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Sample records for model showed greater

  1. Progesterone treatment shows greater protection in brain vs. retina in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion: Progesterone receptor levels may play an important role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rachael S; Sayeed, Iqbal; Oumarbaeva, Yuliya; Morrison, Katherine C; Choi, Paul H; Pardue, Machelle T; Stein, Donald G

    2016-11-22

    To determine whether inflammation increases in retina as it does in brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and whether the neurosteroid progesterone, shown to have protective effects in both retina and brain after MCAO, reduces inflammation in retina as well as brain. MCAO rats treated systemically with progesterone or vehicle were compared with shams. Protein levels of cytosolic NF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, CD11b, progesterone receptor A and B, and pregnane X receptor were assessed in retinas and brains at 24 and 48 h using western blots. Following MCAO, significant increases were observed in the following inflammatory markers: pNF-κB and CD11b at 24 h in both brain and retina, nuclear NF-κB at 24 h in brain and 48 h in retina, and TNF-α at 24 h in brain.Progesterone treatment in MCAO animals significantly attenuated levels of the following markers in brain: pNF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, and CD11b, with significantly increased levels of cytosolic NF-κB. Retinas from progesterone-treated animals showed significantly reduced levels of nuclear NF-κB and IL-6 and increased levels of cytosolic NF-κB, with a trend for reduction in other markers. Post-MCAO, progesterone receptors A and B were upregulated in brain and downregulated in retina. Inflammatory markers increased in both brain and retina after MCAO, with greater increases observed in brain. Progesterone treatment reduced inflammation, with more dramatic reductions observed in brain than retina. This differential effect may be due to differences in the response of progesterone receptors in brain and retina after injury.

  2. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M

    2011-03-23

    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues.

  3. GlobeLand30 shows little cropland area loss but greater fragmentation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiangyi; Hu, Qiong; van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H.; Wu, Wenbin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding of cropland dynamics in a large geographical extent is mostly based on observations of area change, while the changes in landscape pattern are hardly assessed. The total amount of cropland in China has remained relatively stable in recent years, which might suggest there was little change. In this analysis, we combine the number of cropland patches (NP) with the total cropland area (TA) for a more comprehensive characterization of cropland change in China. We use GlobeLand30-a global land cover dataset with a 30 m resolution for the years 2000 and 2010-and characterize changes in TA and NP for each county as increase, stable, or decrease. This characterization shows that 703 out of 2420 counties experienced both cropland loss and increased fragmentation. The predominant cropland loss in these areas, especially in the North China Plain, is converted to artificial land. Another 212 are characterized by the opposite developments: an increase in cropland and decreased fragmentation. These counties, are mainly characterized by a conversion of forest areas and grassland areas. It suggests that the cropland conservation policy in China effectively protected the total cropland area in overall, but the consequences in terms of fragmentation might be underestimated. Counties with no obvious change in both indicators, measuring 279 counties, are mainly located in the Southeast. Our results are further compared with local level case studies: the fair consistency indicates alternatives of applying GlobeLand30 for analyzing landscape changes across scales and for cross-site comparisons.

  4. Children with developmental dyslexia showed greater sleep disturbances than controls, including problems initiating and maintaining sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, M; Esposito, M; Cortese, S; Laino, D; Verrotti, A

    2016-09-01

    Although there have been frequent clinical reports about sleep disturbances in children with learning disabilities, no data are available about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with developmental dyslexia (DD). This study evaluated sleep disturbances in children with DD referred to a hospital clinic and compared their scores with healthy controls. We consecutively enrolled 147 children (66% male) aged 10.26 ± 2.63 years who were referred by clinical paediatricians to the Clinic for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry at the Second University of Naples with DD and 766 children without DD (60% male) aged 10.49 ± 2.39 years recruited from schools in the same urban area. Sleep disturbances were assessed with the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), which was filled out by the children's main carers. Compared with the controls, the children with DD showed significantly higher rates of above threshold scores on the total SDSC score (p sleep (p sleep breathing disorders (p Sleep disorders were significantly more frequent in children with DD than in healthy controls. A possible relationship between dyslexia and sleep disorders may have relevant clinical implications. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Human genes with a greater number of transcript variants tend to show biological features of housekeeping and essential genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-01-01

    found to have a single transcript, and the remaining genes had 2 to 77 transcript variants. The genes with more transcript variants exhibited greater frequencies of acting as housekeeping and essential genes rather than tissue-selective and non-essential genes. They were found to be more conserved among...

  6. Adolescents with greater mental toughness show higher sleep efficiency, more deep sleep and fewer awakenings after sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Kirov, Roumen; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is understood as the display of confidence, commitment, challenge, and control. Mental toughness is associated with resilience against stress. However, research has not yet focused on the relation between MT and objective sleep. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore the extent to which greater MT is associated with objectively assessed sleep among adolescents. A total of 92 adolescents (35% females; mean age, 18.92 years) completed the Mental Toughness Questionnaire. Participants were split into groups of high and low mental toughness. Objective sleep was recorded via sleep electroencephalograms and subjective sleep was assessed via a questionnaire. Compared with participants with low MT, participants with high MT had higher sleep efficiency, a lower number of awakenings after sleep onset, less light sleep, and more deep sleep. They also reported lower daytime sleepiness. Adolescents reporting higher MT also had objectively better sleep, as recorded via sleep electroencephalograms. A bidirectional association between MT and sleep seems likely; therefore, among adolescence, improving sleep should increase MT, and improving MT should increase sleep. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling Phosphorus Transport and Cycling in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A. I.; Grace, K. A.; Jawitz, J. W.; Muller, S.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Flaig, E. G.

    2005-12-01

    A solute transport model was used to predict phosphorus mobility in the northern Everglades. Over the past several decades, agricultural drainage waters discharged into the northern Everglades, have been enriched in phosphorus (P) relative to the historic rainfall-driven inputs. While methods of reducing total P concentrations in the discharge water have been actively pursued through implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), a major parallel effort has focused on the construction of a network of constructed wetlands for P removal before these waters enter the Everglades. This study describes the development of a water quality model for P transport and cycling and its application to a large constructed wetland: Stormwater Treatment Area 1 West (STA 1W), located southeast of Lake Okeechobee on the eastern perimeter of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). In STA 1W agricultural nutrients such as phosphorus (P) are removed from EAA runoff before entering the adjacent Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) and the Everglades. STA 1W is divided by levees into 4 cells, which are flooded for most of the year; thus the dominant mechanism for flow and transport is overland flow. P is removed either through deposition into sediments or is taken up by plants; in either case the soils end up being significantly enriched in P. The model has been applied and calibrated to several years of water quality data from Cell 4 within STA 1W. Most existing P models have been applied to agricultural/upland systems, with only a few relevant to treatment wetlands such as STA 1W. To ensure sufficient flexibility in selecting appropriate system components and reactions, the model has been designed to incorporate a wide range of user-selectable mechanisms for P uptake and release parameters between soils and inflowing water. The model can track a large number of mobile and nonmobile components and utilizes a Godunov-style operator-splitting technique for the transported

  8. Rifalazil and derivative compounds show potent efficacy in a mouse model of H. pylori colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, David M; Mullin, Steve; Sirokman, Klari; Söndergaard, Karen L; Johnson, Starrla; Gwathmey, Judith K; van Duzer, John; Murphy, Christopher K

    2008-08-01

    The rifamycin rifalazil (RFZ), and derivatives (NCEs) were efficacious in a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori colonization. Select NCEs were more active in vitro and showed greater efficacy than RFZ. A systemic component contributes to efficacy.

  9. The Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire change version (DTSQc evaluated in insulin glargine trials shows greater responsiveness to improvements than the original DTSQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine John

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of using status measures to identify any changes in treatment satisfaction strongly suggest a need for specific change instruments designed to overcome the ceiling effects frequently observed at baseline. Status measures may leave little room to show improvement in situations where baseline ceiling effects are observed. A change version of the DTSQ (DTSQc is compared here with the original status (now called DTSQs version to test the instruments' comparative ability to demonstrate change. Methods Two multinational, openlabel, randomised-controlled trials (one for patients with type 1 diabetes, the other for type 2 compared new, longer-acting insulin glargine with standard NPH basal insulin. The DTSQs was completed at baseline and the DTSQs and DTSQc at final visit by 351 English- and German-speaking patients. DTSQc scores were compared with change from baseline for the DTSQs, using 3-way analysis of variance, to examine Questionnaire, Treatment and Ceiling effects (i.e. baseline scores at/near ceiling. Results and discussion Significant Questionnaire effects and a Questionnaire × Ceiling interaction (p Conclusion The DTSQc, used in conjunction with the DTSQs, overcomes the problem of ceiling effects encountered when only the status measure is used and provides a means for new treatments to show greater value than is possible with the DTSQs alone.

  10. The metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed greater differences between patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls than those in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Han, Ji Yun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-03-01

    To determine differences between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the plasma metabolites in patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. In all, 65 nononobese patients (aged 30-70 years) with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and 65 nonobese sex-matched healthy controls were included, and fasting peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma metabolomes were profiled. The diabetic or impaired fasting glucose patients showed higher circulating and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α than controls. Compared with controls, impaired fasting glucose or diabetic subjects showed increases in 11 peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolites: six amino acids (valine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan), l-pyroglutamic acid, two fatty acid amides containing palmitic amide and oleamide and two lysophosphatidylcholines. In impaired fasting glucose or diabetic patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 positively associated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysophosphatidylcholines and circulating inflammatory markers, including tumour necrosis factor-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities. In plasma metabolites between patients and healthy controls, we observed significant increases in only three amino acids (proline, valine and leucine) and decreases in only five lysophosphatidylcholines. This study demonstrates significant differences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolome in patients with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes compared with healthy controls. These differences were greater than those observed in the plasma metabolome. These data suggest peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a useful tool to better understand the inflammatory pathophysiology of diabetes.

  11. Pig oocytes with a large perivitelline space matured in vitro show greater developmental competence after parthenogenesis and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyeong; You, Jinyoung; Lee, Geun-Shik; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Eunsong

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the developmental competence of pig oocytes in relation to the size of the perivitelline space (PVS) of oocytes matured in vitro. Immature oocytes were matured in medium 199 or porcine zygote medium (PZM)-3 containing 108 or 61.6 mM NaCl. In vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes were examined for intracellular glutathione (GSH) level; cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) mRNA levels; and developmental competence after parthenogenesis (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). IVM oocytes with a larger PVS had higher (P < 0.05) levels of intracellular GSH (1.00 pixels/oocyte vs. 0.57 pixels/oocyte) and blastocyst formation (54.3% vs. 37.3%) after PA than oocytes with a smaller PVS. Culturing oocytes for maturation in PZM-3 with reduced (61.6 mM) NaCl increased (P < 0.05) the size of the PVS (6.4 µm vs. 2.8 µm) compared to control oocytes that were matured in normal PZM-3 containing 108 mM NaCl. Moreover, oocytes with a larger PVS showed higher CDK1, PCNA, and ERK2 mRNA and intracellular GSH levels (1.6 pixels/oocyte vs. 1.2 pixels/oocyte) and increased blastocyst formation after PA (52.1% vs. 40.6%) and SCNT (31.8% vs. 18.2%) than control oocytes. Our results demonstrate that pig oocytes with a large PVS have greater developmental competence after PA and SCNT, which is attributed to improved cytoplasmic maturation based on the enhanced GSH level and transcription factor expression. Further, enlargement of the PVS by culturing in low-NaCl medium improves the developmental competence of pig oocytes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Greater deciduous shrub abundance extends tundra peak season and increases modeled net CO2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Shannan K; Griffin, Kevin L; Steltzer, Heidi; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T

    2015-06-01

    Satellite studies of the terrestrial Arctic report increased summer greening and longer overall growing and peak seasons since the 1980s, which increases productivity and the period of carbon uptake. These trends are attributed to increasing air temperatures and reduced snow cover duration in spring and fall. Concurrently, deciduous shrubs are becoming increasingly abundant in tundra landscapes, which may also impact canopy phenology and productivity. Our aim was to determine the influence of greater deciduous shrub abundance on tundra canopy phenology and subsequent impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) during the growing and peak seasons in the arctic foothills region of Alaska. We compared deciduous shrub-dominated and evergreen/graminoid-dominated community-level canopy phenology throughout the growing season using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We used a tundra plant-community-specific leaf area index (LAI) model to estimate LAI throughout the green season and a tundra-specific NEE model to estimate the impact of greater deciduous shrub abundance and associated shifts in both leaf area and canopy phenology on tundra carbon flux. We found that deciduous shrub canopies reached the onset of peak greenness 13 days earlier and the onset of senescence 3 days earlier compared to evergreen/graminoid canopies, resulting in a 10-day extension of the peak season. The combined effect of the longer peak season and greater leaf area of deciduous shrub canopies almost tripled the modeled net carbon uptake of deciduous shrub communities compared to evergreen/graminoid communities, while the longer peak season alone resulted in 84% greater carbon uptake in deciduous shrub communities. These results suggest that greater deciduous shrub abundance increases carbon uptake not only due to greater leaf area, but also due to an extension of the period of peak greenness, which extends the period of maximum carbon uptake. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Crop classification modelling using remote sensing and environmental data in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    With an ever expanding population, potential climate variability and an increasing demand for agriculture-based alternative fuels, accurate agricultural land-cover classification for specific crops and their spatial distributions are becoming critical to researchers, policymakers, land managers and farmers. It is important to ensure the sustainability of these and other land uses and to quantify the net impacts that certain management practices have on the environment. Although other quality crop classification products are often available, temporal and spatial coverage gaps can create complications for certain regional or time-specific applications. Our goal was to develop a model capable of classifying major crops in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) for the post-2000 era to supplement existing crop classification products. This study identifies annual spatial distributions and area totals of corn, soybeans, wheat and other crops across the GPRB from 2000 to 2009. We developed a regression tree classification model based on 2.5 million training data points derived from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) Cropland Data Layer (CDL) in relation to a variety of other relevant input environmental variables. The primary input variables included the weekly 250 m US Geological Survey Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized differential vegetation index, average long-term growing season temperature, average long-term growing season precipitation and yearly start of growing season. An overall model accuracy rating of 78% was achieved for a test sample of roughly 215 000 independent points that were withheld from model training. Ten 250 m resolution annual crop classification maps were produced and evaluated for the GPRB region, one for each year from 2000 to 2009. In addition to the model accuracy assessment, our validation focused on spatial distribution and county-level crop area totals in comparison with the

  14. Uncertainties in Tidally Adjusted Estimates of Sea Level Rise Flooding (Bathtub Model for the Greater London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali P. Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR from global warming may have severe consequences for coastal cities, particularly when combined with predicted increases in the strength of tidal surges. Predicting the regional impact of SLR flooding is strongly dependent on the modelling approach and accuracy of topographic data. Here, the areas under risk of sea water flooding for London boroughs were quantified based on the projected SLR scenarios reported in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC fifth assessment report (AR5 and UK climatic projections 2009 (UKCP09 using a tidally-adjusted bathtub modelling approach. Medium- to very high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs are used to evaluate inundation extents as well as uncertainties. Depending on the SLR scenario and DEMs used, it is estimated that 3%–8% of the area of Greater London could be inundated by 2100. The boroughs with the largest areas at risk of flooding are Newham, Southwark, and Greenwich. The differences in inundation areas estimated from a digital terrain model and a digital surface model are much greater than the root mean square error differences observed between the two data types, which may be attributed to processing levels. Flood models from SRTM data underestimate the inundation extent, so their results may not be reliable for constructing flood risk maps. This analysis provides a broad-scale estimate of the potential consequences of SLR and uncertainties in the DEM-based bathtub type flood inundation modelling for London boroughs.

  15. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    When participants are asked to respond in the same way to stimuli from different sources (e. g., auditory and visual), responses are often observed to be substantially faster when both stimuli are presented simultaneously (redundancy gain). Different models account for this effect, the two most...

  16. Background synaptic activity in rat entorhinal cortex shows a progressively greater dominance of inhibition over excitation from deep to superficial layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart David Greenhill

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC controls hippocampal input and output, playing major roles in memory and spatial navigation. Different layers of the EC subserve different functions and a number of studies have compared properties of neurones across layers. We have studied synaptic inhibition and excitation in EC neurones, and we have previously compared spontaneous synaptic release of glutamate and GABA using patch clamp recordings of synaptic currents in principal neurones of layers II (L2 and V (L5. Here, we add comparative studies in layer III (L3. Such studies essentially look at neuronal activity from a presynaptic viewpoint. To correlate this with the postsynaptic consequences of spontaneous transmitter release, we have determined global postsynaptic conductances mediated by the two transmitters, using a method to estimate conductances from membrane potential fluctuations. We have previously presented some of this data for L3 and now extend to L2 and L5. Inhibition dominates excitation in all layers but the ratio follows a clear rank order (highest to lowest of L2>L3>L5. The variance of the background conductances was markedly higher for excitation and inhibition in L2 compared to L3 or L5. We also show that induction of synchronized network epileptiform activity by blockade of GABA inhibition reveals a relative reluctance of L2 to participate in such activity. This was associated with maintenance of a dominant background inhibition in L2, whereas in L3 and L5 the absolute level of inhibition fell below that of excitation, coincident with the appearance of synchronized discharges. Further experiments identified potential roles for competition for bicuculline by ambient GABA at the GABAA receptor, and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in residual inhibition in L2. We discuss our results in terms of control of excitability in neuronal subpopulations of EC neurones and what these may suggest for their functional roles.

  17. Gas phase and aerosol model simulations in the greater Athens area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossioli, E.; Tombrou, M.; Dandou, A.

    2003-04-01

    This study analyzes air quality data provided by numerical simulations for the Greater Athens Area (GAA) using the latest release of the emission inventory (industry, traffic, off road activities, airport, railway, harbor). The three-dimensional photochemical Urban Airshed Model (UAM-V) was coupled with the meteorological Mesoscale Model (MM5). All the simulated days favored high concentration levels of air pollutants. The concentrations of the air pollutants produced by the simulations were compared with routine measurements from the operating stations of the existing air pollution monitor network in Athens. The comparison revealed good agreement for the stations sited in the center of Athens while the observed discrepancies in a few suburban stations could be explained by the fact that few sectors (e.g. biogenic) are not included in the Athens emission inventory. Moreover, the importance of the VOCs reactivity on photochemical modeling, especially on ozone productivity, was investigated after constructing various speciation profiles of the VOCs emissions in agreement with the different land uses (urban, semi-urban). These profiles were derived from a large number of VOC species (about 200) contained in detailed emission inventories. Furthermore, the role of biogenic emissions was examined by incorporating the rural environments. Finally, a modeling contribution to the aerosols’ concentration levels in the Greater Athens Area is attempted using the three dimensional Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD). The aerosol distribution/deposition and toxic chemistry is examined, making use of the emissions of particulate matter included in the emission inventory such as PM, NH3 and toxics (Hg, Pb, Zn, As, Cu). Further simulations are performed by considering changes in the PM speciation. Finally, the correlation between the gaseous pollutants and the aerosol species is performed in order to provide important conclusions in areas or time

  18. A first approximation for modeling the liquid diffusion pathway at the greater confinement disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olague, N.E.; Price, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The greater confinement disposal (GCD) project is an ongoing project examining the disposal of orphan wastes in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. One of the major tasks for the project is performance assessment. With regard to performance assessment, a preliminary conceptual model for ground-water flow and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment at the GCD facilities has been developed. One of the transport pathways that has been postulated is diffusion of radionuclides in the liquid phase upward to the land surface. This pathway is not usually considered in a performance assessment, but is included in the GCD conceptual model because of relatively low recharge estimates at the GCD site and the proximity of the waste to the land surface. These low recharge estimates indicate that convective flow downward to the water table may be negligible; thus, diffusion upward to the land surface may then become important. As part of a preliminary performance assessment which considered a basecase scenario and a climate-change scenario, a first approximation for modeling the liquid-diffusion pathway was formulated. The model includes an analytical solution that incorporates both diffusion and radioactivity decay. Overall, these results indicate that, despite the configuration of the GCD facilities that establishes the need for considering the liquid-diffusion pathway, the GCD disposal concept appears to be a technically feasible method for disposing of orphan wastes. Future analyses will consist of investigating the underlying assumptions of the liquid-diffusion model, refining the model is necessary, and reducing uncertainty in the input parameters. 11 refs., 6 figs

  19. Multimodal route choice models of public transport passengers in the Greater Copenhagen Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding route choice behavior is crucial to explain travelers’ preferences and to predict traffic flows under different scenarios. A growing body of literature has concentrated on public transport users without, however, concentrating on multimodal public transport networks because......,641 public transport users in the Greater Copenhagen Area.A two-stage approach consisting of choice set generation and route choice model estimation allowed uncovering the preferences of the users of this multimodal large-scale public transport network. The results illustrate the rates of substitution...... not only of the in-vehicle times for different public transport modes, but also of the other time components (e.g., access, walking, waiting, transfer) composing the door-to-door experience of using a multimodal public transport network, differentiating by trip length and purpose, and accounting...

  20. Assessing the Wave Energy Potential of Jamaica, a Greater Antilles Island, through Dynamic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, A. P., Jr.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Taylor, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Globally wave energy has been on the rise as a result of the impacts of climate change and continuous fluctuation in oil prices. The water's inertia provides waves with greater stability than that of other renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Jamaica is part of the Greater Antilles Arc and has over 1000 km of coast line with an abundance of shallow water approximately 80% within a 50km band. This configuration provides a wealth of sites for wave exploitation even in minimal wave energy conditions. Aside from harnessing the oceans waves converters can be viewed as a tool for protection of coastal areas against natural marine occurrences. Jamica has done extensive studies where solar, hydro and wind resouces are concerned. However, there has been no studies done to date on the country's wave energy resources.The aim of this study is to bridge this gap by characterizing Jamaica's wave energy resources generating in a half-closed Caribbean Sea using data available from: buoys, altimetric satellite, and numerical model. Available data has been used to assess the available resource on the coastal area for the last 12 years. Statistical analysis of the available energy is determined using the sea state (Hs, Tp and Dir) and the atmospheric forcing (10m-wind, atmospheric pressure, sea-air temperature) relating to the season.The chain of dynamical model is presented (WW3-SWAN-SWASH), allowing for the tracking of the propagation of the wave energy from an offshore region to nearshore zone along with their interaction with areas of shallow depth. This will provide a better assessment of the energy and the quality of the waves closer to the electrical grid.Climate prediction is used to estimate the sea state and wave energy exploitable up to 2100. An analysis of the possible usage of the available coastal resource up to 2100. The main results present small but exploitable resources with seasonal variability in the energy available but not wave direction.

  1. LIS-HYMAP coupled Hydrological Modeling in the Nile River Basin and the Greater Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H. C.; Getirana, A.; Policelli, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Water scarcity and resources in Africa have been exacerbated by periodic droughts and floods. However, few studies show the quantitative analysis of water balance or basin-scale hydrological modeling in Northeast Africa. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) is implemented to simulate land surface processes in the Nile River Basin and the Greater Horn of Africa. In this context, the Noah land surface model (LSM) and the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HYMAP) are used to reproduce the water budget and surface water (rivers and floodplains) dynamics in that region. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) meteorological dataset is used to force the system . Due to the unavailability of recent ground-based observations, satellite data are considered to evaluate first model outputs. Water levels at 10 Envisat virtual stations and water discharges at a gauging station are used to provide model performance coefficients (e.g. Nash-Sutcliffe, delay index, relative error). We also compare the spatial and temporal variations of flooded areas from the model with the Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites (GIEMS) and the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF)'s MEaSUREs Wetland data. Finally, we estimate surface water storage variations using a hypsographic curve approach with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topographic data and evaluate the model-derived water storage changes in both river and floodplain. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using LIS-HYMAP coupled modeling to support seasonal forecast methods for prediction of decision-relevant metrics of hydrologic extremes.

  2. Modelling the emerging pollutant diclofenac with the GREAT-ER model: Application to the Llobregat River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldekoa, Joana, E-mail: joaalma2@cam.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Medici, Chiara [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Marcé, Rafael [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Francés, Félix [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Diclofenac levels were measured in 14 sampling sites of the Llobregat River (Spain). • GREAT-ER model was used to simulate diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat River. • Deterministic and stochastic modelling approaches were contrasted. • Diclofenac discharge into the basin was estimated for the studied period. • Consistent degradation rates were predicted and compared with literature values. -- Abstract: The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set. The results highlighted the ability of GREAT-ER to simulate the diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat Catchment; however, this study also pointed out the urgent need for longer time series of observed data and a better knowledge of wastewater plants outputs and their parameterization in order to obtain more reliable results.

  3. Towards greater realism in inclusive fitness models: the case of worker reproduction in insect societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Helanterä, Heikki; Alves, Denise A; Dueñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Pamilo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    The conflicts over sex allocation and male production in insect societies have long served as an important test bed for Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, but have for the most part been considered separately. Here, we develop new coevolutionary models to examine the interaction between these two conflicts and demonstrate that sex ratio and colony productivity costs of worker reproduction can lead to vastly different outcomes even in species that show no variation in their relatedness structure. Empirical data on worker-produced males in eight species of Melipona bees support the predictions from a model that takes into account the demographic details of colony growth and reproduction. Overall, these models contribute significantly to explaining behavioural variation that previous theories could not account for.

  4. Indoor air quality in the Greater Beirut area: a characterization and modeling assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Hougeiri, Nisrine; Oulabi, Mawiya

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the assessment of IAQ at various environments selected from different geographic categories from the Greater Beirut area (GBA) in Lebanon. For this purpose, background information about indoor air quality was reviewed, existing conditions were characterized, an air-sampling program was implemented and mathematical modeling was conducted. Twenty-eight indoor buildings were selected from various geographic categories representing different environments (commercial and residential...). Indoor and outdoor air samples were collected and analyzed using carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (TSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) as indicators of indoor air pollution (IAP).Samples were further analyzed using the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) for the presence of major priority metals including iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and bromine (Br). Indoor and outdoor measured levels were compared to the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and health-based National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS), respectively. For the priority metals, on the other hand, indoor measured values were compared to occupational standards recommended by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

  5. Modeling a Spatio-Temporal Individual Travel Behavior Using Geotagged Social Network Data: a Case Study of Greater Cincinnati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedimoghaddam, M.; Kim, C.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding individual travel behavior is vital in travel demand management as well as in urban and transportation planning. New data sources including mobile phone data and location-based social media (LBSM) data allow us to understand mobility behavior on an unprecedented level of details. Recent studies of trip purpose prediction tend to use machine learning (ML) methods, since they generally produce high levels of predictive accuracy. Few studies used LSBM as a large data source to extend its potential in predicting individual travel destination using ML techniques. In the presented research, we created a spatio-temporal probabilistic model based on an ensemble ML framework named "Random Forests" utilizing the travel extracted from geotagged Tweets in 419 census tracts of Greater Cincinnati area for predicting the tract ID of an individual's travel destination at any time using the information of its origin. We evaluated the model accuracy using the travels extracted from the Tweets themselves as well as the travels from household travel survey. The Tweets and survey based travels that start from same tract in the south western parts of the study area is more likely to select same destination compare to the other parts. Also, both Tweets and survey based travels were affected by the attraction points in the downtown of Cincinnati and the tracts in the north eastern part of the area. Finally, both evaluations show that the model predictions are acceptable, but it cannot predict destination using inputs from other data sources as precise as the Tweets based data.

  6. Empirical validation of landscape resistance models: insights from the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Shirk; Michael A. Schroeder; Leslie A. Robb; Samuel A. Cushman

    2015-01-01

    The ability of landscapes to impede species’ movement or gene flow may be quantified by resistance models. Few studies have assessed the performance of resistance models parameterized by expert opinion. In addition, resistance models differ in terms of spatial and thematic resolution as well as their focus on the ecology of a particular species or more generally on the...

  7. Land Use Scenarios for Greater Copenhagen: Modelling the Impact of the Fingerplan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2012-01-01

    short period of time. The set-up and the results were discussed with a few experts from the Danish Ministry of the Environment and its value as discussion input recognized. The approach offers a lot of possibilities to discuss urban growth and spatial planning policies, even in a country with a strong...... region, as well as an approach to understand urban development patterns outside the ‘spatial masterplan’. In this context we will present the results of a modelling exercise addressing future land use change in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the impact of the current regional planning...... framework, the “Fingerplan 2007”. We test three policy scenarios and analyse different effects on urban growth by using the Metronamica model from the Dutch-based Research Institute for Knowledge Systems (RIKS). We analyse the possibilities to elaborate a practical and useful outcome within a relatively...

  8. A cervid vocal fold model suggests greater glottal efficiency in calling at high frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo R Titze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni produce loud and high fundamental frequency bugles during the mating season, in contrast to the male European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus who produces loud and low fundamental frequency roaring calls. A critical step in understanding vocal communication is to relate sound complexity to anatomy and physiology in a causal manner. Experimentation at the sound source, often difficult in vivo in mammals, is simulated here by a finite element model of the larynx and a wave propagation model of the vocal tract, both based on the morphology and biomechanics of the elk. The model can produce a wide range of fundamental frequencies. Low fundamental frequencies require low vocal fold strain, but large lung pressure and large glottal flow if sound intensity level is to exceed 70 dB at 10 m distance. A high-frequency bugle requires both large muscular effort (to strain the vocal ligament and high lung pressure (to overcome phonation threshold pressure, but at least 10 dB more intensity level can be achieved. Glottal efficiency, the ration of radiated sound power to aerodynamic power at the glottis, is higher in elk, suggesting an advantage of high-pitched signaling. This advantage is based on two aspects; first, the lower airflow required for aerodynamic power and, second, an acoustic radiation advantage at higher frequencies. Both signal types are used by the respective males during the mating season and probably serve as honest signals. The two signal types relate differently to physical qualities of the sender. The low-frequency sound (Red Deer call relates to overall body size via a strong relationship between acoustic parameters and the size of vocal organs and body size. The high-frequency bugle may signal muscular strength and endurance, via a 'vocalizing at the edge' mechanism, for which efficiency is critical.

  9. A path model of different forms of impulsivity with externalizing and internalizing psychopathology: Towards greater specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Tharp, Jordan A; Peckham, Andrew D; Carver, Charles S; Haase, Claudia M

    2017-09-01

    A growing empirical literature indicates that emotion-related impulsivity (compared to impulsivity that is unrelated to emotion) is particularly relevant for understanding a broad range of psychopathologies. Recent work, however, has differentiated two forms of emotion-related impulsivity: A factor termed Pervasive Influence of Feelings captures tendencies for emotions (mostly negative emotions) to quickly shape thoughts, and a factor termed Feelings Trigger Action captures tendencies for positive and negative emotions to quickly and reflexively shape behaviour and speech. This study used path modelling to consider links from emotion-related and non-emotion-related impulsivity to a broad range of psychopathologies. Undergraduates completed self-report measures of impulsivity, depression, anxiety, aggression, and substance use symptoms. A path model (N = 261) indicated specificity of these forms of impulsivity. Pervasive Influence of Feelings was related to anxiety and depression, whereas Feelings Trigger Action and non-emotion-related impulsivity were related to aggression and substance use. The findings of this study suggest that emotion-relevant impulsivity could be a potentially important treatment target for a set of psychopathologies. Recent work has differentiated two forms of emotion-related impulsivity. This study tests a multivariate path model linking emotion-related and non-emotion-related impulsivity with multiple forms of psychopathology. Impulsive thoughts in response to negative emotions were related to anxiety and depression. Impulsive actions in response to emotions were related to aggression and substance use, as did non-emotion-related impulsivity. The study was limited by the reliance on self-report measures of impulsivity and psychopathology. There is a need for longitudinal work on how these forms of impulsivity predict the onset and course of psychopathology. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Quantification and mapping of urban fluxes under climate change: Application of WRF-SUEWS model to Greater Porto area (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, S; Martins, H; Marta-Almeida, M; Sá, E; Coelho, S; Rocha, A; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2017-05-01

    Climate change and the growth of urban populations are two of the main challenges facing Europe today. These issues are linked as climate change results in serious challenges for cities. Recent attention has focused on how urban surface-atmosphere exchanges of heat and water will be affected by climate change and the implications for urban planning and sustainability. In this study energy fluxes for Greater Porto area, Portugal, were estimated and the influence of the projected climate change evaluated. To accomplish this, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) were applied for two climatological scenarios: a present (or reference, 1986-2005) scenario and a future scenario (2046-2065), in this case the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5, which reflects the worst set of expectations (with the most onerous impacts). The results show that for the future climate conditions, the incoming shortwave radiation will increase by around 10%, the sensible heat flux around 40% and the net storage heat flux around 35%. In contrast, the latent heat flux will decrease about 20%. The changes in the magnitude of the different fluxes result in an increase of the net all-wave radiation by 15%. The implications of the changes of the energy balance on the meteorological variables are discussed, particularly in terms of temperature and precipitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Open Access Papers Have a Greater Citation Advantage in the Author-Pays Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the citation performance of open access (OA and toll access (TA papers published in author-pays open access journals. Design – Longitudinal citation analysis. Setting – Publications in Springer and Elsevier’s author-pays open access journals. Subjects – 633 journals published using the author-pays model. This model encompasses both journals where the article processing charge (APC is required and journals in which authors can request open access and voluntarily pay APCs for accepted manuscripts. Methods – The authors identified APC funded journals (journals funded by mandatory author processing charges as well as those where authors voluntarily paid a fee in order to have their articles openly accessible from both Springer and Elsevier, and analyzed papers published in these journals from 2007 to 2011. The authors excluded journals that adopted the APC model later than 2007. To identify Springer titles, the authors created a search strategy to identify open access articles in SpringerLink. A total of 576 journals were identified and double checked in the Sherpa-Romeo database (a database of copyright and open access self-archiving policies of academic journals to verify their open access policies. The authors then downloaded the journal content using SpringerLink, and using Springer Author-Mapper, separated out the open access articles from the toll access articles. In order to identify the Elsevier APC funded journals, the authors referred to “Open Access Journal Directory: A-Z,” which contained 35 OA journals (p. 584. Once the authors consulted “Sponsored articles” issued by Elsevier and verified titles in Sherpa-Romeo, they identified 57 journals that fit the “author-pays” model. The bibliographic information was downloaded and OA articles were separated from TA articles. The authors confirmed that all journals were indeed OA publications by downloading the full-text from off-campus locations

  12. The quest for the perfect model: Pre World War 1. Military land use modeling of the Greater Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    the rotational system. At first the survey campaign seems to be going very well, but relative quickly did the military run into problems. The rapid urbanization of the landscape north of Copenhagen meant, that farming did not take place and at the island of Amager southwest of Copenhagen the farmers didn’t use......Anthropogenic land use practices are the single most important factor in the changing European landscapes. Respectively much attention has been devoted within Landscape Ecology to analyze changing patterns of land use and develop research strategies to understand the processes behind these changes...... and to inform policy makers. Models are used as an important tool in this research partly due to the revolution in information technologies during the last 30 years, which has made modeling more widespread in the research community. However modeling human decision making in form of land use practices...

  13. Modeled connectivity of Acropora millepora populations from reefs of the Spratly Islands and the greater South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Jeffrey G.; Castruccio, Frederic S.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Kleypas, Joan A.; Powell, Thomas M.

    2016-03-01

    The Spratly Island archipelago is a remote network of coral reefs and islands in the South China Sea that is a likely source of coral larvae to the greater region, but about which little is known. Using a particle-tracking model driven by oceanographic data from the Coral Triangle region, we simulated both spring and fall spawning events of Acropora millepora, a common coral species, over a 46-yr period (1960-2005). Simulated population biology of A. millepora included the acquisition and loss of competency, settlement over appropriate benthic habitat, and mortality based on experimental data. The simulations aimed to provide insights into the connectivity of reefs within the Spratly Islands, the settlement of larvae on reefs of the greater South China Sea, and the potential dispersal range of reef organisms from the Spratly Islands. Results suggest that (1) the Spratly Islands may be a significant source of A. millepora larvae for the Palawan reefs (Philippines) and some of the most isolated reefs of the South China Sea; and (2) the relatively isolated western Spratly Islands have limited source reefs supplying them with larvae and fewer of their larvae successfully settling on other reefs. Examination of particle dispersal without biology (settlement and mortality) suggests that larval connectivity is possible throughout the South China Sea and into the Coral Triangle region. Strong differences in the spring versus fall larval connectivity and dispersal highlight the need for a greater understanding of spawning dynamics of the region. This study confirms that the Spratly Islands are likely an important source of larvae for the South China Sea and Coral Triangle region.

  14. Transcriptome adaptation of the bovine mammary gland to diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids shows greater impact of linseed oil over safflower oil on gene expression and metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Li, Ran; Ammah, Adolf A; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zhao, Xin

    2016-02-09

    Nutritional strategies can decrease saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and increase health beneficial fatty acids (FAs) in bovine milk. The pathways/genes involved in these processes are not properly defined. Next-generation RNA-sequencing was used to investigate the bovine mammary gland transcriptome following supplemental feeding with 5% linseed oil (LSO) or 5% safflower oil (SFO). Holstein cows in mid-lactation were fed a control diet for 28 days (control period) followed by supplementation with 5% LSO (12 cows) or 5% SFO (12 cows) for 28 days (treatment period). Milk and mammary gland biopsies were sampled on days-14 (control period), +7 and +28 (treatment period). Milk was used to measure fat(FP)/protein(PP) percentages and individual FAs while RNA was subjected to sequencing. Milk FP was decreased by 30.38% (LSO) or 32.42% (SFO) while PP was unaffected (LSO) or increased (SFO). Several beneficial FAs were increased by LSO (C18:1n11t, CLA:10t12c, CLA:9c11t, C20:3n3, C20:5n3, C22:5n3) and SFO (C18:1n11t, CLA:10t12c, C20:1c11, C20:2, C20:3n3) while several SFAs (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C24:0) were decreased by both treatments (P metabolism in dairy cows is being reported for the first time. Functional analysis indicated similar and different top enriched functions for DE genes. DE genes were predicted to significantly decrease synthesis of FA/lipid by both treatments and FA metabolism by LSO. Top canonical pathways associated with DE genes of both treatments might be involved in lipid/cholesterol metabolism. This study shows that rich α-linolenic acid LSO has a greater impact on mammary gland transcriptome by affecting more genes, pathways and processes as compared to SFO, rich in linoleic acid. Our study suggest that decrease in milk SFAs was due to down-regulation of genes in the FA/lipid synthesis and lipid metabolism pathways while increase in PUFAs was due to increased availability of ruminal biohydrogenation metabolites that were up taken and

  15. Implante Autólogo Ovariano no Omento Maior: Estudo Experimental Ovarian Autotransplantation to the Greater Omentum: Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2002-01-01

    autotransplantation to the greater omentum; and Group IV (n = 10, sliced ovarian autotransplantation, both to the greater omentum. The estrous cycle was investigated in the third and sixth postoperative months and histological studies of the ovarian implants were carried out considering: degeneration, fibrosis, inflammatory reaction, angiogenesis, follicular cysts, follicular development and corpora lutea. Results: the animals of Group I preserved the cycling sequence. The rats of Group II remained in diestrus. In Group III, 11 rats remained in diestrus, three presented incomplete cycles and one showed normal cycle. In Group IV, three animals remained in diestrus, eight showed incomplete cycles and four showed normal cycles. The histology of the ovaries of Group III was normal in ten female rats; however, the ovaries of the other five animals presented degeneration. In Group IV, 14 female rats had ovaries with preserved morphological aspect, and signs of degeneration occurred in one. Conclusions: the ovarian autotransplantation to the greater omentum is viable and the sliced form presented better morphofunctional aspects than the intact implants.

  16. Selecting the best stable isotope mixing model to estimate grizzly bear diets in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B Hopkins

    Full Text Available Past research indicates that whitebark pine seeds are a critical food source for Threatened grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE. In recent decades, whitebark pine forests have declined markedly due to pine beetle infestation, invasive blister rust, and landscape-level fires. To date, no study has reliably estimated the contribution of whitebark pine seeds to the diets of grizzlies through time. We used stable isotope ratios (expressed as δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S values measured in grizzly bear hair and their major food sources to estimate the diets of grizzlies sampled in Cooke City Basin, Montana. We found that stable isotope mixing models that included different combinations of stable isotope values for bears and their foods generated similar proportional dietary contributions. Estimates generated by our top model suggest that whitebark pine seeds (35±10% and other plant foods (56±10% were more important than meat (9±8% to grizzly bears sampled in the study area. Stable isotope values measured in bear hair collected elsewhere in the GYE and North America support our conclusions about plant-based foraging. We recommend that researchers consider model selection when estimating the diets of animals using stable isotope mixing models. We also urge researchers to use the new statistical framework described here to estimate the dietary responses of grizzlies to declines in whitebark pine seeds and other important food sources through time in the GYE (e.g., cutthroat trout, as such information could be useful in predicting how the population will adapt to future environmental change.

