WorldWideScience

Sample records for model solids sediments

  1. Sewer solids separation by sedimentation--the problem of modeling, validation and transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R; Brombach, H; Geiger, W F

    2007-01-01

    Sedimentation of sewer solids in tanks, ponds and similar devices is the most relevant process for the treatment of stormwater and combined sewer overflows in urban collecting systems. In the past a lot of research work was done to develop deterministic models for the description of this separation process. But these modern models are not commonly accepted in Germany until today. Water Authorities are sceptical with regard to model validation and transferability. Within this paper it is checked whether this scepticism is reasonable. A framework-proposal for the validation of mathematical models with zero or one dimensional spatial resolution for particle separation processes for stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment is presented. This proposal was applied to publications of repute on sewer solids separation by sedimentation. The result was that none of the investigated models described in literature passed the validation entirely. There is an urgent need for future research in sewer solids sedimentation and remobilization!

  2. Sedimentation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, D.R.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-09-01

    The nuclear wastes currently stored in tanks at the Hanford site contain complex mixtures of insoluble sludge particles, salts, and supernatant liquids. Treatment and ultimate disposal of these tank wastes will require that the complex solid-liquid mixtures be dispersed in aqueous solutions for retrieval and transport. The mixtures will then require pretreatment steps that will ultimately require the isolation of insoluble particles from supernatant liquids via solid-liquid separation steps such as settle-decant operations, centrifugation, or filtration. There is a perception that sludge treatment in general, and solid-liquid separations in particular, are relatively trivial operations that can easily be transferred to private industry to initiate tank cleanup. Experiences gained over the past few years at Hanford suggest that waste processing is not as trivial as it seems

  3. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  4. Surface complexation modeling for predicting solid phase arsenic concentrations in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.S.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential health impact of As in drinking water supply systems in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the state of Arkansas, USA is significant. In this context it is important to understand the occurrence, distribution and mobilization of As in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Application of surface complexation models (SCMs) to predict the sorption behavior of As and hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) in the laboratory has increased in the last decade. However, the application of SCMs to predict the sorption of As in natural sediments has not often been reported, and such applications are greatly constrained by the lack of site-specific model parameters. Attempts have been made to use SCMs considering a component additivity (CA) approach which accounts for relative abundances of pure phases in natural sediments, followed by the addition of SCM parameters individually for each phase. Although few reliable and internally consistent sorption databases related to HFO exist, the use of SCMs using laboratory-derived sorption databases to predict the mobility of As in natural sediments has increased. This study is an attempt to evaluate the ability of the SCMs using the geochemical code PHREEQC to predict solid phase As in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Arkansas. The SCM option of the double-layer model (DLM) was simulated using ferrihydrite and goethite as sorbents quantified from chemical extractions, calculated surface-site densities, published surface properties, and published laboratory-derived sorption constants for the sorbents. The model results are satisfactory for shallow wells (10.6. m below ground surface), where the redox condition is relatively oxic or mildly suboxic. However, for the deep alluvial aquifer (21-36.6. m below ground surface) where the redox condition is suboxic to anoxic, the model results are unsatisfactory. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Solid-waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Conca, J.L.; Wood, M.I.

    1993-10-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development of conceptual-release models for Hanford Site defense solid-waste forms; (2) optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release from contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments; and (3) creation of empirical data for use as provisional source term and retardation factors that become input parameters for performance assessment analyses for future Hanford disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing disposal units

  6. Influence of solids concentration on the sedimentation rate of the mud in the aggregate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Leyva-de la Cruz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to determine, for the mud resulting from the wash process in the Jobo community arid industry in Sagua de Tánamo, the impact of solids percent on the theoretical sedimentation velocity that is predicted by the Stokes velocity Law. Samples of the discharge pipeline and the mud sedimentation area were analyzed from granulometric, density and solids concentration points of view. The solids percentage variable (S was analyzed in four scenarios (4, 12, 20 and 28 % and time (t was evaluated at intervals of 20 minutes for 5 hours. The behavior of mud sedimentation was characterized through the sedimentation velocity. The results indicate that the Stokes velocity law does not apply for estimating the mud sedimentation velocity with a 95% confidence. Therefore, a correction function is obtained for the Stokes velocity law expressed through the polynomial mathematical model of second degree.

  7. Kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comans, R.N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments have been reviewed and interpreted in terms of a mechanistic framework. This framework is based on the premise that radiocaesium is almost exclusively and highly-selectively bound to the frayed particle edges of illitic clay minerals in the sediments. Several processes with distinctly different rates can be distinguished in radiocaesium sorption to sediments. 2- and 3-box kinetic models can describe both the overall solid/liquid partitioning in sediments and the reversible (exchangeable) and irreversible (nonexchangeable or 'fixed') fractions of radiocaesium in sediments over time scales relevant for natural aquatic systems. The obtained rate parameters indicate that reversible partitioning of radiocaesium dominates over the first few days following a contamination event, whereas irreversible kinetics becomes important over time scales of weeks to months. The slow process, which reduces the exchangeability of sediment-bound radiocaesium over time, is believed to result from a migration of radiocaesium from exchangeable sites on the frayed edges of illite towards less-exchangeable interlayer sites. Long-term extraction of radiocaesium from historically contaminated sediments has given evidence for a reverse (remobilization) process with a half-life of the order of tens of years. These findings suggest that the long-term exchangeability of radiocaesium in sediments may be higher than the few % which is generally assumed. (orig.)

  8. Chesapeake Bay Sediment Flux Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    1988; Van der Molen , -88- 1991; Yoshida, 1981.) The model developed below is based on both of these approaches. It incorporates the diagenetic...288: pp. 289-333. Van der Molen , D.T. (1991): A simple, dynamic model for the simulation of the release of phosphorus from sediments in shallow...1974; Berner, 1980; van Cappellen and Berner, 1988). These relate the diagenetic production of phosphate to the resulting pore water concentration

  9. A sediment resuspension and water quality model of Lake Okeechobee

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R.T.; Martin, J.; Wool, T.; Wang, P.-F.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of sediment resuspension on the water quality of shallow lakes is well documented. However, a search of the literature reveals no deterministic mass-balance eutrophication models that explicitly include resuspension. We modified the Lake Okeeehobee water quality model - which uses the Water Analysis Simulation Package (WASP) to simulate algal dynamics and phosphorus, nitrogen, and oxygen cycles - to include inorganic suspended solids and algorithms that: (1) define changes in depth with changes in volume; (2) compute sediment resuspension based on bottom shear stress; (3) compute partition coefficients for ammonia and ortho-phosphorus to solids; and (4) relate light attenuation to solids concentrations. The model calibration and validation were successful with the exception of dissolved inorganic nitrogen species which did not correspond well to observed data in the validation phase. This could be attributed to an inaccurate formulation of algal nitrogen preference and/or the absence of nitrogen fixation in the model. The model correctly predicted that the lake is lightlimited from resuspended solids, and algae are primarily nitrogen limited. The model simulation suggested that biological fluxes greatly exceed external loads of dissolved nutrients; and sedimentwater interactions of organic nitrogen and phosphorus far exceed external loads. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that parameters affecting resuspension, settling, sediment nutrient and solids concentrations, mineralization, algal productivity, and algal stoichiometry are factors requiring further study to improve our understanding of the Lake Okeechobee ecosystem.

  10. Regional Models for Sediment Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper investigates the use of empirical models to predict the toxicity of sediment samples within a region to laboratory test organisms based on sediment chemistry. In earlier work, we used a large nationwide database of matching sediment chemistry and marine amphipod sedim...

  11. Numerical modeling method on the movement of water flow and suspended solids in two-dimensional sedimentation tanks in the wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Yi-Min; Qin, Xiao-Sheng; Huang, Guo-He; Li, Jian-Bing

    2003-01-01

    Taking the distributing calculation of velocity and concentration as an example, the paper established a series of governing equations by the vorticity-stream function method, and dispersed the equations by the finite differencing method. After figuring out the distribution field of velocity, the paper also calculated the concentration distribution in sedimentation tank by using the two-dimensional concentration transport equation. The validity and feasibility of the numerical method was verified through comparing with experimental data. Furthermore, the paper carried out a tentative exploration into the application of numerical simulation of sedimentation tanks.

  12. Cosserat modeling of cellular solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.

    Cellular solids inherit their macroscopic mechanical properties directly from the cellular microstructure. However, the characteristic material length scale is often not small compared to macroscopic dimensions, which limits the applicability of classical continuum-type constitutive models. Cosserat

  13. Landscape self organisation: Modelling Sediment trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, J. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2012-04-01

    Rivers tend to develop towards an equilibrium length profile, independently of exogenous factors. In general, although still under debate, this so-called self-organisation is assumed to be caused by simple feedbacks between sedimentation and erosion. Erosion correlates positively with gradient and discharge and sedimentation negatively. With the LAPSUS model, which was run for the catchment of the Sabinal, a small river in the South of Spain, this interplay of erosion and sedimentation results in sediment pulses (sequences of incision and sedimentation through time). These pulses are visualised in a short movie ( see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5LDUMvYZxU). In this case the LAPSUS model run did not take climate, base level nor tectonics into account. Therefore, these pulses can be considered independent of them. Furthermore, different scenarios show that the existence of the pulses is independent of precipitation, erodibility and sedimentation rate, although they control the number and shape of the pulses. A fieldwork check showed the plausibility of the occurrence of these sediment pulses. We conclude that the pulses as modelled with LAPSUS are indeed the consequence of the feedbacks between erosion and sedimentation and are not depending on exogenous factors. Keywords: Landscape self-organisation, Erosion, Deposition, LAPSUS, Modelling

  14. Modeling sediment concentration of rill flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daming; Gao, Peiling; Zhao, Yadong; Zhang, Yuhang; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Qingwen

    2018-06-01

    Accurate estimation of sediment concentration is essential to establish physically-based erosion models. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flow discharge (Q), slope gradient (S), flow velocity (V), shear stress (τ), stream power (ω) and unit stream power (U) on sediment concentration. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a 10 × 0.1 m rill flume under four flow discharges (2, 4, 8 and 16 L min-1), and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and 25°). The results showed that the measured sediment concentration varied from 87.08 to 620.80 kg m-3 with a mean value of 343.13 kg m-3. Sediment concentration increased as a power function with flow discharge and slope gradient, with R2 = 0.975 and NSE = 0.945. The sediment concentration was more sensitive to slope gradient than to flow discharge. The sediment concentration was well predicted by unit stream power (R2 = 0.937, NSE = 0.865), whereas less satisfactorily by flow velocity (R2 = 0.470, NSE = 0.539) and stream power (R2 = 0.773, NSE = 0.732). In addition, using the equations to simulate the measured sediment concentration of other studies, the result further indicated that slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power were good predictors of sediment concentration. In general, slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power seem to be the preferred predictors for estimating sediment concentration.

  15. Enhanced electroforced sedimentation of various solid- liquid systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Application of electric field, to enhance the separation, is one of the techniques .... the material; Ce the modified consolidation coefficient and θ time. ... sedimentation of thick clay suspensions in consolidation region. Chemical ...

  16. Solid Waste Projection Model: Model user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, D.L.; Crow, V.L.

    1990-08-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) specifically to address solid waste management issues at the Hanford Central Waste Complex (HCWC). This document, one of six documents supporting the SWPM system, contains a description of the system and instructions for preparing to use SWPM and operating Version 1 of the model. 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model i...... is being developed as a part of a study being carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden. The project is funded by the Swedish Water and Waste Water Works Association and the Nordic Industrial Foundation.......This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model...

  18. A Spatial Model of Erosion and Sedimentation on Continental Margins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratson, Lincoln

    1999-01-01

    .... A computer model that simulates the evolution of continental slope morphology under the interaction of sedimentation, slope failure, and sediment flow erosion has been constructed and validated...

  19. Energy Harvesting, Electrode Processes and the Partitioning and Speciation of Solid Phase Iron and Sulfur in Marine Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reimers, Clare

    2003-01-01

    .... Sediment, pore water and electrode surface analyses indicated that electricity product ion is coupled to the oxidation of dissolved and solid-phase forms of reduced sulfur supplied from the sediments...

  20. Mathematical modelling in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sofonea, Mircea; Steigmann, David

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new research results in multidisciplinary fields of mathematical and numerical modelling in mechanics. The chapters treat the topics: mathematical modelling in solid, fluid and contact mechanics nonconvex variational analysis with emphasis to nonlinear solid and structural mechanics numerical modelling of problems with non-smooth constitutive laws, approximation of variational and hemivariational inequalities, numerical analysis of discrete schemes, numerical methods and the corresponding algorithms, applications to mechanical engineering numerical aspects of non-smooth mechanics, with emphasis on developing accurate and reliable computational tools mechanics of fibre-reinforced materials behaviour of elasto-plastic materials accounting for the microstructural defects definition of structural defects based on the differential geometry concepts or on the atomistic basis interaction between phase transformation and dislocations at nano-scale energetic arguments bifurcation and post-buckling a...

  1. Clinton River Sediment Transport Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. ACE develops sediment transport models for tributaries to the Great Lakes that discharge to AOCs. The models developed help State and local agencies to evaluate better ways for soil conservation and non-point source pollution prevention.

  2. Modelling coupled sedimentation and consolidation of fine slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This article presented a model to simulate and successfully predict the essential elements of sedimentation and consolidation as a coupled process, bringing together separately developed models from chemistry and geology/geotechnical engineering, respectively. The derived model is for a 1-dimensional simultaneous sedimentation and consolidation of a solid-liquid suspension that uses permeability as the unifying concept for the hydrodynamic interaction between solid and liquid in a suspension. The numerical solution relies on an explicit finite difference procedure in material coordinates, and an Euler forward-marching scheme was used for advancing the solution in time. The problem of internal discontinuities was solved by way of convenient numerical solutions and Lagrangian coordinates. Java-based SECO software with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) was used to implement the model, allowing the solution process to be visualized and animated. The software functionality along with GUI and programming issues were discussed at length. A fine-grained suspension data set was used to validate the model. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Modelling of sediment transport at Muria peninsula coastal, Jepara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Yarianto SBS; Wahyu Pandoe; Eko Kusratmoko; Aris Poniman

    2010-01-01

    Modelling of transport sediment modelling at Muria Peninsula have been done. In this study we had been used mathematical model that consist of hydrodynamics and sediment transport . Data input for modelling has been used tidal, monsoon wind, and river debit. Simulation result of sediment transport modelling showed that tides pattern and seasonal variations are the main causes of variations in the suspended sediment distribution in Muria Peninsula. (author)

  4. Gravitational sedimentation of cloud of solid spherical particles at small Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results of study of gravitational sedimentation of highly-concentrated systems of solid spherical particles at small Reynolds numbers Re<1 are presented. Empirical equation for drag coefficient of the particle assembly has been obtained. The influence of initial particle concentration in the cloud on its dynamics and velocity has been analysed.

  5. Combining sediment fingerprinting and a conceptual model for erosion and sediment transfer to explore sediment sources in an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A.; Stutenbecker, L.; Anghileri, D.; Bakker, M.; Lane, S. N.; Molnar, P.; Schlunegger, F.

    2017-12-01

    In Alpine basins, sediment production and transfer is increasingly affected by climate change and human activities, specifically hydropower exploitation. Changes in sediment sources and pathways significantly influence basin management, biodiversity and landscape evolution. We explore the dynamics of sediment sources in a partially glaciated and highly regulated Alpine basin, the Borgne basin, by combining geochemical fingerprinting with the modelling of erosion and sediment transfer. The Borgne basin in southwest Switzerland is composed of three main litho-tectonic units, which we characterised following a tributary-sampling approach from lithologically characteristic sub-basins. We analysed bulk geochemistry using lithium borate fusion coupled with ICP-ES, and we used it to discriminate the three lithologic sources using statistical methods. Finally, we applied a mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of the three sources to the sediment sampled at the outlet. We combine results of the sediment fingerprinting with simulations of a spatially distributed conceptual model for erosion and transport of fine sediment. The model expresses sediment erosion by differentiating the contributions of erosional processes driven by erosive rainfall, snowmelt, and icemelt. Soil erodibility is accounted for as function of land-use and sediment fluxes are linearly convoluted to the outlet by sediment transfer rates for hillslope and river cells, which are a function of sediment connectivity. Sediment connectivity is estimated on the basis of topographic-hydraulic connectivity, flow duration associated with hydropower flow abstraction and permanent storage in hydropower reservoirs. Sediment fingerprinting at the outlet of the Borgne shows a consistent dominance (68-89%) of material derived from the uppermost, highly glaciated reaches, while contributions of the lower part (10-25%) and middle part (1-16%), where rainfall erosion is predominant, are minor. This result is

  6. Urban Runoff: Model Ordinances for Erosion and Sediment Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model ordinance in this section borrows language from the erosion and sediment control ordinance features that might help prevent erosion and sedimentation and protect natural resources more fully.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Subglacial Sediment Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    may cause mass loss in the near future to exceed current best estimates. Ice flow in larger ice sheets focuses in fast-moving streams due to mechanical non-linearity of ice. These ice streams often move at velocities several magnitudes larger than surrounding ice and consequentially constitute...... glaciers move by deforming their sedimentary beds. Several modern ice streams, in particular, move as plug flows due to basal sediment deformation. An intense and long-winded discussion about the appropriate description for subglacial sediment mechanics followed this discovery, with good reason...... incompatible with commonly accepted till rheology models. Variation in pore-water pressure proves to cause reorganization in the internal stress network and leads to slow creeping deformation. The rate of creep is non-linearly dependent on the applied stresses. Granular creep can explain slow glacial...

  8. Solid rocket motor cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, A. G.; Raphael, L.; Warren, S.; Yakura, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters. Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required. This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant.

  9. A sediment graph model based on SCS-CN method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P. K.; Bhunya, P. K.; Mishra, S. K.; Chaube, U. C.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryThis paper proposes new conceptual sediment graph models based on coupling of popular and extensively used methods, viz., Nash model based instantaneous unit sediment graph (IUSG), soil conservation service curve number (SCS-CN) method, and Power law. These models vary in their complexity and this paper tests their performance using data of the Nagwan watershed (area = 92.46 km 2) (India). The sensitivity of total sediment yield and peak sediment flow rate computations to model parameterisation is analysed. The exponent of the Power law, β, is more sensitive than other model parameters. The models are found to have substantial potential for computing sediment graphs (temporal sediment flow rate distribution) as well as total sediment yield.

  10. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Modeling Tools: Integration of Advanced Sediment Transport Tools into HEC-RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    sediment transport within the USACE HEC River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ) software package and to determine its applicability to Regional Sediment...Management (RSM) challenges. HEC - RAS SEDIMENT MODELING BACKGROUND: HEC - RAS performs (1) one- dimensional (1D) steady and unsteady hydraulic river ...Albuquerque (SPA)), and recently, the USACE RSM Program. HEC - RAS is one of several hydraulic modeling codes available for river analysis in the

  11. Analysis of solid particles falling down and interacting in a channel with sedimentation using fictitious boundary method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, K.; Walayat, K.; Mahmood, R.; Kousar, N.

    2018-06-01

    We have examined the behavior of solid particles in particulate flows. The interaction of particles with each other and with the fluid is analyzed. Solid particles can move freely through a fixed computational mesh using an Eulerian approach. Fictitious boundary method (FBM) is used for treating the interaction between particles and the fluid. Hydrodynamic forces acting on the particle's surface are calculated using an explicit volume integral approach. A collision model proposed by Glowinski, Singh, Joseph and coauthors is used to handle particle-wall and particle-particle interactions. The particulate flow is computed using multigrid finite element solver FEATFLOW. Numerical experiments are performed considering two particles falling and colliding and sedimentation of many particles while interacting with each other. Results for these experiments are presented and compared with the reference values. Effects of the particle-particle interaction on the motion of the particles and on the physical behavior of the fluid-particle system has been analyzed.

  12. Sensing dissolved sediment porewater concentrations of persistent and bioaccumulative poolutants using disposable solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, P.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Wijnker, F.; Legierse, K.C.H.M.; Kraaij, R.H.; Tolls, J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer coated glass fibers were applied as disposable samplers to measure dissolved concentrations of persistent and bioaccumulative pollutants (PBPs) in sediment porewater. The method is called matrix solid-phase microextraction (matrix-SPME), because it utilizes the entire sediment matrix as a

  13. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  14. Spatial Modelling of Sediment Transport over the Upper Citarum Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poerbandono

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses set up of a spatial model applied in Geographic Information System (GIS environment for predicting annual erosion rate and sediment yield of a watershed. The study area is situated in the Upper Citarum Catchment of West Java. Annual sediment yield is considered as product of erosion rate and sediment delivery ratio to be modelled under similar modeling tool. Sediment delivery ratio is estimated on the basis of sediment resident time. The modeling concept is based on the calculation of water flow velocity through sub-catchment surface, which is controlled by topography, rainfall, soil characteristics and various types of land use. Relating velocity to known distance across digital elevation model, sediment resident time can be estimated. Data from relevance authorities are used. Bearing in mind limited knowledge of some governing factors due to lack of observation, the result has shown the potential of GIS for spatially modeling regional sediment transport. Validation of model result is carried out by evaluating measured and computed total sediment yield at the main outlet. Computed total sediment yields for 1994 and 2001 are found to be 1.96×106 and 2.10×106tons/year. They deviate roughly 54 and 8% with respect to those measured in the field. Model response due to land use change observed in 2001 and 1994 is also recognised. Under presumably constant rainfall depth, an increase of overall average annual erosion rate of 11% resulted in an increase of overall average sediment yield of 7%.

  15. A data reconnaissance on the effect of suspended-sediment concentrations on dissolved-solids concentrations in rivers and tributaries in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Anning, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most important sources of water in the western United States, supplying water to over 35 million people in the U.S. and 3 million people in Mexico. High dissolved-solids loading to the River and tributaries are derived primarily from geologic material deposited in inland seas in the mid-to-late Cretaceous Period, but this loading may be increased by human activities. High dissolved solids in the River causes substantial damages to users, primarily in reduced agricultural crop yields and corrosion. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program was created to manage dissolved-solids loading to the River and has focused primarily on reducing irrigation-related loading from agricultural areas. This work presents a reconnaissance of existing data from sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) in order to highlight areas where suspended-sediment control measures may be useful in reducing dissolved-solids concentrations. Multiple linear regression was used on data from 164 sites in the UCRB to develop dissolved-solids models that include combinations of explanatory variables of suspended sediment, flow, and time. Results from the partial t-test, overall likelihood ratio, and partial likelihood ratio on the models were used to group the sites into categories of strong, moderate, weak, and no-evidence of a relation between suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations. Results show 68 sites have strong or moderate evidence of a relation, with drainage areas for many of these sites composed of a large percentage of clastic sedimentary rocks. These results could assist water managers in the region in directing field-scale evaluation of suspended-sediment control measures to reduce UCRB dissolved-solids loading.

  16. Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Combined Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Flemming

    A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed.......A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed....

  17. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Capitol Lake was created in 1951 with the construction of a concrete dam and control gate that prevented salt-water intrusion into the newly formed lake and regulated flow of the Deschutes River into southern Puget Sound. Physical processes associated with the former tidally dominated estuary were altered, and the dam structure itself likely caused an increase in retention of sediment flowing into the lake from the Deschutes River. Several efforts to manage sediment accumulation in the lake, including dredging and the construction of sediment traps upriver, failed to stop the lake from filling with sediment. The Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS) was carried out to evaluate the possibility of removing the dam and restoring estuarine processes as an alternative ongoing lake management. An important component of DEFS was the creation of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the restored Deschutes Estuary. Results from model simulations indicated that estuarine processes would be restored under each of four restoration alternatives, and that over time, the restored estuary would have morphological features similar to the predam estuary. The model also predicted that after dam-removal, a large portion of the sediment eroded from the lake bottom would be deposited near the Port of Olympia and a marina located in lower Budd Inlet seaward of the present dam. The volume of sediment transported downstream was a critical piece of information that managers needed to estimate the total cost of the proposed restoration project. However, the ability of the model to predict the magnitude of sediment transport in general and, in particular, the volume of sediment deposition in the port and marina was limited by a lack of information on the erodibility of fine-grained sediments in Capitol Lake. Cores at several sites throughout Capitol Lake were collected between October 31 and November 1, 2007. The erodibility of sediments in the cores was later determined in the

  18. Solid Waste Management Holistic Decision Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This study provides support to the Bank's ability to conduct client dialogue on solid waste management technology selection, and will contribute to client decision-making. The goal of the study was to fully explore the use of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Research Triangle Institute (EPA/RTI) holistic decision model to study alternative solid waste systems in a ...

  19. Inference-based procedural modeling of solids

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, Keith; Keyser, John

    2011-01-01

    As virtual environments become larger and more complex, there is an increasing need for more automated construction algorithms to support the development process. We present an approach for modeling solids by combining prior examples with a simple

  20. Plasma Processing of Model Residential Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mossé, A. L.; Nikonchuk, A. N.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Baimuldin, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors have tested the technology of processing of model residential solid waste. They have developed and created a pilot plasma unit based on a plasma chamber incinerator. The waste processing technology has been tested and prepared for commercialization.

  1. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Sediment Transport in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole

    A study of the sediment transport processes in sewers has been carried out. Based on this study a mathematical modelling system has been developed to describe the transport processes of sediments and dissolved matter in sewer systems. The modelling system consists of three sub-models which...... constitute the basic modelling system necessary to give a discription of the most dominant physical transport processes concerning particles and dissolved matter in sewer systems: A surface model. An advection-dispersion model. A sediment transport model....

  2. Hydrological modelling of fine sediments in the Odzi River, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrological modelling of fine sediments in the Odzi River, Zimbabwe. ... An analysis of the model structure and a comparison with the rating curve function ... model validation through split sample and proxy basin comparison was performed.

  3. Assessment of Land Use Change and Sedimentation Modelling on Environmental Health in Tropical River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Sansena, T.; Bhaktikuld, K.; Roslan Umar; Asyaari Muhamad; Nor Azlina Abd Aziz; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Sediments are defined as the organic and inorganic materials or solid fragments derived from the weathering processes of sand, pebbles, silt, mud and loess. The objective of this research is to forecast sediment volume in the Lam Phra Phloeng reservoir by using the Neuro-genetic Optimizer model to calculate the sediment volume from runoff, rainfall, and sediment volume data. The results from satellite imagery interpretation elucidated that from 2002 to 2005, forest area decreased approximately 50,220 km"2 or 36 %, and was converted to agricultural land. By applying the USLE equation, the soil erosion area was found to increase approximately 185,341 tons/ year between 2002 and 2005. This result illustrated that the impact of land use change greatly increased sedimentation volume. In applying the Neuro-genetic Optimizer model, the learning rate and momentum of this model was 0.9 and 0.1, respectively, and the initial weight value was ± 3. The model forecasted the annual sediment volume in the Lam Phra Phloeng reservoir in 2005 to be 49,855 tons with R"2 equals to 0.9994. The regression model, on the other hand, forecasted the sediment volume using the equation Y=198.48 x 1.1783 with R"2 equals to 0.9974, and the annual sediment volume was estimated to be 45,346 tons. The actual sediment volume in the reservoir in 2005 was obtained from The Royal Irrigation Department, which was found to be 48,697 tons. (author)

  4. Numerical modelling of erosion and sedimentation around offshore pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, F.A.; Wind, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a numerical model is presented for the description of the erosion and sedimentation near pipelines on the sea bottom. The model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations and the equation of motion and continuity of sediment. The results of the simulations have been compared with the

  5. Modeling a full-scale primary sedimentation tank using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal El-Din, A; Smith, D W

    2002-05-01

    Modeling the performance of full-scale primary sedimentation tanks has been commonly done using regression-based models, which are empirical relationships derived strictly from observed daily average influent and effluent data. Another approach to model a sedimentation tank is using a hydraulic efficiency model that utilizes tracer studies to characterize the performance of model sedimentation tanks based on eddy diffusion. However, the use of hydraulic efficiency models to predict the dynamic behavior of a full-scale sedimentation tank is very difficult as the development of such models has been done using controlled studies of model tanks. In this paper, another type of model, namely artificial neural network modeling approach, is used to predict the dynamic response of a full-scale primary sedimentation tank. The neuralmodel consists of two separate networks, one uses flow and influent total suspended solids data in order to predict the effluent total suspended solids from the tank, and the other makes predictions of the effluent chemical oxygen demand using data of the flow and influent chemical oxygen demand as inputs. An extensive sampling program was conducted in order to collect a data set to be used in training and validating the networks. A systematic approach was used in the building process of the model which allowed the identification of a parsimonious neural model that is able to learn (and not memorize) from past data and generalize very well to unseen data that were used to validate the model. Theresults seem very promising. The potential of using the model as part of a real-time process control system isalso discussed.

  6. Topographic filtering simulation model for sediment source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Se Jong; Wilcock, Peter; Hobbs, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    We propose a Topographic Filtering simulation model (Topofilter) that can be used to identify those locations that are likely to contribute most of the sediment load delivered from a watershed. The reduced complexity model links spatially distributed estimates of annual soil erosion, high-resolution topography, and observed sediment loading to determine the distribution of sediment delivery ratio across a watershed. The model uses two simple two-parameter topographic transfer functions based on the distance and change in elevation from upland sources to the nearest stream channel and then down the stream network. The approach does not attempt to find a single best-calibrated solution of sediment delivery, but uses a model conditioning approach to develop a large number of possible solutions. For each model run, locations that contribute to 90% of the sediment loading are identified and those locations that appear in this set in most of the 10,000 model runs are identified as the sources that are most likely to contribute to most of the sediment delivered to the watershed outlet. Because the underlying model is quite simple and strongly anchored by reliable information on soil erosion, topography, and sediment load, we believe that the ensemble of simulation outputs provides a useful basis for identifying the dominant sediment sources in the watershed.

  7. Sediment isotope tomography (SIT) model version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Abraham, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Geochronology using 210 Pb is the principal method used to quantify sediment accumulation in rapidly depositing aquatic environments such as lakes, estuaries, continental shelves, and submarine canyons. This method is based on the radioactive decay of 210 Pb with depth in a column of sediment. The decay through time of 210 Pb P(t) is governed by the exponential law P(t) = P 0 exp( -λt) where P 0 is the surficial concentration at time t = 0, and λ is the decay constant (3.114 sm-bullet 10 -2 year [yr] -1 for 210 Pb). If the sedimentation rate is constant, then elapsed time t is connected to burial depth x, through x = Vt where V is the sedimentation velocity. Accordingly, P(x) = P 0 exp( -λx/V). The sedimentation velocity is obtained from an exponential fit to the measured 210 Pb data P(x), with depth x

  8. Sediment and toxic contaminant transport modeling in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Mayer, D.W.; Argo, R.S.

    1982-02-01

    A hydrodynamic model, CAFE-I, a wave refraction model, LO3D, and a sediment and contaminant transport model, FETRA, were selected as tools for evaluating exposure levels of radionuclides, heavy metals, and other toxic chemicals in coastal waters. Prior to the application of these models to the Irish Sea and other coastal waters, the finite element model, FETRA, was tested to demonstrate its ability to simulate sediment and contaminant interactions (e.g., adsorption and desorption), and the mechanisms governing the transport, deposition, and resuspension of contaminated sediments

  9. A constitutive mechanical model for gas hydrate bearing sediments incorporating inelastic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez, Marcelo

    2016-11-30

    Gas hydrate bearing sediments (HBS) are natural soils formed in permafrost and sub-marine settings where the temperature and pressure conditions are such that gas hydrates are stable. If these conditions shift from the hydrate stability zone, hydrates dissociate and move from the solid to the gas phase. Hydrate dissociation is accompanied by significant changes in sediment structure and strongly affects its mechanical behavior (e.g., sediment stiffenss, strength and dilatancy). The mechanical behavior of HBS is very complex and its modeling poses great challenges. This paper presents a new geomechanical model for hydrate bearing sediments. The model incorporates the concept of partition stress, plus a number of inelastic mechanisms proposed to capture the complex behavior of this type of soil. This constitutive model is especially well suited to simulate the behavior of HBS upon dissociation. The model was applied and validated against experimental data from triaxial and oedometric tests conducted on manufactured and natural specimens involving different hydrate saturation, hydrate morphology, and confinement conditions. Particular attention was paid to model the HBS behavior during hydrate dissociation under loading. The model performance was highly satisfactory in all the cases studied. It managed to properly capture the main features of HBS mechanical behavior and it also assisted to interpret the behavior of this type of sediment under different loading and hydrate conditions.

  10. Resuspended contaminated sediments cause sublethal stress to oysters: A biomarker differentiates total suspended solids and contaminant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Katelyn J; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Ringwood, Amy H; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-06-01

    Resuspended contaminated sediments represent an important route of contaminant exposure for aquatic organisms. During resuspension events, filter-feeding organisms are exposed to contaminants, in both the dissolved form (at the gills) and the particulate form (in the digestive system). In addition, these organisms must manage the physical stress associated with an increase in total suspended solids (TSS). To date, few studies have experimentally compared the contributions to biological stress of contaminated and clean suspended solids. The authors mixed field-collected sediments (cellular biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione) were measured to evaluate sublethal toxicity. Lysosomal membrane stability was the most sensitive biomarker for distinguishing effects from resuspended contaminated sediments, as increasing amounts of contaminated TSS increased lysosomal membrane destabilization. The authors' results illustrate the importance of considering contaminant exposures from resuspended sediments when assessing the toxicity of contaminants to aquatic organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales

  12. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M., E-mail: fmarassi@sbmri.org [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales.

  13. A constitutive mechanical model for gas hydrate bearing sediments incorporating inelastic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Sá nchez, Marcelo; Gai, Xuerui; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    , hydrates dissociate and move from the solid to the gas phase. Hydrate dissociation is accompanied by significant changes in sediment structure and strongly affects its mechanical behavior (e.g., sediment stiffenss, strength and dilatancy). The mechanical

  14. Modeling transport and deposition of the Mekong River sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Liu, J. Paul; Warner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    A Coupled Wave–Ocean–SedimentTransport Model was used to hindcast coastal circulation and fine sedimenttransport on the Mekong shelf in southeastern Asian in 2005. Comparisons with limited observations showed that the model simulation captured the regional patterns and temporal variability of surface wave, sea level, and suspended sediment concentration reasonably well. Significant seasonality in sedimenttransport was revealed. In summer, a large amount of fluvial sediments was delivered and deposited near the MekongRiver mouth. In the following winter, strong ocean mixing, and coastal current lead to resuspension and southwestward dispersal of a small fraction of previously deposited sediments. Model sensitivity experiments (with reduced physics) were performed to investigate the impact of tides, waves, and remotely forced ambient currents on the transport and dispersal of the fluvial sediment. Strong wave mixing and downwelling-favorable coastal current associated with the more energetic northeast monsoon in the winter season are the main factors controlling the southwestward along-shelf transport.

  15. Design and modeling of reservoir operation strategies for sediment management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Heynert, K.V.; Mohamed, Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate operation strategies that allow for sediment flushing and sluicing (sediment routing) can reduce rapid storage losses of (hydropower and water-supply) reservoirs. In this study we have shown, using field observations and computational models, that the efficiency of these operations

  16. Development of three dimensional solid modeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, R.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at developing a three dimensional solid modeler employing computer graphics techniques using C-Language. Primitives have been generated, by combination of plane surfaces, for various basic geometrical shapes including cylinder, cube and cone. Back face removal technique for hidden surface removal has also been incorporated. Various transformation techniques such as scaling, translation, and rotation have been included for the object animation. Three dimensional solid modeler has been created by the union of two primitives to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed program. (author)

  17. Environmental modeling and exposure assessment of sediment-associated pyrethroids in an agricultural watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhou Luo

    Full Text Available Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides have generated public concerns due to their increasing use and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. A modeling system was developed in this study for simulating the transport processes and associated sediment toxicity of pyrethroids at coupled field/watershed scales. The model was tested in the Orestimba Creek watershed, an agriculturally intensive area in California' Central Valley. Model predictions were satisfactory when compared with measured suspended solid concentration (R(2 = 0.536, pyrethroid toxic unit (0.576, and cumulative mortality of Hyalella azteca (0.570. The results indicated that sediment toxicity in the study area was strongly related to the concentration of pyrethroids in bed sediment. Bifenthrin was identified as the dominant contributor to the sediment toxicity in recent years, accounting for 50-85% of predicted toxicity units. In addition, more than 90% of the variation on the annual maximum toxic unit of pyrethroids was attributed to precipitation and prior application of bifenthrin in the late irrigation season. As one of the first studies simulating the dynamics and spatial variability of pyrethroids in fields and instreams, the modeling results provided useful information on new policies to be considered with respect to pyrethroid regulation. This study suggested two potential measures to efficiently reduce sediment toxicity by pyrethroids in the study area: [1] limiting bifenthrin use immediately before rainfall season; and [2] implementing conservation practices to retain soil on cropland.

  18. Kinetics of Uranium(VI) Desorption from Contaminated Sediments: Effect of Geochemical Conditions and Model Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shi, Zhenqing; Zachara, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Stirred-flow cell experiments were performed to investigate the kinetics of uranyl (U(VI)) desorption from a contaminated sediment collected from the Hanford 300 Area at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, Washington. Three influent solutions of variable pH, Ca and carbonate concentrations that affected U(VI) aqueous and surface speciation were used under dynamic flow conditions to evaluate the effect of geochemical conditions on the rate of U(VI) desorption. The measured rate of U(VI) desorption varied with solution chemical composition that evolved as a result of thermodynamic and kinetic interactions between the influent solutions and sediment. The solution chemical composition that led to a lower equilibrium U(VI) sorption to the solid phase yielded a faster desorption rate. The experimental results were used to evaluate a multi-rate, surface complexation model (SCM) that has been proposed to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in the Hanford sediment that contained complex sorbed U(VI) species in mass transfer limited domains. The model was modified and supplemented by including multi-rate, ion exchange reactions to describe the geochemical interactions between the solutions and sediment. With the same set of model parameters, the modified model reasonably well described the evolution of major ions and the rates of U(VI) desorption under variable geochemical and flow conditions, implying that the multi-rate SCM is an effective way to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in subsurface sediments

  19. Spreadsheet Modeling of Electron Distributions in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassy, Wingfield V.

    2006-01-01

    A series of spreadsheet modeling exercises constructed as part of a new upper-level elective course on solid state materials and surface chemistry is described. The spreadsheet exercises are developed to provide students with the opportunity to interact with the conceptual framework where the role of the density of states and the Fermi-Dirac…

  20. Modelling of Sediment Transport in Beris Fishery Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ardani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the large amount of sedimentation and the resultant shoreline advancements at the breakwaters of Beris Fishery Port are studied. A series of numerical modeling of waves, sediment transport, and shoreline changes were conducted to predict the complicated equilibrium shoreline. The outputs show that the nearshore directions of wave components are not perpendicular to the coast which reveals the existence of longshore currents and consequently sediment transport along the bay. Considering the dynamic equilibrium condition of the bay, the effect of the existing sediment resources in the studied area is also investigated. The study also shows that in spite of the change of the diffraction point of Beris Bay after the construction of the fishery port, the bay is approaching its dynamic equilibrium condition, and the shoreline advancement behind secondary breakwater will stop before blocking the entrance of the port. The probable solutions to overcome the sedimentation problem at the main breakwater are also discussed.

  1. Optimal control of suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratianingsih, R.; Resnawati, Azim, Mardlijah, Widodo, B.

    2017-08-01

    Talaga Lake is one of several lakes in Central Sulawesi that potentially to be managed in multi purposes scheme because of its characteristic. The scheme is addressed not only due to the lake maintenance because of its sediment but also due to the Algae farming for its biodiesel fuel. This paper governs a suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake. The model is derived from the two dimensional hydrodynamic shallow water equations of the mass and momentum conservation law of sediment transport. An order reduction of the model gives six equations of hyperbolic systems of the depth, two dimension directional velocities and sediment concentration while the bed elevation as the second order of turbulent diffusion and dispersion are neglected. The system is discreted and linearized such that could be solved numerically by box-Keller method for some initial and boundary condition. The solutions shows that the downstream velocity is play a role in transversal direction of stream function flow. The downstream accumulated sediment indicate that the suspended sediment and its changing should be controlled by optimizing the downstream velocity and transversal suspended sediment changing due to the ideal algae growth need.

  2. Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  3. Advancement in Watershed Modelling Using Dynamic Lateral and Longitudinal Sediment (Dis)connectivity Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, D. T.; al Aamery, N. M. H.; Fox, J.

    2017-12-01

    The authors find that sediment (dis)connectivity has seldom taken precedence within watershed models, and the present study advances this modeling framework and applies the modeling within a bedrock-controlled system. Sediment (dis)connectivity, defined as the detachment and transport of sediment from source to sink between geomorphic zones, is a major control on sediment transport. Given the availability of high resolution geospatial data, coupling sediment connectivity concepts within sediment prediction models offers an approach to simulate sediment sources and pathways within a watershed's sediment cascade. Bedrock controlled catchments are potentially unique due to the presence of rock outcrops causing longitudinal impedance to sediment transport pathways in turn impacting the longitudinal distribution of the energy gradient responsible for conveying sediment. Therefore, the authors were motivated by the need to formulate a sediment transport model that couples sediment (dis)connectivity knowledge to predict sediment flux for bedrock controlled catchments. A watershed-scale sediment transport model was formulated that incorporates sediment (dis)connectivity knowledge collected via field reconnaissance and predicts sediment flux through coupling with the Partheniades equation and sediment continuity model. Sediment (dis)connectivity was formulated by coupling probabilistic upland lateral connectivity prediction with instream longitudinal connectivity assessments via discretization of fluid and sediment pathways. Flux predictions from the upland lateral connectivity model served as an input to the instream longitudinal connectivity model. Disconnectivity in the instream model was simulated via the discretization of stream reaches due to barriers such as bedrock outcroppings and man-made check dams. The model was tested for a bedrock controlled catchment in Kentucky, USA for which extensive historic water and sediment flux data was available. Predicted sediment

  4. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, R. A.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    A diagenetic model is used to simulate the diagenesis and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and phosphorus (P) in marine sediments underlying anoxic versus oxic bottom waters. The latter are physically mixed by animals moving through the surface sediment (bioturbation) and ventilated...... P pump) allows preferential mineralization of the bulk Porg pool relative to Corg during both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and is consistent with the database. Results with this model show that P burial is strongly enhanced in sediments hosting fauna. Animals mix highly labile Porg away from....... The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd....

  5. Sedimentation Impacts Modeling for the Lower Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, M.; Kosaka, M.; Sigel, A.; Vandermause, R.; Lauer, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The removal of Glines Canyon and Elwha Dams from the Elwha River, northwest Washington, is intended to restore natural geomorphic and ecological processes to the Elwha River basin. Prior to the start of dam removal, over 16 million cubic meters of sediment had accumulated in the reservoirs above the two dams. As dam removal progresses, a portion of this sediment will erode and then be deposited on the downstream river bed and floodplain. To address uncertainty in downstream response to the project, the United States Bureau of Reclamation is implementing an adaptive management plan that relies upon continuous monitoring of water levels at a set of stream gages along the river. To interpret the monitoring data and allow for rapid assessment of the rate of downstream sedimentation, we developed rating curves at several locations along the lower Elwha River. The curves consider a range of possible sedimentation scenarios, each involving different sedimentation levels and/or locations. One scenario considers sedimentation primarily in the river channel, another considers sedimentation primarily on the floodplain, and a third considers both possibilities in tandem. We modeled these scenarios using two separate approaches. First, we modified the cross sections in an existing U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS model to represent possible changes associated with geomorphic adjustment to the dam removals. In-channel sedimentation was assumed to occur as a constant fraction of the bankfull depth at any given section, thereby focusing geomorphic change in relatively deep pool areas. In the HEC-RAS model, off-channel sedimentation was assumed uniform. The HEC-RAS model showed that both low-flow and flood hydraulics are much more sensitive to plausible levels of in-channel sedimentation than to plausible levels of overbank sedimentation. The wide floodplain, complex secondary channels, and geomorphic evolution since the original cross sections were surveyed raise some

  6. Sediment and toxic contaminant transport modeling in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Mayer, D.W.; Argo, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Models are presented to estimate the migration of toxic contaminants in coastal waters. Ocean current is simulated by the vertically-averaged, finite element, two-demensional model known as CAFE-I with the Galerkin weighted residual technique. The refraction of locally generated waves or swells is simulated by the wave refraction model, LO3D. Using computed current, depth, and wave characteristics, the finite element model, FETRA, simulated sediment and contaminant transport in coastal waters, estuaries and rivers. Prior to the application of these models to the Irish Sea and other coastal waters, the finite element model, FETRA, was tested to demonstrate its ability to simulate sediment and contaminant interaction, and the mechanism governing the transport, deposition, and resuspension of contaminated sediment. Several simple equations such as the unsteady, advection-diffusion equation, the equation for noncohesive-sediment load due to wind-induced waves in offshore and surf zones, and the equation for sediment-radionuclide transport simulation were solved during the preliminary testing of the model. (Kato, T.)

  7. Stochastic Modelling of the Hydraulic Anisotropy of Ash Impoundment Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slávik, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    In the case reported here the impoundments of a 400 MW coal heated power plant with an annual production of about 1.5 million tons of fuel ash are of the cross-valley type, operated by the simple and cheap „upstream method”. The aim of the research was to determine overall and local values of the permeability in horizontal as well as in vertical direction and the anisotropy of the thin-layered sedimented ash. The coal ashes are hydraulically transported through pipelines in form of a slurry and periodically floated on the beach of the impoundment. The ashes are deposited in the form of a thin-layered sediment, with random alternation of layers with a coarser or finer granularity. The ash impoundment sediment is anthropogenic sediment with horizontally laminated texture. Therefore, the sediment is anisotropic from the viewpoint of water seepage. The knowledge of the permeability and the seepage anisotropy of the sediment is a basic requirement for the design of an appropriate dewatering system. The seepage anisotropy of the ash sediment has been checked by means of stochastic modelling, based on the correlation between the effective grain diameter and the coefficient of permeability of the ash: the effective grain diameter and the thickness of individual layers have been proposed to be random events.

  8. Reactive transport modeling of nitrogen in Seine River sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Z.; Laverman, A.; Raimonet, M.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical processes in sediments have a major impact on the fate and transport of nitrogen (N) in river systems. Organic matter decomposition in bottom sediments releases inorganic N species back to the stream water, while denitrification, anammox and burial of organic matter remove bioavailable N from the aquatic environment. To simulate N cycling in river sediments, a multi-component reactive transport model has been developed in MATLAB®. The model includes 3 pools of particulate organic N, plus pore water nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide and ammonium. Special attention is given to the production and consumption of nitrite, a N species often neglected in early diagenetic models. Although nitrite is usually considered to be short-lived, elevated nitrite concentrations have been observed in freshwater streams, raising concerns about possible toxic effects. We applied the model to sediment data sets collected at two locations in the Seine River, one upstream, the other downstream, of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the Paris conurbation. The model is able to reproduce the key features of the observed pore water depth profiles of the different nitrogen species. The modeling results show that the presence of oxygen in the overlying water plays a major role in controlling the exchanges of nitrite between the sediments and the stream water. In August 2012, sediments upstream of the WWTP switch from being a sink to a source of nitrite as the overlying water becomes anoxic. Downstream sediments remain a nitrite sink in oxic and anoxic conditions. Anoxic bottom waters at the upstream location promote denitrification, which produces nitrite, while at the downstream site, anammox and DNRA are important removal processes of nitrite.

  9. Ill-posedness in modeling mixed sediment river morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarrías, Víctor; Stecca, Guglielmo; Blom, Astrid

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we analyze the Hirano active layer model used in mixed sediment river morphodynamics concerning its ill-posedness. Ill-posedness causes the solution to be unstable to short-wave perturbations. This implies that the solution presents spurious oscillations, the amplitude of which depends on the domain discretization. Ill-posedness not only produces physically unrealistic results but may also cause failure of numerical simulations. By considering a two-fraction sediment mixture we obtain analytical expressions for the mathematical characterization of the model. Using these we show that the ill-posed domain is larger than what was found in previous analyses, not only comprising cases of bed degradation into a substrate finer than the active layer but also in aggradational cases. Furthermore, by analyzing a three-fraction model we observe ill-posedness under conditions of bed degradation into a coarse substrate. We observe that oscillations in the numerical solution of ill-posed simulations grow until the model becomes well-posed, as the spurious mixing of the active layer sediment and substrate sediment acts as a regularization mechanism. Finally we conduct an eigenstructure analysis of a simplified vertically continuous model for mixed sediment for which we show that ill-posedness occurs in a wider range of conditions than the active layer model.

  10. Calibration of an estuarine sediment transport model to sediment fluxes as an intermediate step for simulation of geomorphic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling geomorphic evolution in estuaries is necessary to model the fate of legacy contaminants in the bed sediment and the effect of climate change, watershed alterations, sea level rise, construction projects, and restoration efforts. Coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport models used for this purpose typically are calibrated to water level, currents, and/or suspended-sediment concentrations. However, small errors in these tidal-timescale models can accumulate to cause major errors in geomorphic evolution, which may not be obvious. Here we present an intermediate step towards simulating decadal-timescale geomorphic change: calibration to estimated sediment fluxes (mass/time) at two cross-sections within an estuary. Accurate representation of sediment fluxes gives confidence in representation of sediment supply to and from the estuary during those periods. Several years of sediment flux data are available for the landward and seaward boundaries of Suisun Bay, California, the landward-most embayment of San Francisco Bay. Sediment flux observations suggest that episodic freshwater flows export sediment from Suisun Bay, while gravitational circulation during the dry season imports sediment from seaward sources. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS), a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic/sediment transport model, was adapted for Suisun Bay, for the purposes of hindcasting 19th and 20th century bathymetric change, and simulating geomorphic response to sea level rise and climatic variability in the 21st century. The sediment transport parameters were calibrated using the sediment flux data from 1997 (a relatively wet year) and 2004 (a relatively dry year). The remaining years of data (1998, 2002, 2003) were used for validation. The model represents the inter-annual and annual sediment flux variability, while net sediment import/export is accurately modeled for three of the five years. The use of sediment flux data for calibrating an estuarine geomorphic

  11. Physical Model-Based Investigation of Reservoir Sedimentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water supplies. According to the field record, the average annual sediment deposition observed in several regional reservoirs in Taiwan has been increased. For instance, the typhoon event recorded in 2008 at the Wushe Reservoir, Taiwan, produced a 3 m sediment deposit upstream of the dam. The remaining storage capacity in the Wushe Reservoir was reduced to 35.9% or a volume of 53.79 million m3 for flood water detention in 2010. It is urgent that research should be conducted to understand the sediment movement in the Wushe Reservoir. In this study, a scale physical model was built to reproduce the flood flow through the reservoir, investigate the long-term depositional pattern, and evaluate sediment trap efficiency. This allows us to estimate the residual life of the reservoir by proposing a modification of Brune’s method. It can be presented to predict the lifespan of Taiwan reservoirs due to higher applicability in both the physical model and the observed data.

  12. Coarse sediment oil persistence laboratory studies and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, B.; Harper, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    To gain understanding of the factors which affect the fate of stranded oil on coarse sediment beaches, a series of oil penetration and tidal flushing experiments was conducted in columns containing sediments of two grain sizes: granules and pebbles. The experiments included changing oil properties by weathering and by emulsification. Factors examined included permeability, effective porosity, and residual capacity of the sediment for oil. The laboratory data provided input to an oil persistence model for coarse sediment beaches, and the model was modified on the basis of the new data. The permeability measurements suggest that the permeability of pebble/granule mixtures is close to that of the smaller component. For low viscosity oils, the permeability in coarse sediments is rapid enough to match the fall and rise of tidal water. Effective porosity of the pebbles was ca 90% of the measured porosity, but for both the granules and a 50-50 pebble/granule mixture, the effective porosity was ca 75% of measured porosity. Results of tidal flushing simulation imply that flushing may be rapid but not efficient. The emulsion completely entered the sediment in the case of pebbles only. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) specifically to address Hanford solid waste management issues. This document is one of a set of documents supporting the SWPM system and providing instructions in the use and maintenance of SWPM components. This manual contains instructions for using Version 1.4 of the SWPM database: system requirements and preparation, entering and maintaining data, and performing routine database functions. This document supports only those operations which are specific to SWPM database menus and functions and does not Provide instruction in the use of Paradox, the database management system in which the SWPM database is established

  14. A Model of Solid State Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestman, J. T.; Brailsford, A. D.; Shane, M.; Logothetis, E. M.

