the city of Barcelonnette, in South France (French Alps), floods have been the most frequent occurring natural hazard (Flageollet et al., 1996). Consequently, a case is put forward for the need for accurate flood extent delineation to support the decision making process. For this study, the Barcelonnette case study was considered, whereby the last devastating flooding was in June 1957 (Weber, 1994). Contrary to the recent advances in the proliferation of data to support flood inundation studies (Bates, 2012; Bates, 2004; Di Baldassarre and Uhlenbrook, 2012; Schumann et al., 2009), constraints are faced when analysing flood inundation events that occurred before the 1970's. In absence of frequent flooding, the analysis of historical flood extents may play an important role in shaping the awareness of local stakeholders and support land-use and urban planning. This study is part of a probabilistic flood mapping (e.g. Di Baldassarre et al., 2010, Horrit, 2006) of the valley carried out in a Monte-Carlo framework, while taking into account the peak flow and the parametric uncertainty. The simulations were carried out using the sub-grid channel model extension of the LISFLOOD-FP hydraulic model (Bates et al, 2010; Neal et al., 2012). Sediment deposition maps (Lecarpentier, 1963) were used to analyse the model performance, additionally the graduation of the sediment deposition sizes showed the flood propagation and was used to analyse the model runs. However, there still remains the challenge of quantifying the uncertainty in the sediment deposition map and the actual flood extent.

  15. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  16. Sediment transport in forested head water catchments - Calibration and validation of a soil erosion and landscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Webb, A. A.; Turner, L.

    2017-11-01

    Sediment transport and soil erosion can be determined by a variety of field and modelling approaches. Computer based soil erosion and landscape evolution models (LEMs) offer the potential to be reliable assessment and prediction tools. An advantage of such models is that they provide both erosion and deposition patterns as well as total catchment sediment output. However, before use, like all models they require calibration and validation. In recent years LEMs have been used for a variety of both natural and disturbed landscape assessment. However, these models have not been evaluated for their reliability in steep forested catchments. Here, the SIBERIA LEM is calibrated and evaluated for its reliability for two steep forested catchments in south-eastern Australia. The model is independently calibrated using two methods. Firstly, hydrology and sediment transport parameters are inferred from catchment geomorphology and soil properties and secondly from catchment sediment transport and discharge data. The results demonstrate that both calibration methods provide similar parameters and reliable modelled sediment transport output. A sensitivity study of the input parameters demonstrates the model's sensitivity to correct parameterisation and also how the model could be used to assess potential timber harvesting as well as the removal of vegetation by fire.

  17. Documentation of a dissolved-solids model of the Tongue River, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    1981-01-01

    A model has been developed for assessing potential increases in dissolved solids of the Tongue River as a result of leaching of overburden materials used to backfill pits in surface coal-mining operations. The model allows spatial and temporal simulation of streamflow and dissolved-solids loads and concentrations under user-defined scenarios of surface coal mining and agricultural development. The model routes an input quantity of streamflow and dissolved solids from the upstream end to the downstream end of a stream reach while algebraically accounting for gains and losses of streamflow and dissolved solids within the stream reach. Input data needed to operate the model include the following: simulation number, designation of hydrologic conditions for each simulated month, either user-defined or regression-defined concentrations of dissolved solids input by the Tongue River Reservoir, number of irrigated acres, number of mined acres, dissolved-solids concentration of mine leachates and quantity of other water losses. A listing of the Fortran computer program, definitions of all variables in the model, and an example output permit use of the model by interested persons. (USGS)

  18. Aspects of modelling classical or synchronous modelling with Solid Edge ST 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goanta Adrian Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current situation of the design activity is dependent on both the level of training of the human resources and the financial resources of companies required purchasing the design software packages and complex calculation equipment. Consequently, the situation is very diverse in the sense that there are design cases using only drawing software but also classical 3D or synchronous modelling situations, simple or integrated into software packages that meet the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM principles. The natural tendency in modelling and design is primarily to the high computing power integrated software or somewhat simplified versions that, however, allow at least FEA modelling, simulation and the related 2D documentation. The paper presents some aspects of modernity in synchronous modelling as compared to the classic one, made with 2016 version of Solid Edge software from SIEMENS. Basically there were studied and analysed aspects of modelling ease, speed of changes and also optimization of commands in the modelling process of the same piece in the two versions mentioned: classic and synchronous. It is also presented the alternative path from one method to another within the same process of piece modelling, depending on the advantages provided by each method. In other words, the work is based on a case study of modelling a piece under the two modelling versions of which some aspects were highlighted and conclusions were drawn.