  17. Classifying Multi-Model Wheat Yield Impact Response Surfaces Showing Sensitivity to Temperature and Precipitation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronzek, Stefan; Pirttioja, Nina; Carter, Timothy R.; Bindi, Marco; Hoffmann, Holger; Palosuo, Taru; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Tao, Fulu; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, Marco; hide

    2017-01-01

    Crop growth simulation models can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and hence in their response to environmental conditions. Here, we used an ensemble of 26 process-based wheat models applied at sites across a European transect to compare their sensitivity to changes in temperature (minus 2 to plus 9 degrees Centigrade) and precipitation (minus 50 to plus 50 percent). Model results were analysed by plotting them as impact response surfaces (IRSs), classifying the IRS patterns of individual model simulations, describing these classes and analysing factors that may explain the major differences in model responses. The model ensemble was used to simulate yields of winter and spring wheat at four sites in Finland, Germany and Spain. Results were plotted as IRSs that show changes in yields relative to the baseline with respect to temperature and precipitation. IRSs of 30-year means and selected extreme years were classified using two approaches describing their pattern. The expert diagnostic approach (EDA) combines two aspects of IRS patterns: location of the maximum yield (nine classes) and strength of the yield response with respect to climate (four classes), resulting in a total of 36 combined classes defined using criteria pre-specified by experts. The statistical diagnostic approach (SDA) groups IRSs by comparing their pattern and magnitude, without attempting to interpret these features. It applies a hierarchical clustering method, grouping response patterns using a distance metric that combines the spatial correlation and Euclidian distance between IRS pairs. The two approaches were used to investigate whether different patterns of yield response could be related to different properties of the crop models, specifically their genealogy, calibration and process description. Although no single model property across a large model ensemble was found to explain the integrated yield response to temperature and precipitation perturbations, the

  18. A physics-explicit model of bacterial conjugation shows the stabilizing role of the conjugative junction

    OpenAIRE

    Pastuszak, Jakub; Waclaw, Bartlomiej

    2017-01-01

    Conjugation is a process in which bacteria exchange DNA through a physical connection (conjugative junction) between mating cells. Despite its significance for processes such as the spread of antibiotic resistance, the role of physical forces in conjugation is poorly understood. Here we use computer models to show that the conjugative junction not only serves as a link to transfer the DNA but it also mechanically stabilises the mating pair which significantly increases the conjugation rate. W...

  19. Splitting and non splitting are pollution models photochemical reactions in the urban areas of greater Tehran area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarinasab, A.; Dabir, B.; Sahimi, M.; Badii, Kh.

    2003-01-01

    During the past years, one of the most important problems has been air pollution in urban areas. In this regards, ozone, as one of the major products of photochemical reactions, has great importance. The term 'photochemical' is applied to a number of secondary pollutants that appear as a result of sun-related reactions, ozone being the most important one. So far various models have been suggested to predict these pollutants. In this paper, we developed the model that has been introduced by Dabir, et al. [4]. In this model more than 48 chemical species and 114 chemical reactions are involved. The result of this development, showed good to excellent agreement across the region for compounds such as O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, and SO 2 with regard to VOC and NMHC. The results of the simulation were compared with previous work [4] and the effects of increasing the number of components and reactions were evaluated. The results of the operator splitting method were compared with non splitting solving method. The result showed that splitting method with one-tenth time step collapsed with non splitting method (Crank-Nicolson, under-relaxation iteration method without splitting of the equation terms). Then we developed one dimensional model to 3-D and were compared with experimental data

  20. Modelling the impact of urban form on household energy demand and related CO2 emissions in the Greater Dublin Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochen; Sweeney, John

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between household space heating energy use and urban form (land use characteristics) for the Greater Dublin Region. The geographical distributions of household energy use are evaluated at the Enumeration Districts (ED) level based on the building thermal balance model. Moreover, it estimates the impact of possible factors on the household space heating consumption. Results illustrate that the distribution profile of dwellings is a significant factor related to overall heating energy demand and individual dwelling energy consumption for space heating. Residents living in compact dwellings with small floor areas consume less energy for space heating than residents living in dwellings with big floor areas. Moreover, domestic heating energy demand per household was also estimated for two extreme urban development scenarios: the compact city scenario and the dispersed scenario. The results illustrate that the compact city scenario is likely to decrease the domestic heating energy consumption per household by 16.2% compared with the dispersed city scenario. Correspondingly, the energy-related CO 2 emissions could be significantly decreased by compact city scenario compared with the dispersed city scenario. - Highlights: ► A method was developed to investigate urban form impacts on energy demand. ► This study estimates impacts of possible factors on the household energy consumption. ► Household heating energy demand is sensitive to dwelling distribution profile. ► The compact case could reduce domestic energy demand compared with the dispersed case.

  1. Microarray profiling shows distinct differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weining; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Tay, Hsien Ts’ung; Wu, Yonghui; Lim, Tony K. H.; Zheng, Lin; Song, In Chin; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Huynh, Hung; Tan, Patrick O. B.; Chow, Pierce K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in therapeutics, outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poor and there is an urgent need for efficacious systemic therapy. Unfortunately, drugs that are successful in preclinical studies often fail in the clinical setting, and we hypothesize that this is due to functional differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models. In this study, we attempt to answer this question by comparing tumor morphology and gene expression profiles between primary tumors, xenografts and HCC cell lines. Hep G2 cell lines and tumor cells from patient tumor explants were subcutaneously (ectopically) injected into the flank and orthotopically into liver parenchyma of Mus Musculus SCID mice. The mice were euthanized after two weeks. RNA was extracted from the tumors, and gene expression profiling was performed using the Gene Chip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0. Principal component analyses (PCA) and construction of dendrograms were conducted using Partek genomics suite. PCA showed that the commonly used HepG2 cell line model and its xenograft counterparts were vastly different from all fresh primary tumors. Expression profiles of primary tumors were also significantly divergent from their counterpart patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, regardless of the site of implantation. Xenografts from the same primary tumors were more likely to cluster together regardless of site of implantation, although heat maps showed distinct differences in gene expression profiles between orthotopic and ectopic models. The data presented here challenges the utility of routinely used preclinical models. Models using HepG2 were vastly different from primary tumors and PDXs, suggesting that this is not clinically representative. Surprisingly, site of implantation (orthotopic versus ectopic) resulted in limited impact on gene expression profiles, and in both scenarios xenografts differed significantly from the original primary tumors, challenging the long

  2. Porcine Esophageal Submucosal Gland Culture Model Shows Capacity for Proliferation and DifferentiationSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. von Furstenberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Although cells comprising esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs represent a potential progenitor cell niche, new models are needed to understand their capacity to proliferate and differentiate. By histologic appearance, ESMGs have been associated with both overlying normal squamous epithelium and columnar epithelium. Our aim was to assess ESMG proliferation and differentiation in a 3-dimensional culture model. Methods: We evaluated proliferation in human ESMGs from normal and diseased tissue by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Next, we compared 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine labeling in porcine ESMGs in vivo before and after esophageal injury with a novel in vitro porcine organoid ESMG model. Microarray analysis of ESMGs in culture was compared with squamous epithelium and fresh ESMGs. Results: Marked proliferation was observed in human ESMGs of diseased tissue. This activated ESMG state was recapitulated after esophageal injury in an in vivo porcine model, ESMGs assumed a ductal appearance with increased proliferation compared with control. Isolated and cultured porcine ESMGs produced buds with actively cycling cells and passaged to form epidermal growth factor–dependent spheroids. These spheroids were highly proliferative and were passaged multiple times. Two phenotypes of spheroids were identified: solid squamous (P63+ and hollow/ductal (cytokeratin 7+. Microarray analysis showed spheroids to be distinct from parent ESMGs and enriched for columnar transcripts. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the activated ESMG state, seen in both human disease and our porcine model, may provide a source of cells to repopulate damaged epithelium in a normal manner (squamous or abnormally (columnar epithelium. This culture model will allow the evaluation of factors that drive ESMGs in the regeneration of injured epithelium. The raw microarray data have been uploaded to the National Center for

  3. Porcine Esophageal Submucosal Gland Culture Model Shows Capacity for Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Furstenberg, Richard J; Li, Joy; Stolarchuk, Christina; Feder, Rachel; Campbell, Alexa; Kruger, Leandi; Gonzalez, Liara M; Blikslager, Anthony T; Cardona, Diana M; McCall, Shannon J; Henning, Susan J; Garman, Katherine S

    2017-11-01

    Although cells comprising esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs) represent a potential progenitor cell niche, new models are needed to understand their capacity to proliferate and differentiate. By histologic appearance, ESMGs have been associated with both overlying normal squamous epithelium and columnar epithelium. Our aim was to assess ESMG proliferation and differentiation in a 3-dimensional culture model. We evaluated proliferation in human ESMGs from normal and diseased tissue by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Next, we compared 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in porcine ESMGs in vivo before and after esophageal injury with a novel in vitro porcine organoid ESMG model. Microarray analysis of ESMGs in culture was compared with squamous epithelium and fresh ESMGs. Marked proliferation was observed in human ESMGs of diseased tissue. This activated ESMG state was recapitulated after esophageal injury in an in vivo porcine model, ESMGs assumed a ductal appearance with increased proliferation compared with control. Isolated and cultured porcine ESMGs produced buds with actively cycling cells and passaged to form epidermal growth factor-dependent spheroids. These spheroids were highly proliferative and were passaged multiple times. Two phenotypes of spheroids were identified: solid squamous (P63+) and hollow/ductal (cytokeratin 7+). Microarray analysis showed spheroids to be distinct from parent ESMGs and enriched for columnar transcripts. Our results suggest that the activated ESMG state, seen in both human disease and our porcine model, may provide a source of cells to repopulate damaged epithelium in a normal manner (squamous) or abnormally (columnar epithelium). This culture model will allow the evaluation of factors that drive ESMGs in the regeneration of injured epithelium. The raw microarray data have been uploaded to the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number: GSE100543).

  4. Small GSK-3 Inhibitor Shows Efficacy in a Motor Neuron Disease Murine Model Modulating Autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía de Munck

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive motor neuron degenerative disease that has no effective treatment up to date. Drug discovery tasks have been hampered due to the lack of knowledge in its molecular etiology together with the limited animal models for research. Recently, a motor neuron disease animal model has been developed using β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA, a neurotoxic amino acid related to the appearing of ALS. In the present work, the neuroprotective role of VP2.51, a small heterocyclic GSK-3 inhibitor, is analysed in this novel murine model together with the analysis of autophagy. VP2.51 daily administration for two weeks, starting the first day after L-BMAA treatment, leads to total recovery of neurological symptoms and prevents the activation of autophagic processes in rats. These results show that the L-BMAA murine model can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs. In addition, the results confirm the therapeutic potential of GSK-3 inhibitors, and specially VP2.51, for the disease-modifying future treatment of motor neuron disorders like ALS.

  5. Human Commercial Models' Eye Colour Shows Negative Frequency-Dependent Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Rodrigues Nogueira Forti

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the eye colour of human commercial models registered in the UK (400 female and 400 male and Brazil (400 female and 400 male to test the hypothesis that model eye colour frequency was the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. The eye colours of the models were classified as: blue, brown or intermediate. Chi-square analyses of data for countries separated by sex showed that in the United Kingdom brown eyes and intermediate colours were significantly more frequent than expected in comparison to the general United Kingdom population (P<0.001. In Brazil, the most frequent eye colour brown was significantly less frequent than expected in comparison to the general Brazilian population. These results support the hypothesis that model eye colour is the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. This could be the result of people using eye colour as a marker of genetic diversity and finding rarer eye colours more attractive because of the potential advantage more genetically diverse offspring that could result from such a choice. Eye colour may be important because in comparison to many other physical traits (e.g., hair colour it is hard to modify, hide or disguise, and it is highly polymorphic.

  6. Human Commercial Models' Eye Colour Shows Negative Frequency-Dependent Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Isabela Rodrigues Nogueira; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the eye colour of human commercial models registered in the UK (400 female and 400 male) and Brazil (400 female and 400 male) to test the hypothesis that model eye colour frequency was the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. The eye colours of the models were classified as: blue, brown or intermediate. Chi-square analyses of data for countries separated by sex showed that in the United Kingdom brown eyes and intermediate colours were significantly more frequent than expected in comparison to the general United Kingdom population (PBrazilian population. These results support the hypothesis that model eye colour is the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. This could be the result of people using eye colour as a marker of genetic diversity and finding rarer eye colours more attractive because of the potential advantage more genetically diverse offspring that could result from such a choice. Eye colour may be important because in comparison to many other physical traits (e.g., hair colour) it is hard to modify, hide or disguise, and it is highly polymorphic.

  7. Histidine decarboxylase knockout mice, a genetic model of Tourette syndrome, show repetitive grooming after induced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meiyu; Li, Lina; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Tics, such as are seen in Tourette syndrome (TS), are common and can cause profound morbidity, but they are poorly understood. Tics are potentiated by psychostimulants, stress, and sleep deprivation. Mutations in the gene histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) have been implicated as a rare genetic cause of TS, and Hdc knockout mice have been validated as a genetic model that recapitulates phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Tic-like stereotypies in this model have not been observed at baseline but emerge after acute challenge with the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. We tested the ability of an acute stressor to stimulate stereotypies in this model, using tone fear conditioning. Hdc knockout mice acquired conditioned fear normally, as manifested by freezing during the presentation of a tone 48h after it had been paired with a shock. During the 30min following tone presentation, knockout mice showed increased grooming. Heterozygotes exhibited normal freezing and intermediate grooming. These data validate a new paradigm for the examination of tic-like stereotypies in animals without pharmacological challenge and enhance the face validity of the Hdc knockout mouse as a pathophysiologically grounded model of tic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MTO1-deficient mouse model mirrors the human phenotype showing complex I defect and cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore Becker

    Full Text Available Recently, mutations in the mitochondrial translation optimization factor 1 gene (MTO1 were identified as causative in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis and respiratory chain defect. Here, we describe an MTO1-deficient mouse model generated by gene trap mutagenesis that mirrors the human phenotype remarkably well. As in patients, the most prominent signs and symptoms were cardiovascular and included bradycardia and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the mutant mice showed a marked worsening of arrhythmias during induction and reversal of anaesthesia. The detailed morphological and biochemical workup of murine hearts indicated that the myocardial damage was due to complex I deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, neurological examination was largely normal in Mto1-deficient mice. A translational consequence of this mouse model may be to caution against anaesthesia-related cardiac arrhythmias which may be fatal in patients.

  9. Visual modeling shows that avian host parents use multiple visual cues in rejecting parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2010-05-11

    One of the most striking outcomes of coevolution between species is egg mimicry by brood parasitic birds, resulting from rejection behavior by discriminating host parents. Yet, how exactly does a host detect a parasitic egg? Brood parasitism and egg rejection behavior provide a model system for exploring the relative importance of different visual cues used in a behavioral task. Although hosts are discriminating, we do not know exactly what cues they use, and to answer this it is crucial to account for the receiver's visual perception. Color, luminance ("perceived lightness") and pattern information have never been simultaneously quantified and experimentally tested through a bird's eye. The cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis and its hosts show spectacular polymorphisms in egg appearance, providing a good opportunity for investigating visual discrimination owing to the large range of patterns and colors involved. Here we combine field experiments in Africa with modeling of avian color vision and pattern discrimination to identify the specific visual cues used by hosts in making rejection decisions. We found that disparity between host and foreign eggs in both color and several aspects of pattern (dispersion, principal marking size, and variability in marking size) were important predictors of rejection, especially color. These cues correspond exactly to the principal differences between host and parasitic eggs, showing that hosts use the most reliable available cues in making rejection decisions, and select for parasitic eggs that are increasingly mimetic in a range of visual attributes.

  10. Transchromosomic cell model of Down syndrome shows aberrant migration, adhesion and proteome response to extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotter Finbarr E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21, is the most common genetic birth defect. Congenital heart defects (CHD are seen in 40% of DS children, and >50% of all atrioventricular canal defects in infancy are caused by trisomy 21, but the causative genes remain unknown. Results Here we show that aberrant adhesion and proliferation of DS cells can be reproduced using a transchromosomic model of DS (mouse fibroblasts bearing supernumerary HSA21. We also demonstrate a deacrease of cell migration in transchromosomic cells independently of their adhesion properties. We show that cell-autonomous proteome response to the presence of Collagen VI in extracellular matrix is strongly affected by trisomy 21. Conclusion This set of experiments establishes a new model system for genetic dissection of the specific HSA21 gene-overdose contributions to aberrant cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and specific proteome response to collagen VI, cellular phenotypes linked to the pathogenesis of CHD.

  11. Estimating carbon and showing impacts of drought using satellite data in regression-tree models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Danny; Dahal, Devendra; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2018-01-01

    Integrating spatially explicit biogeophysical and remotely sensed data into regression-tree models enables the spatial extrapolation of training data over large geographic spaces, allowing a better understanding of broad-scale ecosystem processes. The current study presents annual gross primary production (GPP) and annual ecosystem respiration (RE) for 2000–2013 in several short-statured vegetation types using carbon flux data from towers that are located strategically across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We calculate carbon fluxes (annual net ecosystem production [NEP]) for each year in our study period, which includes 2012 when drought and higher-than-normal temperatures influence vegetation productivity in large parts of the study area. We present and analyse carbon flux dynamics in the CONUS to better understand how drought affects GPP, RE, and NEP. Model accuracy metrics show strong correlation coefficients (r) (r ≥ 94%) between training and estimated data for both GPP and RE. Overall, average annual GPP, RE, and NEP are relatively constant throughout the study period except during 2012 when almost 60% less carbon is sequestered than normal. These results allow us to conclude that this modelling method effectively estimates carbon dynamics through time and allows the exploration of impacts of meteorological anomalies and vegetation types on carbon dynamics.

  12. Visualizing Three-dimensional Slab Geometries with ShowEarthModel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B.; Jadamec, M. A.; Fischer, K. M.; Kreylos, O.; Yikilmaz, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic data that characterize the morphology of modern subducted slabs on Earth suggest that a two-dimensional paradigm is no longer adequate to describe the subduction process. Here we demonstrate the effect of data exploration of three-dimensional (3D) global slab geometries with the open source program ShowEarthModel. ShowEarthModel was designed specifically to support data exploration, by focusing on interactivity and real-time response using the Vrui toolkit. Sixteen movies are presented that explore the 3D complexity of modern subduction zones on Earth. The first movie provides a guided tour through the Earth's major subduction zones, comparing the global slab geometry data sets of Gudmundsson and Sambridge (1998), Syracuse and Abers (2006), and Hayes et al. (2012). Fifteen regional movies explore the individual subduction zones and regions intersecting slabs, using the Hayes et al. (2012) slab geometry models where available and the Engdahl and Villasenor (2002) global earthquake data set. Viewing the subduction zones in this way provides an improved conceptualization of the 3D morphology within a given subduction zone as well as the 3D spatial relations between the intersecting slabs. This approach provides a powerful tool for rendering earth properties and broadening capabilities in both Earth Science research and education by allowing for whole earth visualization. The 3D characterization of global slab geometries is placed in the context of 3D slab-driven mantle flow and observations of shear wave splitting in subduction zones. These visualizations contribute to the paradigm shift from a 2D to 3D subduction framework by facilitating the conceptualization of the modern subduction system on Earth in 3D space.

  13. The use of the greater trochanter marker in the thigh segment model: Implications for hip and knee frontal and transverse plane motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Graci

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Hip and knee kinematics differed across different segment definitions including or excluding the greater trochanter marker, especially in the transverse plane. Therefore when considering whether to include the greater trochanter in the thigh segment model when using a surface markers to calculate 3D kinematics for movement assessment, it is important to have a clear understanding of the effect of different marker sets and segment models in use.

  14. The skin migratory stage of the schistosomulum of Schistosoma mansoni has a surface showing greater permeability and activity in membrane internalisation than other forms of skin or mechanical schistosomula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Jesus Jeremias, Wander; DA Cunha Melo, Jose Renan; Baba, Elio Hideo; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Kusel, John Robert

    2015-08-01

    Skin schistosomula can be prepared by collecting them after isolated mouse skin have been penetrated by cercariae in vitro. The schistosomula can also migrate out of isolated mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vitro and from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo. Schistosomula can also be produced from cercariae applied through a syringe or in a vortex. When certain surface properties of the different forms of schistosomula were compared, those migrating from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo or in vitro had greatly increased permeability to membrane impermeant molecules such as Lucifer yellow and high molecular weight dextrans. These migrating forms also possessed surfaces which showed greatly enhanced uptake into internal membrane vesicles of the dye FM 143, a marker for endocytosis. This greatly enhanced activity and permeability of the surfaces of tissue migrating schistosomula is likely to be of great importance in the adaptation to the new host.

  15. Use of the GREAT-ER model to estimate mass fluxes of chemicals, carried into the Western Scheldt estuary from the Rupel basin

    OpenAIRE

    Schowanek, D.

    2002-01-01

    The poster illustrates the application of the GREAT-ER model to estimate the mass flux of chemicals carried from a river basin into an estuary. GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) is a newly developed model (1999) for management and risk assessment of chemicals in river basins (see www.great-er.org). Recently the Rupel basin has been made available for use within GREAT-ER. This now allows to make a reliable estimation of the contribution of pollu...

  16. Climate Modelling Shows Increased Risk to Eucalyptus sideroxylon on the Eastern Coast of Australia Compared to Eucalyptus albens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit; Ahmadi, Mohsen

    2017-11-24

    Aim: To identify the extent and direction of range shift of Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens in Australia by 2050 through an ensemble forecast of four species distribution models (SDMs). Each was generated using four global climate models (GCMs), under two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Location: Australia. Methods : We used four SDMs of (i) generalized linear model, (ii) MaxEnt, (iii) random forest, and (iv) boosted regression tree to construct SDMs for species E. sideroxylon and E. albens under four GCMs including (a) MRI-CGCM3, (b) MIROC5, (c) HadGEM2-AO and (d) CCSM4, under two RCPs of 4.5 and 6.0. Here, the true skill statistic (TSS) index was used to assess the accuracy of each SDM. Results: Results showed that E. albens and E. sideroxylon will lose large areas of their current suitable range by 2050 and E. sideroxylon is projected to gain in eastern and southeastern Australia. Some areas were also projected to remain suitable for each species between now and 2050. Our modelling showed that E. sideroxylon will lose suitable habitat on the western side and will not gain any on the eastern side because this region is one the most heavily populated areas in the country, and the populated areas are moving westward. The predicted decrease in E. sideroxylon's distribution suggests that land managers should monitor its population closely, and evaluate whether it meets criteria for a protected legal status. Main conclusions: Both Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens will be negatively affected by climate change and it is projected that E. sideroxylon will be at greater risk of losing habitat than E. albens .

  17. Climate Modelling Shows Increased Risk to Eucalyptus sideroxylon on the Eastern Coast of Australia Compared to Eucalyptus albens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Shabani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the extent and direction of range shift of Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens in Australia by 2050 through an ensemble forecast of four species distribution models (SDMs. Each was generated using four global climate models (GCMs, under two representative concentration pathways (RCPs. Location: Australia. Methods: We used four SDMs of (i generalized linear model, (ii MaxEnt, (iii random forest, and (iv boosted regression tree to construct SDMs for species E. sideroxylon and E. albens under four GCMs including (a MRI-CGCM3, (b MIROC5, (c HadGEM2-AO and (d CCSM4, under two RCPs of 4.5 and 6.0. Here, the true skill statistic (TSS index was used to assess the accuracy of each SDM. Results: Results showed that E. albens and E. sideroxylon will lose large areas of their current suitable range by 2050 and E. sideroxylon is projected to gain in eastern and southeastern Australia. Some areas were also projected to remain suitable for each species between now and 2050. Our modelling showed that E. sideroxylon will lose suitable habitat on the western side and will not gain any on the eastern side because this region is one the most heavily populated areas in the country, and the populated areas are moving westward. The predicted decrease in E. sideroxylon’s distribution suggests that land managers should monitor its population closely, and evaluate whether it meets criteria for a protected legal status. Main conclusions: Both Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens will be negatively affected by climate change and it is projected that E. sideroxylon will be at greater risk of losing habitat than E. albens.

  18. Etoposide incorporated into camel milk phospholipids liposomes shows increased activity against fibrosarcoma in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmad N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Alsharidah, Mansour S; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  19. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah M. Maswadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes. The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  20. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (diets. The exception was p-hydroxybenzoic acid, with a plasma concentration (4 ± 0.4 μM), much higher than the other plant phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism......The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study....... It was concluded that plant phenolic acids undergo extensive interconversion in the colon and that their absorption profiles reflected their low bioavailability in the plant matrix....

  1. Ebola Virus Makona Shows Reduced Lethality in an Immune-deficient Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Sophie J; Eastaugh, Lin; Ngugi, Sarah; O'Brien, Lyn; Phelps, Amanda; Steward, Jackie; Lever, Mark Stephen

    2016-10-15

    Ebola virus Makona (EBOV-Makona; from the 2013-2016 West Africa outbreak) shows decreased virulence in an immune-deficient mouse model, compared with a strain from 1976. Unlike other filoviruses tested, EBOV-Makona may be slightly more virulent by the aerosol route than by the injected route, as 2 mice died following aerosol exposure, compared with no mortality among mice that received intraperitoneal injection of equivalent or higher doses. Although most mice did not succumb to infection, the detection of an immunoglobulin G antibody response along with observed clinical signs suggest that the mice were infected but able to clear the infection and recover. We hypothesize that this may be due to the growth rates and kinetics of the virus, which appear slower than that for other filoviruses and consequently give more time for an immune response that results in clearance of the virus. In this instance, the immune-deficient mouse model is unlikely to be appropriate for testing medical countermeasures against this EBOV-Makona stock but may provide insight into pathogenesis and the immune response to virus. © Crown copyright 2016.

  2. Coadministration of doxorubicin and etoposide loaded in camel milk phospholipids liposomes showed increased antitumor activity in a murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maswadeh HM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hamzah M Maswadeh,1 Ahmed N Aljarbou,1 Mohammed S Alorainy,2 Arshad H Rahmani,3 Masood A Khan3 1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, 3College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Small unilamellar vesicles from camel milk phospholipids (CML mixture or from 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC were prepared, and anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox or etoposide (ETP were loaded. Liposomal formulations were used against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Results showed a very high percentage of Dox encapsulation (~98% in liposomes (Lip prepared from CML-Lip or DPPC-Lip, whereas the percentage of encapsulations of ETP was on the lower side, 22% of CML-Lip and 18% for DPPC-Lip. Differential scanning calorimetry curves show that Dox enhances the lamellar formation in CML-Lip, whereas ETP enhances the nonlamellar formation. Differential scanning calorimetry curves also showed that the presence of Dox and ETP together into DPPC-Lip produced the interdigitation effect. The in vivo anticancer activity of liposomal formulations of Dox or ETP or a combination of both was assessed against benzopyrene (BAP-induced fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of Dox and ETP loaded into CML-Lip showed increased survival and reduced tumor growth compared to other groups, including the combination of Dox and ETP in DPPC-Lip. Fibrosarcoma-bearing mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP showed much higher tumor growth compared to those groups treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP. Immunohistochemical study was also performed to show the expression of tumor-suppressor PTEN, and it was found that the tumor tissues from the group of mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP showed greater loss of cytoplasmic PTEN than tumor tissues obtained from the

  3. Atovaquone Nanosuspensions Show Excellent Therapeutic Effect in a New Murine Model of Reactivated Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöler, Nadja; Krause, Karsten; Kayser, Oliver; Müller, Rainer H.; Borner, Klaus; Hahn, Helmut; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at risk of developing toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). Standard therapy regimens (including sulfadiazine plus pyrimethamine) are hampered by severe side effects. While atovaquone has potent in vitro activity against Toxoplasma gondii, it is poorly absorbed after oral administration and shows poor therapeutic efficacy against TE. To overcome the low absorption of atovaquone, we prepared atovaquone nanosuspensions (ANSs) for intravenous (i.v.) administration. At concentrations higher than 1.0 μg/ml, ANS did not exert cytotoxicity and was as effective as free atovaquone (i.e., atovaquone suspended in medium) against T. gondii in freshly isolated peritoneal macrophages. In a new murine model of TE that closely mimics reactivated toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised hosts, using mice with a targeted mutation in the gene encoding the interferon consensus sequence binding protein, i.v.-administered ANS doses of 10.0 mg/kg of body weight protected the animals against development of TE and death. Atovaquone was detectable in the sera, brains, livers, and lungs of mice by high-performance liquid chromatography. Development of TE and mortality in mice treated with 1.0- or 0.1-mg/kg i.v. doses of ANS did not differ from that in mice treated orally with 100 mg of atovaquone/kg. In conclusion, i.v. ANSs may prove to be an effective treatment alternative for patients with TE. PMID:11353624

  4. New azole derivatives showing antimicrobial effects and their mechanism of antifungal activity by molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, İnci Selin; Saraç, Selma; Sari, Suat; Kart, Didem; Eşsiz Gökhan, Şebnem; Vural, İmran; Dalkara, Sevim

    2017-04-21

    Azole antifungals are potent inhibitors of fungal lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP51) and have been used for eradication of systemic candidiasis clinically. Herein we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of 1-phenyl/1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanol esters. Many of these derivatives showed fungal growth inhibition at very low concentrations. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 15 was 0.125 μg/mL against Candida albicans. Additionally, some of our compounds, such as 19 (MIC: 0.25 μg/mL), were potent against resistant C. glabrata, a fungal strain less susceptible to some first-line antifungal drugs. We confirmed their antifungal efficacy by antibiofilm test and their safety against human monocytes by cytotoxicity assay. To rationalize their mechanism of action, we performed computational analysis utilizing molecular docking and dynamics simulations on the C. albicans and C. glabrata CYP51 (CACYP51 and CGCYP51) homology models we built. Leu130 and T131 emerged as possible key residues for inhibition of CGCYP51 by 19. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Showing a model's eye movements in examples does not improve learning of problem-solving tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marlen, Tim; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Jarodzka, Halszka; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement modeling examples (EMME) are demonstrations of a computer-based task by a human model (e.g., a teacher), with the model's eye movements superimposed on the task to guide learners' attention. EMME have been shown to enhance learning of perceptual classification tasks; however, it is an

  6. Performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility on the Nevada Test Site: Comparing the performance of two conceptual site models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, T.A.; Price, L.L.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    A small amount of transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site located on the Nevada Test Site's (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The waste has been buried in several deep (37 m) boreholes dug into the floor of an alluvial basin. For the waste to remain in its current configuration, the DOE must demonstrate compliance of the site with the TRU disposal requirements, 40 CFR 191. Sandia's approach to process modelling in performance assessment is to use demonstrably conservative models of the site. Choosing the most conservative model, however, can be uncertain. As an example, diffusion of contaminants upward from the buried waste in the vadose zone water is the primary mechanism of release. This process can be modelled as straight upward planar diffusion or as spherical diffusion in all directions. The former has high fluxes but low release areas, the latter has lower fluxes but is spread over a greater area. We have developed analytic solutions to a simple test problem for both models and compared the total integrated discharges. The spherical diffusion conceptual model results in at least five times greater release to the accessible environment than the planar model at all diffusivities. Modifying the planar model to allow for a larger release, however, compensated for the smaller original planar discharge and resulted in a new planar model that was more conservative that the spherical model except at low diffusivities

  7. Exploring the processes of generating LOD (0-2) CityGML models in greater municipality of Istanbul

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buyukaslih, I.; Isikdag, U.; Zlatanova, S.

    2013-01-01

    3D models of cities, visualised and exploded in 3D virtual environments have been available for several years. Currently a large number of impressive realistic 3D models have been regularly presented at scientific, professional and commercial events. One of the most promising developments is OGC

  8. Classifying multi-model wheat yield impact response surfaces showing sensitivity to temperature and precipitation change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronzek, Stefan; Pirttioja, Nina; Carter, Timothy R.; Bindi, Marco; Hoffmann, Holger; Palosuo, Taru; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Tao, Fulu; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, Marco; Asseng, Senthold; Baranowski, Piotr; Basso, Bruno; Bodin, Per; Buis, Samuel; Cammarano, Davide; Deligios, Paola; Destain, Marie France; Dumont, Benjamin; Ewert, Frank; Ferrise, Roberto; François, Louis; Gaiser, Thomas; Hlavinka, Petr; Jacquemin, Ingrid; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Kollas, Chris; Krzyszczak, Jaromir; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Minet, Julien; Minguez, M.I.; Montesino, Manuel; Moriondo, Marco; Müller, Christoph; Nendel, Claas; Öztürk, Isik; Perego, Alessia; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Ruane, Alex C.; Ruget, Françoise; Sanna, Mattia; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Slawinski, Cezary; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Supit, Iwan; Waha, Katharina; Wang, Enli; Wu, Lianhai; Zhao, Zhigan; Rötter, Reimund P.

    2018-01-01

    Crop growth simulation models can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and hence in their response to environmental conditions. Here, we used an ensemble of 26 process-based wheat models applied at sites across a European transect to compare their sensitivity to changes in

  9. Classifying multi-model wheat yield impact response surfaces showing sensitivity to temperature and precipitation change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fronzek, S.; Pirttioja, N. K.; Carter, T. R.; Bindi, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Palosuo, T.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Tao, F.; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, M.; Asseng, S.; Baranowski, P.; Basso, B.; Bodin, P.; Buis, S.; Cammarano, D.; Deligios, P.; Destain, M. F.; Dumont, B.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Francois, L.; Gaiser, T.; Hlavinka, Petr; Jacquemin, I.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Kollas, C.; Krzyszczak, J.; Lorite, I. J.; Minet, J.; Ines Minguez, M.; Montesino, M.; Moriondo, M.; Mueller, C.; Nendel, C.; Öztürk, I.; Perego, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruane, A. C.; Ruget, F.; Sanna, M.; Semenov, M. A.; Slawinski, C.; Stratonovitch, P.; Supit, I.; Waha, K.; Wang, E.; Wu, L.; Zhao, Z.; Rötter, R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 159, jan (2018), s. 209-224 ISSN 0308-521X Keywords : climate-change * crop models * probabilistic assessment * simulating impacts * british catchments * uncertainty * europe * productivity * calibration * adaptation * Classification * Climate change * Crop model * Ensemble * Sensitivity analysis * Wheat Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2016

  10. Predictive Modeling of Influenza Shows the Promise of Applied Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Dylan H; Gostic, Katelyn M; Pompei, Simone; Bedford, Trevor; Łuksza, Marta; Neher, Richard A; Grenfell, Bryan T; Lässig, Michael; McCauley, John W

    2018-02-01

    Seasonal influenza is controlled through vaccination campaigns. Evolution of influenza virus antigens means that vaccines must be updated to match novel strains, and vaccine effectiveness depends on the ability of scientists to predict nearly a year in advance which influenza variants will dominate in upcoming seasons. In this review, we highlight a promising new surveillance tool: predictive models. Based on data-sharing and close collaboration between the World Health Organization and academic scientists, these models use surveillance data to make quantitative predictions regarding influenza evolution. Predictive models demonstrate the potential of applied evolutionary biology to improve public health and disease control. We review the state of influenza predictive modeling and discuss next steps and recommendations to ensure that these models deliver upon their considerable biomedical promise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Slagman, Simen-Jan; Bijlsma, Jetta J E; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for antigen production. In this study, we sequenced the genome of M. hyopneumoniae strain 11 and constructed a high quality constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model of 284 chemical reactions and 298 metabolites. We validated the model with time-series data of duplicate fermentation cultures to aim for an integrated model describing the dynamic profiles measured in fermentations. The model predicted that 84% of cellular energy in a standard M. hyopneumoniae cultivation was used for non-growth associated maintenance and only 16% of cellular energy was used for growth and growth associated maintenance. Following a cycle of model-driven experimentation in dedicated fermentation experiments, we were able to increase the fraction of cellular energy used for growth through pyruvate addition to the medium. This increase in turn led to an increase in growth rate and a 2.3 times increase in the total biomass concentration reached after 3-4 days of fermentation, enhancing the productivity of the overall process. The model presented provides a solid basis to understand and further improve M. hyopneumoniae fermentation processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2339-2347. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The speed of memory errors shows the influence of misleading information: Testing the diffusion model and discrete-state models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J; Dubé, Chad; Frelinger, Matthew E

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we evaluate single-item and forced-choice recognition memory for the same items and use the resulting accuracy and reaction time data to test the predictions of discrete-state and continuous models. For the single-item trials, participants saw a word and indicated whether or not it was studied on a previous list. The forced-choice trials had one studied and one non-studied word that both appeared in the earlier single-item trials and both received the same response. Thus, forced-choice trials always had one word with a previous correct response and one with a previous error. Participants were asked to select the studied word regardless of whether they previously called both words "studied" or "not studied." The diffusion model predicts that forced-choice accuracy should be lower when the word with a previous error had a fast versus a slow single-item RT, because fast errors are associated with more compelling misleading memory retrieval. The two-high-threshold (2HT) model does not share this prediction because all errors are guesses, so error RT is not related to memory strength. A low-threshold version of the discrete state approach predicts an effect similar to the diffusion model, because errors are a mixture of responses based on misleading retrieval and guesses, and the guesses should tend to be slower. Results showed that faster single-trial errors were associated with lower forced-choice accuracy, as predicted by the diffusion and low-threshold models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simple solvable energy-landscape model that shows a thermodynamic phase transition and a glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G

    2012-06-01

    When a liquid melt is cooled, a glass or phase transition can be obtained depending on the cooling rate. Yet, this behavior has not been clearly captured in energy-landscape models. Here, a model is provided in which two key ingredients are considered in the landscape, metastable states and their multiplicity. Metastable states are considered as in two level system models. However, their multiplicity and topology allows a phase transition in the thermodynamic limit for slow cooling, while a transition to the glass is obtained for fast cooling. By solving the corresponding master equation, the minimal speed of cooling required to produce the glass is obtained as a function of the distribution of metastable states.

  14. Modeled hydrologic metrics show links between hydrology and the functional composition of stream assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Yuan, Lester L

    2017-07-01

    Flow alteration is widespread in streams, but current understanding of the effects of differences in flow characteristics on stream biological communities is incomplete. We tested hypotheses about the effect of variation in hydrology on stream communities by using generalized additive models to relate watershed information to the values of different flow metrics at gauged sites. Flow models accounted for 54-80% of the spatial variation in flow metric values among gauged sites. We then used these models to predict flow metrics in 842 ungauged stream sites in the mid-Atlantic United States that were sampled for fish, macroinvertebrates, and environmental covariates. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages were characterized in terms of a suite of metrics that quantified aspects of community composition, diversity, and functional traits that were expected to be associated with differences in flow characteristics. We related modeled flow metrics to biological metrics in a series of stressor-response models. Our analyses identified both drying and base flow instability as explaining 30-50% of the observed variability in fish and invertebrate community composition. Variations in community composition were related to variations in the prevalence of dispersal traits in invertebrates and trophic guilds in fish. The results demonstrate that we can use statistical models to predict hydrologic conditions at bioassessment sites, which, in turn, we can use to estimate relationships between flow conditions and biological characteristics. This analysis provides an approach to quantify the effects of spatial variation in flow metrics using readily available biomonitoring data. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Kerry A

    2013-07-23

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10(4))] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950-2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones.

  16. Environmental fate and ecotoxicological risk of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole across the Katari catchment (Bolivian Altiplano) : application of the GREAT-ER model

    OpenAIRE

    Archundia, D.; Boithias, Laurie; Duwig, Céline; Morel, M. C.; Aviles, G. F.; Martins, J. M. F.

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotics are emergent contaminants that can induce adverse effects in terrestrial and aquatic organisms. The surface water compartment is of particular concern as it receives direct waste water discharge. Modeling is highlighted as an essential tool to understand the fate and behavior of these compounds and to assess their eco-toxicological risk. This study aims at testing the ability of the GREAT-ER model in simulating sulfamethoxazole (SMX) concentrations in the surface waters of the ari...

  17. Linezolid Exerts Greater Bacterial Clearance but No Modification of Host Lung Gene Expression Profiling: A Mouse MRSA Pneumonia Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwang Chen

    Full Text Available Linezolid (LZD is beneficial to patients with MRSA pneumonia, but whether and how LZD influences global host lung immune responses at the mRNA level during MRSA-mediated pneumonia is still unknown.A lethal mouse model of MRSA pneumonia mediated by USA300 was employed to study the influence of LZD on survival, while the sublethal mouse model was used to examine the effect of LZD on bacterial clearance and lung gene expression during MRSA pneumonia. LZD (100mg/kg/day, IP was given to C57Bl6 mice for three days. On Day 1 and Day 3 post infection, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF protein concentration and levels of cytokines including IL6, TNFα, IL1β, Interferon-γ and IL17 were measured. In the sublethal model, left lungs were used to determine bacterial clearance and right lungs for whole-genome transcriptional profiling of lung immune responses.LZD therapy significantly improved survival and bacterial clearance. It also significantly decreased BALF protein concentration and levels of cytokines including IL6, IL1β, Interferon-γ and IL17. No significant gene expression changes in the mouse lungs were associated with LZD therapy.LZD is beneficial to MRSA pneumonia, but it does not modulate host lung immune responses at the transcriptional level.