    1997-03-01

    Solid state gas sensors are widely used to measure the concentrations of gases such as CO, CH_4, C_3H_6, H_2, C_3H8 and O2 The applications of these sensors range from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases in domestic and industrial environments. As the need increases to accurately measure smaller and smaller concentrations, problems such as poor selectivity, stability and response time limit the use of these sensors. In an effort to overcome some of these limitations, a theoretical model of the transient behavior of solid state gas sensors has been developed. In this presentation, a model for the transient response of an electrochemical gas sensor to gas mixtures containing O2 and one reducing species, such as CO, is discussed. This model accounts for the transport of the reactive species to the sampling electrode, the catalyzed oxidation/reduction reaction of these species and the generation of the resulting electrical signal. The model will be shown to reproduce the results of published steady state models and to agree with experimental steady state and transient data.

  15. Instantaneous sediment transport model for asymmetric oscillatory sheet flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    Full Text Available On the basis of advanced concentration and velocity profiles above a mobile seabed, an instantaneous analytical model is derived for sediment transport in asymmetric oscillatory flow. The applied concentration profile is obtained from the classical exponential law based on mass conservation, and asymmetric velocity profile is developed following the turbulent boundary layer theory and the asymmetric wave theory. The proposed model includes two parts: the basic part that consists of erosion depth and free stream velocity, and can be simplified to the total Shields parameter power 3/2 in accordance with the classical empirical models, and the extra vital part that consists of phase-lead, boundary layer thickness and erosion depth. The effects of suspended sediment, phase-lag and asymmetric boundary layer development are considered particularly in the model. The observed instantaneous transport rate proportional to different velocity exponents due to phase-lag is unified and summarised by the proposed model. Both instantaneous and half period empirical formulas are compared with the developed model, using extensive data on a wide range of flow and sediment conditions. The synchronous variation in instantaneous transport rate with free stream velocity and its decrement caused by increased sediment size are predicted correctly. Net transport rates, especially offshore transport rates with large phase-lag under velocity skewed flows, which existing instantaneous type formulas failed to predict, are predicted correctly in both direction and magnitude by the proposed model. Net sediment transport rates are affected not only by suspended sediment and phase-lag, but also by the boundary layer difference between onshore and offshore.

  16. Polonium content in sediments and other solid tailings generated by mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, Izabela; Michalik, Boguslaw [Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Central Mining Institute, 40-166 Katowice, Pl. Gwarkow 1 (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    All legal limits or recommendations concerning NORM include only primordial radionuclides and secular equilibrium state among all decay products is assumed. This is not valid for a majority of residues from NORM industry where activity concentration of progenies can substantially differ each other. Upper Silesia Coal Basin is a unique region where mining activity is continuously done over longer period of time and this include discharging of radium-bearing water to environment and creating huge amount of solid wastes where at the beginning radium is the most dominant radionuclide. With time other daughter products start to build up and actual exposure to radiation is changing. One of them is polonium that with regard to its chemical properties can be easily accumulated in non-human biota resulting in the increase of radiation exposure. In our work we focused attention on sediments where content of {sup 210}Po was determined by chemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry. Chemical preparation involves organic matter destruction and dissolution of the sample itself (if possible). In our research we employed wet digestion by means of mixture of concentrated acids: HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, HCl. Later on polonium was spontaneously deposited onto silver disc and measured with use of alpha spectrometry. In this article we want to show results of our study and as well to present some conclusions concerning changes in radiation risk assessment when actual concentration of polonium is taken into consideration. (authors)

  17. Planning for a National Community Sediment Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    modeling project. The workshop did not develop a NOPP proposal because NOPP had not yet announced funding opportunities for a coastal community modeling...2002, titled “NOPP / USGS Coastal Community Sediment-Transport Model”. Dr. Sherwood presented status reports at the NOPP Nearshore Annual meeting in

  18. Expanding the Use of Solid Modeling throughout the Engineering Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the initial work that Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has done to integrate solid modeling throughout the engineering curriculum. Aims to provide students the opportunity to use their solid modeling skills in several courses and show students how solid modeling tools can be used to help solve a variety of engineering problems.…

  19. Solid mechanics theory, modeling, and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    This textbook offers an introduction to modeling the mechanical behavior of solids within continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. To illustrate the fundamental principles, the book starts with an overview of the most important models in one dimension. Tensor calculus, which is called for in three-dimensional modeling, is concisely presented in the second part of the book. Once the reader is equipped with these essential mathematical tools, the third part of the book develops the foundations of continuum mechanics right from the beginning. Lastly, the book’s fourth part focuses on modeling the mechanics of materials and in particular elasticity, viscoelasticity and plasticity. Intended as an introductory textbook for students and for professionals interested in self-study, it also features numerous worked-out examples to aid in understanding.

  20. Inference-based procedural modeling of solids

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, Keith

    2011-11-01

    As virtual environments become larger and more complex, there is an increasing need for more automated construction algorithms to support the development process. We present an approach for modeling solids by combining prior examples with a simple sketch. Our algorithm uses an inference-based approach to incrementally fit patches together in a consistent fashion to define the boundary of an object. This algorithm samples and extracts surface patches from input models, and develops a Petri net structure that describes the relationship between patches along an imposed parameterization. Then, given a new parameterized line or curve, we use the Petri net to logically fit patches together in a manner consistent with the input model. This allows us to easily construct objects of varying sizes and configurations using arbitrary articulation, repetition, and interchanging of parts. The result of our process is a solid model representation of the constructed object that can be integrated into a simulation-based environment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SCS-CN based time-distributed sediment yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, J. V.; Mishra, S. K.; Singh, Ranvir; Singh, V. P.

    2008-05-01

    SummaryA sediment yield model is developed to estimate the temporal rates of sediment yield from rainfall events on natural watersheds. The model utilizes the SCS-CN based infiltration model for computation of rainfall-excess rate, and the SCS-CN-inspired proportionality concept for computation of sediment-excess. For computation of sedimentographs, the sediment-excess is routed to the watershed outlet using a single linear reservoir technique. Analytical development of the model shows the ratio of the potential maximum erosion (A) to the potential maximum retention (S) of the SCS-CN method is constant for a watershed. The model is calibrated and validated on a number of events using the data of seven watersheds from India and the USA. Representative values of the A/S ratio computed for the watersheds from calibration are used for the validation of the model. The encouraging results of the proposed simple four parameter model exhibit its potential in field application.

  2. Significance of flow clustering and sequencing on sediment transport: 1D sediment transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Kazi; Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers 1D hydraulic model data on the effect of high flow clusters and sequencing on sediment transport. Using observed flow gauge data from the River Caldew, England, a novel stochastic modelling approach was developed in order to create alternative 50 year flow sequences. Whilst the observed probability density of gauge data was preserved in all sequences, the order in which those flows occurred was varied using the output from a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with generalised Pareto distribution (GP). In total, one hundred 50 year synthetic flow series were generated and used as the inflow boundary conditions for individual flow series model runs using the 1D sediment transport model HEC-RAS. The model routed graded sediment through the case study river reach to define the long-term morphological changes. Comparison of individual simulations provided a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of channel capacity to flow sequence. Specifically, each 50 year synthetic flow sequence was analysed using a 3-month, 6-month or 12-month rolling window approach and classified for clusters in peak discharge. As a cluster is described as a temporal grouping of flow events above a specified threshold, the threshold condition used herein is considered as a morphologically active channel forming discharge event. Thus, clusters were identified for peak discharges in excess of 10%, 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of the 1 year Return Period (RP) event. The window of above-peak flows also required cluster definition and was tested for timeframes 1, 2, 10 and 30 days. Subsequently, clusters could be described in terms of the number of events, maximum peak flow discharge, cumulative flow discharge and skewness (i.e. a description of the flow sequence). The model output for each cluster was analysed for the cumulative flow volume and cumulative sediment transport (mass). This was then compared to the total sediment transport of a single flow event of equivalent flow volume

  3. The Chameleon Solid Rocket Propulsion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2010-01-01

    The Khoury and Weltman (2004a and 2004b) Chameleon Model presents an addition to the gravitation force and was shown by the author (Robertson, 2009a and 2009b) to present a new means by which one can view other forces in the Universe. The Chameleon Model is basically a density-dependent model and while the idea is not new, this model is novel in that densities in the Universe to include the vacuum of space are viewed as scalar fields. Such an analogy gives the Chameleon scalar field, dark energy/dark matter like characteristics; fitting well within cosmological expansion theories. In respect to this forum, in this paper, it is shown how the Chameleon Model can be used to derive the thrust of a solid rocket motor. This presents a first step toward the development of new propulsion models using density variations verse mass ejection as the mechanism for thrust. Further, through the Chameleon Model connection, these new propulsion models can be tied to dark energy/dark matter toward new space propulsion systems utilizing the vacuum scalar field in a way understandable by engineers, the key toward the development of such systems. This paper provides corrections to the Chameleon rocket model in Robertson (2009b).

  4. Modeling the electrified solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Skulason, Egill; Björketun, Mårten

    2008-01-01

    function can be related directly to the potential scale of the normal hydrogen electrode. We also show how finite-size effects in common periodic slab-type calculations can be avoided in calculations of activation energies and reaction energies for charge transfer reactions, where we use the Heyrovsky......A detailed atomistic model based on density functional theory calculations is presented of the charged solid-electrolyte interface. Having protons solvated in a water bilayer outside a Pt(111) slab with excess electrons, we show how the interface capacitance is well described and how the work...

  5. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Maloney, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Development of predictive techniques, with regard to cell behavior, under various operating conditions is needed to improve cell performance, increase energy density, reduce manufacturing cost, and to broaden utilization of various fuels. Such technology would be especially beneficial for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at it early demonstration stage. The development of computer models to calculate the temperature, CD, reactant distributions in the tubular and monolithic SOFCs. Results indicate that problems of nonuniform heat generation and fuel gas depletion in the tubular cell module, and of size limitions in the monolithic (MOD 0) design may be encountered during FC operation.

  6. Deuteron NMR and modelling in solid polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschinger, J.

    1992-01-01

    Deuteron NMR techniques are described and some recent applications to the study of rotational motions in solid polymers are reviewed. The information content and the domain of applicability of each technique are presented. Ultra-slow motions are studied in real time without any motional model consideration. For very fast motions, computer molecular dynamics simulations are shown to complement the NMR results. Experimental examples deal with the chain motion in the crystalline α-phase of poly(vinylidenefluoride) and nylon 6,6

  7. Development of a two-phase SPH model for sediment laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huabin; Yu, Xiping; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2017-12-01

    A SPH model based on a general formulation for solid-fluid two-phase flows is proposed for suspended sediment motion in free surface flows. The water and the sediment are treated as two miscible fluids, and the multi-fluid system is discretized by a single set of SPH particles, which move with the water velocity and carry properties of the two phases. Large eddy simulation (LES) is introduced to deal with the turbulence effect, and the widely used Smagorinsky model is modified to take into account the influence of sediment particles on the turbulence. The drag force is accurately formulated by including the hindered settling effect. In the model, the water is assumed to be weakly compressible while the sediment is incompressible, and a new equation of state is proposed for the pressure in the sediment-water mixture. Dynamic boundary condition is employed to treat wall boundaries, and a new strategy of Shepard filtering is adopted to damp the pressure oscillation. The developed two-phase SPH model is validated by comparing the numerical results with analytical solutions for idealized cases of still water containing both neutrally buoyant and naturally settling sand and for plane Poiseuille flows carrying neutrally buoyant particles, and is then applied to sand dumping from a line source into a water tank, where the sand cloud settles with a response of the free water surface. It is shown that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data as well as the empirical formulas. The characteristics of the settling sand cloud, the pressure field, and the flow vortices are studied. The motion of the free water surface is also discussed. The proposed two-phase SPH model is proven to be effective for numerical simulation of sand dumping into waters.

  8. Speciation and spatial distribution of solid-phase iron in surface sediments of the East China Sea continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Hao, Xiao-Chen; Shi, Xiao-Ning; Yang, Gui-Peng; Li, Tie

    2012-01-01

    Speciation and reactivity characterization of solid-phase Fe in marine sediments are of significance to understanding its heterogeneous mineralogy and crystallinity, the diagenetic cycling of Fe and its regulating roles on many other elements in sediments. In this study, a combination of sequential and single-step extractions was used for the determination of seven Fe pools in surface sediments of the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf: (1) carbonate associated Fe (Fe(II) carb ) plus acid volatile sulfide-Fe (Fe(II) AVS ), (2) easily reducible amorphous/poorly crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ox1 ), (3) reducible crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ox2 ), (4) magnetite (Fe mag ), (5) poorly reactive sheet silicate Fe (Fe PRS ), (6) pyrite-Fe (Fe py ), and (7) unreactive silicate Fe (Fe U ). Total Fe (Fe T ) in the sediments is largely determined by terrestrial aluminosilicate particles as indicated by a great similarity of the Fe T with that of the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates. The size of Fe PRS is found to be the largest pool, followed by Fe U , Fe ox2 , Fe mag , Fe(II) AVS+carb , Fe ox1 and Fe py . The large Fe PRS may result from neoformation of Fe-rich clay minerals via reverse weathering and subsequent ageing. The small sizes of Fe(II) AVS+carb and Fe py pools is believed to be the result of low SO 4 reduction due to generally low labile organic matter together with the oxic/suboxic, dynamic environments of the surface sediments. The occurrence of Fe ox1 , Fe ox2 and Fe PRS in the sediments is closely associated with the clay fraction as indicated by a high spatial correlation between the former and the latter. Highly reactive Fe(Fe HR ) in the sediments is comparable to that in global marine sediments, but apparently lower than in the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates due probably to sequestration in the Yangtze Estuary. The ratios of Fe HR /Fe T , Fe PR /Fe T and Fe U /Fe T in the ECS surface sediments consistently show more similarity to

  9. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia, E-mail: e.vasileva-veleva@iaea.org

    2015-01-01

    , such as straightforward calibration, a high sample throughput, sufficient precision, suitable limits of detection, appropriate for monitoring studies concentration range and reduced risk of analyte loss and contamination. This approach allows comparatively simple and reliable evaluation of uncertainty of the results and the basic validation parameters and in a natural way provides traceability of the obtained results. A comparison between the proposed fast programs with solid standard calibration and the conventional ones with liquid standard calibration demonstrates advantages of the new methodology. It provides faster, accurate and unbiased results typically with significantly lower uncertainties. The potential of the HR CS AAS technique is demonstrated by direct analysis of marine sediments form the Caribbean region and various sediment CRMs within the frame of monitoring program for this region. - Highlights: • Analytical method based on solid sampling HR CS AAS for trace elements in marine sediments is presented. • Full validation process for “fit-for-purpose” analytical procedure is described. • Number of important validation parameters was systematically assessed. • Modeling and single laboratory validation approaches for measurement uncertainty are presented. • Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also provided.

  10. SIMPLE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS ON SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825368)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  11. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for selected soils and sediments at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve; Long, Jeff; Sanipelli, Barb [ECOMatters Inc., Pinawa (Canada); Sohlenius, Gustav [Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Soil and sediment solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. The Kd data are inherently extremely variable, but also vary systematically with key environmental attributes. For soil Kd, the key variables are pH, clay content and organic carbon content. For sediment Kd, water type (freshwater versus marine) and sediment type (benthic versus suspended) are important. This report summarized Kd data for soils and sediments computed from indigenous stable element concentrations measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites. These were then compared to several literature sources of Kd data for Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, Tm, U and Yb. The Kd data computed from indigenous stable element concentrations may be especially relevant for assessment of long-lived radionuclides from deep disposal of waste, because the long time frame for the potential releases is more consistent with the steady state measured using indigenous stable elements. For almost every one of these elements in soils, a statistically meaningful regression equation was developed to allow estimation of Kd for any soil given a modest amount of information about the soil. Nonetheless, the median residual geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 4.3-fold, implying confidence bounds of about 18-fold above and below the best estimate Kd. For sediment, the values are categorised simply by water type and sediment type. The median GSD for sediment Kd as measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites was 2.5-fold, but the median GSD among literature values was as high as 8.6-fold. Clearly, there remains considerable uncertainty in Kd values, and it is important to account for this in assessment applications

  12. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for selected soils and sediments at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Long, Jeff; Sanipelli, Barb; Sohlenius, Gustav

    2009-03-01

    Soil and sediment solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. The Kd data are inherently extremely variable, but also vary systematically with key environmental attributes. For soil Kd, the key variables are pH, clay content and organic carbon content. For sediment Kd, water type (freshwater versus marine) and sediment type (benthic versus suspended) are important. This report summarized Kd data for soils and sediments computed from indigenous stable element concentrations measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites. These were then compared to several literature sources of Kd data for Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, Tm, U and Yb. The Kd data computed from indigenous stable element concentrations may be especially relevant for assessment of long-lived radionuclides from deep disposal of waste, because the long time frame for the potential releases is more consistent with the steady state measured using indigenous stable elements. For almost every one of these elements in soils, a statistically meaningful regression equation was developed to allow estimation of Kd for any soil given a modest amount of information about the soil. Nonetheless, the median residual geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 4.3-fold, implying confidence bounds of about 18-fold above and below the best estimate Kd. For sediment, the values are categorised simply by water type and sediment type. The median GSD for sediment Kd as measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites was 2.5-fold, but the median GSD among literature values was as high as 8.6-fold. Clearly, there remains considerable uncertainty in Kd values, and it is important to account for this in assessment applications

  13. Development of a stranded oil in coarse sediment (SOCS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, B.; Owens, E.; Sergy, G.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spills in Canadian waters have a high probability of impacting coarse sediment beaches, yet the ability to predict oil fate and estimate natural self-cleaning rates is less than adequate. Data is lacking to understand fully many oil sediment interactions. Historically, shoreline interactions have been considered using fairly simple concepts. The authors examined the processes that may occur on a coarse sediment beach, selected those which are important, and developed a fate and persistence model for stranded oil. The processes were divided into stages relative to the spill event, and the factors which affect each stage were evaluated. Three areas of special interest were the capacity of a beach to hold oil, the residual capacity of a beach for oil, and the long-term fate of the oil. After developing model algorithms, the outputs were compared to a data base of information collected during the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The stranded oil in coarse sediment model will provide information at two levels: a general level for planning and sensitivity mapping and a more detailed level intended for the prediction of oil fate on specific known beaches. The strengths and weaknesses of the model have been assessed in terms of data deficiencies. The type and nature of the data which are most useful to, and which need to be collected for, spill planning and spill monitoring were identified. The model shows that the important factors directing the fate of oil on coarse sediment beaches are porosity and permeability, determined by grain size and oil properties (composition, viscosity, etc.). The natural rate of removal of oil, modeled as a first-order (exponential) removal, is dependent on the stage of the spill process and on wave energy

  14. Sediment processes modelling below hydraulic mining: towards environmental impact mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalov, Sergey R.

    2010-05-01

    their nearness determines the water mass increase inside mining site. The predictive models were suggested to assess each of the mane-made processes contribution into the total sediment budget of the rivers below mining sites. The empirical data and theoretical and laboratory-derived correlations were used to obtain the predictive models for each processes of sediment supply. It was challenging to estimate specific erosion rate of washed exposed hillsides, channel incision, water supply conditions. Climatic and anthropogenic changes of water runoff also were simulated to decrease uncertainty of the proposed model. Application of the given approach to the hydraulic platinum-mining located in the Kamchatka peninsula (Koryak plateau, tributaries of the Vivenka River) gave the sediment budget of the placer-mined rivers and the total sediment yield supplied into the ocean from river basin. Polluted placer-mined rivers contribute about 30 % of the whole sediment yield of the Vivenka River. At the same time the catchment area of these rivers is less than 0,03 % from the whole Vivenka catchment area. Based on the sediment transport modeling the decision making system for controlling water pollution and stream community preservation was developed. Due to exposed hillside erosion prevention and settling pond system optimization the total decrease of sediment yield was up to 75 %.

  15. Radioactive pollution of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments. II. Distribution of 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pirnach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of complex research of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments are presented Data about vertical distribution of radioactive pollution 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase of sediments are received. Distribution coefficients 137Cs and 90Sr, selectivity coefficients of their exchange with similar cations and physical-chemical forms are defined. Results of research of radionuclide chemical recovery from the sediment samples are analyzed.

  16. A complete dynamic model of primary sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, P; Kolokithas, G; Lekkas, T

    1993-11-01

    A dynamic mathematical model for the primary clarifier of a wastewater treatment plant is described, which is represented by a general tanks-in-series model, to simulate insufficient mixing. The model quantifies successfully the diurnal response of both the suspended and dissolved species. It is general enough, so that the values of the parameters can be replaced with those applicable to a specific case. The model was verified through data from the Biological Centre of Metamorfosi, in Athens, Greece, and can be used to assist in the design of new plants or in the analysis and output predictions of existing ones.

  17. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-03-01

    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Zinc and cadmium mobility in a 5-year-old dredged sediment deposit: experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lions, J. [BRGM, Orleans (France). Water Div.; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France); Lee, J. van der [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau (France). Geosciences - Reactive Hydrodynamics Group; Guerin, V.; Bataillard, P. [BRGM, Orleans (France). Environment and Process Div.; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France); Laboudigue, A. [Ecole des Mines de Douai (France). Environmental and Civil Engineering; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France)

    2007-08-15

    Background. Landfill deposits of contaminated, dredged sediments are subject to chemical alteration and especially to oxidation processes. Accordingly, sulphides are gradually oxidized leading to the formation of secondary phases and associated metals could become mobile and redistributed among the sediment components, such as carbonates, clay and freshly precipitated (hydr)oxides. Once mobilised, metals could represent a hazard for the environment and especially for drinking water supply facilities. Methods. In the present study, leaching experiments have been carried out on a dredged sediment to study metal mobilisation after 5 years of field aging. First, kinetic batch tests allowed one to evaluate the impact of solid-liquid contact time and to determine the kinetic parameters. Secondly, two types of dynamic experiments have been conducted: dynamic flush reactor and column leach test to evaluate the impact of solution renewing by excluding or not excluding the transport processes, respectively. In order to evaluate the impact of calcium on the metal mobilisation, the column leaching test is conducted with pure water and Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution, at the beginning and at the end of the injection, respectively. Geochemical and reactive transport modelling of the experiments was performed using the geochemical code CHESS and the reactive transport model HYTEC. Results and Discussion. The studied sediment is complex with numerous reactive phases such as sulphides, (hydr)oxides, organic matter, phyllosilicates. All leaching tests highlight that zinc and cadmium are mobilised in significant concentrations and lead remains insoluble. A conceptual geochemical model of the sediment has been built to allow simulations of the whole experiments, based on a single, coherent phase description and parameter set. Simulations of the batch, flush and column experiments were performed taking into account the major reaction-controlling mechanisms including, among others, p

  19. Interactive 4D Visualization of Sediment Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkiewicz, T.; Englert, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal sediment transport models simulate the effects that waves, currents, and tides have on near-shore bathymetry and features such as beaches and barrier islands. Understanding these dynamic processes is integral to the study of coastline stability, beach erosion, and environmental contamination. Furthermore, analyzing the results of these simulations is a critical task in the design, placement, and engineering of coastal structures such as seawalls, jetties, support pilings for wind turbines, etc. Despite the importance of these models, there is a lack of available visualization software that allows users to explore and perform analysis on these datasets in an intuitive and effective manner. Existing visualization interfaces for these datasets often present only one variable at a time, using two dimensional plan or cross-sectional views. These visual restrictions limit the ability to observe the contents in the proper overall context, both in spatial and multi-dimensional terms. To improve upon these limitations, we use 3D rendering and particle system based illustration techniques to show water column/flow data across all depths simultaneously. We can also encode multiple variables across different perceptual channels (color, texture, motion, etc.) to enrich surfaces with multi-dimensional information. Interactive tools are provided, which can be used to explore the dataset and find regions-of-interest for further investigation. Our visualization package provides an intuitive 4D (3D, time-varying) visualization of sediment transport model output. In addition, we are also integrating real world observations with the simulated data to support analysis of the impact from major sediment transport events. In particular, we have been focusing on the effects of Superstorm Sandy on the Redbird Artificial Reef Site, offshore of Delaware Bay. Based on our pre- and post-storm high-resolution sonar surveys, there has significant scour and bedform migration around the

  20. Climate-scale modelling of suspended sediment load in an Alpine catchment debris flow (Rio Cordon-northeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Mao, Luca; Borrelli, Pasquale; Panagos, Panos; Fiorillo, Francesco; Bellocchi, Gianni

    2018-05-01

    Pulsing storms and prolonged rainfall can drive hydrological damaging events in mountain regions with soil erosion and debris flow in river catchments. The paper presents a parsimonious model for estimating climate forcing on sediment loads in an Alpine catchment (Rio Cordon, northeastern Italian Alps). Hydroclimatic forcing was interpreted by the novel CliSMSSL (Climate-Scale Modelling of Suspended Sediment Load) model to estimate annual sediment loads. We used annual data on suspended-solid loads monitored at an experimental station from 1987 to 2001 and on monthly precipitation data. The quality of sediment load data was critically examined, and one outlying year was identified and removed from further analyses. This outlier revealed that our model underestimates exceptionally high sediment loads in years characterized by a severe flood event. For all other years, the CliSMSSL performed well, with a determination coefficient (R2) equal to 0.67 and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 129 Mg y-1. The calibrated model for the period 1986-2010 was used to reconstruct sediment loads in the river catchment for historical times when detailed precipitation records are not available. For the period 1810-2010, the model results indicate that the past centuries have been characterized by large interannual to interdecadal fluctuations in the conditions affecting sediment loads. This paper argues that climate-induced erosion processes in Alpine areas and their impact on environment should be given more attention in discussions about climate-driven strategies. Future work should focus on delineating the extents of these findings (e.g., at other catchments of the European Alpine belt) as well as investigating the dynamics for the formation of sediment loads.

  1. Re-dissolution of caesium and plutonium from Irish Sea sediments: a comparison between different modelling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosjpe, M.A.; Perianez, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been experimental evidence of re-dissolution of plutonium and caesium taking place from contaminated Irish Sea sediments. Thus, sediments are behaving as a long-term source of waste radionuclides to the water column. The objective of this work consists of studying such re-dissolution process by means of mathematical modelling. In particular, two models with different conceptual and numerical approaches will be used. The first is a box model for long-term dispersion from Sellafield to the Arctic marine environment in which water fluxes between boxes are obtained from basic oceanographic information. Water sediment interactions of radionuclides are described through sedimentation and remobilization processes on the basis of the sediment equilibrium distribution coefficient. The second model is a high resolution 3D model in which advective transport is obtained from the calculated current fields. Thus, tidal mixing is explicitly computed. Exchanges of radionuclides between the liquid and solid phases are described in terms of kinetic transfer coefficients. As a consequence, the model has a general applicability and can be used in situations out from equilibrium conditions. Both models have been used to simulate the dispersion of instantaneous releases from Sellafield and to simulate the process of re-dissolution of radionuclides from contaminated sediments. Results from both models are comparable, being differences in activity levels in water and sediments smaller than should be expected from the different modelling approaches. Some general conclusions on the applicability of each modelling approach and on how they can be combined to improve predictions can also be extracted from this work. (author)

  2. Comparison of estuarine sediment record with modelled rates of sediment supply from a western European catchment since 1500

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Clément; Poitevin, Cyril; Chaumillon, Éric

    2016-09-01

    Marine and estuarine sediment records reporting impacts of historical land use changes exist worldwide, but they are rarely supported by direct quantified evidence of changes in denudation rates on the related catchments. Here we implement a spatially-resolved RUSLE soil erosion model on the 10 000 km2 Charente catchment (France), supplied with realistic scenarios of land-cover and climate changes since 1500, and compare the results to a 14C-dated estuarine sediment record. Despite approximations, the model correctly predicts present-day Charente river sediment load. Back-cast modelling suggests that the Charente catchment is an interesting case where the sediment supply did not change despite increase in soil erosion resulting from 18th-century deforestation because it was mitigated by drier climate during the same period. Silt-sand alternations evidenced in the sediment record were correlated with sub-decadal rainfall variability.

  3. Modeling of discharge and sediment transport through the SWAT model in the basin of Harraza (Northwest of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Hallouz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to model discharge and solid erosion quantification through a small agricultural watershed by applying the SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tools on the Wadi Harraza’s basin of which is part of Wadi Cheliff’s basin, with an average altitude of 500 m, drains an area of 568 sq km. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, version 2009 model integrated with Geographic Information System (ArcGIS, version 10.0 were used to simulate the discharge and sediment concentration of Wadi Harraza’s basin for the period from 2004 to 2009. Model calibration and validation were performed for monthly time periods using Sequential Uncertainty Fitting 2 (SUFI-2, version 2 within SWAT-CUP. Our calibration and validation outputs for monthly simulation showed a good model performance for discharges. Thus the evolution of the average total annual sediment in the Wadi Harraza’s basin which will be deposited in the Wadi Cheliff, is estimated at 54.24 t ha−1. Keywords: SWAT model, Basin, Wadi Harraza, SUFI-2, Discharges, Sediment

  4. Predicting watershed post-fire sediment yield with the InVEST sediment retention model: Accuracy and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; McVay, Jason C.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vaillant, Nicole; Lowe, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Increased sedimentation following wildland fire can negatively impact water supply and water quality. Understanding how changing fire frequency, extent, and location will affect watersheds and the ecosystem services they supply to communities is of great societal importance in the western USA and throughout the world. In this work we assess the utility of the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) Sediment Retention Model to accurately characterize erosion and sedimentation of burned watersheds. InVEST was developed by the Natural Capital Project at Stanford University (Tallis et al., 2014) and is a suite of GIS-based implementations of common process models, engineered for high-end computing to allow the faster simulation of larger landscapes and incorporation into decision-making. The InVEST Sediment Retention Model is based on common soil erosion models (e.g., USLE – Universal Soil Loss Equation) and determines which areas of the landscape contribute the greatest sediment loads to a hydrological network and conversely evaluate the ecosystem service of sediment retention on a watershed basis. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy and uncertainties for InVEST predictions of increased sedimentation after fire, using measured postfire sediment yields available for many watersheds throughout the western USA from an existing, published large database. We show that the model can be parameterized in a relatively simple fashion to predict post-fire sediment yield with accuracy. Our ultimate goal is to use the model to accurately predict variability in post-fire sediment yield at a watershed scale as a function of future wildfire conditions.

  5. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Anil V. Virkar; Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2010-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic no equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, , within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, no equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  6. Modeling alignment enhancement for solid polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    A model of dynamic orientation using optimized radiofrequency (RF) irradiation produced perpendicular to the holding field is developed for the spin-1 system required for tensor-polarized fixed-target experiments. The derivation applies to RF produced close to the Larmor frequency of the nucleus and requires the electron spin-resonance linewidth to be much smaller than the nuclear magnetic resonance frequency. The rate equations are solved numerically to study a semi-saturated steady-state resulting from the two sources of irradiation: microwave from the DNP process and the additional RF used to manipulate the tensor polarization. The steady-state condition and continuous-wave NMR lineshape are found that optimize the spin-1 alignment in the polycrystalline materials used as solid polarized targets in charged-beam nuclear and particle physics experiments. (orig.)

  7. A Tidally Averaged Sediment-Transport Model for San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A tidally averaged sediment-transport model of San Francisco Bay was incorporated into a tidally averaged salinity box model previously developed and calibrated using salinity, a conservative tracer (Uncles and Peterson, 1995; Knowles, 1996). The Bay is represented in the model by 50 segments composed of two layers: one representing the channel (>5-meter depth) and the other the shallows (0- to 5-meter depth). Calculations are made using a daily time step and simulations can be made on the decadal time scale. The sediment-transport model includes an erosion-deposition algorithm, a bed-sediment algorithm, and sediment boundary conditions. Erosion and deposition of bed sediments are calculated explicitly, and suspended sediment is transported by implicitly solving the advection-dispersion equation. The bed-sediment model simulates the increase in bed strength with depth, owing to consolidation of fine sediments that make up San Francisco Bay mud. The model is calibrated to either net sedimentation calculated from bathymetric-change data or measured suspended-sediment concentration. Specified boundary conditions are the tributary fluxes of suspended sediment and suspended-sediment concentration in the Pacific Ocean. Results of model calibration and validation show that the model simulates the trends in suspended-sediment concentration associated with tidal fluctuations, residual velocity, and wind stress well, although the spring neap tidal suspended-sediment concentration variability was consistently underestimated. Model validation also showed poor simulation of seasonal sediment pulses from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta at Point San Pablo because the pulses enter the Bay over only a few days and the fate of the pulses is determined by intra-tidal deposition and resuspension that are not included in this tidally averaged model. The model was calibrated to net-basin sedimentation to calculate budgets of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants. While

  8. NOAA ESRI Grid - sediment size predictions model in New York offshore planning area from Biogeography Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents sediment size predictions from a sediment spatial model developed for the New York offshore spatial planning area. The model also includes...

  9. Assessing bioavailability of DDT and metabolites in marine sediments using solid-phase microextraction with performance reference compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Jia, Fang; Crago, J; Zeng, Eddy Y; Schlenk, D; Gan, Jay

    2013-09-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has often been used to estimate the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of organic contaminants in sediments. A significant limitation in the application of SPME for Cfree measurement is the requirement for attaining equilibrium partition, which is often difficult for strongly hydrophobic compounds such as DDT. A method was developed using SPME with stable isotope-labeled analogues as performance reference compounds (PRCs) to measure Cfree of DDT and metabolites (DDTs) in marine sediments. Six (13) C-labeled or deuterated PRCs were impregnated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber before use. Desorption of PRCs from PDMS fibers and absorption of DDTs from sediment were isotropic in a range of sediments evaluated ex situ under well-mixed conditions. When applied to a historically contaminated marine sediment from a Superfund site, the PRC-SPME method yielded Cfree values identical to those found by using a conventional equilibrium SPME approach (Eq-SPME), whereas the time for mixing was reduced from 9 d to only 9 h. The PRC-SPME method was further evaluated against bioaccumulation of DDTs by Neanthes arenaceodentata in the contaminated sediment with or without amendment of activated carbon or sand. Strong correlations were consistently found between the derived equilibrium concentrations on the fiber and lipid-normalized tissue residues for DDTs in the worms. Results from the present study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of coupling PRCs with SPME sampling to greatly shorten sampling time, thus affording much improved flexibility in the use of SPME for bioavailability evaluation. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  10. Uptake, translocation, and elimination in sediment-rooted macrophytes: a model-supported analysis of whole sediment test data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Arts, Gertie H P; Focks, Andreas; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    Understanding bioaccumulation in sediment-rooted macrophytes is crucial for the development of sediment toxicity tests using macrophytes. Here, we explore bioaccumulation in sediment-rooted macrophytes by tracking and modeling chemical flows of chlorpyrifos, linuron, and six PCBs in water-sediment-macrophyte systems. Chemical fluxes across the interfaces between pore water, overlying water, shoots, and roots were modeled using a novel multicompartment model. The modeling yielded the first mass-transfer parameter set reported for bioaccumulation by sediment-rooted macrophytes, with satisfactory narrow confidence limits for more than half of the estimated parameters. Exposure via the water column led to rapid uptake by Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum shoots, followed by transport to the roots within 1-3 days, after which tissue concentrations gradually declined. Translocation played an important role in the exchange between shoots and roots. Exposure via spiked sediment led to gradual uptake by the roots, but subsequent transport to the shoots and overlying water remained limited for the chemicals studied. These contrasting patterns show that exposure is sensitive to test set up, chemical properties, and species traits. Although field-concentrations in water and sediment will differ from those in the tests, the model parameters can be assumed applicable for modeling exposure to macrophytes in the field.

  11. Differences in fluorescence characteristics and bioavailability of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in sediments and suspended solids in Lihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Shuhang; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Junyi

    2018-05-01

    The spectral characteristics, spatial distribution, and bioavailability of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in suspended solids and surface sediments of Lihu Lake, China, were investigated through excitation-emission matrix spectra and parallel factor analysis. The average content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the sediments reached 643.28 ± 58.34 mg C/kg and that in suspended solids was 714.87 ± 69.24 mg C/kg. The fluorescence intensity of WSOM totaled 90.87 ± 5.65 and 115.42 ± 8.02 RU/g for the sediments and suspended solids, respectively. The DOC and fluorescence intensity of the WSOM showed an increasing trend moving from the west to the east of the lake. The WSOM in sediments and suspended solids contained two humic-like (C1 and C2) and one tryptophan-like (C3) components. These components had different fluorescent peaks and relative proportions. In the sediments, the relative proportions of C1, C2, and C3 were 33.71% ± 0.71, 26.83% ± 0.68, and 39.50% ± 0.71%, respectively. Meanwhile, C1 (35.77 ± 0.84%), C2 (34.07 ± 0.61%), and C3 (30.16 ± 0.75%) had similar relative percentages in suspended solids. The sediments had a lower humification index (3.02 ± 0.08) than the suspended solids (4.04 ± 0.15). Exchangeable nitrogen for the sediments and suspended solids was dominated by exchangeable ammonium nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen, respectively. WSOM plays an important role in migration and transformation of nitrogen in sediments and suspended solids. The sediment-derived WSOM exhibited higher lability and biological activity than did the suspended solid-derived WSOM. The relative ratio of the intensity of protein-like fluorescent component to that of the humic-like one can be used as a reference index to evaluate the lability and biological activity of WSOM in sediments and suspended solids.

  12. SPATIAL MODELING OF SOLID-STATE REGULAR POLYHEDRA (SOLIDS OF PLATON IN AUTOCAD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bezditko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the technology of modeling regular polyhedra by graphic methods. The authors came to the conclusion that in order to create solid models of regular polyhedra the method of extrusion is best to use.

  13. On the use of semiempirical models of (solid + supercritical fluid) systems to determine solid sublimation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabernero, Antonio; Martin del Valle, Eva M.; Galan, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose a method to determine sublimation properties of solids. → Low deviations were produced calculating sublimation enthalpies and pressures. → It is a required step to determine the vaporization enthalpy of the solid. → It is possible to determine solid properties using semiempirical models solid-SCF. - Abstract: Experimental solubility data of solid-supercritical fluids have significantly increased in the last few years, and semiempirical models are emerging as one of the best choices to fit this type of data. This work establishes a methodology to calculate sublimation pressures using this type of equations. It requires the use of Bartle's equation to model equilibria data solid-supercritical fluids with the aim of determining the vaporization enthalpy of the compound. Using this method, low deviations were obtained by calculating sublimation pressures and sublimation enthalpies. The values of the sublimation pressures were subsequently used to successfully model different multiphasic equilibria, as solid-supercritical fluids and solid-solvent-supercritical fluids with the Peng-Robinson equation of state (without considering the sublimation pressure as an adjustable parameter). On the other hand, the sublimation pressures were also used to calculate solid sublimation properties and acetaminophen solvation properties in some solvents. Also, solubility data solid-supercritical fluids from 62 pharmaceuticals were fitted with different semiempirical equations (Chrastil, Kumar-Johnston and Bartle models) in order to present the values of solvation enthalpies in sc-CO 2 and vaporization enthalpies for these compounds. All of these results highlight that semiempirical models can be used for any other purpose as well as modeling (solid + supercritical fluids) equilibria.

  14. Modeling sediment transport in Qatar: Application for coastal development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ruqaiya; Warren, Christopher; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Husrevoglu, Sinan

    2018-03-01

    Hydrodynamics and sediment transport are key physical processes contributing to habitat structure within the marine environment. Coastal development that results in the alteration of these processes (e.g., changing water flushing and/or sedimentation rates) can have detrimental impacts on sensitive systems. This is a current, relevant issue in Qatar as its coastal regions continue to be developed, not only around the capital of Doha, but in many areas around this Arabian Gulf peninsula. The northeastern Qatari coast is comprised of diverse and sensitive flora and fauna such as seagrass and macroalgae meadows, coral reefs and patches, turtles, and dugongs that tolerate harsh environmental conditions. In the near future, this area may see a rise in anthropogenic activity in the form of coastal development projects. These projects will add to existing natural stresses, such as high temperature, high salinity, and low rates of precipitation. Consequently, there is a need to characterize this area and assess the potential impacts that these anthropogenic activities may have on the region. In the present study, a novel sediment transport model is described and used to demonstrate the potential impact of altering hydrodynamics and subsequent sediment transport along the northeastern Qatar nearshore marine environment. The developed models will be tested using potential scenarios of future anthropogenic activities forecasted to take place in the area. The results will show the effects on water and sediment behavior and provide a scientific approach for key stakeholders to make decisions with respect to the management of the considered coastal zone. Furthermore, it provides a tool and framework that can be utilized in environmental impact assessment and associated hydrodynamic studies along other areas of the Qatari coastal zone. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:240-251. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. Laboratory tests of bentonite stabilization of bottom sediments from a dam reservoir in relation to their usage in municipal solid waste landfill liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Koś

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical parameters of bottom sediments from a dam reservoir (Rzeszowski Reservoir, Poland with bentonite addition are presented in the paper. Tests were carried out in the aspect of the possible usage of sediments as a material for soil liners in Municipal Solid Waste Landfill. Mentioned sediments did not fulfilled the permeability and plasticity criteria defined for soils that can be used in liners. The bentonite addition caused, among other things, a decrease in permeability coefficient and increase in plasticity index. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that sediments with 6% addition of bentonite fulfil all requirements and can be used for liners in MSWL.

  16. Towards Quantitative Spatial Models of Seabed Sediment Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stephens

    Full Text Available There is a need for fit-for-purpose maps for accurately depicting the types of seabed substrate and habitat and the properties of the seabed for the benefits of research, resource management, conservation and spatial planning. The aim of this study is to determine whether it is possible to predict substrate composition across a large area of seabed using legacy grain-size data and environmental predictors. The study area includes the North Sea up to approximately 58.44°N and the United Kingdom's parts of the English Channel and the Celtic Seas. The analysis combines outputs from hydrodynamic models as well as optical remote sensing data from satellite platforms and bathymetric variables, which are mainly derived from acoustic remote sensing. We build a statistical regression model to make quantitative predictions of sediment composition (fractions of mud, sand and gravel using the random forest algorithm. The compositional data is analysed on the additive log-ratio scale. An independent test set indicates that approximately 66% and 71% of the variability of the two log-ratio variables are explained by the predictive models. A EUNIS substrate model, derived from the predicted sediment composition, achieved an overall accuracy of 83% and a kappa coefficient of 0.60. We demonstrate that it is feasible to spatially predict the seabed sediment composition across a large area of continental shelf in a repeatable and validated way. We also highlight the potential for further improvements to the method.

  17. Occurrence of tributyltin (TBT)-resistant bacteria is not related to TBT pollution in Mekong River and coastal sediment: with a hypothesis of selective pressure from suspended solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Fujiyo; Mochizuki, Hiroko; Nakamura, Shinji; Iwata, Hisato; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Fumitake; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Tana, Touch Seang; Suzuki, Satoru

    2007-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is organotin compound that is toxic to aquatic life ranging from bacteria to mammals. This study examined the concentration of TBT in sediment from and near the Mekong River and the distribution of TBT-resistant bacteria. TBT concentrations ranged from TBT-resistant bacteria ranged TBT-resistant bacteria ranged from TBT in the sediment and of TBT-resistant bacteria were unrelated, and chemicals other than TBT might induce TBT resistance. TBT-resistant bacteria were more abundant in the dry season than in the rainy season. Differences in the selection process of TBT-resistant bacteria between dry and rainy seasons were examined using an advection-diffusion model of a suspended solid (SS) that conveys chemicals. The estimated dilution-diffusion time over a distance of 120 km downstream from a release site was 20 days during dry season and 5 days during rainy season, suggesting that bacteria at the sediment surface could be exposed to SS for longer periods during dry season.

  18. A GUIDED SWAT MODEL APPLICATION ON SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING IN PANGANI RIVER BASIN: LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis Marco Ndomba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to report on the lessons learnt from applying Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT in a well guided sediment yield modelling study. The study area is the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM reservoir catchment, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. It should be noted that, previous modeling exercises in the region applied SWAT with preassumption that inter-rill or sheet erosion was the dominant erosion type. In contrast, in this study SWAT model application was guided by results of analysis of high temporal resolution of sediment flow data and hydro-meteorological data. The runoff component of the SWAT model was calibrated from six-years (i.e. 1977–1982 of historical daily streamflow data. The sediment component of the model was calibrated using one-year (1977–1988 daily sediment loads estimated from one hydrological year sampling programme (between March and November, 2005 rating curve. A long-term period over 37 years (i.e. 1969–2005 simulation results of the SWAT model was validated to downstream NYM reservoir sediment accumulation information. The SWAT model captured 56 percent of the variance (CE and underestimated the observed daily sediment loads by 0.9 percent according to Total Mass Control (TMC performance indices during a normal wet hydrological year, i.e., between November 1, 1977 and October 31, 1978, as the calibration period. SWAT model predicted satisfactorily the long-term sediment catchment yield with a relative error of 2.6 percent. Also, the model has identified erosion sources spatially and has replicated some erosion processes as determined in other studies and field observations in the PRB. This result suggests that for catchments where sheet erosion is dominant SWAT model may substitute the sediment-rating curve. However, the SWAT model could not capture the dynamics of sediment load delivery in some seasons to the catchment outlet.

  19. A GUIDED SWAT MODEL APPLICATION ON SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING IN PANGANI RIVER BASIN: LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis M. Ndomba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to report on the lessons learnt from applying Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT in a well guided sediment yield modelling study. The study area is the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM reservoir catchment, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. It should be noted that, previous modeling exercises in the region applied SWAT with preassumption that inter-rill or sheet erosion was the dominant erosion type. In contrast, in this study SWAT model application was guided by results of analysis of high temporal resolution of sediment flow data and hydro-meteorological data. The runoff component of the SWAT model was calibrated from six-years (i.e. 1977¿1982 of historical daily streamflow data. The sediment component of the model was calibrated using one-year (1977-1988 daily sediment loads estimated from one hydrological year sampling programme (between March and November, 2005 rating curve. A long-term period over 37 years (i.e. 1969-2005 simulation results of the SWAT model was validated to downstream NYM reservoir sediment accumulation information. The SWAT model captured 56 percent of the variance (CE and underestimated the observed daily sediment loads by 0.9 percent according to Total Mass Control (TMC performance indices during a normal wet hydrological year, i.e., between November 1, 1977 and October 31, 1978, as the calibration period. SWAT model predicted satisfactorily the long-term sediment catchment yield with a relative error of 2.6 percent. Also, the model has identified erosion sources spatially and has replicated some erosion processes as determined in other studies and field observations in the PRB. This result suggests that for catchments where sheet erosion is dominant SWAT model may substitute the sediment-rating curve. However, the SWAT model could not capture the dynamics of sediment load delivery in some seasons to the catchment outlet.

  20. A Discrete Approach to Meshless Lagrangian Solid Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Marko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The author demonstrates a stable Lagrangian solid modeling method, tracking the interactions of solid mass particles rather than using a meshed grid. This numerical method avoids the problem of tensile instability often seen with smooth particle applied mechanics by having the solid particles apply stresses expected with Hooke’s law, as opposed to using a smoothing function for neighboring solid particles. This method has been tested successfully with a bar in tension, compression, and shear, as well as a disk compressed into a flat plate, and the numerical model consistently matched the analytical Hooke’s law as well as Hertz contact theory for all examples. The solid modeling numerical method was then built into a 2-D model of a pressure vessel, which was tested with liquid water particles under pressure and simulated with smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This simulation was stable, and demonstrated the feasibility of Lagrangian specification modeling for fluid–solid interactions.

  1. Surface effects in solid mechanics models, simulations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2013-01-01

    This book reviews current understanding, and future trends, of surface effects in solid mechanics. Covers elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity, modeling based on continuum theories and molecular modeling and applications of different modeling approaches.

  2. Inverse modelling of fluvial sediment connectivity identifies characteristics and spatial distribution of sediment sources in a large river network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J. P.; Bizzi, S.; Kondolf, G. M.; Rubin, Z.; Castelletti, A.

    2016-12-01

    Field and laboratory evidence indicates that the spatial distribution of transport in both alluvial and bedrock rivers is an adaptation to sediment supply. Sediment supply, in turn, depends on spatial distribution and properties (e.g., grain sizes and supply rates) of individual sediment sources. Analyzing the distribution of transport capacity in a river network could hence clarify the spatial distribution and properties of sediment sources. Yet, challenges include a) identifying magnitude and spatial distribution of transport capacity for each of multiple grain sizes being simultaneously transported, and b) estimating source grain sizes and supply rates, both at network scales. Herein, we approach the problem of identifying the spatial distribution of sediment sources and the resulting network sediment fluxes in a major, poorly monitored tributary (80,000 km2) of the Mekong. Therefore, we apply the CASCADE modeling framework (Schmitt et al. (2016)). CASCADE calculates transport capacities and sediment fluxes for multiple grainsizes on the network scale based on remotely-sensed morphology and modelled hydrology. CASCADE is run in an inverse Monte Carlo approach for 7500 random initializations of source grain sizes. In all runs, supply of each source is inferred from the minimum downstream transport capacity for the source grain size. Results for each realization are compared to sparse available sedimentary records. Only 1 % of initializations reproduced the sedimentary record. Results for these realizations revealed a spatial pattern in source supply rates, grain sizes, and network sediment fluxes that correlated well with map-derived patterns in lithology and river-morphology. Hence, we propose that observable river hydro-morphology contains information on upstream source properties that can be back-calculated using an inverse modeling approach. Such an approach could be coupled to more detailed models of hillslope processes in future to derive integrated models

  3. Improving Sediment Transport Prediction by Assimilating Satellite Images in a Tidal Bay Model of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models being one of the major tools for sediment dynamic studies in complex coastal waters are now benefitting from remote sensing images that are easily available for model inputs. The present study explored various methods of integrating remote sensing ocean color data into a numerical model to improve sediment transport prediction in a tide-dominated bay in Hong Kong, Deep Bay. Two sea surface sediment datasets delineated from satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectra-radiometer (MODIS were assimilated into a coastal ocean model of the bay for one tidal cycle. It was found that remote sensing sediment information enhanced the sediment transport model ability by validating the model results with in situ measurements. Model results showed that root mean square errors of forecast sediment both at the surface layer and the vertical layers from the model with satellite sediment assimilation are reduced by at least 36% over the model without assimilation.