  19. Leaching, geochemical modelling and field verification of a municipal solid waste and a predominantly non-degradable waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sloot, H A; Kosson, D S; van Zomeren, A

    2017-05-01

    In spite of the known heterogeneity, wastes destined for landfilling can be characterised for their leaching behaviour by the same protocols as soil, contaminated soil, sediments, sludge, compost, wood, waste and construction products. Characterisation leaching tests used in conjunction with chemical speciation modelling results in much more detailed insights into release controlling processes and factors than single step batch leaching tests like TCLP (USEPA) and EN12457 (EU Landfill Directive). Characterisation testing also can provide the potential for mechanistic impact assessments by making use of a chemical speciation fingerprint (CSF) derived from pH dependence leaching test results. This CSF then forms the basis for subsequent chemical equilibrium and reactive transport modelling to assess environmental impact in a landfill scenario under relevant exposure conditions, including conditions not readily evaluated through direct laboratory testing. This approach has been applied to municipal solid waste (MSW) and predominantly non-degradable waste (PNW) that is representative of a significant part of waste currently being landfilled. This work has shown that a multi-element modelling approach provides a useful description of the release from each of these matrices because relevant release controlling properties and parameters (mineral dissolution/precipitation, sorption on Fe and Al oxides, clay interaction, interaction with dissolved and particulate organic carbon and incorporation in solid solutions) are taken into consideration. Inclusion of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the model is important to properly describe release of the low concentration trace constituents observed in the leachate. The CSF allows the prediction of release under different redox and degradation conditions in the landfill by modifying the redox status and level of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the model runs. The CSF for MSW provides a useful starting point

  20. Coastal marsh degradation: modeling the influence of vegetation die-off patterns on flow and sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Lennert; Wang, Chen; Kirwan, Matthew; Belluco, Enrica; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Temmerman, Stijn

    2014-05-01

    erosion, which may explain their lower surface elevation. Therefore the establishment of marsh plants will be unfavorable. So far, however, this hypothesis has not been verified. In order to investigate the influence of these different types of pool patterns on spatial flow and sedimentation patterns, we used an existing hydrodynamic and sediment transport model (Delft3D) that has been calibrated and validated against field data on tidal marsh flow and sedimentation. The model reproduces the bio-geomorphologic effects of complete vegetation removal, but different pool patterns have not been studied until now. By simulating different pool patterns, we are able to verify our hypothesis regarding elevation changes and marsh recovery potential in degraded marsh pools. This highlights the importance of bio-geomorphologic feedbacks for marsh degradation and recovery.

  1. Processes governing arsenic retardation on Pleistocene sediments: Adsorption experiments and model-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Bhasker; Neidhardt, Harald; Berg, Michael; Siade, Adam; Prommer, Henning

    2017-05-01

    In many countries of south/south-east Asia, reliance on Pleistocene aquifers for the supply of low-arsenic groundwater has created the risk of inducing migration of high-arsenic groundwater from adjacent Holocene aquifers. Adsorption of arsenic onto mineral surfaces of Pleistocene sediments is an effective attenuation mechanism. However, little is known about the sorption under anoxic conditions, in particular the behavior of arsenite. We report the results of anoxic batch experiments investigating arsenite (1-25 µmol/L) adsorption onto Pleistocene sediments under a range of field-relevant conditions. The sorption of arsenite was nonlinear and decreased with increasing phosphate concentrations (3-60 µmol/L) while pH (range 6-8) had no effect on total arsenic sorption. To simulate the sorption experiments, we developed surface complexation models of varying complexity. The simulated concentrations of arsenite, arsenate, and phosphate were in good agreement for the isotherm and phosphate experiments while secondary geochemical processes affected the pH experiments. For the latter, the model-based analysis suggests that the formation of solution complexes between organic buffers and Mn(II) ions promoted the oxidation of arsenite involving naturally occurring Mn-oxides. Upscaling the batch experiment model to a reactive transport model for Pleistocene aquifers demonstrates strong arsenic retardation and could have useful implications in the management of arsenic-free Pleistocene aquifers.

  2. Universally applicable model for the quantitative determination of lake sediment composition using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Peter; Vogel, Hendrik; Cunningham, Laura; Hahn, Annette; Hausmann, Sonja; Pienitz, Reinhard; Zolitschka, Bernd; Wagner, Bernd; Persson, Per

    2011-10-15

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) can provide detailed information on organic and minerogenic constituents of sediment records. Based on a large number of sediment samples of varying age (0-340,000 yrs) and from very diverse lake settings in Antarctica, Argentina, Canada, Macedonia/Albania, Siberia, and Sweden, we have developed universally applicable calibration models for the quantitative determination of biogenic silica (BSi; n = 816), total inorganic carbon (TIC; n = 879), and total organic carbon (TOC; n = 3164) using FTIRS. These models are based on the differential absorbance of infrared radiation at specific wavelengths with varying concentrations of individual parameters, due to molecular vibrations associated with each parameter. The calibration models have low prediction errors and the predicted values are highly correlated with conventionally measured values (R = 0.94-0.99). Robustness tests indicate the accuracy of the newly developed FTIRS calibration models is similar to that of conventional geochemical analyses. Consequently FTIRS offers a useful and rapid alternative to conventional analyses for the quantitative determination of BSi, TIC, and TOC. The rapidity, cost-effectiveness, and small sample size required enables FTIRS determination of geochemical properties to be undertaken at higher resolutions than would otherwise be possible with the same resource allocation, thus providing crucial sedimentological information for climatic and environmental reconstructions.