  18. Animal Models for Muscular Dystrophy Show Different Patterns of Sarcolemmal Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Volker; Rafael, Jill A.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.; Campbell, Kevin P.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic defects in a number of components of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex (DGC) lead to distinct forms of muscular dystrophy. However, little is known about how alterations in the DGC are manifested in the pathophysiology present in dystrophic muscle tissue. One hypothesis is that the DGC protects the sarcolemma from contraction-induced damage. Using tracer molecules, we compared sarcolemmal integrity in animal models for muscular dystrophy and in muscular dystrophy patient samples. Ev...

  19. The PROMETHEUS bundled payment experiment: slow start shows problems in implementing new payment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S; Ridgely, M Susan; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2011-11-01

    Fee-for-service payment is blamed for many of the problems observed in the US health care system. One of the leading alternative payment models proposed in the Affordable Care Act of 2010 is bundled payment, which provides payment for all of the care a patient needs over the course of a defined clinical episode, instead of paying for each discrete service. We evaluated the initial "road test" of PROMETHEUS Payment, one of several bundled payment pilot projects. The project has faced substantial implementation challenges, and none of the three pilot sites had executed contracts or made bundled payments as of May 2011. The pilots have taken longer to set up than expected, primarily because of the complexity of the payment model and the fact that it builds on the existing fee-for-service payment system and other complexities of health care. Participants continue to see promise and value in the bundled payment model, but the pilot results suggest that the desired benefits of this and other payment reforms may take time and considerable effort to materialize.

  20. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn E Nash

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans. Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation.

  1. Global thermal niche models of two European grasses show high invasion risks in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertierra, Luis R; Aragón, Pedro; Shaw, Justine D; Bergstrom, Dana M; Terauds, Aleks; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Ángel

    2017-07-01

    The two non-native grasses that have established long-term populations in Antarctica (Poa pratensis and Poa annua) were studied from a global multidimensional thermal niche perspective to address the biological invasion risk to Antarctica. These two species exhibit contrasting introduction histories and reproductive strategies and represent two referential case studies of biological invasion processes. We used a multistep process with a range of species distribution modelling techniques (ecological niche factor analysis, multidimensional envelopes, distance/entropy algorithms) together with a suite of thermoclimatic variables, to characterize the potential ranges of these species. Their native bioclimatic thermal envelopes in Eurasia, together with the different naturalized populations across continents, were compared next. The potential niche of P. pratensis was wider at the cold extremes; however, P. annua life history attributes enable it to be a more successful colonizer. We observe that particularly cold summers are a key aspect of the unique Antarctic environment. In consequence, ruderals such as P. annua can quickly expand under such harsh conditions, whereas the more stress-tolerant P. pratensis endures and persist through steady growth. Compiled data on human pressure at the Antarctic Peninsula allowed us to provide site-specific biosecurity risk indicators. We conclude that several areas across the region are vulnerable to invasions from these and other similar species. This can only be visualized in species distribution models (SDMs) when accounting for founder populations that reveal nonanalogous conditions. Results reinforce the need for strict management practices to minimize introductions. Furthermore, our novel set of temperature-based bioclimatic GIS layers for ice-free terrestrial Antarctica provide a mechanism for regional and global species distribution models to be built for other potentially invasive species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Greater expectations: using hierarchical linear modeling to examine expectancy for treatment outcome as a predictor of treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page; Henrich, Christopher C; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2008-12-01

    A client's expectation that therapy will be beneficial has long been considered an important factor contributing to therapeutic outcomes, but recent empirical work examining this hypothesis has primarily yielded null findings. The present study examined the contribution of expectancies for treatment outcome to actual treatment outcome from the start of therapy through 12-month follow-up in a clinical sample of individuals (n=72) treated for fear of flying with either in vivo exposure or virtual reality exposure therapy. Using a piecewise hierarchical linear model, outcome expectancy predicted treatment gains made during therapy but not during follow-up. Compared to lower levels, higher expectations for treatment outcome yielded stronger rates of symptom reduction from the beginning to the end of treatment on 2 standardized self-report questionnaires on fear of flying. The analytic approach of the current study is one potential reason that findings contrast with prior literature. The advantages of using hierarchical linear modeling to assess interindividual differences in longitudinal data are discussed.

  3. ASIC1a Deficient Mice Show Unaltered Neurodegeneration in the Subacute MPTP Model of Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnig, Daniel; Imgrund, Silke; Reich, Arno; Gründer, Stefan; Falkenburger, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease and can be accompanied by acidification of extracellular pH, which may activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). Accordingly, amiloride, a non-selective inhibitor of ASIC, was protective in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson disease. To complement these findings we determined MPTP toxicity in mice deficient for ASIC1a, the most common ASIC isoform in neurons. MPTP was applied i.p. in doses of 30 mg per kg on five consecutive days. We determined the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, assayed by stereological counting 14 days after the last MPTP injection, the number of Nissl positive neurons in the substantia nigra, and the concentration of catecholamines in the striatum. There was no difference between ASIC1a-deficient mice and wildtype controls. We are therefore not able to confirm that ASIC1a are involved in MPTP toxicity. The difference might relate to the subacute MPTP model we used, which more closely resembles the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, or to further targets of amiloride.

  4. Progesterone treatment shows benefit in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available Controlled cortical impact (CCI models in adult and aged Sprague-Dawley (SD rats have been used extensively to study medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC injury and the effects of post-injury progesterone treatment, but the hormone's effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI in juvenile animals have not been determined. In the present proof-of-concept study we investigated whether progesterone had neuroprotective effects in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.Twenty-eight-day old (PND 28 male Sprague Dawley rats received sham (n = 24 or CCI (n = 47 injury and were given progesterone (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg per 100 g body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, subjected to behavioral testing from PID 9-27, and analyzed for lesion size at PID 28.The 8 and 16 mg/kg doses of progesterone were observed to be most beneficial in reducing the effect of CCI on lesion size and behavior in PND 28 male SD rats.Our findings suggest that a midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex will reliably produce a moderate TBI comparable to what is seen in the adult male rat and that progesterone can ameliorate the injury-induced deficits.

  5. ASIC1a Deficient Mice Show Unaltered Neurodegeneration in the Subacute MPTP Model of Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Komnig

    Full Text Available Inflammation contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease and can be accompanied by acidification of extracellular pH, which may activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC. Accordingly, amiloride, a non-selective inhibitor of ASIC, was protective in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson disease. To complement these findings we determined MPTP toxicity in mice deficient for ASIC1a, the most common ASIC isoform in neurons. MPTP was applied i.p. in doses of 30 mg per kg on five consecutive days. We determined the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, assayed by stereological counting 14 days after the last MPTP injection, the number of Nissl positive neurons in the substantia nigra, and the concentration of catecholamines in the striatum. There was no difference between ASIC1a-deficient mice and wildtype controls. We are therefore not able to confirm that ASIC1a are involved in MPTP toxicity. The difference might relate to the subacute MPTP model we used, which more closely resembles the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, or to further targets of amiloride.

  6. A zebrafish model of glucocorticoid resistance shows serotonergic modulation of the stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eGriffiths

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One function of glucocorticoids is to restore homeostasis after an acute stress response by providing negative feedback to stress circuits in the brain. Loss of this negative feedback leads to elevated physiological stress and may contribute to depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We investigated the early, developmental effects of glucocorticoid signaling deficits on stress physiology and related behaviors using a mutant zebrafish, grs357, with non-functional glucocorticoid receptors. These mutants are morphologically inconspicuous and adult-viable. A previous study of adult grs357 mutants showed loss of glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback and elevated physiological and behavioral stress markers. Already at five days post-fertilization, mutant larvae had elevated whole body cortisol, increased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and failed to show normal suppression of stress markers after dexamethasone treatment. Mutant larvae had larger auditory-evoked startle responses compared to wildtype sibling controls (grwt, despite having lower spontaneous activity levels. Fluoxetine (Prozac treatment in mutants decreased startle responding and increased spontaneous activity, making them behaviorally similar to wildtype. This result mirrors known effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in modifying glucocorticoid signaling and alleviating stress disorders in human patients. Our results suggest that larval grs357 zebrafish can be used to study behavioral, physiological and molecular aspects of stress disorders. Most importantly, interactions between glucocorticoid and serotonin signaling appear to be highly conserved among vertebrates, suggesting deep homologies at the neural circuit level and opening up new avenues for research into psychiatric conditions.

  7. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  8. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  9. Modeling serotonin uptake in the lung shows endothelial transporters dominate over cleft permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2013-01-01

    A four-region (capillary plasma, endothelium, interstitial fluid, cell) multipath model was configured to describe the kinetics of blood-tissue exchange for small solutes in the lung, accounting for regional flow heterogeneity, permeation of cell membranes and through interendothelial clefts, and intracellular reactions. Serotonin uptake data from the Multiple indicator dilution “bolus sweep” experiments of Rickaby and coworkers (Rickaby DA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA. J Appl Physiol 51: 405–414, 1981; Rickaby DA, Dawson CA, and Linehan JH. J Appl Physiol 56: 1170–1177, 1984) and Malcorps et al. (Malcorps CM, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Rickaby DA, Herman AG, Will JA. J Appl Physiol 57: 720–730, 1984) were analyzed to distinguish facilitated transport into the endothelial cells (EC) and the inhibition of tracer transport by nontracer serotonin in the bolus of injectate from the free uninhibited permeation through the clefts into the interstitial fluid space. The permeability-surface area products (PS) for serotonin via the inter-EC clefts were ∼0.3 ml·g−1·min−1, low compared with the transporter-mediated maximum PS of 13 ml·g−1·min−1 (with Km = ∼0.3 μM and Vmax = ∼4 nmol·g−1·min−1). The estimates of serotonin PS values for EC transporters from their multiple data sets were similar and were influenced only modestly by accounting for the cleft permeability in parallel. The cleft PS estimates in these Ringer-perfused lungs are less than half of those for anesthetized dogs (Yipintsoi T. Circ Res 39: 523–531, 1976) with normal hematocrits, but are compatible with passive noncarrier-mediated transport observed later in the same laboratory (Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Rickaby DA, Bronikowski TA. Ann Biomed Eng 15: 217–227, 1987; Peeters FAM, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bult H, Herman AG. J Appl Physiol 66: 2328–2337, 1989) The identification and quantitation of the cleft pathway conductance from these

  10. KEEFEKTIFAN MODEL SHOW NOT TELL DAN MIND MAP PADA PEMBELAJARAN MENULIS TEKS EKSPOSISI BERDASARKAN MINAT PESERTA DIDIK KELAS X SMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Lili Sokhipah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 menentukan keefektifan penggunaan model show not tell pada pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi berdasarkan minat peserta didik SMK Kelas X, (2 menentukan keefektifan penggunaan model mind map pada pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi berdasarkan minat peserta didik SMK kelas X, (3 menentukan keefektifan interaksi show not tell dan mind map pada pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi berdasarkan minat peserta didik SMK kelas X. Penelitian ini adalah quasi experimental design (pretes-postes control group design. Dalam desain ini terdapat dua kelompok eksperimen yakni penerapan model show not tell dalam pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisipeserta didik dengan minat tinggi dan penerapan model mind map dalam pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi  peserta didik dengan minat rendah. Hasil penelitian adalah (1 model show not tell efektif digunakan  dalam membelajarkan menulis teks eksposisi bagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat tinggi, (2 model mind map efektif digunakan dalam membelajarkan menulis teks eksposisi bagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat rendah, dan (3 model show not tell lebih efektif digunakan dalam membelajarkan menulis teks eksposisi bagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat tinggi, sedangkan model mind map efektif digunakan dalam membelajarkan teks eksposisi pagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat rendah.

  11. Energy sector integration for low carbon development in Greater Mekong sub-region: Towards a model of South-South cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yongping

    2010-09-15

    The Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) in Southeast Asia has embarked on a roadmap of power interconnection and expanded energy sector cooperation. An Asian development bank committed study using Model of Energy Supply Systems Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) assessed the impacts of various scenarios, the results indicate that GMS integration will help these countries to achieve low carbon and sustainable development. The article suggests that the experience of GMS cooperation be made a model for South-South cooperation in the global effort to fight climate change.

  12. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-150 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in in the low mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  13. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 100-600 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in the entire mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  14. Wyoming greater sage-grouse habitat prioritization: A collection of multi-scale seasonal models and geographic information systems land management tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    With rapidly changing landscape conditions within Wyoming and the potential effects of landscape changes on sage-grouse habitat, land managers and conservation planners, among others, need procedures to assess the location and juxtaposition of important habitats, land-cover, and land-use patterns to balance wildlife requirements with multiple human land uses. Biologists frequently develop habitat-selection studies to identify prioritization efforts for species of conservation concern to increase understanding and help guide habitat-conservation efforts. Recently, the authors undertook a large-scale collaborative effort that developed habitat-selection models for Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across large landscapes in Wyoming, USA and for multiple life-stages (nesting, late brood-rearing, and winter). We developed these habitat models using resource selection functions, based upon sage-grouse telemetry data collected for localized studies and within each life-stage. The models allowed us to characterize and spatially predict seasonal sage-grouse habitat use in Wyoming. Due to the quantity of models, the diversity of model predictors (in the form of geographic information system data) produced by analyses, and the variety of potential applications for these data, we present here a resource that complements our published modeling effort, which will further support land managers.

  15. The GREAT-ER model in China: Evaluating the risk of both treated and untreated wastewater discharges and a consideration to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Benjamin; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    As a result of rapid economic development, the production and usage of chemicals in China has risen significantly. This has resulted in China's environment becoming degraded. The Chinese government has attempted to ease these problems with significant investment towards upgrading the wastewater network. These efforts have initially focused upon large cities; progressing towards smaller populations within the most recent 5 year plan. However rural populations were largely overlooked, ~90% of rural settlements do not have treatment facilities for their wastewater. The next (13th) five year plan is a great opportunity to improve upon wastewater infrastructure. This transition is particularly important and it is essential for the government to prioritise settlements to provide treatment facilities and to improve water quality in receiving waters. This study focuses upon the use of a catchment model in order make progress towards this goal. A reliable model which can capture the complexity of the catchment is needed, but one without complexity in itself, in order for it to be developed and validated without an excessive requirement for data. The Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER) model is a catchment-scale stochastic-deterministic GIS model. It is primarily used for higher-tier chemical risk assessment. Emissions are from point source only and are calculated based upon population and calculated emission rates per capita. Dilution and transportation are determined using low-flow statistics within each stretch; calculated based upon catchment soil and topographic properties. Removal of the contaminant can occur prior to emission and in-stream. The lowest tier methodology applies a simple 1st-order removal rate and a flat percentage removal for in-stream and sewage treatment work removal respectively. The data requirements are relatively low, although still challenging for many situations. Many authors have reported reasonable

  16. Landscape characteristics influencing the genetic structure of greater sage-grouse within the stronghold of their range: a holistic modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Jeff R; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Michael; Doherty, Kevin E.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Fedy, Brad C.

    2015-01-01

    Given the significance of animal dispersal to population dynamics and geographic variability, understanding how dispersal is impacted by landscape patterns has major ecological and conservation importance. Speaking to the importance of dispersal, the use of linear mixed models to compare genetic differentiation with pairwise resistance derived from landscape resistance surfaces has presented new opportunities to disentangle the menagerie of factors behind effective dispersal across a given landscape. Here, we combine these approaches with novel resistance surface parameterization to determine how the distribution of high- and low-quality seasonal habitat and individual landscape components shape patterns of gene flow for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across Wyoming. We found that pairwise resistance derived from the distribution of low-quality nesting and winter, but not summer, seasonal habitat had the strongest correlation with genetic differentiation. Although the patterns were not as strong as with habitat distribution, multivariate models with sagebrush cover and landscape ruggedness or forest cover and ruggedness similarly had a much stronger fit with genetic differentiation than an undifferentiated landscape. In most cases, landscape resistance surfaces transformed with 17.33-km-diameter moving windows were preferred, suggesting small-scale differences in habitat were unimportant at this large spatial extent. Despite the emergence of these overall patterns, there were differences in the selection of top models depending on the model selection criteria, suggesting research into the most appropriate criteria for landscape genetics is required. Overall, our results highlight the importance of differences in seasonal habitat preferences to patterns of gene flow and suggest the combination of habitat suitability modeling and linear mixed models with our resistance parameterization is a powerful approach to discerning the effects of landscape

  17. Landscape characteristics influencing the genetic structure of greater sage-grouse within the stronghold of their range: a holistic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Jeffrey R; Oyler-McCance, Sara J; Fike, Jennifer A; O'Donnell, Michael S; Doherty, Kevin E; Aldridge, Cameron L; Bowen, Zachary H; Fedy, Bradley C

    2015-05-01

    Given the significance of animal dispersal to population dynamics and geographic variability, understanding how dispersal is impacted by landscape patterns has major ecological and conservation importance. Speaking to the importance of dispersal, the use of linear mixed models to compare genetic differentiation with pairwise resistance derived from landscape resistance surfaces has presented new opportunities to disentangle the menagerie of factors behind effective dispersal across a given landscape. Here, we combine these approaches with novel resistance surface parameterization to determine how the distribution of high- and low-quality seasonal habitat and individual landscape components shape patterns of gene flow for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across Wyoming. We found that pairwise resistance derived from the distribution of low-quality nesting and winter, but not summer, seasonal habitat had the strongest correlation with genetic differentiation. Although the patterns were not as strong as with habitat distribution, multivariate models with sagebrush cover and landscape ruggedness or forest cover and ruggedness similarly had a much stronger fit with genetic differentiation than an undifferentiated landscape. In most cases, landscape resistance surfaces transformed with 17.33-km-diameter moving windows were preferred, suggesting small-scale differences in habitat were unimportant at this large spatial extent. Despite the emergence of these overall patterns, there were differences in the selection of top models depending on the model selection criteria, suggesting research into the most appropriate criteria for landscape genetics is required. Overall, our results highlight the importance of differences in seasonal habitat preferences to patterns of gene flow and suggest the combination of habitat suitability modeling and linear mixed models with our resistance parameterization is a powerful approach to discerning the effects of landscape

  18. Assessing the Climate Change Impact on Snow-Glacier Melting Dominated Basins in the Greater Himalaya Region Using a Distributed Glacio-Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, S.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Khalil, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier and snow melting is main source of water supply making a large contribution to streamflow of major river basins in the Greater Himalaya region including the Syr Darya, the Amu Darya, the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra basins. Due to the critical role of glacier and snow melting as water supply for both food production and hydropower generation in the region (especially during the low flow season), it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of snow and glacier melting streamflow to different climate conditions. In this study, a distributed glacio-hydrologic model with high resolution climate input is developed and calibrated that explicitly simulates all major hydrological processes and the glacier and snow dynamics for area further discretized by elevation bands. The distributed modeling structure and the glacier and snow modules provide a better understanding about how temperature and precipitation alterations are likely to affect current glacier ice reserves. Climate stress test is used to explore changes in the total streamflow change, snow/glacier melting contribution and glacier accumulation and ablation under a variety of different temperature and precipitation conditions. The latest future climate projections provided from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is used to inform the possibility of different climate conditions.

  19. Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T; Hanser, Steven E; Preston, Kristine L

    2013-06-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km(2) region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D (2) model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species-habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D (2) (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered

  20. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (I): A citizen-science based risk model for bovine brucellosis transmission from elk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Scurlock, Brandon; Logan, Jim; Robinson, Timothy; Cook, Walt; Boroff, Kari; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-09-15

    Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals. This information was used to parameterize a spatially-explicit risk model to estimate the number of elk expected to overlap with cattle during the brucellosis transmission risk period. Elk-cattle overlap was predicted in areas further from roads and forest boundaries in areas with wolf activity, with higher slopes, lower hunter densities, and where the cost-distance to feedgrounds was very low or very high. The model was used to estimate the expected number of years until a cattle reactor will be detected, under alternative management strategies. The model predicted cattle cases every 4.28 years in the highest risk herd unit, a higher prediction than the one case in 26 years we have observed. This difference likely indicates that ongoing management strategies are at least somewhat effective in preventing potential elk-cattle brucellosis transmission in these areas. Using this model, we can infer the expected effectiveness of various management strategies for reducing the risk of brucellosis spillover from elk to cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Skeletal Muscle Differentiation on a Chip Shows Human Donor Mesoangioblasts' Efficiency in Restoring Dystrophin in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Lo Verso, Francesca; Tedesco, F Saverio; Cossu, Giulio; Elvassore, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    : Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model. We designed an ad hoc experimental strategy to miniaturize on a chip the standard process of muscle regeneration independent of variables such as inflammation and fibrosis. It is based on the coculture, at different ratios, of human dystrophin-positive myogenic progenitors and dystrophin-negative myoblasts in a substrate with muscle-like physiological stiffness and cell micropatterns. Results showed that both healthy myoblasts and mesoangioblasts restored dystrophin expression in DMD myotubes. However, mesoangioblasts showed unexpected efficiency with respect to myoblasts in dystrophin production in terms of the amount of protein produced (40% vs. 15%) and length of the dystrophin membrane domain (210-240 µm vs. 40-70 µm). These results show that our microscaled in vitro model of human DMD skeletal muscle validated previous in vivo preclinical work and may be used to predict efficacy of new methods aimed at enhancing dystrophin accumulation and distribution before they are tested in vivo, reducing time, costs, and variability of clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of human mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from

  2. Skeletal Muscle Differentiation on a Chip Shows Human Donor Mesoangioblasts’ Efficiency in Restoring Dystrophin in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Lo Verso, Francesca; Tedesco, F. Saverio; Cossu, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model. We designed an ad hoc experimental strategy to miniaturize on a chip the standard process of muscle regeneration independent of variables such as inflammation and fibrosis. It is based on the coculture, at different ratios, of human dystrophin-positive myogenic progenitors and dystrophin-negative myoblasts in a substrate with muscle-like physiological stiffness and cell micropatterns. Results showed that both healthy myoblasts and mesoangioblasts restored dystrophin expression in DMD myotubes. However, mesoangioblasts showed unexpected efficiency with respect to myoblasts in dystrophin production in terms of the amount of protein produced (40% vs. 15%) and length of the dystrophin membrane domain (210–240 µm vs. 40–70 µm). These results show that our microscaled in vitro model of human DMD skeletal muscle validated previous in vivo preclinical work and may be used to predict efficacy of new methods aimed at enhancing dystrophin accumulation and distribution before they are tested in vivo, reducing time, costs, and variability of clinical experimentation. Significance This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of human mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes

  3. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  4. Deep structure of the continental margin and basin off Greater Kabylia, Algeria - New insights from wide-angle seismic data modeling and multichannel seismic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïdi, Chafik; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdel Karim; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Bracene, Rabah; Galve, Audrey; Bounif, Abdallah; Schenini, Laure; Hamai, Lamine; Schnurle, Philippe; Djellit, Hamou; Sage, Françoise; Charvis, Philippe; Déverchère, Jacques

    2018-03-01

    During the Algerian-French SPIRAL survey aimed at investigating the deep structure of the Algerian margin and basin, two coincident wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles were acquired in central Algeria, offshore Greater Kabylia, together with gravimetric, bathymetric and magnetic data. This 260 km-long offshore-onshore profile spans the Balearic basin, the central Algerian margin and the Greater Kabylia block up to the southward limit of the internal zones onshore. Results are obtained from modeling and interpretation of the combined data sets. The Algerian basin offshore Greater Kabylia is floored by a thin oceanic crust ( 4 km) with P-wave velocities ranging between 5.2 and 6.8 km/s. In the northern Hannibal High region, the atypical 3-layer crustal structure is interpreted as volcanic products stacked over a thin crust similar to that bordering the margin and related to Miocene post-accretion volcanism. These results support a two-step back-arc opening of the west-Algerian basin, comprising oceanic crust accretion during the first southward stage, and a magmatic and probably tectonic reworking of this young oceanic basement during the second, westward, opening phase. The structure of the central Algerian margin is that of a narrow ( 70 km), magma-poor rifted margin, with a wider zone of distal thinned continental crust than on the other margin segments. There is no evidence for mantle exhumation in the sharp ocean-continent transition, but transcurrent movements during the second opening phase may have changed its initial geometry. The Plio-Quaternary inversion of the margin related to ongoing convergence between Africa and Eurasia is expressed by a blind thrust system under the margin rising toward the surface at the slope toe, and by an isostatic disequilibrium resulting from opposite flexures of two plates decoupled at the continental slope. This disequilibrium is likely responsible for the peculiar asymmetrical shape of the crustal neck that may thus

  5. Vaginally delivered tenofovir disoproxil fumarate provides greater protection than tenofovir against genital herpes in a murine model of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Briana; Jandl, Thomas; Teller, Ryan S; Taneva, Ekaterina; Wang, Yanhua; Nagaraja, Umadevi; Kiser, Patrick F; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to genital herpes in medroxyprogesterone-treated mice may provide a surrogate of increased HIV risk and a preclinical biomarker of topical preexposure prophylaxis safety. We evaluated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in this murine model because an intravaginal ring eluting this drug is being advanced into clinical trials. To avoid the complications of surgically inserting a ring, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-stable formulations of TDF were prepared. One week of twice-daily 0.3% TDF gel was well tolerated and did not result in any increase in HSV-2 susceptibility but protected mice from herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) disease compared to mice treated with the HEC placebo gel. No significant increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines in vaginal washes or change in cytokine, chemokine, or mitochondrial gene expression in RNA extracted from genital tract tissue was detected. To further evaluate efficacy, mice were treated with gel once daily beginning 12 h prior to high-dose HSV-2 challenge or 2 h before and after viral challenge (BAT24 dosing). The 0.3% TDF gel provided significant protection compared to the HEC gel following either daily (in 9/10 versus 1/10 mice, P < 0.01) or BAT24 (in 14/20 versus 4/20 mice, P < 0.01) dosing. In contrast, 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel protected only 4/10 mice treated with either regimen. Significant protection was also observed with daily 0.03% TDF compared to HEC. Protection was associated with greater murine cellular permeability of radiolabeled TDF than of TFV. Together, these findings suggest that TDF is safe, may provide substantially greater protection against HSV than TFV, and support the further clinical development of a TDF ring.

  6. Plectasin shows intracellular activity against Staphylococcus aureus in human THP-1 monocytes and in a mouse peritonitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Karoline Sidelmann; Sandberg, Anne; Baudoux, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy of infections with Staphylococcus aureus can pose a challenge due to slow response to therapy and recurrence of infection. These treatment difficulties can partly be explained by intracellular survival of staphylococci, which is why the intracellular activity...... was maintained (maximal relative efficacy [E(max)], 1.0- to 1.3-log reduction in CFU) even though efficacy was inferior to that of extracellular killing (E(max), >4.5-log CFU reduction). Animal studies included a novel use of the mouse peritonitis model, exploiting extra- and intracellular differentiation assays...... concentration. These findings stress the importance of performing studies of extra- and intracellular activity since these features cannot be predicted from traditional MIC and killing kinetic studies. Application of both the THP-1 and the mouse peritonitis models showed that the in vitro results were similar...

  7. Connecting with The Biggest Loser: an extended model of parasocial interaction and identification in health-related reality TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Yoo, Jina H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates audience responses to health-related reality TV shows in the setting of The Biggest Loser. It conceptualizes a model for audience members' parasocial interaction and identification with cast members and explores antecedents and outcomes of parasocial interaction and identification. Data analysis suggests the following direct relationships: (1) audience members' exposure to the show is positively associated with parasocial interaction, which in turn is positively associated with identification, (2) parasocial interaction is positively associated with exercise self-efficacy, whereas identification is negatively associated with exercise self-efficacy, and (3) exercise self-efficacy is positively associated with exercise behavior. Indirect effects of parasocial interaction and identification on exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior are also significant. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  8. Impact of the model resolution on the simulation of elevation-dependent warming in the Tibetan Plateau-Himalayas, Greater Alpine Region, and Rocky mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Elisa; Mortarini, Luca; Terzago, Silvia; von Hardenberg, Jost

    2017-04-01

    The enhancement of warming rates with elevation, the so-called elevation-dependent warming (EDW), is one of the clearest regional expressions of global warming. Real sentinels of climate and environmental changes, mountains have experienced more rapid and intense warming rates in the recent decades, leading to serious impacts on mountain ecosystems and downstream societies, some of which are already occurring. In this study we use the historical and scenario simulations of one state-of-the-art global climate model, the EC-Earth GCM, run at five different spatial resolutions, from ˜125 km to ˜16 km, to explore the existence, characteristics and driving mechanisms of EDW in three different mountain regions of the world - the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the Greater Alpine Region and the Tibetan Plateau-Himalayas. The aim of this study is twofold: to investigate the impact (if any) of increasing model resolution on the representation of EDW and to highlight possible differences in this phenomenon and its driving mechanisms in different mountain regions of the northern hemisphere. Preliminary results indicate that autumn (September to November) is the only season in which EDW is simulated by the model in both the maximum and the minimum temperature, in all three regions and across all model resolutions. Regional differences emerge in the other seasons: for example, the Tibetan Plateau-Himalayas is the only area in which EDW is detected in winter. As for the analysis of EDW drivers, we identify albedo and downward longwave radiation as being the most important variables for EDW, in all three areas considered and in all seasons. Further these results are robust to changes in model resolution, even though a clearer signal is associated with finer resolutions. We finally use the highest resolution EC-Earth simulations available (˜16 km) to identify what areas, within the three considered mountain ranges, are expected to undergo a significant reduction of snow or ice cover

  9. Restless led syndrome model Drosophila melanogaster show successful olfactory learning and 1-day retention of the acquired memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika F. Asaba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a prevalent but poorly understood disorder that ischaracterized by uncontrollable movements during sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance.Olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful tool for the study ofcognitive deficits caused by sleep disturbances, such as those seen in RLS. A recently generatedDrosophila model of RLS exhibited disturbed sleep patterns similar to those seen in humans withRLS. This research seeks to improve understanding of the relationship between cognitivefunctioning and sleep disturbances in a new model for RLS. Here, we tested learning andmemory in wild type and dBTBD9 mutant flies by Pavlovian olfactory conditioning, duringwhich a shock was paired with one of two odors. Flies were then placed in a T-maze with oneodor on either side, and successful associative learning was recorded when the flies chose theside with the unpaired odor. We hypothesized that due to disrupted sleep patterns, dBTBD9mutant flies would be unable to learn the shock-odor association. However, the current studyreports that the recently generated Drosophila model of RLS shows successful olfactorylearning, despite disturbed sleep patterns, with learning performance levels matching or betterthan wild type flies.

  10. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Specific Deficits in a Test Battery of Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Manfré

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Huntington disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is usually diagnosed by the appearance of motor deficits, resulting in skilled hand use disruption, gait abnormality, muscle wasting and choreatic movements. The BACHD transgenic rat model for HD represents a well-established transgenic rodent model of HD, offering the prospect of an in-depth characterization of the motor phenotype.Objective: The present study aims to characterize different aspects of motor function in BACHD rats, combining classical paradigms with novel high-throughput behavioral phenotyping.Methods: Wild-type (WT and transgenic animals were tested longitudinally from 2 to 12 months of age. To measure fine motor control, rats were challenged with the pasta handling test and the pellet reaching test. To evaluate gross motor function, animals were assessed by using the holding bar and the grip strength tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity and circadian rhythmicity were assessed in an automated home-cage environment, namely the PhenoTyper. We then integrated existing classical methodologies to test motor function with automated home-cage assessment of motor performance.Results: BACHD rats showed strong impairment in muscle endurance at 2 months of age. Altered circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity were observed in transgenic animals. On the other hand, reaching behavior, forepaw dexterity and muscle strength were unaffected.Conclusions: The BACHD rat model exhibits certain features of HD patients, like muscle weakness and changes in circadian behavior. We have observed modest but clear-cut deficits in distinct motor phenotypes, thus confirming the validity of this transgenic rat model for treatment and drug discovery purposes.

  11. Spatially explicit modeling of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) habitat in Nevada and northeastern California: a decision-support tool for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Overton, Cory T.; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Kroger, Travis; Mauch, Kimberly; Niell, Lara; Howe, Kristy; Gardner, Scott; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter referred to as “sage-grouse”) populations are declining throughout the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem, including millions of acres of potential habitat across the West. Habitat maps derived from empirical data are needed given impending listing decisions that will affect both sage-grouse population dynamics and human land-use restrictions. This report presents the process for developing spatially explicit maps describing relative habitat suitability for sage-grouse in Nevada and northeastern California. Maps depicting habitat suitability indices (HSI) values were generated based on model-averaged resource selection functions informed by more than 31,000 independent telemetry locations from more than 1,500 radio-marked sage-grouse across 12 project areas in Nevada and northeastern California collected during a 15-year period (1998–2013). Modeled habitat covariates included land cover composition, water resources, habitat configuration, elevation, and topography, each at multiple spatial scales that were relevant to empirically observed sage-grouse movement patterns. We then present an example of how the HSI can be delineated into categories. Specifically, we demonstrate that the deviation from the mean can be used to classify habitat suitability into three categories of habitat quality (high, moderate, and low) and one non-habitat category. The classification resulted in an agreement of 93–97 percent for habitat versus non-habitat across a suite of independent validation datasets. Lastly, we provide an example of how space use models can be integrated with habitat models to help inform conservation planning. In this example, we combined probabilistic breeding density with a non-linear probability of occurrence relative to distance to nearest lek (traditional breeding ground) using count data to calculate a composite space use index (SUI). The SUI was then classified into two categories of use

  12. What if Things Get Worse? Really Grand Challenges for Modeling and Simulation in a Risky and Complex World or Modeling and Simulation for the "Greater Good"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifrey, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Today Modeling and Simulation-- ---as an important practice or industry or area of expertise ----- is at a complex crossroad - a sort of cyber-highway--where these complexities meet-technical, economic, environmental, geopolitical and cultural. They may converge or collide. Let's not kid ourselves. It is all too much for anyone person or organization Malcolm Gladwell said it. "We have constructed a world in which the potential for high tech catastrophe is embedded in the fabric of everyday life." We are surrounded by problems that scream at us from our television, Internet and social networks along with billboards and protest signs. We face not just high tech catastrophes but, also, landslides, earthquakes, tornados, floods and hurricanes and large-scale criminality. Evil, war, famine and pestilence have not gone away. It is all too much to think about. My friend, George Peabody, who taught me everything I know about power said that addressing such issues requires that we constantly build our network, information resources and the credibility and visibility of our work. That is how we will build the power of simulation so it can change the world --even maybe, save it. We need all the help we can get and give one another because our human early warning systems appear to be out of kilter. We seem to have trouble imagining how small failings can continue to lead to catastrophic disaster. Think about O-rings and blowout preventers. One is reminded of the old nursery rhyme, "For want of a nail, a shoe was lost! for want of a shoe the horse was lost! for want of a rider the battle was lost and so the kingdom fell." Although the investigation will take more time for real answers, it is worrisome that a rig worker reported to the BBC that-- weeks before the explosion of Deep Ocean Horizon. -he identified a leak in the oil rig's safety equipment -the Control Pod of the blowout preventer which has giant shears designed to cut and seal off the well's main pipe. With both

  13. BO-1055, a novel DNA cross-linking agent with remarkable low myelotoxicity shows potent activity in sarcoma models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Srikanth R; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Pera, Benet; Lopes, Eloisi Caldas; Chaudhry, Anisha; Wong, Elissa W P; Saxena, Ashish; Su, Tsann-Long; Moore, Malcolm A S

    2016-07-12

    DNA damaging agents cause rapid shrinkage of tumors and form the basis of chemotherapy for sarcomas despite significant toxicities. Drugs having superior efficacy and wider therapeutic windows are needed to improve patient outcomes. We used cell proliferation and apoptosis assays in sarcoma cell lines and benign cells; γ-H2AX expression, comet assay, immunoblot analyses and drug combination studies in vitro and in patient derived xenograft (PDX) models. BO-1055 caused apoptosis and cell death in a concentration and time dependent manner in sarcoma cell lines. BO-1055 had potent activity (submicromolar IC50) against Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, intermediate activity in DSRCT (IC50 = 2-3μM) and very weak activity in osteosarcoma (IC50 >10μM) cell lines. BO-1055 exhibited a wide therapeutic window compared to other DNA damaging drugs. BO-1055 induced more DNA double strand breaks and γH2AX expression in cancer cells compared to benign cells. BO-1055 showed inhibition of tumor growth in A673 xenografts and caused tumor regression in cyclophosphamide resistant patient-derived Ewing sarcoma xenografts and A204 xenografts. Combination of BO-1055 and irinotecan demonstrated synergism in Ewing sarcoma PDX models. Potent activity on sarcoma cells and its relative lack of toxicity presents a strong rationale for further development of BO-1055 as a therapeutic agent.

  14. Demographical history and palaeodistribution modelling show range shift towards Amazon Basin for a Neotropical tree species in the LGM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciana Cristina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi Carina; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2016-10-13

    We studied the phylogeography and demographical history of Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). We specifically tested if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the so called South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, using ecological niche modelling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography. We sampled 235 individuals of T. serratifolia in 17 populations in Brazil and analysed the polymorphisms at three intergenic chloroplast regions and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA. Coalescent analyses showed a demographical expansion at the last c. 130 ka (thousand years before present). Simulations and ENM also showed that the current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range expansion and range shift towards the Amazon Basin during the colder and arid climatic conditions associated with the LGM, matching the expected for the South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, although contrasting to the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis. Populations in more stable areas or with higher suitability through time showed higher genetic diversity. Postglacial range shift towards the Southeast and Atlantic coast may have led to spatial genome assortment due to leading edge colonization as the species tracks suitable environments, leading to lower genetic diversity in populations at higher distance from the distribution centroid at 21 ka. Haplotype sharing or common ancestry among populations from Caatinga in Northeast Brazil, Atlantic Forest in Southeast and Cerrado biome and ENM evince the past connection among these biomes.

  15. Stonehenge's Greater Cursus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Paul; Mooers, Howard D.

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological investigations have emphasized relationships between solar and lunar phenomena and architectural features of prehistoric sites located on the Stonehenge ritual landscape. However, no over-riding landscape design has been identified to explain the purpose of placing hundreds of Neolithic through Iron Age burial sites upon the landscape. Our research and analysis shows the mid-4th millennium BC (mid-Neolithic) landscape represents an 'above, so below' cosmo-geographical relationship. Type, shape, size and orientation of specific elements (such as long barrows, henges, cursus and topography) created a hierotopy representing the Winter Hexagon asterism, Milky Way, ecliptic and other stellar features. The resulting pattern of ritual sites represents translocation of the astronomical Otherworld - the Spirit World - onto the plain. Results of the analysis create a new paradigm of purpose for the built landscape circa 3500 BC, and identifies the reason why Stonehenge is located where it is with respect to other contemorary monuments.

  16. A new formulation of cannabidiol in cream shows therapeutic effects in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Pollastro, Federica; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-10-21

    The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a new formulation of alone, purified cannabidiol (CBD) (>98 %), the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, as a topical treatment in an experimental model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Particularly, we evaluated whether administration of a topical 1 % CBD-cream, given at the time of symptomatic disease onset, could affect the EAE progression and if this treatment could also recover paralysis of hind limbs, qualifying topical-CBD for the symptomatic treatment of MS. In order to have a preparation of 1 % of CBD-cream, pure CBD have been solubilized in propylene glycoland basic dense cream O/A. EAE was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55) in C57BL/6 mice. After EAE onset, mice were allocated into several experimental groups (Naïve, EAE, EAE-1 % CBD-cream, EAE-vehicle cream, CTRL-1 % CBD-cream, CTRL-vehicle cream). Mice were observed daily for signs of EAE and weight loss. At the sacrifice of the animals, which occurred at the 28(th) day from EAE-induction, spinal cord and spleen tissues were collected in order to perform histological evaluation, immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. Achieved results surprisingly show that daily treatment with topical 1 % CBD-cream may exert neuroprotective effects against EAE, diminishing clinical disease score (mean of 5.0 in EAE mice vs 1.5 in EAE + CBD-cream), by recovering of paralysis of hind limbs and by ameliorating histological score typical of disease (lymphocytic infiltration and demyelination) in spinal cord tissues. Also, 1 % CBD-cream is able to counteract the EAE-induced damage reducing release of CD4 and CD8α T cells (spleen tissue localization was quantified about 10,69 % and 35,96 % of positive staining respectively in EAE mice) and expression of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as several other

  17. INTERNATIONAL MAPPING PROJECT “THE ATLAS OF GREATER ALTAI: NATURE, HISTORY, CULTURE” AS THE FOUNDATION FOR MODELS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Rotanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept and approaches to the creation of a special interdisciplinary Atlas of Greater Altai. The main objective of the Atlas is to ensure the maximal possible access of the international community to reliable, current, and accurate spatial information on the transboundary Greater Altai region. The paper discusses the preconditions that facilitate the development of this unique cartographic product, the main sections of its structure (nature, history, and culture, and the main themes of its maps. The paper demonstrates the need for geoinformation support and a web-based version of the GIS-based Atlas. The Atlas can be used indecision-making in the scope of the international cross-border cooperation in the Altai region.