  4. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  5. Modeling chemical accumulation in sediment of small waterbodies accounting for sediment transport and water-sediment exchange processes over long periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David Albert; Strehmel, Alexander; Erzgräber, Beate; Hammel, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    In a recent scientific opinion of the European Food Safety Authority it is argued that the accumulation of plant protection products in sediments over long time periods may be an environmentally significant process. Therefore, the European Food Safety Authority proposed a calculation to account for plant protection product accumulation. This calculation, however, considers plant protection product degradation within sediment as the only dissipation route, and does not account for sediment dynamics or back-diffusion into the water column. The hydraulic model Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS; US Army Corps of Engineers) was parameterized to assess sediment transport and deposition dynamics within the FOrum for Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS) scenarios in simulations spanning 20 yr. The results show that only 10 to 50% of incoming sediment would be deposited. The remaining portion of sediment particles is transported across the downstream boundary. For a generic plant protection product substance this resulted in deposition of only 20 to 50% of incoming plant protection product substance. In a separate analysis, the FOCUS TOXSWA model was utilized to examine the relative importance of degradation versus back-diffusion as loss processes from the sediment compartment for a diverse range of generic plant protection products. In simulations spanning 20 yr, it was shown that back-diffusion was generally the dominant dissipation process. The results of the present study show that sediment dynamics and back-diffusion should be considered when calculating long-term plant protection product accumulation in sediment. Neglecting these may lead to a systematic overestimation of accumulation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3223-3231. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Geochemical modeling of reactions and partitioning of trace metals and radionuclides during titration of contaminated acidic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C; Spalding, Brian P; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Gu, Baohua

    2008-11-01

    Many geochemical reactions that control aqueous metal concentrations are directly affected by solution pH. However, changes in solution pH are strongly buffered by various aqueous phase and solid phase precipitation/dissolution and adsorption/desorption reactions. The ability to predict acid-base behavior of the soil-solution system is thus critical to predict metal transport under variable pH conditions. This studywas undertaken to develop a practical generic geochemical modeling approach to predict aqueous and solid phase concentrations of metals and anions during conditions of acid or base additions. The method of Spalding and Spalding was utilized to model soil buffer capacity and pH-dependent cation exchange capacity by treating aquifer solids as a polyprotic acid. To simulate the dynamic and pH-dependent anion exchange capacity, the aquifer solids were simultaneously treated as a polyprotic base controlled by mineral precipitation/ dissolution reactions. An equilibrium reaction model that describes aqueous complexation, precipitation, sorption and soil buffering with pH-dependent ion exchange was developed using HydroGeoChem v5.0 (HGC5). Comparison of model results with experimental titration data of pH, Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co, and SO4(2-) for contaminated sediments indicated close agreement suggesting that the model could potentially be used to predictthe acid-base behavior of the sediment-solution system under variable pH conditions.

  7. Numerical Coupling of River Discharge to Shelf/Slope Sedimentation Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syvitski, James

    1997-01-01

    Scientific objectives of this project are: (1) Develop a nested set of models to study the interactions of sedimentation processes on the shelf, including the effects of river supply, plume transport and initial deposition of sediments; (2...

  8. Modelling the landslide area and sediment discharge in landslide-dominated region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tse-Yang; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Chen, Yi-Chin; Jan, Ming-Young; Liu, Cheng-Chien

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have indicated the magnified increase of rainfall intensification, landsliding and subsequent sediment discharge due to the global warming effect. However, a few works synthesized the "chain reaction" from rainfall, landsliding to sediment discharge at the same time because of the limited observations of landslide area and sediment discharge during episodes. Besides, the sediment transport strongly depends on the sediment supply and stream power which interact conditionally. In this study, our goal is to build a model that can simulate time-series landslide area and subsequent sediment discharge. The synthesized model would be applied onto Tsengwen Reservoir watershed in southern Taiwan, where lots of landslides occur every year. Unlike other studies, our landslide model considers not only rainfall effect but also previous landslide status, which may be applied to landslide-dominated regions and explains the irrelevant relationship between typhoon rainfall and landslide area. Furthermore, our sediment transport model considers the sediment budget which couples transport- and supply-limited of sediment. The result shows that the simulated time-series landslide area and the sediment transport agree with the observation and the R2 are 0.88 and 0.56, respectively. Reactivated ratio of previous landslide area is 72.7% which indicates the high reoccurrence of historical landslide in landslide-dominated regions. We divided nine historical typhoons into three periods to demonstrate the effect of sediment supply/supply-limited condition upon sediment transport. For instance, the rainfall is smaller in period 3 than in period 1 but the sediment transport is higher in period 3 due to the catastrophic landslide (typhoon Morakot) during period 2. We argue that quantifying sediment transport should couple not only with water discharge but sediment budget, which is rarely considered in calculating sediment transport. Moreover, the parameterization of the controlling

  9. Modelling dewatering behaviour through an understanding of solids formation processes. Part II--solids separation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustan, A C; Cohen, B; Petrie, J G

    2005-05-30

    An understanding of the mechanisms which control solids formation can provide information on the characteristics of the solids which are formed. The nature of the solids formed in turn impacts on dewatering behaviour. The 'upstream' solids formation determines a set of suspension characteristics: solids concentration, particle size distribution, solution ionic strength and electrostatic surface potential. These characteristics together define the suspension's rheological properties. However, the complicated interdependence of these has precluded the prediction of suspension rheology from such a fundamental description of suspension characteristics. Recent shear yield stress models, applied in this study to compressive yield, significantly reduce the empiricism required for the description of compressive rheology. Suspension compressibility and permeability uniquely define the dewatering behaviour, described in terms of settling, filtration and mechanical expression. These modes of dewatering may be described in terms of the same fundamental suspension mechanics model. In this way, it is possible to link dynamically the processes of solids formation and dewatering of the resultant suspension. This, ultimately, opens the door to improved operability of these processes. In part I of this paper we introduced an integrated system model for solids formation and dewatering. This model was demonstrated for the upstream processes using experimental data. In this current paper models of colloidal interactions and dewatering are presented and compared to experimental results from batch filtration tests. A novel approach to predicting suspension compressibility and permeability using a single test configuration is presented and tested.

  10. Hydrate-CASM for modeling Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente Ruiz, M.; Vaunat, J.; Marin Moreno, H.

    2017-12-01

    A clear understanding of the geomechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) is crucial to assess the stability of the seafloor and submarine infrastructures to human and natural loading changes. Here we present the Hydrate-CASM, a new elastoplastic constitutive model to predict the geomechanical behavior of MHBS. Our model employs the critical state model CASM (Clay and Sand Model) because of its flexibility in describing the shape of the yield surface and its proven ability to predict the mechanical behavior of sands, the most commercially viable hydrate reservoirs. The model considers MHBS as a deformable elastoplastic continuum, and hydrate-related changes in the stress-strain behavior are predicted by a densification mechanism. The densification attributes the mechanical contribution of hydrate to; a reduction of the available void ratio; a decrease of the swelling line slope; and an increase of the volumetric yield stress. It is described by experimentally derived physical parameters except from the swelling slope coefficient that requires empirical calibration. The Hydrate-CASM is validated against published triaxial laboratory tests performed at different confinement stresses, hydrate saturations, and hydrate morphologies. During the validation, we focused on capturing the mechanical behavior of the host sediment and consider perturbations of the sediment's mechanical properties that could result from the sample preparation. Our model successfully captures the experimentally observed influence of hydrate saturation in the magnitude and trend of the stiffness, shear strength, and dilatancy of MHBS. Hence, we propose that hydrate-related densification changes might be a major factor controlling the geomechanical response of MHBS.

  11. Motion of cells sedimenting on a solid surface in a laminar shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, O; Pierres, A; Foa, C; Delaage, M; Bongrand, P

    1992-01-01

    Cell adhesion often occurs under dynamic conditions, as in flowing blood. A quantitative understanding of this process requires accurate knowledge of the topographical relationships between the cell membrane and potentially adhesive surfaces. This report describes an experimental study made on both the translational and rotational velocities of leukocytes sedimenting of a flat surface under laminar shear flow. The main conclusions are as follows: (a) Cells move close to the wall with constant velocity for several tens of seconds. (b) The numerical values of translational and rotational velocities are inconsistent with Goldman's model of a neutrally buoyant sphere in a laminar shear flow, unless a drag force corresponding to contact friction between cells and the chamber floor is added. The phenomenological friction coefficient was 7.4 millinewton.s/m. (c) Using a modified Goldman's theory, the width of the gap separating cells (6 microns radius) from the chamber floor was estimated at 1.4 micron. (d) It is shown that a high value of the cell-to-substrate gap may be accounted for by the presence of cell surface protrusions of a few micrometer length, in accordance with electron microscope observations performed on the same cell population. (e) In association with previously reported data (Tissot, O., C. Foa, C. Capo, H. Brailly, M. Delaage, and P. Bongrand. 1991. Biocolloids and Biosurfaces. In press), these results are consistent with the possibility that cell-substrate attachment be initiated by the formation of a single molecular bond, which might be considered as the rate limiting step.

  12. A mathematical model of combustion kinetics of municipal solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Municipal Solid Waste has become a serious environmental problem troubling many cities. In this paper, a mathematical model of combustion kinetics of municipal solid waste with focus on plastic waste was studied. An analytical solution is obtained for the model. From the numerical simulation, it is observed that the ...

  13. Use of spatially distributed time-integrated sediment sampling networks and distributed fine sediment modelling to inform catchment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, M T; Warburton, J; Bracken, L J; Reaney, S M; Emery, S B; Hirst, S

    2017-11-01

    Under the EU Water Framework Directive, suspended sediment is omitted from environmental quality standards and compliance targets. This omission is partly explained by difficulties in assessing the complex dose-response of ecological communities. But equally, it is hindered by a lack of spatially distributed estimates of suspended sediment variability across catchments. In this paper, we demonstrate the inability of traditional, discrete sampling campaigns for assessing exposure to fine sediment. Sampling frequencies based on Environmental Quality Standard protocols, whilst reflecting typical manual sampling constraints, are unable to determine the magnitude of sediment exposure with an acceptable level of precision. Deviations from actual concentrations range between -35 and +20% based on the interquartile range of simulations. As an alternative, we assess the value of low-cost, suspended sediment sampling networks for quantifying suspended sediment transfer (SST). In this study of the 362 km 2 upland Esk catchment we observe that spatial patterns of sediment flux are consistent over the two year monitoring period across a network of 17 monitoring sites. This enables the key contributing sub-catchments of Butter Beck (SST: 1141 t km 2 yr -1 ) and Glaisdale Beck (SST: 841 t km 2 yr -1 ) to be identified. The time-integrated samplers offer a feasible alternative to traditional infrequent and discrete sampling approaches for assessing spatio-temporal changes in contamination. In conjunction with a spatially distributed diffuse pollution model (SCIMAP), time-integrated sediment sampling is an effective means of identifying critical sediment source areas in the catchment, which can better inform sediment management strategies for pollution prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were 85 Sr, 236 U, and 238 U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period

  15. Sediment Transport and erosion modeling at Heaundae Beach in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, K.; Yoo, J.; McCall, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    The sand pocket beaches with two headlands are global features, but it's not easy to predict berm and dune erosion due to alongshore variation of water depth. This study investigates the sediment transport and morphological change using available wave and beach profile data, as well as to assess the applicability of the XBeach morphological model (Roelvink et al., 2009). The Haeundae is small pocket beach, 1.4 km long, located in the southern corner of the Korean Peninsula. The Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) measured beach profile along 27 survey lines. The beach profiles were surveyed five times from 17 June 2014 to 10 October 2014. For this duration, a wave gauge (AWAC) was installed at a depth about 23 m off the coast of Haeundae Beach. Severe four storms attacked Haeundae Beach for this duration and these storms lasted about 1 2 days with a peak significant wave height of 2.5 4.0 m. The placed sand is fairly sorted and its median diameter is 0.23 mm. 2DH coastal morphological model, XBeach developed to simulate dune erosion due to storm impacts. The model is based on the nonlinear shallow water equation and resolves nearshore hydrodynamics by employing a 2DH description of wave groups and infragravity motions. In this study, the numerical model XBeach was compared with the field data and used to estimate the sediment transport pattern on the sand pocket beach. The numerical model resulted in a comparable prediction in the west-part, but the east-part cannot reproduce the erosion and accretion of the sand, partly due to complex bathymetry and the lack of sediment. This limitation needs to be improved to use measured sand thickness data in future study

  16. Flow modelling to estimate suspended sediment travel times for two Canadian Deltas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Fassnacht

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximate travel times for suspended sediment transport through two multi-channel networks are estimated using flow modelling. The focus is on the movement of high sediment concentrations that travel rapidly downstream. Since suspended sediment transport through river confluences and bifurcation movement is poorly understood, it is assumed that the sediment moves at approximately the average channel velocity during periods of high sediment load movement. Calibration of the flow model is discussed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of cross-section data, that are not referenced to a datum, using a continuous water surface profile. Various flow regimes are examined for the Mackenzie and the Slave River Deltas in the Northwest Territories, Canada, and a significant variation in travel times is illustrated. One set of continuous daily sediment measurements throughout the Mackenzie Delta is used to demonstrate that the travel time estimates are reasonable. Keywords: suspended sediment; multi-channel river systems; flow modelling; sediment transport

  17. Modeling sediment transport with an integrated view of the biofilm effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H. W.; Lai, H. J.; Cheng, W.; Huang, L.; He, G. J.

    2017-09-01

    Most natural sediment is invariably covered by biofilms in reservoirs and lakes, which have significant influence on bed form dynamics and sediment transport, and also play a crucial role in natural river evolution, pollutant transport, and habitat changes. However, most models for sediment transport are based on experiments using clean sediments without biological materials. In this study, a three-dimensional mathematical model of hydrodynamics and sediment transport is presented with a comprehensive consideration of the biofilm effects. The changes of the bed resistance mainly due to the different bed form dynamics of the biofilm-coated sediment (biosediment), which affect the hydrodynamic characteristics, are considered. Moreover, the variations of parameters related to sediment transport after the biofilm growth are integrated, including the significant changes of the incipient velocity, settling velocity, reference concentration, and equilibrium bed load transport rate. The proposed model is applied to evaluate the effects of biofilms on the hydrodynamic characteristics and sediment transport in laboratory experiments. Results indicate that the mean velocity increases after the biofilm growth, and the turbulence intensity near the river bed decreases under the same flow condition. Meanwhile, biofilm inhibits sediment from moving independently. Thus, the moderate erosion is observed for biosediment resulting in smaller suspended sediment concentrations. The proposed model can reasonably reflect these sediment transport characteristics with biofilms, and the approach to integration of the biological impact could also be used in other modeling of sediment transport, which can be further applied to provide references for the integrated management of natural aqueous systems.

  18. Numerical modelling of hydro-morphological processes dominated by fine suspended sediment in a stormwater pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mingfu; Ahilan, Sangaralingam; Yu, Dapeng; Peng, Yong; Wright, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Fine sediment plays crucial and multiple roles in the hydrological, ecological and geomorphological functioning of river systems. This study employs a two-dimensional (2D) numerical model to track the hydro-morphological processes dominated by fine suspended sediment, including the prediction of sediment concentration in flow bodies, and erosion and deposition caused by sediment transport. The model is governed by 2D full shallow water equations with which an advection-diffusion equation for fine sediment is coupled. Bed erosion and sedimentation are updated by a bed deformation model based on local sediment entrainment and settling flux in flow bodies. The model is initially validated with the three laboratory-scale experimental events where suspended load plays a dominant role. Satisfactory simulation results confirm the model's capability in capturing hydro-morphodynamic processes dominated by fine suspended sediment at laboratory-scale. Applications to sedimentation in a stormwater pond are conducted to develop the process-based understanding of fine sediment dynamics over a variety of flow conditions. Urban flows with 5-year, 30-year and 100-year return period and the extreme flood event in 2012 are simulated. The modelled results deliver a step change in understanding fine sediment dynamics in stormwater ponds. The model is capable of quantitatively simulating and qualitatively assessing the performance of a stormwater pond in managing urban water quantity and quality.

  19. Watershed erosion modeling using the probability of sediment connectivity in a gently rolling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, David Tyler; Fox, James Forrest; Al Aamery, Nabil

    2018-06-01

    Sediment connectivity has been shown in recent years to explain how the watershed configuration controls sediment transport. However, we find no studies develop a watershed erosion modeling framework based on sediment connectivity, and few, if any, studies have quantified sediment connectivity for gently rolling systems. We develop a new predictive sediment connectivity model that relies on the intersecting probabilities for sediment supply, detachment, transport, and buffers to sediment transport, which is integrated in a watershed erosion model framework. The model predicts sediment flux temporally and spatially across a watershed using field reconnaissance results, a high-resolution digital elevation models, a hydrologic model, and shear-based erosion formulae. Model results validate the capability of the model to predict erosion pathways causing sediment connectivity. More notably, disconnectivity dominates the gently rolling watershed across all morphologic levels of the uplands, including, microtopography from low energy undulating surfaces across the landscape, swales and gullies only active in the highest events, karst sinkholes that disconnect drainage areas, and floodplains that de-couple the hillslopes from the stream corridor. Results show that sediment connectivity is predicted for about 2% or more the watershed's area 37 days of the year, with the remaining days showing very little or no connectivity. Only 12.8 ± 0.7% of the gently rolling watershed shows sediment connectivity on the wettest day of the study year. Results also highlight the importance of urban/suburban sediment pathways in gently rolling watersheds, and dynamic and longitudinal distributions of sediment connectivity might be further investigated in future work. We suggest the method herein provides the modeler with an added tool to account for sediment transport criteria and has the potential to reduce computational costs in watershed erosion modeling.

  20. Coupling a basin erosion and river sediment transport model into a large scale hydrological model: an application in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buarque, D. C.; Collischonn, W.; Paiva, R. C. D.

    2012-04-01

    erosion or deposition is allowed for silt and clay. The model was first applied on the Madeira River basin, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon River (~1.4*106 km2) accounting for 35% of the suspended sediment amount annually transported for the Amazon river to the ocean. Model results agree with observed data, mainly for monthly and annual time scales. The spatial distribution of soil erosion within the basin showed a large amount of sediment being delivered from the Andean regions of Bolivia and Peru. Spatial distribution of mean annual sediment along the river showed that Madre de Dios, Mamoré and Beni rivers transport the major amount of sediment. Simulated daily suspended solid discharge agree with observed data. The model is able to provide temporaly and spatialy distributed estimates of soil loss source over the basin, locations with tendency for erosion or deposition along the rivers, and to reproduce long term sediment yield at several locations. Despite model results are encouraging, further effort is needed to validate the model considering the scarcity of data at large scale.

  1. Sediment and nutrient modeling for TMDL development and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Borah, D. K.; Yagow, G.; Saleh, A.; Barnes, P. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Krug, E. C.; Hauck, L. M.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there are over 34,000 impaired waters and over 58,000 associated impairments officially listed in the U.S. Nutrients and sediment are two of the most common pollutants included in the list. States are required to identify and list those waters within their boundaries that are not meeting standards, to prioritize them, and to develop Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for the pollutants of concern. Models are used to support development of TMDLs, typically to estimate source loading...

  2. Modeling of sediment transport along Mangalore coast using mike 21

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, K.S.; Dwarakish, G.S.; Jayakumar, S.

    in the coastal system. However, large gaps remain in our knowledge of sediment transport processes, and a continuing need exists for the development of reliable, well- validated, practical modeling systems. To this end the coastal processes ofManga10re Coast..., Thiruvananthapuram, India, Vol. 1,578-585. [3] Danish Hydraulic Institute (2000), "MIKE 21 User Guide and manual". [4] Davies A.G., Van Rijn L.e., Damgaard I.S., Van de Graff 1. and Ribberink I.S. (2002), "Intercomparison of Research and Practical Sand Transport...

  3. Deschutes estuary feasibility study: hydrodynamics and sediment transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Douglas A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Lesser, Giles; Stevens, Andrew W.

    2006-01-01

    Continual sediment accumulation in Capitol Lake since the damming of the Deschutes River in 1951 has altered the initial morphology of the basin. As part of the Deschutes River Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was tasked to model how tidal and storm processes will influence the river, lake and lower Budd Inlet should estuary restoration occur. Understanding these mechanisms will assist in developing a scientifically sound assessment on the feasibility of restoring the estuary. The goals of the DEFS are as follows. - Increase understanding of the estuary alternative to the same level as managing the lake environment.

  4. LAGRANGIAN MODELING OF A SUSPENDED-SEDIMENT PULSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    1987-01-01

    The one-dimensional Lagrangian Transport Model (LTM) has been applied in a quasi two-dimensional manner to simulate the transport of a slug injection of microbeads in steady experimental flows. A stationary bed segment was positioned below each parcel location to simulate temporary storage of beads on the bottom of the flume. Only one degree of freedom was available for all three bead simulations. The results show the versatility of the LTM and the ability of the LTM to accurately simulate transport of fine suspended sediment.

  5. Managing salinity in Upper Colorado River Basin streams: Selecting catchments for sediment control efforts using watershed characteristics and random forests models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Anning, David W.; Heilman, Julian A.; Buto, Susan G.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2018-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of dissolved-solids (salinity) including calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride, among others, in the Colorado River cause substantial problems for its water users. Previous efforts to reduce dissolved solids in upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) streams often focused on reducing suspended-sediment transport to streams, but few studies have investigated the relationship between suspended sediment and salinity, or evaluated which watershed characteristics might be associated with this relationship. Are there catchment properties that may help in identifying areas where control of suspended sediment will also reduce salinity transport to streams? A random forests classification analysis was performed on topographic, climate, land cover, geology, rock chemistry, soil, and hydrologic information in 163 UCRB catchments. Two random forests models were developed in this study: one for exploring stream and catchment characteristics associated with stream sites where dissolved solids increase with increasing suspended-sediment concentration, and the other for predicting where these sites are located in unmonitored reaches. Results of variable importance from the exploratory random forests models indicate that no simple source, geochemical process, or transport mechanism can easily explain the relationship between dissolved solids and suspended sediment concentrations at UCRB monitoring sites. Among the most important watershed characteristics in both models were measures of soil hydraulic conductivity, soil erodibility, minimum catchment elevation, catchment area, and the silt component of soil in the catchment. Predictions at key locations in the basin were combined with observations from selected monitoring sites, and presented in map-form to give a complete understanding of where catchment sediment control practices would also benefit control of dissolved solids in streams.

  6. Modelling Gas Adsorption in Porous Solids: Roles of Surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modelling the adsorption of small molecule gases such as N2, CH4 and CO2 in porous solids can ... fusive properties of CO2 adsorbed in the solids have been examined using ..... exhibit a wide range of physical behavior.78,79 The intro-.

  7. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kabir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the

  8. Determination of solid flow for bottom sediment drag of Parana river using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Pedro E.; Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rocca, Hector C.C.; Bittencourt, Andre V.L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive tracing technique with labeled sand was employed to evaluate the bottom sediment drag of Parana River, near Guaira City, State of Parana. 198 Au radioisotope was used and measurements have been performed for a period of fifteen days. A bed load rate of 914,8 t/day was obtained for a laminar layer of 0,33 mean thickness and 1,65 m/day mean velocity. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows sub......-temperature and low-temperature forms, are pure. Model calculations compare well with the data of Pauly et al. for C18 to C30 waxes precipitating from n-decane solutions. (C) 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers....

  10. A Local Composition Model for Paraffinic Solid Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, A.P. João; Knudsen, Kim; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    1996-01-01

    The description of the solid-phase non-ideality remains the main obstacle in modelling the solid-liquid equilibrium of hydrocarbons. A theoretical model, based on the local composition concept, is developed for the orthorhombic phase of n-alkanes and tested against experimental data for binary sy...... systems. It is shown that it can adequately predict the experimental phase behaviour of paraffinic mixtures. This work extends the applicability of local composition models to the solid phase. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  11. Past, present and prospect of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) based model for sediment transport prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin; El-shafie, Ahmed; Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan; Yaseen, Zaher Mundher

    2016-10-01

    An accurate model for sediment prediction is a priority for all hydrological researchers. Many conventional methods have shown an inability to achieve an accurate prediction of suspended sediment. These methods are unable to understand the behaviour of sediment transport in rivers due to the complexity, noise, non-stationarity, and dynamism of the sediment pattern. In the past two decades, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and computational approaches have become a remarkable tool for developing an accurate model. These approaches are considered a powerful tool for solving any non-linear model, as they can deal easily with a large number of data and sophisticated models. This paper is a review of all AI approaches that have been applied in sediment modelling. The current research focuses on the development of AI application in sediment transport. In addition, the review identifies major challenges and opportunities for prospective research. Throughout the literature, complementary models superior to classical modelling.

  12. A Spatially Distributed Conceptual Model for Estimating Suspended Sediment Yield in Alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Anghileri, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Suspended sediment is associated with nutrient and contaminant transport in water courses. Estimating suspended sediment load is relevant for water-quality assessment, recreational activities, reservoir sedimentation issues, and ecological habitat assessment. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) along channels is usually reproduced by suspended sediment rating curves, which relate SSC to discharge with a power law equation. Large uncertainty characterizes rating curves based only on discharge, because sediment supply is not explicitly accounted for. The aim of this work is to develop a source-oriented formulation of suspended sediment dynamics and to estimate suspended sediment yield at the outlet of a large Alpine catchment (upper Rhône basin, Switzerland). We propose a novel modelling approach for suspended sediment which accounts for sediment supply by taking into account the variety of sediment sources in an Alpine environment, i.e. the spatial location of sediment sources (e.g. distance from the outlet and lithology) and the different processes of sediment production and transport (e.g. by rainfall, overland flow, snowmelt). Four main sediment sources, typical of Alpine environments, are included in our model: glacial erosion, hillslope erosion, channel erosion and erosion by mass wasting processes. The predictive model is based on gridded datasets of precipitation and air temperature which drive spatially distributed degree-day models to simulate snowmelt and ice-melt, and determine erosive rainfall. A mass balance at the grid scale determines daily runoff. Each cell belongs to a different sediment source (e.g. hillslope, channel, glacier cell). The amount of sediment entrained and transported in suspension is simulated through non-linear functions of runoff, specific for sediment production and transport processes occurring at the grid scale (e.g. rainfall erosion, snowmelt-driven overland flow). Erodibility factors identify different lithological units

  13. Sensitivity of fluvial sediment source apportionment to mixing model assumptions: A Bayesian model comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Krueger, Tobias; Hiscock, Kevin M; Rawlins, Barry G

    2014-11-01

    Mixing models have become increasingly common tools for apportioning fluvial sediment load to various sediment sources across catchments using a wide variety of Bayesian and frequentist modeling approaches. In this study, we demonstrate how different model setups can impact upon resulting source apportionment estimates in a Bayesian framework via a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) sensitivity analysis. We formulate 13 versions of a mixing model, each with different error assumptions and model structural choices, and apply them to sediment geochemistry data from the River Blackwater, Norfolk, UK, to apportion suspended particulate matter (SPM) contributions from three sources (arable topsoils, road verges, and subsurface material) under base flow conditions between August 2012 and August 2013. Whilst all 13 models estimate subsurface sources to be the largest contributor of SPM (median ∼76%), comparison of apportionment estimates reveal varying degrees of sensitivity to changing priors, inclusion of covariance terms, incorporation of time-variant distributions, and methods of proportion characterization. We also demonstrate differences in apportionment results between a full and an empirical Bayesian setup, and between a Bayesian and a frequentist optimization approach. This OFAT sensitivity analysis reveals that mixing model structural choices and error assumptions can significantly impact upon sediment source apportionment results, with estimated median contributions in this study varying by up to 21% between model versions. Users of mixing models are therefore strongly advised to carefully consider and justify their choice of model structure prior to conducting sediment source apportionment investigations. An OFAT sensitivity analysis of sediment fingerprinting mixing models is conductedBayesian models display high sensitivity to error assumptions and structural choicesSource apportionment results differ between Bayesian and frequentist approaches.

  14. Modeling subglacial sediment discharge in 1-dimension: comparison with measurments and implications for glacial retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, I. A.; Werder, M.; Farinotti, D.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades increased sedimentation rates have been observed in reservoirs downstream of some retreating glaciers. This material either originates from slopes recently exposed by glacier retreat and no longer stabilized by ice, or subglacially, where pressurized melt water transports sediments from the glacier bed. Some evidence suggests that recently exposed periglacial areas can stablize relatively quickly and in some catchments provides a smaller precentage of the total sediment compared to the subglacial environment. As a result, in order predict and forecast sediment yield from glaciated catchments as glaciers thin and thier hydrology evolves, a subglacial sediment transport model must be implemented. Here a simple 1-dimensional glacio-hydraulic model uses the Darcy-Weissbach relationship to determine shear-stress of presurized water on the glacier bed. This is coupled with a sediment transport relationship to determine quantity of discharged material from the glacier snout. Several tuning factors allow calibration and the model to reproduces processes known to occur subglacially, including seasonal evolution of sediment expulsion and deposition of sediment on adverse slopes of overdeepenings. To asses the model's application to real glaciers, sediment flux data has been collected from Gornergletscher, Aletschgletscher and Griesgletscher in the Swiss Alps over time-scales of up to decades. By calibrating to these data, the skill of the model in recreating sediment trends and volumes is assesed. The outputs capture annual erosion quanities relatively well, however, challenges exist in capturing inter-annual variations in sediment discharge. Many of the model's short comings relate to caputuring the spatial distribution of sediment throughout the glacier bed, which is particularing difficult in 1-dimension. However, this work suggests that a simple models can be used to predict subglacial sediment transport with reasonable ability. Additionally, further

  15. Longshore sediment transport model for the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Longshore sediment transport rates for the Indian west coast from Cochin to Porbandar are estimated from ship observed wave data (1968 to 1986). The sediment transport rate is relatively high during the southwest monsoon period from June...

  16. Estuarine Facies Model Revisited: Conceptual Model of Estuarine Sediment Dynamics During Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, E. A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; McKee, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional models of estuarine systems show deposition occurs primarily within the central basin. There, accommodation space is high within the deep central valley, which is below regional wave base and where current energy is presumed to reach a relative minimum, promoting direct deposition of cohesive sediment and minimizing erosion. However, these models often reflect long-term (decadal-millennial) timescales, where accumulation rates are in relative equilibrium with the rate of relative sea-level rise, and lack the resolution to capture shorter term changes in sediment deposition and erosion within the central estuary. This work presents a conceptual model for estuarine sedimentation during non-equilibrium conditions, where high-energy inputs to the system reach a relative maximum in the central basin, resulting in temporary deposition and/or remobilization over sub-annual to annual timescales. As an example, we present a case study of Core Sound, NC, a lagoonal estuarine system where the regional base-level has been reached, and sediment deposition, resuspension and bypassing is largely a result of non-equilibrium, high-energy events. Utilizing a 465 cm-long sediment core from a mini-basin located between Core Sound and the continental shelf, a 40-year sub-annual chronology was developed for the system, with sediment accumulation rates (SAR) interpolated to a monthly basis over the 40-year record. This study links erosional processes in the estuary directly with sediment flux to the continental shelf, taking advantage of the highly efficient sediment trapping capability of the mini-basin. The SAR record indicates high variation in the estuarine sediment supply, with peaks in the SAR record at a recurrence interval of 1 year (+/- 0.25). This record has been compared to historical storm influence for the area. Through this multi-decadal record, sediment flushing events occur at a much more frequent interval than previously thought (i.e. annual rather than

  17. Erosion and Sediment Transport Modelling in Shallow Waters: A Review on Approaches, Models and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajigholizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent. This paper attempts to review the related literature concerning sediment transport modelling in shallow waters. A classification based on the representational processes of the soil erosion and sediment transport models (empirical, conceptual, physical and hybrid is adopted, and the commonly-used models and their characteristics are listed. This review is expected to be of interest to researchers and soil and water conservation managers who are working on erosion and sediment transport phenomena in shallow waters. The paper format should be helpful for practitioners to identify and generally characterize the types of available models, their strengths and their basic scope of applicability.

  18. Erosion and Sediment Transport Modelling in Shallow Waters: A Review on Approaches, Models and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajigholizadeh, Mohammad; Melesse, Assefa M; Fuentes, Hector R

    2018-03-14

    The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent. This paper attempts to review the related literature concerning sediment transport modelling in shallow waters. A classification based on the representational processes of the soil erosion and sediment transport models (empirical, conceptual, physical and hybrid) is adopted, and the commonly-used models and their characteristics are listed. This review is expected to be of interest to researchers and soil and water conservation managers who are working on erosion and sediment transport phenomena in shallow waters. The paper format should be helpful for practitioners to identify and generally characterize the types of available models, their strengths and their basic scope of applicability.

  19. Resolving and modelling trace metal partitioning in a freshwater sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devallois, V.; Boyer, P.; Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of trace metals in sediments pose toxicological risks to biota and may impair water quality. the sediment-water interface is the site where gradients in physical, chemical and biological properties are the greatest. Both chemical and microbiological transformation processes are responsible for cycling elements between water and sediments. (Author)

  20. Role of different types of solid models in hydrodynamic modeling and their effects on groundwater protection processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódi, Erika; Buday, Tamás; McIntosh, Richard William

    2013-04-01

    Defining extraction-modified flow patterns with hydrodynamic models is a pivotal question in preserving groundwater resources regarding both quality and quantity. Modeling is the first step in groundwater protection the main result of which is the determination of the protective area depending on the amount of extracted water. Solid models have significant effects on hydrodynamic models as they are based on the solid models. Due to the legislative regulations, on protection areas certain restrictions must be applied which has firm consequences on economic activities. In Hungarian regulations there are no clear instructions for the establishment of either geological or hydrodynamic modeling, however, modeling itself is an obligation. Choosing the modeling method is a key consideration for further numerical calculations and it is decisive regarding the shape and size of the groundwater protection area. The geometry of hydrodynamic model layers is derived from the solid model. There are different geological approaches including lithological and sequence stratigraphic classifications furthermore in the case of regional models, formation-based hydrostratigraphic units are also applicable. Lithological classification is based on assigning and mapping of lithotypes. When the geometry (e.g. tectonic characteristics) of the research area is not known, horizontal bedding is assumed the probability of which can not be assessed based on only lithology. If the geological correlation is based on sequence stratigraphic studies, the cyclicity of sediment deposition is also considered. This method is more integrated thus numerous parameters (e.g. electrofacies) are taken into consideration studying the geological conditions ensuring more reliable modeling. Layers of sequence stratigraphic models can be either lithologically homogeneous or they may include greater cycles of sediments containing therefore several lithological units. The advantage of this is that the modeling can

  1. A solid-on-solid invasion percolation model for self-affine interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arizmendi, C.M.; Martin, H.O.; Sanchez, J.R.

    1993-08-01

    The scaling properties of the interface of a new growth model are studied. The model is based on the standard invasion percolation without trapping in which the solid-on-solid condition is imposed. The local correlation between points of the interface can be controlled through a parameter. The self-affine properties of the interface show strong dependence on the existence of the local correlation. The dependence of the relevant exponents of the interface with the correlation is analysed. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs

  2. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  3. Mud, models, and managers: Reaching consensus on a watershed strategy for sediment load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, P. R.; Cho, S. J.; Gran, K.; Belmont, P.; Hobbs, B. F.; Heitkamp, B.; Marr, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source sediment pollution is a leading cause of impairment of U.S. waters. Sediment sources are often on private land, such that solutions require not only considerable investment, but broad acceptance among landowners. We present the story of a participatory modeling exercise whose goal was to develop a consensus strategy for reducing sediment loading from the Greater Blue Earth River Basin, a large (9,200 km2) watershed in southern Minnesota dominated by row crop agriculture. The Collaborative for Sediment Source Reduction was a stakeholder group of farmers, industry representatives, conservation groups, and regulatory agencies. We used a participatory modeling approach to promote understanding of the problem, to define the scope of solutions acceptable to farmers, to develop confidence in a watershed model, and to reach consensus on a watershed strategy. We found that no existing watershed model could provide a reliable estimate of sediment response to management actions and developed a purpose-built model that could provide reliable, transparent, and fast answers. Because increased stream flow was identified as an important driver of sediment loading, the model and solutions included both hydrologic and sediment transport components. The model was based on an annual sediment budget with management actions serving to proportionally reduce both sediment sources and sediment delivery. Importantly, the model was developed in collaboration with stakeholders, such that a shared understanding emerged regarding of the modeling challenges and the reliability of information used to strongly constrain model output. The simplicity of the modeling approach supported stakeholder engagement and understanding, thereby lowering the social barrier between expert modeler and concerned stakeholder. The consensus strategy focused on water storage higher in the watershed in order to reduce river discharge and the large supply of sediment from near

  4. Modeling all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danilov, D.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is presented. The model includes the charge transfer kinetics at the electrode/electrolyte interface, diffusion of lithium in the intercalation electrode, and diffusion and migration of ions in the electrolyte. The model has been applied to

  5. Estimation of Ravine Sediment production using MIKE 11 model, in the lower Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmera, L. A.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F. R.; Melesse, A. M.; Belmont, P.; Jennings, C. E.; Thomas, A.; Khalif, F.

    2008-12-01

    A study of sediment dynamics in the Le Sueur River basin, southern Minnesota has been initiated with the goal of developing an integrated sediment budget. Preliminary analysis of the sediment load to the Minnesota River has shown that the Le Sueur River contributes substantial amount of the sediment transport and deposition. Many deeply incised ravines exist, especially towards the lower Le Sueur River. The ravines are believed to be one of the major sediment producing sources in the river basin. Hence the ravine sediment production should be accounted for in the sediment budget. This study concentrates on the hydrology of the ravines and evaluates the sediment budget at the ravine scale. Field observations from summer 2008 show that most of the bluffs along the main stem of both ravines are actively eroding. Also, landsliding of the steep ravine valley walls and rapid incision of the fluvial channels within the ravine are producing sediment. Several large fill terraces are present along the main stem, towards the mouth of the ravines. Recent incision through these extensive fill terraces may be another sediment producing source. Sediment storage in the ravines also occurs, behind woody debris jams as well as in locations where local baselevel has been raised by the insertion of a culvert. The sediment budget of the ravines would be quantified as the difference between the storage of sediment and the sum of sediments loads derived from the uplands, as well as the bluffs and terraces inside the ravines. Primary locations of major bluffs, terraces, gullies and drainage tiles in the gauged ravines were mapped using GPS. A database of major bluff, terraces, and drainage tiles was built in ArcGIS. Sediment samples from ravine heads, bluffs, terraces and ravine mouth were collected to study the grain size distribution and stratigraphy of major bluffs along the ravines. Sediment transport in the ravines will be modeled using MIKE 11 (DHI group), a dynamic, one

  6. THCM Coupled Model for Hydrate-Bearing Sediments: Data Analysis and Design of New Field Experiments (Marine and Permafrost Settings)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marcelo J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-02-14

    Gas hydrates are solid compounds made of water molecules clustered around low molecular weight gas molecules such as methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Methane hydrates form under pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions that are common in sub-permafrost layers and in deep marine sediments. Stability conditions constrain the occurrence of gas hydrates to submarine sediments and permafrost regions. The amount of technically recoverable methane trapped in gas hydrate may exceed 104tcf. Gas hydrates are a potential energy resource, can contribute to climate change, and can cause large-scale seafloor instabilities. In addition, hydrate formation can be used for CO2 sequestration (also through CO2-CH4 replacement), and efficient geological storage seals. The experimental study of hydrate bearing sediments has been hindered by the very low solubility of methane in water (lab testing), and inherent sampling difficulties associated with depressurization and thermal changes during core extraction. This situation has prompted more decisive developments in numerical modeling in order to advance the current understanding of hydrate bearing sediments, and to investigate/optimize production strategies and implications. The goals of this research has been to addresses the complex thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical THCM coupled phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments, using a truly coupled numerical model that incorporates sound and proven constitutive relations, satisfies fundamental conservation principles. Analytical solutions aimed at verifying the proposed code have been proposed as well. These tools will allow to better analyze available data and to further enhance the current understanding of hydrate bearing sediments in view of future field experiments and the development of production technology.

  7. Advanced methods of solid oxide fuel cell modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Jaroslaw; Santarelli, Massimo; Leone, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells are widely regarded as the future of the power and transportation industries. Intensive research in this area now requires new methods of fuel cell operation modeling and cell design. Typical mathematical models are based on the physical process description of fuel cells and require a detailed knowledge of the microscopic properties that govern both chemical and electrochemical reactions. ""Advanced Methods of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modeling"" proposes the alternative methodology of generalized artificial neural networks (ANN) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modeling. ""Advanced Methods

  8. Fixation of Cs to marine sediments estimated by a stochastic modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børretzen, Peer; Salbu, Brit

    2002-01-01

    Dumping of nuclear waste in the Kara Sea represents a potential source of radioactive contamination to the Arctic Seas in the future. The mobility of 137Cs ions leached from the waste will depend on the interactions with sediment particles. Whether sediments will act as a continuous permanent sink for released 137Cs, or contaminated sediments will serve as a diffuse source of 137Cs in the future, depends on the interaction kinetics and binding mechanisms involved. The main purpose of this paper is to study the performance of different stochastic models using kinetic information to estimate the time needed for Cs ions to become irreversibly fixed within the sediments. The kinetic information was obtained from 134Cs tracer sorption and desorption (sequential extractions) experiments, conducted over time, using sediments from the Stepovogo Fjord waste dumping site, on the east coast of Novaya Zemlya. Results show that 134Cs ions interact rapidly with the surfaces of the Stepovogo sediment, with an estimated distribution coefficient Kd(eq) of 300 ml/g (or 13m2/g), and the 134Cs ions are increasingly irreversibly fixed to the sediment over time. For the first time, stochastic theory has been utilised for sediment-seawater systems to estimate the mean residence times (MRTs) of Cs ions in operationally defined sediment phases described by compartment models. In the present work, two different stochastic models (i) a Markov process model (MP) being analogous to deterministic compartment models, and (ii) a semi-Markov process model (SMP) which should be physically more relevant for inhomogeneous systems, have been compared. As similar results were obtained using the two models, the less complicated MP model was utilised to predict the time needed for an average Cs ion to become irreversibly fixed in the Stepovogo sediments. According the model, approximately 1100 days of contact time between Cs ions and sediments is needed before 50% of the 134Cs ion becomes fixed in the

  9. A hydrologic regression sediment-yield model for two ungaged watershed outlet stations in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, O.M.; Smith, S.E.; Shrestha, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A hydrologic regression sediment-yield model was established to determine the relationship between water discharge and suspended sediment discharge at the Blue Nile and the Atbara River outlet stations during the flood season. The model consisted of two main submodels: (1) a suspended sediment discharge model, which was used to determine suspended sediment discharge for each basin outlet; and (2) a sediment rating model, which related water discharge and suspended sediment discharge for each outlet station. Due to the absence of suspended sediment concentration measurements at or near the outlet stations, a minimum norm solution, which is based on the minimization of the unknowns rather than the residuals, was used to determine the suspended sediment discharges at the stations. In addition, the sediment rating submodel was regressed by using an observation equations procedure. Verification analyses on the model were carried out and the mean percentage errors were found to be +12.59 and -12.39, respectively, for the Blue Nile and Atbara. The hydrologic regression model was found to be most sensitive to the relative weight matrix, moderately sensitive to the mean water discharge ratio, and slightly sensitive to the concentration variation along the River Nile's course

  10. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Yde, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids...... distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges...... associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM...

  11. WATEQ3 geochemical model: thermodynamic data for several additional solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.

    1982-09-01

    Geochemical models such as WATEQ3 can be used to model the concentrations of water-soluble pollutants that may result from the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. However, for a model to competently deal with these water-soluble pollutants, an adequate thermodynamic data base must be provided that includes elements identified as important in modeling these pollutants. To this end, several minerals and related solid phases were identified that were absent from the thermodynamic data base of WATEQ3. In this study, the thermodynamic data for the identified solids were compiled and selected from several published tabulations of thermodynamic data. For these solids, an accepted Gibbs free energy of formation, ΔG 0 /sub f,298/, was selected for each solid phase based on the recentness of the tabulated data and on considerations of internal consistency with respect to both the published tabulations and the existing data in WATEQ3. For those solids not included in these published tabulations, Gibbs free energies of formation were calculated from published solubility data (e.g., lepidocrocite), or were estimated (e.g., nontronite) using a free-energy summation method described by Mattigod and Sposito (1978). The accepted or estimated free energies were then combined with internally consistent, ancillary thermodynamic data to calculate equilibrium constants for the hydrolysis reactions of these minerals and related solid phases. Including these values in the WATEQ3 data base increased the competency of this geochemical model in applications associated with the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. Additional minerals and related solid phases that need to be added to the solubility submodel will be identified as modeling applications continue in these two programs

  12. Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Modelling in the Pra River Basin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kusimi

    sediment delivery ratio; soil erosion modelling; sediment yield modelling. .... The basin falls within the wet semi-equitorial climatic belt which is ... influence of the moist south-west monsoons during the rainy season, with high .... availability of good satellite images covering the study area; because of thick cloud cover most.

  13. Principles and Approaches for Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Appelgren, Cecilia; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    A study has been carried out with the objectives of describing the effect of sediment deposits on the hydraulic capacity of sewer systems and to investigate the sediment transport in sewer systems. A result of the study is a mathematical model MOUSE ST which describes sediment transport in sewers....... This paper discusses the applicability and the limitations of various modelling approaches and sediment transport formulations in in MOUSE ST. Further, the paper presents a simple application of MOUSE ST to the Rya catchment in Gothenburg, Sweden....

  14. Principles and approaches for numerical modelling of sediment transport in sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsen, Torben; Appelgren, Cecilia

    1994-01-01

    model MOUSE ST which describes the sediment transport in sewers. This paper discusses the applicability and the limitations of various modelling approaches and sediment transport formulations in MOUSE ST. The study was founded by the Swedish Water and Waste Works Association and the Nordic Industrial......A study has been carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden with the objectives to describe the effect of sediment deposits on the hydraulic capacity of sewer systems and to investigate the sediment transport in sewer systems. A results of the study is a mathematical...

  15. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya S; Yde, Lars; Binning, Philip J; Rasmussen, Michael R; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2014-12-01

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full-scale measurements. Finally, it was shown that the representation of compression settling in the CFD model can significantly influence the prediction of sludge distribution in the SSTs under dry- and wet-weather flow conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines

  17. Antifouling booster biocide extraction from marine sediments: a fast and simple method based on vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Soares, Bruno Meira; Abreu, Fiamma; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the development of an analytical method employing vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole), DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-(2H)-isothiazolin-3-one), and dichlofluanid from sediment samples. Separation and determination were performed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Important MSPD parameters, such as sample mass, mass of C18, and type and volume of extraction solvent, were investigated by response surface methodology. Quantitative recoveries were obtained with 2.0 g of sediment sample, 0.25 g of C18 as the solid support, and 10 mL of methanol as the extraction solvent. The MSPD method was suitable for the extraction and determination of antifouling biocides in sediment samples, with recoveries between 61 and 103% and a relative standard deviation lower than 19%. Limits of quantification between 0.5 and 5 ng g -1 were obtained. Vortex-assisted MPSD was shown to be fast and easy to use, with the advantages of low cost and reduced solvent consumption compared to the commonly employed techniques for the extraction of booster biocides from sediment samples. Finally, the developed method was applied to real samples. Results revealed that the developed extraction method is effective and simple, thus allowing the determination of biocides in sediment samples.

  18. A Thermodynamic Mixed-Solid Asphaltene Precipitation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeloff, Niels; Heidemann, R.A.; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    1998-01-01

    A simple model for the prediction of asphaltene precipitation is proposed. The model is based on an equation of state and uses standard thermodynamics, thus assuming that the precipitation phenomenon is a reversible process. The solid phase is treated as an ideal multicomponent mixture. An activity...

  19. Transport of cohesive sediments : Classification and requirements for turbulence modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruens, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a classification of sediment-laden flows, which gives an overview of the different transport forms of fine sediment and the interactions of the different processes as acting in an estuary. At the outs et of the proposed classification a distinction in physical states of

  20. Sediment yield model implementation based on check dam infill stratigraphy in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bussi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss and sediment transport in Mediterranean areas are driven by complex non-linear processes which have been only partially understood. Distributed models can be very helpful tools for understanding the catchment-scale phenomena which lead to soil erosion and sediment transport. In this study, a modelling approach is proposed to reproduce and evaluate erosion and sediment yield processes in a Mediterranean catchment (Rambla del Poyo, Valencia, Spain. Due to the lack of sediment transport records for model calibration and validation, a detailed description of the alluvial stratigraphy infilling a check dam that drains a 12.9 km2 sub-catchment was used as indirect information of sediment yield data. These dam infill sediments showed evidences of at least 15 depositional events (floods over the time period 1990–2009. The TETIS model, a distributed conceptual hydrological and sediment model, was coupled to the Sediment Trap Efficiency for Small Ponds (STEP model for reproducing reservoir retention, and it was calibrated and validated using the sedimentation volume estimated for the depositional units associated with discrete runoff events. The results show relatively low net erosion rates compared to other Mediterranean catchments (0.136 Mg ha−1 yr−1, probably due to the extensive outcrops of limestone bedrock, thin soils and rather homogeneous vegetation cover. The simulated sediment production and transport rates offer model satisfactory results, further supported by in-site palaeohydrological evidences and spatial validation using additional check dams, showing the great potential of the presented data assimilation methodology for the quantitative analysis of sediment dynamics in ungauged Mediterranean basins.

  1. Geometric data transfer between CAD systems: solid models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri; Palstroem, Bjarne; Trostmann, Erik

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of the ESPRIT project CAD*I resulted in a specification for the exchange of solid models as well as in some pilot implementations of processors based on this specification. The authors summarize the CAD*I approach, addressing the structure of neutral files for solids, entities......, and attributes supporting three kinds of representations: facilities for the transfer of parametric designs; referencing library components; and other general mechanisms. They also describe the current state of the specification and processor implementations and include an example of a CAD*I neutral file....... Results from cycle and intersystem solid model transfer tests are presented, showing the practicality of the CAD*I proposal. B-rep model transfer results are discussed in some detail. The relationship of this work to standardization efforts is outlined...

  2. Determination of antibiotic residues in southern Baltic Sea sediments using tandem solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Siedlewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to adapt analytical procedures for determining antibiotic residues in solid and aquatic samples to marine sediments and to investigate the occurrence of 9 sulfonamides, trimethoprim and 2 quinolones in southern Baltic Sea sediments. The analytical procedure was applied to sediment samples characterized as sand and silty sand. The validation results showed that a sensitive and efficient method applying tandem solid-phase extraction (SPE and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS was obtained. Analytes were determined in the lower ng g−1 range with good accuracy and precision. The proposed analytical procedure was applied to the analysis of 13 sediment samples collected from the Baltic Sea along the Polish coast. Concentrations of antibiotic residues in environmental samples were calculated based on external matrix-matched calibration. Residues of nine out of twelve of the above antibiotics were detected in sediment samples in a concentrations of up to 419.2 ng g−1 d.w. (dry weight. Sulfamethoxazole and sulfachloropyridazine were the most frequently detected compounds (58% of the analyzed samples. The occurrence frequency of trimethoprim was 42% and it was always detected simultaneously with sulfamethoxazole. Preliminary studies on the spatial distribution of the analyzed antibiotics indicate a high level of antibiotics occurring in the Pomeranian Bay and close to the mouths of Polish rivers. The study is the first one to demonstrate the occurrence of antibiotic residues in sediments of the Polish coastal area. The obtained results suggest that sediment can be an important secondary source of antibiotic residues in the marine environment.

  3. Sediment plume model-a comparison between use of measured turbidity data and satellite images for model calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Amir; Hudson, Jeff; Wheater, Howard; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we built a two-dimensional sediment transport model of Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada. It was calibrated by using measured turbidity data from stations along the reservoir and satellite images based on a flood event in 2013. In June 2013, there was heavy rainfall for two consecutive days on the frozen and snow-covered ground in the higher elevations of western Alberta, Canada. The runoff from the rainfall and the melted snow caused one of the largest recorded inflows to the headwaters of the South Saskatchewan River and Lake Diefenbaker downstream. An estimated discharge peak of over 5200 m 3 /s arrived at the reservoir inlet with a thick sediment front within a few days. The sediment plume moved quickly through the entire reservoir and remained visible from satellite images for over 2 weeks along most of the reservoir, leading to concerns regarding water quality. The aims of this study are to compare, quantitatively and qualitatively, the efficacy of using turbidity data and satellite images for sediment transport model calibration and to determine how accurately a sediment transport model can simulate sediment transport based on each of them. Both turbidity data and satellite images were very useful for calibrating the sediment transport model quantitatively and qualitatively. Model predictions and turbidity measurements show that the flood water and suspended sediments entered upstream fairly well mixed and moved downstream as overflow with a sharp gradient at the plume front. The model results suggest that the settling and resuspension rates of sediment are directly proportional to flow characteristics and that the use of constant coefficients leads to model underestimation or overestimation unless more data on sediment formation become available. Hence, this study reiterates the significance of the availability of data on sediment distribution and characteristics for building a robust and reliable sediment transport model.