  3. A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gregory E.; Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.; Gray, John R.

    2001-01-01

    little direct evidence is available concerning the fate of sediment. The common practice of quantifying sediment fate with a sediment delivery ratio, estimated from a simple empirical relation with upstream basin area, does not articulate the relative importance of individual storage sites within a basin (Wolman, 1977). Rates of sediment deposition in reservoirs and flood plains can be determined from empirical measurements, but only a limited number of sites have been monitored, and net rates of deposition or loss from other potential sinks and sources is largely unknown (Stallard, 1998). In particular, little is known about how much sediment loss from fields ultimately makes its way to stream channels, and how much sediment is subsequently stored in or lost from the streambed (Meade and Parker, 1985, Trimble and Crosson, 2000).This paper reports on recent progress made to address empirically the question of sediment fate and transport on a national scale. The model presented here is based on the SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) methodology, first used to estimate the distribution of nutrients in streams and rivers of the United States, and subsequently shown to describe land and stream processes affecting the delivery of nutrients (Smith and others, 1997, Alexander and others, 2000, Preston and Brakebill, 1999). The model makes use of numerous spatial datasets, available at the national level, to explain long-term sediment water-quality conditions in major streams and rivers throughout the United States. Sediment sources are identified using sediment erosion rates from the National Resources Inventory (NRI) (Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000) and apportioned over the landscape according to 30- meter resolution land-use information from the National Land Cover Data set (NLCD) (U.S. Geological Survey, 2000a). More than 76,000 reservoirs from the National Inventory of Dams (NID) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1996) are

  4. Solid-Liquid equilibrium of n-alkanes using the Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    degrees of success.An attempt to describe the equilibrium between the high temperature form of a paraffinic solid solution, commonly known as rotator phase, and the liquid phase is performed. The Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model (CDLP) is developed allowing a successful description of the solid...... mixtures, is related with the values of the melting temperatures by a function common to the entire homologous series. When applied to systems with a symmetric behavior, this yields a correct description of both the enthalpic and entropic parts of the excess Gibbs free energy with the CDLP model......The formation of a solid phase in liquid mixtures with large paraffinic molecules is a phenomenon of interest in the petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological industries among onters. Efforts to model the solid-liquid equilibrium in these systems have been mainly empirical and with different...

  5. The solid-state terahertz spectrum of MDMA (Ecstasy) - A unique test for molecular modeling assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allis, Damian G.; Hakey, Patrick M.; Korter, Timothy M.

    2008-10-01

    The terahertz (THz, far-infrared) spectrum of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (Ecstasy) is simulated using solid-state density functional theory. While a previously reported isolated-molecule calculation is noteworthy for the precision of its solid-state THz reproduction, the solid-state calculation predicts that the isolated-molecule modes account for only half of the spectral features in the THz region, with the remaining structure arising from lattice vibrations that cannot be predicted without solid-state molecular modeling. The molecular origins of the internal mode contributions to the solid-state THz spectrum, as well as the proper consideration of the protonation state of the molecule, are also considered.

  6. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.; Warith, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models

  7. Conserved currents in the six-vertex and trigonometric solid-on-solid models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlef, Yacine; Weston, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We construct quasi-local conserved currents in the six-vertex model with anisotropy parameter η by making use of the quantum-group approach of Bernard and Felder. From these currents, we construct parafermionic operators with spin 1+\\text{i}η /π that obey a discrete-integral condition around lattice plaquettes embedded into the complex plane. These operators are identified with primary fields in a c  =  1 compactified free Boson conformal field theory. We then consider a vertex-face correspondence that takes the six-vertex model to a trigonometric SOS model, and construct SOS operators that are the image of the six-vertex currents under this correspondence. We define corresponding SOS parafermionic operators with spins s  =  1 and s=1+2\\text{i}η /π that obey discrete integral conditions around SOS plaquettes embedded into the complex plane. We consider in detail the cyclic-SOS case corresponding to the choice η =\\text{i}π ≤ft( p-{{p}\\prime}\\right)/p , with {{p}\\prime} coprime. We identify our SOS parafermionic operators in terms of the screening operators and primary fields of the associated c=1-6≤ft( p-{{p}\\prime}\\right){{}2}/p{{p}\\prime} conformal field theory.