  18. [Efficacy, safety and comfort of compression therapy models in the immediate post-operative period after a greater saphenectomy. A prospective randomised study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo Chao, Eliseo; Luque, María Antonia; González-Ripoll, Carmen

    2010-10-01

    There is still controversy on the best compression therapy after performing a greater saphenectomy. The purpose of this study is to establish whether the use of a controlled compression stocking has the same level of safety and efficacy as a compression bandage in the immediate post-operative period after a greater saphenectomy. A prospective, randomised, open-labelled study, comparing three groups: a) a conventional compression bandage for one week, b) a conventional compression bandage replaced by a controlled tubular compression stocking at 5h of its putting in place, c) immediate direct use of the controlled tubular compression stocking, was conducted on fifty-five consecutive outpatients with a greater saphenectomy in one of their legs, and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The working hypothesis was that the controlled tubular compression stocking could replace, in terms of efficacy, safety and comfort, the usual controlled compression in the immediate post-operative period after saphenous vein stripping. The analysis variables were pain, control of bleeding, analgesics in the post-operative period, bruising, incapacity during the first week after the operation and comfort level. There were no statistically significant differences found between the three types of compressions studied as regards, safety, efficacy, comfort level, pain and analgesic consumption, but there was as regards the level of convenience in favour of the use of the stocking. The controlled tubular compression stocking can replace the compression bandage with more advantages after greater saphenous vein stripping in outpatients, having the same safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis, Assessment and Modeling of The Urban Growth in Greater Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, Using Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Awadhi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Muscat Governorate is the main governorate in the Sultanate of Oman and at the same time, it is the capital of the country. The urban of Muscat expanded on the area rapidly. So, the process of the growth, the controlling factors and the side problems which become apparent need to be highlighted. In order to determine the urban growth between 1960 and 2003, multi data sources and techniques have been used under a GIS environment. This research aims to measure and to model the urban expansion of Muscat Governorate using the combined technologies of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). Based on the detailed datasets and knowledge of historical land use maps attempts were made to simulate future growth patterns of the city. The outcome of this exercise was the design of six urban growth maps covering the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2003. The results show that the total urban expansion reached more than 650% between 1960 and 2003, with an annual growth rate of approximately 20%. A combination of human and physical factors controlled this rapid growth. The paper discusses also the current urban problems resulting from this rapid growth as well as its future spatial trends

  20. Bioavailability of particulate metal to zebra mussels: Biodynamic modelling shows that assimilation efficiencies are site-specific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, Adeline, E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche Hydrosystemes et Bioprocedes, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, 92761 Antony (France); FIRE, FR-3020, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Gourlay-France, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.gourlay@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche Hydrosystemes et Bioprocedes, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, 92761 Antony (France); FIRE, FR-3020, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Priadi, Cindy, E-mail: cindy.priadi@eng.ui.ac.id [LSCE/IPSL CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie, E-mail: Sophie.Ayrault@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE/IPSL CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Helene, E-mail: Marie-helene.tusseau@ifremer.fr [IFREMER Technopolis 40, 155 rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 92138 Issy-Les-Moulineaux (France)

    2011-12-15

    This study investigates the ability of the biodynamic model to predict the trophic bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater bivalve. Zebra mussels were transplanted to three sites along the Seine River (France) and collected monthly for 11 months. Measurements of the metal body burdens in mussels were compared with the predictions from the biodynamic model. The exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals, since it did not capture the differences between sites. The assimilation efficiency (AE) parameter is necessary to take into account biotic factors influencing particulate metal bioavailability. The biodynamic model, applied with AEs from the literature, overestimated the measured concentrations in zebra mussels, the extent of overestimation being site-specific. Therefore, an original methodology was proposed for in situ AE measurements for each site and metal. - Highlights: > Exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals. > Need for site-specific biodynamic parameters. > Field-determined AE provide a good fit between the biodynamic model predictions and bioaccumulation measurements. - The interpretation of metal bioaccumulation in transplanted zebra mussels with biodynamic modelling highlights the need for site-specific assimilation efficiencies of particulate metals.

  1. Bioavailability of particulate metal to zebra mussels: biodynamic modelling shows that assimilation efficiencies are site-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Priadi, Cindy; Ayrault, Sophie; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the ability of the biodynamic model to predict the trophic bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater bivalve. Zebra mussels were transplanted to three sites along the Seine River (France) and collected monthly for 11 months. Measurements of the metal body burdens in mussels were compared with the predictions from the biodynamic model. The exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals, since it did not capture the differences between sites. The assimilation efficiency (AE) parameter is necessary to take into account biotic factors influencing particulate metal bioavailability. The biodynamic model, applied with AEs from the literature, overestimated the measured concentrations in zebra mussels, the extent of overestimation being site-specific. Therefore, an original methodology was proposed for in situ AE measurements for each site and metal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Osteolytica: An automated image analysis software package that rapidly measures cancer-induced osteolytic lesions in in vivo models with greater reproducibility compared to other commonly used methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H R; Karmakharm, T; Lawson, M A; Walker, R E; Harris, W; Fellows, C; Huggins, I D; Richmond, P; Chantry, A D

    2016-02-01

    Methods currently used to analyse osteolytic lesions caused by malignancies such as multiple myeloma and metastatic breast cancer vary from basic 2-D X-ray analysis to 2-D images of micro-CT datasets analysed with non-specialised image software such as ImageJ. However, these methods have significant limitations. They do not capture 3-D data, they are time-consuming and they often suffer from inter-user variability. We therefore sought to develop a rapid and reproducible method to analyse 3-D osteolytic lesions in mice with cancer-induced bone disease. To this end, we have developed Osteolytica, an image analysis software method featuring an easy to use, step-by-step interface to measure lytic bone lesions. Osteolytica utilises novel graphics card acceleration (parallel computing) and 3-D rendering to provide rapid reconstruction and analysis of osteolytic lesions. To evaluate the use of Osteolytica we analysed tibial micro-CT datasets from murine models of cancer-induced bone disease and compared the results to those obtained using a standard ImageJ analysis method. Firstly, to assess inter-user variability we deployed four independent researchers to analyse tibial datasets from the U266-NSG murine model of myeloma. Using ImageJ, inter-user variability between the bones was substantial (±19.6%), in contrast to using Osteolytica, which demonstrated minimal variability (±0.5%). Secondly, tibial datasets from U266-bearing NSG mice or BALB/c mice injected with the metastatic breast cancer cell line 4T1 were compared to tibial datasets from aged and sex-matched non-tumour control mice. Analyses by both Osteolytica and ImageJ showed significant increases in bone lesion area in tumour-bearing mice compared to control mice. These results confirm that Osteolytica performs as well as the current 2-D ImageJ osteolytic lesion analysis method. However, Osteolytica is advantageous in that it analyses over the entirety of the bone volume (as opposed to selected 2-D images), it

  3. An integrated proteomics approach shows synaptic plasticity changes in an APP/PS1 Alzheimer's mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempf, Stefan J; Metaxas, Athanasios; Ibáñez-Vea, María

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular signature of Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid pathology.We used the double APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse, a widely used model of cerebral amyloidosis, to compare changes in proteome, including global phosphorylation and sialylated N-linked glycosyl...

  4. 14 Days of supplementation with blueberry extract shows anti-atherogenic properties and improves oxidative parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströher, Deise Jaqueline; Escobar Piccoli, Jacqueline da Costa; Güllich, Angélica Aparecida da Costa; Pilar, Bruna Cocco; Coelho, Ritiéle Pinto; Bruno, Jamila Benvegnú; Faoro, Debora; Manfredini, Vanusa

    2015-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with blueberry (BE) extract (Vaccinium ashei Reade) for 14 consecutive days on biochemical, hematological, histopathological and oxidative parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats were investigated. After supplementation with lyophilized extract of BE, the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. Histopathological analysis showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) of aortic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rats. Oxidative parameters showed significant reductions (p < 0.05) in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and an increase in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The BE extract showed an important cardioprotective effect by the improvements in the serum lipid profile, antioxidant system, particularly in reducing oxidative stress associated with hypercholesterolemia and anti-atherogenic effect in rats.

  5. Advanced imaging techniques show progressive arthropathy following experimentally induced knee bleeding in a factor VIII-/- rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, K. R.; Roepstorff, K.; Petersen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Joint pathology is most commonly assessed by radiogra-phy, but ultrasonography (US) is increasingly recognized for its acces-sibility, safety and ability to show soft tissue changes, the earliestindicators of haemophilic arthropathy (HA). US, however, lacks theability to visualize...

  6. Quasy-3D models of restored folded sedimentary cover of Alpine Greater Caucasus and evidences of isostasy participation in processes of folding formation and of mountain building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Fedor

    2015-04-01

    Hinterland of Greater Caucasus (GC) has almost pure folded structure (stripe 1000x50 km) in alpine flysch-like sedimentary cover of 10-15 km thickness. Thin-layered sediments of hinterland formed relatively small folds (0.1-1 km width) and its strain allow to restore the structure in scale of whole sedimentary cover. Material of 24 detailed (1:10000, 1:100000) cross-sections of 510 km total actual length in three regions was used. Domains as 2-5 folds (totally 505) were selected. Strain inside of each domain (as ellipsoid) was described due to three measured parameters of domain geometry. There are value of shortening as interlimb angle, dip of axial plain, dip of envelope plain [1, 2, 3]. Three kinematic operations allow to restore actual domain to pre-folded state (and the same - ellipse to circle): rotation, horizontal simple shear, flattening [1, 2]. Gathering of sequence of domains in its pre-folded states allows to compile pre-folded state of whole sections and of its parts. By aggregation of 5-10 domains, 78 "structural cells" were formed for study of structures in scale of sedimentary cover. Relation of actual and pre-folded lengths of cells gave its shortening values. Value of shortening, initial thickness of cover, its post-folded thickness, also as depth of sedimentary cover bottom and virtual air-position of its top (uplift or amplitude of "erosion") were found as result of observations, measurements and interpolations of cover thicknesses. Geological history was found as three stages: A) sedimentation (J1 - Pg2), B) pure folding/shortening (during of Pg3), C) pure neotectonic uplift (Miocene2-N2-Q). In regional aspect, results show certain regularities, and it may be used as initial material for study of some aspects of geodynamics. Three regions of GC were studied: North-Western Caucasus (NWC) [1], Chiaur tectonic zone in South Ossetia (ChZ) and two zones in South-Eastern Caucasus - Tfan zone (TZ) and Shakhdag zone (ShZ) [3]. The shortening values for

  7. Automated home cage assessment shows behavioral changes in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Esteban; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2013-08-01

    Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is an autosomal dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease characterized by ataxia, involuntary movements, and dementia. A novel SCA17 mouse model having a 71 polyglutamine repeat expansion in the TATA-binding protein (TBP) has shown age related motor deficit using a classic motor test, yet concomitant weight increase might be a confounding factor for this measurement. In this study we used an automated home cage system to test several motor readouts for this same model to confirm pathological behavior results and evaluate benefits of automated home cage in behavior phenotyping. Our results confirm motor deficits in the Tbp/Q71 mice and present previously unrecognized behavioral characteristics obtained from the automated home cage, indicating its use for high-throughput screening and testing, e.g. of therapeutic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. BO-1055, a novel DNA cross-linking agent with remarkable low myelotoxicity shows potent activity in sarcoma models

    OpenAIRE

    Ambati, Srikanth R.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Pera, Benet; Lopes, Eloisi Caldas; Chaudhry, Anisha; Wong, Elissa W.P.; Saxena, Ashish; Su, Tsann-Long; Moore, Malcolm A.S.

    2016-01-01

    DNA damaging agents cause rapid shrinkage of tumors and form the basis of chemotherapy for sarcomas despite significant toxicities. Drugs having superior efficacy and wider therapeutic windows are needed to improve patient outcomes. We used cell proliferation and apoptosis assays in sarcoma cell lines and benign cells; ?-H2AX expression, comet assay, immunoblot analyses and drug combination studies in vitro and in patient derived xenograft (PDX) models. BO-1055 caused apoptosis and cell death...

  9. Betting on change: Tenet deal with Vanguard shows it's primed to try ACO effort, new payment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth

    2013-07-01

    Tenet Healthcare Corp.'s acquisition of Vanguard Health Systems is a sign the investor-owned chain is willing to take a chance on alternative payment models such as accountable care organizations. There's no certainty that ACOs will deliver the improvements on quality or cost savings, but Vanguard Vice Chairman Keith Pitts, left, says his system's Pioneer ACO in Detroit has already achieved some cost savings.

  10. Restless led syndrome model Drosophila melanogaster show successful olfactory learning and 1-day retention of the acquired memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mika F. Asaba; Adrian A. Bates; Hoa M. Dao; Mika J. Maeda

    2013-01-01

    Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a prevalent but poorly understood disorder that ischaracterized by uncontrollable movements during sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance.Olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful tool for the study ofcognitive deficits caused by sleep disturbances, such as those seen in RLS. A recently generatedDrosophila model of RLS exhibited disturbed sleep patterns similar to those seen in humans withRLS. This research seeks to improve understand...

  11. CP-809,101, a selective 5-HT2C agonist, shows activity in animal models of antipsychotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuciak, Judith A; Chapin, Douglas S; McCarthy, Sheryl A; Guanowsky, Victor; Brown, Janice; Chiang, Phoebe; Marala, Ravi; Patterson, Terrell; Seymour, Patricia A; Swick, Andrew; Iredale, Philip A

    2007-02-01

    CP-809,101 is a potent, functionally selective 5-HT(2C) agonist that displays approximately 100% efficacy in vitro. The aim of the present studies was to assess the efficacy of a selective 5-HT(2C) agonist in animal models predictive of antipsychotic-like efficacy and side-effect liability. Similar to currently available antipsychotic drugs, CP-809,101 dose-dependently inhibited conditioned avoidance responding (CAR, ED(50)=4.8 mg/kg, sc). The efficacy of CP-809,101 in CAR was completely antagonized by the concurrent administration of the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, SB-224,282. CP-809,101 antagonized both PCP- and d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity with ED(50) values of 2.4 and 2.9 mg/kg (sc), respectively and also reversed an apomorphine induced-deficit in prepulse inhibition. At doses up to 56 mg/kg, CP-809,101 did not produce catalepsy. Thus, the present results demonstrate that the 5-HT(2C) agonist, CP-809,101, has a pharmacological profile similar to that of the atypical antipsychotics with low extrapyramidal symptom liability. CP-809,101 was inactive in two animal models of antidepressant-like activity, the forced swim test and learned helplessness. However, CP-809,101 was active in novel object recognition, an animal model of cognitive function. These data suggest that 5-HT(2C) agonists may be a novel approach in the treatment of psychosis as well as for the improvement of cognitive dysfunction associated with schizophrenia.

  12. Hybrid equation/agent-based model of ischemia-induced hyperemia and pressure ulcer formation predicts greater propensity to ulcerate in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Solovyev

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are costly and life-threatening complications for people with spinal cord injury (SCI. People with SCI also exhibit differential blood flow properties in non-ulcerated skin. We hypothesized that a computer simulation of the pressure ulcer formation process, informed by data regarding skin blood flow and reactive hyperemia in response to pressure, could provide insights into the pathogenesis and effective treatment of post-SCI pressure ulcers. Agent-Based Models (ABM are useful in settings such as pressure ulcers, in which spatial realism is important. Ordinary Differential Equation-based (ODE models are useful when modeling physiological phenomena such as reactive hyperemia. Accordingly, we constructed a hybrid model that combines ODEs related to blood flow along with an ABM of skin injury, inflammation, and ulcer formation. The relationship between pressure and the course of ulcer formation, as well as several other important characteristic patterns of pressure ulcer formation, was demonstrated in this model. The ODE portion of this model was calibrated to data related to blood flow following experimental pressure responses in non-injured human subjects or to data from people with SCI. This model predicted a higher propensity to form ulcers in response to pressure in people with SCI vs. non-injured control subjects, and thus may serve as novel diagnostic platform for post-SCI ulcer formation.

  13. Pridopidine, a dopamine stabilizer, improves motor performance and shows neuroprotective effects in Huntington disease R6/2 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Di Pardo, Alba; Favellato, Mariagrazia; Amico, Enrico; Maglione, Vittorio; Frati, Luigi

    2015-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which new treatments are urgently needed. Pridopidine is a new dopaminergic stabilizer, recently developed for the treatment of motor symptoms associated with HD. The therapeutic effect of pridopidine in patients with HD has been determined in two double-blind randomized clinical trials, however, whether pridopidine exerts neuroprotection remains to be addressed. The main goal of this study was to define the potential neuroprotective effect of pridopidine, in HD in vivo and in vitro models, thus providing evidence that might support a potential disease-modifying action of the drug and possibly clarifying other aspects of pridopidine mode-of-action. Our data corroborated the hypothesis of neuroprotective action of pridopidine in HD experimental models. Administration of pridopidine protected cells from apoptosis, and resulted in highly improved motor performance in R6/2 mice. The anti-apoptotic effect observed in the in vitro system highlighted neuroprotective properties of the drug, and advanced the idea of sigma-1-receptor as an additional molecular target implicated in the mechanism of action of pridopidine. Coherent with protective effects, pridopidine-mediated beneficial effects in R6/2 mice were associated with an increased expression of pro-survival and neurostimulatory molecules, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor and DARPP32, and with a reduction in the size of mHtt aggregates in striatal tissues. Taken together, these findings support the theory of pridopidine as molecule with disease-modifying properties in HD and advance the idea of a valuable therapeutic strategy for effectively treating the disease. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Zonulin transgenic mice show altered gut permeability and increased morbidity/mortality in the DSS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Craig; Lan, Jinggang; Fasano, Alessio

    2017-06-01

    Increased small intestinal permeability (IP) has been proposed to be an integral element, along with genetic makeup and environmental triggers, in the pathogenies of chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs). We identified zonulin as a master regular of intercellular tight junctions linked to the development of several CIDs. We aim to study the role of zonulin-mediated IP in the pathogenesis of CIDs. Zonulin transgenic Hp2 mice (Ztm) were subjected to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 7 days, followed by 4-7 days' recovery and compared to C57Bl/6 (wild-type (WT)) mice. IP was measured in vivo and ex vivo, and weight, histology, and survival were monitored. To mechanistically link zonulin-dependent impairment of small intestinal barrier function with clinical outcome, Ztm were treated with the zonulin inhibitor AT1001 added to drinking water in addition to DSS. We observed increased morbidity (more pronounced weight loss and colitis) and mortality (40-70% compared with 0% in WT) at 11 days post-DSS treatment in Ztm compared with WT mice. Both in vivo and ex vivo measurements showed an increased IP at baseline in Ztm compared to WT mice, which was exacerbated by DSS treatment and was associated with upregulation of zonulin gene expression (fourfold in the duodenum, sixfold in the jejunum). Treatment with AT1001 prevented the DSS-induced increased IP both in vivo and ex vivo without changing zonulin gene expression and completely reverted morbidity and mortality in Ztm. Our data show that zonulin-dependent small intestinal barrier impairment is an early step leading to the break of tolerance with subsequent development of CIDs. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Network models of TEM β-lactamase mutations coevolving under antibiotic selection show modular structure and anticipate evolutionary trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Violeta Beleva; Allen, Jennifer; Camps, Manel; Karchin, Rachel

    2011-09-01

    Understanding how novel functions evolve (genetic adaptation) is a critical goal of evolutionary biology. Among asexual organisms, genetic adaptation involves multiple mutations that frequently interact in a non-linear fashion (epistasis). Non-linear interactions pose a formidable challenge for the computational prediction of mutation effects. Here we use the recent evolution of β-lactamase under antibiotic selection as a model for genetic adaptation. We build a network of coevolving residues (possible functional interactions), in which nodes are mutant residue positions and links represent two positions found mutated together in the same sequence. Most often these pairs occur in the setting of more complex mutants. Focusing on extended-spectrum resistant sequences, we use network-theoretical tools to identify triple mutant trajectories of likely special significance for adaptation. We extrapolate evolutionary paths (n = 3) that increase resistance and that are longer than the units used to build the network (n = 2). These paths consist of a limited number of residue positions and are enriched for known triple mutant combinations that increase cefotaxime resistance. We find that the pairs of residues used to build the network frequently decrease resistance compared to their corresponding singlets. This is a surprising result, given that their coevolution suggests a selective advantage. Thus, β-lactamase adaptation is highly epistatic. Our method can identify triplets that increase resistance despite the underlying rugged fitness landscape and has the unique ability to make predictions by placing each mutant residue position in its functional context. Our approach requires only sequence information, sufficient genetic diversity, and discrete selective pressures. Thus, it can be used to analyze recent evolutionary events, where coevolution analysis methods that use phylogeny or statistical coupling are not possible. Improving our ability to assess

  16. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  17. Preference for rewards that follow greater effort and greater delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-11-01

    Humans prefer (conditioned) rewards that follow greater effort (Aronson & Mills, 1959). This phenomenon can be interpreted as evidence for cognitive dissonance (or as justification of effort) but may also result from (1) the contrast between the relatively greater effort and the signal for reinforcement or (2) the delay reduction signaled by the conditioned reinforcer. In the present study, we examined the effect of prior force and prior time to produce stimuli associated with equal reinforcement. As expected, pressing with greater force or for a longer time was less preferred than pressing with less force or for a shorter time. However, participants preferred the conditioned reinforcer that followed greater force and more time. Furthermore, participants preferred a long duration with no force requirement over a shorter duration with a high force requirement and, consistent with the contrast account but not with the delay reduction account, they preferred the conditioned stimulus that followed the less preferred, shorter duration, high-force event. Within-trial contrast provides a more parsimonious account than justification of effort, and a more complete account than delay reduction.

  18. Techniques for managing behaviour in pediatric dentistry: comparative study of live modelling and tell-show-do based on children's heart rates during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat-McHayleh, Nada; Harfouche, Alice; Souaid, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Tell-show-do is the most popular technique for managing children"s behaviour in dentists" offices. Live modelling is used less frequently, despite the satisfactory results obtained in studies conducted during the 1980s. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of these 2 techniques on children"s heart rates during dental treatments, heart rate being the simplest biological parameter to measure and an increase in heart rate being the most common physiologic indicator of anxiety and fear. For this randomized, controlled, parallel-group single-centre clinical trial, children 5 to 9 years of age presenting for the first time to the Saint Joseph University dental care centre in Beirut, Lebanon, were divided into 3 groups: those in groups A and B were prepared for dental treatment by means of live modelling, the mother serving as the model for children in group A and the father as the model for children in group B. The children in group C were prepared by a pediatric dentist using the tell-show-do method. Each child"s heart rate was monitored during treatment, which consisted of an oral examination and cleaning. A total of 155 children met the study criteria and participated in the study. Children who received live modelling with the mother as model had lower heart rates than those who received live modelling with the father as model and those who were prepared by the tell-show-do method (p pediatric dentistry.

  19. District heating in greater Stockholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Greater Stockholm more than ten municipalities operate more or less extensive district heating networks, whereas a couple of municipalities have still not decided in principle what form of heating will be employed in the future. About 1,2 million people live and work in these municipalities, which together occupy an area of about 1500 km 2 . In this general survey the planning of the extensive work in the municipalities and the alternatives of heat systems in Greater Stockholm, including large integrated district heating systems based on nuclear dual-purpose plants as well as systems based on fossil fuels and several combined plants are discussed. (M.S.)

  20. Reinterpreting New Source Review: greater clarity or greater confusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Aimed at improving the effectiveness of environmental regulation by providing clearer definitions and greater operating flexibility to electric generators, on Nov. 22, 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced changes to its New Source Review (NSR) program. A major objective was to help generators modernize power plant facilities in ways that will reduce energy use and air emissions, provide incentives to install modern emission-control equipment, and more accurately report air emissions. Coming after considerable internal study and public comment, the release of these changes was delayed by more than one year. The paper analyses the good and down side of the New Source Review. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  2. Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from a high altitude aircraft: Modelling and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, J. A.; Letros, D.; Zawada, D.; Bourassa, A.; Degenstein, D.; Solheim, B.

    2018-04-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has been developed to measure the vertical distribution of water vapour in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere with a high vertical resolution (∼500 m). The Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) instrument combines an imaging system with a monolithic field-widened SHS to observe limb scattered sunlight in a vibrational band of water (1363 nm-1366 nm). The instrument has been optimized for observations from NASA's ER-2 aircraft as a proof-of-concept for a future low earth orbit satellite deployment. A robust model has been developed to simulate SHOW ER-2 limb measurements and retrievals. This paper presents the simulation of the SHOW ER-2 limb measurements along a hypothetical flight track and examines the sensitivity of the measurement and retrieval approach. Water vapour fields from an Environment and Climate Change Canada forecast model are used to represent realistic spatial variability along the flight path. High spectral resolution limb scattered radiances are simulated using the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model. It is shown that the SHOW instrument onboard the ER-2 is capable of resolving the water vapour variability in the UTLS from approximately 12 km - 18 km with ±1 ppm accuracy. Vertical resolutions between 500 m and 1 km are feasible. The along track sampling capability of the instrument is also discussed.

  3. Transgenic barley overexpressing a cytokinin dehydrogenase gene shows greater tolerance to drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, H.; Jiskrová, E.; Vojta, P.; Mrízová, K.; Kokáš, F.; Majeská Čudějková, M.; Bergougnoux, V.; Plíhal, O.; Klimešová, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Dzurová, L.; Frébort, I.; Galuszka, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2016), s. 692-705 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ROOT-GROWTH * OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE GENES * BETA-GLUCOSIDASE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  4. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism.

  5. Internet-based Modeling, Mapping, and Analysis for the Greater Everglades (IMMAGE; Version 1.0): web-based tools to assess the impact of sea level rise in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Paul; Strong, David; Swain, Eric; Decker, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    South Florida's Greater Everglades area is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, due to its rich endowment of animal and plant species and its heavily populated urban areas along the coast. Rising sea levels are expected to have substantial impacts on inland flooding, the depth and extent of surge from coastal storms, the degradation of water supplies by saltwater intrusion, and the integrity of plant and animal habitats. Planners and managers responsible for mitigating these impacts require advanced tools to help them more effectively identify areas at risk. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Internet-based Modeling, Mapping, and Analysis for the Greater Everglades (IMMAGE) Web site has been developed to address these needs by providing more convenient access to projections from models that forecast the effects of sea level rise on surface water and groundwater, the extent of surge and resulting economic losses from coastal storms, and the distribution of habitats. IMMAGE not only provides an advanced geographic information system (GIS) interface to support decision making, but also includes topic-based modules that explain and illustrate key concepts for nontechnical users. The purpose of this report is to familiarize both technical and nontechnical users with the IMMAGE Web site and its various applications.

  6. A Multiple siRNA-Based Anti-HIV/SHIV Microbicide Shows Protection in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Boyapalle

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 are the etiologic agents of AIDS. Most HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide are women, who acquire HIV infections during sexual contact. Blocking HIV mucosal transmission and local spread in the female lower genital tract is important in preventing infection and ultimately eliminating the pandemic. Microbicides work by destroying the microbes or preventing them from establishing an infection. Thus, a number of different types of microbicides are under investigation, however, the lack of their solubility and bioavailability, and toxicity has been major hurdles. Herein, we report the development of multifunctional chitosan-lipid nanocomplexes that can effectively deliver plasmids encoding siRNA(s as microbicides without adverse effects and provide significant protection against HIV in both in vitro and in vivo models. Chitosan or chitosan-lipid (chlipid was complexed with a cocktail of plasmids encoding HIV-1-specific siRNAs (psiRNAs and evaluated for their efficacy in HEK-293 cells, PBMCs derived from nonhuman primates, 3-dimensional human vaginal ectocervical tissue (3D-VEC model and also in non-human primate model. Moreover, prophylactic administration of the chlipid to deliver a psiRNA cocktail intravaginally with a cream formulation in a non-human primate model showed substantial reduction of SHIV (simian/human immunodeficiency virus SF162 viral titers. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential of chlipid-siRNA nanocomplexes as a potential genetic microbicide against HIV infections.

  7. Modeling shows that the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir has two modes of action and yields a shorter estimate of the hepatitis C virus half-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Jeremie; Dahari, Harel; Rong, Libin; Sansone, Natasha D; Nettles, Richard E; Cotler, Scott J; Layden, Thomas J; Uprichard, Susan L; Perelson, Alan S

    2013-03-05

    The nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein is a target for drug development against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interestingly, the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir (BMS-790052) caused a decrease in serum HCV RNA levels by about two orders of magnitude within 6 h of administration. However, NS5A has no known enzymatic functions, making it difficult to understand daclatasvir's mode of action (MOA) and to estimate its antiviral effectiveness. Modeling viral kinetics during therapy has provided important insights into the MOA and effectiveness of a variety of anti-HCV agents. Here, we show that understanding the effects of daclatasvir in vivo requires a multiscale model that incorporates drug effects on the HCV intracellular lifecycle, and we validated this approach with in vitro HCV infection experiments. The model predicts that daclatasvir efficiently blocks two distinct stages of the viral lifecycle, namely viral RNA synthesis and virion assembly/secretion with mean effectiveness of 99% and 99.8%, respectively, and yields a more precise estimate of the serum HCV half-life, 45 min, i.e., around four times shorter than previous estimates. Intracellular HCV RNA in HCV-infected cells treated with daclatasvir and the HCV polymerase inhibitor NM107 showed a similar pattern of decline. However, daclatasvir treatment led to an immediate and rapid decline of extracellular HCV titers compared to a delayed (6-9 h) and slower decline with NM107, confirming an effect of daclatasvir on both viral replication and assembly/secretion. The multiscale modeling approach, validated with in vitro kinetic experiments, brings a unique conceptual framework for understanding the mechanism of action of a variety of agents in development for the treatment of HCV.

  8. Synthesis, Modelling, and Anticonvulsant Studies of New Quinazolines Showing Three Highly Active Compounds with Low Toxicity and High Affinity to the GABA-A Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Zayed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some novel fluorinated quinazolines (5a–j were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity and their neurotoxicity. Structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their infrared (IR, mass spectrometry (MS spectra, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, 13C-NMR, and elemental analysis (CHN. The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by a subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ test and maximal electroshock (MES-induced seizure test, while neurotoxicity was evaluated by a rotorod test. The molecular docking was performed for all newly-synthesized compounds to assess their binding affinities to the GABA-A receptor in order to rationalize their anticonvulsant activities in a qualitative way. The data obtained from the molecular modeling was correlated with that obtained from the biological screening. These data showed considerable anticonvulsant activity for all newly-synthesized compounds. Compounds 5b, 5c, and 5d showed the highest binding affinities toward the GABA-A receptor, along with the highest anticonvulsant activities in experimental mice. These compounds also showed low neurotoxicity and low toxicity in the median lethal dose test compared to the reference drugs. A GABA enzymatic assay was performed for these highly active compounds to confirm the obtained results and explain the possible mechanism for anticonvulsant action. The most active compounds might be used as leads for future modification and optimization.

  9. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure

  10. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  11. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Karl Håkan Clemensson

    Full Text Available The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  12. Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self-determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Anja H; Halvari, Hallgeir; Forest, Jacques; Deci, Edward L

    2015-08-01

    The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes associated with the amount of pay, and perceived distributive and procedural justice regarding pay in relation to those for perceived managerial need support. Participants were 166 bank employees who also reported on their basic psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation. SEM-analyses tested a self-determination theory (SDT) model, with satisfaction of the competence and autonomy needs as an intervening variable. The primary findings were that amount of pay and employees' perceived distributive justice regarding their pay were unrelated to employees' need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation, but procedural justice regarding pay did affect these variables. However, managerial need support was the most important factor for promoting need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation both directly, indirectly, and as a moderator in the model. Hence, the results of the present organizational field study support earlier laboratory experiments within the SDT framework showing that monetary rewards did not enhance intrinsic motivation. This seems to have profound implications for organizations concerned about motivating their employees. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yixuan; Guo, Wenyuan; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Qinmei; Feng, Luyang; Long, Simei; Liang, Fengyin; Huang, Yi; Lu, Xilin; Li, Shichang; Zhou, Jiebin; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Pang, Jiyan; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt). Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington's disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington's disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington's disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a stable trimeric complex that can prevent the formation of mutant Htt aggregates. Taken together, we conclude that xyloketal derivatives could be novel drug candidates for treating Huntington's disease. Molecular target analysis is a good method to simulate the interaction between proteins and drug compounds. Further, protective candidate drugs could be designed in future using the guidance of molecular docking results.

  14. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yixuan; Guo, Wenyuan; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Qinmei; Feng, Luyang; Long, Simei; Liang, Fengyin; Huang, Yi; Lu, Xilin; Li, Shichang; Zhou, Jiebin; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Pang, Jiyan; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt). Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington’s disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington’s disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington’s disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a stable trimeric complex that can prevent the formation of mutant Htt aggregates. Taken together, we conclude that xyloketal derivatives could be novel drug candidates for treating Huntington’s disease. Molecular target analysis is a good method to simulate the interaction between proteins and drug compounds. Further, protective candidate drugs could be designed in future using the guidance of molecular docking results. PMID:27110099

  15. Polysaccharides from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps taii Show Antioxidant and Immunoenhancing Activities in a D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hui Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps taii, an edible medicinal mushroom native to south China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. In the present study, the antioxidant pharmacological properties of C. taii were systematically investigated. In vitro assays revealed the scavenging activities of the aqueous extract and polysaccharides of C. taii against various free radicals, that is, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical. The EC50 values for superoxide anion-free radical ranged from 2.04 mg/mL to 2.49 mg/mL, which was at least 2.6-fold stronger than that of antioxidant thiourea. The polysaccharides also significantly enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and markedly decreased the malondialdehyde production of lipid peroxidation in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Interestingly, the immune function of the administration group was significantly boosted compared with the D-galactose-induced aging model group. Therefore, the C. taii polysaccharides possessed potent antioxidant activity closely associated with immune function enhancement and free radical scavenging. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides are a promising source of natural antioxidants and antiaging drugs. Consequently, a preliminary chemical investigation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and revealed that the polysaccharides studied were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectra also showed characteristic polysaccharide absorption bands.

  16. Characterization of chronic constriction of the saphenous nerve, a model of neuropathic pain in mice showing rapid molecular and electrophysiological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Jean-Sébastien; Pichette, Vincent; Leblond, François; Desbiens, Karine; Beaulieu, Pierre

    2006-05-15

    Neuropathic pain is one of the most inextricable problems encountered in clinics, because few facts are known about its etiology. Nerve injury often leads to allodynia and hyperalgesia, which are symptoms of neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to understand some molecular and electrophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic pain after chronic constriction of the saphenous nerve (CCS) in mice. After surgery, CCS mice displayed significant allodynia and hyperalgesia, which were sensitive to acute systemic injection of morphine (4 mg/kg), gabapentin (50 mg/kg), amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (5 mg/kg). These behavioral changes were accompanied after surgery by an increase of c-Fos expression and by an overexpression of mu-opioid and cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in the spinal cord and the dorsal hind paw skin. In combination with the skin-nerve preparation, this model showed a decrease in functional receptive fields downstream to the injury and the apparition of A-fiber ectopic discharges. In conclusion, CCS injury induced behavioral, molecular, and electrophysiological rearrangements that might help us in better understanding the peripheral mechanisms of neuropathic pain. This model takes advantage of the possible use in the future of genetically modified mice and of an exclusively sensory nerve for a comprehensive study of peripheral mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. A water-soluble extract from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-obesity effects by controlling lipid metabolism in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyounjeong; Eo, Haekwan; Park, Kyoungcheol; Jin, Mirim; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Sunyoung

    2007-08-03

    During the screening of a variety of plant sources for their anti-obesity activity, it was found that a water-soluble extract, named PG105, prepared from stem parts of Cucurbita moschata, contains potent anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. In this animal model, increases in body weight and fat storage were suppressed by 8-week oral administration of PG105 at 500 mg/kg, while the overall amount of food intake was not affected. Furthermore, PG105 protected the development of fatty liver and increased the hepatic beta-oxidation activity. Results from blood analysis showed that the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly lowered by PG105 administration, and also that the level of leptin was reduced, while that of adiponectin was increased. To understand the underlying mechanism at the molecular level, the effects of PG105 were examined on the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism by Northern blot analysis. In the liver of PG105-treated mice, the mRNA level of lipogenic genes such as SREBP-1c and SCD-1 was decreased, while that of lipolytic genes such as PPARalpha, ACO-1, CPT-1, and UCP-2 was modestly increased. Our data suggest that PG105 may have great potential as a novel anti-obesity agent in that both inhibition of lipid synthesis and acceleration of fatty acid breakdown are induced by this reagent.

  18. Daily supplementation of D-ribose shows no therapeutic benefits in the MHC-I transgenic mouse model of inflammatory myositis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Coley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current treatments for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (collectively called myositis focus on the suppression of an autoimmune inflammatory response within the skeletal muscle. However, it has been observed that there is a poor correlation between the successful suppression of muscle inflammation and an improvement in muscle function. Some evidence in the literature suggests that metabolic abnormalities in the skeletal muscle underlie the weakness that continues despite successful immunosuppression. We have previously shown that decreased expression of a purine nucleotide cycle enzyme, adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1, leads to muscle weakness in a mouse model of myositis and may provide a mechanistic basis for muscle weakness. One of the downstream metabolites of this pathway, D-ribose, has been reported to alleviate symptoms of myalgia in patients with a congenital loss of AMPD1. Therefore, we hypothesized that supplementing exogenous D-ribose would improve muscle function in the mouse model of myositis. We treated normal and myositis mice with daily doses of D-ribose (4 mg/kg over a 6-week time period and assessed its effects using a battery of behavioral, functional, histological and molecular measures. RESULTS: Treatment with D-ribose was found to have no statistically significant effects on body weight, grip strength, open field behavioral activity, maximal and specific forces of EDL, soleus muscles, or histological features. Histological and gene expression analysis indicated that muscle tissues remained inflamed despite treatment. Gene expression analysis also suggested that low levels of the ribokinase enzyme in the skeletal muscle might prevent skeletal muscle tissue from effectively utilizing D-ribose. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with daily oral doses of D-ribose showed no significant effect on either disease progression or muscle function in the mouse model of myositis.

  19. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  20. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  1. Do osteoporotic fractures constitute a greater recalcitrant challenge for skeletal regeneration? Investigating the efficacy of BMP-7 and zoledronate treatment of diaphyseal fractures in an open fracture osteoporotic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathavan, N; Tägil, M; Isaksson, H

    2017-02-01

    Osteoporotic fractures may pose a challenge for skeletal regeneration. This study investigates if pharmaceutical interventions such as bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) alone or in combination with Zoledronate have equivalent efficacy in osteoporotic bone? Our findings suggest they do and that an osteoporotic bone environment may increase sensitivity to BMP-7. Osteoporosis is thought to contribute to delayed or impaired bone healing. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) alone or synergistically combined with zoledronate (ZA) has proven effective in augmenting the regenerative response in healthy young male rats. Yet their comparative efficacy in an osteoporotic bone environment is unknown. Our study aimed to answer the following questions using the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis: Do osteoporotic fractures pose a greater challenge for skeletal regeneration? Are interventions with BMP-7-alone or combined with ZA of equivalent efficacy in osteoporotic bone? Sham operations (n = 33) or ovariectomies (n = 34) were performed in 12-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Mid-diaphyseal open femoral osteotomies were created at 24 weeks of age and the rats allocated to either (i) untreated, (ii) BMP-7-only or (iii) BMP-7 + ZA treatment groups. At 6 weeks post-osteotomy, fracture healing was evaluated by radiography, μCT and 3-point bending mechanical tests. Cumulatively, radiological, micro-structural and mechanical measures were equivalent in both healthy and osteoporotic environments. A reduced response to BMP-7-alone was observed in healthy rats that may be age/gender- or protocol/fracture-model dependent. Conversely, the BMP-7-only treated OVX group attained 100 % union in addition to significantly increased measures of mineralized bone volume, total callus volume, peak force and absorbed energy relative to untreated OVX fractures. Our findings refute the hypothesis that osteoporotic fractures constitute a greater recalcitrant challenge for

  2. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Makoto; Hondo, Eiichi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Yamagishi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2(p-cas) (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2(p-cas) usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2(p-cas) revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging.