  4. Conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed, Sierra Nevada, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J.A.; Flint, L.E.; Alpers, Charles N.; Yarnell, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the development of a conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed; and we hypothesize how components of the conceptual model may be spatially distributed using a geographical information system (GIS). The conceptual model illustrates key processes controlling sediment dynamics in the upper Yuba River watershed and was tested and revised using field measurements, aerial photography, and low elevation videography. Field reconnaissance included mass wasting and channel storage inventories, assessment of annual channel change in upland tributaries, and evaluation of the relative importance of sediment sources and transport processes. Hillslope erosion rates throughout the study area are relatively low when compared to more rapidly eroding landscapes such as the Pacific Northwest and notable hillslope sediment sources include highly erodible andesitic mudflows, serpentinized ultramafics, and unvegetated hydraulic mine pits. Mass wasting dominates surface erosion on the hillslopes; however, erosion of stored channel sediment is the primary contributor to annual sediment yield. We used GIS to spatially distribute the components of the conceptual model and created hillslope erosion potential and channel storage models. The GIS models exemplify the conceptual model in that landscapes with low potential evapotranspiration, sparse vegetation, steep slopes, erodible geology and soils, and high road densities display the greatest hillslope erosion potential and channel storage increases with increasing stream order. In-channel storage in upland tributaries impacted by hydraulic mining is an exception. Reworking of stored hydraulic mining sediment in low-order tributaries continues to elevate upper Yuba River sediment yields. Finally, we propose that spatially distributing the components of a conceptual model in a GIS framework provides a guide for developing more detailed sediment budgets or numerical models making it an

  5. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement

  6. Observations and modeling of fjord sedimentation during the 30 year retreat of Columbia Glacier, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Katherine B; Hallet, Bernard; Pratt, Thomas L.; O'Neel, Shad

    2016-01-01

    To explore links between glacier dynamics, sediment yields and the accumulation of glacial sediments in a temperate setting, we use extensive glaciological observations for Columbia Glacier, Alaska, and new oceanographic data from the fjord exposed during its retreat. High-resolution seismic data indicate that 3.2 × 108 m3 of sediment has accumulated in Columbia Fjord over the past three decades, which corresponds to ~5 mm a−1 of erosion averaged over the glaciated area. We develop a general model to infer the sediment-flux history from the glacier that is compatible with the observed retreat history, and the thickness and architecture of the fjord sediment deposits. Results reveal a fivefold increase in sediment flux from 1997 to 2000, which is not correlated with concurrent changes in ice flux or retreat rate. We suggest the flux increase resulted from an increase in the sediment transport capacity of the subglacial hydraulic system due to the retreat-related steepening of the glacier surface over a known subglacial deep basin. Because variations in subglacial sediment storage can impact glacial sediment flux, in addition to changes in climate, erosion rate and glacier dynamics, the interpretation of climatic changes based on the sediment record is more complex than generally assumed.

  7. Derivative Geometric Modeling of Basic Rotational Solids on CATIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-bao; PAN Zi-jian; ZHU Yu-xiang; LI Jun

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid models derived from rotational solids like cylinders, cones and spheres were implemented on CATIA software. Firstly, make the isosceles triangular prism, cuboid, cylinder, cone, sphere, and the prism with tangent conic and curved triangle ends, the cuboid with tangent cylindrical and curved rectangle ends, the cylinder with tangent spherical and curved circular ends as the basic Boolean deference units to the primary cylinders, cones and spheres on symmetrical and some critical geometric conditions, forming a series of variant solid models. Secondly, make the deference units above as the basic union units to the main cylinders, cones, and spheres accordingly, forming another set of solid models. Thirdly, make the tangent ends of union units into oblique conic, cylindrical, or with revolved triangular pyramid, quarterly cylinder and annulus ends on sketch based features to the main cylinders, cones, and spheres repeatedly, thus forming still another set of solid models. It is expected that these derivative models be beneficial both in the structure design, hybrid modeling, and finite element analysis of engineering components and in comprehensive training of spatial configuration of engineering graphics.

  8. Numerical modelling of solid transport caused by an extreme flood: Case of the Hamiz dam failure (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Study of solid transport caused by the flow of an extreme flood such as the propagation of dam failure wave aims to simulate the hydrodynamics behaviour of the solid particles contained in the valley during the flood passage. With this intention, we have developed a numerical model which is based on the resolution of the one-dimensional Saint Venant–Exner equations by the implicit finite difference scheme. Numerical stability of liquid phase calculation is checked by the Courant number and De Vries condition for the solid phase. The model has been applied to the Hamiz dam (Algeria which is built in the semi arid zone and presents a major risk of failure. The simulation of several scenarios of dam failure has allowed us to trace the cartography of sediment transport in the valley which is induced by the flood of dam failure.

  9. Development of a Transgenic Model to Assess Bioavailable Genotoxicity in Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This technical note describes the rationale for using transgenic animal models to assess the potential genotoxicity of sediments, the benefits that can be obtained using such models versus currently...

  10. Development and Application of a Cohesive Sediment Transport Model in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorourian, S.; Nistor, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Louisiana coast has suffered from rapid land loss due to the combined effects of increasing the rate of eustatic sea level rise, insufficient riverine sediment input and subsidence. The sediment in this region is dominated by cohesive sediments (up to 80% of clay). This study presents a new model for calculating suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of cohesive sediments. Several new concepts are incorporated into the proposed model, which is capable of estimating the spatial and temporal variation in the concentration of cohesive sediment. First, the model incorporates the effect of electrochemical forces between cohesive sediment particles. Second, the wave friction factor is expressed in terms of the median particle size diameter in order to enhance the accuracy of the estimation of bed shear stress. Third, the erosion rate of cohesive sediments is also expressed in time-dependent form. Simulated SSC profiles are compared with field data collected from Vermilion Bay, Louisiana. The results of the proposed model agree well with the experimental data, as soon as steady state condition is achieved. The results of the new numerical models provide a better estimation of the suspended sediment concentration profile compared to the initial model developed by Mehta and Li, 2003. Among the proposed developments, the formulation of a time-dependent erosion rate shows the most accurate results. Coupling of present model with the Finite-Volume, primitive equation Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) would shed light on the fate of fine-grained sediments in order to increase overall retention and restoration of the Louisiana coastal plain.

  11. Coupled incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics model for continuum-based modelling sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahar, Gourabananda; Dhar, Anirban

    2017-04-01

    A coupled solenoidal Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) model is presented for simulation of sediment displacement in erodible bed. The coupled framework consists of two separate incompressible modules: (a) granular module, (b) fluid module. The granular module considers a friction based rheology model to calculate deviatoric stress components from pressure. The module is validated for Bagnold flow profile and two standardized test cases of sediment avalanching. The fluid module resolves fluid flow inside and outside porous domain. An interaction force pair containing fluid pressure, viscous term and drag force acts as a bridge between two different flow modules. The coupled model is validated against three dambreak flow cases with different initial conditions of movable bed. The simulated results are in good agreement with experimental data. A demonstrative case considering effect of granular column failure under full/partial submergence highlights the capability of the coupled model for application in generalized scenario.

  12. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products...... such as meat and seafood is not industrially utilized yet. Therefore, the aim of the current work is to model and develop the ohmic heating technology for heating of solid meat and seafood. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during ohmic heating of meat products has been...

  13. Radial restricted solid-on-solid and etching interface-growth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sidiney G.

    2018-03-01

    An approach to generate radial interfaces is presented. A radial network recursively obtained is used to implement discrete model rules designed originally for the investigation in flat substrates. I used the restricted solid-on-solid and etching models as to test the proposed scheme. The results indicate the Kardar, Parisi, and Zhang conjecture is completely verified leading to a good agreement between the interface radius fluctuation distribution and the Gaussian unitary ensemble. The evolution of the radius agrees well with the generalized conjecture, and the two-point correlation function exhibits also a good agreement with the covariance of the Airy2 process. The approach can be used to investigate radial interfaces evolution for many other classes of universality.

  14. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  15. Explicit Modeling of Solid Ocean Floor in Shallow Underwater Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Walters

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current practices for modeling the ocean floor in underwater explosion simulations call for application of an inviscid fluid with soil properties. A method for modeling the ocean floor as a Lagrangian solid, vice an Eulerian fluid, was developed in order to determine its effects on underwater explosions in shallow water using the DYSMAS solver. The Lagrangian solid bottom model utilized transmitting boundary segments, exterior nodal forces acting as constraints, and the application of prestress to minimize any distortions into the fluid domain. For simplicity, elastic materials were used in this current effort, though multiple constitutive soil models can be applied to improve the overall accuracy of the model. Even though this method is unable to account for soil cratering effects, it does however provide the distinct advantage of modeling contoured ocean floors such as dredged channels and sloped bottoms absent in Eulerian formulations. The study conducted here showed significant differences among the initial bottom reflections for the different solid bottom contours that were modeled. The most important bottom contour effect was the distortion to the gas bubble and its associated first pulse timing. In addition to its utility in bottom modeling, implementation of the non-reflecting boundary along with realistic material models can be used to drastically reduce the size of current fluid domains.

  16. Modeling Benthic Sediment Processes to Predict Water Quality and Ecology in Narragansett Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic sediment acts as a huge reservoir of particulate and dissolved material (within interstitial water) which can contribute to loading of contaminants and nutrients to the water column. A benthic sediment model is presented in this report to predict spatial and temporal ...

  17. A hybrid model of swash-zone longshore sediment transport on refelctive beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, A.W.; Hughes, M.; Cowell, P.; Gordon, A.; Savioli, J.C.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrodynamics and sediment transport in the swash zone is currently outside the domain of coastal-area models, which is a significant limitation in obtaining littoral sediment-transport estimates, especially on steep reflective beaches where the waves practically break on the beachface. In this

  18. Conceptual model of sedimentation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Wright, Scott A.; Drexler, Judith Z.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentation in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta builds the Delta landscape, creates benthic and pelagic habitat, and transports sediment-associated contaminants. Here we present a conceptual model of sedimentation that includes submodels for river supply from the watershed to the Delta, regional transport within the Delta and seaward exchange, and local sedimentation in open water and marsh habitats. The model demonstrates feedback loops that affect the Delta ecosystem. Submerged and emergent marsh vegetation act as ecosystem engineers that can create a positive feedback loop by decreasing suspended sediment, increasing water column light, which in turn enables more vegetation. Sea-level rise in open water is partially countered by a negative feedback loop that increases deposition if there is a net decrease in hydrodynamic energy. Manipulation of regional sediment transport is probably the most feasible method to control suspended sediment and thus turbidity. The conceptual model is used to identify information gaps that need to be filled to develop an accurate sediment transport model.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling approaches for evaluating the transport and fate of sediment and associated contaminants are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is on: 1) the application of EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code), the state-of-the-art contaminated sediment transport and fate public do...

  20. Distribution of longshore sediment transport along the Indian coast based on empirical model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    An empirical sediment transport model has been developed based on longshore energy flux equation. Study indicates that annual gross sediment transport rate is high (1.5 x 10 super(6) cubic meters to 2.0 x 10 super(6) cubic meters) along the coasts...

  1. Simulating Landscape Sediment Transport Capacity by Using a Modified SWAT Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonumá, Nadia B; Rossi, Colleen G; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Reichert, José M; Minella, Jean P; Allen, Peter M; Volk, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Sediment delivery from hillslopes to rivers is spatially variable and may lead to long-term delays between initial erosion and related sediment yield at the watershed outlet. Consideration of spatial variability is important for developing sound strategies for water quality improvement and soil protection at the watershed scale. Hence, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified and tested in this study to simulate the landscape transport capacity of sediment. The study area was the steeply sloped Arroio Lino watershed in southern Brazil. Observed sediment yield data at the watershed outlet were used to calibrate and validate a modified SWAT model. For the calibration period, the modified model performed better than the unaltered SWAT2009 version; the models achieved Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values of 0.7 and -0.1, respectively. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies were less for the validation period, but the modified model's NSE was higher than the unaltered model (-1.4 and -12.1, respectively). Despite the relatively low NSE values, the results of this first test are promising because the model modifications lowered the percent bias in sediment yield from 73 to 18%. Simulation results for the modified model indicated that approximately 60% of the mobilized soil is deposited along the landscape before it reaches the river channels. This research demonstrates the modified model's ability to simulate sediment yield in watersheds with steep slopes. The results suggest that integration of the sediment deposition routine in SWAT increases accuracy in steeper areas while significantly improving its ability to predict the spatial distribution of sediment deposition areas. Further work is needed regarding (i) improved strategies for spatially distributed sediment transport measurements (for improving process knowledge and model evaluation) and (ii) extensive model tests in other well instrumented experimental watersheds with differing topographic configurations

  2. Modeling flow, sediment transport and morphodynamics in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Ichiro; Nabi, Mohamed; Asahi, Kazutake

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the response of natural or man-made channels to imposed supplies of water and sediment is one of the difficult practical problems commonly addressed by fluvial geomorphologists. This problem typically arises in three situations. In the first situation, geomorphologists are attempting to understand why a channel or class of channels has a certain general form; in a sense, this is the central goal of fluvial geomorphology. In the second situation, geomorphologists are trying to understand and explain how and why a specific channel will evolve or has evolved in response to altered or unusual sediment and water supplies to that channel. For example, this would include explaining the short-term response of a channel to an unusually large flood or predicting the response of a channel to long-term changes in flow or sediment supply due to various human activities such as damming or diversions. Finally, geomorphologists may be called upon to design or assess the design of proposed man-made channels that must carry a certain range of flows and sediment loads in a stable or at least quasi-stable manner. In each of these three situations, the problem is really the same: geomorphologists must understand and predict the interaction of the flow field in the channel, the sediment movement in the channel and the geometry of the channel bed and banks. In general, the flow field, the movement of sediment making up the bed and the morphology of the bed are intricately linked; the flow moves the sediment, the bed is altered by erosion and deposition of sediment and the shape of the bed is critically important for predicting the flow. This complex linkage is precisely what makes understanding channel form and process such a difficult and interesting challenge.

  3. Applicability of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography atomic emission detection (GC-MIP AED) for the determination of butyltin compounds in sediment samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpinteiro, J.; Rodriguez, I.; Cela, R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    The performance of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) applied to the determination of butyltin compounds in sediment samples is systematically evaluated. Matrix effects and influence of blank signals on the detection limits of the method are studied in detail. The interval of linear response is also evaluated in order to assess the applicability of the method to sediments polluted with butyltin compounds over a large range of concentrations. Advantages and drawbacks of including an SPME step, instead of the classic liquid-liquid extraction of the derivatized analytes, in the determination of butyltin compounds in sediment samples are considered in terms of achieved detection limits and experimental effort. Analytes were extracted from the samples by sonication using glacial acetic acid. An aliquot of the centrifuged extract was placed on a vial where compounds were ethylated and concentrated on a PDMS fiber using the headspace mode. Determinations were carried out using GC-MIP AED. (orig.)

  4. Predicting watershed sediment yields after wildland fire with the InVEST sediment retention model at large geographic extent in the western USA: accuracy and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, J. B.; Kreitler, J.; McVay, J.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Vaillant, N.; Lowe, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Wildland fire is a primary threat to watersheds that can impact water supply through increased sedimentation, water quality decline, and change the timing and amount of runoff leading to increased risk from flood and sediment natural hazards. It is of great societal importance in the western USA and throughout the world to improve understanding of how changing fire frequency, extent, and location, in conjunction with fuel treatments will affect watersheds and the ecosystem services they supply to communities. In this work we assess the utility of the InVEST Sediment Retention Model to accurately characterize vulnerability of burned watersheds to erosion and sedimentation. The InVEST tools are GIS-based implementations of common process models, engineered for high-end computing to allow the faster simulation of larger landscapes and incorporation into decision-making. The InVEST Sediment Retention Model is based on common soil erosion models (e.g., RUSLE -Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) and determines which areas of the landscape contribute the greatest sediment loads to a hydrological network and conversely evaluate the ecosystem service of sediment retention on a watershed basis. We evaluate the accuracy and uncertainties for InVEST predictions of increased sedimentation after fire, using measured post-fire sedimentation rates available for many watersheds in different rainfall regimes throughout the western USA from an existing, large USGS database of post-fire sediment yield [synthesized in Moody J, Martin D (2009) Synthesis of sediment yields after wildland fire in different rainfall regimes in the western United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18: 96-115]. The ultimate goal of this work is to calibrate and implement the model to accurately predict variability in post-fire sediment yield as a function of future landscape heterogeneity predicted by wildfire simulations, and future landscape fuel treatment scenarios, within watersheds.

  5. Organic matter accumulation and degradation in subsurface coastal sediments: a model-based comparison of rapid sedimentation and aquifer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Holstein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The redox succession in shallow marine sediments generally exhibits a predictable pattern. Pore water profiles from a back barrier tidal flat in the German Wadden Sea depart from the expected redox zoning. Instead, a sulfate minimum zone associated with a sulfate-methane-sulfate double interface and a distinct ammonium peak at 1.5 m below sea floor (mbsf is displayed. Such evidence for significant degradation of organic matter (OM in subsurface layers is challenging our understanding of tidal flat biogeochemistry as little is known about processes that relocate reactive OM into layers far distant from the sediment-water interface. The objectives of our model study were to identify possible mechanisms for the rapid transport of organic matter to subsurface layers that cause the reversed redox succession and to constrain several important biogeochemical control parameters. We compared two scenarios for OM transfer: rapid sedimentation and burial of OM as well as lateral advection of suspended POM. Using a diagenetic model, uncertain process parameters, in particular those connected to OM degradation and (vertical or lateral transport, are systematically calibrated using field data.

    We found that both scenarios, advection and sedimentation, had solutions consistent with the observed pore water profiles. For this specific site, however, advective transport of particulate material had to be rejected since the reconstructed boundary conditions were rather improbable. In the alternative deposition set-up, model simulations suggested the deposition of the source OM about 60 yrs before cores were taken. A mean sedimentation rate of approximately 2 cm yr−1 indicates substantial changes in near coast tidal flat morphology, since sea level rise is at a much lower pace. High sedimentation rates most probably reflect the progradation of flats within the study area. These or similar morphodynamic features also occur in other coastal areas

  6. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  7. Representing the Past by Solid Modeling + Golden Ratio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures of reconstructing ancient architecture using solid modeling with geometric analysis, especially the Golden Ratio analysis. In the past the recovery and reconstruction of ruins required bringing together fragments of evidence and vast amount of measurements from archaeological site. Although researchers and…

  8. Robust model of fresh jujube soluble solids content with near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A robust partial least square (PLS) calibration model with high accuracy and stability was established for the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) of fresh jujube using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Fresh jujube samples were collected in different areas of Taigu and Taiyuan cities, central China in ...

  9. Microstructural model for the plasticity of amorphous solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hütter, M.; Breemen, van L.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of localized shear transformation zones (STZ), a thermodynamically consistent model for the viscoplastic deformation of amorphous solids is developed. The approach consists of a dynamic description of macroscopic viscoplasticity that is enriched by the evolution of number

  10. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  11. Modeling sediment yield in small catchments at event scale: Model comparison, development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Leung, L. R.; Li, H. Y.; Tesfa, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment yield (SY) has significant impacts on river biogeochemistry and aquatic ecosystems but it is rarely represented in Earth System Models (ESMs). Existing SY models focus on estimating SY from large river basins or individual catchments so it is not clear how well they simulate SY in ESMs at larger spatial scales and globally. In this study, we compare the strengths and weaknesses of eight well-known SY models in simulating annual mean SY at about 400 small catchments ranging in size from 0.22 to 200 km2 in the US, Canada and Puerto Rico. In addition, we also investigate the performance of these models in simulating event-scale SY at six catchments in the US using high-quality hydrological inputs. The model comparison shows that none of the models can reproduce the SY at large spatial scales but the Morgan model performs the better than others despite its simplicity. In all model simulations, large underestimates occur in catchments with very high SY. A possible pathway to reduce the discrepancies is to incorporate sediment detachment by landsliding, which is currently not included in the models being evaluated. We propose a new SY model that is based on the Morgan model but including a landsliding soil detachment scheme that is being developed. Along with the results of the model comparison and evaluation, preliminary findings from the revised Morgan model will be presented.

  12. Modified finite element transport model, FETRA, for sediment and radionuclide migration in open coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Arnold, E.M.; Mayer, D.W.

    1979-08-01

    The finite element model, FETRA, simulates transport of sediment and radionuclides (and other contaminants, such as heavy metals, pesticides, and other toxic substances) in surface water bodies. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model which consists of the following three submodels coupled to include sediment-contaminant interactions: (1) sediment transport submodel, (2) dissolved contaminant transport submodel, and (3) particulate contaminant (contaminant adsorbed by sediment) transport submodel. Under the current phase of the study, FETRA was modified to include sediment-wave interaction in order to extend the applicability of the model to coastal zones and large lakes (e.g., the Great Lakes) where wave actions can be one of the dominant mechanisms to transport sediment and toxic contaminant. FETRA was further modified to handle both linear and quadratic approximations to velocity and depth distributions in order to be compatible with various finite element hydrodynamic models (e.g., RMA II and CAFE) which supply hydrodynamic input data to FETRA. The next step is to apply FETRA to coastal zones to simulate transport of sediment and radionuclides with their interactions in order to test and verify the model under marine and large lacustrine environments

  13. Sediment transport modelling in a distributed physically based hydrological catchment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedload sediment transport and erosion processes in channels are important components of water induced natural hazards in alpine environments. A raster based distributed hydrological model, TOPKAPI, has been further developed to support continuous simulations of river bed erosion and deposition processes. The hydrological model simulates all relevant components of the water cycle and non-linear reservoir methods are applied for water fluxes in the soil, on the ground surface and in the channel. The sediment transport simulations are performed on a sub-grid level, which allows for a better discretization of the channel geometry, whereas water fluxes are calculated on the grid level in order to be CPU efficient. Several transport equations as well as the effects of an armour layer on the transport threshold discharge are considered. Flow resistance due to macro roughness is also considered. The advantage of this approach is the integrated simulation of the entire basin runoff response combined with hillslope-channel coupled erosion and transport simulation. The comparison with the modelling tool SETRAC demonstrates the reliability of the modelling concept. The devised technique is very fast and of comparable accuracy to the more specialised sediment transport model SETRAC.

  14. Mathematical model for solid fuel combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostikj, Zvonimir; Noshpal, Aleksandar

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model for computation of the combustion process of solid fuel in fluidized bed is presented in this work. Only the combustor part of the plant (the fluidized bed and the free board) is treated with this model. In that manner, all principal, physical presumption and improvements (upon which this model is based) are given. Finally, the results of the numerical realisation of the mathematical model for combustion of minced straw as well as the results of the experimental investigation of a concrete physical model are presented. (author)

  15. An integration scheme for stiff solid-gas reactor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne A. Foss

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Many dynamic models encounter numerical integration problems because of a large span in the dynamic modes. In this paper we develop a numerical integration scheme for systems that include a gas phase, and solid and liquid phases, such as a gas-solid reactor. The method is based on neglecting fast dynamic modes and exploiting the structure of the algebraic equations. The integration method is suitable for a large class of industrially relevant systems. The methodology has proven remarkably efficient. It has in practice performed excellent and been a key factor for the success of the industrial simulator for electrochemical furnaces for ferro-alloy production.

  16. A simple model for low energy ion-solid interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajerzadeh, S.; Selvakumar, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A simple analytical model for ion-solid interactions, suitable for low energy beam depositions, is reported. An approximation for the nuclear stopping power is used to obtain the analytic solution for the deposited energy in the solid. The ratio of the deposited energy in the bulk to the energy deposited in the surface yields a ceiling for the beam energy above which more defects are generated in the bulk resulting in defective films. The numerical evaluations agree with the existing results in the literature. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Modeling steel deformation in the semi-solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Hojny, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses selected aspects of steel-deformation modelling, both at very high temperatures and under the conditions in which the liquid and the solid phases coexist. Steel-deformation modelling with its simultaneous solidification is particularly difficult due to its specificity and complexity. With regard to industrial applications and the development of new, integrated continuous casting and rolling processes, the issues related to modelling are becoming increasingly important. Since the numerous industrial tests that are necessary when traditional methods are used to design the process of continuous casting immediately followed by rolling are expensive, new modelling concepts have been sought. Comprehensive tests were applied to solve problems related to the deformation of steel with a semi-solid core. Physical tests using specialist laboratory instruments (Gleeble 3800thermo-mechanical simulator, NANOTOM 180 N computer tomography, Zwick Z250 testing equipment, 3D blue-light scanning systems), and...

  18. Modeling of ionic transport in solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheang, P L; Teo, L L; Lim, T L

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model describing the ionic trans port in solid polyme relectrolyte is developed. Single cation simulation is carried out using hopping rate to study the transport mechanism of a thermally activated ion in solid polymer electrolyte. In our model, the ion is able to hop along a polymer chain and to jump between different chains, surmounting energy barriers that consist of polymer's activation energy and the externally applied electric field. The model is able to trace the motion of ion across polymer electrolyte. The mean hopping distance is calculated based on the available open bond in the next nearest side. Random numbers are used to determine the hopping distances, free flight times, final energy and direction of the cation after successful hop. Drift velocity and energy of cation are simulated in our work. The model is expected to be able to simulate the lithium-polymer battery in future.

  19. Design and modeling of precision solid liner experiments on Pegasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Lee, H.; McLenithan, K.D.; Scannapieco, A.J.; Shanahan, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Pulsed power driven solid liners may be used for a variety of physics experiments involving materials at high stresses. These include shock formation and propagation, material strain-rate effects, material melt, instability growth, and ejecta from shocked surfaces. We describe the design and performance of a cylindrical solid liner that can attain velocities in the several mm/μs regime, and that can be used to drive high-stress experiments. An approximate theoretical analysis of solid liner implosions is used to establish the basic parameters (mass, materials, and initial radius) of the driver. We then present one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations of magnetically driven, liner implosions which include resistive heating and elastic endash plastic behavior. The two-dimensional models are used to study the effects of electrode glide planes on the liner close-quote s performance, to examine sources of perturbations of the liner, and to assess possible effects of instability growth during the implosion. Finally, simulations are compared with experimental data to show that the solid liner performed as predicted computationally. Experimental data indicate that the liner imploded from an initial radius of 2.4 cm to a target radius of 1.5 cm, and that it was concentric and cylindrical to better than the experimental resolution (60 μm) at the target. The results demonstrate that a precision solid liner can be produced for high-stress, pulsed power applications experiments. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  20. Modelling land cover change effects on catchment-to-lake sediment transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Peñuela Fernández, Andres; Sellami, Haykel; Sangster, Heather; Boyle, John; Chiverrell, Richard; Riley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of catchment soil erosion and sediment transfer to streams and lakes are limited and typically short duration (physical and social records coupled with high-resolution, sub-annual simulations of catchment-to-lake soil erosion and sedimentation. This choice of modelling period represents a compromise between the length of record and data availability for model parameterisation. We combine historic datasets for climate and land cover from four lake catchments in Britain with a fully revised catchment-scale modelling approach based on the Morgan-Morgan-Finney model, called MMF-TWI, that incorporates new elements representing plant growth, soil water balance and variable runoff and sediment contributing areas. The catchments comprise an intensively-farmed lowland agricultural catchment and three upland catchments. Historic change simulations were compared with sedimentation rates determined from multiple dated cores taken from each lake. Our revised modelling approach produced generally comparable rates of lake sediment flux to those based on sediment archives. Moreover, these centennial scale records form the basis for examining hypothetical scenarios linked to changes in crop rotation (lowland) and riparian re-afforestation (uplands), as well as providing an extended historic baseline against which to compare future climate effects on runoff, erosion and lake sediment delivery.

  1. HYDROLOGY AND SEDIMENT MODELING USING THE BASINS NON-POINT SOURCE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Non-Point Source Model (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran, or HSPF) within the EPA Office of Water's BASINS watershed modeling system was used to simulate streamflow and total suspended solids within Contentnea Creek, North Carolina, which is a tributary of the Neuse Rive...

  2. Critical comparison of hydrodynamic models for gas-solid fluidized beds - Part II: freely bubbling gas-solid fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, D.J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Correct prediction of spontaneous bubble formation in freely bubbling gas¿solid fluidized beds using Eulerian models, strongly depends on the description of the internal momentum transfer in the particulate phase. In this part, the comparison of the simple classical model, describing the solid phase

  3. Using disposable solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to determine the freely dissolved concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Fang; Cui Xinyi; Wang Wei; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Gan, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The ubiquity and persistence of PBDEs in sediment have raised concerns over their environmental fate and ecological risks. Due to strong affinity for sediment organic matter, environmental fate and bioavailability of PBDEs closely depend on their phase distribution. In this study, disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber was used to derive the freely dissolved concentration (C free ) of PBDEs in sediment porewater as a measurement of bioavailability. The PDMS-to-water partition coefficient (log K PDMS ) was 5.46–5.83 for BDE 47, 99, and 153. In sediments, PBDEs were predominantly sorbed to the sediment phase, with C free accounting for free of PBDEs decreased as their bromination or sediment organic carbon content increased. The strong association with dissolved organic matter (DOM) implies a potential for facilitated offsite transport and dispersion in the environment that depends closely on the stability of sediment aggregates. - Highlights: ► A disposable SPME method was developed for measuring C free of PBDEs in sediment. ► C free decreased with increasing congener bromination or sediment OC content. ► C free of PBDEs accounted for DOC values suggest a high probability for DOM-facilitated offsite transport. - A SPME method based on disposable PDMS fibers was developed for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of PBDEs (C free ) in sediment porewater.

  4. Testing the effects of in-stream sediment sources and sinks on simulated watershed sediment yield using the coupled U.S. Army Corps of Engineers GSSHA Model and SEDLIB Sediment Transport Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, I. E.; Downer, C. W.; Brown, G.; Pradhan, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model is the US Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE)'s only fully coupled overland/in-stream sediment transport model. While the overland sediment transport formulation in GSSHA is considered state of the art, the existing in-stream sediment transport formulation is less robust. A major omission in the formulation of the existing GSSHA in-stream model is the lack of in-stream sources of fine materials. In this effort, we enhanced the in-stream sediment transport capacity of GSSHA by linking GSSHA to the SEDLIB sediment transport library. SEDLIB was developed at the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) under the System Wide Water Resources Program (SWWRP) and Flood and Coastal (F&C) research program. It is designed to provide a library of sediment flux formulations for hydraulic and hydrologic models, such as GSSHA. This new version of GSSHA, with the updated in-stream sediment transport simulation capability afforded by the linkage to SEDLIB, was tested in against observations in an experimental watershed that had previously been used as a test bed for GSSHA. The results show a significant improvement in the ability to model in-stream sources of fine sediment. This improved capability will broaden the applicability of GSSHA to larger watersheds and watersheds with complex sediment dynamics, such as those subjected to fire hydrology.

  5. Mathematical modeling of ethanol production in solid-state fermentation based on solid medium' dry weight variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Davood; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Zamir, Seyed Morteza; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2018-04-21

    In this work, mathematical modeling of ethanol production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been done based on the variation in the dry weight of solid medium. This method was previously used for mathematical modeling of enzyme production; however, the model should be modified to predict the production of a volatile compound like ethanol. The experimental results of bioethanol production from the mixture of carob pods and wheat bran by Zymomonas mobilis in SSF were used for the model validation. Exponential and logistic kinetic models were used for modeling the growth of microorganism. In both cases, the model predictions matched well with the experimental results during the exponential growth phase, indicating the good ability of solid medium weight variation method for modeling a volatile product formation in solid-state fermentation. In addition, using logistic model, better predictions were obtained.

  6. Modeling sediment accumulation in North American playa wetlands in response to climate change, 1940-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Lucy; Skagen, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Playa wetlands on the west-central Great Plains of North America are vulnerable to sediment infilling from upland agriculture, putting at risk several important ecosystem services as well as essential habitats and food resources of diverse wetland-dependent biota. Climate predictions for this semi-arid area indicate reduced precipitation which may alter rates of erosion, runoff, and sedimentation of playas. We forecasted erosion rates, sediment depths, and resultant playa wetland depths across the west-central Great Plains and examined the relative roles of land use context and projected changes in precipitation in the sedimentation process. We estimated erosion with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using historic values and downscaled precipitation predictions from three general circulation models and three emissions scenarios. We calibrated RUSLE results using field sediment measurements. RUSLE is appealing for regional scale modeling because it uses climate forecasts with monthly resolution and other widely available values including soil texture, slope and land use. Sediment accumulation rates will continue near historic levels through 2070 and will be sufficient to cause most playas (if not already filled) to fill with sediment within the next 100 years in the absence of mitigation. Land use surrounding the playa, whether grassland or tilled cropland, is more influential in sediment accumulation than climate-driven precipitation change.

  7. When Theory Meets Data: Comparing Model Predictions Of Hillslope Sediment Size With Field Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, M.; Sklar, L. S.; Leclere, S.; Davis, J. D.; Stine, A.

    2017-12-01

    The size distributions of sediment produced on hillslopes and supplied to river channels influence a wide range of fluvial processes, from bedrock river incision to the creation of aquatic habitats. However, the factors that control hillslope sediment size are poorly understood, limiting our ability to predict sediment size and model the evolution of sediment size distributions across landscapes. Recently separate field and theoretical investigations have begun to address this knowledge gap. Here we compare the predictions of several emerging modeling approaches to landscapes where high quality field data are available. Our goals are to explore the sensitivity and applicability of the theoretical models in each field context, and ultimately to provide a foundation for incorporating hillslope sediment size into models of landscape evolution. The field data include published measurements of hillslope sediment size from the Kohala peninsula on the island of Hawaii and tributaries to the Feather River in the northern Sierra Nevada mountains of California, and an unpublished data set from the Inyo Creek catchment of the southern Sierra Nevada. These data are compared to predictions adapted from recently published modeling approaches that include elements of topography, geology, structure, climate and erosion rate. Predictive models for each site are built in ArcGIS using field condition datasets: DEM topography (slope, aspect, curvature), bedrock geology (lithology, mineralogy), structure (fault location, fracture density), climate data (mean annual precipitation and temperature), and estimates of erosion rates. Preliminary analysis suggests that models may be finely tuned to the calibration sites, particularly when field conditions most closely satisfy model assumptions, leading to unrealistic predictions from extrapolation. We suggest a path forward for developing a computationally tractable method for incorporating spatial variation in production of hillslope

  8. A computer model for dispersed fluid-solid turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.H.; Tulig, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    A computer model is being developed to simulate two-phase turbulent flow phenomena in fluids containing finely dispersed solids. The model is based on a dual-continuum picture of the individual phases and an extension of a two-equation turbulence closure theory. The resulting set of nonlinear partial differential equations are solved using a finite difference procedure with special treatment to promote convergence. The model has been checked against a number of idealized flow problems with known solutions. The authors are currently comparing model predictions with measurements to determine a proper set of turbulence parameters needed for simulating two-phase turbulent flows

  9. Development of regional scale soil erosion and sediment transport model; its calibration and validations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, M.H.; Akhtar, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Despite of the fact that many soil erosion models have been developed in the past more than 5 decades including empirical based models like USLE and RUSLE and many process based soil erosion and sediment transport models like WEPP, EUROSEM and SHETRAN, the application of these models to regional scales remained questionable. To address the problem, a process-based soil erosion and sediment transport model has been developed to estimate the soil erosion, deposition, transport and sediment yield at regional scale. The soil erosion processes are modeled as the detachment of soil by the raindrop impact over the entire grid and detachment of soil due to overland flow only within the equivalent channels, whereas sediment is routed to the forward grid considering the transport capacity of the flow. The loss of heterogeneity in the spatial information of the topography due to slope averaging effect is reproduced by adapting a Fractal analysis approach. The model has been calibrated for Nan river basin (N.13A) and validated to the Yom river basin (Y.6) and Nam Mae Klang river basin (P.24A) of Thailand, simulated results show good agreements with the observed sediment discharge data. The developed model with few new components can also be applied for predicting the sediment discharges of the river Indus. (author)

  10. Sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst (Part 1): Conceptual model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J.; Ford, W.; Taylor, C.

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has paid increased attention to quantifying the fate of carbon pools within fluvial networks, but few, if any, studies consider the fate of sediment organic carbon in fluviokarst systems despite that karst landscapes cover 12% of the earth's land surface. The authors develop a conceptual model of sediment carbon fate in karst terrain with specific emphasis upon phreatic karst conduits, i.e., those located below the groundwater table that have the potential to trap surface-derived sediment and turnover carbon. To assist with their conceptual model development, the authors study a phreatic system and apply a mixture of methods traditional and novel to karst studies, including electrical resistivity imaging, well drilling, instantaneous velocimetry, dye tracing, stage recording, discrete and continuous sediment and water quality sampling, and elemental and stable carbon isotope fingerprinting. Results show that the sediment transport carrying capacity of the phreatic karst water is orders of magnitude less than surface streams during storm-activated periods promoting deposition of fine sediments in the phreatic karst. However, the sediment transport carrying capacity is sustained long after the hydrologic event has ended leading to sediment resuspension and prolonged transport. The surficial fine grained laminae occurs in the subsurface karst system; but unlike surface streams, the light-limited conditions of the subsurface karst promotes constant heterotrophy leading to carbon turnover. The coupling of the hydrological processes leads to a conceptual model that frames phreatic karst as a biologically active conveyor of sediment carbon that recharges degraded organic carbon back to surface streams. For example, fluvial sediment is estimated to lose 30% of its organic carbon by mass during a one year temporary residence within the phreatic karst. It is recommended that scientists consider karst pathways when attempting to estimate organic matter stocks

  11. Quantifying and Modelling Long Term Sediment Dynamics in Catchments in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, B.; De Brue, H.; Verstraeten, G.; Broothaerts, N.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of sediment dynamics allows to get insight in driving forces and internal dynamics of the sediment cascade system. A useful tool to achieve this is the sediment budget approach, which encompasses the quantification of different sinks and sources. A Holocene time-differentiated sediment budget has been constructed for the Belgian Dijle River catchment (720 km²), based on a large set of field data. The results show how soil erosion is driven by land use changes over longer timescales. Sediment redistribution and the relative importance of the different sinks also vary over time, mainly as a result of changing land use and related landscape connectivity. However, the coarse temporal resolution typically associated with Holocene studies complicates the understanding of sub-millennial scale processes. In a second step, the field-based sediment budget was combined with a modeling approach using Watem/Sedem, a spatially distributed model that simulates soil erosion and colluvial deposition. After validation of the model calibration against the sediment budget, the model was used in a sensitivity analysis. Results confirm the overwhelming influence of human land use on both soil erosion and landscape connectivity, whereas the climatic impact is comparatively small. In addition to catchment-wide simulations, the model also served to test the relative importance of lynchets and dry valleys in different environments. Finally, the geomorphic model was used to simulate past land use, taking into account equifinality. For this purpose, a large series of hypothetical time-independent land use maps of the Dijle catchment were modeled based on a multi-objective allocation algorithm, and applied in Watem/Sedem. Modeled soil erosion and sediment deposition outcomes for each scenario were subsequently compared with the field-based record, taking into account uncertainties. As such, the model allows to evaluate and select realistic land use scenarios for the Holocene.

  12. The use of modeling and suspended sediment concentration measurements for quantifying net suspended sediment transport through a large tidally dominated inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Wright, Scott A.; Elias, Edwin; Hanes, Daniel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Largier, John; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sediment exchange at large energetic inlets is often difficult to quantify due complex flows, massive amounts of water and sediment exchange, and environmental conditions limiting long-term data collection. In an effort to better quantify such exchange this study investigated the use of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) measured at an offsite location as a surrogate for sediment exchange at the tidally dominated Golden Gate inlet in San Francisco, CA. A numerical model was calibrated and validated against water and suspended sediment flux measured during a spring–neap tide cycle across the Golden Gate. The model was then run for five months and net exchange was calculated on a tidal time-scale and compared to SSC measurements at the Alcatraz monitoring site located in Central San Francisco Bay ~ 5 km from the Golden Gate. Numerically modeled tide averaged flux across the Golden Gate compared well (r2 = 0.86, p-value

  13. Alteration in Solid State Phosphorous With Depth in Sediments Along the Salinity Transition Zone of a Major Chesapeake Bay Tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, J. L.; Jordan, T. E.

    2006-05-01

    Determining the fate of particulate phosphorus in estuaries is essential for addressing the widespread problem of estuarine eutrophication, and is key to understanding P cycling and developing accurate global P budgets. Prominent reservoirs of P in surficial sediments include particulate P associated with iron or organic C. However, the importance of these reservoirs changes with the decomposition of organic matter and the reduction of iron. Also, the importance of iron bound P may decrease with increasing salinity due to the formation of iron sulfides. To investigate estuarine P burial and its relationship to salinity, we collected sediment cores of one-meter depth along the salinity gradient of the Patuxent River estuary (Maryland, USA), a major tributary of Chesapeake Bay. The sediments were analyzed using a sequential sedimentary extraction procedure that quantifies five separate reservoirs of particulate P. Total phosphorus concentrations in freshwater sediments were significantly higher than those in more saline sediments at all depths. Conversely, porewater phosphate concentrations were significantly lower in freshwater sediments than in the more saline sediments. Total P in the saline sediment cores decreased with depth, correlating to a reduction in iron-bound P. However, we did not find a concurrent increase in authigenic apatite with depth. Our findings indicate that mechanisms controlling changes in P sorption to sediments change profoundly with salinity and may contribute to increased bioavailability of phosphates with increasing salinity.

  14. Sediment movement along the U.S. east coast continental shelf—II. Modelling suspended sediment concentration and transport rate during storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Vincent D.; Butman, Bradford; Grant, William D.

    1990-05-01

    Long-term near-bottom wave and current observations and a one-dimensional sediment transport model are used to calculate the concentration and transport of sediment during winter storms at 60-80 m water depth along the southern flank of Georges Bank and in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Calculations are presented for five stations, separated by more than 600 km alongshelf, that have different bottom sediment texture, bedforms and current conditions. A modified version of the sediment transport model presented by GRANT and GLENN (1983, Technical Report to the American Gas Association), GLENN (1983, D.Sc. Thesis, M.I.T.), and GLENN and GRANT (1987, Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 8244-8264) is used to examine the influence of wave-current interaction, sediment stratification, and limitations on the erodibility of the bottom sediments on the concentration of sediment in the water column and on transport. Predicted suspended sediment concentrations are higher than observed, based on beam transmissometer measurements, unless an erosion limit of order a few millimeters for sediments finer than 94 μm is imposed. The agreement between predicted and measured beam attenuation is better at stations that have significant amounts of silt plus clay in the surficial sediments than for stations with sandy sediments. Sediment concentrations during storms estimated by MOODYet al. (1987, Continental Shelf Research, 7, 609-628) are within 50% of the model predictions. Sediment transport rates for sediments 94 μm and finer are determined largely by the concentrations in the surficial sediment and the erosion depth limit. Large alongshelf transports in the direction of storm-driven currents are inferred for stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. During a 115-day period in winter 1979-1980, the net transport of sediment along the shelf was westward; benthic storms (defined as periods when the bottom wave stress exceeded the current stress by 2 dyn cm -2) occurred between 23 and 73% of the

  15. ESTIMATION OF THE WANDA GLACIER (SOUTH SHETLANDS SEDIMENT EROSION RATE USING NUMERICAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Kellem Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Glacial sediment yield results from glacial erosion and is influenced by several factors including glacial retreat rate, ice flow velocity and thermal regime. This paper estimates the contemporary subglacial erosion rate and sediment yield of Wanda Glacier (King George Island, South Shetlands. This work also examines basal sediment evacuation mechanisms by runoff and glacial erosion processes during the subglacial transport. This is small temperate glacier that has seen retreating for the last decades. In this work, we examine basal sediment evacuation mechanisms by runoff and analyze glacial erosion processes occurring during subglacial transport. The glacial erosion rate at Wanda Glacier, estimated using a numerical model that consider sediment evacuated to outlet streams, ice flow velocity, ice thickness and glacier area, is 1.1 ton m yr-1.

  16. The numerical model of the sediment distribution pattern at Lampulo National fisheries port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irham, M.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distribution of sediment pattern was studied at Lampulo Fisheries Port, Krueng Aceh estuarial area, Banda Aceh. The research was conducted using the numerical model of wave-induced currents at shallow water area. The study aims to understand how waves and currents react to the pattern of sediment distribution around the beach structure in that region. The study demonstrated that the port pool area had no sedimentation and erosion occurred because the port was protected by the jetty as the breakwater to defend the incoming waves toward the pool. The protected pool created a weak current circulation to distribute the sediments. On the other hand, the sediments were heavily distributed along the beach due to the existence of longshore currents near the shoreline (outside the port pool area). Meanwhile, at the estuarial area, the incoming fresh water flow responded to the coastal shallow water currents, generating Eddy-like flow at the mouth of the river.

  17. Prediction of sedimentation using integration of RS, RUSLE model and GIS in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, A. H. A.; Lihan, T.; Rahim, S. A.; Musthapha, M. A.; Idris, W. M. R.; Rahman, Z. A.

    2013-11-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are strongly affected by land use change. Spatially distributed erosion models are of great interest to predict soil erosion loss and sediment yield. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine sediment yield using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model in Geographical Information System (GIS) environment at Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia. Sediment yield at the study area was determined using RUSLE model in GIS environment The RUSLE factors were computed by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R) using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K) using soil map and field measurement, vegetation cover (C) using satellite images, length and steepness (LS) using contour map and conservation practices using satellite images based on land use/land cover. Field observations were also done to verify the predicted sediment yield. The results indicated that the rate of sediment yield in the study area ranged from very low to extremely high. The higher SY value can be found at middle and lower catchments of Cameron Highland. Meanwhile, the lower SY value can be found at the north part of the study area. Sediment yield value turned out to be higher close to the river due to the topographic characteristic, vegetation type and density, climate and land use within the drainage basin.

  18. Geochemistry of trace metals in a fresh water sediment: Field results and diagenetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavan, R.W.; Cappellen, P. van; Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Berg, G.A. van den; Slomp, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in pore water and sediment of a coastal fresh water lake (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands). Elevated sediment trace metal concentrations reflect anthropogenic inputs from the Rhine and Meuse Rivers. Pore water and sediment analyses, together with thermodynamic calculations, indicate a shift in trace metal speciation from oxide-bound to sulfide-bound over the upper 20 cm of the sediment. Concentrations of reducible Fe and Mn decline with increasing depth, but do not reach zero values at 20 cm depth. The reducible phases are relatively more important for the binding of Co, Ni, and Zn than for Pb and Cd. Pore waters exhibit supersaturation with respect to Zn, Pb, Co, and Cd monosulfides, while significant fractions of Ni and Co are bound to pyrite. A multi-component, diagenetic model developed for organic matter degradation was expanded to include Zn and Ni dynamics. Pore water transport of trace metals is primarily diffusive, with a lesser contribution of bioirrigation. Reactions affecting trace metal mobility near the sediment-water interface, especially sulfide oxidation and sorption to newly formed oxides, strongly influence the modeled estimates of the diffusive effluxes to the overlying water. Model results imply less efficient sediment retention of Ni than Zn. Sensitivity analyses show that increased bioturbation and sulfate availability, which are expected upon restoration of estuarine conditions in the lake, should increase the sulfide bound fractions of Zn and Ni in the sediments

  19. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Y.S.A.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Crosato, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roseires Reservoir is located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan (figure 1). It is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its storage capacity due to

  20. Sediment transport modelling in wadi Chemora during flood flow events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghout Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sediment transport is a complex phenomenon by its intermittent nature, randomness and by its spatiotemporal discontinuity. By reason of its scale, it constitutes a major constraint for development; it decreases storage capacity of dams and degrades state of ancillary structures.

  1. Modelling of flow and settling in storm water sedimentation tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluck, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the near future in the Netherlands many reservoirs will have to be built to abate the pollution of the surface water by overflowing storm water from combined sewer systems [Kluck, 1992-a]. These reservoirs, called storm water sedimentation tanks, reduce the pollution in two ways. The most

  2. experimental verification of discharge sediment model at incipient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... armour on cessation of sediment - feed. The study is being conducted in a laboratory flume because the required tests for the necessary hydraulic quantities like discharge can be scaled down avoiding the necessity for large capital for equipment and personnel that would have been the case in the field.

  3. Multiphase CFD modeling of nearfield fate of sediment plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saremi, Sina; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Disposal of dredged material and the overflow discharge during the dredging activities is a matter of concern due to the potential risks imposed by the plumes on surrounding marine environment. This gives rise to accurately prediction of the fate of the sediment plumes released in ambient waters...

  4. Linking sediment fingerprinting and modeling outputs for a Spanish Pyrenean river catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Gaspar, Leticia; Blake, Williams H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Navas, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Indirect techniques to study fine sediment redistribution in river catchments could provide unique and diverse information, which, when combined become a powerful tool to address catchment management problems. Such combinations could solve limitations of individual techniques and provide different lines of information to address a particular problem. The Barasona reservoir has suffered from siltation since its construction, with the loss of over one third of its storage volume in around 30 study years (period 1972-1996). Information on sediment production from tributary catchments for the reservoir is required to develop management plans for maintaining reservoir sustainability. Large spatial variability in sediment delivery was found in previous studies in the Barasona catchment and the major sediment sources identified included badlands developed in the middle part of the catchment and the agricultural fields in its lower part. From the diverse range of indirect techniques, fingerprinting sediment sources and computer models could be linked to obtain a more holistic view of the processes related to sediment redistribution in the Barasona river catchment (1509 km2, Central Spanish Pyrenees), which comprises agricultural and forest land uses. In the present study, the results from a fingerprinting procedure and the SWAT model were compared and combined to improve the knowledge of land use sediment source contributions to the reservoir. Samples from the study catchment were used to define soil parameters for the model and for fingerprinting the land use sources. The fingerprinting approach provided information about relative contributions from land use sources to the superficial sediment samples taken from the reservoir infill. The calibration and validation of the model provided valuable information, for example on the timescale of sediment production from the different land uses within the catchment. Linking results from both techniques enabled us to achieve a

  5. A lumped model for rotational modes in periodic solid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai; Asiri, Sharefa M.; Zhang, Xiujuan; Li, Yan; Wu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    We present a lumped model to study the rotational modes in a type of two-dimensional periodic solid composites comprised of a square array of rubber-coated steel cylinders embedded in an epoxy matrix. The model captures the physical essence of rotational modes in such systems for various combinations of material parameters, and, therefore it is able to describe the transition behaviour when the system is gradually adjusted from an elastic metamaterial to an elastic phononic crystal. From the model, we can define a transition zone which separates the typical elastic metamaterials and the phononic crystals.

  6. Impedance Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Søgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    A 1-dimensional impedance model for a solid oxide fuel cell cathode is formulated and applied to a cathode consisting of 50/50 wt% strontium doped lanthanum cobaltite and gadolinia doped ceria. A total of 42 impedance spectra were recorded in the temperature range: 555-852°C and in the oxygen...... partial pressure range 0.028-1.00 atm. The recorded impedance spectra were successfully analyzed using the developed impedance model in the investigated temperature and oxygen partial pressure range. It is also demonstrated that the model can be used to predict how impedance spectra evolve with different...