  8. Mathematical modelling of the bottom relief reformation on the basis of the 2D sediment transport model coupled with 3D hydrodynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinov, Alexander; Chistyakov, Alexander; Alekseenko, Elena; Roux, Bernard; Chen, Paul Gang; Kharif, Christian

    2014-05-01

    A special place in terms of complexity and practical significance belongs to the processes associated with transport of sediments in coastal aquatic systems. Coastal dynamics and coastal bottom topography are largely determined by the nature of sediment transport in the coastal zone under the influence of waves and currents. In this work we concider a spatially two-dimensional model of sediment transport, taking into account the following physical parameters and processes: soil porosity, the critical shear stress at which sediment begins moving, turbulent exchange, dynamically changing geometry and function of the bottom elevation level, wind induced currents, bottom shear. Concidered sediment transport model coupled with 2D and 3D models of hydrodynamics Azov3D and implemented on a high performance machine. One of the main feature is that the built discrete model is absolutely stable and completely conservative, in particular, satisfies the law of mass conservation. The coupled model is numerically implemented on the basis of the pressure correction method taking into account nonhydrostatic approximation using the three equations of motion that allows to more adequately describe the hydrodynamic processes near the coastline and on the basis of finite volume method that uses a function of partially filled cells. Results of numerical experiments allow to analyze the dynamics of changes in the bottom geometry, structures and sediment formation, suspension transport, to predict the occurrence of marine ridges and their growth and transformation, to predict the change of the concentration field in the case of emissions from a source, and to predict siltage of navigable channels. The developed on the basis of the parallel programs for high performance system of SFedU model was applied to study the consequences of the naval channel digging in the docks of Arkhangelsk terminal.

  9. Models for solid oxide fuel cell systems exploitation of models hierarchy for industrial design of control and diagnosis strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Dario; Polverino, Pierpaolo; Sorrentino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents methodologies for optimal design of control and diagnosis strategies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell systems. A key feature of the methodologies presented is the exploitation of modelling tools that balance accuracy and computational burden.

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Hydraulics and Sedimentation in Process Reactors During Aeration Tank Settling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Jensen, Mette; Ingildsen, Pernille; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Aeration Tank Settling is a control method alowing settling in the process tank during high hydraulic load. The control method is patented. Aeration Tank Settling has been applied in several waste water treatment plant's using present design of the process tanks. Some process tank designs have...... shown to be more effective than others. To improve the design of less effective plants Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of hydraulics and sedimentation has been applied. The paper discusses the results at one particular plant experiencing problems with partly short-circuiting of the inlet...

  11. Pesticide transport to tile-drained fields in SWAT model – macropore flow and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Shenglan; Trolle, Dennis; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Tool (SWAT) to simulate transport of both mobile (e.g. Bentazon) and strongly sorbed (e.g. Diuron) pesticides in tile drains. Macropore flow is initiated when soil water content exceeds a threshold and rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity. The amount of macropore flow is calculated...... as a fraction of effective rainfall and transported to the tile drains directly. Macropore sediment transport is calculated similarly to the MACRO model (Jarvis et al., 1999). Mobile pesticide transport is calculated with a decay function with the flow, whereas sorbed pesticides transport is associated...

  12. Modeling artifacts in the simulation of the sedimentation of raindrops with a Quadrature Method of Moments

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Jasor; Ulrike Wacker; Klaus Dieter Beheng; Wolfgang Polifke

    2014-01-01

    The Quadrature Method of Moments (QMoM) is applied to a one-dimensional test case for sedimentation of raindrops. Comparison of the results with a reference spectral method exhibits discrepancies (“step patterns”) that must be considered as modeling artifacts. As the QMoM has been demonstrated to be effective and accurate in various contexts, the origin of these artifacts is investigated and found to be related to the transport of the quadrature abscissas. Further test cases are considered to...

  13. Optimization of a new flow design for solid oxide cells using computational fluid dynamics modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duhn, Jakob Dragsbæk; Jensen, Anker Degn; Wedel, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Design of a gas distributor to distribute gas flow into parallel channels for Solid Oxide Cells (SOC) is optimized, with respect to flow distribution, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling. The CFD model is based on a 3d geometric model and the optimized structural parameters include...

  14. The study on three-dimensional mathematical model of river bed erosion for water-sediment two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongwei

    1996-02-01

    Based on the tensor analysis of water-sediment two-phase flow, the basic model equations for clear water flow and sediment-laden flow are deduced in the general curve coordinates for natural water variable-density turbulent flow. Furthermore, corresponding boundary conditions are also presented in connection with the composition and movement of non-uniform bed material. The theoretical results are applied to the calculation of the float open caisson in the construction period and good results are obtained.

  15. Modeling sediment concentration and discharge variations in a small Ethiopian watershed with contributions from an unpaved road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman Christian D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drainage of paved and unpaved roads has been implicated as a major contributor of overland flow and erosion in mountainous landscapes. Despite this, few watershed models include or have tested for the effect roads have on discharge and sediment loads. Though having a model is an important step, its proper application and attention to distinct landscape features is even more important. This study focuses on developing a module for drainage from a road and tests it on a nested watershed (Shanko Bahir within a larger previously studied site (Debre Mawi that receives overland flow contributions from a highly compacted layer of soil on an unpaved road surface. Shanko Bahir experiences a sub-humid monsoonal climate and was assessed for the rainy seasons of 2010, 2011, and 2012. The model chosen is the Parameter Efficient Distributed (PED model, previously used where saturation-excess overland flow heavily influences discharge and sediment concentration variation, though infiltration-excess occasionally occurs. Since overland flow on unpaved surfaces emulates Hortonian flow, an adjustment to the PED model (the developed module advances possible incorporation of both flow regimes. The modification resulted in similar modeling performance as previous studies in the Blue Nile Basin on a daily basis (NSE = 0.67 for discharge and 0.71 for sediment concentrations. Furthermore, the road while occupying a small proportion of the sub-watershed (11% contributed importantly to the early discharge and sediment transport events demonstrating the effect of roads especially on sediment concentrations. Considerations for the dynamic erodibility of the road improved sediment concentration simulation further (NSE = 0.75. The results show that this PED modeling framework can be adjusted to include unpaved compacted surfaces to give reasonable results, but more work is needed to account for contributions from gullies, which can cause high influxes of sediment.