  3. Developing and Assessing Alternative Land-Use Scenarios from the MOLAND Model: A Scenario-Based Impact Analysis Approach for the Evaluation of Rapid Rail Provisions and Urban Development in the Greater Dublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Ustaoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, environmental sustainability implications of planned rail infrastructure investments on the urban form and development in the Greater Dublin Region (GDR have been analysed incorporating the scenario analysis approach. Various scenarios are developed using the MOLAND Model applications including: A baseline scenario incorporating a continuation of the present dispersed pattern of urban development and an alternative scenario with rail-oriented corridor development, under varying conditions of economic growth. An alternative scenario was also developed for the recessionary development case considering the prolonged recession in the GDR. Further explorations incorporating a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA approach are developed to evaluate the sustainability implications of different land development scenarios in the Dublin Region. This is assisted by focussing on the impacts of rail investments on urban form and development as raised in the international comparative literature. The findings from the CBA assessment positively indicate that containment policies-as represented by the public transport oriented development indicate benefits over the dispersed development case by reducing the negative consequences of sprawl type of developments. In contrast, dispersed development in the baseline scenario indicates costs of continuation of such development patterns exceed the benefits in the long term. This study will contribute to policy support evaluation measures relating to the integration of scenario analysis tool with the CBA approach in assisting the evaluation of new transport infrastructure proposals.

  4. Assessing a five factor model of PTSD: is dysphoric arousal a unique PTSD construct showing differential relationships with anxiety and depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D; Richardson, Don; Ractliffe, Kendra; Wang, Li; Elklit, Ask

    2012-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) latent structure has been widely debated. To date, two four-factor models (Numbing and Dysphoria) have received the majority of factor analytic support. Recently, Elhai et al. (2011) proposed and supported a revised (five-factor) Dysphoric Arousal model. Data were gathered from two separate samples; War veterans and Primary Care medical patients. The three models were compared and the resultant factors of the Dysphoric Arousal model were validated against external constructs of depression and anxiety. The Dysphoric Arousal model provided significantly better fit than the Numbing and Dysphoria models across both samples. When differentiating between factors, the current results support the idea that Dysphoric Arousal can be differentiated from Anxious Arousal but not from Emotional Numbing when correlated with depression. In conclusion, the Dysphoria model may be a more parsimonious representation of PTSD's latent structure in these trauma populations despite superior fit of the Dysphoric Arousal model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng YX

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yixuan Zeng,1,2,* Wenyuan Guo,1,* Guangqing Xu,3 Qinmei Wang,4 Luyang Feng,1,2 Simei Long,1 Fengyin Liang,1 Yi Huang,1 Xilin Lu,1 Shichang Li,5 Jiebin Zhou,5 Jean-Marc Burgunder,6 Jiyan Pang,5 Zhong Pei1,2 1Department of Neurology, National Key Clinical Department and Key Discipline of Neurology, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Major Neurological Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Guangzhou Center, Chinese Huntington’s Disease Network, 3Department of Rehabilitation, The First Affiliated Hospital, 4Key laboratory on Assisted Circulation, Ministry of Health, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital, 5School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 6Swiss Huntington’s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Huntington’s disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt. Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington’s disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington’s disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington’s disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a

  6. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  7. Physics Reality Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana

    The attention span of K-12 students is very short; they are used to digesting information in short snippets through social media and TV. To get the students interested in physics, we created the Physics Reality Show: a series of staged short videos with duration no longer than a few minutes. Each video explains and illustrates one physics concept or law through a fast-paced sequence of physics demonstrations and experiments. The cast consists entirely of physics undergraduate students with artistic abilities and substantial experience in showing physics demonstrations at current outreach events run by the department: Physics Shows and Physics & Engineering Festival. Undergraduate students are of almost the same age as their high-school audience. They are in the best position to connect with kids and convey their fascination with physics. The PI and other faculty members who are involved in the outreach advise and coach the cast. They help students in staging the episodes and choosing the most exciting and relevant demonstrations. Supported by the APS mini-outreach Grant.

  8. Development of an economic model to assess the feasibility of the nuclear industry to produce, handle, and operate commercial fuel with enrichments greater than 5-wt% uranium-235 for PWRs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert M.

    The nuclear power industry in the United States is currently limited to 5-wt% U235 fuel. Increasing this enrichment limit would enable utilities to decrease the number of spent fuel assemblies, allow upgrades in reactor power, have more flexibility in fuel cycle lengths, and allow for the development of advanced fuel designs. Any increase in fuel enrichments requires an extensive analysis of the entire fuel cycle including enriching, conversion, manufacturing, shipping, and storage of enriched fuel. The cost of the detailed analysis, licensing, and modifications to existing facilities or the construction of new facilities appears to justify the use of higher enriched fuel. The purpose of this study was to develop an economic model to determine the feasibility of using greater than 5-wt% U235 commercial fuel. The study focused on evaluating typical fuel-processing operations to establish limits on current facilities and cost penalties for the required modifications for processing, fabricating, shipping, and storage of higher enriched fuel. The results of this study indicate that incentive to increase enrichments depended on the cycle length utilized. For reactors on an 18-month cycle there was little incentive to increase enrichments. However, potentially millions of dollars per year could be saved by reactors on a 24-month cycle if they increased enrichments up to 6.5-wt% U235. Larger incentives occurred for reactors using longer cycles. The fuel purchase interest rate was the dominant factor in determining the cost savings in using higher than 5.0-wt% fuel. Increases in interest rates alone could result in significant losses if higher enrichments were used. The other dominate factor affecting savings is the separative work charge. However, this cost appears to be stable with new facilities planned. Thus, although interest rates are volatile, the potential gain appears to outweigh any loss that could be seen by increased enrichments beyond the current licensing

  9. Antimalarial iron chelator, FBS0701, shows asexual and gametocyte Plasmodium falciparum activity and single oral dose cure in a murine malaria model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferrer

    Full Text Available Iron chelators for the treatment of malaria have proven therapeutic activity in vitro and in vivo in both humans and mice, but their clinical use is limited by the unsuitable absorption and pharmacokinetic properties of the few available iron chelators. FBS0701, (S3"-(HO-desazadesferrithiocin-polyether [DADFT-PE], is an oral iron chelator currently in Phase 2 human studies for the treatment of transfusional iron overload. The drug has very favorable absorption and pharmacokinetic properties allowing for once-daily use to deplete circulating free iron with human plasma concentrations in the high µM range. Here we show that FBS0701 has inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50 of 6 µM for Plasmodium falciparum in contrast to the IC(50 for deferiprone and deferoxamine at 15 and 30 µM respectively. In combination, FBS0701 interfered with artemisinin parasite inhibition and was additive with chloroquine or quinine parasite inhibition. FBS0701 killed early stage P. falciparum gametocytes. In the P. berghei Thompson suppression test, a single dose of 100 mg/kg reduced day three parasitemia and prolonged survival, but did not cure mice. Treatment with a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg one day after infection with 10 million lethal P. yoelii 17XL cured all the mice. Pretreatment of mice with a single oral dose of FBS0701 seven days or one day before resulted in the cure of some mice. Plasma exposures and other pharmacokinetics parameters in mice of the 100 mg/kg dose are similar to a 3 mg/kg dose in humans. In conclusion, FBS0701 demonstrates a single oral dose cure of the lethal P. yoelii model. Significantly, this effect persists after the chelator has cleared from plasma. FBS0701 was demonstrated to remove labile iron from erythrocytes as well as enter erythrocytes to chelate iron. FBS0701 may find clinically utility as monotherapy, a malarial prophylactic or, more likely, in combination with other antimalarials.

  10. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-06

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  11. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  12. Epidemiology of dengue fever: A model with temporary cross-immunity and possible secondary infection shows bifurcations and chaotic behaviour in wide parameter regions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, M.; Kooi, B.W.; Stollenwerk, N.

    2008-01-01

    Basic models suitable to explain the epidemiology of dengue fever have previously shown the possibility of deterministically chaotic attractors, which might explain the observed fluctuations found in empiric outbreak data. However, the region of bifurcations and chaos require strong enhanced

  13. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... After 1 month, 60% of patients still showed improvement. Conclusion: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in eliminating chronic migraine headache.

  14. Comprehensive behavioral testing in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease shows no benefit from CoQ10 or minocycline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana B Menalled

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the effects of coenzyme Q10 and minocycline on mouse models of Huntington's disease have produced conflicting results regarding their efficacy in behavioral tests. Using our recently published best practices for husbandry and testing for mouse models of Huntington's disease, we report that neither coenzyme Q10 nor minocycline had significant beneficial effects on measures of motor function, general health (open field, rotarod, grip strength, rearing-climbing, body weight and survival in the R6/2 mouse model. The higher doses of minocycline, on the contrary, reduced survival. We were thus unable to confirm the previously reported benefits for these two drugs, and we discuss potential reasons for these discrepancies, such as the effects of husbandry and nutrition.

  15. A Combination of Coffee Compounds Shows Insulin-Sensitizing and Hepatoprotective Effects in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouh, Pedram; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    control, but improved fed hyperinsulinemia (mean difference = 30.80 mU/L, p = 0.044) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (mean difference = 15.29, p = 0.033), and plasma adiponectin levels (mean difference = -0.99 µg/mL, p = 0.048). The impact of nutraceuticals on post...

  16. Models of Plankton Community Changes during a Warm Water Anomaly in Arctic Waters Show Altered Trophic Pathways with Minimal Changes in Carbon Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vernet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon flow through pelagic food webs is an expression of the composition, biomass and activity of phytoplankton as primary producers. In the near future, severe environmental changes in the Arctic Ocean are expected to lead to modifications of phytoplankton communities. Here, we used a combination of linear inverse modeling and ecological network analysis to study changes in food webs before, during, and after an anomalous warm water event in the eastern Fram Strait of the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC that resulted in a shift from diatoms to flagellates during the summer (June–July. The model predicts substantial differences in the pathways of carbon flow in diatom- vs. Phaeocystis/nanoflagellate-dominated phytoplankton communities, but relatively small differences in carbon export. The model suggests a change in the zooplankton community and activity through increasing microzooplankton abundance and the switching of meso- and macrozooplankton feeding from strict herbivory to omnivory, detritivory and coprophagy. When small cells and flagellates dominated, the phytoplankton carbon pathway through the food web was longer and the microbial loop more active. Furthermore, one step was added in the flow from phytoplankton to mesozooplankton, and phytoplankton carbon to higher trophic levels is available via detritus or microzooplankton. Model results highlight how specific changes in phytoplankton community composition, as expected in a climate change scenario, do not necessarily lead to a reduction in carbon export.

  17. Cross-biome transplants of plant litter show decomposition models extend to a broader climatic range but lose predictability at the decadal time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Currie; Mark E. Harmon; Ingrid C. Burke; Stephen C. Hart; William J. Parton; Whendee L. Silver

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed results from 10-year long field incubations of foliar and fine root litter from the Long-term lntersite Decomposition Experiment Team (LIDET) study. We tested whether a variety of climate and litter quality variables could be used to develop regression models of decomposition parameters across wide ranges in litter quality and climate and whether these...

  18. Spatially explicit modeling of annual and seasonal habitat for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Nevada and Northeastern California—An updated decision-support tool for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Mauch, Kimberly; Niell, Lara; Gardner, Scott; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-05-20

    Successful adaptive management hinges largely upon integrating new and improved sources of information as they become available. As a timely example of this tenet, we updated a management decision support tool that was previously developed for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereinafter referred to as “sage-grouse”) populations in Nevada and California. Specifically, recently developed spatially explicit habitat maps derived from empirical data played a key role in the conservation of this species facing listing under the Endangered Species Act. This report provides an updated process for mapping relative habitat suitability and management categories for sage-grouse in Nevada and northeastern California (Coates and others, 2014, 2016). These updates include: (1) adding radio and GPS telemetry locations from sage-grouse monitored at multiple sites during 2014 to the original location dataset beginning in 1998; (2) integrating output from high resolution maps (1–2 m2) of sagebrush and pinyon-juniper cover as covariates in resource selection models; (3) modifying the spatial extent of the analyses to match newly available vegetation layers; (4) explicit modeling of relative habitat suitability during three seasons (spring, summer, winter) that corresponded to critical life history periods for sage-grouse (breeding, brood-rearing, over-wintering); (5) accounting for differences in habitat availability between more mesic sagebrush steppe communities in the northern part of the study area and drier Great Basin sagebrush in more southerly regions by categorizing continuous region-wide surfaces of habitat suitability index (HSI) with independent locations falling within two hydrological zones; (6) integrating the three seasonal maps into a composite map of annual relative habitat suitability; (7) deriving updated land management categories based on previously determined cut-points for intersections of habitat suitability and an updated index of sage

  19. Gastrointestinal Simulation Model TWIN-SHIME Shows Differences between Human Urolithin-Metabotypes in Gut Microbiota Composition, Pomegranate Polyphenol Metabolism, and Transport along the Intestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Vissenaekens, Hanne; Pitart, Judit; Romo-Vaquero, María; Espín, Juan C; Grootaert, Charlotte; Selma, María V; Raes, Katleen; Smagghe, Guy; Possemiers, Sam; Van Camp, John; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco A

    2017-07-12

    A TWIN-SHIME system was used to compare the metabolism of pomegranate polyphenols by the gut microbiota from two individuals with different urolithin metabotypes. Gut microbiota, ellagitannin metabolism, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), transport of metabolites, and phase II metabolism using Caco-2 cells were explored. The simulation reproduced the in vivo metabolic profiles for each metabotype. The study shows for the first time that microbial composition, metabolism of ellagitannins, and SCFA differ between metabotypes and along the large intestine. The assay also showed that pomegranate phenolics preserved intestinal cell integrity. Pomegranate polyphenols enhanced urolithin and propionate production, as well as Akkermansia and Gordonibacter prevalence with the highest effect in the descending colon. The system provides an insight into the mechanisms of pomegranate polyphenol gut microbiota metabolism and absorption through intestinal cells. The results obtained by the combined SHIME/Caco-2 cell system are consistent with previous human and animal studies and show that although urolithin metabolites are present along the gastrointestinal tract due to enterohepatic circulation, they are predominantly produced in the distal colon region.

  20. Comparison of G protein sequences of South African street rabies viruses showing distinct progression of the disease in a mouse model of experimental rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wonhyo; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence; Akinbowale, Jenkins; Prehaud, Christophe; Lafon, Monique; Sabeta, Claude

    Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease and infections generally lead to a fatal encephalomyelitis in both humans and animals. In South Africa, domestic (dogs) and the wildlife (yellow mongoose) host species maintain the canid and mongoose rabies variants respectively. In this study, pathogenicity differences of South African canid and mongoose rabies viruses were investigated in a murine model, by assessing the progression of clinical signs and survivorship. Comparison of glycoprotein gene sequences revealed amino acid differences that may underpin the observed pathogenicity differences. Cumulatively, our results suggest that the canid rabies virus may be more neurovirulent in mice than the mongoose rabies variant. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A Combination of Coffee Compounds Shows Insulin-Sensitizing and Hepatoprotective Effects in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Shokouh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since coffee may help to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS, we aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a coffee-based supplement on different features of diet-induced MetS. In this study, 24 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control or nutraceuticals groups to receive a high-fat/high-fructose diet with or without a mixture of caffeic acid (30 mg/day, trigonelline (20 mg/day, and cafestol (1 mg/day for 12 weeks. An additional 11 rats were assigned to an acute crossover study. In the chronic experiment, nutraceuticals did not alter body weight or glycemic control, but improved fed hyperinsulinemia (mean difference = 30.80 mU/L, p = 0.044 and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (mean difference = 15.29, p = 0.033, and plasma adiponectin levels (mean difference = −0.99 µg/mL, p = 0.048. The impact of nutraceuticals on post-prandial glycemia tended to be more pronounced after acute administration than at the end of the chronic study. Circulating (mean difference = 4.75 U/L, p = 0.014 and intrahepatocellular alanine transaminase activity was assessed by hyperpolarized-13C nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy and found to be reduced by coffee nutraceuticals at endpoint. There was also a tendency towards lower liver triglyceride content and histological steatosis score in the intervention group. In conclusion, a mixture of coffee nutraceuticals improved insulin sensitivity and exhibited hepatoprotective effects in a rat model of MetS. Higher dosages with or without caffeine deserve to be studied in the future.

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Lung Tissue from Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema Murine Models and Human Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Show Shared and Distinct Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeong H; Morrow, Jarrett; Owen, Caroline A; Qiu, Weiliang; Glass, Kimberly; Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Perrella, Mark A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo; Hersh, Craig P

    2017-07-01

    Although cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the underlying molecular mechanisms for the significant variability in developing COPD in response to CS are incompletely understood. We performed lung gene expression profiling of two different wild-type murine strains (C57BL/6 and NZW/LacJ) and two genetic models with mutations in COPD genome-wide association study genes (HHIP and FAM13A) after 6 months of chronic CS exposure and compared the results to human COPD lung tissues. We identified gene expression patterns that correlate with severity of emphysema in murine and human lungs. Xenobiotic metabolism and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response were commonly regulated molecular response patterns in C57BL/6, Hhip +/- , and Fam13a -/- murine strains exposed chronically to CS. The CS-resistant Fam13a -/- mouse and NZW/LacJ strain revealed gene expression response pattern differences. The Fam13a -/- strain diverged in gene expression compared with C57BL/6 control only after CS exposure. However, the NZW/LacJ strain had a unique baseline expression pattern, enriched for nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response and xenobiotic metabolism, and converged to a gene expression pattern similar to the more susceptible wild-type C57BL/6 after CS exposure. These results suggest that distinct molecular pathways may account for resistance to emphysema. Surprisingly, there were few genes commonly modulated in mice and humans. Our study suggests that gene expression responses to CS may be largely species and model dependent, yet shared pathways could provide biologically significant insights underlying individual susceptibility to CS.

  3. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Fine

    Full Text Available Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; p<0.01. MIP-1α was elevated 13-fold, 6 months prior to BL. When MIP-1α levels were set at 40 pg/ml, 98% of healthy sites were below that level (Specificity; whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity, with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; p<0.0001; 95% C.I. = 42.5-52.7. MIP-1α consistently showed elevated levels as a biomarker for BL in both saliva and GCF, 6 months prior to BL. MIP-1α continues to demonstrate its strong candidacy as a diagnostic biomarker for both subject and site vulnerability to BL.

  5. Modeling antibiotic treatment in hospitals: A systematic approach shows benefits of combination therapy over cycling, mixing, and mono-drug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepekule, Burcu; Uecker, Hildegard; Derungs, Isabel; Frenoy, Antoine; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Multiple treatment strategies are available for empiric antibiotic therapy in hospitals, but neither clinical studies nor theoretical investigations have yielded a clear picture when which strategy is optimal and why. Extending earlier work of others and us, we present a mathematical model capturing treatment strategies using two drugs, i.e the multi-drug therapies referred to as cycling, mixing, and combination therapy, as well as monotherapy with either drug. We randomly sample a large parameter space to determine the conditions determining success or failure of these strategies. We find that combination therapy tends to outperform the other treatment strategies. By using linear discriminant analysis and particle swarm optimization, we find that the most important parameters determining success or failure of combination therapy relative to the other treatment strategies are the de novo rate of emergence of double resistance in patients infected with sensitive bacteria and the fitness costs associated with double resistance. The rate at which double resistance is imported into the hospital via patients admitted from the outside community has little influence, as all treatment strategies are affected equally. The parameter sets for which combination therapy fails tend to fall into areas with low biological plausibility as they are characterised by very high rates of de novo emergence of resistance to both drugs compared to a single drug, and the cost of double resistance is considerably smaller than the sum of the costs of single resistance.

  6. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  7. LRRTM1-deficient mice show a rare phenotype of avoiding small enclosures—A tentative mouse model for claustrophobia-like behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, T.; Lauren, J.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Airaksinen, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The LRRTM family proteins have been shown to act as synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules via interaction with presynaptic neurexins and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. LRRTM1-knockout mice have subtle morphological deficits in excitatory hippocampal synapses and were suggested to have impaired cognitive function. Here we report that LRRTM1-knockout mice exhibit an extraordinary phenotype of avoiding small enclosures. In the light–dark box, the knockout mice escape to dark through a standard opening as quickly as wild-type littermates but avoid escaping through a small doorway. While all wild-type mice spontaneously enter a small tube, most knockout mice do not. This apparent aversion to enter narrow space may explain other abnormalities such as increased time in open arms in the elevated plus maze and less visits through a tunnel in the IntelliCage. Moreover, LRRTM1-knockout mice show increased social interaction, reduced nest building and MK801-induced locomotion, and slower swim speed but normal water maze learning. Since LRRTM1 is predominantly expressed in thalamus, hippocampus and limbic cortex, specific synaptic defects in those areas presumably cause these behavioural abnormalities. PMID:23089646

  8. LRRTM1-deficient mice show a rare phenotype of avoiding small enclosures--a tentative mouse model for claustrophobia-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voikar, V; Kulesskaya, N; Laakso, T; Lauren, J; Strittmatter, S M; Airaksinen, M S

    2013-02-01

    The LRRTM family proteins have been shown to act as synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules via interaction with presynaptic neurexins and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. LRRTM1-knockout mice have subtle morphological deficits in excitatory hippocampal synapses and were suggested to have impaired cognitive function. Here we report that LRRTM1-knockout mice exhibit an extraordinary phenotype of avoiding small enclosures. In the light-dark box, the knockout mice escape to dark through a standard opening as quickly as wild-type littermates but avoid escaping through a small doorway. While all wild-type mice spontaneously enter a small tube, most knockout mice do not. This apparent aversion to enter narrow space may explain other abnormalities such as increased time in open arms in the elevated plus maze and less visits through a tunnel in the IntelliCage. Moreover, LRRTM1-knockout mice show increased social interaction, reduced nest building and MK801-induced locomotion, and slower swim speed but normal water maze learning. Since LRRTM1 is predominantly expressed in thalamus, hippocampus and limbic cortex, specific synaptic defects in those areas presumably cause these behavioural abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the Fgfr2C342Y mouse model shows condensation defects due to misregulation of Sox9 expression in prechondrocytic mesenchyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Peskett

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Syndromic craniosynostosis caused by mutations in FGFR2 is characterised by developmental pathology in both endochondral and membranous skeletogenesis. Detailed phenotypic characterisation of features in the membranous calvarium, the endochondral cranial base and other structures in the axial and appendicular skeleton has not been performed at embryonic stages. We investigated bone development in the Crouzon mouse model (Fgfr2C342Y at pre- and post-ossification stages to improve understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. Phenotypic analysis was performed by whole-mount skeletal staining (Alcian Blue/Alizarin Red and histological staining of sections of CD1 wild-type (WT, Fgfr2C342Y/+ heterozygous (HET and Fgfr2C342Y/C342Y homozygous (HOM mouse embryos from embryonic day (E12.5-E17.5 stages. Gene expression (Sox9, Shh, Fgf10 and Runx2 was studied by in situ hybridisation and protein expression (COL2A1 by immunohistochemistry. Our analysis has identified severely decreased osteogenesis in parts of the craniofacial skeleton together with increased chondrogenesis in parts of the endochondral and cartilaginous skeleton in HOM embryos. The Sox9 expression domain in tracheal and basi-cranial chondrocytic precursors at E13.5 in HOM embryos is increased and expanded, correlating with the phenotypic observations which suggest FGFR2 signalling regulates Sox9 expression. Combined with abnormal staining of type II collagen in pre-chondrocytic mesenchyme, this is indicative of a mesenchymal condensation defect. An expanded spectrum of phenotypic features observed in the Fgfr2C342Y/C342Y mouse embryo paves the way towards better understanding the clinical attributes of human Crouzon–Pfeiffer syndrome. FGFR2 mutation results in impaired skeletogenesis; however, our findings suggest that many phenotypic aberrations stem from a primary failure of pre-chondrogenic/osteogenic mesenchymal condensation and link FGFR2 to SOX9, a principal regulator of

  10. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on

  11. A Drosophila model of dominant inclusion body myopathy type 3 shows diminished myosin kinetics that reduce muscle power and yield myofibrillar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Jennifer A; Melkani, Girish C; Glasheen, Bernadette M; Detor, Mia M; Melkani, Anju; Marsan, Nathan P; Swank, Douglas M; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3) display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K) in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in decreased in vitro

  12. A Drosophila model of dominant inclusion body myopathy type 3 shows diminished myosin kinetics that reduce muscle power and yield myofibrillar defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Suggs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3 display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in

  13. ILDR1 null mice, a model of human deafness DFNB42, show structural aberrations of tricellular tight junctions and degeneration of auditory hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozko, Eva L.; Nishio, Ayako; Ingham, Neil J.; Chandra, Rashmi; Fitzgerald, Tracy; Martelletti, Elisa; Borck, Guntram; Wilson, Elizabeth; Riordan, Gavin P.; Wangemann, Philine; Forge, Andrew; Steel, Karen P.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Belyantseva, Inna A.

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian inner ear, bicellular and tricellular tight junctions (tTJs) seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Tricellulin and immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1, also referred to as angulin-2) localize to tTJs of the sensory and non-sensory epithelia in the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs. Recessive mutations of TRIC (DFNB49) encoding tricellulin and ILDR1 (DFNB42) cause human nonsyndromic deafness. However, the pathophysiology of DFNB42 deafness remains unknown. ILDR1 was recently reported to be a lipoprotein receptor mediating the secretion of the fat-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone in the small intestine, while ILDR1 in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro was shown to recruit tricellulin to tTJs. Here we show that two different mouse Ildr1 mutant alleles have early-onset severe deafness associated with a rapid degeneration of cochlear hair cells (HCs) but have a normal endocochlear potential. ILDR1 is not required for recruitment of tricellulin to tTJs in the cochlea in vivo; however, tricellulin becomes mislocalized in the inner ear sensory epithelia of ILDR1 null mice after the first postnatal week. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, ILDR1 contributes to the ultrastructure of inner ear tTJs. Taken together, our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of human DFNB42 deafness and demonstrate that ILDR1 is crucial for normal hearing by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of tTJs, which are critical for the survival of auditory neurosensory HCs. PMID:25217574

  14. Viewing injustice: greater emotion heterogeneity with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Susan Turk

    2005-03-01

    The present study examined age differences in emotion heterogeneity, defined as the experience of co-occurring negative emotions. Younger and older European American and Mexican American participants (N=183) viewed film clips depicting scenes of injustice. Younger adults were more likely to report a single primary negative emotion, whereas older adults reported greater emotion heterogeneity, a finding consistent across gender and ethnicity. In addition, greater emotion heterogeneity was related to a greater number of life experiences. Future directions concerning the meaning of and possible implications for this age difference are discussed.

  15. Mercury's global contraction much greater than earlier estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Paul K.; Klimczak, Christian; Celâl Şengör, A. M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watters, Thomas R.; Hauck, Steven A., II

    2014-04-01

    Mercury, a planet with a lithosphere that forms a single tectonic plate, is replete with tectonic structures interpreted to be the result of planetary cooling and contraction. However, the amount of global contraction inferred from spacecraft images has been far lower than that predicted by models of the thermal evolution of the planet's interior. Here we present a synthesis of the global contraction of Mercury from orbital observations acquired by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We show that Mercury's global contraction has been accommodated by a substantially greater number and variety of structures than previously recognized, including long belts of ridges and scarps where the crust has been folded and faulted. The tectonic features on Mercury are consistent with models for large-scale deformation proposed for a globally contracting Earth--now obsolete--that pre-date plate tectonics theory. We find that Mercury has contracted radially by as much as 7 km, well in excess of the 0.8-3 km previously reported from photogeology and resolving the discrepancy with thermal models. Our findings provide a key constraint for studies of Mercury's thermal history, bulk silicate abundances of heat-producing elements, mantle convection and the structure of its large metallic core.

  16. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  17. Reconstructing the paleogeography and subduction geodynamics of Greater India: how to apply Ockham's Razor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Li, S.; Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Advokaat, E. L.; Spakman, W.

    2017-12-01

    Key in understanding the geodynamics governing subduction and orogeny is reconstructing the paleogeography of `Greater India', the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted since Tibetan Himalayan continental crustal collision with Asia. Here, we discuss how the principle of Ockham's Razor, favoring the simplest scenario as the most likely, may apply to three perspectives on Greater India's paleogeography. We follow recent constraints suggesting a 58 Ma initial collision and update the kinematic restoration of intra-Asian shortening with a recently proposed Indochina extrusion model that reconciles long-debated large and small estimates of Indochina extrusion. The reconstruction is tested against Tibetan paleomagnetic rotation data, and against seismic tomographic constraints on paleo-subduction zone locations. The resulting restoration shows 1000-1200 km of post-collisional intra-Asian shortening, leaving a 2600-3400 km wide Greater India. Ockham's Razor from a paleogeographic, sediment provenance perspective would prefer a fully continental Greater India, although these sediments may also source from the Paleocene-Eocene west Indian orogen unrelated to the India-Asia collision. Ockham's Razor applied from a kinematic, paleomagnetic perspective, prefers major Cretaceous extension and `Greater India Basin' opening within Greater India, but data uncertainty may speculatively allow for minimal extension. Finally, from a geodynamic perspective, assuming a fully continental Greater India would require that the highest subduction rates recorded in the Phanerozoic would have been driven by a subduction of a lithosphere-crust assemblage more buoyant than the mantle, which seems physically improbable. Ockhams Razor thereby isolates the Greater India Basin hypothesis as the only scenario sustainable from all perspectives. Finally, we infer that the old pre-collisional lithosphere rapidly entered the lower mantle sustaining high subduction rates, whilst post

  18. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  19. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  20. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost ter...

  1. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  2. Greater Huachuca Mountains Fire Management Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke S. Gebow; Carol Lambert

    2005-01-01

    The Greater Huachuca Mountains Fire Management Group is developing a fire management plan for 500,000 acres in southeast Arizona. Partner land managers include Arizona State Parks, Arizona State Lands, Audubon Research Ranch, Coronado National Forest, Coronado National Memorial, Fort Huachuca, The Nature Conservancy, San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, and...

  3. Use of a novel docosahexaenoic acid formulation vs control in a neonatal porcine model of short bowel syndrome leads to greater intestinal absorption and higher systemic levels of DHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) are at high risk for malabsorption, malnutrition, and failure to thrive. The objective of this study was to evaluate in a porcine model of SBS, the systemic absorption of a novel enteral Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) formulation that forms micelles independent of...

  4. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  5. Temperature shows greater impact on bovine Longissimus dorsi muscle glycogen debranching enzyme activity than does salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylä-Ajos, M; Puolanne, E

    2007-12-01

    The degradation of glycogen progresses by the co-operation of two enzymes: glycogen phosphorylase (phosphorylase) and glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE). We studied the effect of temperature (4-42°C) and salt concentration (0-3% NaCl) on bovine M. longissimus dorsi GDE activity. GDE activity (n=4) decreased significantly with decreasing temperature from about 40-4°C. GDE exhibited 52% activity at 25°C and 11% at 4°C compared to its optimum activity measured at 39°C. In rapidly chilled meat, the reduction in GDE activity may substantially delay the rate of glycolysis. However, residual GDE activity at 4°C seems sufficient to enable the attainment of normal ultimate pH if the available time is long enough. An increase in salt concentration from 0% to 2% and to 3% induced a significant (Pactivity.

  6. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  7. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  8. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  9. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  10. Microbial Anti-Inflammatory Molecule (MAM) from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Shows a Protective Effect on DNBS and DSS-Induced Colitis Model in Mice through Inhibition of NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyner, Natalia M; Michon, Cristophe; de Sousa, Cassiana S; Vilas Boas, Priscilla B; Chain, Florian; Azevedo, Vasco A; Langella, Philippe; Chatel, Jean M

    2017-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and its supernatant showed protective effects in different chemically-induced colitis models in mice. Recently, we described 7 peptides found in the F. prausnitzii supernatant, all belonging to a protein called Microbial Anti-inflammatory Molecule (MAM). These peptides were able to inhibit NF-κB pathway in vitro and showed anti-inflammatory properties in vivo in a DiNitroBenzene Sulfate (DNBS)-induced colitis model. In this current proof we tested MAM effect on NF-κB pathway in vivo , using a transgenic model of mice producing luciferase under the control of NF-κB promoter. Moreover, we tested this protein on Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. To study the effect of MAM we orally administered to the mice a Lactococcus lactis strain carrying a plasmid containing the cDNA of MAM under the control of a eukaryotic promoter. L. lactis delivered plasmids in epithelial cells of the intestinal membrane allowing thus the production of MAM directly by host. We showed that MAM administration inhibits NF-κB pathway in vivo . We confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of MAM in DNBS-induced colitis but also in DSS model. In DSS model MAM was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 immune response while in DNBS model MAM reduced Th1, Th2, and Th17 immune response and increased TGFβ production.

  11. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  13. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  14. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  15. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  16. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  17. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  18. Greater occipital nerve blockade in cervicogenic headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINCENT MAURICE B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervicocogenic headache (CeH is a relatively common disorder. Although no ideal treatment is available so far, blockades in different structures and nerves may be temporarily effective. We studied the effects of 1-2 mL 0.5% bupivacaine injection at the ipsilateral greater occipital nerve (GON in 41 CeH patients. The pain is significantly reduced both immediately and as long as 7 days after the blockade. The improvement is less marked during the first two days, a phenomenon we called "tilde pattern". GON blockades may reduce the pool of exaggerated sensory input and antagonize a putative "wind-up-like effect" which may explain the headache improvement.

  19. An Approach to Greater Specificity for Glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson C. Chow

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid steroids are among the most prescribed drugs each year. Nonetheless, the many undesirable side effects, and lack of selectivity, restrict their greater usage. Research to increase glucocorticoid specificity has spanned many years. These efforts have been hampered by the ability of glucocorticoids to both induce and repress gene transcription and also by the lack of success in defining any predictable properties that control glucocorticoid specificity. Correlations of transcriptional specificity have been observed with changes in steroid structure, receptor and chromatin conformation, DNA sequence for receptor binding, and associated cofactors. However, none of these studies have progressed to the point of being able to offer guidance for increased specificity. We summarize here a mathematical theory that allows a novel and quantifiable approach to increase selectivity. The theory applies to all three major actions of glucocorticoid receptors: induction by agonists, induction by antagonists, and repression by agonists. Simple graphical analysis of competition assays involving any two factors (steroid, chemical, peptide, protein, DNA, etc. yields information (1 about the kinetically described mechanism of action for each factor at that step where the factor acts in the overall reaction sequence and (2 about the relative position of that step where each factor acts. These two pieces of information uniquely provide direction for increasing the specificity of glucocorticoid action. Consideration of all three modes of action indicate that the most promising approach for increased specificity is to vary the concentrations of those cofactors/pharmaceuticals that act closest to the observed end point. The potential for selectivity is even greater when varying cofactors/pharmaceuticals in conjunction with a select class of antagonists.

  20. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun; Lim, Jong Nam

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis

  1. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  2. Land use scenarios for greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2012-01-01

    Urban planning and development in Denmark can be characterised by a relatively strong planning framework. Land use scenarios based on empirically derived dynamics of urban growth are practically never applied. However, modelling approaches do offer a methodology to explore the pressures in an urban...... region, as well as an approach to understand urban development patterns outside the ‘spatial masterplan’. In this context we will present the results of a modelling exercise addressing future land use change in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the impact of the current regional planning...... framework, the “Fingerplan 2007”. We test three policy scenarios and analyse different effects on urban growth by using the Metronamica model from the Dutch-based Research Institute for Knowledge Systems (RIKS). We analyse the possibilities to elaborate a practical and useful outcome within a relatively...

  3. Importance of regional variation in conservation planning: A rangewide example of the Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kevin E.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Coates, Peter S.; Juliusson, Lara; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2016-01-01

    We developed rangewide population and habitat models for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that account for regional variation in habitat selection and relative densities of birds for use in conservation planning and risk assessments. We developed a probabilistic model of occupied breeding habitat by statistically linking habitat characteristics within 4 miles of an occupied lek using a nonlinear machine learning technique (Random Forests). Habitat characteristics used were quantified in GIS and represent standard abiotic and biotic variables related to sage-grouse biology. Statistical model fit was high (mean correctly classified = 82.0%, range = 75.4–88.0%) as were cross-validation statistics (mean = 80.9%, range = 75.1–85.8%). We also developed a spatially explicit model to quantify the relative density of breeding birds across each Greater Sage-Grouse management zone. The models demonstrate distinct clustering of relative abundance of sage-grouse populations across all management zones. On average, approximately half of the breeding population is predicted to be within 10% of the occupied range. We also found that 80% of sage-grouse populations were contained in 25–34% of the occupied range within each management zone. Our rangewide population and habitat models account for regional variation in habitat selection and the relative densities of birds, and thus, they can serve as a consistent and common currency to assess how sage-grouse habitat and populations overlap with conservation actions or threats over the entire sage-grouse range. We also quantified differences in functional habitat responses and disturbance thresholds across the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) management zones using statistical relationships identified during habitat modeling. Even for a species as specialized as Greater Sage-Grouse, our results show that ecological context matters in both the strength of habitat selection (i

  4. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  5. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games...

  6. Sacrificing information for the greater good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensbo-Smidt, Kristoffer; Gieseke, Fabian Cristian; Igel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    . These estimates are needed to automatically identify interesting objects worth a follow-up investigation as well as to produce the required data for a statistical analysis of the space covered by a survey. We argue that machine learning techniques are suitable to compute these estimates accurately and efficiently....... This study promotes a feature selection algorithm, which selects the most informative magnitudes and colours for a given task of estimating physical quantities from photometric data alone. Using k nearest neighbours regression, a well-known non-parametric machine learning method, we show that using the found...... Sky Survey (SDSS). For estimating sSFRs, we demonstrate that our method produces better estimates than traditional spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. For estimating photo-z's, we show that our method produces more accurate photo-z's than the method employed by SDSS. The study highlights...

  7. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Greater Internet use is not associated with faster growth in political polarization among US demographic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxell, Levi; Gentzkow, Matthew; Shapiro, Jesse M

    2017-10-03

    We combine eight previously proposed measures to construct an index of political polarization among US adults. We find that polarization has increased the most among the demographic groups least likely to use the Internet and social media. Our overall index and all but one of the individual measures show greater increases for those older than 65 than for those aged 18-39. A linear model estimated at the age-group level implies that the Internet explains a small share of the recent growth in polarization.

  9. Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kalani T; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A C; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167 mg/day in men and 1017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

  10. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  11. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  12. Osteotomy of the greater trochanter: effect on gluteus medius function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Martin; Krüger, A; Katthagen, C; Kohl, S

    2015-08-01

    Advancement of the greater trochanter alters the function of the gluteus medius muscle. However, with the exception of clinical studies and biomechanical lever arm studies, no publications that analyze the consequences of advancement of the greater trochanter on the muscle function exist. The aim of the study was to analyze the mechanical changes of gluteus medius after osteotomy of the greater trochanter in a lab setting. An anatomical study of origin and insertion of the gluteus medius was carried out on four hips. Based on the dissections, a string model was developed dividing the muscle into five sectors. Changes in muscle fiber length were measured for every 10° of flexion, internal and external rotation and abduction with the trochanter in anatomic, proximalized and distalized positions. Distalization of the trochanter leads to an imbalance of muscle action, moving the isometric sector of the muscle anteriorly with more muscle sectors being active during flexion and less during extension. Stretching of the muscle increases passive forces but decreases the force generation capacity of the muscle and at the same time increased muscle fiber excursion may require more energy consumption, which may explain earlier fatigue of the abductor musculature after distalization of the trochanter. For abduction, distalization of the muscle attachment leads to a change in contraction pattern from isometric to isotonic. Optimal balancing and excursion of the muscle is when the tip of the greater trochanter is at level with the hip rotation center. In hips with high riding trochanter, the optimal position is at the level of the center of hip rotation. Excessive distalization should be avoided. As the conclusions and considerations are based on a lab setting, transfer to clinical practice may not necessarily apply.