  7. A lumped model for rotational modes in periodic solid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2013-10-01

    We present a lumped model to study the rotational modes in a type of two-dimensional periodic solid composites comprised of a square array of rubber-coated steel cylinders embedded in an epoxy matrix. The model captures the physical essence of rotational modes in such systems for various combinations of material parameters, and, therefore it is able to describe the transition behaviour when the system is gradually adjusted from an elastic metamaterial to an elastic phononic crystal. From the model, we can define a transition zone which separates the typical elastic metamaterials and the phononic crystals.

  8. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.; Cillan, T.

    1993-09-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.4 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement. Those interested in using the SWPM database should refer to the SWPM Database User's Guide. This document is available from the PNL Task M Project Manager (D. L. Stiles, 509-372-4358), the PNL Task L Project Manager (L. L. Armacost, 509-372-4304), the WHC Restoration Projects Section Manager (509-372-1443), or the WHC Waste Characterization Manager (509-372-1193)

  9. Analysis and Modeling of Structure Formation in Granular and Fluid-Solid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eric

    first time. Next, kinetic theory was used to predict the cooling of a gas of such particles. DEM was then used to validate this approach. A study on the rheology of dry cohesive granules with and without friction was then carried out, where the physics of different flow phenomenology was exhaustively explored. Lastly, homogeneous cement slurry simulations were carried out, and compared with vane-rheometer experiments. Qualitative agreement between simulation and experiment were observed. Lastly, the physics of clustering in homogeneous gas-solid flows is explored in the hopes of gaining a mechanistic explanation of how particle-fluid interactions lead to clustering. Exact equations are derived, detailing the evolution of the two particle density, which may be closed using high-fidelity particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. Two canonical gas-solid flows are then addressed, the homogeneously cooling gas-solid flow (HCGSF) and sedimenting gas-solid flow (SGSF). A mechanism responsible for clustering in the HCGSF is identified. Clustering of plane-wave like structures is observed in the SGSF, and the exact terms are quantified. A method for modeling the dynamics of clustering in these systems is proposed, which may aid in the prediction of clustering and other correlation length-scales useful for less expensive computations.

  10. Past and present of sediment and carbon biogeochemical cycling models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Mackenzie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The global carbon cycle is part of the much more extensive sedimentary cycle that involves large masses of carbon in the Earth's inner and outer spheres. Studies of the carbon cycle generally followed a progression in knowledge of the natural biological, then chemical, and finally geological processes involved, culminating in a more or less integrated picture of the biogeochemical carbon cycle by the 1920s. However, knowledge of the ocean's carbon cycle behavior has only within the last few decades progressed to a stage where meaningful discussion of carbon processes on an annual to millennial time scale can take place. In geologically older and pre-industrial time, the ocean was generally a net source of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere owing to the mineralization of land-derived organic matter in addition to that produced in situ and to the process of CaCO3 precipitation. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations because of fossil fuel combustion and land use changes, the direction of the air-sea CO2 flux has reversed, leading to the ocean as a whole being a net sink of anthropogenic CO2. The present thickness of the surface ocean layer, where part of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions are stored, is estimated as of the order of a few hundred meters. The oceanic coastal zone net air-sea CO2 exchange flux has also probably changed during industrial time. Model projections indicate that in pre-industrial times, the coastal zone may have been net heterotrophic, releasing CO2 to the atmosphere from the imbalance between gross photosynthesis and total respiration. This, coupled with extensive CaCO3 precipitation in coastal zone environments, led to a net flux of CO2 out of the system. During industrial time the coastal zone ocean has tended to reverse its trophic status toward a non-steady state situation of net autotrophy, resulting in net uptake of anthropogenic CO2 and storage of carbon in the coastal ocean, despite the significant calcification

  11. Estimating sediment loads in an intra-Apennine catchments: balance between modeling and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelacani, Samanta; Cassi, Paola; Borselli, Lorenzo

    2010-05-01

    In this study we compare the results of a soil erosion model applied at watershed scale to the suspended sediment measured in the stream network affected by a motor way construction. A sediment delivery model is applied at watershed scale; the evaluation of sediment delivery is related to a connectivity fluxes index that describes the internal linkages between runoff and sediment sources in upper parts of catchments and the receiving sinks. An analysis of the fine suspended sediment transport and storage was conducted for a streams inlet of the Bilancino reservoir, a principal water supply of the city of Florence. The suspended sediment were collected from a section of river defined as a close systems using a time integrating suspended sediment sampling. The sediment deposited within the sampling traps was recovered after storm events and provide information of the overall contribution of the potential sediment sources. Hillslope gross erosion was assessed by a USLE-TYPE approach. A soil survey at 1:25.000 scale and a soil database was create to calculate, for each soil unit, the erodibility coefficient K using a new algorithm (Salvador Sanchis et al. 2007). Erosivity coefficient R was obtained applying geostatistical methods taking into account elevation and valley morphology. Furthermore, we evaluate a sediment delivery factor (SDR) for the entire watershed. This factor is used to correct the output of the USLE Type model. The innovative approach consist in a SDR factor variable in space and in time because it is related to a fluxes connectivity index IC (Borselli et al. 2008) based on the distribution of land use and topographic features. The aim of this study is to understand how the model simulates the real processes that intervene in the watershed and subsequently to calibrate the model with the result obtained from the monitoring of suspend sediment in the streams. From first results, it appears that human activities by highway construction, have resulted in

  12. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: a first step towards ecological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, F. M.; van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, D.; Jaffe, B.

    2015-06-01

    In estuaries suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. Sediment dynamics differs depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. A robust sediment transport model is a first step in developing a chain of models enabling simulations of contaminants, phytoplankton and habitat conditions. This works aims to determine turbidity levels in the complex-geometry delta of the San Francisco estuary using a process-based approach (Delft3D Flexible Mesh software). Our approach includes a detailed calibration against measured SSC levels, a sensitivity analysis on model parameters and the determination of a yearly sediment budget as well as an assessment of model results in terms of turbidity levels for a single year, water year (WY) 2011. Model results show that our process-based approach is a valuable tool in assessing sediment dynamics and their related ecological parameters over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The model may act as the base model for a chain of ecological models assessing the impact of climate change and management scenarios. Here we present a modeling approach that, with limited data, produces reliable predictions and can be useful for estuaries without a large amount of processes data.

  13. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: A first step towards ecological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, F. M.; van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, D.; Jaffe, B.

    2015-01-01

    In estuaries suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. Sediment dynamics differs depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. A robust sediment transport model is a first step in developing a chain of models enabling simulations of contaminants, phytoplankton and habitat conditions. This works aims to determine turbidity levels in the complex-geometry delta of the San Francisco estuary using a process-based approach (Delft3D Flexible Mesh software). Our approach includes a detailed calibration against measured SSC levels, a sensitivity analysis on model parameters and the determination of a yearly sediment budget as well as an assessment of model results in terms of turbidity levels for a single year, water year (WY) 2011. Model results show that our process-based approach is a valuable tool in assessing sediment dynamics and their related ecological parameters over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The model may act as the base model for a chain of ecological models assessing the impact of climate change and management scenarios. Here we present a modeling approach that, with limited data, produces reliable predictions and can be useful for estuaries without a large amount of processes data.

  14. Matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of benzotriazole UV absorbers in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinteiro, I; Abuín, B; Ramil, M; Rodríguez, I; Cela, R

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective and low solvent consumption method, based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique, for the determination of six benzotriazole UV absorbers in sediments is presented. Sieved samples (0.5 g) were first mixed in a mortar with a solid sorbent and then transferred to a polypropylene syringe containing a layer of clean-up co-sorbent. Analytes were eluted with a suitable solvent and further determined by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Under final conditions, diatomaceous earth and silica, deactivated to 10%, were used as inert dispersant and clean-up co-sorbent, respectively. Analytes were recovered using just 5 mL of dichloromethane, and this extract was concentrated and exchanged to 1 mL of isooctane. Further removal of co-extracted sulphur was achieved adding activated copper powder to final extracts, which were stored overnight, before injection in the GC-MS/MS system. The accuracy of the method was assessed with river and marine sediment samples showing different carbon contents and spiked at different concentrations in the range from 40 to 500 ng g(-1). Recoveries varied between 78% and 110% with associated standard deviations below 14%. The limits of quantification of the method stayed between 3 and 15 ng g(-1). Levels of target compounds in sediment samples ranged from not detected up to a maximum of 56 ng g(-1) for Tinuvin 328.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS TO GEOMORPHIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENT YIELD FOR UNGAUGED CATCHMENTS, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanchoul Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of sediment yield and the factors controlling it provides useful information for estimating erosion intensities within river basins. The objective of this study was to build a model from which suspended sediment yield could be estimated from ungauged rivers using computed sediment yield and physical factors. Researchers working on suspended sediment transported by wadis in the Maghreb are usually facing the lack of available data for such river types. Further study of the prediction of sediment transport in these regions and its variability is clearly required. In this work, ANNs were built between sediment yield established from longterm measurement series at gauging stations in Algerian catchments and corresponding basic physiographic parameters such as rainfall, runoff, lithology index, coefficient of torrentiality, and basin area. The proposed Levenberg-Marquardt and Multilayer Perceptron algorithms to train the neural networks of the current research study was based on the feed-forward backpropagation method with combinations of number of neurons in each hidden layer, transfer function, error goal. Additionally, three statistical measurements, namely the root mean square error (RMSE, the coefficient of determination (R², and the efficiency factor (EF have been reported for examining the forecasting accuracy of the developed model. Single plot displays of network outputs with respect to targets for training have provided good performance results and good fitting . Thus, ANNs were a promising method for predicting suspended sediment yield in ungauged Algerian catchments.

  16. Conceptual Site Model for Newark Bay—Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeshwar L. Shrestha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual site model (CSM has been developed for the Newark Bay Study Area (NBSA as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS for this New Jersey site. The CSM is an evolving document that describes the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes on contaminant fate and transport. The CSM is initiated at the start of a project, updated during site activities, and used to inform sampling and remediation planning. This paper describes the hydrodynamic and sediment transport components of the CSM for the NBSA. Hydrodynamic processes are influenced by freshwater inflows, astronomical forcing through two tidal straits, meteorological conditions, and anthropogenic activities such as navigational dredging. Sediment dynamics are driven by hydrodynamics, waves, sediment loading from freshwater sources and the tidal straits, sediment size gradation, sediment bed properties, and particle-to-particle interactions. Cohesive sediment transport is governed by advection, dispersion, aggregation, settling, consolidation, and erosion. Noncohesive sediment transport is governed by advection, dispersion, settling, armoring, and transport in suspension and along the bed. The CSM will inform the development and application of a numerical model that accounts for all key variables to adequately describe the NBSA’s historical, current, and future physical conditions.

  17. CAD-based Monte Carlo automatic modeling method based on primitive solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Song, Jing; Yu, Shengpeng; Long, Pengcheng; Wang, Yongliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a method which bi-convert between CAD model and primitive solid. • This method was improved from convert method between CAD model and half space. • This method was test by ITER model and validated the correctness and efficiency. • This method was integrated in SuperMC which could model for SuperMC and Geant4. - Abstract: Monte Carlo method has been widely used in nuclear design and analysis, where geometries are described with primitive solids. However, it is time consuming and error prone to describe a primitive solid geometry, especially for a complicated model. To reuse the abundant existed CAD models and conveniently model with CAD modeling tools, an automatic modeling method for accurate prompt modeling between CAD model and primitive solid is needed. An automatic modeling method for Monte Carlo geometry described by primitive solid was developed which could bi-convert between CAD model and Monte Carlo geometry represented by primitive solids. While converting from CAD model to primitive solid model, the CAD model was decomposed into several convex solid sets, and then corresponding primitive solids were generated and exported. While converting from primitive solid model to the CAD model, the basic primitive solids were created and related operation was done. This method was integrated in the SuperMC and was benchmarked with ITER benchmark model. The correctness and efficiency of this method were demonstrated.

  18. A Geographic Information System approach to modeling nutrient and sediment transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunsaker, C.T.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Timmins, S.P. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water quality model to quantify nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution that uses a geographic information system (GIS) to link statistical modeling of nutrient and sediment delivery with the spatial arrangement of the parameters that drive the model. The model predicts annual nutrient and sediment loading and was developed, calibrated, and tested on 12 watersheds within the Lake Ray Roberts drainage basin in north Texas. Three physiographic regions are represented by these watersheds, and model success, as measured by the accuracy of load estimates, was compared within and across these regions.

  19. Modeling of Sediment Transport and Self-Cleansing in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Ibro, I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes an on-going project on modeling of sediment transport in outfalls with special focus on the self-cleansing problem occurring due to the daily flow variations seen in outfalls. The two central elements of the project is the development of the numerical model and a matching...... physical model in the laboratory. The numerical model covers both sediment transport over bed accumulations as well as transport over clean bottom. The physical modeling emphasizes on measurement of the non-steady removal and transport of welldefined and limited accumulations along the pipe. The paper...

  20. MODELING OF TEMPERATURE FIELDS IN A SOLID HEAT ACCUMULLATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Belimenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently, one of the priorities of energy conservation is a cost savings for heating in commercial and residential buildings by the stored thermal energy during the night and its return in the daytime. Economic effect is achieved due to the difference in tariffs for the cost of electricity in the daytime and at night. One of the most common types of devices that allow accumulating and giving the resulting heat are solid heat accumulators. The main purpose of the work: 1 software development for the calculation of the temperature field of a flat solid heat accumulator, working due to the heat energy accumulation in the volume of thermal storage material without phase transition; 2 determination the temperature distribution in its volumes at convective heat transfer. Methodology. To achieve the study objectives a heat transfer theory and Laplace integral transform were used. On its base the problems of determining the temperature fields in the channels of heat accumulators, having different cross-sectional shapes were solved. Findings. Authors have developed the method of calculation and obtained solutions for the determination of temperature fields in channels of the solid heat accumulator in conditions of convective heat transfer. Temperature fields over length and thickness of channels were investigated. Experimental studies on physical models and industrial equipment were conducted. Originality. For the first time the technique of calculating the temperature field in the channels of different cross-section for the solid heat accumulator in the charging and discharging modes was proposed. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental research. Practical value. The proposed technique is used in the design of solid heat accumulators of different power as well as full-scale production of them was organized.

  1. SEM Model Medical Solid Waste Hospital Management In Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Verawaty; Pandia, Setiaty; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    In daily activities, hospitals, as one of the important health care unit, generate both medical solid waste and non-medical solid waste. The occurrence of medical solid waste could be from the results of treatment activities, such as, in the treatment room for a hospital inpatient, general clinic, a dental clinic, a mother and child clinic, laboratories and pharmacies. Most of the medical solid waste contains infectious and hazardous materials. Therefore it should be managed properly, otherwise it could be a source of new infectious for the community around the hospital as well as for health workers themselves. Efforts surveillance of various environmental factors need to be applied in accordance with the principles of sanitation focuses on environmental cleanliness. One of the efforts that need to be done in improving the quality of the environment is to undertake waste management activities, because with proper waste management is the most important in order to achieve an optimal degree of human health. Health development in Indonesian aims to achieve a future in which the Indonesian people live in a healthy environment, its people behave clean and healthy, able to reach quality health services, fair and equitable, so as to have optimal health status, health development paradigm anchored to the healthy. The healthy condition of the individual and society can be influenced by the environment. Poor environmental quality is a cause of various health problems. Efforts surveillance of various environmental factors need to be applied in accordance with the principles of sanitation focuses on environmental cleanliness. This paper proposes a model for managing the medical solid waste in hospitals in Medan city, in order to create healthy environment around hospitals.

  2. Cohesive and mixed sediment in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v3.6 implemented in the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave–Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST r1234

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sherwood

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe and demonstrate algorithms for treating cohesive and mixed sediment that have been added to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS version 3.6, as implemented in the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave–Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST Subversion repository revision 1234. These include the following: floc dynamics (aggregation and disaggregation in the water column; changes in floc characteristics in the seabed; erosion and deposition of cohesive and mixed (combination of cohesive and non-cohesive sediment; and biodiffusive mixing of bed sediment. These routines supplement existing non-cohesive sediment modules, thereby increasing our ability to model fine-grained and mixed-sediment environments. Additionally, we describe changes to the sediment bed layering scheme that improve the fidelity of the modeled stratigraphic record. Finally, we provide examples of these modules implemented in idealized test cases and a realistic application.

  3. Sediment measurement and transport modeling: impact of riparian and filter strip buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriasi, Daniel N; Steiner, Jean L; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2011-01-01

    Well-calibrated models are cost-effective tools to quantify environmental benefits of conservation practices, but lack of data for parameterization and evaluation remains a weakness to modeling. Research was conducted in southwestern Oklahoma within the Cobb Creek subwatershed (CCSW) to develop cost-effective methods to collect stream channel parameterization and evaluation data for modeling in watersheds with sparse data. Specifically, (i) simple stream channel observations obtained by rapid geomorphic assessment (RGA) were used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model stream channel variables before calibrating SWAT for streamflow and sediment, and (ii) average annual reservoir sedimentation rate, measured at the Crowder Lake using the acoustic profiling system (APS), was used to cross-check Crowder Lake sediment accumulation rate simulated by SWAT. Additionally, the calibrated and cross-checked SWAT model was used to simulate impacts of riparian forest buffer (RF) and bermudagrass [ (L.) Pers.] filter strip buffer (BFS) on sediment yield and concentration in the CCSW. The measured average annual sedimentation rate was between 1.7 and 3.5 t ha yr compared with simulated sediment rate of 2.4 t ha yr Application of BFS across cropped fields resulted in a 72% reduction of sediment delivery to the stream, while the RF and the combined RF and BFS reduced the suspended sediment concentration at the CCSW outlet by 68 and 73%, respectively. Effective riparian practices have potential to increase reservoir life. These results indicate promise for using the RGA and APS methods to obtain data to improve water quality simulations in ungauged watersheds. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  4. Modelling of flow and settling in storm water sedimentation tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Kluck, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the near future in the Netherlands many reservoirs will have to be built to abate the pollution of the surface water by overflowing storm water from combined sewer systems [Kluck, 1992-a]. These reservoirs, called storm water sedimentation tanks, reduce the pollution in two ways. The most important is by simply storing a part of the sewage (waste water and storm water) and thus reducing the quantity of overflowing water. The second is by providing flow conditions in which particles can set...

  5. Estuarine Sediment Deposition during Wetland Restoration: A GIS and Remote Sensing Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Michelle; Kuss, Amber; Kentron, Tyler; Remar, Alex; Choksi, Vivek; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of the industrial salt flats in the San Francisco Bay, California is an ongoing wetland rehabilitation project. Remote sensing maps of suspended sediment concentration, and other GIS predictor variables were used to model sediment deposition within these recently restored ponds. Suspended sediment concentrations were calibrated to reflectance values from Landsat TM 5 and ASTER using three statistical techniques -- linear regression, multivariate regression, and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), to map suspended sediment concentrations. Multivariate and ANN regressions using ASTER proved to be the most accurate methods, yielding r2 values of 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Predictor variables such as sediment grain size and tidal frequency were used in the Marsh Sedimentation (MARSED) model for predicting deposition rates for three years. MARSED results for a fully restored pond show a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 66.8 mm (<1) between modeled and field observations. This model was further applied to a pond breached in November 2010 and indicated that the recently breached pond will reach equilibrium levels after 60 months of tidal inundation.

  6. Comparison of HSPF and SWAT models performance for runoff and sediment yield prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sangjun; Brannan, Kevin M; Mostaghimi, Saied; Kim, Sang Min

    2007-09-01

    A watershed model can be used to better understand the relationship between land use activities and hydrologic/water quality processes that occur within a watershed. The physically based, distributed parameter model (SWAT) and a conceptual, lumped parameter model (HSPF), were selected and their performance were compared in simulating runoff and sediment yields from the Polecat Creek watershed in Virginia, which is 12,048 ha in size. A monitoring project was conducted in Polecat Creek watershed during the period of October 1994 to June 2000. The observed data (stream flow and sediment yield) from the monitoring project was used in the calibration/validations of the models. The period of September 1996 to June 2000 was used for the calibration and October 1994 to December 1995 was used for the validation of the models. The outputs from the models were compared to the observed data at several sub-watershed outlets and at the watershed outlet of the Polecat Creek watershed. The results indicated that both models were generally able to simulate stream flow and sediment yields well during both the calibration/validation periods. For annual and monthly loads, HSPF simulated hydrologic and sediment yield more accurately than SWAT at all monitoring sites within the watershed. The results of this study indicate that both the SWAT and HSPF watershed models performed sufficiently well in the simulation of stream flow and sediment yield with HSPF performing moderately better than SWAT for simulation time-steps greater than a month.

  7. Modeling of positron states and annihilation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puska, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical models and computational aspects to describe positron states and to predict positron annihilation characteristics in solids are discussed. The comparison of the calculated positron lifetimes, core annihilation lineshapes, and two-dimensional angular correlation maps with experimental results are used in identifying the structure (including the chemical composition) of vacancy-type defects and their development e.g. during thermal annealing. The basis of the modeling is the two-component density-functional theory. The ensuing approximations and the state-of-the-art electronic-structure computation methods enable practical schemes with a quantitative predicting power. (author)

  8. Modelling spatial and temporal variations of annual suspended sediment yields from small agricultural catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymszewicz, A; Bruen, M; O'Sullivan, J J; Turner, J N; Lawler, D M; Harrington, J R; Conroy, E; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2018-04-01

    Estimates of sediment yield are important for ecological and geomorphological assessment of fluvial systems and for assessment of soil erosion within a catchment. Many regulatory frameworks, such as the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, derived from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) require reporting of annual sediment fluxes. While they may be measured in large rivers, sediment flux is rarely measured in smaller rivers. Measurements of sediment transport at a national scale can be also challenging and therefore, sediment yield models are often utilised by water resource managers for the predictions of sediment yields in the ungauged catchments. Regression based models, calibrated to field measurements, can offer an advantage over complex and computational models due to their simplicity, easy access to input data and due to the additional insights into factors controlling sediment export in the study sites. While traditionally calibrated to long-term average values of sediment yields such predictions cannot represent temporal variations. This study addresses this issue in a novel way by taking account of the variation from year to year in hydrological variables in the developed models (using annual mean runoff, annual mean flow, flows exceeded in five percentage of the time (Q5) and seasonal rainfall estimated separately for each year of observations). Other parameters included in the models represent spatial differences influenced by factors such as soil properties (% poorly drained soils and % peaty soils), land-use (% pasture or % arable lands), channel slope (S1085) and drainage network properties (drainage density). Catchment descriptors together with year-specific hydrological variables can explain both spatial differences and inter-annual variability of suspended sediment yields. The methodology is demonstrated by deriving equations from Irish data-sets (compiled in this study) with the best model

  9. Nitrogen Fate in a Phreatic Fluviokarst Watershed: a Stable Isotope, Sediment Tracing, and Numerical Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Ford, W. I., III; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J. C.; Taylor, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment tracing tools provide an insight into provenance, fate, and transport of sediment and, when coupled to stable isotopes, can elucidate in-stream biogeochemical processes. Particulate nitrogen fate in fluviokarst systems is a relatively unexplored area of research partially due to the complex hydrodynamics at play in karst systems. Karst topography includes turbulent conduits that transport groundwater and contaminants at speeds more typical of open channel flows than laminar Darcian flows. While it is accepted that karst hydro-geomorphology represents a hybrid surface-subsurface system for fluid, further investigation is needed to determine whether, and to what extent, karst systems behave like surface agricultural streams or porous media aquifers with respect to their role in nitrogen cycling. Our objective is to gain an understanding of in-conduit nitrogen processes and their effect on net nitrogen-exports from karst springs to larger waterbodies. The authors apply water, sediment, carbon, and nitrogen tracing techniques to analyze water for nitrate, sediment carbon and nitrogen, and stable sediment nitrogen isotope (δ15N). Thereafter, a new numerical model is formulated that: simulates dissolved inorganic nitrogen and sediment nitrogen transformations in the phreatic karst conduit; couples carbon turnover and nitrogen transformations in the model structure; and simulates the nitrogen stable isotope mass balance for the dissolved and sediment phases. Nitrogen tracing data results show a significant increase in δ15N of sediment nitrogen at the spring outlet relative to karst inputs indicating the potential for isotope fractionation during dissolved N uptake by bed sediments in the conduit and during denitrification within bed sediments. The new numerical modeling structure is then used to reproduce the data results and provide an estimate of the relative dominance of N uptake and denitrification within the surficial sediments of the karst conduit system

  10. Advanced impedance modeling of solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Hjelm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a powerful technique for detailed study of the electrochemical and transport processes that take place in fuel cells and electrolysis cells, including solid oxide cells (SOCs). Meaningful analysis of impedance measurements is nontrivial, however, because a large number...... techniques to provide good guesses for the modeling parameters, like transforming the impedance data to the distribution of relaxation times (DRT), together with experimental parameter sensitivity studies, is the state-of-the-art approach to achieve good EC model fits. Here we present new impedance modeling...... electrode and 2-D gas transport models which have fewer unknown parameters for the same number of processes, (ii) use of a new model fitting algorithm, “multi-fitting”, in which multiple impedance spectra are fit simultaneously with parameters linked based on the variation of measurement conditions, (iii...

  11. PTM Modeling of Dredged Suspended Sediment at Proposed Polaris Point and Ship Repair Facility CVN Berthing Sites - Apra Harbor, Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    sedimentation outside of the channel footprint. For example, dredging near the edge of the footprint can be confined to time periods when tidal currents...Cases 1 or 2 due to the lower loss rate. Sedimentation rates outside the channel prism are further reduced because all sediment is introduced in the...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 16 PTM Modeling of Dredged Suspended Sediment at Proposed Polaris Point and Ship Repair Facility CVN Berthing

  12. Statistical modelling of variability in sediment-water nutrient and oxygen fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetti, Natalia; Witte, Ursula; Heath, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Organic detritus entering, or produced, in the marine environment is re-mineralised to inorganic nutrient in the seafloor sediments. The flux of dissolved inorganic nutrient between the sediment and overlying water column is a key process in the marine ecosystem, which binds the biogeochemical sub-system to the living food web. These fluxes are potentially affected by a wide range of physical and biological factors and disentangling these is a significant challenge. Here we develop a set of General Additive Models (GAM) of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, silicate and oxygen fluxes, based on a year-long campaign of field measurements off the north-east coast of Scotland. We show that sediment grain size, turbidity due to sediment re-suspension, temperature, and biogenic matter content were the key factors affecting oxygen consumption, ammonia and silicate fluxes. However, phosphate fluxes were only related to suspended sediment concentrations, whilst nitrate fluxes showed no clear relationship to any of the expected drivers of change, probably due to the effects of denitrification. Our analyses show that the stoichiometry of nutrient regeneration in the ecosystem is not necessarily constant and may be affected by combinations of processes. We anticipate that our statistical modelling results will form the basis for testing the functionality of process-based mathematical models of whole-sediment biogeochemistry.

  13. A discrete element model for the influence of surfactants on sedimentation characteristics of magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwon Joong

    2018-02-01

    Hindering particle agglomeration and re-dispersion processes, gravitational sedimentation of suspended particles in magnetorheological (MR) fluids causes inferior performance and controllability of MR fluids in response to a user-specified magnetic field. Thus, suspension stability is one of the principal factors to be considered in synthesizing MR fluids. However, only a few computational studies have been reported so far on the sedimentation characteristics of suspended particles under gravity. In this paper, the settling dynamics of paramagnetic particles suspended in MR fluids was investigated via discrete element method (DEM) simulations. This work focuses particularly on developing accurate fluid-particle and particle-particle interaction models which can account for the influence of stabilizing surfactants on the MR fluid sedimentation. Effect of the stabilizing surfactants on interparticle interactions was incorporated into the derivation of a reliable contact-impact model for DEM computation. Also, the influence of the stabilizing additives on fluid-particle interactions was considered by incorporating Stokes drag with shape and wall correction factors into DEM formulation. The results of simulations performed for model validation purposes showed a good agreement with the published sedimentation measurement data in terms of an initial sedimentation velocity and a final sedimentation ratio.

  14. Evaluation of stream water quality data generated from MODIS images in modeling total suspended solid emission to a freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayana, Essayas K; Worqlul, Abeyou W; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2015-08-01

    Modeling of suspended sediment emission into freshwater lakes is challenging due to data gaps in developing countries. Existing models simulate sediment concentration at a gauging station upstream and none of these studies had modeled total suspended solids (TSS) emissions by inflowing rivers to freshwater lakes as there are no TSS measurements at the river mouth in the upper Blue Nile basin. In this study a 10year TSS time series data generated from remotely sensed MODIS/Terra images using established empirical relationship is applied to calibrate and validate a hydrology model for Lake Tana in Upper Blue Nile Basin. The result showed that at a monthly time scale TSS at the river mouth can be replicated with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS) of 0.34 for calibration and 0.21 for validation periods. Percent bias (PBIAS) and ratio of the root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) are all within range. Given the inaccessibility and costliness to measure TSS at river mouths to a lake the results found here are considered useful for suspended sediment budget studies in water bodies of the basin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. State-of-the-art in modeling solute and sediment transport in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    This overview is structured around a comprehensive general model based on the conservation of mass principle as applied to dissolved and particulate constituents in rivers, with a few restricted but more specific examples that illustrate the state-of-the-art in modeling typical physical, chemical, and biological processes undergone by selected constituents in rivers. These examples include: simplified one- and two-dimensional formulations focusing on the hydrodynamic advection and dispersion mechanisms; a two-dimensional biochemial oxygen demand-dissolved oxygen model; a one-dimensional polychlorinated biphenyl model that includes uptake and release of constituent by suspended sediment, and deposition and erosion of contaminated particles; and a one-dimensional sediment transport model that accounts for interactions between the flow and the bed, and is capable of tracking dispersing slugs of sediment through cycles of erosion, entrainment, transport in suspension and as bed load, and burial and storage in the bed

  16. Experimental validation of solid rocket motor damping models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, Cristina; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Mastroddi, Franco; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Trequattrini, Francesco; De Vivo, Alessio

    2017-12-01

    In design and certification of spacecraft, payload/launcher coupled load analyses are performed to simulate the satellite dynamic environment. To obtain accurate predictions, the system damping properties must be properly taken into account in the finite element model used for coupled load analysis. This is typically done using a structural damping characterization in the frequency domain, which is not applicable in the time domain. Therefore, the structural damping matrix of the system must be converted into an equivalent viscous damping matrix when a transient coupled load analysis is performed. This paper focuses on the validation of equivalent viscous damping methods for dynamically condensed finite element models via correlation with experimental data for a realistic structure representative of a slender launch vehicle with solid rocket motors. A second scope of the paper is to investigate how to conveniently choose a single combination of Young's modulus and structural damping coefficient—complex Young's modulus—to approximate the viscoelastic behavior of a solid propellant material in the frequency band of interest for coupled load analysis. A scaled-down test article inspired to the Z9-ignition Vega launcher configuration is designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested to obtain data for validation of the equivalent viscous damping methods. The Z9-like component of the test article is filled with a viscoelastic material representative of the Z9 solid propellant that is also preliminarily tested to investigate the dependency of the complex Young's modulus on the excitation frequency and provide data for the test article finite element model. Experimental results from seismic and shock tests performed on the test configuration are correlated with numerical results from frequency and time domain analyses carried out on its dynamically condensed finite element model to assess the applicability of different equivalent viscous damping methods to describe

  17. Experimental validation of solid rocket motor damping models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, Cristina; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Mastroddi, Franco; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Trequattrini, Francesco; De Vivo, Alessio

    2018-06-01

    In design and certification of spacecraft, payload/launcher coupled load analyses are performed to simulate the satellite dynamic environment. To obtain accurate predictions, the system damping properties must be properly taken into account in the finite element model used for coupled load analysis. This is typically done using a structural damping characterization in the frequency domain, which is not applicable in the time domain. Therefore, the structural damping matrix of the system must be converted into an equivalent viscous damping matrix when a transient coupled load analysis is performed. This paper focuses on the validation of equivalent viscous damping methods for dynamically condensed finite element models via correlation with experimental data for a realistic structure representative of a slender launch vehicle with solid rocket motors. A second scope of the paper is to investigate how to conveniently choose a single combination of Young's modulus and structural damping coefficient—complex Young's modulus—to approximate the viscoelastic behavior of a solid propellant material in the frequency band of interest for coupled load analysis. A scaled-down test article inspired to the Z9-ignition Vega launcher configuration is designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested to obtain data for validation of the equivalent viscous damping methods. The Z9-like component of the test article is filled with a viscoelastic material representative of the Z9 solid propellant that is also preliminarily tested to investigate the dependency of the complex Young's modulus on the excitation frequency and provide data for the test article finite element model. Experimental results from seismic and shock tests performed on the test configuration are correlated with numerical results from frequency and time domain analyses carried out on its dynamically condensed finite element model to assess the applicability of different equivalent viscous damping methods to describe

  18. Soil erosion and sediment connectivity modelling in Burgundy vineyards: case study of Mercurey, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fressard, Mathieu; Cossart, Étienne; Lejot, Jêrome; Michel, Kristell; Perret, Franck; Christol, Aurélien; Mathian, Hélène; Navratil, Oldrich

    2017-04-01

    This research aims at assessing the impact of agricultural landscape structure on soil erosion and sediment connectivity at the catchment scale. The investigations were conducted the vineyards of Mercurey (Burgundy, France), characterized by important issues related to soil loss, flash floods and associated management infrastructures maintenance. The methodology is based on two main steps that include (1) field investigations and (2) modelling. The field investigations consists in DEM acquisition by LiDAR imaging from a drone, soil mapping and human infrastructures impacting runoff classification and mapping (such as crop rows, storm water-basins, drainage network, roads, etc.). These data aims at supplying the models with field observations. The modelling strategy is based on two main steps: First, the modelling of soil sensitivity to erosion, using the spatial application of the RUSLE equation. Secondly, to assess the sediment connectivity in this area, a model based on graph theory developed by Cossart and Fressard (2017) is tested. The results allow defining the influence of different anthropogenic structures on the sediment connectivity and soil erosion at the basin scale. A set of sub-basins influenced by various anthropogenic infrastructures have been identified and show contrasted sensitivities to erosion. The modelling of sediment connectivity show that the runoff pattern is strongly influenced by the vine rows orientation and the drainage network. I has also permitted to identify non collected (by storm water-basins) areas that strongly contribute to the turbid floods sediment supply and to soil loss during high intensity precipitations events.

  19. Sediment transport and deposition on a river-dominated tidal flat: An idealized model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Chen, Shih-Nan; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Ralston, David K.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-D hydrodynamic model is used to investigate how different size classes of river-derived sediment are transported, exported and trapped on an idealized, river-dominated tidal flat. The model is composed of a river channel flanked by sloping tidal flats, a configuration motivated by the intertidal region of the Skagit River mouth in Washington State, United States. It is forced by mixed tides and a pulse of freshwater and sediment with various settling velocities. In this system, the river not only influences stratification but also contributes a significant cross-shore transport. As a result, the bottom stress is strongly ebb-dominated in the channel because of the seaward advance of strong river flow as the tidal flats drain during ebbs. Sediment deposition patterns and mass budgets are sensitive to settling velocity. The lateral sediment spreading scales with an advective distance (settling time multiplied by lateral flow speed), thereby confining the fast settling sediment classes in the channel. Residual sediment transport is landward on the flats, because of settling lag, but is strongly seaward in the channel. The seaward transport mainly occurs during big ebbs and is controlled by a length scale ratio Ld/XWL, where Ld is a cross-shore advective distance (settling time multiplied by river outlet velocity), and XWL is the immersed cross-shore length of the intertidal zone. Sediment trapping requires Ld/XWL stratification and reducing tidal range both favor sediment trapping, whereas varying channel geometries and asymmetry of tides has relatively small impacts. Implications of the modeling results on the south Skagit intertidal region are discussed.

  20. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberman, Ben [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Martinez-Baca, Carlos [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Rush, Greg [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  1. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: observations and a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and

  2. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: Observations and a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-12-01

    and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and anthropogenic loss.

  3. Curcumin-Artemisinin Coamorphous Solid: Xenograft Model Preclinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Chaitanya Mannava

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a natural compound present in Indian spice turmeric. It has diverse pharmacological action but low oral solubility and bioavailability continue to limit its use as a drug. With the aim of improving the bioavailability of Curcumin (CUR, we evaluated Curcumin-Pyrogallol (CUR-PYR cocrystal and Curcumin-Artemisinin (CUR-ART coamorphous solid. Both of these solid forms exhibited superior dissolution and pharmacokinetic behavior compared to pure CUR, which is practically insoluble in water. CUR-ART coamorphous solid showed two fold higher bioavailability than CUR-PYR cocrystal (at 200 mg/kg oral dose. Moreover, in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, CUR-ART is stable up to 3 and 12 h, respectively. In addition, CUR-PYR and CUR-ART showed no adverse effects in toxicology studies (10 times higher dose at 2000 mg/kg. CUR-ART showed higher therapeutic effect and inhibited approximately 62% of tumor growth at 100 mg/kg oral dosage of CUR in xenograft models, which is equal to the positive control drug, doxorubicin (2 mg/kg by i.v. administration.

  4. Evaluation of 10 cross-shore sediment transport morphological models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoonees, JS

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available .S. Schoonees, A.K. Theron/Coastal Engineering 25 (1995) 141 11 0.99 m sediment build-up or beach profile...

  5. ANN modelling of sediment concentration in the dynamic glacial environment of Gangotri in Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nandita; Chakrapani, G J

    2015-08-01

    The present study explores for the first time the possibility of modelling sediment concentration with artificial neural networks (ANNs) at Gangotri, the source of Bhagirathi River in the Himalaya. Discharge, rainfall and temperature have been considered as the main controlling factors of variations in sediment concentration in the dynamic glacial environment of Gangotri. Fourteen feed forward neural networks with error back propagation algorithm have been created, trained and tested for prediction of sediment concentration. Seven models (T1-T7) have been trained and tested in the non-updating mode whereas remaining seven models (T1a-T7a) have been trained in the updating mode. The non-updating mode refers to the scenario where antecedent time (previous time step) values are not used as input to the model. In case of the updating mode, antecedent time values are used as network inputs. The inputs applied in the models are either the variables mentioned above as individual factors (single input networks) or a combination of them (multi-input networks). The suitability of employing antecedent time-step values as network inputs has hence been checked by comparative analysis of model performance in the two modes. The simple feed forward network has been improvised with a series parallel non-linear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) architecture wherein true values of sediment concentration have been fed as input during training. In the glacial scenario of Gangotri, maximum sediment movement takes place during the melt period (May-October). Hence, daily data of discharge, rainfall, temperature and sediment concentration for five consecutive melt periods (May-October, 2000-2004) have been used for modelling. High Coefficient of determination values [0.77-0.88] have been obtained between observed and ANN-predicted values of sediment concentration. The study has brought out relationships between variables that are not reflected in normal statistical analysis. A

  6. Metal availability in a highly contaminated, dredged-sediment disposal site: field measurements and geochemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Julie; Guérin, Valérie; Bataillard, Philippe; van der Lee, Jan; Laboudigue, Agnès

    2010-09-01

    Two complementary approaches were used to characterize arsenic and metal mobilizations from a dredged-sediment disposal site: a detailed field study combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. Contaminants in sediments were found to be mainly present as sulfides subject to oxidation. Secondary phases (carbonates, sulfates, (hydr)oxides) were also observed. Oxidative processes occurred at different rates depending on physicochemical conditions and contaminant contents in the sediment. Two distinct areas were identified on the site, each corresponding to a specific contaminant mobility behavior. In a reducing area, Fe and As were highly soluble and illustrated anoxic behavior. In well-oxygenated material, groundwater was highly contaminated in Zn, Cd and Pb. A third zone in which sediments and groundwater were less contaminated was also characterized. This study enabled us to prioritize remediation work, which should aim to limit infiltration and long-term environmental impact. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance testing of the sediment-contaminant transport model, SERATRA, at different rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1982-04-01

    Mathematical models of sediment-contaminant migration in surface water must account for transport, intermedia transfer, decay and degradation, and transformation processes. The unsteady, two dimensional, sediment-contaminant transport code, SERATRA (Onishi, Schreiber and Codell 1980) includes these mechanisms. To assess the accuracy of SERATRA to simulate the sediment-contaminant transport and fate processes, the code was tested against one-dimensional analytical solutions, checked for its mass balance, and applied to field sites. The field application cases ranged from relatively simple, steady conditions to unsteady, nonuniform conditions for large, intermediate, and small rivers. It was found that SERATRA is capable of simulating sediment-contaminant transport under a wide range of conditions

  8. Dynamic hydraulic models to study sedimentation in drinking water networks in detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. M. Pothof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in drinking water networks can lead to discolouration complaints. A sufficient criterion to prevent sedimentation in the Dutch drinking water networks is a daily maximum velocity of 0.25 m s−1. Flushing experiments have shown that this criterion is a sufficient condition for a clean network, but not a necessary condition. Drinking water networks include many locations with a maximum velocity well below 0.25 m s−1 without accumulated sediments. Other criteria need to be developed to predict which locations are susceptible to sedimentation and to prevent sedimentation in future networks. More distinctive criteria are helpful to prioritise flushing operations and to prevent water quality complaints.

    The authors use three different numerical modelling approaches – quasi-steady, rigid column and water hammer – with a temporal discretisation of 1 s in order to assess the influence of unsteady flows on the wall shear stress, causing resuspension of sediment particles. The model predictions are combined with results from flushing experiments in the drinking water distribution system of Purmerend, the Netherlands. The waterhammer model does not result in essentially different flow distribution patterns, compared to the rigid column and quasi-steady modelling approach. The extra information from the waterhammer model is a velocity oscillation of approximately 0.02 m s−1 around the quasi-steady solution. The presence of stagnation zones and multiple flow direction reversals seem to be interesting new parameters to predict sediment accumulation, which are consistent with the observed turbidity data and theoretical considerations on critical shear stresses.

  9. Application of 2-D sediment model to fluctuating backwater area of Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Fan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of backflow, a two-dimensional mathematical model of sediment movement was established. The complexity of the watercourse boundary at the confluence of the main stream and the tributary was dealt with using a boundary-fitting orthogonal coordinate system. The basic equation of the two-dimensional total sediment load model, the numerical calculation format, and key problems associated with using the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system were discussed. Water and sediment flow in the Chongqing reach of the Yangtze River were simulated. The calculated water level, flow velocity distribution, amount of silting and scouring, and alluvial distribution are found to be in agreement with the measured data, which indicates that the numerical model and calculation method are reasonable. The model can be used for calculation of flow in a relatively complicated river network.

  10. Space modeling with SolidWorks and NX

    CERN Document Server

    Duhovnik, Jože; Drešar, Primož

    2015-01-01

    Through a series of step-by-step tutorials and numerous hands-on exercises, this book aims to equip the reader with both a good understanding of the importance of space in the abstract world of engineers and the ability to create a model of a product in virtual space – a skill essential for any designer or engineer who needs to present ideas concerning a particular product within a professional environment. The exercises progress logically from the simple to the more complex; while SolidWorks or NX is the software used, the underlying philosophy is applicable to all modeling software. In each case, the explanation covers the entire procedure from the basic idea and production capabilities through to the real model; the conversion from 3D model to 2D manufacturing drawing is also clearly explained. Topics covered include modeling of prism, axisymmetric, symmetric, and sophisticated shapes; digitization of physical models using modeling software; creation of a CAD model starting from a physical model; free fo...

  11. Modeling Input Errors to Improve Uncertainty Estimates for Sediment Transport Model Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J. Y.; Niemann, J. D.; Greimann, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bayesian methods using Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms have recently been applied to sediment transport models to assess the uncertainty in the model predictions due to the parameter values. Unfortunately, the existing approaches can only attribute overall uncertainty to the parameters. This limitation is critical because no model can produce accurate forecasts if forced with inaccurate input data, even if the model is well founded in physical theory. In this research, an existing Bayesian method is modified to consider the potential errors in input data during the uncertainty evaluation process. The input error is modeled using Gaussian distributions, and the means and standard deviations are treated as uncertain parameters. The proposed approach is tested by coupling it to the Sedimentation and River Hydraulics - One Dimension (SRH-1D) model and simulating a 23-km reach of the Tachia River in Taiwan. The Wu equation in SRH-1D is used for computing the transport capacity for a bed material load of non-cohesive material. Three types of input data are considered uncertain: (1) the input flowrate at the upstream boundary, (2) the water surface elevation at the downstream boundary, and (3) the water surface elevation at a hydraulic structure in the middle of the reach. The benefits of modeling the input errors in the uncertainty analysis are evaluated by comparing the accuracy of the most likely forecast and the coverage of the observed data by the credible intervals to those of the existing method. The results indicate that the internal boundary condition has the largest uncertainty among those considered. Overall, the uncertainty estimates from the new method are notably different from those of the existing method for both the calibration and forecast periods.

  12. Axisymmetric Lattice Boltzmann Model of Droplet Impact on Solid Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgamoni, Hussein; Yong, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Droplet impact is a ubiquitous fluid phenomena encountered in scientific and engineering applications such as ink-jet printing, coating, electronics manufacturing, and many others. It is of great technological importance to understand the detailed dynamics of drop impact on various surfaces. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) emerges as an efficient method for modeling complex fluid systems involving rapidly evolving fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces with complex geometries. In this work, we model droplet impact on flat solid substrates with well-defined wetting behavior using a two-phase axisymmetric LBM with high density and viscosity contrasts. We extend the two-dimensional Lee and Liu model to capture axisymmetric effect in the normal impact. First we compare the 2D axisymmetric results with the 2D and 3D results reported by Lee and Liu to probe the effect of axisymmetric terms. Then, we explore the effects of Weber number, Ohnesorge number, and droplet-surface equilibrium contact angle on the impact. The dynamic contact angle and spreading factor of the droplet during impact are investigated to qualitatively characterize the impact dynamics.

  13. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling daily sediment yield from a meso-scale catchment, a case study in SW Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keesstra, S. D.; Schoorl, J.; Temme, A. J. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    For management purposes it is important to be able to assess the sediment yield of a catchment. however, at this moment models designed for estimating sediment yield are only capable to give either very detailed storm-based information or year averages. The storm-based models require input data that are not available for most catchment. However, models that estimate yearly averages, ignore a lot of other detailed information, like daily discharge and precipitation data. There are currently no models available that model sediment yield on the temporal scale of one day and the spatial scale of a meso-scale catchment, without making use of very detailed input data. To fill this scientific and management gap, landscape evolution model LAPSUS has been adapted to model sediment yield on a daily basis. This model has the water balance as a base. To allow calibration with the discharge at the outlet, a subsurface flow module has been added to the model. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Modelling daily sediment yield from a meso-scale catchment, a case study in SW Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keesstra, S. D.; Schoorl, J.; Temme, A. J. A. M.

    2009-07-01

    For management purposes it is important to be able to assess the sediment yield of a catchment. however, at this moment models designed for estimating sediment yield are only capable to give either very detailed storm-based information or year averages. The storm-based models require input data that are not available for most catchment. However, models that estimate yearly averages, ignore a lot of other detailed information, like daily discharge and precipitation data. There are currently no models available that model sediment yield on the temporal scale of one day and the spatial scale of a meso-scale catchment, without making use of very detailed input data. To fill this scientific and management gap, landscape evolution model LAPSUS has been adapted to model sediment yield on a daily basis. This model has the water balance as a base. To allow calibration with the discharge at the outlet, a subsurface flow module has been added to the model. (Author) 12 refs.

  16. Assimilation of remote sensing observations into a sediment transport model of China's largest freshwater lake: spatial and temporal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoling; Lu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Numerical models are important tools that are used in studies of sediment dynamics in inland and coastal waters, and these models can now benefit from the use of integrated remote sensing observations. This study explores a scheme for assimilating remotely sensed suspended sediment (from charge-coupled device (CCD) images obtained from the Huanjing (HJ) satellite) into a two-dimensional sediment transport model of Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China. Optimal interpolation is used as the assimilation method, and model predictions are obtained by combining four remote sensing images. The parameters for optimal interpolation are determined through a series of assimilation experiments evaluating the sediment predictions based on field measurements. The model with assimilation of remotely sensed sediment reduces the root-mean-square error of the predicted sediment concentrations by 39.4% relative to the model without assimilation, demonstrating the effectiveness of the assimilation scheme. The spatial effect of assimilation is explored by comparing model predictions with remotely sensed sediment, revealing that the model with assimilation generates reasonable spatial distribution patterns of suspended sediment. The temporal effect of assimilation on the model's predictive capabilities varies spatially, with an average temporal effect of approximately 10.8 days. The current velocities which dominate the rate and direction of sediment transport most likely result in spatial differences in the temporal effect of assimilation on model predictions.

  17. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H. I.; EI-Ahwany, A.H.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  18. Quantifying and modeling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, A. K.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion is a power process that continuously alters the Earth's landscape. Human activities, such as construction and agricultural practices, and natural events, such as forest fires and landslides, disturb the landscape and intensify erosion processes leading to sudden increases in runoff sediment concentrations and degraded stream water quality. Understanding soil erosion and sediment transport processes is of great importance to researchers and practicing engineers, who routinely use models to predict soil erosion and sediment movement for varied land use and climate change scenarios. However, existing erosion models are limited in their applicability to constructions sites which have highly variable soil conditions (density, moisture, surface roughness, and best management practices) that change often in both space and time. The goal of this research is to improve the understanding, predictive capabilities and integration of treatment methodologies for controlling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites. This research combines modeling with field monitoring and laboratory experiments to quantify: (a) spatial and temporal distribution of soil conditions on construction sites, (b) soil erosion due to event rainfall, and (c) potential offsite discharge of sediment with and without treatment practices. Field sites in southern California were selected to monitor the effects of common construction activities (ex., cut/fill, grading, foundations, roads) on soil conditions and sediment discharge. Laboratory experiments were performed in the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL), part of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University, to quantify the impact of individual factors leading to sediment export. SERL experiments utilize a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 m, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). Preliminary modeling, field and laboratory

  19. Converting boundary representation solid models to half-space representation models for Monte Carlo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J. E.; Eddy, M. J.; Sutton, T. M.; Altomari, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid modeling computer software systems provide for the design of three-dimensional solid models used in the design and analysis of physical components. The current state-of-the-art in solid modeling representation uses a boundary representation format in which geometry and topology are used to form three-dimensional boundaries of the solid. The geometry representation used in these systems is cubic B-spline curves and surfaces - a network of cubic B-spline functions in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate space. Many Monte Carlo codes, however, use a geometry representation in which geometry units are specified by intersections and unions of half-spaces. This paper describes an algorithm for converting from a boundary representation to a half-space representation. (authors)

  20. Application of hierarchical Bayesian unmixing models in river sediment source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Will; Smith, Hugh; Navas, Ana; Bodé, Samuel; Goddard, Rupert; Zou Kuzyk, Zou; Lennard, Amy; Lobb, David; Owens, Phil; Palazon, Leticia; Petticrew, Ellen; Gaspar, Leticia; Stock, Brian; Boeckx, Pacsal; Semmens, Brice

    2016-04-01

    Fingerprinting and unmixing concepts are used widely across environmental disciplines for forensic evaluation of pollutant sources. In aquatic and marine systems, this includes tracking the source of organic and inorganic pollutants in water and linking problem sediment to soil erosion and land use sources. It is, however, the particular complexity of ecological systems that has driven creation of the most sophisticated mixing models, primarily to (i) evaluate diet composition in complex ecological food webs, (ii) inform population structure and (iii) explore animal movement. In the context of the new hierarchical Bayesian unmixing model, MIXSIAR, developed to characterise intra-population niche variation in ecological systems, we evaluate the linkage between ecological 'prey' and 'consumer' concepts and river basin sediment 'source' and sediment 'mixtures' to exemplify the value of ecological modelling tools to river basin science. Recent studies have outlined advantages presented by Bayesian unmixing approaches in handling complex source and mixture datasets while dealing appropriately with uncertainty in parameter probability distributions. MixSIAR is unique in that it allows individual fixed and random effects associated with mixture hierarchy, i.e. factors that might exert an influence on model outcome for mixture groups, to be explored within the source-receptor framework. This offers new and powerful ways of interpreting river basin apportionment data. In this contribution, key components of the model are evaluated in the context of common experimental designs for sediment fingerprinting studies namely simple, nested and distributed catchment sampling programmes. Illustrative examples using geochemical and compound specific stable isotope datasets are presented and used to discuss best practice with specific attention to (1) the tracer selection process, (2) incorporation of fixed effects relating to sample timeframe and sediment type in the modelling

  1. Modeling plan-form deltaic response to changes in fluvial sediment supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, J.H.; Ashton, A.D.; Roos, Pieter C.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Giosan, L.; Kranenburg, W.M.; Horstman, E.M.; Wijnberg, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of changes in fluvial sediment supply on the plan-form shape of wave-dominated deltas. We apply a one-line numerical shoreline model to calculate shoreline evolution after (I) elimination and (II) time-periodic variation of fluvial input. Model results suggest four

  2. Quantification of sediment-water interactions in a polluted tropical river through biogeochemical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, A.D.; Meysman, F.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Bonnet, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Diagenetic modeling presents an interesting and robust way to understand sediment-water column processes. Here we present the application of such a model to the Day River in Northern Vietnam, a system that is subject to high levels of domestic wastewater inputs from the Hanoi metropolitan area.