  16. A Process and Environment Aware Sierra/SolidMechanics Cohesive Zone Modeling Capability for Polymer/Solid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, E. D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chambers, Robert S. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hughes, Lindsey Gloe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stevens, Mark J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The performance and reliability of many mechanical and electrical components depend on the integrity of po lymer - to - solid interfaces . Such interfaces are found in adhesively bonded joints, encapsulated or underfilled electronic modules, protective coatings, and laminates. The work described herein was aimed at improving Sandia's finite element - based capability to predict interfacial crack growth by 1) using a high fidelity nonlinear viscoelastic material model for the adhesive in fracture simulations, and 2) developing and implementing a novel cohesive zone fracture model that generates a mode - mixity dependent toughness as a natural consequence of its formulation (i.e., generates the observed increase in interfacial toughness wi th increasing crack - tip interfacial shear). Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations were used to study fundamental material/interfa cial physics so as to develop a fuller understanding of the connection between molecular structure and failure . Also reported are test results that quantify how joint strength and interfacial toughness vary with temperature.

  17. Recent sedimentation rates in the Caravelas estuary (Bahia, Brazil) using unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann Angeli, Jose Lourenco; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens Cesar; Venturini, Natalia; Univ. of la Republica, Montevideo

    2016-01-01

    The Caravelas estuary is located in a zone of the Brazilian coast (Southern Bahia State) which has been submitted to different kinds of land uses during the last 50 years. This zone has an important ecological role, due to its mangroves and its location next to Abrolhos coral reef, the most important in the Southern Atlantic Ocean. 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating methods, accompanied by a sedimentological study, were applied to sediment cores in order to establish sedimentation rates and identify historical trends of land use and erosive processes. Sedimentation rates were established according to the ''Constant Rate of Supply'' (CRS) 210 Pb dating model, which was preferred rather than the ''Constant Initial Concentration'' (CIC) model. Corrected sedimentation rates obtained from 210 Pb dating were corroborated through a second independent radionuclide tracer such as 137 Cs. The sedimentation rates obtained according to the CRS model for the cores were 1.07 ± 0.13 cm yr -1 for T2 (inner sector), 0.65 ± 0.06 cm yr -1 for T5 and 0.85 ± 0.09 cm yr -1 for T8 (outer sector). The difference in sedimentation rates among the sampling sites could be due to hydrodynamic processes and could be related to the tendency of increase of erosive processes, conditioned by the changes in the landscape and land use to, which this region has been submitted.

  18. A coupled modelling effort to study the fate of contaminated sediments downstream of the Coles Hill deposit, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Castro-Bolinaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results of a coupled modelling effort to study the fate of tailings (radioactive waste-by product downstream of the Coles Hill uranium deposit located in Virginia, USA. The implementation of the overall modelling process includes a one-dimensional hydraulic model to qualitatively characterize the sediment transport process under severe flooding conditions downstream of the potential mining site, a two-dimensional ANSYS Fluent model to simulate the release of tailings from a containment cell located partially above the local ground surface into the nearby streams, and a one-dimensional finite-volume sediment transport model to examine the propagation of a tailings sediment pulse in the river network located downstream. The findings of this investigation aim to assist in estimating the potential impacts that tailings would have if they were transported into rivers and reservoirs located downstream of the Coles Hill deposit that serve as municipal drinking water supplies.

  19. Tracing contaminant pathways in sandy heterogeneous glaciofluvial sediments using a sedimentary depositional model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, E.K.; Anderson, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Heterogeneous sedimentary deposits present complications for tracking contaminant movement by causing a complex advective flow field. Connected areas of high conductivity produce so-called fast paths that control movement of solutes. Identifying potential fast paths and describing the variation in hydraulic properties was attempted through simulating the deposition of a glaciofluvial deposit (outwash). Glaciofluvial deposits usually consist of several depositional facies, each of which has different physical characteristics, depositional structures and hydraulic properties. Therefore, it is unlikely that the property of stationarity (a constant mean hydraulic conductivity and a mono-modal probability distribution) holds for an entire glaciofluvial sequence. However, the process of dividing an outwash sequence into geologic facies presumably identifies units of material with similar physical characteristics. It is proposed that patterns of geologic facies determined by field observation can be quantified by mathematical simulation of sediment deposition. Subsequently, the simulated sediment distributions can be used to define the distribution of hydrogeologic parameters and locate possible fast paths. To test this hypothesis, a hypothetical glacial outwash deposit based on geologic facies descriptions contained in the literature was simulated using a sedimentary depositional model, SEDSIM, to produce a three-dimensional description of sediment grain size distributions. Grain size distributions were then used to estimate the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity. Subsequently a finite-difference flow model and linked particle tracking algorithm were used to trace conservative transport pathways. This represents a first step in describing the spatial heterogeneity of hydrogeologic characteristics for glaciofluvial and other braided stream environments. (Author) (39 refs., 7 figs.)