  13. Nevada Test Site experience with greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Boland, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1980, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) began a project to develop an improved disposal method for high specific activity (HSA) low-level wastes (LLW), e.g. tritium wastes. Past experience with the shallow land burial (SLB) of tritium wastes showed detectable concentrations appearing at trench surfaces. In 1981, the Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was initiated to demonstrate the disposal of HSA wastes considered unsuitable for SLB. The project had two specific goals: (1) develop and demonstrate the operational technology for use of large-diameter boreholes for greater confinement disposal (GCD), and (2) conduct research necessary to quantify the effective improvement provided by GCD over SLB. While the long-term impacts may be insignificant for short-lived nuclides, the operational impacts may be a major limiting factor. For example, under 10 CFR 61 up to 700 Ci/m 3 of cobalt-60 may be disposed in SLB as Class A wastes; however, an unshielded waste package containing this amount of cobalt-60 would have an external radiation level of over 5000 R/h making it impossible to dispose of without use of a remote handling systems. In developing the GCDT, the authors decided that greater confinement disposal was not to be strictly limited to a category of wastes between low- and high-level, but a variety of problem wastes that could not, or should not, be disposed of by conventional SLB methods. The paper discusses NTS waste disposal history, hazards reduction, and waste management philosophy. 3 tables

  14. Complete Comparison Display (CCD) evaluation of ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera shows that they can non-synergistically ameliorate biochemical and behavioural damages in MPTP induced Parkinson's model of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Maheep; Goel, Ishan; Roy, Tathagato; Khurana, Sukant

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease remains as one of the most common debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. With the hopes of finding agents that can cure or reduce the pace of progression of the disease, we studied two traditional medicinal plants: Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera that have been explored in some recent studies. In agreement with the previous work on ethanol extracts of these two plants in mice model, we saw an improvement in oxidative stress profile as well as behavioral performance in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced Parkinson-like symptoms in Balb/c mice. Given the known potential of both the herbal extracts in improving Parkinson-like symptoms, we expected the combination of the two to show better results than either of the two but surprisingly there was no additivity in either oxidative stress or behavioural recovery. In fact, in some assays, the combination performed worse than either of the two individual constituents. This effect of mixtures highlights the need of testing mixtures in supplements market using enthomedicine. The necessity of comparing multiple groups in this study to get most information from the experiments motivated us to design a ladder-like visualization to show comparison with different groups that we call complete comparison display (CCD). In summary, we show the potential of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera to ameliorate Parkinson’s disorder. PMID:28510600

  15. Complete Comparison Display (CCD evaluation of ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera shows that they can non-synergistically ameliorate biochemical and behavioural damages in MPTP induced Parkinson's model of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheep Bhatnagar

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease remains as one of the most common debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. With the hopes of finding agents that can cure or reduce the pace of progression of the disease, we studied two traditional medicinal plants: Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera that have been explored in some recent studies. In agreement with the previous work on ethanol extracts of these two plants in mice model, we saw an improvement in oxidative stress profile as well as behavioral performance in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP induced Parkinson-like symptoms in Balb/c mice. Given the known potential of both the herbal extracts in improving Parkinson-like symptoms, we expected the combination of the two to show better results than either of the two but surprisingly there was no additivity in either oxidative stress or behavioural recovery. In fact, in some assays, the combination performed worse than either of the two individual constituents. This effect of mixtures highlights the need of testing mixtures in supplements market using enthomedicine. The necessity of comparing multiple groups in this study to get most information from the experiments motivated us to design a ladder-like visualization to show comparison with different groups that we call complete comparison display (CCD. In summary, we show the potential of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera to ameliorate Parkinson's disorder.

  16. Complete Comparison Display (CCD) evaluation of ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera shows that they can non-synergistically ameliorate biochemical and behavioural damages in MPTP induced Parkinson's model of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Maheep; Goel, Ishan; Roy, Tathagato; Shukla, Sunil Dutt; Khurana, Sukant

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease remains as one of the most common debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. With the hopes of finding agents that can cure or reduce the pace of progression of the disease, we studied two traditional medicinal plants: Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera that have been explored in some recent studies. In agreement with the previous work on ethanol extracts of these two plants in mice model, we saw an improvement in oxidative stress profile as well as behavioral performance in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced Parkinson-like symptoms in Balb/c mice. Given the known potential of both the herbal extracts in improving Parkinson-like symptoms, we expected the combination of the two to show better results than either of the two but surprisingly there was no additivity in either oxidative stress or behavioural recovery. In fact, in some assays, the combination performed worse than either of the two individual constituents. This effect of mixtures highlights the need of testing mixtures in supplements market using enthomedicine. The necessity of comparing multiple groups in this study to get most information from the experiments motivated us to design a ladder-like visualization to show comparison with different groups that we call complete comparison display (CCD). In summary, we show the potential of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera to ameliorate Parkinson's disorder.

  17. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  18. Combined MRI and ³¹P-MRS investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y mouse model of nemaline myopathy show impaired muscle function and altered energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gineste

    Full Text Available Nemaline myopathy (NM is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1 account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y. Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and (31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1-150 Hz and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz. H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (-40% and specific (-25% maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40% and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level.

  19. The Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome shows reduced expression of the Bcl-X(L) antiapoptotic protein in the hippocampus not accompanied by changes in molecular or cellular markers of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Noemí; Flórez, Jesús; Martínez-Cué, Carmen

    2011-11-01

    The Ts65Dn (TS) mouse, the most widely used model of Down syndrome (DS), has a partial trisomy of a segment of chromosome 16 that is homologous to the distal part of human chromosome 21. This mouse shares many phenotypic characteristics with people with DS including neuromorphological, neurochemical, and cognitive disturbances. Both TS and DS brains show earlier aging and neurodegeneration. Since fibroblast cultures from TS mice and human DS hippocampal regions show increased apoptotic cell death it has been suggested that alterations in cerebral apoptosis might be implicated in the cognitive deficits found in TS mice and in people with DS. In the present study we have evaluated brain expression levels of several proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins from the mitochondrial (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Bax and Bad) and the extrinsic (Fas-R and Fas-L) apoptotic pathways as well as the final executioner caspase-3, in the cortex and hippocampus of TS mice. No significant alterations in the expression levels of the proapoptotic Bad and Bax or the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in the cortex or hippocampus were found in TS mice. However, TS mice showed downregulation of Bcl-X(L) in the hippocampus. In the extrinsic pathway we found unchanged levels of Fas-L in both structures and also in the expression levels of Fas-R in the hippocampus. Although Bcl-X(L) downregulation suggests that the hippocampus of TS mice is less protected against programmed cell death, we did not find any evidence for increased apoptosis in TS mice since neither TUNEL-positive cells nor active caspase-3 expression were found in cortex or hippocampus of TS or CO mice. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  1. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  2. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these “cultural universals” is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all

  3. ADX71943 and ADX71441, novel positive allosteric modulators of the GABABreceptor with distinct central/peripheral profiles, show efficacy in the monosodium iodoacetate model of chronic osteoarthritis pain in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichev, Mikhail; Donovan-Rodriguez, Tansy; Girard, Françoise; Haddouk, Hasnaá; Royer-Urios, Isabelle; Schneider, Manfred; Bate, Simon T; Marker, Cheryl; Pomonis, James D; Poli, Sonia

    2017-01-15

    We tested novel positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor B (GABA B ), ADX71943 and ADX71441in the monosodium iodoacetate model of chronic osteoarthritis pain in rats with the objective to delineate the role of peripheral versus central GABA B receptor populations in modulation of chronic pain. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats received an injection of monosodium iodoacetate into the knee and were tested for hyperalgesia starting post-MIA day 14. Effects of compounds on ipsilateral joint compression threshold were evaluated on post-MIA day 14 (after acute treatment), as well as after repeated, daily treatment on days 21 and 28 (ADX71943 only) and were compared to those of celecoxib (30mg/kg, p.o.). The PAMs were also tested in the rat rotarod test for potential muscle-relaxant effects. Acutely, ADX71943 (1-30mg/kg, p.o.), the peripherally restricted PAM, resulted in similar increases in pain threshold across the doses on day 14, while showing reduced efficacy on day 21 and no efficacy on day 28. A clear reduction in the efficacy of celecoxib across testing was also noted in this experiment. Acutely ADX71441 (0.3-15mg/kg, p.o.), the central-peripheral PAM, resulted in over 2-fold increases in pain threshold at 15mg/kg (but not at lower doses) on day 14, while causing more modest effects on day 21. Celecoxib increased pain threshold after both acute and daily treatment, showing overall similar efficacy. Thus, early, presumably more inflammatory phase of osteoarthritis pain in more sensitive to GABA B PAMs with peripherally restricted profile, while later, presumably more neuropathic phase is more sensitive to PAMs with central-peripheral profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  5. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  6. A Mixture of Functionally Oligoclonal Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies That Neutralize Clostridium difficile TcdA and TcdB with High Levels of In Vitro Potency Shows In Vivo Protection in a Hamster Infection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nicola L.; Compson, Joanne E.; MacKenzie, Brendon; O'Dowd, Victoria L.; Oxbrow, Amanda K. F.; Heads, James T.; Turner, Alison; Sarkar, Kaushik; Dugdale, Sarah L.; Jairaj, Mark; Christodoulou, Louis; Knight, David E. O.; Cross, Amanda S.; Hervé, Karine J. M.; Tyson, Kerry L.; Hailu, Hanna; Doyle, Carl B.; Ellis, Mark; Kriek, Marco; Cox, Matthew; Page, Matthew J. T.; Moore, Adrian R.; Lightwood, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections are a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospital and care facility patients. In spite of the availability of effective antibiotic treatments, C. difficile infection (CDI) is still a major cause of patient suffering, death, and substantial health care costs. Clostridium difficile exerts its major pathological effects through the actions of two protein exotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, which bind to and disrupt gut tissue. Antibiotics target the infecting bacteria but not the exotoxins. Administering neutralizing antibodies against TcdA and TcdB to patients receiving antibiotic treatment might modulate the effects of the exotoxins directly. We have developed a mixture of three humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which neutralize TcdA and TcdB to address three clinical needs: reduction of the severity and duration of diarrhea, reduction of death rates, and reduction of the rate of recurrence. The UCB MAb mixture showed higher potency in a variety of in vitro binding and neutralization assays (∼10-fold improvements), higher levels of protection in a hamster model of CDI (82% versus 18% at 28 days), and higher valencies of toxin binding (12 versus 2 for TcdA and 3 versus 2 for TcdB) than other agents in clinical development. Comparisons of the MAb properties also offered some insight into the potential relative importance of TcdA and TcdB in the disease process. PMID:23324518

  7. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth’s recent energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T.; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-01

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth’s top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  8. Ecosystem management: A comparison of greater yellowstone and georges bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Richard H.; Clark, Tim W.

    1995-09-01

    Ecosystem management links human activities with the functioning of natural environments over large spatial and temporal scales. Our examination of Greater Yellowstone and Georges Bank shows similarities exist between human uses, administrative characteristics, and some biophysical features. Each region faces growing pressures to replace traditional extractive uses with more sustainable extractive or noncommodity uses coupled with concern about endangered species. Ecosystem management as a set of practical guidelines for making decisions under evolving expectations is far from complete, and it embodies new demands on individuals and institutions. In each system these challenges are considered relative to: the public's symbolic understanding of the management challenge, ecosystem management ambiguities, information availability, information use, administrative setting, and learning capabilities of governance organizations Progress in making ecosystem management operational may occur as refinements in content and approach make it an increasingly attractive option for resource users, the public, and government officials.

  9. The flinders sensitive line rats, a genetic model of depression, show abnormal serotonin receptor mRNA expression in the brain that is reversed by 17beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlund, M K; Overstreet, D H; Hurd, Y L

    1999-12-10

    The possible link between estrogen and serotonin (5-HT) in depression was investigated using a genetic animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, in comparison to control Flinders Resistant Line rats. The mRNA levels of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta subtypes and the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors were analyzed in several limbic-related areas of ovariectomized FSL and FRL rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (0.15 microg/g) or vehicle. The FSL animals were shown to express significantly lower levels of the 5-HT(2A) receptor transcripts in the perirhinal cortex, piriform cortex, and medial anterodorsal amygdala and higher levels in the CA 2-3 region of the hippocampus. The only significant difference between the rat lines in ER mRNA expression was found in the medial posterodorsal amygdala, where the FSL rats showed lower ERalpha expression levels. Overall, estradiol treatment increased 5-HT(2A) and decreased 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA levels in several of the examined regions of both lines. Thus, in many areas, estradiol was found to regulate the 5-HT receptor mRNA expression in the opposite direction to the alterations found in the FSL rats. These findings further support the implication of 5-HT receptors, in particular the 5-HT(2A) subtype, in the etiology of affective disorders. Moreover, the ability of estradiol to regulate the expression of the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor genes might account for the reported influence of gonadal hormones in mood and depression.

  10. Muscles in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy show profound defects in neuromuscular development even in the absence of failure in neuromuscular transmission or loss of motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Il; Mikesh, Michelle; Smith, Ian; Rimer, Mendell; Thompson, Wesley

    2011-08-15

    A mouse model of the devastating human disease "spinal muscular atrophy" (SMA) was used to investigate the severe muscle weakness and spasticity that precede the death of these animals near the end of the 2nd postnatal week. Counts of motor units to the soleus muscle as well as of axons in the soleus muscle nerve showed no loss of motor neurons. Similarly, neither immunostaining of neuromuscular junctions nor the measurement of the tension generated by nerve stimulation gave evidence of any significant impairment in neuromuscular transmission, even when animals were maintained up to 5days longer via a supplementary diet. However, the muscles were clearly weaker, generating less than half their normal tension. Weakness in 3 muscles examined in the study appears due to a severe but uniform reduction in muscle fiber size. The size reduction results from a failure of muscle fibers to grow during early postnatal development and, in soleus, to a reduction in number of fibers generated. Neuromuscular development is severely delayed in these mutant animals: expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms, the elimination of polyneuronal innervation, the maturation in the shape of the AChR plaque, the arrival of SCs at the junctions and their coverage of the nerve terminal, the development of junctional folds. Thus, if SMA in this particular mouse is a disease of motor neurons, it can act in a manner that does not result in their death or disconnection from their targets but nonetheless alters many aspects of neuromuscular development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Polypeptide-based nanogels co-encapsulating a synergistic combination of doxorubicin with 17-AAG show potent anti-tumor activity in ErbB2-driven breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Swapnil S; Raja, Srikumar M; Kim, Jong Oh; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Soni, Kruti S; Luan, Haitao; Williams, Stetson H; Bielecki, Timothy A; Feng, Dan; Storck, Matthew; Band, Vimla; Cohen, Samuel M; Band, Hamid; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2015-06-28

    ErbB2-driven breast cancers constitute 20-25% of the cases diagnosed within the USA. The humanized anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab (Herceptin™; Genentech), with chemotherapy is the current standard of treatment. Novel agents and strategies continue to be explored, given the challenges posed by Trastuzumab-resistance development in most patients. The HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), which induces ErbB2 degradation and attenuates downstream oncogenic signaling, is one such agent that showed significant promise in early phase I and II clinical trials. Its low water solubility, potential toxicities and undesirable side effects observed in patients, partly due to the Cremophor-based formulation, have been discouraging factors in the advancement of this promising drug into clinical use. Encapsulation of 17-AAG into polymeric nanoparticle formulations, particularly in synergistic combination with conventional chemotherapeutics, represents an alternative approach to overcome these problems. Herein, we report an efficient co-encapsulation of 17-AAG and doxorubicin, a clinically well-established and effective modality in breast cancer treatment, into biodegradable and biocompatible polypeptide-based nanogels. Dual drug-loaded nanogels displayed potent cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell panel and exerted selective synergistic anticancer activity against ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Analysis of ErbB2 degradation confirmed efficient 17-AAG release from nanogels with activity comparable to free 17-AAG. Furthermore, nanogels containing both 17-AAG and doxorubicin exhibited superior antitumor efficacy in vivo in an ErbB2-driven xenograft model compared to the combination of free drugs. These studies demonstrate that polypeptide-based nanogels can serve as novel nanocarriers for encapsulating 17-AAG along with other chemotherapeutics, providing an opportunity to overcome solubility issues and thereby exploit its full

  12. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  13. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  14. The Greater Caucasus Glacier Inventory (Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielidze, Levan G.; Wheate, Roger D.

    2018-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of glaciers in the Greater Caucasus, but none that have generated a modern glacier database across the whole mountain range. Here, we present an updated and expanded glacier inventory at three time periods (1960, 1986, 2014) covering the entire Greater Caucasus. Large-scale topographic maps and satellite imagery (Corona, Landsat 5, Landsat 8 and ASTER) were used to conduct a remote-sensing survey of glacier change, and the 30 m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM; 17 November 2011) was used to determine the aspect, slope and height distribution of glaciers. Glacier margins were mapped manually and reveal that in 1960 the mountains contained 2349 glaciers with a total glacier surface area of 1674.9 ± 70.4 km2. By 1986, glacier surface area had decreased to 1482.1 ± 64.4 km2 (2209 glaciers), and by 2014 to 1193.2 ± 54.0 km2 (2020 glaciers). This represents a 28.8 ± 4.4 % (481 ± 21.2 km2) or 0.53 % yr-1 reduction in total glacier surface area between 1960 and 2014 and an increase in the rate of area loss since 1986 (0.69 % yr-1) compared to 1960-1986 (0.44 % yr-1). Glacier mean size decreased from 0.70 km2 in 1960 to 0.66 km2 in 1986 and to 0.57 km2 in 2014. This new glacier inventory has been submitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database and can be used as a basis data set for future studies.

  15. Assessing the applicability of WRF optimal parameters under the different precipitation simulations in the Greater Beijing Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zhenhua; Duan, Qingyun; Wang, Chen; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Gong, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Forecasting skills of the complex weather and climate models have been improved by tuning the sensitive parameters that exert the greatest impact on simulated results based on more effective optimization methods. However, whether the optimal parameter values are still work when the model simulation conditions vary, which is a scientific problem deserving of study. In this study, a highly-effective optimization method, adaptive surrogate model-based optimization (ASMO), was firstly used to tune nine sensitive parameters from four physical parameterization schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to obtain better summer precipitation forecasting over the Greater Beijing Area in China. Then, to assess the applicability of the optimal parameter values, simulation results from the WRF model with default and optimal parameter values were compared across precipitation events, boundary conditions, spatial scales, and physical processes in the Greater Beijing Area. The summer precipitation events from 6 years were used to calibrate and evaluate the optimal parameter values of WRF model. Three boundary data and two spatial resolutions were adopted to evaluate the superiority of the calibrated optimal parameters to default parameters under the WRF simulations with different boundary conditions and spatial resolutions, respectively. Physical interpretations of the optimal parameters indicating how to improve precipitation simulation results were also examined. All the results showed that the optimal parameters obtained by ASMO are superior to the default parameters for WRF simulations for predicting summer precipitation in the Greater Beijing Area because the optimal parameters are not constrained by specific precipitation events, boundary conditions, and spatial resolutions. The optimal values of the nine parameters were determined from 127 parameter samples using the ASMO method, which showed that the ASMO method is very highly-efficient for optimizing WRF

  16. Greater Avoidance of a Heroin-Paired Taste Cue is Associated with Greater Escalation of Heroin Self-Administration in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Caesar G.; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2015-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse affecting over half of its users. Therefore, modeling individual differences in addiction-like behavior is needed to better reflect the human condition. In a rodent model, avoidance of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue is associated with greater cocaine seeking and taking. Here, we tested whether rats would avoid a saccharin cue when paired with the opportunity to self-administer heroin and whether the rats that most greatly avoid the heroin-paired taste cue would exhibit the greatest drug escalation over time, the greatest willingness to work for drug, and the greatest heroin-induced relapse. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 5 min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 3 h (short access) or 6 h (extended access). Following 16 – 18 pairings, terminal saccharin intake was used to categorize the rats into small (>200 licks/5min) or large (heroin rats were large suppressors and showed the largest escalation of drug intake, drug-loading behavior, and the greatest relapse-like behaviors. Extended access small suppressors displayed drug-taking behaviors that were similar to rats in the short access heroin condition. Avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual differences in addiction-like behavior for heroin using extended drug access. PMID:26214212

  17. WORK OVERLOAD AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF JUNIOR AUDITORS IN GREATER JAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increas- ing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  18. Work Overload and Turnover Intention of Junior Auditors in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increasing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  19. On carrots and curiosity: eating fruit and vegetables is associated with greater flourishing in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S; Brookie, Kate L; Richardson, Aimee C; Polak, Maria A

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to determine whether eating fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with other markers of well-being beyond happiness and life satisfaction. Towards this aim, we tested whether FV consumption is associated with greater eudaemonic well-being - a state of flourishing characterized by feelings of engagement, meaning, and purpose in life. We also tested associations with two eudaemonic behaviours - curiosity and creativity. Daily diary study across 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). A sample of 405 young adults (67% women; mean age 19.9 [SD 1.6] years) completed an Internet daily diary for 13 consecutive days. Each day, participants reported on their consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, and chips, as well as their eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, creativity, positive affect (PA), and negative affect. Between-person associations were analysed on aggregated data. Within-person associations were analysed using multilevel models controlling for weekday and weekend patterns. Fruit and vegetables consumption predicted greater eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, and creativity at the between- and within-person levels. Young adults who ate more FV reported higher average eudaemonic well-being, more intense feelings of curiosity, and greater creativity compared with young adults who ate less FV. On days when young adults ate more FV, they reported greater eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, and creativity compared with days when they ate less FV. FV consumption also predicted higher PA, which mostly did not account for the associations between FV and the other well-being variables. Few unhealthy foods (sweets, chips) were related to well-being except that consumption of sweets was associated with greater curiosity and PA at the within-person level. Lagged data analyses showed no carry-over effects of FV consumption onto next-day well-being (or vice versa). Although these patterns are strictly correlational, this study provides the first evidence

  20. Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite's t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set)

  1. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Sepulveda

    Full Text Available Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  2. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  3. Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area ... It is expected that the project will result in greater accountability of leaders to local constituencies, and sharper awareness of environmental and economic opportunities on the part of participating communities.

  4. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  5. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  6. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  7. Assessing Human Impacts on the Greater Akaki River, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the impacts of human activities on the Greater Akaki River using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical samples and macroinvertebrates were collected bimonthly from eight sites established on the Greater Akaki River from February 2006 to April 2006. Eleven metrics ...

  8. Malaria trends and challenges in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacollette, Charles; D'Souza, Carol; Christophel, Eva; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Abdur, Rashid; Bell, David; Dai, Tran Cong; Gopinath, Deyer; Lu, Shaohong; Mendoza, Raymond; Ortega, Leonard; Rastogi, Rakesh; Tantinimitkul, Chawalit; Ehrenberg, John

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the epidemiological patterns of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) from 1998 to 2007, and highlights critical challenges facing national malaria control programs and partners in effort to build on their successes as they move towards malaria pre-elimination and elimination as a programmatic goal. Epidemiological data provided by malaria programs show a drastic decline in malaria deaths and confirmed malaria positive cases over the last 10 years in the GMS. More than half of confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in the GMS occur in Myanmar, however, reporting methods and data management are not comparable between countries despite effort made by WHO to harmonize data collection, analysis and reporting among WHO Member States. Malaria is concentrated in forested/forest-fringe areas of the region mainly along international borders providing strong rationale to develop harmonized cross-border pre-elimination programs in conjunction with national efforts. Across the Mekong Region, the declining efficacy of recommended first-line antimalarials, eg artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against falciparum malaria on the Cambodia-Thailand border, the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs, the lack of health services in general and malaria services in particular in remote settings, and the lack of information and services targeting migrants and mobile population present important barriers to reach or maintain malaria pre-elimination programmatic goals. Strengthening networking between research institutions and non-government organizations will increase knowledge-based decision and action.

  9. Views That Are Shared With Others Are Expressed With Greater Confidence and Greater Fluency Independent of Any Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. A Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling Approach Shows that Serum Penicillin G Concentrations Are Below Inhibitory Concentrations by Two Weeks after Benzathine Penicillin G Injection in the Majority of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    a proposed protective threshold against group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). The final population model included linear absorption into a central...the prevention and treatment of group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) infections. This minimum threshold differs among authorities but is usually set...liter is the suggested minimum protective concentration of penicillin G against group A streptococcus . Note that the majority of measured concen- trations

  11. Greater sage-grouse population trends across Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael; Monroe, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The scale at which analyses are performed can have an effect on model results and often one scale does not accurately describe the ecological phenomena of interest (e.g., population trends) for wide-ranging species: yet, most ecological studies are performed at a single, arbitrary scale. To best determine local and regional trends for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming, USA, we modeled density-independent and -dependent population growth across multiple spatial scales relevant to management and conservation (Core Areas [habitat encompassing approximately 83% of the sage-grouse population on ∼24% of surface area in Wyoming], local Working Groups [7 regional areas for which groups of local experts are tasked with implementing Wyoming's statewide sage-grouse conservation plan at the local level], Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) by Working Groups, and Core Areas by Working Groups). Our goal was to determine the influence of fine-scale population trends (Core Areas) on larger-scale populations (Working Group Areas). We modeled the natural log of change in population size ( peak M lek counts) by time to calculate the finite rate of population growth (λ) for each population of interest from 1993 to 2015. We found that in general when Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) was investigated by Working Group Area, the 2 populations trended similarly and agreed with the overall trend of the Working Group Area. However, at the finer scale where Core Areas were analyzed separately, Core Areas within the same Working Group Area often trended differently and a few large Core Areas could influence the overall Working Group Area trend and mask trends occurring in smaller Core Areas. Relatively close fine-scale populations of sage-grouse can trend differently, indicating that large-scale trends may not accurately depict what is occurring across the landscape (e.g., local effects of gas and oil fields may be masked by increasing

  12. Effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Blanco-Fontao

    Full Text Available Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies.

  13. Effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Fontao, Beatriz; Sandercock, Brett K; Obeso, José Ramón; McNew, Lance B; Quevedo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido), a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies.

  14. Peginterferon Beta-1a Shows Antitumor Activity as a Single Agent and Enhances Efficacy of Standard of Care Cancer Therapeutics in Human Melanoma, Breast, Renal, and Colon Xenograft Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Antonio; Virata, Cyrus; Lindner, Daniel; English, Nicki; Pathan, Nuzhat; Brickelmaier, Margot; Hu, Xiao; Gardner, Jennifer L; Peng, Liaomin; Wang, Xinzhong; Zhang, Xiamei; Yang, Lu; Perron, Keli; Yco, Grace; Kelly, Rebecca; Gamez, James; Scripps, Thomas; Bennett, Donald; Joseph, Ingrid B; Baker, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    Because of its tumor-suppressive effect, interferon-based therapy has been used for the treatment of melanoma. However, limited data are available regarding the antitumor effects of pegylated interferons, either alone or in combination with approved anticancer drugs. We report that treatment of human WM-266-4 melanoma cells with peginterferon beta-1a induced apoptotic markers. Additionally, peginterferon beta-1a significantly inhibited the growth of human SK-MEL-1, A-375, and WM-266-4 melanoma xenografts established in immunocompromised mice. Peginterferon beta-1a regressed large, established WM-266-4 xenografts in nude mice. Treatment of SK-MEL-1 tumor-bearing mice with a combination of peginterferon beta-1a and the MEK inhibitor PD325901 ((R)-N-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)benzamide) significantly improved tumor growth inhibition compared with either agent alone. Examination of the antitumor activity of peginterferon beta-1a in combination with approved anticancer drugs in breast and renal carcinomas revealed improved antitumor activity in these preclinical xenograft models, as did the combination of peginterferon beta-1a and bevacizumab in a colon carcinoma xenograft model.

  15. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  16. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow ...

  17. AN EVALUATION OF SEASONAL MOVEMENT IN GREATER KUDU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN EVALUATION OF SEASONAL MOVEMENT IN GREATER KUDU POPULA-. TIONS - TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS PALLAS - IN THREE LOCALITIES. IN SOUTHERN AFRICA. C. DAVID SIMPSON". Caesar Kleberg Research Program in Wildlife Ecology,. Texas A & M University. With the emergence of more ...

  18. Soil respiration contributes substantially to urban carbon fluxes in the greater Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decina, Stephen M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Reinmann, Andrew B; Short Gianotti, Anne G; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions. In the absence of binding international treaties or decisive U.S. federal policy for greenhouse gas regulation, cities have also become leaders in greenhouse gas reduction efforts through climate action plans. These plans focus on anthropogenic carbon flows only, however, ignoring a potentially substantial contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from biological respiration. Our aim was to measure the contribution of CO2 efflux from soil respiration to atmospheric CO2 fluxes using an automated CO2 efflux system and to use these measurements to model urban soil CO2 efflux across an urban area. We find that growing season soil respiration is dramatically enhanced in urban areas and represents levels of CO2 efflux of up to 72% of FFCO2 within greater Boston's residential areas, and that soils in urban forests, lawns, and landscaped cover types emit 2.62 ± 0.15, 4.49 ± 0.14, and 6.73 ± 0.26 μmolCO2 m(-2) s(-1), respectively, during the growing season. These rates represent up to 2.2 times greater soil respiration than rates found in nearby rural ecosystems in central Massachusetts (MA), a potential consequence of imported carbon amendments, such as mulch, within a general regime of landowner management. As the scientific community moves rapidly towards monitoring, reporting, and verification of CO2 emissions using ground based approaches and remotely-sensed observations to measure CO2 concentrations, our results show that measurement and modeling of biogenic urban CO2 fluxes will be a critical component for verification of urban climate action plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fathers' decline in testosterone and synchrony with partner testosterone during pregnancy predicts greater postpartum relationship investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E; Edelstein, Robin S; Lyden, Hannah M; Wardecker, Britney M; Chopik, William J; Moors, Amy C

    2017-04-01

    The transition to parenthood has been associated with declines in testosterone among partnered fathers, which may reflect males' motivation to invest in the family. Moreover, preliminary evidence has found that couples show correlations in hormone levels across pregnancy that may also be linked to fathers' preparation for parenthood. The current study used repeated-measures sampling of testosterone across pregnancy to explore whether fathers' change in T, and correlations with mothers' T, were associated with fathers' and mothers' postpartum investment. In a sample of 27 couples (54 individuals) expecting their first child, both parents' salivary testosterone was measured multiple times across pregnancy. At approximately 3.5months postpartum, participants rated their investment, commitment, and satisfaction with their partner. A multilevel model was used to measure change in testosterone over time and associations between mother and father testosterone. Fathers who showed stronger declines in T across pregnancy, and stronger correlations with mothers' testosterone, reported higher postpartum investment, commitment, and satisfaction. Mothers reported more postpartum investment and satisfaction if fathers showed greater prenatal declines in T. These results held even after controlling for paternal investment, commitment, and satisfaction measured prenatally at study entry. Our results suggest that changes in paternal testosterone across pregnancy, and hormonal linkage with the pregnant partner, may underlie fathers' dedication to the partner relationship across the transition to parenthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. GREATER OMENTUM: MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nekrutov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the structure organization and pathophysiological age specificities of the greater omentum, which determine its uniqueness and functional diversity in a child's organism. the article discusses protective functions of the organ, its role in the development of post operative complications of children, and the usage in children's reconstructive plastic surgery.Key words: greater omentum, omentitis, of post operative complications, children.

  1. Cost estimates for greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Boland, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of greater confinement disposal is to provide an intermediate disposal method for radioactive wastes considered unsuitable for shallow land burial but not requiring the isolation of a deep geologic repository. Presented are cost estimates for various disposal facility alternatives. It is concluded that greater confinement disposal can be cost competitive with shallow land burial and is cost effective in reducing long-term care costs

  2. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  3. Sulfur dioxide: episodic injection shows evidence for active venus volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L W

    1984-03-09

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in Earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent Earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  4. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-03-05

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain.

  6. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain

  7. Precipitation Extremes in Dynamically Downscaled Climate Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, A. S.; Tadesse, T.; Oglesby, R. J.; Rowe, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The precipitation extremes were generated over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) using the Regional Climate Models (RCMs) simulations from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). To assess how well the RCM simulations are capturing the historical observed precipitation extremes, they were compared with the precipitation extremes derived from Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS v2). The result shows that RCM simulations have reasonably captured observed patterns of the precipitation extremes (i.e., the pattern correlation is greater than 0.5). However, significant overestimations or underestimations were observed over some localized areas in the region. The study then assessed the projected changes in these precipitation extremes during 2069-2098 and compared to the 1976-2005 period that were both derived from the RCM simulations. Projected changes in total annual precipitation (PRCPTOT), annual number of heavy (>10mm) and very heavy (>20mm) precipitation days by 2069-2098 show a general north-south pattern with a decrease over southern-half and increase over the northern-half of GHA. These changes are often greatest over parts of Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopian highlands and southern Tanzania. Maximum 1 and 5-day total precipitation in a year and "Simple Daily Precipitation Intensity Index" (ratio of PRCPTOT to rainy days) are projected to increase over majority of GHA, including areas where PRCPTOT is projected to decrease, suggesting fewer but heavier rainy days in the future. Changes in annual sum of daily precipitation above 95th and 99th percentile are not statistically significant except Eritrea and northwestern Sudan/Somalia. Projected changes in consecutive dry days (CDD) suggest longer periods of dryness over majority of GHA. Among these areas, a substantial increases in CDD are located over southern Tanzania and Ethiopian highlands.

  8. On Graceful Spider Graphs with at Most Four Legs of Lengths Greater than One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panpa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graceful labeling of a tree T with n edges is a bijection f:V(T→{0,1,2,…,n} such that {|f(u-f(v|:uv∈E(T} equal to {1,2,…,n}. A spider graph is a tree with at most one vertex of degree greater than 2. We show that all spider graphs with at most four legs of lengths greater than one admit graceful labeling.

  9. Infection of Atlantic salmon with Moritella viscosus compared to a mechanical tissue injury model in rainbow trout show similar expression patterns of cytokine genes and may be related to triggering of the same signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Physical damage of tissue and multiple kinds of infections are found to cause inflammatory reactions in mammals. Regardless of the difference between non-pathogenic induced tissue damage and a bacterial infection, many of the same pathways and genes are triggered. To determine if the same...... phenomenon occurs in salmonid fishes, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were infected with the bacteria Moritella viscosus, the causative agent of winter ulcer. The clinical signs showing visible, punctual lesions in the skin make this pathogen unique in order to study local inflammation. Muscle tissue...... mykiss) were subjected to controlled tissue disruption applying sterile needles to skin and muscle tissue to one side of the fish. Samples were taken 4, 8, 24 hours and 7 days post injury from both the injured side and non injured site, internal control. From both studies, the samples were subject...

  10. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Chang

    Full Text Available Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  11. Greater tibial bone strength in male tennis players than controls in the absence of greater muscle output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ireland

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Results suggest that sports with quick turning movements are highly osteogenic, even in the absence of greater muscular output. This may be related to the large torsional stresses produced during turning movements.

  12. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  13. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevéy, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Rüger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...... warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient and suggest the possibility of convergence...

  14. First record of a Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis) in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis) breeds in the southern Atlantic Ocean and disperses after breeding to the North Atlantic. On 3 August 2001, I observed and photographed an unidentified shearwater (Figure 1) in the Gulf of Alaska, about 30 km off the southern coast of Montague Island (59°50' N, 148°00' W). The bird was subsequently identified as a Greater Shearwater. This observation and photographic documentation provides the first Alaska state record (D. Gibson in litt.) and one of very few records for the North Pacific (see Table 1). This is the 464th bird species to be recorded in the state of Alaska.

  15. Greater pollination generalization is not associated with reduced constraints on corolla shape in Antillean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Simon; Lambert, François; Alexandre, Hermine; Clavel, Julien; Léveillé-Bourret, Étienne; Clark, John L

    2018-02-01

    Flowers show important structural variation as reproductive organs but the evolutionary forces underlying this diversity are still poorly understood. In animal-pollinated species, flower shape is strongly fashioned by selection imposed by pollinators, which is expected to vary according to guilds of effective pollinators. Using the Antillean subtribe Gesneriinae (Gesneriaceae), we tested the hypothesis that pollination specialists pollinated by one functional type of pollinator have maintained more similar corolla shapes through time due to more constant and stronger selection constraints compared to species with more generalist pollination strategies. Using geometric morphometrics and evolutionary models, we showed that the corolla of hummingbird specialists, bat specialists, and species with a mixed-pollination strategy (pollinated by hummingbirds and bats; thus a more generalist strategy) have distinct shapes and that these shapes have evolved under evolutionary constraints. However, we did not find support for greater disparity in corolla shape of more generalist species. This could be because the corolla shape of more generalist species in subtribe Gesneriinae, which has evolved multiple times, is finely adapted to be effectively pollinated by both bats and hummingbirds. These results suggest that ecological generalization is not necessarily associated with relaxed selection constraints. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Rutin and quercetin show greater efficacy than nifedipin in ameliorating hemodynamic, redox, and metabolite imbalances in sodium chloride-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, M T; Crown, O O; Akinmoladun, A C; Akindahunsi, A A

    2014-06-01

    Rutin and quercetin were investigated for their effects on blood pressure and antioxidant defense system of rats fed with 8% sodium chloride-supplemented diet (high salt diet) for 6 weeks. Animals fed with high salt diet demonstrated an increase in systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial blood pressures (p high salt diet but not post-treated. The high salt diet also led to significant increase in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, low-density-lipoprotein, and total cholesterol concentrations. Treatment with rutin and quercetin ameliorated the effects of high salt diet on these biochemical indices. The reference standard, nifedipin was less effective than rutin and quercetin. The results of this study highlight the risk of high salt consumption on cardiovascular health and the potent antioxidant and antihypertensive property of rutin and quercetin. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. An Endangered Arboreal Specialist, the Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis, Shows a Greater Genetic Divergence across a Narrow Artificial Waterway than a Major Road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yokochi

    Full Text Available The fragmentation of habitats by roads and other artificial linear structures can have a profound effect on the movement of arboreal species due to their strong fidelity to canopies. Here, we used 12 microsatellite DNA loci to investigate the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and the effects of a major road and a narrow artificial waterway on a population of the endangered western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis in Busselton, Western Australia. Using spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found positive genetic structure in continuous habitat over distances up to 600 m. These patterns are consistent with the sedentary nature of P. occidentalis and highlight their vulnerability to the effects of habitat fragmentation. Pairwise relatedness values and Bayesian cluster analysis also revealed significant genetic divergences across an artificial waterway, suggesting that it was a barrier to gene flow. By contrast, no genetic divergences were detected across the major road. While studies often focus on roads when assessing the effects of artificial linear structures on wildlife, this study provides an example of an often overlooked artificial linear structure other than a road that has a significant impact on wildlife dispersal leading to genetic subdivision.

  18. Bat lung epithelial cells show greater host species-specific innate resistance than MDCK cells to human and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tessa; Eckerle, Isabella; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2018-04-10

    With the recent discovery of novel H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viral RNA in bats and report on high frequency of avian H9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the extent bats are susceptible to conventional avian and human influenza A viruses. To this end, three bat species (Eidolon helvum, Carollia perspicillata and Tadarida brasiliensis) of lung epithelial cells were separately infected with two avian and two human influenza viruses to determine their relative host innate immune resistance to infection. All three species of bat cells were more resistant than positive control Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to all four influenza viruses. TB1-Lu cells lacked sialic acid α2,6-Gal receptors and were most resistant among the three bat species. Interestingly, avian viruses were relatively more replication permissive in all three bat species of cells than with the use of human viruses which suggest that bats could potentially play a role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses. Chemical inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway in bat cells had no effect on virus production suggesting that type I interferon signalling is not a major factor in resisting influenza virus infection. Although all three species of bat cells are relatively more resistant to influenza virus infection than control MDCK cells, they are more permissive to avian than human viruses which suggest that bats could have a contributory role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses.

  19. Analysis of Static and Dynamic E-Reference Content at a Multi-Campus University Shows, that Updated Content is Associated with Greater Annual Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To discover whether there is a difference in use over time between dynamically updated and changing subscription e-reference titles and collections, and static purchased e-reference titles and collections. Design – Case study. Setting – A multi-campus Canadian university with 9,200 students enrolled in both graduate and undergraduate programs. Subjects – E-reference book packages and individual e-reference titles. Methods – The author compared data from individual e-reference books and packages. First, individual subscription e-reference books that periodically added updated content were compared to individually purchased e-reference books that remained static after purchase. The author then compared two e-reference book packages that provided new and updated content to two static e-reference book packages. The author compared data from patron usage to new content added over time using regression analysis. Main Results – As the library acquired e-reference titles, dynamic title subscriptions added to the collection were associated with 2,246 to 4,635 views per subscription while static title additions were associated with 8 to 123 views per purchase. The author also found that there was a strong linear relationship between views and dynamic titles added to the collection (R2=0.79 and a very weak linear relationship (R2=0.18 with views when static titles are added to the collection. Regression analysis of dynamic e-reference collections revealed that the number of titles added to each collection was strongly associated with views of the material (R2=0.99, while static e-reference collections were less strongly linked (R2=0.43. Conclusion – Dynamic e-reference titles and collections experienced increases in usage each year while static titles and collections experienced decreases in usage. This indicates that collections and titles that offer new content to users each year will continue to see growth in usage while static collections and titles will see maximum usage within a few years and then begin to decline as they get older. Fresh content is strongly associated with usage in e-reference titles, which mirrors the author’s previous work examining static and dynamic content in e-monographs.