  3. Modelling of sedimentation and remobilization in in-line storage sewers for stormwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehmann, T; Flores, C; Luekewille, F; Mietzel, T; Spengler, B; Geiger, W F

    2005-01-01

    A special arrangement of combined sewer overflow tanks is the in-line storage sewer with downstream discharge (ISS-down). This layout has the advantage that, besides the sewer system, no other structures are required for stormwater treatment. The verification of the efficiency with respect to the processes of sedimentation and remobilization of sediment within the in-line storage sewer with downstream discharge is carried out in a combination of a field and a pilot plant study. The model study was carried out using a pilot plant model scaled 1:13. The following is intended to present some results of the pilot plant study and the mathematical empirical modelling of the sedimentation and remobilization process.

  4. Model Projections of Future Fluvial Sediment Delivery to Major Deltas Under Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, S. E.; Dunn, F.; Nicholls, R. J.; Cohen, S.; Zarfl, C.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are important hot spots for climate change impacts on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Most of the world's deltas are sinking as a result of natural and anthropogenic subsidence and due to eustatic sea level rise. The ability to predict rates of delta aggradation is therefore critical to assessments of the extent to which sedimentation can potentially offset sea level rise, but our ability to make such predictions is severely hindered by a lack of insight into future trends of the fluvial sediment load supplied to their deltas by feeder watersheds. To address this gap we investigate fluvial sediment fluxes under future environmental change for a selection (47) of the world's major river deltas. Specifically, we employed the numerical model WBMsed to project future variations in mean annual fluvial sediment loads under a range of environmental change scenarios that account for changes in climate, socio-economics and dam construction. Our projections indicate a clear decrease (by 34 to 41% on average, depending on the specific scenario) in future fluvial sediment supply to most of the 47 deltas. These reductions in sediment delivery are driven primarily by anthropogenic disturbances, with reservoir construction being the most influential factor globally. Our results indicate the importance of developing new management strategies for reservoir construction and operation.

  5. Tissue Acoustoelectric Effect Modeling From Solid Mechanics Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xizi; Qin, Yexian; Xu, Yanbin; Ingram, Pier; Witte, Russell S; Dong, Feng

    2017-10-01

    The acoustoelectric (AE) effect is a basic physical phenomenon, which underlies the changes made in the conductivity of a medium by the application of focused ultrasound. Recently, based on the AE effect, several biomedical imaging techniques have been widely studied, such as ultrasound-modulated electrical impedance tomography and ultrasound current source density imaging. To further investigate the mechanism of the AE effect in tissue and to provide guidance for such techniques, we have modeled the tissue AE effect using the theory of solid mechanics. Both bulk compression and thermal expansion of tissue are considered and discussed. Computation simulation shows that the muscle AE effect result, conductivity change rate, is 3.26×10 -3 with 4.3-MPa peak pressure, satisfying the theoretical value. Bulk compression plays the main role for muscle AE effect, while thermal expansion makes almost no contribution to it. In addition, the AE signals of porcine muscle are measured at different focal positions. With the same magnitude order and the same change trend, the experiment result confirms that the simulation result is effective. Both simulation and experimental results validate that tissue AE effect modeling using solid mechanics theory is feasible, which is of significance for the further development of related biomedical imaging techniques.

  6. Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for industrial and anthropogenic waste-indicator compounds in sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; ReVello, R.C.; Smith, S.G.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    A broad range of organic compounds is recognized as environmentally relevant for their potential adverse effects on human and ecosystem health. This method was developed to better determine the distribution of 61 compounds that are typically associated with industrial and household waste as well as some that are toxic and known (or suspected) for endocrine-disrupting potential extracted from environmental sediment samples. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to reduce sample preparation time, reduce solvent consumption to one-fifth of that required using dichloromethane-based Soxhlet extraction, and to minimize background interferences for full scan GC/MS analysis. Recoveries from spiked Ottawa sand, commercially available topsoil, and environmental stream sediment, fortified at 4-720 ??g per compound, averaged 76 ?? 13%. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds ranged from 12.5 to 520 ??g/kg, based on 25 g samples. Results from 103 environmental sediment samples show that 36 out of 61 compounds (59%) were detected in at least one sample with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected compound, beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol, was detected in 87 of the 103 (84.5%) environmental samples with a concentration range 360-100,000 ??g/kg. Results for a standard reference material using dichloromethane Soxhlet-based extraction are also compared. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. An Eulerian two-phase flow model for sediment transport under realistic surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T. J.; Kim, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Chauchat, J.

    2017-12-01

    Wave-driven sediment transport is of major importance in driving beach morphology. However, the complex mechanisms associated with unsteadiness, free-surface effects, and wave-breaking turbulence have not been fully understood. Particularly, most existing models for sediment transport adopt bottom boundary layer approximation that mimics the flow condition in oscillating water tunnel (U-tube). However, it is well-known that there are key differences in sediment transport when comparing to large wave flume datasets, although the number of wave flume experiments are relatively limited regardless of its importance. Thus, a numerical model which can resolve the entire water column from the bottom boundary layer to the free surface can be a powerful tool. This study reports an on-going effort to better understand and quantify sediment transport under shoaling and breaking surface waves through the creation of open-source numerical models in the OpenFOAM framework. An Eulerian two-phase flow model, SedFoam (Cheng et al., 2017, Coastal Eng.) is fully coupled with a volume-of-fluid solver, interFoam/waves2Foam (Jacobsen et al., 2011, Int. J. Num. Fluid). The fully coupled model, named SedWaveFoam, regards the air and water phases as two immiscible fluids with the interfaces evolution resolved, and the sediment particles as dispersed phase. We carried out model-data comparisons with the large wave flume sheet flow data for nonbreaking waves reported by Dohmen-Janssen and Hanes (2002, J. Geophysical Res.) and good agreements were obtained for sediment concentration and net transport rate. By further simulating a case without free-surface (mimic U-tube condition), the effects of free-surface, most notably the boundary layer streaming effect on total transport, can be quantified.

  8. Radiocaesium, plutonium and americium partitioning and solid speciation in sized, inter-tidal sediments from Strangford Lough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledgerwood, F.K.; Larmour, R.A.; Mitchell, P.I.; Leon Vintro, L.; Ryan, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Fine-grained surface (0-2 cm) sediment was collected at an inter-tidal site (Mahee Island) in Strangford Lough, on the NE coast of Ireland in September 1997. The sediment was wet-sieved into standard sized fractions using Endecott test sieves and the fractions assayed for 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am content. Sub-samples of each fraction were measured with a Malvern 2600 laser diffraction analyser, which confirmed that >90% of the particles in each fraction was in the defined size range

  9. Identifying the Correlation between Water Quality Data and LOADEST Model Behavior in Annual Sediment Load Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Shik Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality samples are typically collected less frequently than flow since water quality sampling is costly. Load Estimator (LOADEST, provided by the United States Geological Survey, is used to predict water quality concentration (or load on days when flow data are measured so that the water quality data are sufficient for annual pollutant load estimation. However, there is a need to identify water quality data requirements for accurate pollutant load estimation. Measured daily sediment data were collected from 211 streams. Estimated annual sediment loads from LOADEST and subsampled data were compared to the measured annual sediment loads (true load. The means of flow for calibration data were correlated to model behavior. A regression equation was developed to compute the required mean of flow in calibration data to best calibrate the LOADEST regression model coefficients. LOADEST runs were performed to investigate the correlation between the mean flow in calibration data and model behaviors as daily water quality data were subsampled. LOADEST calibration data used sediment concentration data for flows suggested by the regression equation. Using the mean flow calibrated by the regression equation reduced errors in annual sediment load estimation from −39.7% to −10.8% compared to using all available data.

  10. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    CERN Document Server

    Um, Dugan

    2016-01-01

    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  11. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates...... LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.......e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost...

  12. Thermodynamics of a model solid with magnetoelastic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałowski, K.; Balcerzak, T.; Jaščur, M.

    2018-01-01

    In the paper a study of a model magnetoelastic solid system is presented. The system of interest is a mean-field magnet with nearest-neighbour ferromagnetic interactions and the underlying s.c. crystalline lattice with the long-range Morse interatomic potential and the anharmonic Debye model for the lattice vibrations. The influence of the external magnetic field on the thermodynamics is investigated, with special emphasis put on the consequences of the magnetoelastic coupling, introduced by the power-law distance dependence of the magnetic exchange integral. Within the fully self-consistent, Gibbs energy-based formalism such thermodynamic quantities as the entropy, the specific heat as well as the lattice and magnetic response functions are calculated and discussed. To complete the picture, the magnetocaloric effect is characterized by analysis of the isothermal entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change in the presence of the external pressure.

  13. Thermal radiation modelling in a tubular solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, M.E.; Pharoah, J.G.; Vandersteen, J.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are becoming the fuel cell of choice among companies and research groups interested in small power generation units. Questions still exist, however, about the operating characteristics of these devices; in particular the temperature distribution in the fuel cell. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) a model is proposed that incorporates conduction, convection and radiation. Both surface-to-surface and participating media are considered. It is hoped that a more accurate account of the temperature field in the various flow channels and cell components will be made to assist work on design of fuel cell components and reaction mechanisms. The model, when incorporating radiative heat transfer with participating media, predicts substantially lower operating temperatures and smaller temperature gradients than it does without these equations. It also shows the importance of the cathode air channel in cell cooling. (author)

  14. Modeling erosion and sedimentation coupled with hydrological and overland flow processes at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongho; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Katopodes, Nikolaos D.

    2013-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional, physically based model of soil erosion and sediment transport coupled to models of hydrological and overland flow processes has been developed. The Hairsine-Rose formulation of erosion and deposition processes is used to account for size-selective sediment transport and differentiate bed material into original and deposited soil layers. The formulation is integrated within the framework of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic model tRIBS-OFM, Triangulated irregular network-based, Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator-Overland Flow Model. The integrated model explicitly couples the hydrodynamic formulation with the advection-dominated transport equations for sediment of multiple particle sizes. To solve the system of equations including both the Saint-Venant and the Hairsine-Rose equations, the finite volume method is employed based on Roe's approximate Riemann solver on an unstructured grid. The formulation yields space-time dynamics of flow, erosion, and sediment transport at fine scale. The integrated model has been successfully verified with analytical solutions and empirical data for two benchmark cases. Sensitivity tests to grid resolution and the number of used particle sizes have been carried out. The model has been validated at the catchment scale for the Lucky Hills watershed located in southeastern Arizona, USA, using 10 events for which catchment-scale streamflow and sediment yield data were available. Since the model is based on physical laws and explicitly uses multiple types of watershed information, satisfactory results were obtained. The spatial output has been analyzed and the driving role of topography in erosion processes has been discussed. It is expected that the integrated formulation of the model has the promise to reduce uncertainties associated with typical parameterizations of flow and erosion processes. A potential for more credible modeling of earth-surface processes is thus anticipated.

  15. Comparison of Soil Models in the Thermodynamic Analysis of a Submarine Pipeline Buried in Seabed Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Waldemar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with mathematical modelling of a seabed layer in the thermodynamic analysis of a submarine pipeline buried in seabed sediments. The existing seabed soil models: a “soil ring” and a semi-infinite soil layer are discussed in a comparative analysis of the shape factor of a surrounding soil layer. The meaning of differences in the heat transfer coefficient of a soil layer is illustrated based on a computational example of the longitudinal temperaturę profile of a -kilometer long crude oil pipeline buried in seabed sediments.

  16. A three-dimensional cohesive sediment transport model with data assimilation: Model development, sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daosheng; Cao, Anzhou; Zhang, Jicai; Fan, Daidu; Liu, Yongzhi; Zhang, Yue

    2018-06-01

    Based on the theory of inverse problems, a three-dimensional sigma-coordinate cohesive sediment transport model with the adjoint data assimilation is developed. In this model, the physical processes of cohesive sediment transport, including deposition, erosion and advection-diffusion, are parameterized by corresponding model parameters. These parameters are usually poorly known and have traditionally been assigned empirically. By assimilating observations into the model, the model parameters can be estimated using the adjoint method; meanwhile, the data misfit between model results and observations can be decreased. The model developed in this work contains numerous parameters; therefore, it is necessary to investigate the parameter sensitivity of the model, which is assessed by calculating a relative sensitivity function and the gradient of the cost function with respect to each parameter. The results of parameter sensitivity analysis indicate that the model is sensitive to the initial conditions, inflow open boundary conditions, suspended sediment settling velocity and resuspension rate, while the model is insensitive to horizontal and vertical diffusivity coefficients. A detailed explanation of the pattern of sensitivity analysis is also given. In ideal twin experiments, constant parameters are estimated by assimilating 'pseudo' observations. The results show that the sensitive parameters are estimated more easily than the insensitive parameters. The conclusions of this work can provide guidance for the practical applications of this model to simulate sediment transport in the study area.

  17. Modeling of Solid State Transformer for the FREEDM System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Youyuan

    The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM system demonstration. The energy based control strategy for a three-stage SST is analyzed and applied. A simplified average model of the three-stage SST that is suitable for simulation in real time digital simulator (RTDS) has been developed in this study. The model is also useful for general time-domain power system analysis and simulation. The proposed simplified av-erage model has been validated in MATLAB and PLECS. The accuracy of the model has been verified through comparison with the cycle-by-cycle average (CCA) model and de-tailed switching model. These models are also implemented in PSCAD, and a special strategy to implement the phase shift modulation has been proposed to enable the switching model simulation in PSCAD. The implementation of the CHIL test environment of the SST in RTDS is described in this report. The parameter setup of the model has been discussed in detail. One of the dif-ficulties is the choice of the damping factor, which is revealed in this paper. Also the grounding of the system has large impact on the RTDS simulation. Another problem is that the performance of the system is highly dependent on the switch parameters such as voltage and current ratings. Finally, the functionalities of the SST have been realized on the platform. The distributed energy storage interface power injection and reverse power flow have been validated. Some limitations are noticed and discussed through the simulation on RTDS.

  18. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  19. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2012-12-15

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Development of a Coupled Hydrological/Sediment Yield Model for a Watershed at Regional Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandaril, Narayan; Crosson, William; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy; Liu, Yaping; Soman, Vishwas

    1998-01-01

    Development of a hydrologic model for the study of environmental conservation requires a comprehensive understanding of individual-storm affecting hydrologic and sedimentologic processes. The hydrologic models that we are currently coupling are the Simulator for Hydrology and Energy Exchange at the Land Surface (SHEELS) and the Distributed Runoff Model (DRUM). SHEELS runs continuously to estimate surface energy fluxes and sub-surface soil water fluxes, while DRUM operates during and following precipitation events to predict surface runoff and peak flow through channel routing. The lateral re-distribution of surface water determined by DRUM is passed to SHEELS, which then adjusts soil water contents throughout the profile. The model SHEELS is well documented in Smith et al. (1993) and Laymen and Crosson (1995). The model DRUM is well documented in Vieux et al. (1990) and Vieux and Gauer (1994). The coupled hydrologic model, SHEELS/DRUM, does not simulate sedimentologic processes. The simulation of the sedimentologic process is important for environmental conservation planning and management. Therefore, we attempted to develop a conceptual frame work for coupling a sediment yield model with SHEELS/DRUM to estimate individual-storm sediment yield from a watershed at a regional level. The sediment yield model that will be used for this study is the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) with some modifications to enable the model to predict individual-storm sediment yield. The predicted sediment yield does not include wind erosion and erosion caused by irrigation and snow melt. Units used for this study are those given by Foster et al. (1981) for SI units.

  1. Preliminary study on performance of a coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model on small domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyif, Teuku M.; Kato, Shigeru; Syamsidik, Okabe, Takumi

    2017-10-01

    Numerical simulation is one of the useful tools to analyze natural phenomena in the earth such as the tsunami disaster. Several numerical models can simulate the tsunami wave from its generation, propagation, and inundation. However, most tsunami models do not include the sediment transport module. The tsunami wave actually induces a lot of sediment during the propagation in the coastal area. In the case of Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, massive morphological changes were caused by the tsunami waves around Sumatra coast. In Aceh, some areas eroded by the tsunami wave were living place for a local community. It is indispensable for the resident in the coastal area to estimate the risk of morphological changes due to a tsunami wave. Therefore, a model that can investigate the morphological changes due tsunami wave is necessary. The result of this model can be used to consider a countermeasure for tsunami wave impact in the coastal area, such as land-use management and planning. The COMCOT-SED model had been developed by several researchers. This model combines the hydrodynamic module and the sediment module. The aim of this study is to get general information about performance of the COMCOT-SED model and to modify the model for more accurate results. Firstly, the model was demonstrated in the ideal condition to confirm the model validity. Then, we evaluated the model performance comparing the model results and the laboratory experiment data which was conducted by other researcher. The authors found that the results of water level and bottom profile by the original model in the ideal condition are not suitable. The model modification will give us more suitable results. The modified model will be applied to simulate the tsunami wave and sediment transport in the small area.

  2. The Adsorption Langmuir Model of Transfer Metal Ti, V and Mn on System Water-Sediment in Along Side Code River, Yogyakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rini Jati Wardani; Muzakky; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption langmuir model of transfer metal Ti, V and Mn on system water-sediment in along side Code river, Yogyakarta has been studied. For that purpose, the study is to make prediction about adsorption langmuir model of identified metal Ti, V and Mn from upstream until downstream samples water and sediment in along side Code river. The factor influenced of langmuir adsorption on transfer metal Ti, V and Mn in system water-sediment is Total Suspended Solid (TSS). The analysis showed that between TSS with metal concentration in sediment have linear correlation. The result of calculation from curve of langmuir isotherm, showed for Ti has R 2 = 0.8006 with capacities of adsorption = 0.5 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 13.286 J/mol, V has R 2 = 0.9883 with capacities of adsorption = 0.0137 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 16.64 J/mol, Mn has R 2 = 0.9624 with capacities of adsorption 0.152 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 10.51 J/mol. The conclusion from this topic about adsorption langmuir for metal Ti, V and Mn according to energy of langmuir adsorption by chemisorption process above 10 J/mo. (author)

  3. Spatial variability in floodplain sedimentation: the use of generalized linear mixed-effects models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabezas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sediment, Total Organic Carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN accumulation during one overbank flood (1.15 y return interval were examined at one reach of the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain for elucidating spatial patterns. To achieve this goal, four areas with different geomorphological features and located within the study reach were examined by using artificial grass mats. Within each area, 1 m2 study plots consisting of three pseudo-replicates were placed in a semi-regular grid oriented perpendicular to the main channel. TOC, TN and Particle-Size composition of deposited sediments were examined and accumulation rates estimated. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze sedimentation patterns in order to handle clustered sampling units, specific-site effects and spatial self-correlation between observations. Our results confirm the importance of channel-floodplain morphology and site micro-topography in explaining sediment, TOC and TN deposition patterns, although the importance of other factors as vegetation pattern should be included in further studies to explain small-scale variability. Generalized linear mixed-effect models provide a good framework to deal with the high spatial heterogeneity of this phenomenon at different spatial scales, and should be further investigated in order to explore its validity when examining the importance of factors such as flood magnitude or suspended sediment concentration.

  4. Modeled tephra ages from lake sediments, base of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, C J; Kaufman, D S; Wallace, K L; Werner, A; Ku, T L; Brown, T A

    2007-02-25

    A 5.6-m-long lake sediment core from Bear Lake, Alaska, located 22 km southeast of Redoubt Volcano, contains 67 tephra layers deposited over the last 8750 cal yr, comprising 15% of the total thickness of recovered sediment. Using 12 AMS {sup 14}C ages, along with the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb activities of recent sediment, we evaluated different models to determine the age-depth relation of sediment, and to determine the age of each tephra deposit. The age model is based on a cubic smooth spline function that was passed through the adjusted tephra-free depth of each dated layer. The estimated age uncertainty of the 67 tephras averages {+-} 105 yr (1{sigma}). Tephra-fall frequency at Bear Lake was among the highest during the past 500 yr, with eight tephras deposited compared to an average of 3.7 per 500 yr over the last 8500 yr. Other periods of increased tephra fall occurred 2500-3500, 4500-5000, and 7000-7500 cal yr. Our record suggests that Bear Lake experienced extended periods (1000-2000 yr) of increased tephra fall separated by shorter periods (500-1000 yr) of apparent quiescence. The Bear Lake sediment core affords the most comprehensive tephrochronology from the base of the Redoubt Volcano to date, with an average tephra-fall frequency of once every 130 yr.

  5. Solid models for CT/MR image display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ManKovich, N.J.; Yue, A.; Kioumehr, F.; Ammirati, M.; Turner, S.

    1991-01-01

    Medical imaging can now take wider advantage of Computer-Aided-Manufacturing through rapid prototyping technologies (RPT) such as stereolithography, laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing to directly produce solid models of patient anatomy from processed CT and MR images. While conventional surgical planning relies on consultation with the radiologist combined with direct reading and measurement of CT and MR studies, 3-D surface and volumetric display workstations are providing a more easily interpretable view of patient anatomy. RPT can provide the surgeon with a life size model of patient anatomy constructed layer by layer with full internal detail. The authors have developed a prototype image processing and model fabrication system based on stereolithography, which provides the neurosurgeon with models of the skull base. Parallel comparison of the mode with the original thresholded CT data and with a CRT displayed surface rendering showed that both have an accuracy of >99.6 percent. The measurements on the surface rendered display proved more difficult to exactly locate and yielded a standard deviation of 2.37 percent. This paper presents an accuracy study and discusses ways of assessing the quality of neurosurgical plans when 3-D models re made available as planning tools

  6. Sediment delivery estimates in water quality models altered by resolution and source of topographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Peter C; Sadeghi, Ali M; Lang, Megan W; Tomer, Mark D; Daughtry, Craig S T

    2014-01-01

    Moderate-resolution (30-m) digital elevation models (DEMs) are normally used to estimate slope for the parameterization of non-point source, process-based water quality models. These models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Modified USLE to estimate sediment loss. The slope length and steepness factor, a critical parameter in USLE, significantly affects sediment loss estimates. Depending on slope range, a twofold difference in slope estimation potentially results in as little as 50% change or as much as 250% change in the LS factor and subsequent sediment estimation. Recently, the availability of much finer-resolution (∼3 m) DEMs derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data has increased. However, the use of these data may not always be appropriate because slope values derived from fine spatial resolution DEMs are usually significantly higher than slopes derived from coarser DEMs. This increased slope results in considerable variability in modeled sediment output. This paper addresses the implications of parameterizing models using slope values calculated from DEMs with different spatial resolutions (90, 30, 10, and 3 m) and sources. Overall, we observed over a 2.5-fold increase in slope when using a 3-m instead of a 90-m DEM, which increased modeled soil loss using the USLE calculation by 130%. Care should be taken when using LiDAR-derived DEMs to parameterize water quality models because doing so can result in significantly higher slopes, which considerably alter modeled sediment loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. The 137Cs distribution in sediment profiles from the Yangtze River estuary: a comparison of modeling and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, S.M.; Xu, Y.H.; Wang, A.; Povinec, P.P.

    2012-01-01

    It has been generally accepted when estimating sedimentation rates using the 137 Cs dating method that the position of the 137 Cs maximum in a sediment profile represents the year 1963. In this paper we validated this approach by developing a model in which the annual 137 Cs global fallout flux for the Yangtze River estuary was established on the basis of the Tokyo flux corrected for precipitation rates observed in Shanghai. As the 137 Cs maxima in the sediment deposition profiles depend on the sedimentation rates, the sub-sampling intervals were calculated accordingly. Higher measured than the calculated values were found in some cores, what may be due to fluctuating sedimentation rates and an additional deposition of 137 Cs from land-based sources. The study provides useful information on the reliability of the measured 137 Cs maxima in sediment profiles frequently used for dating of sediments in marine (coastal regions, open seas) as well as in terrestrial (lakes) environments. (author)

  8. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.

    2014-01-01

    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  9. How sedimentation affects rift segment interaction during oblique extension: a 4D analogue modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Adam, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    During the early stages of rifting, rift segments may form along non-continuous and/or offset pre-existing weaknesses. It is important to understand how these initial rift segments interact and connect to form a continuous rift system. Previous modelling of rift interaction structures has shown the dominant influence of oblique extension, promoting rift segment linkage (e.g. Zwaan et al., 2016) and eventual continent break-up (Brune et al., 2012). However, these studies did not incorporate sedimentation, which can have important implications for rift evolution (e.g. Bialas and Buck, 2009). Here we present a series of analogue model experiments investigating the influence of sedimentation on rift interaction structures under oblique extension conditions. Our set-up involves a base of compressed foam and plexiglass that forces distributed extension in the overlying analogue materials when the model sidewalls move apart. A sand layer simulates the brittle upper crust and a viscous sand/silicone mixture the ductile lower crust. One of the underlying base plates can move laterally allowing oblique extension. Right-stepping offset and disconnected lines of silicone (seeds) on top of the basal viscous serve as inherited structures since the strong sand cover is locally thinner. We apply syn-rift sediments by filling in the developing rift and transfer zone basins with sand at fixed time steps. Models are run either with sedimentation or without to allow comparison. The first results suggest that the gross structures are similar with or without sedimentation. As seen by Zwaan et al. (2016), dextral oblique extension promotes rift linkage because rift propagation aligns itself perpendicular to the extension direction. This causes the rift segments to grow towards each other and to establish a continuous rift structure. However, the structures within the rift segments show quite different behaviour when sedimentation is applied. The extra sediment loading in the rift basin

  10. Size graded sediment dynamics: from the processes characterization to the transport modelling in the English Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanpain, O.

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of a sediment transport model in the English Channel. The design of such a model requires the identification of the physical processes, their modelling and their in-situ validation. Because of the sedimentary particularities of the study area, modelling of the mechanical behaviour of a non uniform mixture of sediments and particularly of the fine grains within a coarse matrix is required. This study focused on the characterization of the relevant processes by acquisition of experimental and in-situ data. Data acquired in hydro-sedimentary conditions comparable to those found in the English Channel are scarce. A new instrument and image processing technique were specifically conceived and implemented in-situ to observe and measure, with a high temporal resolution, the dynamics of a strongly heterogeneous mixture of particles in a grain-size scale. The data collected compared well with several existing formulations. One of these formulations was chosen to be adapted. The transfer dynamics of fine grains in coarse sediments and their depth of penetration were acquired from stratigraphic samples. The sediment transport model deals with multi-size grains and multi sedimentary layers, it is forced by swell and currents, and accounts for bead load and suspended load transports. It was applied to realistic scenarios for the English Channel. (author)

  11. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  12. Physical modelling of sediment transport in mountain torrents upstream of open check dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Sebastian; Franca, Mario J.; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic morphological processes in mountain torrents do not only attract the attention of many contemporary researchers, but are also a relevant issue for the design of flood protection measures in the downstream sections where dwellers may be threatened by the important potential of flows with high concentration of sediments. Events which have a morphodynamic effect are simulated at the Laboratory of Hydraulic Constructions (LCH) in order to optimize the design of a flood protection measure, notably open check dams. Different scenarios with a fix bed consisting of boulders as well as mobile beds are studied and the influence of flow constrictions, i.e. distinct geometric configurations of open check dams are analysed. Three varying water pumped discharges in the order of 5 to 20 l/s are tested with progressively increasing solid discharges of 1, 3 and 6 % of the liquid discharge according to the transport capacity. The moistened sediments are introduced via a system of conveyor belts and are then mixed with the liquid discharge in an about 3 m long rough trapezoidal channel with a base width of 24 cm. The mean diameter Dm of the injected sediments is 0.86 cm and the dimensionless grain size distribution is in line with a normalized shape derived from over 60 streams in the Alps. A wide range of frequent floods in morphologically diverging types of mountain torrents is covered, in particular regarding the sediment availability in the catchment area and along the river. A basic assumption here is considering that the frequent floods are floods with return periods between 1 to 5 years and are the most important process in terms of amounts of sediment transport. This may be arguable for some mountain torrents and landscape effective processes which are driven by floods with return periods of more than several decades. In order to identify benchmarks for hydraulic parameters which lead to the obstruction of flow restrictions at mountain torrents, the water depth is

  13. Assessing sediment hazard through a weight of evidence approach with bioindicator organisms: a practical model to elaborate data from sediment chemistry, bioavailability, biomarkers and ecotoxicological bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Francesco; Ciaprini, Francesco; Onorati, Fulvio; Benedetti, Maura; Fattorini, Daniele; Ausili, Antonella; Regoli, Francesco

    2011-04-01

    Quality assessments are crucial to all activities related to removal and management of sediments. Following a multidisciplinary, weight of evidence approach, a new model is presented here for comprehensive assessment of hazards associated to polluted sediments. The lines of evidence considered were sediment chemistry, assessment of bioavailability, sub-lethal effects on biomarkers, and ecotoxicological bioassays. A conceptual and software-assisted model was developed with logical flow-charts elaborating results from each line of evidence on the basis of several chemical and biological parameters, normative guidelines or scientific evidence; the data are thus summarized into four specific synthetic indices, before their integration into an overall sediment hazard evaluation. This model was validated using European eels (Anguilla anguilla) as the bioindicator species, exposed under laboratory conditions to sediments from an industrial site, and caged under field conditions in two harbour areas. The concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace metals were much higher in the industrial compared to harbour sediments, and accordingly the bioaccumulation in liver and gills of exposed eels showed marked differences between conditions seen. Among biomarkers, significant variations were observed for cytochrome P450-related responses, oxidative stress biomarkers, lysosomal stability and genotoxic effects; the overall elaboration of these data, as those of standard ecotoxicological bioassays with bacteria, algae and copepods, confirmed a higher level of biological hazard for industrial sediments. Based on comparisons with expert judgment, the model presented efficiently discriminates between the various conditions, both as individual modules and as an integrated final evaluation, and it appears to be a powerful tool to support more complex processes of environmental risk assessment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory Modeling of Self-Formed Leveed Channels From Sediment-Laden Flows Entering Still Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Self-formed leveed channels constructed by deposition of suspended sediment from sediment-laden flows entering still water are common features in nature. Such channels drive delta progradation, develop at tidal inlets and occur where mainstem river flows empty into oxbows and blocked valley lakes. Presently there is no theory for the formation of such channels. This lack of theory is partly due to a lack of field or laboratory studies that provide insight about the mechanism controlling these self-formed, propagating channels. The creation of such features in the laboratory, have proved illusive to date. Our ongoing experiments aimed at modeling the formation of floodplain tie channels provide insight into the necessary conditions for levee formation and channel growth. Under conditions of steady water discharge, constant sediment feed rate, unimodal sediment distribution and invariant basin stage we are able to create subaqueous lateral bars (submerged levees) along the margins of a sediment laden jet. Our results highlight the sensitivity of channel formation to issues of scaling and experimental design. In the laboratory, levee formation has only been possible with the use of plastic particles (specific gravity ~1.5); complete bed alluviation and dune formation results from the use of particles with specific gravities of ~ 2.65 across a range grain diameters and shapes. We hypothesize this effect is related to high entrainment thresholds relative to suspension thresholds of small (< 100 mm) natural particles under conditions of reduced turbulence in laboratory scaled flows. Additionally, both the width to depth ratio and the form of the outlet channel introducing the sediment laden flow into the experimental basin exert a strong control on sedimentation pattern and levee growth. Continuing experiments are focused on generating emergent channel levees and a basin ward propagation of the channel by adjusting the form of the feed channel, varying basin stage, and

  15. Automatic paper sliceform design from 3D solid models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Nguyen, Tuong-Vu; Low, Kok-Lim; Ruiz, Conrado; Le, Sang N

    2013-11-01

    A paper sliceform or lattice-style pop-up is a form of papercraft that uses two sets of parallel paper patches slotted together to make a foldable structure. The structure can be folded flat, as well as fully opened (popped-up) to make the two sets of patches orthogonal to each other. Automatic design of paper sliceforms is still not supported by existing computational models and remains a challenge. We propose novel geometric formulations of valid paper sliceform designs that consider the stability, flat-foldability and physical realizability of the designs. Based on a set of sufficient construction conditions, we also present an automatic algorithm for generating valid sliceform designs that closely depict the given 3D solid models. By approximating the input models using a set of generalized cylinders, our method significantly reduces the search space for stable and flat-foldable sliceforms. To ensure the physical realizability of the designs, the algorithm automatically generates slots or slits on the patches such that no two cycles embedded in two different patches are interlocking each other. This guarantees local pairwise assembility between patches, which is empirically shown to lead to global assembility. Our method has been demonstrated on a number of example models, and the output designs have been successfully made into real paper sliceforms.

  16. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar Motwani

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential,, within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, non-equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  17. Sediment-hosted gold deposits of the world: database and grade and tonnage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vladimir I.; Mosier, Dan L.; Bliss, James D.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    All sediment-hosted gold deposits (as a single population) share one characteristic—they all have disseminated micron-sized invisible gold in sedimentary rocks. Sediment-hosted gold deposits are recognized in the Great Basin province of the western United States and in China along with a few recognized deposits in Indonesia, Iran, and Malaysia. Three new grade and tonnage models for sediment-hosted gold deposits are presented in this paper: (1) a general sediment-hosted gold type model, (2) a Carlin subtype model, and (3) a Chinese subtype model. These models are based on grade and tonnage data from a database compilation of 118 sediment-hosted gold deposits including a total of 123 global deposits. The new general grade and tonnage model for sediment-hosted gold deposits (n=118) has a median tonnage of 5.7 million metric tonnes (Mt) and a gold grade of 2.9 grams per tonne (g/t). This new grade and tonnage model is remarkable in that the estimated parameters of the resulting grade and tonnage distributions are comparable to the previous model of Mosier and others (1992). A notable change is in the reporting of silver in more than 10 percent of deposits; moreover, the previous model had not considered deposits in China. From this general grade and tonnage model, two significantly different subtypes of sediment-hosted gold deposits are differentiated: Carlin and Chinese. The Carlin subtype includes 88 deposits in the western United States, Indonesia, Iran, and Malaysia, with median tonnage and grade of 7.1 Mt and 2.0 g/t Au, respectively. The silver grade is 0.78 g/t Ag for the 10th percentile of deposits. The Chinese subtype represents 30 deposits in China, with a median tonnage of 3.9 Mt and medium grade of 4.6 g/t Au. Important differences are recognized in the mineralogy and alteration of the two sediment-hosted gold subtypes such as: increased sulfide minerals in the Chinese subtype and decalcification alteration dominant in the Carlin type. We therefore

  18. State-of-the-Art Solid Waste Management Life-Cycle Modeling Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Levis, James W.

    There are many alternatives for the management of solid waste including recycling, biological treatment, thermal treatment and landfill disposal. In many cases, solid waste management systems include the use of several of these processes. Solid waste life-cycle assessment models are often used...... to evaluate the environmental consequences of various waste management strategies. The foundation of every life-cycle model is the development and use of process models to estimate the emissions from solid waste unit processes. The objective of this workshop is to describe life-cycle modeling of the solid...... waste processes and systems. The workshop will begin with an introduction to solid waste life-cycle modeling and available models, which will be followed by sessions on life-cycle process modeling for individual processes (e.g., landfills, biological treatment, and thermal treatment). The first part...

  19. Simplifying modeling of nanoparticle aggregation-sedimentation behavior in environmental systems: A theoretical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, J.T.K.; Meent, van de D.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Parameters and simplified model approaches for describing the fate of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are crucial to advance the risk assessment of these materials. Sedimentation behavior of ENPs in natural waters has been shown to follow apparent first order behavior, a ‘black box’ phenomenon that

  20. Modelling centennial sediment waves in an eroding landscape – catchment complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, J.M.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment flux dynamics in fluvial systems have often been related to changes in external drivers of topography, climate or land cover. It is well known that these dynamics are non-linear. Recently, model simulations of fluvial activity and landscape evolution have suggested that self-organization in

  1. Reconstructing a sediment pulse: Modeling the effect of placer mining on Fraser River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, R. I.; Church, M.; Rennie, C. D.; Venditti, J. G.

    2015-07-01

    Gold mining along 525 km of the Fraser River between 1858 and 1909 added an estimated 1.1 × 108 t of tailings, half gravel and the rest finer, to the river's natural sediment load. We simulate the response using a 1-D multigrain size morphodynamic model. Since premining conditions are unknown and modern data are insufficient for tuning the process representation, we devised a novel modeling strategy which may be useful in other data-poor applications. We start the model from a smoothed version of the modern longitudinal profile with bed grain size distributions optimized to match alternative assumptions about natural sediment supply and compare runs that include mining with control runs that can be used to quantify the effects of deficiencies in process representation and initialization. Simulations with an appropriate choice of natural supply rate closely match the best available test data, which consist of a detailed 1952-1999 gravel budget for the distal part of the model domain. The simulations suggest that the main response to mining was rapid bed fining, which allowed a major increase in bed load transport rate with only slight (~0.1 m) mean aggradation within the mining region and most of the excess sediment exported well beyond the mountain front within the mining period or soon afterward. We compare this pattern of response by a large, powerful river with previous case studies of river adjustment to sediment supply change.

  2. Feedback between residual circulations and sediment distribution in highly turbid estuaries: an analytical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talke, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823554; de Swart, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725; Schuttelaars, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164035656

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by field studies of the Ems estuary which show longitudinal gradients in bottom sediment concentration as high as O(0.01 kg/m4), we develop an analytical model for estuarine residual circulation based on currents from salinity gradients, turbidity gradients, and freshwater discharge.

  3. 78 FR 13874 - Watershed Modeling To Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... EPA's policy to include all comments it receives in the public docket without change and to make the... Modeling To Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to Climate Change and Urban... Loads to Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds (EPA/600/R-12/058). EPA also is...

  4. COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS TO PREDICT ANNUAL SEDIMENT YIELD IN CARONI RIVER BASIN, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Guevara-Pérez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caroní River Basin is located in the south-eastern part of Venezuela; with an area of 92.000 km2, 40% of which belongs to the main affluent, the Paragua River. Caroní basin is the source of 66% of energy of the country. About 85% of the hydro electrical energy is generated in Guri reservoir located in the lower part of the watershed. To take provisions to avoid the reservoir silting it is very important the study of sediment yield of the basin. In this paper result of three empirical sediment yield models: Langbein- Schumm, Universal Soil Loss Equation-USLE and Poesen, are compared with observed data from five sub basins with records of twenty to thirty years. Men values of sediment yield for low, middle and upper Caroní are of 27, 76, 17 t/km2-year, respectively; and 46 and 78 t/km2-year for low and upper Paragua sub basins are. Standard errors of estimates vary between 13 and 29 for Langbein-Schumm model; between 8 and 32 for USLE procedure; and between 9 and 79, for Poesen model. Sediment yield predictions by Langbein-Schumm model seem to the best in Caroní basin.

  5. A Numerical Modeling Framework for Cohesive Sediment Transport Driven by Waves and Tidal Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    for sediment transport. The successful extension to multi-dimensions is benefited from an open-source CFD package, OpenFOAM (www.openfoam.org). This...linz.at/Drupal/), which couples the fluid solver OpenFOAM with the Discrete Element Model (DEM) solver LIGGGHTS (an improved LAMMPS for granular flow

  6. Constraining biogenic silica dissolution in marine sediments: a comparison between diagenetic models and experimental dissolution rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, K.; Rabouille, C.; Gallinari, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; DeMaster, D.J.; Ragueneau, O.

    2007-01-01

    The processes controlling preservation and recycling of particulate biogenic silica in sediments must be understood in order to calculate oceanic silica mass balances. The new contribution of this work is the coupled use of advanced models including reprecipitation and different phases of biogenic

  7. A regression model using sediment chemistry for the evaluation of marine environmental impacts associated with salmon aquaculture cage wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.L.; Haya, K.; Paon, L.A.; Moffatt, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop an approach for modelling changes of sediment chemistry related to the accumulation of aquaculture waste. Metal composition of sediment Al, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, and Zn; organic carbon and 2 =0.945 compared to R 2 =0.653 for the regression model using unadjusted EMP for assessing the environmental conditions

  8. impact of vegetation on flow routing and sedimentation patterns : three-dimensional modeling for a tidal marsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, S.; Bouma, T.J.; De Vries, M.B.; Wang, Z.B.; Govers, G.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was used to study the relative impact of (1) vegetation, (2) micro-topography, and (3) water level fluctuations on the spatial flow and sedimentation patterns in a tidal marsh landscape during single inundation events. The model

  9. Impact of vegetation on flow routing and sedimentation patterns : three-dimensional modeling for a tidal marsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, S.; Bouma, T.J.; Govers, G.; Wang, Z.B.; de Vries, M.B.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was used to study the relative impact of (1) vegetation, (2) micro-topography, and (3) water level fluctuations on the spatial flow and sedimentation patterns in a tidal marsh landscape during single inundation events. The model

  10. A Model of Solid Waste Management Based Multilateral Co-Operation in Semi-Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhandhu, Chanchai; Woraphong, Seree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to construct a model of solid waste management based on multilateral cooperation in semi-urban community. Its specific objectives were to 1) study the solid waste situation and involvement of community in the solid waste management in Wangtaku Sub-district, Muang District, Nakhon Pathom Province; 2) construct a…

  11. Sensitivity analysis of a sediment dynamics model applied in a Mediterranean river basin: global change and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Canales, M; López-Benito, A; Acuña, V; Ziv, G; Hamel, P; Chaplin-Kramer, R; Elorza, F J

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and land-use change are major factors influencing sediment dynamics. Models can be used to better understand sediment production and retention by the landscape, although their interpretation is limited by large uncertainties, including model parameter uncertainties. The uncertainties related to parameter selection may be significant and need to be quantified to improve model interpretation for watershed management. In this study, we performed a sensitivity analysis of the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs) sediment retention model in order to determine which model parameters had the greatest influence on model outputs, and therefore require special attention during calibration. The estimation of the sediment loads in this model is based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The sensitivity analysis was performed in the Llobregat basin (NE Iberian Peninsula) for exported and retained sediment, which support two different ecosystem service benefits (avoided reservoir sedimentation and improved water quality). Our analysis identified the model parameters related to the natural environment as the most influential for sediment export and retention. Accordingly, small changes in variables such as the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events could cause major changes in sediment dynamics, demonstrating the sensitivity of these dynamics to climate change in Mediterranean basins. Parameters directly related to human activities and decisions (such as cover management factor, C) were also influential, especially for sediment exported. The importance of these human-related parameters in the sediment export process suggests that mitigation measures have the potential to at least partially ameliorate climate-change driven changes in sediment exportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A three-dimensional stratigraphic model for aggrading submarine channels based on laboratory experiments, numerical modeling, and sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, A. B.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Paola, C.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents deliver clastic sediment from continental margins to the deep ocean, and are the main driver of landscape and stratigraphic evolution in many low-relief, submarine environments. The sedimentary architecture of turbidites—including the spatial organization of coarse and fine sediments—is closely related to the aggradation, scour, and lateral shifting of channels. Seismic stratigraphy indicates that submarine, meandering channels often aggrade rapidly relative to lateral shifting, and develop channel sand bodies with high vertical connectivity. In comparison, the stratigraphic architecture developed by submarine, braided is relatively uncertain. We present a new stratigraphic model for submarine braided channels that integrates predictions from laboratory experiments and flow modeling with constraints from sediment cores. In the laboratory experiments, a saline density current developed subaqueous channels in plastic sediment. The channels aggraded to form a deposit with a vertical scale of approximately five channel depths. We collected topography data during aggradation to (1) establish relative stratigraphic age, and (2) estimate the sorting patterns of a hypothetical grain size distribution. We applied a numerical flow model to each topographic surface and used modeled flow depth as a proxy for relative grain size. We then conditioned the resulting stratigraphic model to observed grain size distributions using sediment core data from the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. Using this stratigraphic model, we establish new, quantitative predictions for the two- and three-dimensional connectivity of coarse sediment as a function of fine-sediment fraction. Using this case study as an example, we will highlight outstanding challenges in relating the evolution of low-relief landscapes to the stratigraphic record.

  13. Storm-driven delivery of sediment to the continental slope: Numerical modeling for the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. K.; Kniskern, T. A.; Arango, H.

    2016-02-01

    The supply of sediment from the continental shelf to deeper waters is of critical importance for building continental margin repositories of sediment, and may also factor into episodic events on the continental slope such as turbidity currents and slope failures. While numerical sediment transport models have been developed for coastal and continental shelf areas, they have not often been used to infer sediment delivery to deeper waters. A three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic - suspended sediment transport model for the northern Gulf of Mexico has been developed and run to evaluate the types of conditions that are associated with delivery of suspended sediment to the continental slope. Accounting for sediment delivery by riverine plumes and for sediment resuspension by energetic waves and currents, the sediment transport calculations were implemented within the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model domain represents the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf and slope including the Mississippi birdfoot delta and the Mississippi and DeSoto Canyons. To investigate the role of storms in driving down-slope sediment fluxes, model runs that encompassed fall, 2007 through late summer, 2008 the summer and fall of 2008 were analyzed. This time period included several winter storms, and the passage of two hurricanes (Ike and Gustav) over the study area. Preliminary results indicated that sediment delivery to the continental slope was triggered by the passage of these storm events, and focused at certain locations, such as submarine canyons. Additionally, a climatological analysis indicates that storm track influences both the wind-driven currents and wave energy on the shelf, and as such plays an important role in determining which storms trigger delivery of suspended continental shelf sediment to the adjacent slope.

  14. Intensity of soil loss and sediment transport in Sirocina River basin and their modeling in GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrlova, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper is focused on the application of GIS tools in determining the intensity of erosion-sedimentation processes in the basin of water flow Sirocina (Nitra region). Average long-term soil loss was calculated using the generalized use of the universal soil loss equation - USLE. These values were reduced by sediment delivery ratio, since not all of eroded soil particles are transported up to the water recipients. Modelling was performed in ArcView 3.2 and ArcGIS 9.2 (ESRI products) with extensions Spatial Analyst and Hydrotools 1.0. On the basis of these calculations, we have set a benchmark of the total amount of transported sediments for 3 small ponds located in the basin Sirocina (MVN Great Vozokany, Nevidzany MVN and MVN Nemcinany). (author)

  15. Climate-sensitive feedbacks between hillslope processes and fluvial erosion in sediment-driven incision models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Daniel S.; Egholm, David L.

    2016-04-01

    Surface erosion and sediment production seem to have accelerated globally as climate cooled in the Late Cenozoic, [Molnar, P. 2004, Herman et al 2013]. Glaciers emerged in many high mountain ranges during the Quaternary, and glaciation therefore represents a likely explanation for faster erosion in such places. Still, observations and measurements point to increases in erosion rates also in landscapes where erosion is driven mainly by fluvial processes [Lease and Ehlers (2013), Reusser (2004)]. Flume experiments and fieldwork have shown that rates of incision are to a large degree controlled by the sediment load of streams [e.g. Sklar and Dietrich (2001), Beer and Turowski (2015)]. This realization led to the formulation of sediment-flux dependent incision models [Sklar and Dietrich (2004)]. The sediment-flux dependence links incision in the channels to hillslope processes that supply sediment to the channels. The rates of weathering and soil transport on the hillslopes are processes that are likely to respond to changing temperatures, e.g. because of vegetation changes or the occurrence of frost. In this study, we perform computational landscape evolution experiments, where the coupling between fluvial incision and hillslope processes is accounted for by coupling a sediment-flux-dependent model for fluvial incision to a climate-dependent model for weathering and hillslope sediment transport. The computational experiments first of all demonstrate a strong positive feedback between channel and hillslope processes. In general, faster weathering leads to higher rates of channel incision, which further increases the weathering rates, mainly because of hillslope steepening. Slower weathering leads to the opposite result. The experiments also demonstrate, however, that the feedbacks vary significantly between different parts of a drainage network. For example, increasing hillslope sediment production may accelerate incision in the upper parts of the catchment, while at

  16. Solid charged-core model of ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldrew, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, ball lightning (BL) is assumed to have a solid, positively-charged core. According to this underlying assumption, the core is surrounded by a thin electron layer with a charge nearly equal in magnitude to that of the core. A vacuum exists between the core and the electron layer containing an intense electromagnetic (EM) field which is reflected and guided by the electron layer. The microwave EM field applies a ponderomotive force (radiation pressure) to the electrons preventing them from falling into the core. The energetic electrons ionize the air next to the electron layer forming a neutral plasma layer. The electric-field distributions and their associated frequencies in the ball are determined by applying boundary conditions to a differential equation given by Stratton (1941). It is then shown that the electron and plasma layers are sufficiently thick and dense to completely trap and guide the EM field. This model of BL is exceptional in that it can explain all or nearly all of the peculiar characteristics of BL. The ES energy associated with the core charge can be extremely large which can explain the observations that occasionally BL contains enormous energy. The mass of the core prevents the BL from rising like a helium-filled balloon - a problem with most plasma and burning-gas models. The positively charged core keeps the negatively charged electron layer from diffusing away, i.e. it holds the ball together; other models do not have a mechanism to do this. The high electrical charges on the core and in the electron layer explains why some people have been electrocuted by BL. Experiments indicate that BL radiates microwaves upon exploding and this is consistent with the model. The fact that this novel model of BL can explain these and other observations is strong evidence that the model should be taken seriously.

  17. Runoff and sediment generation on bench-terraced hillsides: measurements and up-scaling of a field-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Vertessy, R. A.; Ruijter, J.

    2005-05-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing, stream sediment yields from agricultural hillsides in upland West Java remain high. We studied the causes of this lack of effect by combining measurements at different spatial scales using an erosion process model. Event runoff and sediment yield from two 4-ha terraced hillside subcatchments were measured and field surveys of land use, bench-terrace geometry and storage of sediment in the drainage network were conducted for two consecutive years. Runoff was 3.0-3.9% of rainfall and sediment yield was 11-30 t ha-1 yr-1 for different years, subcatchments and calculation techniques. Sediment storage changes in the subcatchment drainage network were less than 2 t ha-1, whereas an additional 0.3-1.5 t ha-1 was stored in the gully between the subcatchment flumes and the main stream. This suggests mean annual sediment delivery ratios of 86-125%, or 80-104% if this additional storage is included. The Terrace Erosion and Sediment Transport (TEST) model developed and validated for the studied environment was parameterized using erosion plot studies, land use surveys and digital terrain analysis to simulate runoff and sediment generation on the terraced hillsides. This resulted in over-estimates of runoff and under-estimates of runoff sediment concentration. Relatively poor model performance was attributed to sample bias in the six erosion plots used for model calibration and unaccounted covariance between important terrain attributes such as slope, infiltration capacity, soil conservation works and vegetation cover.