  20. Modeling of an Adjustable Beam Solid State Light

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a computational model of a prototype variable beam light source using optical modeling software, Zemax OpticStudio ®. The...

  1. A mathematical model for the municipal solid waste location-routing problem with intermediate transfer stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Asefi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management is one of the challenging issues in mega cities due to various interrelated factors such as operational costs and environmental concerns. Cost as one of the most significant constraints of municipal solid waste management can be effectively economized by efficient planning approaches. Considering diverse waste types in an integrated municipal solid waste system, a mathematical model of the location-routing problem is formulated and solved in this study in order to minimize the total cost of transportation and facility establishment.

  2. A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Biology and Environmental Science

    2004-05-01

    A mathematical model for simulation of lake basin filling processes in areas with positive shore displacement was constructed. The model was calibrated using sediment and catchments data from eight existing lake basins situated in the northern coastal area of the province of Uppland, Sweden. The lake basin filling processes were separated into three phases: basin filling with wave-washed material (silt, silty sand or sand), filling with fine-grained material during the shallow gulf and lake stages, respectively, and filling with vegetation during the lake stage. The basin filling rates for wave-washed material were generally low but varied considerably both between and within lakes. The mean basin filling rate of wave-washed material was 4.1%. The volume of inorganic sediments produced, and basin filling rates during the shallow gulf and lake phases were determined for all the eight lakes. The relationship between basin filling rate and parameters describing the catchments, the former postglacial basins and the lakes, respectively, was determined using multiple regression analysis. The basin filling rate with inorganic sediments was best described by parameters related to former postglacial basin morphometry and current lake morphometry, e.g. basin volume, lake volume, and lake area. The goodness of fit turned out to be 0.99 for a simple regression with basin volume as the sole independent variable. The basin filling with vegetation (Phragmites australis followed by Sphagnum spp.) was treated as a 2-dimensional process. A dataset with 84 bogs was selected from a digital soil map. The ages of the bogs were calculated using a digital elevation map and an equation for shore displacement. The choke-up rate was then calculated by dividing the area of the bogs with their age. A strong exponential relationship exists between areas of the bogs and choke-up rat, and this relationship was then used in the model. The resulting model starts by filling the former coastal basin

  3. Spin models on Platonic solids and asymptotic freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caracciolo, Sergio; Montanari, Andrea; Pelissetto, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional σ-model with discrete icosahedral/dodecahedral symmetry. We present high-precision finite-size numerical results that show that the continuum limit of this model is different from the continuum limit of the rotationally invariant O(3) σ-model

  4. Prototype Data Models and Data Dictionaries for Hanford Sediment Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Last, George V.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2010-09-30

    The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), has been compiling physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to support risk analyses and waste management decisions at Hanford. In FY09 the RDS project developed a strategic plan for a physical and hydraulic property database. This report documents prototype data models and dictionaries for these properties and associated parameters. Physical properties and hydraulic parameters and their distributions are required for any type of quantitative assessment of risk and uncertainty associated with predictions of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface. The central plateau of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State contains most of the contamination at the Site and has up to {approx}100 m of unsaturated and unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sediments overlying the unconfined aquifer. These sediments contain a wide variety of contaminants ranging from organic compounds, such as carbon tetrachloride, to numerous radionuclides including technetium, plutonium, and uranium. Knowledge of the physical and hydraulic properties of the sediments and their distributions is critical for quantitative assessment of the transport of these contaminants in the subsurface, for evaluation of long-term risks and uncertainty associated with model predictions of contaminant transport and fate, and for evaluating, designing, and operating remediation alternatives. One of the goals of PNNL's RDS project is to work with the Hanford Environmental Data Manager (currently with CHPRC) to develop a protocol and schedule for incorporation of physical property and hydraulic parameter datasets currently maintained by PNNL into HEIS. This requires that the data first be reviewed to ensure quality and consistency. New data models must then be developed for HEIS that are

  5. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT GENERATION IN A MICROBIAL FUEL CELL INOCULATED WITH MARINE SEDIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Teleken

    Full Text Available Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFC are electrochemical devices that utilize the ability of some microorganisms to oxidize organic matter and transfer electrons resulting from their metabolism to an insoluble acceptor. The goal of the present study was to model the kinetics of electrical current generation from an MFC inoculated with marine sediment. For this purpose, a differential equation system was used, including the Nernst-Monod relationship and Ohm's Law, to describe the microbial metabolism and the mechanism of extracellular electron transfer (EET, respectively. The experimental data obtained by cyclic voltammetry analysis were properly described by the model. It was concluded that marine microorganisms preferably use a direct mechanism of EET by means of nanowires to establish the electrochemical contact with the anode. The mathematical modeling could help understand MFC operation and, consequently, contribute to improving power generation from this source.