  20. Pitavastatin shows greater lipid-lowering efficacy over 12 weeks than pravastatin in elderly patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia or combined (mixed) dyslipidaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Budinski, Dragos; Gosho, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis Society target with pitavastatin and pravastatin, respectively, were: low doses, 59.9 and 37.9%; intermediate doses, 79.5 and 51.0%; higher doses, 88.1 and 65.7% (p rhabdomyolysis.Conclusion: Pitavastatin...

  1. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  2. Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. In 2002, Mozambique, South Africa ... La résilience et les petits exploitants agricoles africains : accroître la capacité des collectivités de s'adapter aux changements climatiques. En raison de la prévalence et de la ...

  3. Greater Confinement Disposal trench and borehole operations status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.P. Jr.; Wilhite, E.L.; Jaegge, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facilities have been constructed within the operating burial ground at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to dispose of the higher activity fraction of SRP low-level waste. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms. Ba...

  5. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  6. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  7. Voices of visual artists from Greater Tshwane: a historiography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... views of 24 visual artists residing in Greater Tshwane, on practicing their art over the past decades, as well as their perceptions of present realities and future challenges. The findings indicate that the artists continue to experience a lack of support from both government and the private sector in helping to market their work, ...

  8. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    should a building be in order to achieve energy efficiency in the design and construction of the tall office building?” This involved the ... Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its .... panels that reduce the solar gain, as well as heat loss to half that of a ...

  9. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  10. Trends in maternal mortality for the Greater Harare Maternity Unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trends in maternal mortality for the Greater Harare Maternity Unit: 1976 to 1996. F Majoko, T Chipato, V Illif. Abstract. No Abstract. Central African Journal of Medicine Vol. 47 (8) 2001: pp. 199-202. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. The first recorded reproduction of the Greater Flamingo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following several decades of unsuccessful attempts at locating breeding colonies of the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus in Algeria, breeding was recorded on a natural islet of Garaet Ezzemoul, a seasonal salt lake near the town of Aïn M'lila in the Hauts Plateaux. This successful mass breeding event by at least 5 ...

  12. The Easterlin Illusion: Economic growth does go with greater happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); F. Vergunst (Floris)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The 'Easterlin Paradox' holds that economic growth in nations does not buy greater happiness for the average citizen. This thesis was advanced in the 1970s on the basis of the then available data on happiness in nations. Later data have disproved most of the empirical

  13. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  14. Survival estimates for the greater crested tern Thalasseus bergii in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nominate race of the greater crested tern Thalasseus bergii breeds only along the coast of the Benguela region (west coast) of southern Africa, where its population is increasing, in contrast to other species of breeding seabirds in the region which similarly depend on forage fish. Although this population's trends are ...

  15. Control and Elimination of Helminth Zoonoses in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will contribute evidence to help control and eliminate schistosomiasis and liver fluke infections in the Greater Mekong Subregion. This economic area is bound by the Mekong River, covering 2.6 million square kilometres, and includes a combined population of 326 million in Burma, Cambodia, China, Laos, ...

  16. Spatiotemporal distribution and variation of GPP in the Greater Khingan Mountains from 1982 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L.; Fan, W.; Liu, S.; Ren, H.; Xu, X.

    2017-12-01

    GPP (Gross Primary Productivity) is an important index to reflect the productivity of plants because it refers to the organic accumulated by green plants on land through assimilating the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by photosynthesis and a serial of physiological processes in plants. Therefore, GPP plays a significant role in studying the carbon sink of terrestrial ecosystem and plants' reaction to global climate change. Remote sensing provides an efficient way to estimate GPP at regional and global scales and its products can be used to monitor the spatiotemporal variation of terrestrial ecosystem.As the Greater Khingan Mountains is the only bright coniferous forest of cool temperate zone in China and accounts for about 30% of the forest in China. This region is sensitive to climate change, but its forest coverage presented a significant variation due to fire disasters, excessive deforestation and so on. Here, we aimed at studying the variation pattern of GPP in the Greater Khingan Mountains and further found impact factors for the change in order to improve the understanding of what have and will happen on plants and carbon cycle under climate change.Based on GPP product from the GLASS program, we first studied spatial distribution of plants in the Greater Khingan Mountains from 1982 to 2015. With a linear regression model, seasonal and inter-annual GPP variability were explored on pixel and regional scale. We analyzed some climatic factors (e.g. temperature and precipitation) and terrain in order to find the driven factors for the GPP variations. The Growing Season Length (GSL) was also regarded as a factor and was retrieved from GIMMS 3g NDVI datasets using dynamic threshold method. We found that GPP in study area linearly decreased with the increasing elevation. Both annual accumulated GPP (AAG) and maximum daily GPP (during mid-June to mid-July) gained obvious improvement over the past 34 years under climate warming and drying (Fig.1 and Fig.2). Further

  17. Secure equality and greater-than tests with sublinear online complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipmaa, Helger; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    communication that require O(ℓ) respectively O(κ) total work, where κ is a correctness parameter. Combining these with ideas of Toft [16], we obtain (i) a greater-than protocol with sublinear online complexity in the arithmetic black-box model (O(c) rounds and O(c·ℓ1/c ) work online, with c = logℓ resulting...

  18. Using epiphytic macrolichen communities for biomonitoring ammonia in forests of the greater Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce. Mccune

    2006-01-01

    Chronic, excessive nitrogen deposition is potentially an important ecological threat to forests of the greater Sierra Nevada in California. We developed a model for ammonia bioindication, a major nitrogen pollutant in the region, using epiphytic macrolichens. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to extract gradients in lichen community composition from surveys...

  19. Greater Engagement among Members of Gay-Straight Alliances: Individual and Structural Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Heck, Nicholas C.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2016-01-01

    Using youth program models to frame the study of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs), we identified individual and structural predictors of greater engagement in these settings with a cross-sectional sample of 295 youth in 33 GSAs from the 2014 Massachusetts GSA Network Survey (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% White, M[subscript age] =16.07).…

  20. Air-quality bioindication in the greater central valley of California, with epiphytic macrolichen communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce. McCune

    2005-01-01

    Air-quality monitoring in the United States is typically focused on urban areas even though the detrimental effects of pollution often extend into surrounding ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to construct a model, based upon epiphytic macrolichen community data, to indicate air-quality and climate in forested areas throughout the greater Central Valley of...

  1. Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test...... this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive...... association with the age of the expatriates. This finding provides partial affirmative support to the presumption that the age of business expatriates matters in a Chinese cultural context. Implications of this result are discussed in detail....

  2. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Myth of Greater Albania In outlining the frontiers of Albania it has been often necessary to disregard ethnography for larger reasons; but there is...outbreak of a world war.”29 In 1986 the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts compiled another platform to deal with Albanians. The platform entitled “On...Academy of Science and Arts , On the Political, Economic and Constitutional Position of Serbia in the Yugoslav Federation (Belgrade: Duga, 1986), 55. 31

  3. Fleet Telematics Solution: Influencing Automotive Ecosystem to Drive Greater Business

    OpenAIRE

    Khandwala, Dhwanil

    2017-01-01

    Telematics has given the human-machine interface a new edge. This is improving driving experience significantly. At the base of this enhanced experience are many innovative factors that have been developed to deliver greater business value to manufacturers and dealers. Fleet telematics solutions are heavily inspired by strategic capturing and interchanging of GPS data, effective alignment of the communicational mechanisms between vehicles on road and auto sensors, voice dictated automotive c...

  4. Torsion of the greater omentum: A rare preoperative diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, Ankit Anil; Lim, Kian Soon

    2010-01-01

    Torsion of the greater omentum is a rare acute abdominal condition that is seldom diagnosed preoperatively. We report the characteristic computed tomography (CT) scan findings and the clinical implications of this unusual diagnosis in a 41-year-old man, who also had longstanding right inguinal hernia. Awareness of omental torsion as a differential diagnosis in the acute abdomen setting is necessary for correct patient management

  5. assessing human impacts on the greater akaki river, ethiopia using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Turbellaria. 18. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. Hirudinea. 5. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 1. Gastropoda. Physidae. 0. 0. 74. 222. 53. 0. 0. 1. Total Number of Taxa Collected over the sample period. 22. 16. 15. 8. 8. 5. 7. 6. Total Abundance. 2177. 821. 1678. 510. 470. 176. 707. 79. Table 4. Observed values for all metrics in the Greater Akaki River. Metric.

  6. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  7. Predicting Greater Prairie-Chicken Lek Site Suitability to Inform Conservation Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre J Hovick

    Full Text Available The demands of a growing human population dictates that expansion of energy infrastructure, roads, and other development frequently takes place in native rangelands. Particularly, transmission lines and roads commonly divide rural landscapes and increase fragmentation. This has direct and indirect consequences on native wildlife that can be mitigated through thoughtful planning and proactive approaches to identifying areas of high conservation priority. We used nine years (2003-2011 of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido lek locations totaling 870 unique leks sites in Kansas and seven geographic information system (GIS layers describing land cover, topography, and anthropogenic structures to model habitat suitability across the state. The models obtained had low omission rates (0.81, indicating high model performance and reliability of predicted habitat suitability for Greater Prairie-Chickens. We found that elevation was the most influential in predicting lek locations, contributing three times more predictive power than any other variable. However, models were improved by the addition of land cover and anthropogenic features (transmission lines, roads, and oil and gas structures. Overall, our analysis provides a hierarchal understanding of Greater Prairie-Chicken habitat suitability that is broadly based on geomorphological features followed by land cover suitability. We found that when land features and vegetation cover are suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens, fragmentation by anthropogenic sources such as roadways and transmission lines are a concern. Therefore, it is our recommendation that future human development in Kansas avoid areas that our models identified as highly suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens and focus development on land cover types that are of lower conservation concern.

  8. High-resolution quantification of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Stephanie C.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Vogel, Felix R.; Moran, Michael D.; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong; Stroud, Craig A.; Ren, Shuzhan; Worthy, Douglas; Broquet, Gregoire

    2018-03-01

    Many stakeholders are seeking methods to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in urban areas, but reliable, high-resolution inventories are required to guide these efforts. We present the development of a high-resolution CO2 inventory available for the Greater Toronto Area and surrounding region in Southern Ontario, Canada (area of ˜ 2.8 × 105 km2, 26 % of the province of Ontario). The new SOCE (Southern Ontario CO2 Emissions) inventory is available at the 2.5 × 2.5 km spatial and hourly temporal resolution and characterizes emissions from seven sectors: area, residential natural-gas combustion, commercial natural-gas combustion, point, marine, on-road, and off-road. To assess the accuracy of the SOCE inventory, we developed an observation-model framework using the GEM-MACH chemistry-transport model run on a high-resolution grid with 2.5 km grid spacing coupled to the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) v2 inventories for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land carbon model C-TESSEL for biogenic fluxes. A run using FFDAS for the Southern Ontario region was compared to a run in which its emissions were replaced by the SOCE inventory. Simulated CO2 mixing ratios were compared against in situ measurements made at four sites in Southern Ontario - Downsview, Hanlan's Point, Egbert and Turkey Point - in 3 winter months, January-March 2016. Model simulations had better agreement with measurements when using the SOCE inventory emissions versus other inventories, quantified using a variety of statistics such as correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error, and mean bias. Furthermore, when run with the SOCE inventory, the model had improved ability to capture the typical diurnal pattern of CO2 mixing ratios, particularly at the Downsview, Hanlan's Point, and Egbert sites. In addition to improved model-measurement agreement, the SOCE inventory offers a sectoral breakdown of emissions

  9. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  10. Population dynamics of Greater Scaup breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, J. Barry; Fondell, Thomas F.; Morse, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater scaup (Aythya marila) remained relatively stable during a period when populations of lesser scaup (A. affinis) have declined from historic levels. To assist in describing these differences in population trends, from 1991 through 2000, we studied the survival, nesting ecology, and productivity of greater scaup on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, to develop a model of population dynamics. We located nests, radio-marked females for renesting studies, estimated duckling survival, and leg-banded females to examine nest site fidelity and annual survival.

  11. The effects of femoral neck cut, cable tension, and muscles forces on the greater trochanter fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Yvan; Cloutier, Luc P; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves

    2012-04-01

    Greater trochanter (GT) stabilization techniques following a fracture or an osteotomy are still showing high levels of postoperative complications. Understanding the effect of femoral neck cut placement, cable tension and muscles forces on GT fragment displacements could help surgeons optimize their techniques. A 3D finite element model has been developed to evaluate, through a statistical experimental design, the impact of the above variables on the GT fragment gap and sliding displacements. Muscles forces were simulating typical daily activities. Stresses were also investigated. The femoral neck cut placement had the most significant effect on the fragment displacement. Lowering it by 5 mm increased the gap and sliding fragment displacements by 288 and 128 %, respectively. Excessive cable tightening provided no significant reduction in fragment displacement. Muscle activities increased the gap and the sliding displacements for all muscle configurations. The maximum total displacement of 0.41 mm was present with a 10 mm femoral neck cut, a cable tension of 178 N, and stair climbing. Caution must be used not to over tighten the cables as the potential damage caused by the increased stress is more significant than any reduction in fragment displacement. Furthermore, preservation of the contact area is important for GT stabilization.

  12. Biofuels and the Greater Mekong Subregion: Assessing the impact on prices, production and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Jikun; Qiu, Huanguang; Rozelle, Scott; Sombilla, Mercy A.

    2009-01-01

    Similar to many other countries, all nations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have planned or are planning to develop strong national biofuel programs. The overall goal of this paper is to better understand the impacts of global and regional biofuels on agriculture and the rest of the economy, with a specific focus on the GMS. Based on a modified multi-country, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model, this study reveals that global biofuel development will significantly increase agricultural prices and production and change trade in agricultural commodities in the GMS and the rest of world. While biofuel in the GMS will have little impacts on global prices, it will have significant effects on domestic agricultural production, land use, trade, and food security. The results also show that the extent of impacts from biofuel is highly dependent on international oil prices and the degree of substitution between biofuel and gasoline. The findings of this study have important policy implications for the GMS countries and the rest of world. (author)

  13. A Methodology for the Assessment of Unconventional (Continuous) Resources with an Application to the Greater Natural Buttes Gas Field, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Cook, Troy A.; Coleman, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The Greater Natural Buttes tight natural gas field is an unconventional (continuous) accumulation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, that began production in the early 1950s from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. Three years later, production was extended to the Eocene Wasatch Formation. With the exclusion of 1100 non-productive ('dry') wells, we estimate that the final recovery from the 2500 producing wells existing in 2007 will be about 1.7 trillion standard cubic feet (TSCF) (48.2 billion cubic meters (BCM)). The use of estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) per well is common in assessments of unconventional resources, and it is one of the main sources of information to forecast undiscovered resources. Each calculated recovery value has an associated drainage area that generally varies from well to well and that can be mathematically subdivided into elemental subareas of constant size and shape called cells. Recovery per 5-acre cells at Greater Natural Buttes shows spatial correlation; hence, statistical approaches that ignore this correlation when inferring EUR values for untested cells do not take full advantage of all the information contained in the data. More critically, resulting models do not match the style of spatial EUR fluctuations observed in nature. This study takes a new approach by applying spatial statistics to model geographical variation of cell EUR taking into account spatial correlation and the influence of fractures. We applied sequential indicator simulation to model non-productive cells, while spatial mapping of cell EUR was obtained by applying sequential Gaussian simulation to provide multiple versions of reality (realizations) having equal chances of being the correct model. For each realization, summation of EUR in cells not drained by the existing wells allowed preparation of a stochastic prediction of undiscovered resources, which range between 2.6 and 3.4 TSCF (73.6 and 96.3 BCM) with a mean of 2.9 TSCF (82.1 BCM) for Greater Natural Buttes

  14. Livelihood patterns of displaced households in greater khartoum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, G M

    1992-09-01

    Members of impoverished households in Greater Khartoum, who have been displaced from their homelands by famine and civil war, gain a livelihood by utilising a wide variety of subsistence activities and sources. These include moonlighting, income diversification and pooling, exchange relations, scavenging, relief supplies from aid agencies and remittances from relatives working in other areas. This finding challenges the widely held view of the displaced as dependent and parasitic on the wider urban community. Several public policies are identified which have a detrimental effect on the livelihood of the displaced.

  15. Introduction. China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.; Andersen, Lars Erslev; Jiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This collection of short papers is an outcome of an international conference entitled China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East, organized by the Danish Institute for International Studies and Copenhagen University on 10 November 2015. The conference sought answers to the following questions......: Is the balance of power between the US and China changing in the Persian Gulf? Will China’s increasing economic interests in the Gulf lead to a more activist Chinese foreign and security policy there? What are the expectations the Arab Gulf States have of China, and will China meet them?...

  16. High-resolution quantification of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Pugliese

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many stakeholders are seeking methods to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in urban areas, but reliable, high-resolution inventories are required to guide these efforts. We present the development of a high-resolution CO2 inventory available for the Greater Toronto Area and surrounding region in Southern Ontario, Canada (area of  ∼ 2.8 × 105 km2, 26 % of the province of Ontario. The new SOCE (Southern Ontario CO2 Emissions inventory is available at the 2.5 × 2.5 km spatial and hourly temporal resolution and characterizes emissions from seven sectors: area, residential natural-gas combustion, commercial natural-gas combustion, point, marine, on-road, and off-road. To assess the accuracy of the SOCE inventory, we developed an observation–model framework using the GEM-MACH chemistry–transport model run on a high-resolution grid with 2.5 km grid spacing coupled to the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS v2 inventories for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF land carbon model C-TESSEL for biogenic fluxes. A run using FFDAS for the Southern Ontario region was compared to a run in which its emissions were replaced by the SOCE inventory. Simulated CO2 mixing ratios were compared against in situ measurements made at four sites in Southern Ontario – Downsview, Hanlan's Point, Egbert and Turkey Point – in 3 winter months, January–March 2016. Model simulations had better agreement with measurements when using the SOCE inventory emissions versus other inventories, quantified using a variety of statistics such as correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error, and mean bias. Furthermore, when run with the SOCE inventory, the model had improved ability to capture the typical diurnal pattern of CO2 mixing ratios, particularly at the Downsview, Hanlan's Point, and Egbert sites. In addition to improved model–measurement agreement, the SOCE inventory offers a

  17. Late-night talk show v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Halamásek, Šimon

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the history of talk show in USA with emphasis on its specific form, which is late-night talk show. The first chapter focuses on the creation of new television networks and the overall state of american broadcasting during the first era of the television talk show format. The thesis briefly describes radio broadcasting which served not only as an important source of inspiration for television but also as a starting platform for most talk show hosts. Next chapter theoreti...

  18. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  19. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  20. Increased preventive practices lead to greater tooth retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kressin, N R; Boehmer, U; Nunn, M E; Spiro, A

    2003-03-01

    Prior research has rarely examined the impact of ADA-recommended preventive practices on tooth retention. We hypothesized that better oral hygiene leads to increased tooth retention. We examined the association of cross-sectional and long-term assessments of preventive practices, as well as various combinations of hygiene practices, with tooth retention. Among 736 male participants in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study, we utilized cross-sectional and longitudinal self-reports of toothbrushing, dental floss use, annual prophylaxis, and combinations of such behaviors, and examined their association with clinically assessed numbers of teeth. Baseline and long-term hygiene behaviors (except brushing) were associated with an increased baseline number of teeth and decreased subsequent tooth loss. Use of multiple hygiene behaviors was associated with greater tooth retention, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Adherence to ADA recommendations for preventive care leads to better oral health, and consistently practicing preventive behaviors over the long term confers greater benefits than doing so over the short term.

  1. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  2. Sonography of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and the rarity of primary bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne S; Surrey, David E; Nazarian, Levon N

    2013-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common condition with clinical features of pain and tenderness at the lateral aspect of the hip. Diagnosing the origin of greater trochanteric pain is important because the treatment varies depending on the cause. We hypothesized that sonographic evaluation of sources for greater trochanteric pain syndrome would show that bursitis was not the most commonly encountered abnormality. We performed a retrospective review of musculoskeletal sonographic examinations performed at our institution over a 6-year period for greater trochanteric pain syndrome; completed a tabulation of the sonographic findings; and assessed the prevalence of trochanteric bursitis, gluteal tendon abnormalities, iliotibial band abnormalities, or a combination of findings. Prevalence of abnormal findings, associations of bursitis, gluteal tendinosis, gluteal tendon tears, and iliotibial band abnormalities were calculated. The final study population consisted of 877 unique patients: 602 women, 275 men; average age, 54 years; and age range, 15-87 years). Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 700 (79.8%) did not have bursitis on ultrasound. A minority of patients (177, 20.2%) had trochanteric bursitis. Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 438 (49.9%) had gluteal tendinosis, four (0.5%) had gluteal tendon tears, and 250 (28.5%) had a thickened iliotibial band. The cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is usually some combination of pathology involving the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus tendons as well as the iliotibial band. Bursitis is present in only the minority of patients. These findings have implications for treatment of this common condition.

  3. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ross Robertson

    Full Text Available The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1 a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2 a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves, and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the

  4. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Gender differences in commuting behavior: Women's greater sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo Sanchez, M.I.; Maeso Gonzalez, E.

    2016-07-01

    Women's greater sensitivity to changes in their environment is one of the most distinguishing features between both genders. This article raises women's greater sensitivity to the different variables which influence their commuting modal choice. In order to do this, gender gaps detected in the choice of means of transport in commuting trips with respect to the decision factors such as age, education level, driver's license, private transport access; location, household size and net income, are quantified.The results show a greater female sensitivity to the different variables that affect their modal choice, which helps to better understand the different mobility patterns and it is useful for planning measures favoring sustainable mobility policies and equity. (Author)

  6. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  7. Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stacy; Mares, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of talk-show viewing on high-school students' social-reality beliefs. Supports the hypothesis that viewers overestimate the frequency of deviant behaviors; does not find support for the hypothesis that viewers become desensitized to the suffering of others; and finds that talk-show viewing was positively related, among…

  8. A computed tomography study in the location of greater palatine artery in South Indian population for maxillary osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Packiaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The greater palatine artery is one of the important feeding vessel to the maxilla. The surgeon should know the surgical anatomy of greater palatine artery to avoid trauma in maxilla which leads to ischemic problems. Aim: The CT evaluation of the distance between Pyriform aperture and the greater palatine foramen in various ages of both sexes. Result: The distance varies according to sex and age which are measured by CT and standardised. Discussion: The lateral nasal osteotomy can be done upto 25 mm depth, instead of 20 mm. Conclusion: By this study it shows that the lateral nasal wall osteotomy can be performed without injury to greater palatine artery.

  9. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  10. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  11. ADR characteristics and corporate governance in the Greater China region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Hsien Pan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between firm valuation and governance mechanisms, firm characteristics, and institutional factors of the American Depository Receipts (ADRs domiciled in the Greater China region. We find that China ADRs have the highest market-to-book value ratio followed by Hong Kong and Taiwan ADRs. It appears that Chinese firms with the poorest external governance environment stand to benefit the most from cross listing under the ADR programs. Listing in the U.S. that requires more stringent regulations and disclosure rules may strengthen the firms’ governance practices and thereby enhance their firm value. Among the internal governance mechanisms, institutional ownership and insider ownership are important for firm value.

  12. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Towler, O.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Johnson, G.M.; Helton, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items. 2 figures, 1 table

  13. Age and Expatriate Job Performance in Greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    2009-01-01

    a positive impact on expatriates' job performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is toexamine the association between the age of business expatriates and their work performance in a Chinese cultural setting. Design/methodology/approach - Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background...... with the age of the expatriates. This finding provides partial affirmative support to the presumption that the age of business expatriates matters in a Chinese cultural context. Practical implications - Companies sending expatriates to Greater China could introduce age among other selection criteria. At least......Purpose - As opposed to the predominant belief in the West, in Chinese dominated societies theremay be a positive relationship between age and perceived possession of high quality personalresources. That attitude towards old age may carry over to expatriates in Chinese societies. This mayhave...

  14. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  15. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  16. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits. full text

  17. Career development at London Vet Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Supply Chain Management for Sustainable Development: Perspective from the Greater Pearl River Delta (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoi, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by the University of Hong Kong. This thesis investigates the application and implications of supply chain management as a modern management model in regulating corporate outsourcing activities within the Greater Pearl River Delta. Globalisation has accelerated the application of supply chain management as a mechanism to enhance corporate performance. At the same time this rapid economic development has also accele...

  19. Outbreeding increases offspring survival in wild greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiter, S. J.; Jones, G.; Ransome, R. D.; Barratt, E. M.

    2001-01-01

    The factors influencing the survival of greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) offspring born over seven years at a maternity colony in south-west Britain were studied. The effects of a range of phenotypic and maternal variables were analysed using a historical data set. In addition, the influence of two genetic measures on mortality, individual heterozygosity and a new measure of outbreeding, termed mean d(2), was assessed. Logistic regressions were undertaken with survival modell...

  20. A study of migration to Greater Santiago (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizaga, J C

    1966-06-01

    The most significant results of a survey in Greater Santiago in 1962 by the Latin American Demographic Center are presented in this paper. The population studied had slightly more than 2 million inhabitants at the time the survey was taken. A probability sample was drawn and interviews were taken without regard to the migration status of the household. The interview schedules were designed to obtain data on the demographic and social aspects of the migrant as contrasted with the non-migrant population. Migration history, the objective and subjective factors that appear to have "motivated" movement to Santiago, and other aspects oj the migratory move itself were also topics of inquiry.Tabulations of this survey portray Santiago as a city of great in-migration. The flow is estimated to be between 1.5 and 1.7 percent per year. Among the population 15 years of age or over, about 50 percent were found to be migrants from outside the metropolitan area. A high level of flow has been sustained for several decades, for only 60 percent of the total in-migrants have arrived during the last twenty years.Migration to Santiago was found to be selective by sex. For each two male in-migrants there were three female migrants. Migration was also selective by age. During the decade preceding the survey, two-thirds had arrived before attaining their twenty-fifth birthday. Forty-four percent of the men and 51 percent of the women had been between 15 and 29 years of age at time of arrival. The migrants had moved very little before their journey to Santiago. Among those who were 15 years of age or older at the time of migration, more than half had moved directly from their place of birth to Santiago. Prior mobility was slightly higher among persons coming from rural or semiurban origins than among those coming from urban origins.Two-thirds of the in-migrants arrived from urban places (places of 5,000 or more inhabitants in 1952). Despite the fact that in 1952 almost 50 percent of Chile

  1. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  2. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  3. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  4. Integrated diode circuits for greater than 1 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthal, Gerhard Siegbert

    The terahertz frequency band, spanning from roughly 100 GHz to 10 THz, forms the transition from electronics to photonics. This band is often referred to as the "terahertz technology gap" because it lacks typical microwave and optical components. The deficit of terahertz devices makes it difficult to conduct important scientific measurements that are exclusive to this band in fields such as radio astronomy and chemical spectroscopy. In addition, a number of scientific, military and commercial applications will become more practical when a suitable terahertz technology is developed. UVa's Applied Electrophysics Laboratory has extended non-linear microwave diode technology into the terahertz region. Initial success was achieved with whisker-contacted diodes and then discrete planar Schottky diodes soldered onto quartz circuits. Work at UVa and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory succeeded in integrating this diode technology onto low dielectric substrates, thereby producing more practical components with greater yield and improved performance. However, the development of circuit integration technologies for greater than 1 THz and the development of broadly tunable sources of terahertz power remain as major research goals. Meeting these critical needs is the primary motivation for this research. To achieve this goal and demonstrate a useful prototype for one of our sponsors, this research project has focused on the development of a Sideband Generator at 1.6 THz. This component allows use of a fixed narrow band source as a tunable power source for terahertz spectroscopy and compact range radar. To prove the new fabrication and circuit technologies, initial devices were fabricated and tested at 200 and 600 GHz. These circuits included non-ohmic cathodes, air-bridged fingers, oxideless anode formation, and improved quartz integration processes. The excellent performance of these components validated these new concepts. The prototype process was then further optimized to

  5. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  6. See you at London Vet Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-05

    London Vet Show is fast approaching: it takes place from November 17 to 18 and is being held at ExCeL London for the first time. Zoe Davies, marketing manager, highlights some of what BVA is offering at the event. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  8. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected ...

  9. Mike Pentz showing visitors around CESAR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1964-01-01

    Mike Pentz, leader of the CESAR Group, shows visitors around the 2 MeV electron storage ring. Here they are in the vault of the injector (a 2 MV van de Graaff generator), next to the 2 beam lines, one leading to the ring, the other to the spectrometer.

  10. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus- culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme ...

  11. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  12. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  13. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  14. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected ...

  15. 'Show me the money': energy projects financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the business and business model of Corpfinance International (CFI). CFI consists of three businesses: structured financing, private equity/corporate finance advisory and securitization. Furthermore, CFI is the lender of record acting on behalf of and based on strong relationship with various Life Insurance Companies, Pension Funds and International Banks. CFI has in-house expertise in support of its lending advisory and investing activities

  16. Greater Emotional Empathy and Prosocial Behavior in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Jocelyn A.; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-related linear increases were found for both emotional empathy (self-reported empathic concern and cardiac and electrodermal responding) and prosocial behavior (size of contribution) across both films and in self-reported personal distress to the distressing film. Empathic concern and cardiac reactivity to both films, along with personal distress to the distressing film only, were associated with greater prosocial behavior. Empathic concern partially mediated the age-related differences in prosocial behavior. Results are discussed in terms of our understanding both of adult development and of the nature of these vital aspects of human emotion. PMID:21859198

  17. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W

    2005-11-01

    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  18. [Reproductive health survey of young adults in greater Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M S; Herold, J M; Morris, L; López, I M

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 a survey was carried out in order to obtain information on knowledge about reproduction, sexual activity, attitudes, and use of contraceptive methods among residents between 15 and 24 years of age in Greater Santiago. For this purpose, a multistage, self-weighted, non-replacement probability sample was chosen from the entire Santiago urban area. After 2,898 households were visited, 865 women and 800 men were selected and interviewed. For the interview, a questionnaire with 156 questions was developed; many questions were similar to those included in similar surveys in Brazil and Guatemala. The interviewers were professionals who had received prior training. Although 75% of the interviewees had attended sex education classes, they had erroneous ideas on various basic subjects. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed had undergone menarche before attending these classes. In addition, 35.4% of the women and 65.0% of the men had had sexual relations prior to marriage, and less than 20% had used any contraceptive method. More than 60% of the interviewees who had children had conceived them before marrying. These findings point up the necessity of offering sex education classes for children and young people, as well as facilitating their access to family planning services, in order to decrease the number of illegitimate and unwanted children that are born in Chile.

  19. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  20. Are smokers at greater risk from radiation exposure than nonsmokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Current information suggests that, if cigarette smoking interacts with radiation in the induction of lung cancer, it is probably as a promoting agent. There is some evidence of such an interaction in miners who were exposed to relatively high levels of radon and its decay products over extended periods, and there is evidence from experimental rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke after exposures to radon had been completed. Other data from both humans and experimental animals suggest that concomitant exposures may actually diminish the interaction of cigarette smoke with alpha radiation from radon decay products; however, the possibility of a multiplicative effect for other exposure regimes has not been dismissed. In recent experimental animal studies cigarette smoking depressed clearance of insoluble particles, e.g., 239 PuO 2 , from the pulmonary regions of the lungs. However, this effect depended upon exposure to cigarette smoke both before and after inhalation of insoluble plutonium. Whether the effect on clearance actually increased the lung cancer risk is unknown. It is still unclear whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to radiation-induced lung cancer at relatively high radiation doses and even more uncertain at low radiation doses. (orig./HP)

  1. The Yellowstone hotspot, Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, and human geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Despain, D.G.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Good, John M.; Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann

    2007-01-01

    Active geologic processes associated with the Yellowstone hotspot are fundamental in shaping the landscapes of the greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE), a high volcanic plateau flanked by a crescent of still higher mountainous terrain. The processes associated with the Yellowstone hotspot are volcanism, faulting, and uplift and are observed in the geology at the surface. We attribute the driving forces responsible for the northeastward progression of these processes to a thermal plume rising through the Earth’s mantle into the base of the southwest-moving North American plate. This progression began 16 million years ago (Ma) near the Nevada-Oregon border and arrived at Yellowstone about 2 Ma. Before arrival of the hotspot, an older landscape existed, particularly mountains created during the Laramide orogeny about 70–50 Ma and volcanic terrain formed by Absaroka andesitic volcanism mostly between 50–45 Ma. These landscapes were more muted than the present, hotspot-modified landscape because the Laramide-age mountains had worn down and an erosion surface of low relief had developed on the Absaroka volcanic terrain.

  2. Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

    2013-03-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility.

  3. Three decades of research on the greater Agulhas Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. E. Lutjeharms

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The greater Agulhas Current has been shown to be a key link in the global thermohaline circulation and an increased understanding of this current system is therefore of more than just local interest. Knowledge on the Agulhas Current system has in fact increased enormously over the past 30 years. This review covers some aspects of what has been learnt on the northern and the southern parts of the Agulhas Current proper and their influence on the waters and circulation of the adjoining continental shelf. It also discusses the Natal Pulse and new information that has been gained on how it is triggered and what influence it has. It deals with the Agulhas retroflection, the shedding of Agulhas rings and the movement and characteristics of these rings that contributes to the meridional overturning circulation of the global ocean. The Agulhas Return Current forms part of the final outflow of the system and current knowledge on that current is appraised. The sources of the Agulhas Current have been a controversial subject for many years and this dispute continues. This is described and discussed, based on what information has been gained from research over the past three decades. Building on what is currently known, some suggestions are given on the most important remaining knowledge gaps and how these could most efficaciously be filled.

  4. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  5. Precipitation Extremes in Dynamically Downscaled Climate Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andualem Shiferaw

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study first assesses the performance of regional climate models in the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX in reproducing observed extreme precipitation indices over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA region during 1989–2005. The study then assesses projected changes in these extremes during 2069–2098 compared to 1976–2005. The Regional Climate Model (RCM simulations are made using two RCMs, with large-scale forcing from four CMIP5 Global limate Models(GCMs under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We found that RCM simulations have reasonably captured observed patterns of moderate precipitation extreme indices (MPEI. Pattern correlation coefficients between simulated and observed MPEI exceed 0.5 for all except the Simple Daily Intensity Index (SDII. However, significant overestimations or underestimations exist over localized areas in the region. Projected changes in Total annual Precipitation (PRCPTOT and the annual number of heavy (>10 mm and very heavy (>20 mm precipitation days by 2069–2098 show a general north-south pattern, with decreases over the southern half and increases over the northern half of the GHA. These changes are often greatest over parts of Somalia, Eritrea, the Ethiopian highlands and southern Tanzania. Maximum one- and five-day precipitation totals over a year and SDII (ratio of PRCPTOT to rainy days are projected to increase over a majority of the GHA, including areas where PRCPTOT is projected to decrease, suggesting fewer, but heavier rainy days in the future. Changes in the annual sum of daily precipitation above the 95th and 99th percentiles are statistically significant over a few locations, with the largest projected decrease/increase over Eritrea and northwestern Sudan/Somalia. Projected changes in Consecutive Dry Days (CDD suggest longer periods of dryness over the majority of the GHA, except the central portions covering northern Uganda, southern South

  6. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  7. La mujer, en los talk shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antrop. José Gamboa Cetina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de los medios de comunicación, uno de los que más ha impactado a la población latinoamericana ha sido la televisión, y en la barra programática de las televisoras ha surgido un tipo de programas denominados talk shows. En los últimos meses, la sociedad mexicana ha vivido el "boom" de los talk shows, que en poco tiempo han saturado la barra de la programación vespertina de las dos principales empresas televisivas de la república mexicana. Este fenómeno puede estudiarse desde diversas perspectivas. Sin embargo, por motivos de espacio, en esta ocasión analizaremos su impacto en las mujeres, desde diferentes dimensiones.

  8. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  9. Estimating Software-Development Costs With Greater Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dan; Hihn, Jairus; Lum, Karen

    2008-01-01

    COCOMOST is a computer program for use in estimating software development costs. The goal in the development of COCOMOST was to increase estimation accuracy in three ways: (1) develop a set of sensitivity software tools that return not only estimates of costs but also the estimation error; (2) using the sensitivity software tools, precisely define the quantities of data needed to adequately tune cost estimation models; and (3) build a repository of software-cost-estimation information that NASA managers can retrieve to improve the estimates of costs of developing software for their project. COCOMOST implements a methodology, called '2cee', in which a unique combination of well-known pre-existing data-mining and software-development- effort-estimation techniques are used to increase the accuracy of estimates. COCOMOST utilizes multiple models to analyze historical data pertaining to software-development projects and performs an exhaustive data-mining search over the space of model parameters to improve the performances of effort-estimation models. Thus, it is possible to both calibrate and generate estimates at the same time. COCOMOST is written in the C language for execution in the UNIX operating system.

  10. High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing.The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed.The study included 35,745 (99.4% out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years. Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D,≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI:70.5,71.4, 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4, 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9, 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4, and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4, respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0, 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6 and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02, respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6, 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4 and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5, respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D. Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D was correlated (all P<0.001 with older age (OR:1.18, and 1.15, respectively, female gender (OR: 1.44 and 1.40, respectively, higher body mass index (OR: 1.02 and 1.03, respectively, taller body height (OR: 1.03 and 1.02, respectively, urban region of habitation (OR: 1.26 and 1.33, respectively and higher school type (OR:1.57 and 2.22, respectively. Prevalence of severe high myopia (≥-10D was associated only with older age (P<0.001; OR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.31, 1.59 but not with any education-related parameter such as higher school type (P = 0.48, urban region of habitation (P = 0.07 or female gender (P = 0.37.In this most recent survey, prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9% in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia

  11. Using metagenomics to show the efficacy of forest restoration in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William D; Shokralla, Shadi; McGee, Kathleen M; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2017-10-01

    The Franklin Parker Preserve within the New Jersey Pine Barrens contains 5000 acres of wetlands habitat, including old-growth Atlantic white cedar (or AWC; Chamaecyparis thyoides) swamps, cranberry bogs, and former cranberry bogs undergoing restoration into AWC forests. This study showed that the C-use efficiency was greater in the old-growth AWC soils than in soils from 8-year-old mid-stage restored AWC stands, which were greater than found in soil from 4-year-old AWC stands-the latter two stands being restored from long-term cranberry bogs. A metagenomic analysis of eDNA extracted from these soils showed that the C-cycle trends were associated with increases in the relative numbers of DNA sequences from several copiotrophic bacterial groups (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria), complex C-decomposing fungal groups (Sordiomycetes, Mortierellales, and Thelephorales), and collembolan and formicid invertebrates. All groups are indicators of successionally more advanced soils, and critical for soil C-cycle activities. These data suggest that the restoration activities studied are enhancing critical guilds of soil biota, and increasing C-use efficiency in the soils of restored habitats, and that the use of metagenomic analysis of soil eDNA can be used in the development of assessment models for soil recovery of wetlands following restoration.

  12. Habitat prioritization across large landscapes, multiple seasons, and novel areas: an example using greater sage-grouse in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Gummer, David; Holloran, Matthew J.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Mandich, Cheryl A.; Marshall, David; McKee, Gwyn; Olson, Chad; Pratt, Aaron C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Walker, Brett L.