  18. A model problem concerning ionic transport in microstructured solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto Sillamoni, Ignacio J.; Idiart, Martín I.

    2015-11-01

    We consider ionic transport by diffusion and migration through microstructured solid electrolytes. The assumed constitutive relations for the constituent phases follow from convex energy and dissipation potentials which guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The effective response is determined by homogenizing the relevant field equations via the notion ofmulti-scale convergence. The resulting homogenized response involves several effective tensors, but they all require the solution of just one standard conductivity problem over the representative volume element. A multi-scale model for semicrystalline polymer electrolytes with spherulitic morphologies is derived by applying the theory to a specific class of two-dimensional microgeometries for which the effective response can be computed exactly. An enriched model accounting for a random dispersion of filler particles with interphases is also derived. In both cases, explicit expressions for the effective material parameters are provided. The models are used to explore the effect of crystallinity and filler content on the overall response. Predictions support recent experimental observations on doped poly-ethylene-oxide systems which suggest that the anisotropic crystalline phase can actually support faster ion transport than the amorphous phase along certain directions dictated by the morphology of the polymeric chains. Predictions also support the viewpoint that ceramic fillers improve ionic conductivity and cation transport number via interphasial effects.

  19. Bayesian analysis for erosion modelling of sediments in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, A; Chebbo, G; Tassin, B

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has confirmed that the sediments at the bed of combined sewer systems are the main source of particulate and organic pollution during rain events contributing to combined sewer overflows. However, existing urban stormwater models utilize inappropriate sediment transport formulas initially developed from alluvial hydrodynamics. Recently, a model has been formulated and profoundly assessed based on laboratory experiments to simulate the erosion of sediments in sewer pipes taking into account the increase in strength with depth in the weak layer of deposits. In order to objectively evaluate this model, this paper presents a Bayesian analysis of the model using field data collected in sewer pipes in Paris under known hydraulic conditions. The test has been performed using a MCMC sampling method for calibration and uncertainty assessment. Results demonstrate the capacity of the model to reproduce erosion as a direct response to the increase in bed shear stress. This is due to the model description of the erosional strength in the deposits and to the shape of the measured bed shear stress. However, large uncertainties in some of the model parameters suggest that the model could be over-parameterised and necessitates a large amount of informative data for its calibration.

  20. Water and sediment transport modeling of a large temporary river basin in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamvroudis, C; Nikolaidis, N P; Tzoraki, O; Papadoulakis, V; Karalemas, N

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to study the spatial distribution of runoff and sediment transport in a large Mediterranean watershed (Evrotas River Basin) consisting of temporary flow tributaries and high mountain areas and springs by focusing on the collection and use of a variety of data to constrain the model parameters and characterize hydrologic and geophysical processes at various scales. Both monthly and daily discharge data (2004-2011) and monthly sediment concentration data (2010-2011) from an extended monitoring network of 8 sites were used to calibrate and validate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. In addition flow desiccation maps showing wet and dry aquatic states obtained during a dry year were used to calibrate the simulation of low flows. Annual measurements of sediment accumulation in two reaches were used to further calibrate the sediment simulation. Model simulation of hydrology and sediment transport was in good agreement with field observations as indicated by a variety of statistical measures used to evaluate the goodness of fit. A water balance was constructed using a 12 year long (2000-2011) simulation. The average precipitation of the basin for this period was estimated to be 903 mm yr(-1). The actual evapotranspiration was 46.9% (424 mm yr(-1)), and the total water yield was 13.4% (121 mm yr(-1)). The remaining 33.4% (302 mm yr(-1)) was the amount of water that was lost through the deep groundwater of Taygetos and Parnonas Mountains to areas outside the watershed and for drinking water demands (6.3%). The results suggest that the catchment has on average significant water surplus to cover drinking water and irrigation demands. However, the situation is different during the dry years, where the majority of the reaches (85% of the river network are perennial and temporary) completely dry up as a result of the limited rainfall and the substantial water abstraction for irrigation purposes. There is a large variability in the

  1. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, John J.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Zakari, Mustapha; Campforts, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic) response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An important finding is that

  2. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Armitage

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An

  3. A Physically—Based Geometry Model for Transport Distance Estimation of Rainfall-Eroded Soil Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Gui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of rainfall-induced soil erosion are mostly derived from the weight of sediment measured in natural runoff. The transport distance of eroded soil is important for evaluating landscape evolution but is difficult to estimate, mainly because it cannot be linked directly to the eroded sediment weight. The volume of eroded soil is easier to calculate visually using popular imaging tools, which can aid in estimating the transport distance of eroded soil through geometry relationships. In this study, we present a straightforward geometry model to predict the maximum sediment transport distance incurred by rainfall events of various intensity and duration. In order to verify our geometry prediction model, a series of experiments are reported in the form of a sediment volume. The results show that cumulative rainfall has a linear relationship with the total volume of eroded soil. The geometry model can accurately estimate the maximum transport distance of eroded soil by cumulative rainfall, with a low root-mean-square error (4.7–4.8 and a strong linear correlation (0.74–0.86.

  4. Characterization and modeling of sediment settling, consolidation, and suspension to optimize coastal Louisiana restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, X.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Robichaux, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    Many research efforts have been undertaken over many decades in the field of Louisiana coastal restoration, but long-term experiments for sediment suspension and consolidation in diversion-receiving basins are still limited, despite significance of this topic to ongoing restoration strategies. Sediment samples were collected from two active diversions on the Mississippi River: West Bay, a semi-enclosed bay located on the Mississippi River Delta and fed by the West Bay Diversion, and from Big Mar pond, a receiving basin of the Caernarvon freshwater diversion from the lower Mississippi River, Louisiana, USA. A dual-core Gust Erosion Microcosm System was used to measure time-series (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6-months after initial settling) erodibility at seven shear stress regimes (0.01-0.60 Pa) using experimental cores prepared with two initial sediment concentrations (60 and 120 kg m-3). A 230-cm tall settling column with nine sampling ports was used to measure the consolidation rates for initial sediment concentrations ranging from fluid mud (10 kg m-3) to dredge effluent (120 kg m-3), in combination with two levels of salinity (1 and 5). The erodibility of West Bay sediment decreased with increasing time of consolidation. The critical shear stress for resuspension increased from 0.2 Pa after 2 months to 0.45 Pa after 4 months of consolidation. The consolidation rates were inversely and exponentially related to initial sediment concentrations. Consolidation tests in salinity of 1 generally settled faster than that in salinity of 5, and consolidation tests with low sediment concentration tests generally settled faster than high-concentration tests. An exponential coefficient was added in the Sanford (2008) model to better predict the consolidation profile of both rapid early settling and slow self-weight consolidation processes. Our study suggests that enclosed basin, low salinity, relatively low sediment concentration and minimized disturbance for 4 months all favor

  5. GeoFramework: A Modeling Framework for Solid Earth Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnis, M.; Aivazis, M.; Tromp, J.; Tan, E.; Thoutireddy, P.; Liu, Q.; Choi, E.; Dicaprio, C.; Chen, M.; Simons, M.; Quenette, S.; Appelbe, B.; Aagaard, B.; Williams, C.; Lavier, L.; Moresi, L.; Law, H.

    2003-12-01

    As data sets in geophysics become larger and of greater relevance to other earth science disciplines, and as earth science becomes more interdisciplinary in general, modeling tools are being driven in new directions. There is now a greater need to link modeling codes to one another, link modeling codes to multiple datasets, and to make modeling software available to non modeling specialists. Coupled with rapid progress in computer hardware (including the computational speed afforded by massively parallel computers), progress in numerical algorithms, and the introduction of software frameworks, these lofty goals of merging software in geophysics are now possible. The GeoFramework project, a collaboration between computer scientists and geoscientists, is a response to these needs and opportunities. GeoFramework is based on and extends Pyre, a Python-based modeling framework, recently developed to link solid (Lagrangian) and fluid (Eulerian) models, as well as mesh generators, visualization packages, and databases, with one another for engineering applications. The utility and generality of Pyre as a general purpose framework in science is now being recognized. Besides its use in engineering and geophysics, it is also being used in particle physics and astronomy. Geology and geophysics impose their own unique requirements on software frameworks which are not generally available in existing frameworks and so there is a need for research in this area. One of the special requirements is the way Lagrangian and Eulerian codes will need to be linked in time and space within a plate tectonics context. GeoFramework has grown beyond its initial goal of linking a limited number of exiting codes together. The following codes are now being reengineered within the context of Pyre: Tecton, 3-D FE Visco-elastic code for lithospheric relaxation; CitComS, a code for spherical mantle convection; SpecFEM3D, a SEM code for global and regional seismic waves; eqsim, a FE code for dynamic

  6. Mathematical modeling of oxygen transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ann Mari

    1997-12-31

    This thesis develops mathematical models to describe the electrochemical performance of a solid oxide fuel cell cathode based on electrochemical kinetics and mass transfer. The individual effects of various coupled processes are investigated. A one-dimensional model is developed based on porous electrode theory. Two different mechanisms are investigated for the charge transfer reaction. One of these assumes that intermediately adsorbed oxygen atoms are reduced at the electrode/electrolyte interface, similar to the models proposed for metal electrodes. Simulated polarization curves exhibit limited currents due to depletion of oxygen adsorbates at high cathodic overvoltages. An empirical correlation is confirmed to exist between the limiting current an the oxygen partial pressure, however, a similar correlation often assumed to exist between the measured polarization resistance and the oxygen partial pressure could not be justified. For the other model, oxygen vacancies are assumed to be exchanged directly at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The electrochemical behaviour is improved by reducing the oxygen partial pressure, due to increased vacancy concentration of the electrode material. Simulated polarization curves exhibit Tafel-like slopes in the cathodic direction, which are due to polarization concentration, and not activation polarization in the conventional sense. Anodic limiting currents are predicted due to lack of available free sites for vacancy exchange at the cathode side. The thesis also presents a theoretical treatment of current and potential distributions in simple two-dimensional cell geometries, and a two-dimensional model for a porous electrode-electrolyte system for investigation of the effect of interfacial diffusion of adsorbates along the electrode/electrolyte interface. 172 refs., 60 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. CFD modeling of an industrial municipal solid waste combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ani, F.N.; Darus, A.N.; Mustafa, A.

    2006-01-01

    The average amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Malaysia is 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day and has increased to 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. Due to rapid development and lack of space for new landfills, big cities in Malaysia are now switching to incineration. However, a major public concern over this technology also is the perception of the emission of pollutants of any form. Design requirements of high performance incinerators are sometimes summarized as the achievement of 3Ts (time, temperature, and turbulence). An adequate retention time in hot environment is crucial to destroy the products of incomplete combustion and organic pollutants. Also turbulent mixing enhances uniform distributions of temperature and oxygen availability. CFD modeling is now in the development phase of becoming a useful tool for 3D modeling of the complex geometry and flow conditions in incinerators. However, CFD flow simulations enable detailed parametric variations of design variables. CFD modeling of an industrial scale MSW incinerator was done using FLUENT Ver. 6.1. The 3D modeling was based on conversation equations for mass, momentum and energy. The differential equations were discretized by the Finite Volume Method and were solved by the SIMPLE algorithm. The k-e turbulence model was employed. The meshing was done using Gambit 2. 0. The cold flow simulations were performed initially to develop the flow and velocity field. Numerical simulations of the flow field inside the primary and secondary combustion chambers provided the temperature profiles and the concentration data at the nodal points of computational grids. Parametric study was also done to minimize the NOx emissions. (author)

  8. Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Macrotidal Seine Estuary (France): 2. Numerical Modeling of Sediment Fluxes and Budgets Under Typical Hydrological and Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, E.; Grasso, F.; Le Hir, P.; Verney, R.; Thouvenin, B.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the sediment dynamics in an estuary is important for its morphodynamic and ecological assessment as well as, in case of an anthropogenically controlled system, for its maintenance. However, the quantification of sediment fluxes and budgets is extremely difficult from in-situ data and requires thoroughly validated numerical models. In the study presented here, sediment fluxes and budgets in the lower Seine Estuary were quantified and investigated from seasonal to annual time scales with respect to realistic hydro- and meteorological conditions. A realistic three-dimensional process-based hydro- and sediment-dynamic model was used to quantify mud and sand fluxes through characteristic estuarine cross-sections. In addition to a reference experiment with typical forcing, three experiments were carried out and analyzed, each differing from the reference experiment in either river discharge or wind and waves so that the effects of these forcings could be separated. Hydro- and meteorological conditions affect the sediment fluxes and budgets in different ways and at different locations. Single storm events induce strong erosion in the lower estuary and can have a significant effect on the sediment fluxes offshore of the Seine Estuary mouth, with the flux direction depending on the wind direction. Spring tides cause significant up-estuary fluxes at the mouth. A high river discharge drives barotropic down-estuary fluxes at the upper cross-sections, but baroclinic up-estuary fluxes at the mouth and offshore so that the lower estuary gains sediment during wet years. This behavior is likely to be observed worldwide in estuaries affected by density gradients and turbidity maximum dynamics.

  9. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  10. A multi basin SWAT model analysis of runoff and sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Easton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. The model simulates saturation excess runoff from the landscape using a simple daily water balance coupled to a topographic wetness index in ways that are consistent with observed runoff processes in the basin. The spatial distribution of landscape erosion is thus simulated more correctly. The model was parameterized in a nested design for flow at eight and sediment at three locations in the basin. Subbasins ranged in size from 1.3 to 174 000 km2, and interestingly, the partitioning of runoff and infiltrating flow could be predicted by topographic information. Model predictions showed reasonable accuracy (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies ranged from 0.53–0.92 with measured data across all sites except Kessie, where the water budget could not be closed; however, the timing of flow was well captured. Runoff losses increased with rainfall during the monsoonal season and were greatest from areas with shallow soils and large contributing areas. Analysis of model results indicate that upland landscape erosion dominated sediment delivery to the main stem of the Blue Nile in the early part of the growing season when tillage occurs and before the soil was wetted up and plant cover was established. Once plant cover was established in mid August landscape erosion was negligible and sediment export was dominated by channel processes and re-suspension of landscape sediment deposited early in the growing season. These results imply that targeting small

  11. Sediment depositions upstream of open check dams: new elements from small scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Le Guern, Jules; Carbonari, Costanza; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    numbers that the flows tend to adopt? New small scale model experiments have been undertaken focusing on depositions processes and their related hydraulics. Accurate photogrammetric measurements allowed us to better describe the deposition processes3. Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LS-PIV) was performed to determine surface velocity fields in highly active channels with low grain submersion4. We will present preliminary results of our experiments showing the new elements we observed in massive deposit dynamics. REFERENCES 1.Armanini, A., Dellagiacoma, F. & Ferrari, L. From the check dam to the development of functional check dams. Fluvial Hydraulics of Mountain Regions 37, 331-344 (1991). 2.Piton, G. & Recking, A. Design of sediment traps with open check dams: a review, part I: hydraulic and deposition processes. (Accepted by the) Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 1-23 (2015). 3.Le Guern, J. Ms Thesis: Modélisation physique des plages de depot : analyse de la dynamique de remplissage.(2014) . 4.Carbonari, C. Ms Thesis: Small scale experiments of deposition processes occuring in sediment traps, LS-PIV measurments and geomorphological descriptions. (in preparation).

  12. Complexities in coastal sediment transport studies by numerical modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ilangovan, D.; ManiMurali, R.

    equations arrived based on scientific principles as all natural phenomena are governed by certain rules which can be explained by scientific principles. Efficiency of numerical modeling greatly depends on quality of input parameters. When input parameters...

  13. Modeling of Sediment Mechanics for Mine Burial Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brandes, Horst

    2004-01-01

    Numerical model development and testing were carried out for the purpose of assessing the influence of seafloor liquefaction on the burial of mines in shallow water due to cyclic loading by surface water waves...

  14. Guadalupe River, California, Sedimentation Study. Numerical Model Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model study was conducted to evaluate the potential impact that the Guadalupe River flood-control project would have on channel stability in terms of channel aggradation and degradation...

  15. Nutrients and sediment in frozen-ground runoff from no-till fields receiving liquid-dairy and solid-beef manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiskey, Matthew J.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Frame, Dennis R.; Madison, Fred W.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and sediment in surface runoff from frozen agricultural fields were monitored within three small (16.0 ha [39.5 ac] or less), adjacent basins at a no-till farm in southwest Wisconsin during four winters from 2003 to 2004 through 2006 to 2007. Runoff depths and flow-weighted constituent concentrations were compared to determine the impacts of surface-applied liquid-dairy or solid-beef manure to frozen and/or snow-covered ground. Despite varying the manure type and the rate and timing of applications, runoff depths were not significantly different among basins within each winter period. Sediment losses were low (generally less than 22 kg ha−1 [20 lb ac−1] in any year) and any statistical differences in sediment concentrations among basins were not related to the presence or absence of manure or the amount of runoff. Concentrations and losses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were significantly increased in basins that had either manure type applied less than one week preceding runoff. These increases occurred despite relatively low application rates. Lower concentrations and losses were measured in basins that had manure applied in fall and early winter and an extended period of time (months) had elapsed before the first runoff event. The highest mean, flow-weighted concentrations of total nitrogen (31.8 mg L−1) and total phosphorus (10.9 mg L−1) occurred in winter 2003 to 2004, when liquid-dairy manure was applied less than one week before runoff. On average, dissolved phosphorus accounted for over 80% of all phosphorus measured in runoff during frozen-ground periods. The data collected as part of this study add to the limited information on the quantity and quality of frozen-ground runoff at field edges, and the results highlight the importance of manure management decisions during frozen-ground periods to minimize nutrients lost in surface runoff.

  16. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve (ECOMatters Inc. (Canada)); Sohlenius, Gustav (Sveriges geologiska undersoekning (Sweden)); Omberg, Lars-Gunnar (ALS Scandinavia AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden)); Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K{sub d} data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K{sub d} values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K{sub d} resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K{sub d} values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K{sub d} values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K{sub d} values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  17. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Sohlenius, Gustav; Omberg, Lars-Gunnar; Borgiel, Mikael; Grolander, Sara; Norden, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d ) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K d data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K d values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K d resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K d values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K d values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K d values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  18. Constitutive properties and material model development for marine sediments in support of the subseabed disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladi, G.Y.; Akers, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the theoretical investigation was to develop an appropriate elastic-plastic effective-stress constitutive model and the necessary numerical algorithms for seabed sediments for use in computer code simulations of both early-time dynamic penetration of waste canisters and late-time hole closure. The purpose of the experimental program was to provide high-pressure dynamic stress-strain and strength properties for seabed sediments of interest, which in conjunction with data provided by the University of Rhode Island (URI), could be used to guide the development and verification of a constitutive model for such materials. The results of the theoretical program are documented in Part I of this report, which contains four chapters. The fundamental basis of elastic-plastic constitutive models is presented in Chapter 1. The numerical implementation of the elastic-plastic models is discussed in Chapter 2. The development of the effective-stress constitutive model for seabed sediments is presented in Chapter 3. The behavior of this effective-stress model under hydrostatic and triaxial compression test conditions is illustrated in Chapter 4. Part II deals with the experimental program and includes five chapters. Chapter 1 deals with background geotechnical information regarding the physical properties of seabed sediments and presents the scope of the experimental program. Testing equipment and specimen preparation are described in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 outlines test procedures and techniques. Test results are presented in Chapter 4. Representative constitutive properties for Pacific illite are given in Chapter 5. Comparison of the final effective-stress constitutive model fits with laboratory test data are presented in Part III. The numerical values of the material model constants for Pacific illite are also summarized therein. Part IV contains a summary and recommendations for future work

  19. Numerical Modelling of Suspended Transport and Deposition of Highway Deposited Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Bach, Christine

    Good data for calibration and validation of numerical models are of high importance. In the natural environment data can be hard to archive and the stochastic nature have governing influence on the data archived. Hence for modelling of suspended transport and deposition of particles, originating ...... from the highway surfaces, in highway detention ponds, four experiments are carried out. To simplify the complexity of a real pond and for easy control and measurement the sediment transports where carried out in two rectangular channels....

  20. Why would we use the Sediment Isotope Tomography (SIT) model to establish a 210Pb-based chronology in recent-sediment cores?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abril Hernández, José-María

    2015-01-01

    After half a century, the use of unsupported 210 Pb ( 210 Pb exc ) is still far off from being a well established dating tool for recent sediments with widespread applicability. Recent results from the statistical analysis of time series of fluxes, mass sediment accumulation rates (SAR), and initial activities, derived from varved sediments, place serious constraints to the assumption of constant fluxes, which is widely used in dating models. The Sediment Isotope Tomography (SIT) model, under the assumption of non post-depositional redistribution, is used for dating recent sediments in scenarios in that fluxes and SAR are uncorrelated and both vary with time. By using a simple graphical analysis, this paper shows that under the above assumptions, any given 210 Pb exc profile, even with the restriction of a discrete set of reference points, is compatible with an infinite number of chronological lines, and thus generating an infinite number of mathematically exact solutions for histories of initial activity concentrations, SAR and fluxes onto the SWI, with these two last ranging from zero up to infinity. Particularly, SIT results, without additional assumptions, cannot contain any statistically significant difference with respect to the exact solutions consisting in intervals of constant SAR or constant fluxes (both being consistent with the reference points). Therefore, there is not any benefit in its use as a dating tool without the explicit introduction of additional restrictive assumptions about fluxes, SAR and/or their interrelationship. - Highlights: • The 210 Pb-based method for dating recent sediments is of a widespread use. • Recent results limit the use of the simplifying assumption of constant fluxes. • SIT model claims to solve scenarios where fluxes and SAR independently vary with time. • The paper shows how SIT model lacks of sound physical basis. • A dating tool is only possible by introducing additional restrictive assumptions

  1. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  2. Sources of suspended-sediment flux in streams of the chesapeake bay watershed: A regional application of the sparrow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J.W.; Ator, S.W.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the sources and transport of fluvial suspended sediment in nontidal streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed and vicinity. We applied SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes, which spatially correlates estimated mean annual flux of suspended sediment in nontidal streams with sources of suspended sediment and transport factors. According to our model, urban development generates on average the greatest amount of suspended sediment per unit area (3,928 Mg/km2/year), although agriculture is much more widespread and is the greatest overall source of suspended sediment (57 Mg/km2/year). Factors affecting sediment transport from uplands to streams include mean basin slope, reservoirs, physiography, and soil permeability. On average, 59% of upland suspended sediment generated is temporarily stored along large rivers draining the Coastal Plain or in reservoirs throughout the watershed. Applying erosion and sediment controls from agriculture and urban development in areas of the northern Piedmont close to the upper Bay, where the combined effects of watershed characteristics on sediment transport have the greatest influence may be most helpful in mitigating sedimentation in the bay and its tributaries. Stream restoration efforts addressing floodplain and bank stabilization and incision may be more effective in smaller, headwater streams outside of the Coastal Plain. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association. No claim to original U.S. government works.

  3. A sandpile model of grain blocking and consequences for sediment dynamics in step-pool streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P.

    2012-04-01

    Coarse grains (cobbles to boulders) are set in motion in steep mountain streams by floods with sufficient energy to erode the particles locally and transport them downstream. During transport, grains are often blocked and form width-spannings structures called steps, separated by pools. The step-pool system is a transient, self-organizing and self-sustaining structure. The temporary storage of sediment in steps and the release of that sediment in avalanche-like pulses when steps collapse, leads to a complex nonlinear threshold-driven dynamics in sediment transport which has been observed in laboratory experiments (e.g., Zimmermann et al., 2010) and in the field (e.g., Turowski et al., 2011). The basic question in this paper is if the emergent statistical properties of sediment transport in step-pool systems may be linked to the transient state of the bed, i.e. sediment storage and morphology, and to the dynamics in sediment input. The hypothesis is that this state, in which sediment transporting events due to the collapse and rebuilding of steps of all sizes occur, is analogous to a critical state in self-organized open dissipative dynamical systems (Bak et al., 1988). To exlore the process of self-organization, a cellular automaton sandpile model is used to simulate the processes of grain blocking and hydraulically-driven step collapse in a 1-d channel. Particles are injected at the top of the channel and are allowed to travel downstream based on various local threshold rules, with the travel distance drawn from a chosen probability distribution. In sandpile modelling this is a simple 1-d limited non-local model, however it has been shown to have nontrivial dynamical behaviour (Kadanoff et al., 1989), and it captures the essence of stochastic sediment transport in step-pool systems. The numerical simulations are used to illustrate the differences between input and output sediment transport rates, mainly focussing on the magnification of intermittency and

  4. PALYNOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE LATE NEOGENE SEDIMENTS OF EASTERN SLAVONIA (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Pecimotika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By applying a palynological analysis of the Late Neogene sediments from one exploration well in the area of Eastern Slavonia, three vegetation zones (Z1, Z2, Z3 as conditioned by climate sensitivity were set. On the basis of mutual percentage relations of the occurrence of individual form-species and grouping them according to the results of cluster analysis, these zones reflect the changes of warm-cold and variable humidity periods. The age of zones has been determined: zone Z1 is Pontian, zone Z2 is Pliocene and zone Z3 is Pleistocene-Holocene. In the Pontian, 13 form-species of spores were determined that do not cross the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. In the Pliocene, 4 index form-species of spores were determined that were not found in the Quaternary in the study area. In the youngest sediments of the study area, i.e. Pleistocene and Holocene, 7 index form-species of spores were determined. Together with well logging (gamma ray and specific resistivity logs of the formation, a model was constructed for the local routine provision of age in the study area. The results are generally consistent with other results obtained from Early Neogene sediments in adjacent areas in the central part of Paratethys, and may serve as a model for the correlation of contemporaneous sediments in other areas of Croatia, e.g. Sava and Drava Depressions , which in effect may contribute to the more efficient investigation of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  5. Hybrid sediment transport model for the “linguado” channel, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Conde Perez dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study involves an assessment of various artificial intelligence-related techniques which aim to produce a more robust system for sediment transport modeling. The intelligent systems developed in this research are directly applicable to academic knowledge and use data from a report on "water circulation assessment in the “Linguado” Channel and Babitonga Bay ,”Santa Catarina”, Brazil, developed by  Military Engineering Institute (IME. The solution employed for sediment transport was built using an intelligent system from the conception of two hybrid models. The first was a Neuro-Fuzzy (ANFIS hybrid model for the study of hydrodynamic behavior, aiming to determine flow rate in the channel. The second was a fuzzy genetic model, able to assess sediment transport in the “Linguado” Channel. The study's conclusion compares the different effects involved in the dredging equilibrium in the “Linguado” Channel according to this hybrid model with the results obtained using a finite element model in the MIKE21® software.

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity fluxes from coastal marine sediments: Model estimates for different shelf environments and sensitivity to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumins, V.; Gehlen, M.; Arndt, S.; Van Cappellen, P.; Regnier, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional reactive transport model to estimate benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity (AT) from coastal marine sediments. The model incorporates the transport processes of sediment accumulation, molecular diffusion, bioturbation and bioirrigation,

  7. Modelling the impact of forest loss on shallow landslide sediment yield, Ijuez river catchment, Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The SHETRAN model for simulating the sediment yield arising from shallow landslides at the scale of a river catchment was applied to the 45-km2 Ijuez catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees, to investigate the effect of loss of forest cover on landslide and debris flow incidence and on catchment sediment yield. The application demonstrated how such a model, with a large number of parameters to be evaluated, can be used even when directly measured data are not available: rainfall and discharge time series were generated by reference to other local records and data providing the basis for a soil map were obtained by a short field campaign. Uncertainty bounds for the outputs were determined as a function of the uncertainty in the values of key model parameters. For a four-year period and for the existing forested state of the catchment, a good ability to simulate the observed long term spatial distribution of debris flows (represented by a 45-year inventory and to determine catchment sediment yield within the range of regional observations was demonstrated. The lower uncertainty bound on simulated landslide occurrence approximated the observed annual rate of landsliding and suggests that landslides provide a relatively minor proportion of the total sediment yield, at least in drier years. A scenario simulation in which the forest cover was replaced by grassland indicated an increase in landsliding but a decrease in the number of landslides which evolve into debris flows and, at least for drier years, a reduction in sediment delivery to the channel network.

  8. Application of a surface complexation model to the interactions of Pu and Am with Esk Estuary sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.R.; Knox, S.; Titley, J.G.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Kelly, M.; Williams, G.

    1990-10-01

    Previous work has shown that Pu is remobilised from Esk sediments at low salinities of overlying water. A constant capacitance surface complexation model has been developed in order to understand and model the chemical processes occurring. The model is based on detailed chemical characterisation of sediment samples from the estuary. The following measurements were carried out to provide input parameters for the model: specific surface area; total surface sites (tritium exchange); proton and major ion exchange (potentiometric titration); and actinide (Pu and Am) partition coefficient as a function of pH and salinity at sediment and actinide concentrations typical of the Esk. (author)

  9. Morphodynamic Modeling of the Lower Yellow River, China: Flux (Equilibrium) Form or Entrainment (Nonequilibrium) Form of Sediment Mass Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, C.; Parker, G.; Ma, H.; Naito, K.; Moodie, A. J.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Models of river morphodynamics consist of three elements: (1) a treatment of flow hydraulics, (2) a formulation relating some aspect of sediment transport to flow hydraulics, and (3) a description of sediment conservation. In the case of unidirectional river flow, the Exner equation of sediment conservation is commonly described in terms of a flux-based formulation, in which bed elevation variation is related to the streamwise gradient of sediment transport rate. An alternate formulation of the Exner equation, however, is the entrainment-based formulation in which bed elevation variation is related to the difference between the entrainment rate of bed sediment into suspension and the deposition rate of suspended sediment onto the bed. In the flux-based formulation, sediment transport is regarded to be in a local equilibrium state (i.e., sediment transport rate locally equals sediment transport capacity). However, the entrainment-based formulation does not require this constraint; the sediment transport rate may lag in space and time behind the changing flow conditions. In modeling the fine-grained Lower Yellow River, it is usual to treat sediment conservation in terms of an entrainment-based (nonequilibrium) rather than a flux-based (equilibrium) formulation with the consideration that fine-grained sediment may be entrained at one place but deposited only at some distant location downstream. However, the differences in prediction between the two formulations are still not well known, and the entrainment formulation may not always be necessary for the Lower Yellow River. Here we study this problem by comparing the results of flux-based and entrainment-based morphodynamics under conditions typical of the Yellow River, using sediment transport equations specifically designed for the Lower Yellow River. We find, somewhat unexpectedly, that in a treatment of a 200-km reach using uniform sediment, there is little difference between the two formulations unless the

  10. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  11. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  12. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  13. Modeling radiocesium transport from a river catchment based on a physically-based distributed hydrological and sediment erosion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Omata, Teppei

    2015-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 resulted in the deposition of large quantities of radionuclides, such as (134)Cs and (137)Cs, over parts of eastern Japan. Since then high levels of radioactive contamination have been detected in large areas, including forests, agricultural land, and residential areas. Due to the strong adsorption capability of radiocesium to soil particles, radiocesium migrates with eroded sediments, follows the surface flow paths, and is delivered to more populated downstream regions and eventually to the Pacific Ocean. It is therefore important to understand the transport of contaminated sediments in the hydrological system and to predict changes in the spatial distribution of radiocesium concentrations by taking the land-surface processes related to sediment migration into consideration. In this study, we developed a distributed model to simulate the transport of water and contaminated sediment in a watershed hydrological system, and applied this model to a partially forested mountain catchment located in an area highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout. Observed discharge, sediment concentration, and cesium concentration measured from June 2011 until December 2012 were used for calibration of model parameters. The simulated discharge and sediment concentration both agreed well with observed values, while the cesium concentration was underestimated in the initial period following the accident. This result suggests that the leaching of radiocesium from the forest canopy, which was not considered in the model, played a significant role in its transport from the catchment. Based on the simulation results, we quantified the long-term fate of radiocesium over the study area and estimated that the effective half-life of (137)Cs deposited in the study area will be approximately 22 y due to the export of contaminated sediment by land-surface processes, and the amount of (137)Cs remaining in the

  14. Geological modeling of a stratified deposit with CAD-Based solid model automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Eser

    Full Text Available Abstract The planning stages of mining activities require many comprehensive and detailed analyses. Determining the correct orebody model is the first stage and one of the most important. Three-dimensional solid modeling is one of the significant methods that can examine the position and shape of the ore deposit. Although there are many different types of mining software for determining a solid model, many users try to build geological models in the computer without knowing how these software packages work. As researchers on the subject, we wanted to answer the question "How would we do it". For this purpose, a system was developed for generating solid models using data obtained from boreholes. Obtaining this model in an AutoCAD environment will be important for geologists and engineers. Developed programs were first tested with virtual borehole data belonging to a virtual deposit. Then the real borehole data of a cement raw material site were successfully applied. This article allows readers not only to see a clear example of the programming approach to layered deposits but also to produce more complicated software in this context. Our study serves as a window to understanding the geological modeling process.

  15. Runoff and sediment generation on bench -terraced hillsides: measurements and up-scaling of a field-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vertessy, R.A.; Ruijter, J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing, stream sediment yields from agricultural hillsides in upland West Java remain high. We studied the causes of this lack of effect by combining measurements at different spatial scales using an erosion process model. Event runoff and sediment yield from two 4-ha

  16. Modeling the sensitivity of sediment and water runoff dynamics to Holocene climate and land use changes at the catchment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notebaert, B.; Verstraeten, G.; Ward, P.J.; Renssen, H.; Van Rompaey, A.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have indicated that soil erosion, sediment redistribution and water discharge during the Holocene have varied greatly under influence of environmental changes. In this paper we have used a modeling approach to study the driving forces for soil erosion and sediment

  17. Benthic metal fluxes and sediment diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage: A laboratory experiment and reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Ayora, C.; Jiménez-Arias, J. L.; García-Robledo, E.; Papaspyrou, S.; Corzo, A.

    2014-08-01

    Reservoirs are one of the primary water supply sources. Knowledge of the metal fluxes at the water-sediment interfaces of reservoirs is essential for predicting their ecological quality. Redox oscillations in the water column are promoted by stratification; turnover events may significantly alter metal cycling, especially in reservoirs impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). To study this phenomenon, an experiment was performed under controlled laboratory conditions. Sediment cores from an AMD-affected reservoir were maintained in a tank with reservoir water for approximately two months and subjected to alternating oxic-hypoxic conditions. A detailed metal speciation in solid phases of the sediment was initially performed by sequential extraction, and pore water was analyzed at the end of each redox period. Tank water metals concentrations were systematically monitored throughout the experiment. The experimental results were then used to calibrate a diffusion-reaction model and quantify the reaction rates and sediment-water fluxes. Under oxic conditions, pH, Fe and As concentrations decreased in the tank due to schwertmannite precipitation, whereas the concentrations of Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co increased due to Al(OH)3 and sulfide dissolution. The reverse trends occurred under hypoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions, the fluxes calculated by applying Fick’s first law to experimental concentration gradients contradicted the fluxes expected based on the evolution of the tank water. According to the reactive transport calculations, this discrepancy can be attributed to the coarse resolution of sediment sampling. The one-cm-thick slices failed to capture effectively the notably narrow (1-2 mm) concentration peaks of several elements in the shallow pore water resulting from sulfide and Al(OH)3 dissolution. The diffusion-reaction model, extended to the complete year, computed that between 25% and 50% of the trace metals and less than 10% of the Al that precipitated under

  18. Model of the discrete destruction process of a solid body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagolev, V. V.; Markin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Destruction is considered as a discrete thermomechanical process, in which the deformation of a solid body is achieved by changing the boundary stresses acting on the part of the volume being destroyed with the external load unchanged. On the basis of the proposed concept, a model for adhesive stratification of a composite material is constructed. When adhesive stratification is used, the stress state of one or two boundaries of the adhesive layer changes to zero if the bonds with the joined body are broken. As a result of the stratification, the interaction between the part of the composite, which may include an adhesive layer and the rest of the body stops. When solving the elastoplastic problem of cohesive stratification, the region in which the destruction criterion is achieved is identified. With the help of a repeated solution of the problem of subcritical deformation with the known law of motion of the boundary of the region, the distribution of the load (nodal forces) acting from the region to the body is located. The next step considers the change in the stress–strain state of the body in the process of destruction of the selected area. The elastoplastic problem is solved with a simple unloading of the formed surface of the body and preservation of the external load corresponding to the beginning of the process of destruction.

  19. An environmentally sustainable decision model for urban solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costi, P.; Minciardi, R.; Robba, M.; Rovatti, M.; Sacile, R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the structure and the application of a decision support system (DSS) designed to help decision makers of a municipality in the development of incineration, disposal, treatment and recycling integrated programs. Specifically, within a MSW management system, several treatment plants and facilities can generally be found: separators, plants for production of refuse derived fuel (RDF), incinerators with energy recovery, plants for treatment of organic material, and sanitary landfills. The main goal of the DSS is to plan the MSW management, defining the refuse flows that have to be sent to recycling or to different treatment or disposal plants, and suggesting the optimal number, the kinds, and the localization of the plants that have to be active. The DSS is based on a decision model that requires the solution of a constrained non-linear optimization problem, where some decision variables are binary and other ones are continuous. The objective function takes into account all possible economic costs, whereas constraints arise from technical, normative, and environmental issues. Specifically, pollution and impacts, induced by the overall solid waste management system, are considered through the formalization of constraints on incineration emissions and on negative effects produced by disposal or other particular treatments

  20. Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Sediment and Soil by Pressurized Solvent Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction, and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 61 compounds in environmental sediment and soil samples is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater and wastewater-impacted sediment on aquatic organisms. This method also may be used to evaluate the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water and sediment quality of urban streams. Method development focused on the determination of compounds that were chosen on the basis of their endocrine-disrupting potential or toxicity. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and their degradates, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from interfering matrix components by high-pressure water/isopropyl alcohol extraction. The compounds were isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing chemically modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. The cartridges were dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds were eluted with methylene chloride (80 percent)-diethyl ether (20 percent) through Florisil/sodium sulfate SPE cartridge, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-sand samples fortified at 4 to 72 micrograms averaged 76 percent ?13 percent relative standard deviation for all method compounds. Initial method reporting levels for single-component compounds ranged from 50 to 500 micrograms per kilogram. The concentrations of 20 out of 61 compounds initially will be reported as estimated with the 'E' remark code for one of three reasons: (1) unacceptably low-biased recovery (less than 60 percent) or highly variable method performance

  1. Fluvial Connectivity and Sediment Dispersal within Continental Extensional Basins; Assessment of Controlling Factors using Numerical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, A., Jr.; Cowie, P. A.; Gawthorpe, R.; Huismans, R. S.; Pedersen, V. K.

    2017-12-01

    Progressive integration of drainage networks has been documented in many regional-scale studies of extensional continental systems. While endorheic drainage and lake sedimentation are common features observed in basin stratigraphy, they often disappear from the record due to the development of a through-going river network. Because changes in the fluvial connectivity of extensional basins have profound impact on erosion and sediment dispersal, and thus the feedback between surface processes and tectonics, it is of great importance to understand what controls them. Headward erosion (also called headward capture or river piracy) is often suggested to be the main mechanism causing basins to become interconnected over time with one another and with the regional/coastal drainage network. We show that overspill mechanisms (basin over-filling or lake over-spilling) play a key role in the actively extending central Italian Apennines, even though this area is theoretically favorable for headward erosion (short distances to the coast in combination with rapid surface uplift). In other tectonic settings (e.g. contractional basins and high plateaux) the role of headward erosion in transverse drainage development and integrating endorheic basins has also been increasingly questioned. These two mechanisms predict very different spatio-temporal patterns of sediment dispersal and thus timing of sediment loading (or erosional unloading) along active normal faults, which in turn may influence the locus of subsequent extensional deformation. By means of surface process modelling we develop a process-based understanding of the controls on fluvial connectivity between extensional basins in the central Italian Apennines. We focus on which conditions (tectonic and erosional) favour headward erosion versus overspill and compare our model results with published field evidence for drainage integration and the timing of basin sedimentation/incision.

  2. Derivation of suspended sediment data for Al-Adhiam watershed-Iraq using artificial neural network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khafaji Mahmoud Saleh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean part of river sediments is suspended sediment load, its prediction and simulation has important significance to manage the water resources and environments. In Iraq, most researchers avoid to fighting in sediment researches when related with hydrological models spatially with that need enough observed sediment data for calibration and validation because the sediment data very limitation or scars. The aim of this study is employing the Artificial Neural Network (ANN model to estimate the suspended sediment load of Al-Adhaim watershed in Iraq from available measured sediment data, identify the suitable pattern of input and target data sampling and obtaining the best nonlinear equation between the river discharge and suspended sediment load. To this end, the ANN model was training and tested with the available sediment data, which was for water year (1983-1984. Two modes were applied for input and target data sampling each mode has two cases, where in the first mode the time series data sampling was used with flow as an input for case one while flow and average precipitation in case two with used suspended sediment as a target variable. For second mode the supervise data sampling was used with the same input and target division in first mode. The performance of the model was evaluated by using Coefficient of determination (R2 and the Nash- Sutcliffe efficiency (NS and standardization of root mean square error (RSR, the statistical analysis model testing for Al-Adhiam watershed showed satisfactory agreement between observed and estimated daily values for Mode2- Case2. R2, NS and RSR of the testing period were 0.99 and 0.8and 0.2 respectively. The result shows that the conducted ANN model can be used with the best net as a predictor for sediment yield in this watershed. The model was used to predict daily sediment load data for period from 1Oct. 1984 to 31Spt 1985. The predicted daily sediment data was plotted against daily measured flow

  3. Modelling the transport of solid contaminants originated from a point source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Dora V.; Conde, Daniel A. S.; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton J.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    The solid phases of natural flows can comprise an important repository for contaminants in aquatic ecosystems and can propagate as turbidity currents generating a stratified environment. Contaminants can be desorbed under specific environmental conditions becoming re-suspended, with a potential impact on the aquatic biota. Forecasting the distribution of the contaminated turbidity current is thus crucial for a complete assessment of environmental exposure. In this work we validate the ability of the model STAV-2D, developed at CERIS (IST), to simulate stratified flows such as those resulting from turbidity currents in complex geometrical environments. The validation involves not only flow phenomena inherent to flows generated by density imbalance but also convective effects brought about by the complex geometry of the water basin where the current propagates. This latter aspect is of paramount importance since, in real applications, currents may propagate in semi-confined geometries in plan view, generating important convective accelerations. Velocity fields and mass distributions obtained from experiments carried out at CERIS - (IST) are used as validation data for the model. The experimental set-up comprises a point source in a rectangular basin with a wall placed perpendicularly to the outer walls. Thus generates a complex 2D flow with an advancing wave front and shocks due to the flow reflection from the walls. STAV-2D is based on the depth- and time-averaged mass and momentum equations for mixtures of water and sediment, understood as continua. It is closed in terms of flow resistance and capacity bedload discharge by a set of classic closure models and a specific high concentration formulation. The two-layer model is derived from layer-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, resulting in a system of layer-specific non-linear shallow-water equations, solved through explicit first or second-order schemes. According to the experimental data for mass distribution, the

  4. A faster numerical scheme for a coupled system modeling soil erosion and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M.-H.; Cordier, S.; Lucas, C.; Cerdan, O.

    2015-02-01

    Overland flow and soil erosion play an essential role in water quality and soil degradation. Such processes, involving the interactions between water flow and the bed sediment, are classically described by a well-established system coupling the shallow water equations and the Hairsine-Rose model. Numerical approximation of this coupled system requires advanced methods to preserve some important physical and mathematical properties; in particular, the steady states and the positivity of both water depth and sediment concentration. Recently, finite volume schemes based on Roe's solver have been proposed by Heng et al. (2009) and Kim et al. (2013) for one and two-dimensional problems. In their approach, an additional and artificial restriction on the time step is required to guarantee the positivity of sediment concentration. This artificial condition can lead the computation to be costly when dealing with very shallow flow and wet/dry fronts. The main result of this paper is to propose a new and faster scheme for which only the CFL condition of the shallow water equations is sufficient to preserve the positivity of sediment concentration. In addition, the numerical procedure of the erosion part can be used with any well-balanced and positivity preserving scheme of the shallow water equations. The proposed method is tested on classical benchmarks and also on a realistic configuration.

  5. Phosphorus sorption on marine carbonate sediment: phosphonate as model organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2011-11-01

    Organophosphonate, characterized by the presence of a stable, covalent, carbon to phosphorus (C-P) bond, is a group of synthetic or biogenic organophosphorus compounds. The fate of these organic phosphorus compounds in the environment is not well studied. This study presents the first investigation on the sorption of phosphorus (P) in the presence of two model phosphonate compounds, 2-aminothylphosphonoic acid (2-AEP) and phosphonoformic acid (PFA), on marine carbonate sediments. In contrast to other organic P compounds, no significant inorganic phosphate exchange was observed in seawater. P was found to adsorb on the sediment only in the presence of PFA, not 2-AEP. This indicated that sorption of P from phosphonate on marine sediment was compound specific. Compared with inorganic phosphate sorption on the same sediments, P sorption from organic phosphorus is much less in the marine environment. Further study is needed to understand the potential role of the organophosphonate compounds in biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus in the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two dimensional modelling of flood flows and suspended sediment transport: the case of Brenta River

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alpaos, L.; Martini, P.; Carniello, L.

    2003-04-01

    The paper deals with numerical modelling of flood waves and suspended sediment in plain river basins. The two dimensional depth integrated momentum and continuity equations, modified to take into account of the bottom irregularities that strongly affect the hydrodynamic and the continuity in partially dry areas (for example, during the first stages of a plain flooding and in tidal flows), are solved with a standard Galerkin finite element method using a semi-implicit numerical scheme and considering the role both of the small channel network and the regulation dispositive on the flooding wave propagation. Transport of suspended sediment and bed evolution are coupled with the flood propagation through the convection-dispersion equation and the Exner's equation. Results of a real case study are presented in which the effects of extreme flood of Brenta River (Italy) are examinated. The flooded areas (urban and rural areas) are identified and a mitigation solution based on a diversion channel flowing into Venice Lagoon is proposed. We show that this solution strongly reduces the flood risk in the downstream areas and can provide an important sediment source to the Venice Lagoon. Finally, preliminary results of the sediment dispersion in the Venice Lagoon are presented.

  7. Adapting SWAT hillslope erosion model to predict sediment concentrations and yields in large Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigiak, Olga; Malagó, Anna; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean

    2015-12-15

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used worldwide for water quality assessment and planning. This paper aimed to assess and adapt SWAT hillslope sediment yield model (Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation, MUSLE) for applications in large basins, i.e. when spatial data is coarse and model units are large; and to develop a robust sediment calibration method for large regions. The Upper Danube Basin (132,000km(2)) was used as case study representative of large European Basins. The MUSLE was modified to reduce sensitivity of sediment yields to the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) size, and to identify appropriate algorithms for estimating hillslope length (L) and slope-length factor (LS). HRUs gross erosion was broadly calibrated against plot data and soil erosion map estimates. Next, mean annual SWAT suspended sediment concentrations (SSC, mg/L) were calibrated and validated against SSC data at 55 gauging stations (622 station-years). SWAT annual specific sediment yields in subbasin reaches (RSSY, t/km(2)/year) were compared to yields measured at 33 gauging stations (87station-years). The best SWAT configuration combined a MUSLE equation modified by the introduction of a threshold area of 0.01km(2) where L and LS were estimated with flow accumulation algorithms. For this configuration, the SSC residual interquartile was less than +/-15mg/L both for the calibration (1995-2004) and the validation (2005-2009) periods. The mean SSC percent bias for 1995-2009 was 24%. RSSY residual interquartile was within +/-10t/km(2)/year, with a mean RSSY percent bias of 12%. Residuals showed no bias with respect to drainage area, slope, or spatial distribution. The use of multiple data types at multiple sites enabled robust simulation of sediment concentrations and yields of the region. The MUSLE modifications are recommended for use in large basins. Based on SWAT simulations, we present a sediment budget for the Upper Danube Basin. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Sediment transport processes in the Pearl River Estuary as revealed by grain-size end-member modeling and sediment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Tuan-Jie

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of grain-size distribution enables us to decipher sediment transport processes and understand the causal relations between dynamic processes and grain-size distributions. In the present study, grain sizes were measured from surface sediments collected in the Pearl River Estuary and its adjacent coastal areas. End-member modeling analysis attempts to unmix the grain sizes into geologically meaningful populations. Six grain-size end-members were identified. Their dominant modes are 0 Φ, 1.5 Φ, 2.75 Φ, 4.5 Φ, 7 Φ, and 8 Φ, corresponding to coarse sand, medium sand, fine sand, very coarse silt, silt, and clay, respectively. The spatial distributions of the six end-members are influenced by sediment transport and depositional processes. The two coarsest end-members (coarse sand and medium sand) may reflect relict sediments deposited during the last glacial period. The fine sand end-member would be difficult to transport under fair weather conditions, and likely indicates storm deposits. The three remaining fine-grained end-members (very coarse silt, silt, and clay) are recognized as suspended particles transported by saltwater intrusion via the flood tidal current, the Guangdong Coastal Current, and riverine outflow. The grain-size trend analysis shows distinct transport patterns for the three fine-grained end-members. The landward transport of the very coarse silt end-member occurs in the eastern part of the estuary, the seaward transport of the silt end-member occurs in the western part, and the east-west transport of the clay end-member occurs in the coastal areas. The results show that grain-size end-member modeling analysis in combination with sediment trend analysis help to better understand sediment transport patterns and the associated transport mechanisms.

  9. Simulation of the fate of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters based on a fractionated sediment transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Liu, Ying

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional depth-integrated numerical model is refined in this paper to simulate the hydrodynamics, graded sediment transport process and the fate of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters. The sediment mixture is divided into several fractions according to the grain size. A bed evolution model is adopted to simulate the processes of the bed elevation change and sediment grain size sorting. The faecal bacteria transport equation includes enhanced source and sink terms to represent bacterial kinetic transformation and disappearance or reappearance due to sediment deposition or re-suspension. A novel partition ratio and dynamic decay rates of faecal bacteria are adopted in the numerical model. The model has been applied to the turbid water environment in the Bristol Channel and Severn estuary, UK. The predictions by the present model are compared with field data and those by non-fractionated model.

  10. Thermodynamic Properties of Chromium Adsorption by Sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-06-19

    Jun 19, 2013 ... The adsorption of Chromium from aqueous solution using river Watari sediment as an adsorbent was modeled. The influence of initial ... number of metals, including chromium, copper, nickel and zinc. The ion ... through filter paper to determine the concentration ... liquid and solid phases were separated by.

  11. Solid-Liquid equilibrium of n-alkanes using the Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    The formation of a solid phase in liquid mixtures with large paraffinic molecules is a phenomenon of interest in the petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological industries among onters. Efforts to model the solid-liquid equilibrium in these systems have been mainly empirical and with different...... degrees of success.An attempt to describe the equilibrium between the high temperature form of a paraffinic solid solution, commonly known as rotator phase, and the liquid phase is performed. The Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model (CDLP) is developed allowing a successful description of the solid-liquid...... equilibrium of n-alkanes ranging from n-C_20 to n-C_40.The model is further modified to achieve a more correct temperature dependence because it severely underestimates the excess enthalpy. It is shown that the ratio of excess enthalpy and entropy for n-alkane solid solutions, as happens for other solid...