  6. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Modelling of Suralaya Coastal Area, Cilegon, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, A. H.; Suntoyo; Damerianne, H. A.; Wahyudi

    2018-03-01

    The coastal zone of Suralaya is located in the district Pulomerak, Cilegon City, Province Banten. This region is a part of the Sunda Strait region that is very important area to support the ongoing activities such as, industries, power plant, ports, and tourism. However, those various activities will certainly give effect to the surrounding environment. To determine the environmental conditions of Suralaya Coast, it is necessary to study the hydrodynamics analysis and sediment transport modelling including the analysis of currents patterns. Tidal elevation observation was conducted for 15 days used to validate the water elevation simulation results, in which a good agreement between the observed data and the model result was obtained with the error value of 1.6%. The dominant current direction is from northeast in west season, while in the east season predominant current direction is from northwest with a speed average current 12,44 cm/s. The dominant wave direction is from the west. The average temperature is at 27°C and the bottom sediment dominant form is fine sand.

  7. Predicting dredging-associated effects to coral reefs in Apra Harbor, Guam - Part 1: Sediment exposure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailani, Joseph Z; Lackey, Tahirih C; King, David B; Bryant, Duncan; Kim, Sung-Chan; Shafer, Deborah J

    2016-03-01

    Model studies were conducted to investigate the potential coral reef sediment exposure from dredging associated with proposed development of a deepwater wharf in Apra Harbor, Guam. The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) was applied to quantify the exposure of coral reefs to material suspended by the dredging operations at two alternative sites. Key PTM features include the flexible capability of continuous multiple releases of sediment parcels, control of parcel/substrate interaction, and the ability to efficiently track vast numbers of parcels. This flexibility has facilitated simulating the combined effects of sediment released from clamshell dredging and chiseling within Apra Harbor. Because the rate of material released into the water column by some of the processes is not well understood or known a priori, the modeling approach was to bracket parameters within reasonable ranges to produce a suite of potential results from multiple model runs. Sensitivity analysis to model parameters is used to select the appropriate parameter values for bracketing. Data analysis results include mapping the time series and the maximum values of sedimentation, suspended sediment concentration, and deposition rate. Data were used to quantify various exposure processes that affect coral species in Apra Harbor. The goal of this research is to develop a robust methodology for quantifying and bracketing exposure mechanisms to coral (or other receptors) from dredging operations. These exposure values were utilized in an ecological assessment to predict effects (coral reef impacts) from various dredging scenarios. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Speciation analysis of mercury in sediments, zoobenthos and river water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to atomic fluorescence spectrometry following preconcentration by solid phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margetinova, Jana; Houserova-Pelcova, Pavlina; Kuban, Vlastimil

    2008-01-01

    A high-pressure microwave digestion was applied for microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of mercury species from sediments and zoobenthos samples. A mixture containing 3 mol L -1 HCl, 50% aqueous methanol and 0.2 mol L -1 citric acid (for masking co-extracted Fe 3+ ) was selected as the most suitable extraction agent. The efficiency of proposed extraction method was better than 95% with R.S.D. below 6%. A preconcentration method utilizing a 'homemade' C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) microcolumns was developed to enhance sensitivity of the mercury species determination using on-column complex formation of mercury-2-mercaptophenol complexes. Methanol was chosen for counter-current elution of the retained mercury complexes achieving a preconcentration factor as much as 1000. The preconcentration method was applied for the speciation analysis of mercury in river water samples. The high-performance liquid chromatography-cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometric (HPLC/CV-AFS) method was used for the speciation analysis of mercury. The complete separation of four mercury species was achieved by an isocratic elution of aqueous methanol (65%/35%) on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 μm) using the same complexation reagent (2-mercaptophenol). The limits of detection were 4.3 μg L -1 for methylmercury (MeHg + ), 1.4 μg L -1 for ethylmercury (EtHg + ), 0.8 μg L -1 for inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ), 0.8 μg L -1 for phenylmercury (PhHg + )

  9. Tidal-scale flow routing and sedimentation in mangrove forests: combining field data and numerical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, Erik; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Bouma, T.J.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal-scale biophysical interactions establish particular flow routing and sedimentation patterns in coastal mangroves. Sluggish water flows through the mangrove vegetation and enhanced sediment deposition are essential to maintain these valuable ecosystems, thereby enabling their contribution to

  10. Solid-state-drives (SSDs) modeling simulation tools & strategies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces simulation tools and strategies for complex systems of solid-state-drives (SSDs) which consist of a flash multi-core microcontroller plus NAND flash memories. It provides a broad overview of the most popular simulation tools, with special focus on open source solutions. VSSIM, NANDFlashSim and DiskSim are benchmarked against performances of real SSDs under different traffic workloads. PROs and CONs of each simulator are analyzed, and it is clearly indicated which kind of answers each of them can give and at a what price. It is explained, that speed and precision do not go hand in hand, and it is important to understand when to simulate what, and with which tool. Being able to simulate SSD’s performances is mandatory to meet time-to-market, together with product cost and quality. Over the last few years the authors developed an advanced simulator named “SSDExplorer” which has been used to evaluate multiple phenomena with great accuracy, from QoS (Quality Of Service) to Read Retry, fr...

  11. Modelling of different enzyme productions by solid-state fermentation on several agro-industrial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ana Belen; Blandino, Ana; Webb, Colin; Caro, Ildefonso

    2016-11-01

    A simple kinetic model, with only three fitting parameters, for several enzyme productions in Petri dishes by solid-state fermentation is proposed in this paper, which may be a valuable tool for simulation of this type of processes. Basically, the model is able to predict temporal fungal enzyme production by solid-state fermentation on complex substrates, maximum enzyme activity expected and time at which these maxima are reached. In this work, several fermentations in solid state were performed in Petri dishes, using four filamentous fungi grown on different agro-industrial residues, measuring xylanase, exo-polygalacturonase, cellulose and laccase activities over time. Regression coefficients after fitting experimental data to the proposed model turned out to be quite high in all cases. In fact, these results are very interesting considering, on the one hand, the simplicity of the model and, on the other hand, that enzyme activities correspond to different enzymes, produced by different fungi on different substrates.

  12. Modelling of Physical, Chemical, and Material Properties of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kupecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of modelling techniques applicable for system-level studies to account for physical, chemical, and material properties of solid oxide fuel cells. Functionality of 0D to 3D models is discussed and selected examples are given. Author provides information on typical length scales in evaluation of power systems with solid oxide fuel cells. In each section, proper examples of previous studies done in the field of 0D–3D modelling are recalled and discussed.

  13. Bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2013-01-01

    Because of the complexity to describe and solve thermo-chemical processes occurring in a fuel bed in grate-fired boiler, it is often necessary to simplify the process and use modeling techniques based on overall mass, energy and species conservation. A comparison between two numerical models...... to describe the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. In this work both models consider the incoming solid fuel as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed is treated as a 0D system, but the thermo...

  14. Catchment Models and Management Tools for diffuse Contaminants (Sediment, Phosphorus and Pesticides): DIFFUSE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, Eva; Reaney, Simeon; Mellander, Per-Erik; Wade, Andrew; Collins, Adrian; Arheimer, Berit; Bruen, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The agricultural sector is the most common suspected source of nutrient pollution in Irish rivers. However, it is also often the most difficult source to characterise due to its predominantly diffuse nature. Particulate phosphorus in surface water and dissolved phosphorus in groundwater are of particular concern in Irish water bodies. Hence the further development of models and indices to assess diffuse sources of contaminants are required for use by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide support for river basin planning. Understanding connectivity in the landscape is a vital component of characterising the source-pathway-receptor relationships for water-borne contaminants, and hence is a priority in this research. The DIFFUSE Project will focus on connectivity modelling and incorporation of connectivity into sediment, nutrient and pesticide risk mapping. The Irish approach to understanding and managing natural water bodies has developed substantially in recent years assisted by outputs from multiple research projects, including modelling and analysis tools developed during the Pathways and CatchmentTools projects. These include the Pollution Impact Potential (PIP) maps, which are an example of research output that is used by the EPA to support catchment management. The PIP maps integrate an understanding of the pollution pressures and mobilisation pathways and, using the source-pathways-receptor model, provide a scientific basis for evaluation of mitigation measures. These maps indicate the potential risk posed by nitrate and phosphate from diffuse agricultural sources to surface and groundwater receptors and delineate critical source areas (CSAs) as a means of facilitating the targeting of mitigation measures. Building on this previous research, the DIFFUSE Project will develop revised and new catchment managements tools focused on connectivity, sediment, phosphorus and pesticides. The DIFFUSE project will strive to identify the state

  15. FRACTAL MODEL OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN SOLID BODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim. Abed Al-Zobaede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a model of damage accumulation in parts of machines and structures which is based on a theory of fractals. Hidden process of destruction prior to the formation of macroscopic cracks is usually associated with the accumulation of micro-damages. Various models of damage accumulation and crack growth under the influence of power and thermal loads. However, models describing the accumulation process of micro-damages and their outgrowth into macro-crack are practically non-existent. Fractal structures with self-similarity are an adequate model of the fracture process. The MacDonald correlation function describing the medium structure allows to present the self-similarity of structures within a certain range of scales.The paper reviews models of damage accumulation near an opening in a composite medium and at layer boundaries. The Cantor model in a forward algorithm and a backward algorithm have been used in order to describe the model of damage accumulation. As it is known, the Cantor fractal (Cantor dust is obtained by using a recursive algorithm being appli