  12. Empirical models based on the universal soil loss equation fail to predict sediment discharges from Chesapeake Bay catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, Kathleen B; Weller, Donald E; Jordan, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its derivatives are widely used for identifying watersheds with a high potential for degrading stream water quality. We compared sediment yields estimated from regional application of the USLE, the automated revised RUSLE2, and five sediment delivery ratio algorithms to measured annual average sediment delivery in 78 catchments of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. We did the same comparisons for another 23 catchments monitored by the USGS. Predictions exceeded observed sediment yields by more than 100% and were highly correlated with USLE erosion predictions (Pearson r range, 0.73-0.92; p USLE estimates (r = 0.87; p USLE model did not change the results. In ranked comparisons between observed and predicted sediment yields, the models failed to identify catchments with higher yields (r range, -0.28-0.00; p > 0.14). In a multiple regression analysis, soil erodibility, log (stream flow), basin shape (topographic relief ratio), the square-root transformed proportion of forest, and occurrence in the Appalachian Plateau province explained 55% of the observed variance in measured suspended sediment loads, but the model performed poorly (r(2) = 0.06) at predicting loads in the 23 USGS watersheds not used in fitting the model. The use of USLE or multiple regression models to predict sediment yields is not advisable despite their present widespread application. Integrated watershed models based on the USLE may also be unsuitable for making management decisions.

  13. Modelling elasticity in solids using active cubes - application to simulated operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to elastic modelling of human tissue based on the use of 3D solid active models-active cubes (M. Bro-Nielsen, 1994)-and a shape description based on the metric tensor in a solid. Active cubes are used because they provide a natural parameterization of the surface a...

  14. Three-phase boundary length in solid-oxide fuel cells: A mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Heuveline, Vincent; Deutschmann, Olaf

    A mathematical model to calculate the volume specific three-phase boundary length in the porous composite electrodes of solid-oxide fuel cell is presented. The model is exclusively based on geometrical considerations accounting for porosity, particle diameter, particle size distribution, and solids phase distribution. Results are presented for uniform particle size distribution as well as for non-uniform particle size distribution.

  15. River longitudinal profiles and bedrock incision models: Stream power and the influence of sediment supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Leonard; Dietrich, William E.

    The simplicity and apparent mechanistic basis of the stream power river incision law have led to its wide use in empirical and theoretical studies. Here we identify constraints on its calibration and application, and present a mechanistic theory for the effects of sediment supply on incision rates which spotlights additional limitations on the applicability of the stream power law. On channels steeper than about 20%, incision is probably dominated by episodic debris flows, and on sufficiently gentle slopes, sediment may bury the bedrock and prevent erosion. These two limits bound the application of the stream power law and strongly constrain the possible combination of parameters in the law. In order to avoid infinite slopes at the drainage divide in numerical models of river profiles using the stream power law it is commonly assumed that the first grid cell is unchanneled. We show, however, that the size of the grid may strongly influence the calculated equilibrium relief. Analysis of slope-drainage area relationships for a river network in a Northern California watershed using digital elevation data and review of data previously reported by Hack reveal that non-equilibrium profiles may produce well defined slope-area relationships (as expected in equilibrium channels), but large differences between tributaries may point to disequilibrium conditions. To explore the role of variations in sediment supply and transport capacity in bedrock incision we introduce a mechanistic model for abrasion of bedrock by saltating bedload. The model predicts that incision rates reach a maximum at intermediate levels of sediment supply and transport capacity. Incision rates decline away from the maximum with either decreasing supply (due to a shortage of tools) or increasing supply (due to gradual bed alluviation), and with either decreasing transport capacity (due to less energetic particle movement) or increasing transport capacity (due less frequent particle impacts per unit bed

  16. [Impacts of forest and precipitation on runoff and sediment in Tianshui watershed and GM models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, H

    2000-12-01

    This paper analyzed the impacts of foret stand volume and precipitation on annual erosion modulus, mean sediment, maximum sediment, mean runoff, maximum runoff, minimum runoff, mean water level, maximum water level and minimum water level in Tianshui watershed, and also analyzed the effect of the variation of forest stand volume on monthly mean runoff, minimum runoff and mean water level. The dynamic models of grey system GM(1, N) were constructed to simulate the changes of these hydrological elements. The dynamic GM models on the impact of stand volumes of different forest types(Chinese fir, masson pine and broad-leaved forests) with different age classes(young, middle-aged, mature and over-mature) and that of precipitation on the hydrological elements were also constructed, and their changes with time were analyzed.

  17. A regional sediment transport modeling for fluvial influx and redistribution of suspended radionuclide in the Fukushima coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Yamanishi, Takafumi; Tsumune, Daisuke; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial discharge from the rivers is viewed as a missing piece for the inventory of the radionuclides in the ocean during the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The land-derived input introduces a time lag behind the direct release through hydrological process because these radionuclides mostly attach to suspended particles (sediments) that are transported quite differently to the dissolved matter in the ocean. We therefore develop a regional sediment transport model consisting of a multi-class non-cohesive sediment transport module, a wave-enhanced bed boundary layer model and a stratigraphy model proposed by Blaas et al. (2007) based on ROMS. (author)

  18. Lagrangian modelling of dispersion, sedimentation and resuspension processes in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidhagen, L.; Rahm, L.; Nyberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    The model is based on a modified Langevin's equation which simulates the turbulent crossflow velocity fluctuations in shear flows. The velocity and turbulence fields used are generated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamical model including a k-ε turbulence scheme. Since the dispersion model is formulated for only low particle concentrations, it is decoupled from the hydrodynamical model calculations. A great drawback in conventional dispersion modelling is the more or less unavoidable numerical diffusion. The use of a Lagrangian particle model will avoid this effect and the resulting too low concentrations for a given release. One consequence is a more realistic distribution of deposited particles. However, with regard to the overall deposition rates the simulated sedimentation process agrees well with well-established advection/diffusion model formulations. With a modified hydrodynamic model, the dispersion model can directly be applied to stratified 3D simulations. (orig./HP) [de

  19. A framework for using connectivity to measure and model water and sediment fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keessta, Saskia; Saco, Patricia; Nunes, Joao; Parsons, Tony; Poeppl, Ronny; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Jordán, Antonio; Masselink, Rens; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    For many years, scientists have tried to understand, describe and quantify water and sediment fluxes at multiple scales (Cerdà et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; Poeppl et al., 2016; Masselink et al., 2016a; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). In the past two decades, a new concept called connectivity has been used by Earth Scientists as a means to describe and quantify the influences on the fluxes of water and sediment on different scales: aggregate, pedon, location on the slope, slope, watershed, and basin (Baartman et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; López-Vicente et al., 2015; 2016; Masselink 2016b; Marchamalo et al., 2016; Mekonnen et al., 2016). A better understanding of connectivity can enhance our comprehension of landscape processes and provide a basis for the development of better measurement and modelling approaches, further leading to a better potential for implementing this concept as a management tool. Our research provides a short review of the State-of-the-Art of the connectivity concept, from which we conclude that scientists have been struggling to find a way to quantify connectivity so far. We adapt the knowledge of connectivity to better understand and quantify water and sediment transfers in catchment systems. First, we introduce a new approach to the concept of connectivity to study water and sediment transfers. In this approach water and sediment dynamics are divided in two parts: the system consists of phases and fluxes, each being separately measurable. This approach enables us to: i) better conceptualize our understanding of system dynamics at different timescales, including long timescales; ii) identify the main parameters driving system dynamics, and devise monitoring strategies which capture them; and, iii) build models with a holistic approach to simulate system dynamics without excessive complexity. Secondly, we discuss the role of system boundaries in designing measurement schemes and models. Natural systems have boundaries within which

  20. A Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model for the Waipaoa Shelf, New Zealand: Sensitivity of Fluxes to Spatially-Varying Erodibility and Model Nesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Moriarty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models can complement observations in investigations of marine sediment transport and depositional processes. A coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was implemented for the Waipaoa River continental shelf offshore of the North Island of New Zealand, to complement a 13-month field campaign that collected seabed and hydrodynamic measurements. This paper described the formulations used within the model, and analyzed the sensitivity of sediment flux estimates to model nesting and seabed erodibility. Calculations were based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System—Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (ROMS-CSTMS, a primitive equation model using a finite difference solution to the equations for momentum and water mass conservation, and transport of salinity, temperature, and multiple classes of suspended sediment. The three-dimensional model resolved the complex bathymetry, bottom boundary layer, and river plume that impact sediment dispersal on this shelf, and accounted for processes including fluvial input, winds, waves, tides, and sediment resuspension. Nesting within a larger-scale, lower resolution hydrodynamic model stabilized model behavior during river floods and allowed large-scale shelf currents to impact sediment dispersal. To better represent observations showing that sediment erodibility decreased away from the river mouth, the seabed erosion rate parameter was reduced with water depth. This allowed the model to account for the observed spatial pattern of erodibility, though the model held the critical shear stress for erosion constant. Although the model neglected consolidation and swelling processes, use of a spatially-varying erodibility parameter significantly increased export of fluvial sediment from Poverty Bay to deeper areas of the shelf.

  1. Investigation of binary solid phases by calorimetry and kinetic modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Matovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional methods for the determination of liquid-solid phase diagrams are based on the assumption that the overall equilibrium is established between the phases. However, the result of the crystallization of a liquid mixture will typically be a non-equilibrium or metastable state of the solid. For a proper description of the crystallization process the equilibrium approach is insufficient and a kinetic approach is actually required. In this work, we show that during slow crystallizatio...

  2. Investigating conceptual models for physical property couplings in solid solution models of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbow, Steven; Watson, Claire; Savage, David

    2005-11-01

    The long-term behaviour of cementitious engineered barriers is an important process to consider when modelling the migration of radionuclides from a geological repository for nuclear waste. The modelling of cement is complicated by the fact that the cement is dominated by the behaviour of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel which is a complex solid exhibiting incongruent dissolution behaviour. In this report, we have demonstrated the implementation of a solid-solution CSH gel model within a geochemical transport modelling framework using the Raiden computer code to investigate cement/concrete-groundwater interactions. The modelling conducted here shows that it is possible to couple various conceptual models for the evolution of physical properties of concrete with a solid solution model for cement degradation in a fully coupled geochemical transport model to describe the interaction of cement/concrete engineered barriers with groundwater. The results show that changes to the conceptual models and flow rates can give rise to very different evolutions. Most simulations were carried out at a reduced 'experimental' scale rather than full repository scale. The work has shown the possibility to investigate also the changing physical properties of degrading cement. To further develop the model more emphasis is needed on kinetics and the detailed development of a nearly clogged pore space. Modelling of the full repository scale could be another way forward to understand the behaviour of degrading concrete. A general conclusion is that the combined effects of chemical evolution and physical degradation should be analysed in performance assessments of cementitious repositories. Moreover, the project results will be used as one basis in coming reviews of SKB's safety assessments of repositories for spent fuel and low-and intermediate level waste

  3. Investigating conceptual models for physical property couplings in solid solution models of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbow, Steven; Watson, Claire; Savage, David [Quintesssa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    The long-term behaviour of cementitious engineered barriers is an important process to consider when modelling the migration of radionuclides from a geological repository for nuclear waste. The modelling of cement is complicated by the fact that the cement is dominated by the behaviour of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel which is a complex solid exhibiting incongruent dissolution behaviour. In this report, we have demonstrated the implementation of a solid-solution CSH gel model within a geochemical transport modelling framework using the Raiden computer code to investigate cement/concrete-groundwater interactions. The modelling conducted here shows that it is possible to couple various conceptual models for the evolution of physical properties of concrete with a solid solution model for cement degradation in a fully coupled geochemical transport model to describe the interaction of cement/concrete engineered barriers with groundwater. The results show that changes to the conceptual models and flow rates can give rise to very different evolutions. Most simulations were carried out at a reduced 'experimental' scale rather than full repository scale. The work has shown the possibility to investigate also the changing physical properties of degrading cement. To further develop the model more emphasis is needed on kinetics and the detailed development of a nearly clogged pore space. Modelling of the full repository scale could be another way forward to understand the behaviour of degrading concrete. A general conclusion is that the combined effects of chemical evolution and physical degradation should be analysed in performance assessments of cementitious repositories. Moreover, the project results will be used as one basis in coming reviews of SKB's safety assessments of repositories for spent fuel and low-and intermediate level waste.

  4. Waves, currents and sediment transport modelling at the Wave Hub site

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Santamaria, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Primary supervisory team: Qingping Zou and Shunqi Pan This research project uses an integrated modelling system to investigate the effects of a wave farm on nearshore sediment transport at the Wave Hub site. The Wave Hub project is a large scale demonstration site for the development of the operation of arrays of wave energy generation devices located at the southwest coast of the UK where multiple field measurements took place. Particular attention of this study was paid to th...

  5. APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELLING TO A HORIZONTAL SEDIMENTATION TANK IN IRAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hadi GHAWI

    2017-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling has been applied to examine the hydrodynamic behavior of water treatment sedimentation tanks at Baghdad Water Works, operated by Alkurech Water in Baghdad in Iraq. The existing tanks perform poorly at current flows and flow is unevenly split among online tanks, Therefore, CFD was used to investigate velocity profiles at current and projected loadings for the existing basins. Results from the CFD analysis were used to develop retrofit strategies to improve...

  6. Nitrogen Cycling in Permeable Sediments: Process-based Models for Streams and the Coastal Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Azizian, Morvarid

    2017-01-01

    Bioavailable forms of nitrogen, such as nitrate, are necessary for aquatic ecosystem productivity. Excess nitrate in aquatic systems, however, can adversely affect ecosystems and degrade both surface water and groundwater. Some of this excess nitrate can be removed in the sediments that line the bottom of rivers and coastal waters, through the exchange of water between surface water and groundwater (known as hyporheic exchange).Several process-based models have been proposed for estimating ni...

  7. Modeling wood dynamics, jam formation, and sediment storage in a gravel-bed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, B. C.; Hassan, M. A.; Davidson, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    In small and intermediate sized streams, the interaction between wood and bed material transport often determines the nature of the physical habitat, which in turn influences the health of the stream's ecosystem. We present a stochastic model that can be used to simulate the effects on physical habitat of forest fires, climate change, and other environmental disturbances that alter wood recruitment. The model predicts large wood (LW) loads in a stream as well as the volume of sediment stored by the wood; while it is parameterized to describe gravel bed streams similar to a well-studied field prototype, Fishtrap Creek, British Columbia, it can be calibrated to other systems as well. In the model, LW pieces are produced and modified over time as a result of random tree-fall, LW breakage, LW movement, and piece interaction to form LW jams. Each LW piece traps a portion of the annual bed material transport entering the reach and releases the stored sediment when the LW piece is entrained and moved. The equations governing sediment storage are based on a set of flume experiments also scaled to the field prototype. The model predicts wood loads ranging from 70 m3/ha to more than 300 m3/ha, with a mean value of 178 m3/ha: both the range and the mean value are consistent with field data from streams with similar riparian forest types and climate. The model also predicts an LW jam spacing that is consistent with field data. Furthermore, our modeling results demonstrate that the high spatial and temporal variability in sediment storage, sediment transport, and channel morphology associated with LW-dominated streams occurs only when LW pieces interact and form jams. Model runs that do not include jam formation are much less variable. These results suggest that river restoration efforts using engineered LW pieces that are fixed in place and not permitted to interact will be less successful at restoring the geomorphic processes responsible for producing diverse, productive

  8. A Modeling Framework for Predicting the Size of Sediments Produced on Hillslopes and Supplied to Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, L. S.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Landscape evolution models rarely represent sediment size explicitly, despite the importance of sediment size in regulating rates of bedload sediment transport, river incision into bedrock, and many other processes in channels and on hillslopes. A key limitation has been the lack of a general model for predicting the size of sediments produced on hillslopes and supplied to channels. Here we present a framework for such a model, as a first step toward building a `geomorphic transport law' that balances mechanistic realism with computational simplicity and is widely applicable across diverse landscapes. The goal is to take as inputs landscape-scale boundary conditions such as lithology, climate and tectonics, and predict the spatial variation in the size distribution of sediments supplied to channels across catchments. The model framework has two components. The first predicts the initial size distribution of particles produced by erosion of bedrock underlying hillslopes, while the second accounts for the effects of physical and chemical weathering during transport down slopes and delivery to channels. The initial size distribution can be related to the spacing and orientation of fractures within bedrock, which depend on the stresses and deformation experienced during exhumation and on rock resistance to fracture propagation. Other controls on initial size include the sizes of mineral grains in crystalline rocks, the sizes of cemented particles in clastic sedimentary rocks, and the potential for characteristic size distributions produced by tree throw, frost cracking, and other erosional processes. To model how weathering processes transform the initial size distribution we consider the effects of erosion rate and the thickness of soil and weathered bedrock on hillslope residence time. Residence time determines the extent of size reduction, for given values of model terms that represent the potential for chemical and physical weathering. Chemical weathering potential

  9. Multivariate Analysis and Modeling of Sediment Pollution Using Neural Network Models and Geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, Jean; Kanevski, Mikhaïl

    2013-04-01

    The present research deals with the exploration and modeling of a complex dataset of 200 measurement points of sediment pollution by heavy metals in Lake Geneva. The fundamental idea was to use multivariate Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) along with geostatistical models and tools in order to improve the accuracy and the interpretability of data modeling. The results obtained with ANN were compared to those of traditional geostatistical algorithms like ordinary (co)kriging and (co)kriging with an external drift. Exploratory data analysis highlighted a great variety of relationships (i.e. linear, non-linear, independence) between the 11 variables of the dataset (i.e. Cadmium, Mercury, Zinc, Copper, Titanium, Chromium, Vanadium and Nickel as well as the spatial coordinates of the measurement points and their depth). Then, exploratory spatial data analysis (i.e. anisotropic variography, local spatial correlations and moving window statistics) was carried out. It was shown that the different phenomena to be modeled were characterized by high spatial anisotropies, complex spatial correlation structures and heteroscedasticity. A feature selection procedure based on General Regression Neural Networks (GRNN) was also applied to create subsets of variables enabling to improve the predictions during the modeling phase. The basic modeling was conducted using a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) which is a workhorse of ANN. MLP models are robust and highly flexible tools which can incorporate in a nonlinear manner different kind of high-dimensional information. In the present research, the input layer was made of either two (spatial coordinates) or three neurons (when depth as auxiliary information could possibly capture an underlying trend) and the output layer was composed of one (univariate MLP) to eight neurons corresponding to the heavy metals of the dataset (multivariate MLP). MLP models with three input neurons can be referred to as Artificial Neural Networks with EXternal

  10. Microbial physiology-based model of ethanol metabolism in subsurface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qusheng; Roden, Eric E.

    2011-07-01

    A biogeochemical reaction model was developed based on microbial physiology to simulate ethanol metabolism and its influence on the chemistry of anoxic subsurface environments. The model accounts for potential microbial metabolisms that degrade ethanol, including those that oxidize ethanol directly or syntrophically by reducing different electron acceptors. Out of the potential metabolisms, those that are active in the environment can be inferred by fitting the model to experimental observations. This approach was applied to a batch sediment slurry experiment that examined ethanol metabolism in uranium-contaminated aquifer sediments from Area 2 at the U.S. Department of Energy Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN. According to the simulation results, complete ethanol oxidation by denitrification, incomplete ethanol oxidation by ferric iron reduction, ethanol fermentation to acetate and H 2, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction, and acetoclastic methanogenesis: all contributed significantly to the degradation of ethanol in the aquifer sediments. The assemblage of the active metabolisms provides a frame work to explore how ethanol amendment impacts the chemistry of the environment, including the occurrence and levels of uranium. The results can also be applied to explore how diverse microbial metabolisms impact the progress and efficacy of bioremediation strategies.

  11. Sensitivity-Based Modeling of Evaluating Surface Runoff and Sediment Load using Digital and Analog Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of runoff- sediment measurement and evaluation using automated and convectional runoff-meters was carried out at Meteorological and Hydrological Station of Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi using two runoff plots (ABCDa and EFGHm of area 2m 2 each, depth 0.26 m and driven into the soil to the depth of 0.13m. Runoff depths and intensities were measured from each of the positioned runoff plot. Automated runoff-meter has a measuring accuracy of ±0.001l/±0.025 mm and rainfall depth-intensity was measured using tipping-bucket rainguage during the period of 14-month of experimentation. Minimum and maximum rainfall depths of 1.2 and 190.3 mm correspond to measured runoff depths (MRo of 0.0 mm for both measurement approaches and 60.4 mm and 48.9 mm respectively. Automated runoffmeter provides precise, accurate and instantaneous result over the convectional measurement of surface runoff. Runoff measuring accuracy for automated runoff-meter from the plot (ABCDa produces R 2 = 0.99; while R 2 = 0.96 for manual evaluation in plot (EFGHm. WEPP and SWAT models were used to simulate the obtained hydrological variables from the applied measurement mechanisms. The outputs of sensitivity simulation analysis indicate that data from automated measuring systems gives a better modelling index and such could be used for running robust runoff-sediment predictive modelling technique under different reservoir sedimentation and water management scenarios.

  12. Sediment mobility and bed armoring in the St Clair River: insights from hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Parker, Gary; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Oberg, Kevin; Mier, Jose M.; Best, James L.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Ashmore, Peter; Krishnappan, Bommanna G.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2012-01-01

    The lake levels in Lake Michigan-Huron have recently fallen to near historical lows, as has the elevation difference between Lake Michigan-Huron compared to Lake Erie. This decline in lake levels has the potential to cause detrimental impacts on the lake ecosystems, together with social and economic impacts on communities in the entire Great Lakes region. Results from past work suggest that morphological changes in the St Clair River, which is the only natural outlet for Lake Michigan-Huron, could be an appreciable factor in the recent trends of lake level decline. A key research question is whether bed erosion within the river has caused an increase in water conveyance, therefore, contributed to the falling lake level. In this paper, a numerical modeling approach with field data is used to investigate the possibility of sediment movement in the St Clair River and assess the likelihood of morphological change under the current flow regime. A two-dimensional numerical model was used to study flow structure, bed shear stress, and sediment mobility/armoring over a range of flow discharges. Boundary conditions for the numerical model were provided by detailed field measurements that included high-resolution bathymetry and three-dimensional flow velocities. The results indicate that, without considering other effects, under the current range of flow conditions, the shear stresses produced by the river flow are too low to transport most of the coarse bed sediment within the reach and are too low to cause substantial bed erosion or bed scour. However, the detailed maps of the bed show mobile bedforms in the upper St Clair River that are indicative of sediment transport. Relatively high shear stresses near a constriction at the upstream end of the river and at channel bends could cause local scour and deposition. Ship-induced propeller wake erosion also is a likely cause of sediment movement in the entire reach. Other factors that may promote sediment movement, such as ice

  13. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong; Qian, Tiezheng

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager

  14. A unified framework for modelling sediment fate from source to sink and its interactions with reef systems over geological times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Tristan; Ding, Xuesong; Webster, Jody M; Vila-Concejo, Ana; Brocard, Gilles; Pall, Jodie

    2018-03-27

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on sediment dynamics is hindered by limited ability of current models to simulate long-term evolution of sediment transfer from source to sink and associated morphological changes. We present a new approach based on a reduced-complexity model which computes over geological time: sediment transport from landmasses to coasts, reworking of marine sediments by longshore currents, and development of coral reef systems. Our framework links together the main sedimentary processes driving mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system dynamics. It offers a methodology for objective and quantitative sediment fate estimations over regional and millennial time-scales. A simulation of the Holocene evolution of the Great Barrier Reef shows: (1) how high sediment loads from catchments erosion prevented coral growth during the early transgression phase and favoured sediment gravity-flows in the deepest parts of the northern region basin floor (prior to 8 ka before present (BP)); (2) how the fine balance between climate, sea-level, and margin physiography enabled coral reefs to thrive under limited shelf sedimentation rates after ~6 ka BP; and, (3) how since 3 ka BP, with the decrease of accommodation space, reduced of vertical growth led to the lateral extension of reefs consistent with available observational data.

  15. A thermodynamic model for solid solutions and its application to the C-Fe-Co, C-Fe-Ni and Mn-Cr-Pt solid dilutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the free volume theory and the lattice model, the partition functions of pure solids and their mixtures were expressed. This resulted in the establishment of a thermodynamic model for solid solutions. The model naturally combines the excess entropy and excess enthalpy of a solution by means of new expressions of the configurational partition functions of solids and their mixtures derived from statistical thermodynamics, which is approximate to real solid solutions, that is S E ≠0 (V E ≠0) and H E ≠0. It can describe the thermodynamic properties of partially miscible systems and predict the thermodynamic properties in a multicomponent solid solution system using only the related binary infinite dilute activity coefficients. The predicted activity coefficients from the model are in good agreement with the experimental data of the ternary solid dilutions. This shows that the prediction effect of the proposed model is of better stability and reliability because it has a good physical basis

  16. Approaches to surface complexation modeling of Uranium(VI) adsorption on aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.A.; Meece, D.E.; Kohler, M.; Curtis, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium(VI) adsorption onto aquifer sediments was studied in batch experiments as a function of pH and U(VI) and dissolved carbonate concentrations in artificial groundwater solutions. The sediments were collected from an alluvial aquifer at a location upgradient of contamination from a former uranium mill operation at Naturita, Colorado (USA). The ranges of aqueous chemical conditions used in the U(VI) adsorption experiments (pH 6.9 to 7.9; U(VI) concentration 2.5 ?? 10-8 to 1 ?? 10-5 M; partial pressure of carbon dioxide gas 0.05 to 6.8%) were based on the spatial variation in chemical conditions observed in 1999-2000 in the Naturita alluvial aquifer. The major minerals in the sediments were quartz, feldspars, and calcite, with minor amounts of magnetite and clay minerals. Quartz grains commonly exhibited coatings that were greater than 10 nm in thickness and composed of an illite-smectite clay with occluded ferrihydrite and goethite nanoparticles. Chemical extractions of quartz grains removed from the sediments were used to estimate the masses of iron and aluminum present in the coatings. Various surface complexation modeling approaches were compared in terms of the ability to describe the U(VI) experimental data and the data requirements for model application to the sediments. Published models for U(VI) adsorption on reference minerals were applied to predict U(VI) adsorption based on assumptions about the sediment surface composition and physical properties (e.g., surface area and electrical double layer). Predictions from these models were highly variable, with results overpredicting or underpredicting the experimental data, depending on the assumptions used to apply the model. Although the models for reference minerals are supported by detailed experimental studies (and in ideal cases, surface spectroscopy), the results suggest that errors are caused in applying the models directly to the sediments by uncertain knowledge of: 1) the proportion and types of

  17. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: The case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are projected to increase with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budget for collection capacity alone does not improve environmental quality; rather an increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a computer laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis

  18. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: the case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city Dhaka Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are increasing with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budge for collection capacity alone does not improve the environmental quality rather increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a compute laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis. (author)

  19. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Based On Wiener Model

    OpenAIRE

    T. H. Lee; J. H. Park; S. M. Lee; S. C. Lee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Wiener nonlinear model for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The Wiener model of the SOFC consists of a linear dynamic block and a static output non-linearity followed by the block, in which linear part is approximated by state-space model and the nonlinear part is identified by a polynomial form. To control the SOFC system, we have to consider various view points such as operating conditions, another constraint conditions, change of load current and so on. A change of ...

  20. Numerical model of turbulence, sediment transport, and morphodynamics tested in the Colorado River at Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. V.; Grams, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present a parallelized, three-dimensional, turbulence-resolving model using the Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) technique, tested at the scale of the river-reach in the Colorado River. DES is a hybrid large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS). RANS is applied to the near-bed grid cells, where grid resolution is not sufficient to fully resolve wall turbulence. LES is applied in the flow interior. We utilize the Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence closure with a rough wall extension. The model resolves large-scale turbulence using DES and simultaneously integrates the suspended sediment advection-diffusion equation. The Smith and McLean suspended sediment boundary condition is used to calculate the upward and downward settling of sediment fluxes in the grid cells attached to the bed. Model results compare favorably with ADCP measurements of flow taken on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon during the High Flow Experiment (HFE) of 2008. The model accurately reproduces the size and position of the major recirculation currents, and the error in velocity magnitude was found to be less than 17% or 0.22 m/s absolute error. The mean deviation of the direction of velocity with respect to the measured velocity was found to be 20 degrees. Large-scale turbulence structures with vorticity predominantly in the vertical direction are produced at the shear layer between the main channel and the separation zone. However, these structures rapidly become three-dimensional with no preferred orientation of vorticity. Cross-stream velocities, into the main recirculation zone just upstream of the point of reattachment and out of the main recirculation region just downstream of the point of separation, are highest near the bed. Lateral separation eddies are more efficient at storing and exporting sediment than previously modeled. The input of sediment to the eddy recirculation zone occurs in the interface of the eddy and main channel. Pulsation of the

  1. Modeling and simulation of liquid diffusion through a porous finitely elastic solid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Qiangsheng

    2013-01-29

    A new theory is proposed for the continuum modeling of liquid flow through a porous elastic solid. The solid and the voids are assumed to jointly constitute the macroscopic solid phase, while the liquid volume fraction is included as a separate state variable. A finite element implementation is employed to assess the predictive capacity of the proposed theory, with particular emphasis on the mechanical response of Nafion® membranes to the flow of water. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W

    2011-10-01

    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from Salton Sea accounting unit.

  3. Modelling the reworking effects of bioturbation on the incorporation of radionuclides into the sediment column: implications for the fate of particle-reactive radionuclides in Irish Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournane, S.; Leon Vintro, L.; Mitchell, P.I.

    2010-01-01

    A microcosm laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the impact of biological reworking by the ragworm Nereis diversicolor on the redistribution of particle-bound radionuclides deposited at the sediment-water interface. Over the course of the 40-day experiment, as much as 35% of a 137 Cs-labelled particulate tracer deposited on the sediment surface was redistributed to depths of up to 11 cm by the polychaete. Three different reworking models were employed to model the profiles and quantify the biodiffusion and biotransport coefficients: a gallery-diffuser model, a continuous sub-surface egestion model and a biodiffusion model. Although the biodiffusion coefficients obtained for each model were quite similar, the continuous sub-surface egestion model provided the best fit to the data. The average biodiffusion coefficient, at 1.8 ± 0.9 cm 2 y -1 , is in good agreement with the values quoted by other workers on the bioturbation effects of this polychaete species. The corresponding value for the biotransport coefficient was found to be 0.9 ± 0.4 cm y -1 . The effects of non-local mixing were incorporated in a model to describe the temporal evolution of measured 99 Tc and 60 Co radionuclide sediment profiles in the eastern Irish Sea, influenced by radioactive waste discharged from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. Reworking conditions in the sediment column were simulated by considering an upper mixed layer, an exponentially decreasing diffusion coefficient, and appropriate biotransport coefficients to account for non-local mixing. The diffusion coefficients calculated from the 99 Tc and 60 Co cores were in the range 2-14 cm 2 y -1 , which are consistent with the values found by other workers in the same marine area, while the biotransport coefficients were similar to those obtained for a variety of macrobenthic organisms in controlled laboratories and field studies. -- Research highlights: →N. diversicolor redistributes up to 35% particle

  4. Modeling the Impacts of Suspended Sediment Concentration and Current Velocity on Submersed Vegetation in an Illinois River Pool, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly

    2004-01-01

    This technical note uses a modeling approach to examine the impacts of suspended sediment concentrations and current velocity on the persistence of submersed macrophytes in a shallow aquatic system...

  5. Modeling the Response of Primary Production and Sedimentation to Variable Nitrate Loading in the Mississippi River Plume

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Rebecca E; Breed, Greg A; Dagg, Michael J; Lohrenz, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    ...% reduction in annual nitrogen discharge into the Gulf of Mexico. We developed an ecosystem model for the Mississippi River plume to investigate the response of organic matter production and sedimentation to variable nitrate loading...

  6. Development of Surface Complexation Models of Cr(VI) Adsorption on Soils, Sediments and Model Mixtures of Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, γ-Alumina, Hydrous Manganese and Ferric Oxides and Goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koretsky, Carla [Western Michigan University

    2013-11-29

    Hexavalent chromium is a highly toxic contaminant that has been introduced into aquifers and shallow sediments and soils via many anthropogenic activities. Hexavalent chromium contamination is a problem or potential problem in the shallow subsurface at several DOE sites, including Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE, 2008). To accurately quantify the fate and transport of hexavalent chromium at DOE and other contaminated sites, robust geochemical models, capable of correctly predicting changes in chromium chemical form resulting from chemical reactions occurring in subsurface environments are needed. One important chemical reaction that may greatly impact the bioavailability and mobility of hexavalent chromium in the subsurface is chemical binding to the surfaces of particulates, termed adsorption or surface complexation. Quantitative thermodynamic surface complexation models have been derived that can correctly calculate hexavalent chromium adsorption on well-characterized materials over ranges in subsurface conditions, such pH and salinity. However, models have not yet been developed for hexavalent chromium adsorption on many important constituents of natural soils and sediments, such as clay minerals. Furthermore, most of the existing thermodynamic models have been developed for relatively simple, single solid systems and have rarely been tested for the complex mixtures of solids present in real sediments and soils. In this study, the adsorption of hexavalent chromium was measured as a function of pH (3-10), salinity (0.001 to 0.1 M NaNO3), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide(0-5%) on a suite of naturally-occurring solids including goethite (FeOOH), hydrous manganese oxide (MnOOH), hydrous ferric oxide (Fe(OH)3), γ-alumina (Al2O3), kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), and montmorillonite (Na3(Al, Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2-nH2O). The results show that all of these materials can bind substantial quantities of

  7. Model based estimation of sediment erosion in groyne fields along the River Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohaska, Sandra; Jancke, Thomas; Westrich, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    River water quality is still a vital environmental issue, even though ongoing emissions of contaminants are being reduced in several European rivers. The mobility of historically contaminated deposits is key issue in sediment management strategy and remediation planning. Resuspension of contaminated sediments impacts the water quality and thus, it is important for river engineering and ecological rehabilitation. The erodibility of the sediments and associated contaminants is difficult to predict due to complex time depended physical, chemical, and biological processes, as well as due to the lack of information. Therefore, in engineering practice the values for erosion parameters are usually assumed to be constant despite their high spatial and temporal variability, which leads to a large uncertainty of the erosion parameters. The goal of presented study is to compare the deterministic approach assuming constant critical erosion shear stress and an innovative approach which takes the critical erosion shear stress as a random variable. Furthermore, quantification of the effective value of the critical erosion shear stress, its applicability in numerical models, and erosion probability will be estimated. The results presented here are based on field measurements and numerical modelling of the River Elbe groyne fields.

  8. Hydraulic sediment remotion in physical models; Aplicacion en modelos fisicos de la remocion hidraulica de sedimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo Mogollon, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    Sediment remotion in reservoirs has received an increased attention worldwide because of the difficulty to build new dams. This paper shows the application of some flushing techniques in two hydraulic experimental models that were used in order to estimate the efficiency in sediment remotion, as well as feasible solutions to be applied in our country. [Spanish] La remocion de sedimentos que se acumulan en los embalses ha recibido recientemente una gran atencion en diversas partes del mundo debido fundamentalmente a la dificultad de construir nuevas presas. Este articulo muestra el uso de la remocion hidraulica de sedimentos en embalses aplicados a dos modelos hidraulicos experimentales que se emplearon para estimar la eficiencia de dicha remocion, ademas de posibles soluciones que se consideran factibles de utilizarse en nuestro pais.

  9. Using high-performance mathematical modelling tools to predict erosion and sediment fluxes in peri-urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Conde, Daniel; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation and urbanization generally lead to increased soil erosion andthrough the indirect effect of increased overland flow and peak flood discharges. Mathematical modelling tools can be helpful for predicting the spatial distribution of erosion and the morphological changes on the channel network. This is especially useful to predict the impacts of land-use changes in parts of the watershed, namely due to urbanization. However, given the size of the computational domain (normally the watershed itself), the need for high spatial resolution data to model accurately sediment transport processes and possible need to model transcritical flows, the computational cost is high and requires high-performance computing techniques. The aim of this work is to present the latest developments of the hydrodynamic and morphological model STAV2D and its applicability to predict runoff and erosion at watershed scale. STAV2D was developed at CEris - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa - as a tool particularly appropriated to model strong transient flows in complex and dynamic geometries. It is based on an explicit, first-order 2DH finite-volume discretization scheme for unstructured triangular meshes, in which a flux-splitting technique is paired with a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, yielding a model applicable to discontinuous flows over time-evolving geometries. STAV2D features solid transport in both Euleran and Lagrangian forms, with the aim of describing the transport of fine natural sediments and then the large individual debris. The model has been validated with theoretical solutions and laboratory experiments (Canelas et al., 2013 & Conde et al., 2015). STAV-2D now supports fully distributed and heterogeneous simulations where multiple different hardware devices can be used to accelerate computation time within a unified Object-Oriented approach: the source code for CPU and GPU has the same compilation units and requires no device specific branches, like

  10. The need for the solid modelling of structure in the archaeology of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniels

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional modelling is an attempt to represent the world in three dimensions, simplifying through deliberate assumptions. In archaeology, this has developed as an extension of the traditional use of three-dimensional drawings to help present and record data. The debate in the archaeological literature over whether surface or solid modellers should be used is one based on the premise that the purpose of three-dimensional modelling is data visualisation. This concentration on perception modelling has been at the expense of research on the modelling of structure. Surface and Solid Modellers are introduced and defined. I argue that developments in modelling software mean that there is no longer a clear distinction between the two types of software along application lines. We should think of models in terms of their applications rather than the software which generates them. Although data visualisation (including virtual reality is an important part of three-dimensional modelling, I argue that it should be explicitly divorced from the related field of photo-realism at a research level. Perception modelling can be performed by surface or solid modellers. Modelling structure is better performed with a solid modeller, if we wish to be as explicit as possible in our modelling. A structural model can be used as a spatial database. If we wish to ask questions about the physical properties of a structure, then we must use solid modellers. In addition to the engineering properties of structures, solid modellers can also be used to answer questions about the economics of construction. For historical reasons, the construction industry has preferred to use surface modellers, but I argue for the advantages of solid modelling in the archaeological study of construction.

  11. Space-time complexity in solid state models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    In this Workshop on symmetry-breaking it is appropriate to include the evolving fields of nonlinear-nonequilibrium systems in which transitions to and between various degrees of ''complexity'' (including ''chaos'') occur in time or space or both. These notions naturally bring together phenomena of pattern formation and chaos and therefore have ramifications for a huge array of natural sciences - astrophysics, plasmas and lasers, hydrodynamics, field theory, materials and solid state theory, optics and electronics, biology, pattern recognition and evolution, etc. Our particular concerns here are with examples from solid state and condensed matter

  12. Modelling post-depositional transport of PAHs in aquatic bed sediments using CoReTranS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, Jason [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering; Stegemann, Julia A. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent contaminants in aquatic bed sediments. A better understanding of their in-bed fate and transport is therefore key in minimising the risk to the environment over time through various remediation and monitoring strategies. Since ecological effects and risks are related to contaminant concentrations, this study developed CoReTranS, a predictive model that simulates one-dimensional organic contaminant reaction and transport in bed sediments. Materials and methods: CoReTranS was benchmarked against analytical solutions of simplified reactive transport models and validated using a published study of marsh sediments contaminated with petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from Wild Harbour, West Falmouth, MA, USA. Results and discussion: The CoReTranS model effectively predicted the vertical distribution of PAHs in the Wild Harbour sediments as confirmed by the modelling results from the published study. The CoReTranS model was also used to interpret results from a published study of PAH-contaminated fjord sediments from Kitimat Arm in British Columbia, Canada. Specific insights into the post-depositional fate and transport of selected PAHs in the Kitimat fjord sediments were obtained by comparing the measured concentration-depth profiles with the numerical results from the CoReTranS model. Key parameters such as effective diffusivity of contaminants and burial velocities of sediment particles were shown to possibly account for the predicted concentrations-depth profiles in the Kitimat fjord sediments. Conclusions: As demonstrated, CoReTranS can simulate reactive transport models in order to predict PAH concentration profiles in porewater under site-specific conditions. The information derived from the use of the CoReTranS model highlighted practical application of such information by engineers to site-specific risk assessment and remediation. (orig.)

  13. Numerical modelling of biomass combustion: Solid conversion processes in a fixed bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Naser, Jamal

    2017-06-01

    Increasing demand for energy and rising concerns over global warming has urged the use of renewable energy sources to carry a sustainable development of the world. Bio mass is a renewable energy which has become an important fuel to produce thermal energy or electricity. It is an eco-friendly source of energy as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Combustion of solid biomass is a complex phenomenon due to its large varieties and physical structures. Among various systems, fixed bed combustion is the most commonly used technique for thermal conversion of solid biomass. But inadequate knowledge on complex solid conversion processes has limited the development of such combustion system. Numerical modelling of this combustion system has some advantages over experimental analysis. Many important system parameters (e.g. temperature, density, solid fraction) can be estimated inside the entire domain under different working conditions. In this work, a complete numerical model is used for solid conversion processes of biomass combustion in a fixed bed furnace. The combustion system is divided in to solid and gas phase. This model includes several sub models to characterize the solid phase of the combustion with several variables. User defined subroutines are used to introduce solid phase variables in commercial CFD code. Gas phase of combustion is resolved using built-in module of CFD code. Heat transfer model is modified to predict the temperature of solid and gas phases with special radiation heat transfer solution for considering the high absorptivity of the medium. Considering all solid conversion processes the solid phase variables are evaluated. Results obtained are discussed with reference from an experimental burner.

  14. 3D Modelling of Transport, Deposition and Resuspension of Highway Deposited Sediments in wet Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2010-01-01

    concrete channel with width of 0.8m and a water depth of approximately 0.8m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With a fairly good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved...... pollutants and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account....

  15. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zeli; Leung, L. Ruby; Li, Hongyi; Tesfa, Teklu; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Zhang, Xuesong; Lu, Hui; Hartmann, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1,081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km2), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  16. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zeli [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Leung, L. Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Li, Hongyi [Montana State University, Bozeman MT USA; Tesfa, Teklu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Vanmaercke, Matthias [Département de Géographie, Université de Liège, Liege Belgium; Poesen, Jean [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Division of Geography, KU Leuven, Leuven Belgium; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lu, Hui [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Hartmann, Jens [Institute for Geology, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg Germany

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km27 ), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  17. Spatial variation in sediment-water exchange of phosphorus in Florida Bay: AMP as a model organic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2010-10-15

    Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) has been recognized as dominant components in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) pools in many coastal waters, and its exchange between sediment and water is an important process in biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was employed as a model DOP compound to simulate phosphorus exchange across sediment-water interface in Florida Bay. The sorption data from 40 stations were fitted to a modified Freundlich equation and provided a detailed spatial distribution both of the sediment's zero equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC(0-T)) and of the distribution coefficient (K(d-T)) with respect to TDP. The K(d-T) was found to be a function of the index of phosphorus saturation (IPS), a molar ratio of the surface reactive phosphorus to the surface reactive iron oxide content in the sediment, across the entire bay. However, the EPC(0-T) was found to correlate to the contents of phosphorus in the eastern bay only. Sediment in the western bay might act as a source of the phosphorus in the exchange process due to their high EPC(0-T) and low K(d-T), whereas sediments in the eastern bay might act as a sink because of their low EPC(0-T) and high K(d-T). These results strongly support the hypothesis that both phosphorus and iron species in calcareous marine sediments play a critical role in governing the sediment-water exchange of both phosphate and DOP in the coastal and estuarine ecosystems.

  18. Thermal, chemical, and mass transport processes induced in abyssal sediments by the emplacement of nuclear wastes: Experimental and modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Erickson, K.L.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter the authors discuss the current status of heat and mass transport studies in the marine red clay sediments that are being considered as a nuclear waste isolation medium and review analytical and experimental studies. Calculations based on numerical models indicate that for a maximum allowable sediment-canister interface temperatures of 200 0 to 250 0 C, the sediment can absorb about 1.5kW initial power from waste buried 30 m in the sediment in a canister that is 3 m long and 0.3 m in diameter. The resulting fluid displacement due to convections is found to be small, less than 1 m. Laboratory studies of the geochemical effects induced by heating sediment-seawater mixtures indicate that the canister and waste form should be designed to resist a hot, relatively acidic oxidizing environment. Since the thermally altered sediment volume of about 5.5 m/sup 3/ is small relative to the sediment volume overlying the canister, the acid and oxidizing conditions should significantly affect the properties of the far field only if thermodiffusional process (Soret effect) prove to be significant. If thermodiffusional effects are important, however, near-field chemistry will differ considerably from that predicted from results of constant temperature sediment-seawater interaction experiments

  19. SedFoam-2.0: a 3-D two-phase flow numerical model for sediment transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chauchat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a three-dimensional two-phase flow solver, SedFoam-2.0, is presented for sediment transport applications. The solver is extended from twoPhaseEulerFoam available in the 2.1.0 release of the open-source CFD (computational fluid dynamics toolbox OpenFOAM. In this approach the sediment phase is modeled as a continuum, and constitutive laws have to be prescribed for the sediment stresses. In the proposed solver, two different intergranular stress models are implemented: the kinetic theory of granular flows and the dense granular flow rheology μ(I. For the fluid stress, laminar or turbulent flow regimes can be simulated and three different turbulence models are available for sediment transport: a simple mixing length model (one-dimensional configuration only, a k − ε, and a k − ω model. The numerical implementation is demonstrated on four test cases: sedimentation of suspended particles, laminar bed load, sheet flow, and scour at an apron. These test cases illustrate the capabilities of SedFoam-2.0 to deal with complex turbulent sediment transport problems with different combinations of intergranular stress and turbulence models.

  20. SedFoam-2.0: a 3-D two-phase flow numerical model for sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauchat, Julien; Cheng, Zhen; Nagel, Tim; Bonamy, Cyrille; Hsu, Tian-Jian

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional two-phase flow solver, SedFoam-2.0, is presented for sediment transport applications. The solver is extended from twoPhaseEulerFoam available in the 2.1.0 release of the open-source CFD (computational fluid dynamics) toolbox OpenFOAM. In this approach the sediment phase is modeled as a continuum, and constitutive laws have to be prescribed for the sediment stresses. In the proposed solver, two different intergranular stress models are implemented: the kinetic theory of granular flows and the dense granular flow rheology μ(I). For the fluid stress, laminar or turbulent flow regimes can be simulated and three different turbulence models are available for sediment transport: a simple mixing length model (one-dimensional configuration only), a k - ɛ, and a k - ω model. The numerical implementation is demonstrated on four test cases: sedimentation of suspended particles, laminar bed load, sheet flow, and scour at an apron. These test cases illustrate the capabilities of SedFoam-2.0 to deal with complex turbulent sediment transport problems with different combinations of intergranular stress and turbulence models.

  1. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  2. Investigation of binary solid phases by calorimetry and kinetic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional methods for the determination of liquid-solid phase diagrams are based on the assumption that the overall equilibrium is established between the phases. However, the result of the crystallization of a liquid mixture will typically be a non-equilibrium or metastable state of the

  3. Formulating Fine to Medium Sand Erosion for Suspended Sediment Transport Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dufois

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of an advection/diffusion model to predict sand transport under varying wave and current conditions is evaluated. The horizontal sand transport rate is computed by vertical integration of the suspended sediment flux. A correction procedure for the near-bed concentration is proposed so that model results are independent of the vertical resolution. The method can thus be implemented in regional models with operational applications. Simulating equilibrium sand transport rates, when erosion and deposition are balanced, requires a new empirical erosion law that involves the non-dimensional excess shear stress and a parameter that depends on the size of the sand grain. Comparison with several datasets and sediment transport formulae demonstrated the model’s capacity to simulate sand transport rates for a large range of current and wave conditions and sand diameters in the range 100–500 μm. Measured transport rates were predicted within a factor two in 67% of cases with current only and in 35% of cases with both waves and current. In comparison with the results obtained by Camenen and Larroudé (2003, who provided the same indicators for several practical transport rate formulations (whose means are respectively 72% and 37%, the proposed approach gives reasonable results. Before fitting a new erosion law to our model, classical erosion rate formulations were tested but led to poor comparisons with expected sediment transport rates. We suggest that classical erosion laws should be used with care in advection/diffusion models similar to ours, and that at least a full validation procedure for transport rates involving a range of sand diameters and hydrodynamic conditions should be carried out.

  4. Modelling of sediment transport and morphological evolution under the combined action of waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Guilherme; Delpey, Matthias T.; Brito, David; Pinto, Lígia; Leitão, Paulo; Neves, Ramiro

    2017-09-01

    Coastal defence structures are often constructed to prevent beach erosion. However, poorly designed structures may cause serious erosion problems in the downdrift direction. Morphological models are useful tools to predict such impacts and assess the efficiency of defence structures for different scenarios. Nevertheless, morphological modelling is still a topic under intense research effort. The processes simulated by a morphological model depend on model complexity. For instance, undertow currents are neglected in coastal area models (2DH), which is a limitation for simulating the evolution of beach profiles for long periods. Model limitations are generally overcome by predefining invariant equilibrium profiles that are allowed to shift offshore or onshore. A more flexible approach is described in this paper, which can be generalised to 3-D models. The present work is based on the coupling of the MOHID modelling system and the SWAN wave model. The impacts of different designs of detached breakwaters and groynes were simulated in a schematic beach configuration following a 2DH approach. The results of bathymetry evolution are in agreement with the patterns found in the literature for several existing structures. The model was also tested in a 3-D test case to simulate the formation of sandbars by undertow currents. The findings of this work confirmed the applicability of the MOHID modelling system to study sediment transport and morphological changes in coastal zones under the combined action of waves and currents. The same modelling methodology was applied to a coastal zone (Costa da Caparica) located at the mouth of a mesotidal estuary (Tagus Estuary, Portugal) to evaluate the hydrodynamics and sediment transport both in calm water conditions and during events of highly energetic waves. The MOHID code is available in the GitHub repository.

  5. Suspended sediment flux modeling with artificial neural network: An example of the Longchuanjiang River in the Upper Yangtze Catchment, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun-Mei; Lu, X. X.; Zhou, Yue

    2007-02-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) was used to model the monthly suspended sediment flux in the Longchuanjiang River, the Upper Yangtze Catchment, China. The suspended sediment flux was related to the average rainfall, temperature, rainfall intensity and water discharge. It is demonstrated that ANN is capable of modeling the monthly suspended sediment flux with fairly good accuracy when proper variables and their lag effect on the suspended sediment flux are used as inputs. Compared with multiple linear regression and power relation models, ANN can generate a better fit under the same data requirement. In addition, ANN can provide more reasonable predictions for extremely high or low values, because of the distributed information processing system and the nonlinear transformation involved. Compared with the ANNs that use the values of the dependent variable at previous time steps as inputs, the ANNs established in this research with only climate variables have an advantage because it can be used to assess hydrological responses to climate change.

  6. An Analysis of High School Students' Mental Models of Solid Friction in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan; Eksi, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    Students often have difficulties understanding abstract physics concepts, such as solid friction. This study examines high school students' mental models of solid friction through a case study of 215 high school students in the ninth through twelfth grades. An achievement test with three open-ended questions was created, with questions limited to…

  7. Solid foam packings for multiphase reactors: Modelling of liquid holdup and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemmet, C.P.; Schaaf, van der J.; Kuster, B.F.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, experimental and modeling results are presented of the liquid holdup and gas–liquid mass transfer characteristics of solid foam packings. Experiments were done in a semi-2D transparent bubble column with solid foam packings of aluminum in the range of 5–40 pores per inch (ppi). The

  8. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  9. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. Results: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  10. Model study on transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel with methanol using solid base catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejun; Piao, Xianglan; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Shenlin

    2010-03-25

    Modeling of the transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel using a solid base as a catalyst is very important because the mutual solubilities of oil and methanol will increase with the increasing biodiesel yield. The heterogeneous liquid-liquid-solid reaction system would become a liquid-solid system when the biodiesel reaches a certain content. In this work, we adopted a two-film theory and a steady state approximation assumption, then established a heterogeneous liquid-liquid-solid model in the first stage. After the diffusion coefficients on the liquid-liquid interface and the liquid-solid interface were calculated on the basis of the properties of the system, the theoretical value of biodiesel productivity changing with time was obtained. The predicted values were very near the experimental data, which indicated that the proposed models were suitable for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel when solid bases were used as catalysts. Meanwhile, th