    2014-01-01

    Animal habitat selection is an important and expansive area of research in ecology. In particular, the study of habitat selection is critical in habitat prioritization efforts for species of conservation concern. Landscape planning for species is happening at ever-increasing extents because of the appreciation for the role of landscape-scale patterns in species persistence coupled to improved datasets for species and habitats, and the expanding and intensifying footprint of human land uses on the landscape. We present a large-scale collaborative effort to develop habitat selection models across large landscapes and multiple seasons for prioritizing habitat for a species of conservation concern. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) occur in western semi-arid landscapes in North America. Range-wide population declines of this species have been documented, and it is currently considered as “warranted but precluded” from listing under the United States Endangered Species Act. Wyoming is predicted to remain a stronghold for sage-grouse populations and contains approximately 37% of remaining birds. We compiled location data from 14 unique radiotelemetry studies (data collected 1994–2010) and habitat data from high-quality, biologically relevant, geographic information system (GIS) layers across Wyoming. We developed habitat selection models for greater sage-grouse across Wyoming for 3 distinct life stages: 1) nesting, 2) summer, and 3) winter. We developed patch and landscape models across 4 extents, producing statewide and regional (southwest, central, northeast) models for Wyoming. Habitat selection varied among regions and seasons, yet preferred habitat attributes generally matched the extensive literature on sage-grouse seasonal habitat requirements. Across seasons and regions, birds preferred areas with greater percentage sagebrush cover and avoided paved roads, agriculture, and forested areas. Birds consistently preferred

  13. Affordability Assessment to Implement Light Rail Transit (LRT for Greater Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjang Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high population density and the increasing visitors in Yogyakarta aggravate the traffic congestion problem. BRT (Bus Rapid Transit services, Trans Jogja has not managed to solve this problem yet. Introducing Light Rail Transit (LRT has been considered as one of the solutions to restrain the congestion in Greater Yogyakarta. As the first indication that the LRT can be built in Greater Yogyakarta, the transportation affordability index was used to understand whether the LRT tariff was affordable. That tariff was calculated based on government policy in determining railway tariff. The forecasted potential passengers and LRT route have been analyzed as the previous steps to get LRT tariff. Potential passenger was forecasted from gravity mode, and the proposed LRT route was chosen using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA. The existing transportation affordability index was calculated for comparison analysis using the percentage of the expenditures for transportation made by monthly income of each household. The result showed that the LRT for Greater Yogyakarta was the most affordable transport mode compared to the Trans Jogja Bus and motorcycle. The affordability index of Tram Jogja for people having average income was 10.66% while another people with bottom quartile income was 13.56%. Keywords: Greater Yogyakarta, LRT, affordability.

  14. Intimate partner violence against South Asian women in greater Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G

    2002-01-01

    to identify the prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) against South Asian women (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Bhutanese, Nepalese, Maldive Islanders) residing in Greater Boston; to identify forms of abuse, abuse-related injuries, and help-seeking behaviors of South Asian women reporting IPV; and to assess the relationship between current IPV victimization and history of nonpartner abuse, acculturation, and victim-blaming attitudes. A community-based volunteer sample of South Asian women (n=160) in relationships with male partners participated in a cross-sectional study of women's health. Participants were recruited via community outreach (eg, fliers, snowball sampling, referrals) and were interviewed in person by trained South Asian women. Participants were 18 to 62 years old (mean age=31.6) and predominantly immigrant (87.5%); 74.4% were married, 51.6% had children, and 71.9% had family incomes of more than $2100 per month. Forty percent of the sample reported physical IPV, sexual IPV, or injury/need for medical services due to IPV from current male partners; few women (9.4%) who reported ever experiencing IPV from current male partners reported no abuse in the past year. Twice as many participants reported needing to see a doctor for abuse-related injuries, but not seeing one (6.3%), as actually seeing a doctor (3.1%). Only 11.3% of women reporting IPV reported having received any counseling related to the abuse. Other variables assessed were not related to abuse in current relationships. Domestic violence is a serious and highly prevalent concern among this group of South Asian women. Their knowledge of available services is limited, and victim-blaming attitudes are not uncommon. Culturally tailored domestic violence services and IPV education are needed for this underserved population.

  15. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  16. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  17. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  18. Curcumin Shows Antiviral Properties against Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minji; Lee, GilJae; Si, Jiyeon; Lee, Sung-Joon; You, Hyun Ju; Ko, GwangPyo

    2016-10-20

    Phytochemicals provide environmentally friendly and relatively inexpensive natural products, which could potentially benefit public health by controlling human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. In this study, 18 different phytochemicals were evaluated for antiviral effects against norovirus using murine norovirus (MNV) as a model for norovirus biology. Among these phytochemicals, curcumin (CCM) was the most potent anti-noroviral phytochemical, followed by resveratrol (RVT). In a cell culture infection model, exposure to CCM or RVT for 3 days reduced infectivity of norovirus by 91% and 80%, respectively. To confirm the antiviral capability of CCM, we further evaluated its antiviral efficacy at various doses (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, and 2 mg/mL) and durations (short-term: 10, 30, 60, and 120 min; long-term: 1, 3, 7, and 14 days). The anti-noroviral effect of CCM was verified to occur in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of each phytochemical on the replication of HuNoV using a HuNoV replicon-bearing cell line (HG23). Neither CCM nor RVT had a strong inhibitory effect on HuNoV replication, which suggests that their antiviral mechanism may involve viral entry or other life cycle stages rather than the replication of viral RNA. Our results demonstrated that CCM may be a promising candidate for development as an anti-noroviral agent to prevent outbreaks of foodborne illness.

  19. Mining by-products show potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Grant

    2013-01-01

    , transition metals, metalloids and anions such as arsenate have been effectively removed from wastewater. This process purifies the wastewater from mines in a faster, more effective way that does not require large amounts of infrastructure or difficult chemistry to achieve it. The advantages don't stop there. The hydrotalcites themselves are easily removed using centrifugation, leaving behind a much cleaner sludge and a lot less of it. Initial results have shown the treatment produces around 80 to 90% less sludge than that of lime-based treatments — so it does not present the same scale of handling and final disposal problems. The hydrotalcite-treated water can be recycled back into the plant to lower the total cost of water used in the mining operations, ultimately helping to reduce water consumption as there will be less water drawn from the environment such as from the groundwater near to the mine. This would be particularly valuable for mining operations in arid regions with limited water supply such as in Australia and Chile. Around the world the minerals industry is keen to find more efficient ways to treat their wastewaters and reduce their environmental footprint. With the inherent technical advantages and added benefits of using hydrotalcites, there's a high likelihood of the mining industry adopting this technology on a global scale. The steps to making this a reality have already been made, with commercialisation of the technology underway via Australian company Virtual Curtain. There is also the potential use the treatment to reprocess and recover valuable commodities and produce 'ore- grade' material out of the contaminants. The material can be fed back into the recovery process to recover a greater proportion of the contained metals. This is a very real example of extracting 'wealth from waste', opening up the possibility of partially offsetting wastewater treatment costs for the mining industry.

  20. Seasonal Habitat Use by Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on a Landscape with Low Density Oil and Gas Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mindy B; Rossi, Liza G; Apa, Anthony D

    2016-01-01

    Fragmentation of the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem has led to concern about a variety of sagebrush obligates including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Given the increase of energy development within greater sage-grouse habitats, mapping seasonal habitats in pre-development populations is critical. The North Park population in Colorado is one of the largest and most stable in the state and provides a unique case study for investigating resource selection at a relatively low level of energy development compared to other populations both within and outside the state. We used locations from 117 radio-marked female greater sage-grouse in North Park, Colorado to develop seasonal resource selection models. We then added energy development variables to the base models at both a landscape and local scale to determine if energy variables improved the fit of the seasonal models. The base models for breeding and winter resource selection predicted greater use in large expanses of sagebrush whereas the base summer model predicted greater use along the edge of riparian areas. Energy development variables did not improve the winter or the summer models at either scale of analysis, but distance to oil/gas roads slightly improved model fit at both scales in the breeding season, albeit in opposite ways. At the landscape scale, greater sage-grouse were closer to oil/gas roads whereas they were further from oil/gas roads at the local scale during the breeding season. Although we found limited effects from low level energy development in the breeding season, the scale of analysis can influence the interpretation of effects. The lack of strong effects from energy development may be indicative that energy development at current levels are not impacting greater sage-grouse in North Park. Our baseline seasonal resource selection maps can be used for conservation to help identify ways of minimizing the effects of energy development.

  1. Seasonal Habitat Use by Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus on a Landscape with Low Density Oil and Gas Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy B Rice

    Full Text Available Fragmentation of the sagebrush (Artemisia spp. ecosystem has led to concern about a variety of sagebrush obligates including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus. Given the increase of energy development within greater sage-grouse habitats, mapping seasonal habitats in pre-development populations is critical. The North Park population in Colorado is one of the largest and most stable in the state and provides a unique case study for investigating resource selection at a relatively low level of energy development compared to other populations both within and outside the state. We used locations from 117 radio-marked female greater sage-grouse in North Park, Colorado to develop seasonal resource selection models. We then added energy development variables to the base models at both a landscape and local scale to determine if energy variables improved the fit of the seasonal models. The base models for breeding and winter resource selection predicted greater use in large expanses of sagebrush whereas the base summer model predicted greater use along the edge of riparian areas. Energy development variables did not improve the winter or the summer models at either scale of analysis, but distance to oil/gas roads slightly improved model fit at both scales in the breeding season, albeit in opposite ways. At the landscape scale, greater sage-grouse were closer to oil/gas roads whereas they were further from oil/gas roads at the local scale during the breeding season. Although we found limited effects from low level energy development in the breeding season, the scale of analysis can influence the interpretation of effects. The lack of strong effects from energy development may be indicative that energy development at current levels are not impacting greater sage-grouse in North Park. Our baseline seasonal resource selection maps can be used for conservation to help identify ways of minimizing the effects of energy development.

  2. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  3. Varicose veins show enhanced chemokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solá, L del Rio; Aceves, M; Dueñas, A I; González-Fajardo, J A; Vaquero, C; Crespo, M Sanchez; García-Rodríguez, C

    2009-11-01

    Leucocyte infiltration in the wall of varicose veins has been reported previously. This study was designed to investigate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in control and in patients with varicose veins and to test the effect of treating varicose vein patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on cytokine expression prior to removal of varices. Sections of vein were removed during operation from both patient groups, and ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs) were performed to assess the expression of chemokines. Group I included non-varicose saphenous veins from healthy patients undergoing amputation for trauma. Varicose veins were obtained from patients with primary varicose undergoing surgical treatment who received no drug (group II) or treatment with 300 mg day(-1) of ASA for 15 days before surgery (group III). Non-varicose veins constitutively expressed low levels of monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA. Varicose veins had a distinct chemokine expression pattern, since significant up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8 and a marked expression of IP-10, RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta mRNA were detected. Removal of the endothelium did not alter this pattern. Varicose veins obtained from patients treated with ASA showed a consistent decrease in chemokine expression, although it did not reach statistical significance. Varicose veins showed increased expression of several chemokines compared to control veins. A non-significant reduction of activation was observed following treatment with ASA for 15 days.

  4. Outcomes of greater occipital nerve injections in pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Amy A; Reider, Amanda C; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    Chronic migraine is common in pediatrics and generally disabling. In adults, infiltration of the area around the greater occipital nerve can provide short- to medium-term benefit in some patients. This study reports the efficacy of greater occipital nerve infiltrations in pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Retrospective chart review of patients headache disorder undergoing a first-time injection. Infiltrations were unilateral and consisted of a mixture of methylprednisolone acetate, adjusted for weight, and lidocaine 2%. Forty-six patients were treated. Thirty-five (76%) had chronic migraine, 9 (20%) new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and 2 (4%) a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. Medication overuse was present in 26%. Ages ranged from 7 to 17 years. Follow-up data were available for 40 (87%). Overall, 53% (21/40) benefitted, and 52% (11/21) benefitted significantly. Benefit onset ranged from 0 to 14 days, mean 4.7 (SD 4.3), with mean benefit duration of 5.4 (SD 4.9) weeks. In chronic migraine, 62% (18/29) benefitted, and 56% (10/18) significantly benefitted. In NDPH, 33% (3/9) benefitted; 33% (n = 1) significantly. Neither child with a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia benefitted. In logistic regression modeling, medication overuse, age, sex, and sensory change in the distribution of the infiltrated nerve did not predict outcome. There were no serious side effects. Greater occipital nerve injections benefitted 53% of pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Efficacy appeared greater in chronic migraine than NDPH. Given the benign side effect profile, a greater occipital nerve infiltration seems appropriate before more aggressive approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: heterogeneity and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2012-03-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by 'border malaria' and 'forest malaria' with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. 'Border malaria' is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is severely

  6. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.

    2006-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Unlike California's seismic environment of shallow and largely strike-slip faults, Tokyo lies 200 km from a triple junction with two subduction zones, and 80 km from a front of active volcanoes. Further, some of the region's megathust faults are seismically coupled, some undergo episodic slip events, and others appear to be permanently aseismic. To reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates, and estimate their earthquake frequency, we analyzed the 7,000-yr record of seventeen M~8 shocks preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits, and 150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years from Japan's GeoNet array. We also digitized 10,000 observations of historical shaking recorded over the past 400 years, and examined 300,000 earthquakes registered by the dense NIED/JMA network in a 3D geographic information system. In a principal departure from previous work, we propose that a 100-km-wide, 25-km-thick dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and argue that the this fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior, including the damaging 1855 M~7.1 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, we estimate that events with magnitude and location similar to the Ansei-Edo event have a 20% likelihood in an average 30-yr period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for great M~7.9 megathrust shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is just 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (~0.9 g peak ground acceleration) in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ~30%, and the annual probability is 1.3%.

  7. Latin American perspectives on the individual and the greater community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1983-08-01

    betterment; social justice; and individual dignity. In all these questions, there are legitimate rationales for childbearing or for contraceptive use from the individual's perspective, but from the point of view of the global community, continued high fertility appears to be a longterm plan for disaster. By taking into account the greater good of the community, the exercise of individual choices takes on new meaning.

  8. The family impact of skin diseases: the Greater Patient concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basra, M K A; Finlay, A Y

    2007-05-01

    Although the impact of skin disease on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is well known, little work has been carried out to determine the secondary impact of a patient's skin disease on the patient's family or partner. The aim of this study was to identify the different aspects of a family member's QoL that may be affected by having a family member with skin disease. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 50 family members/partners of patients attending the outpatient clinic of a university hospital, with a wide range of dermatological conditions (n = 21). Subjects were invited to discuss in detail all the ways that their lives were affected by living with a patient with skin disease. The mean age of subjects (M = 19; F = 31) was 48.1 years (SD = 15.7) most were either parents (44%) or spouses/partners (44%) of the patients. Patients' ages (M = 16; F = 34) ranged from 5 months to 84 years. Fifty-nine aspects of QoL of family members were identified that were adversely affected by the patients' skin disease. These were categorized into 18 main topic areas: Emotional distress (98%), Burden of care (54%), Effect on housework (42%), Social life (48%), Holidays (46%), Financial aspect (30%), Physical well-being (22%), Job/study (40%), Leisure activities (26%), Sleep (20%), Food/drink (12%), Restriction of liked activities (14%), Need for support (12%), People's attitude (10%), Dissatisfaction with medical care (14%), Effect on sex life (8%), Role of religious faith (8%) and Miscellaneous (16%). There was no significant difference between male and female subjects regarding main QoL areas affected. The median number of main topic areas reported per family member was five (mean = 5.2, range = 1-10, SD = 2.64). This study has demonstrated that skin diseases can significantly impair the HRQoL of the patient's family in very diverse ways. Asking family members about this impact is greatly appreciated by them. We propose the 'Greater Patient' concept to

  9. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  10. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: An examination of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Parker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules. Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate mechanisms that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC and one such mechanism, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV. Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a choosing risky options when expected value favors those options and (b avoiding risky options when expected value favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  11. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  12. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  13. Actors and networks of agroecology in the greater Mekong subregion

    OpenAIRE

    Castella, Jean-Christophe; Kibler, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of agroecology network led to a classification based on their conditions of emergence, their structure and governance mechanisms. The study points the strengths and weaknesses of the existing networks at the different scales. It shows that the different agroecology schools are not necessarily well coordinated at each level (national, regional, global) nor across levels for each agroecology school. The activities of a regional agroecology learning alliance should be grou...

  14. The voice of bats: how greater mouse-eared bats recognize individuals based on their echolocation calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovel, Yossi; Melcon, Mariana Laura; Franz, Matthias O; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    Echolocating bats use the echoes from their echolocation calls to perceive their surroundings. The ability to use these continuously emitted calls, whose main function is not communication, for recognition of individual conspecifics might facilitate many of the social behaviours observed in bats. Several studies of individual-specific information in echolocation calls found some evidence for its existence but did not quantify or explain it. We used a direct paradigm to show that greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) can easily discriminate between individuals based on their echolocation calls and that they can generalize their knowledge to discriminate new individuals that they were not trained to recognize. We conclude that, despite their high variability, broadband bat-echolocation calls contain individual-specific information that is sufficient for recognition. An analysis of the call spectra showed that formant-related features are suitable cues for individual recognition. As a model for the bat's decision strategy, we trained nonlinear statistical classifiers to reproduce the behaviour of the bats, namely to repeat correct and incorrect decisions of the bats. The comparison of the bats with the model strongly implies that the bats are using a prototype classification approach: they learn the average call characteristics of individuals and use them as a reference for classification.

  15. The voice of bats: how greater mouse-eared bats recognize individuals based on their echolocation calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Yovel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Echolocating bats use the echoes from their echolocation calls to perceive their surroundings. The ability to use these continuously emitted calls, whose main function is not communication, for recognition of individual conspecifics might facilitate many of the social behaviours observed in bats. Several studies of individual-specific information in echolocation calls found some evidence for its existence but did not quantify or explain it. We used a direct paradigm to show that greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis can easily discriminate between individuals based on their echolocation calls and that they can generalize their knowledge to discriminate new individuals that they were not trained to recognize. We conclude that, despite their high variability, broadband bat-echolocation calls contain individual-specific information that is sufficient for recognition. An analysis of the call spectra showed that formant-related features are suitable cues for individual recognition. As a model for the bat's decision strategy, we trained nonlinear statistical classifiers to reproduce the behaviour of the bats, namely to repeat correct and incorrect decisions of the bats. The comparison of the bats with the model strongly implies that the bats are using a prototype classification approach: they learn the average call characteristics of individuals and use them as a reference for classification.

  16. Greater Healthful Dietary Variety Is Associated with Greater 2-Year Changes in Weight and Adiposity in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Sacks, Frank M; Champagne, Catherine M; Bray, George A; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Greater healthful dietary variety has been inversely associated with body adiposity cross-sectionally; however, it remains unknown whether it can improve long-term weight loss. This study prospectively examined associations between healthful dietary variety and short-term (6 mo) and long-term (2 y) changes in adiposity in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) weight-loss trial completed in 2007. Healthful dietary variety was assessed from 24-h recalls with the use of the US Healthy Food Diversity index among participants aged 30-70 y with overweight/obesity (n = 367). Changes in the index between baseline and 6 mo were divided into tertiles representing reduced (T1), stable (T2), or increased variety (T3). Body weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 6 mo, and the percentage of body fat and trunk fat were measured at 6 mo and 2 y. Associations between changes in variety and short-term and long-term changes in adiposity were analyzed by use of multivariable-adjusted generalized linear models and repeated-measures ANOVA. Regardless of dietary arm, T3 compared with T2 was associated with greater reduction in weight (-8.6 compared with -6.7 kg), WC (-9.1 compared with -6.1 cm), and body fat at 6 mo (β = -4.61 kg, P < 0.05). At 2 y, individuals in T3 compared with those in T2 or T1 maintained greater weight loss [-4.0 (T3) compared with -1.8 kg (T2 and T1), P = 0.02] and WC reduction [-5.4 (T3) compared with -3.0 (T2) and -2.9 cm (T1), P = 0.01]. Total body fat and trunk fat reductions were similarly greater in T3 than in T2. Increasing healthful food variety in energy-restricted diets may improve sustained reductions in weight and adiposity among adults with overweight or obesity on weight-loss regimens. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Greater Trochanteric Reattachment Using the Third-Generation Cable Plate System in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sung; Pansey, Nachiket; Kansay, Rajeev K; Yoo, Je-Hyun; Lee, Hwang-Yong; Chang, Jun-Dong

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the radiologic and functional results of greater trochanteric reattachment using the third-generation cable plate system in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A total of 47 trochanteric fixations (27 men and 18 women; mean age of 60.2 years) using the third-generation cable plate system in revision THA were retrospectively evaluated. The mean follow-up was 80.4 months (range 27-148 months). The osteotomized greater trochanter was reattached using the Cable-Ready system (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) and the Dall-Miles cable system (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ). The clinical results with Harris hip score, visual analog scale, and radiologic outcomes were evaluated. The mean Harris hip score was improved from 55.7 (range 17-72) preoperatively to 90.8 (range 68-100; P = .001) postoperatively, and the mean pain score was improved from 6.6 (range 3-10) to 2.5 (range 0-6; P = .001), respectively. Nonunion was observed in 6 hips (12.7%). Migration of the osteotomized greater trochanteric fragment (>1 cm) was seen in 8 hips (17.0%). Cable breakage occurred in 13 cases (27.6%). Although 5 cable plate systems were removed, there was no need for reattachment of the greater trochanter in this study. This study showed a relatively high incidence of radiologic failure after greater trochanteric reattachment using the cable plate system in revision THA, although reattachments were not required and clinical outcome was relatively satisfactory. Periodic and close observation for the early detection of failure is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The spatiotemporal distributions and determinants of ambient fungal spores in the Greater Taipei area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Tsai, Ying-Jie; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Wu, Chih-Da; Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Chen, Pang-Cheng; Chompuchan, Chuphan; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2015-09-01

    Airborne fungal spores, a type of bioaerosols, are significant air pollutants. We conducted a study to determine the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient fungi in the Greater Taipei area and develop land use regression (LUR) models for total and major fungal taxa. Four seasonal sampling campaigns were conducted over a year at 44 representative sites. Multiple regressions were performed to construct the LUR models. Ascospores were the most prevalent category, followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium, basidiospores, and Cladosporium. The highest fungal concentrations were found in spring. According to the LUR models, higher concentrations of Aspergillus/Penicillium and basidiospores were respectively present in residential/commercial areas and in areas with shorter road lengths. Various meteorological factors, particulates with aerodynamic diameters of ≤10 μm, and elevation also had significant relationships with fungal concentrations. The LUR models developed in this study can be used to assess spatiotemporal fungal distribution in the Greater Taipei area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying Arabia-Eurasia convergence accommodated in the Greater Caucasus by paleomagnetic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Rezaeian, M.; Gürer, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pastor-Galán, D.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2018-01-01

    Since the late Eocene, convergence and subsequent collision between Arabia and Eurasia was accommodated both in the overriding Eurasian plate forming the Greater Caucasus orogen and the Iranian plateau, and by subduction and accretion of the Neotethys and Arabian margin forming the East Anatolian plateau and the Zagros. To quantify how much Arabia-Eurasia convergence was accommodated in the Greater Caucasus region, we here provide new paleomagnetic results from 97 volcanic sites (∼500 samples) in the Talysh Mountains of NW Iran, that show ∼15° net clockwise rotation relative to Eurasia since the Eocene. We apply a first-order kinematic restoration of the northward convex orocline that formed to the south of the Greater Caucasus, integrating our new data with previously published constraints on rotations of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus. This suggests that north of the Talysh ∼120 km of convergence must have been accommodated. North of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus this is significantly more: 200-280 km. Our reconstruction independently confirms previous Caucasus convergence estimates. Moreover, we show for the first time a sharp contrast of convergence between the Lesser Caucasus and the Talysh. This implies that the ancient Paleozoic-Mesozoic transform plate boundary, preserved between the Iranian and East-Anatolian plateaus, was likely reactivated as a right-lateral transform fault since late Eocene time.

  20. Evidence for an association between post-fledging dispersal and microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity in a large population of greater flamingos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A F Gillingham

    Full Text Available Dispersal can be divided into three stages: departure, transience and settlement. Despite the fact that theoretical studies have emphasized the importance of heterozygosity on dispersal strategies, empirical evidence of its effect on different stages of dispersal is lacking. Here, using multi-event capture-mark-recapture models, we show a negative association between microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity (MLH; 10 loci; n = 1023 and post-fledging dispersal propensity for greater flamingos, Phoenicopterus roseus, born in southern France. We propose that the negative effects of inbreeding depression affects competitive ability and therefore more homozygous individuals are more likely to disperse because they are less able to compete within the highly saturated natal site. Finally, a model with the effect of MLH on propensity of post-fledgling dispersers to disperse to the long-distance sites of Africa was equivalent to the null model, suggesting that MLH had low to no effect on dispersal distance. Variations in individual genetic quality thus result in context-dependent heterogeneity in dispersal strategies at each stage of dispersal. Our results have important implications on fitness since sites visited early in life are known to influence site selection later on in life and future survival.

  1. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-11-07

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names.

  2. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  3. Greater increases in temperature extremes in low versus high income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Nicholas; Alexander, Lisa; Green, Donna; Donat, Markus

    2017-03-01

    It is commonly expected that the world’s lowest income countries will face some of the worst impacts of global warming, despite contributing the least to greenhouse gas emissions. Using global atmospheric reanalyses we show that the world’s lowest income countries are already experiencing greater increases in the occurrence of temperature extremes compared to the highest income countries, and have been for over two decades. Not only are low income countries less able to support mitigation and adaptation efforts, but their typically equatorial location predisposes them to lower natural temperature variability and thus greater changes in the occurrence of temperature extremes with global warming. This aspect of global warming is well known but overlooked in current international climate policy agreements and we argue that it is an important factor in reducing inequity due to climate impacts.

  4. Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Claudel

    2010-01-01

    The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

  5. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  6. Economics show CO2 EOR potential in central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Pancake, R.E.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that CO2 EOR should provide an internal rate of return (IRR) greater than 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for \\$20/bbl, CO2 costs \\$1/Mcf, and gross utilization is 10 Mcf of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 cost is reduced to \\$0.75/Mcf, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling indicates that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost. A project requires a minimum recovery of 1,500 net bbl/acre (about 1 million net bbl/1-mile section) under a best-case scenario. Less important variables to the economics are capital costs and non-CO2 related lease operating expenses.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis for invasive species control: the case of greater Canada gooseBranta canadensisin Flanders (northern Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyns, Nikolaas; Casaer, Jim; De Smet, Lieven; Devos, Koen; Huysentruyt, Frank; Robertson, Peter A; Verbeke, Tom; Adriaens, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Sound decisions on control actions for established invasive alien species (IAS) require information on ecological as well as socio-economic impact of the species and of its management. Cost-benefit analysis provides part of this information, yet has received relatively little attention in the scientific literature on IAS. We apply a bio-economic model in a cost-benefit analysis framework to greater Canada goose Branta canadensis , an IAS with documented social, economic and ecological impacts in Flanders (northern Belgium). We compared a business as usual (BAU) scenario which involved non-coordinated hunting and egg destruction with an enhanced scenario based on a continuation of these activities but supplemented with coordinated capture of moulting birds. To assess population growth under the BAU scenario we fitted a logistic growth model to the observed pre-moult capture population. Projected damage costs included water eutrophication and damage to cultivated grasslands and were calculated for all scenarios. Management costs of the moult captures were based on a representative average of the actual cost of planning and executing moult captures. Comparing the scenarios with different capture rates, different costs for eutrophication and various discount rates, showed avoided damage costs were in the range of 21.15 M€ to 45.82 M€ under the moult capture scenario. The lowest value for the avoided costs applied to the scenario where we lowered the capture rate by 10%. The highest value occurred in the scenario where we lowered the real discount rate from 4% to 2.5%. The reduction in damage costs always outweighed the additional management costs of moult captures. Therefore, additional coordinated moult captures could be applied to limit the negative economic impact of greater Canada goose at a regional scale. We further discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approach and its potential application to other IAS.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis for invasive species control: the case of greater Canada goose Branta canadensis in Flanders (northern Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaas Reyns

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Sound decisions on control actions for established invasive alien species (IAS require information on ecological as well as socio-economic impact of the species and of its management. Cost-benefit analysis provides part of this information, yet has received relatively little attention in the scientific literature on IAS. Methods We apply a bio-economic model in a cost-benefit analysis framework to greater Canada goose Branta canadensis, an IAS with documented social, economic and ecological impacts in Flanders (northern Belgium. We compared a business as usual (BAU scenario which involved non-coordinated hunting and egg destruction with an enhanced scenario based on a continuation of these activities but supplemented with coordinated capture of moulting birds. To assess population growth under the BAU scenario we fitted a logistic growth model to the observed pre-moult capture population. Projected damage costs included water eutrophication and damage to cultivated grasslands and were calculated for all scenarios. Management costs of the moult captures were based on a representative average of the actual cost of planning and executing moult captures. Results Comparing the scenarios with different capture rates, different costs for eutrophication and various discount rates, showed avoided damage costs were in the range of 21.15 M€ to 45.82 M€ under the moult capture scenario. The lowest value for the avoided costs applied to the scenario where we lowered the capture rate by 10%. The highest value occurred in the scenario where we lowered the real discount rate from 4% to 2.5%. Discussion The reduction in damage costs always outweighed the additional management costs of moult captures. Therefore, additional coordinated moult captures could be applied to limit the negative economic impact of greater Canada goose at a regional scale. We further discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approach and its potential application to other

  9. Predicting geographically distributed adult dental decay in the greater Auckland region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C M; Kruger, E; Whyman, R; Tennant, M

    2014-06-01

    To model the geographic distribution of current (and treated) dental decay on a high-resolution geographic basis for the Auckland region of New Zealand. The application of matrix-based mathematics to modelling adult dental disease-based on known population risk profiles to provide a detailed map of the dental caries distribution for the greater Auckland region. Of the 29 million teeth in adults in the region some 1.2 million (4%) are suffering decay whilst 7.2 million (25%) have previously suffered decay and are now restored. The model provides a high-resolution picture of where the disease burden lies geographically and presents to health planners a method for developing future service plans.

  10. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yukyung

    2017-04-01

    , worthwhileness, happiness and anxiety. The correlation analysis outcomes can be divided into three levels such as Greater London as a whole, and Inner and Outer London. In Greater London, total area of green spaces has a strong relation with crime rates, and a less strong relation with number of jobs. Both socioeconomic indicators showed a negative trend along with the increase of open spaces. In terms of wellbeing indicators, the positive trend of life satisfaction, worthwhileness and happiness, and the negative trend of anxiety can be found in accordance with the increase of green coverage. In Inner London, job density and crime rates show a negative trend in accordance with the increase of total open space areas. And as contagion of open spaces is higher, the indicators of number of jobs, jobs density, and crime rates also showed an increase tendency. As for worthwhileness and happiness, it also showed a substantial correlation with contagion of open spaces. In Outer London, the correlation between job density and crime rates, and open space cannot be found, but the wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction and worthwhileness show an increase trend along with larger green coverage.

  11. [Dermatophytosis in the greater Resistencia area, Chaco Province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiaterra, M L; Giusiano, G E; Alonso, J M; Pons de Storni, L; Waisman, R

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological characteristics of dermatophytoses in the metropolitan area of Resistencia city are described. Hair fragments, skin, scalp or nail scrapings were collected from 3.507 persons with dermatological symptoms of probable fungal origin. The mycological studies were performed by three mycological laboratories, one from a university Institute and two from private laboratories. Direct microscopic examinations showed fungi in 39.66% of samples, while the recovering of dermatophytes from cultures was 40.66%. Microsporum canis was the most prevalent species among dermatophytes, isolated in 217 samples (41.73% of cultures) while Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were present in 38.46%, 6.35%, 5.58% and 4.81%, respectively. Microsporum and Trichophyton genus were clearly predominant over Epidermophyton. Variations in prevalences of fungal genus from different places of the world probably reflect the existence of particular environmental situations defined by biotic and abiotic factors that influence the settlement of endemic mycoses.

  12. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with ( Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora , and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla ) and without ( Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba , and Acacia auriculiformis ) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux ( J s ) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the F v / F m (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and Φ PSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that J s,d (daytime sap flux) and J s,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (Slope SMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (Slope SMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  13. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R.; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla) and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux) and Js,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis. PMID:29416547

  14. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux and Js,n (nighttime sap flux of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680 than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943. These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  15. Psychopaths show enhanced amygdala activation during fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas eSchultz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into primary and secondary psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional fearlessness, while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  16. China's soaring vehicle population: Even greater than forecasted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunshi; Teter, Jacob; Sperling, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    China's vehicle population is widely forecasted to grow 6-11% per year into the foreseeable future. Barring aggressive policy intervention or a collapse of the Chinese economy, we suggest that those forecasts are conservative. We analyze the historical vehicle growth patterns of seven of the largest vehicle producing countries at comparable times in their motorization history. We estimate vehicle growth rates for this analogous group of countries to have 13-17% per year-roughly twice the rate forecasted for China by others. Applying these higher growth rates to China results in the total vehicle fleet reaching considerably higher volumes than forecasted by others, implying far higher global oil use and carbon emissions than projected by the International Energy Agency and others. - Highlights: → We use large, car-producing countries as models in forecasting vehicle ownership in China. → We find that vehicle growth rates in China could be twice as high as forecasted by others (including IEA). → Motorization is occurring quickly across all regions in China, not just the richer coastal areas.

  17. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Architecture of the new Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Stéphanie; Brentini, Maud; Giuliani, Gregory; Lehmann, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    Growing interests on the subsurface resources can be noted while issues concerning sustainable territorial development are rising too (Blunier et al. 2007). Among these resources, geothermal energy is developing in Geneva and regions and asks questions on subsurface resources management especially in terms of data. The GEothermie 2020 program offers the possibility to reprocess old data (Rusillon et al., 2017; Clerc et al., 2016) and collect new ones in order to increase geological knowledge on the Greater Geneva Basin. To better valorize these data, an Information System (IS) is required for the geological survey of Geneva (GESDEC). However, existing IT infrastructures are not able to meet all their needs. This research aims to develop a geological IS for 2D and 3D data. To fit to the needs of the GESDEC, three aspects will be studied: 1) architecture, 2) tools and 3) data workflow. A case study will validate the Information System designed. The first step of this study was to establish the state of the art on the current geological data management practices in Europe, Switzerland and in Geneva. To evaluate IS, short structured questions have been sent to all European geological surveys as well as an adapted version for the cantonal and federal Swiss institutes. Concerning the database and GIS development aspects, an analysis of the GESDEC's needs and constraints allowed expanding the existing data model (Brentini and Favre 2014). Different database and GIS tools were compared and tested. Possibilities for these tools to communicate with GST, a 3D data viewer and manager (Gabriel et al. 2015), were also taken in account. These developments took place in parallel with discussions with stakeholders involved and various experts in the field of information management, geology and geothermal energy to support reflexions on the data workflows. Questionnaire results showed that the development of a geological IS differs largely from a country to another although their

  18. D-Ser-containing humanin shows promotion of fibril formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanehiro; Sasabe, Jumpei; Chiba, Tomohiro; Aiso, Sadakazu; Utsunomiya-Tate, Naoko

    2012-06-01

    Humanin (HN), a peptide of 24 amino acid residues, suppresses the neuronal cell death that is induced by the gene products of Alzheimer's disease. HN contains two Ser residues at positions 7 and 14. Because the proportion of D-Ser isomerized from L-Ser in proteins appears to increase as cellular organs age, we explored the structural effects of the isomerization of each Ser residue in HN. By using a thioflavin-T assay to detect fibril formation, we found that an HN derivative that contained two isomerized D-Ser residues had a greater tendency to form fibrils than did wild-type HN or HNs containing single D-Ser residues. A previous report showed that HN containing two D-Ser residues exerts neuroprotective activity. Our data, therefore, suggest that the fibril formation by HN that contains two D-Ser residues may promote HN neuroprotective activity.

  19. On efficiency of fire simulation realization: parallelization with greater number of computational meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, Lukas; Glasa, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Current fire simulation systems are capable to utilize advantages of high-performance computer (HPC) platforms available and to model fires efficiently in parallel. In this paper, efficiency of a corridor fire simulation on a HPC computer cluster is discussed. The parallel MPI version of Fire Dynamics Simulator is used for testing efficiency of selected strategies of allocation of computational resources of the cluster using a greater number of computational cores. Simulation results indicate that if the number of cores used is not equal to a multiple of the total number of cluster node cores there are allocation strategies which provide more efficient calculations.

  20. Scrotal neoplasia: would truck drivers be at greater risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seabra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how scrotal neoplasias have been managed during the past decade and to question possible factors or professions associated to its presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated every case reported from 1995 to 2005 at our hospital. We described the clinical scenario, complementary exams, treatments and outcomes. We also tried to verify if there was any risk, predisposing factors or professions that would explain the cancer origin. RESULTS: Six cases were reviewed. Out of these, three patients were truck drivers. Five of them showed restricted lesions without inguinal lymph nodes enlargement. Histologically, six patients presented squamous carcinoma, with two of them having the verrucous type. The median age of patients was 52 years old (31 to 89. The five patients who are still alive had their lesions completely removed with safety margin and primary closure. CONCLUSIONS: We have noticed that the scrotal carcinoma behavior is similar to that of the penis, where removal of the lesion and study of the regional lymph nodes help to increase the patient survival rate. The outstanding fact was that three out of six patients were truck drivers, raising the hypothesis that such profession, maybe due to the contact or attrition with the diesel exhaust expelled by the engine or to sexual promiscuity, would imply in a larger risk of developing this rare neoplasia.

  1. Waste-acceptance criteria for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1986-01-01

    A methodology for establishing waste-acceptance criteria based on quantitative performance factors that characterize the confinement capabilities of a waste-disposal site and facility has been developed. The methodology starts from the basic objective of protecting public health and safety by providing assurance that dispsoal of the waste will not result in a radiation dose to any member of the general public, in either the short or long term, in excess of an established basic dose limit. The method is based on an explicit, straightforward, and quantitative relationship among individual risk, confinement capabilities, and waste characteristics. A key aspect of the methodology is the introduction of a confinement factor that characterizes the overall confinement capability of a particular facility and can be used for quantitative assessments of the performance of different disposal sites and facilities, as well as for establishing site-specific waste-acceptance criteria. Confinement factors are derived by means of site-specific pathway analyses. They make possible a direct and simple conversion of a basic dose limit into waste-acceptance criteria, specified as concentration limits on radionuclides in the waste streams and expressed in quantitative form as a function of parameters that characterize the site, facility design, waste containers, and waste form. Waste-acceptance criteria can be represented visually as activity/time plots for various waste streams. These plots show the concentrations of radionuclides in a waste stream as a function of time and permit a visual, quantitative assessment of long-term performance, relative risks from different radionuclides in the waste stream, and contributions from ingrowth. 13 refs

  2. Demystifying the Clinical Diagnosis of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganderton, Charlotte; Semciw, Adam; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 10 clinical tests that can be used in the diagnosis of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) in women, and to compare these clinical tests to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Twenty-eight participants with GTPS (49.5 ± 22.0 years) and 18 asymptomatic participants (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 52.5 ± 22.8 years) were included. A blinded physiotherapist performed 10 pain provocation tests potentially diagnostic for GTPS-palpation of the greater trochanter, resisted external derotation test, modified resisted external derotation test, standard and modified Ober's tests, Patrick's or FABER test, resisted hip abduction, single-leg stance test, and the resisted hip internal rotation test. A sample of 16 symptomatic and 17 asymptomatic women undertook a hip MRI scan. Gluteal tendons were evaluated and categorized as no pathology, mild tendinosis, moderate tendinosis/partial tear, or full-thickness tear. Clinical test analyses show high specificity, high positive predictive value, low to moderate sensitivity, and negative predictive value for most clinical tests. All symptomatic and 88% of asymptomatic participants had pathological gluteal tendon changes on MRI, from mild tendinosis to full-thickness tear. The study found the Patrick's or FABER test, palpation of the greater trochanter, resisted hip abduction, and the resisted external derotation test to have the highest diagnostic test accuracy for GTPS. Tendon pathology on MRI is seen in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women.

  3. Geodynamics and Stress State of the Earth's Crust in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus (Azerbaijan) collision region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayev, Gulam; Akhmedova, Elnare; Babayev, Elvin

    2017-04-01

    The current study researches the present-day stress state of the Earth's crust within the territory of Azerbaijan by using the database of the international research project "World Stress Map" (WSM). The present stress state was also assessed by exploring the effects of the contemporary topographic properties of Caucasus in three-dimensional frame. Aiming to explore the relative roles of regional tectonic conditions in the definition of stress state of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, stress distribution model was developed by the earthquake data (1998-2016) and by the standard techniques of stress field calculation. The results show that the stress orientations are influenced also by the combination of topography and crust thickness distribution even at very large depth. Stress data and earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that the stress state of the Earth's crust of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus is characterized by the compression predominantly oriented across the regional strike. The model results suggest that the Lesser Caucasus and Kur depression are rotating coherently, with little or no internal deformation in a counter-clockwise rotation located near the north-eastern corner of the Black Sea. Orientation of stress axes well consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms revealed that within Upper and Lower Crusts, earthquakes are predominantly thrust-faulting with a number of normal-faulting and some strike-slip faulting. The map of the focal mechanisms and stress distribution suggests that the research area is characterized by the thrust of horizontal compression trending north-north-east in the western part of the southern Caucasus. In the western part of Azerbaijan, the compression takes place between the Main Caucasus Fault and the Kur depression, which strikes south along the northern margin of the mountain range. In addition, a clear transition from the left-lateral strike slip to the predominantly right-lateral strike slip is observed in the southern of

  4. An expanded phylogeny of social amoebas (Dictyostelia shows increasing diversity and new morphological patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenson Steven L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social Amoebae or Dictyostelia are eukaryotic microbes with a unique life cycle consisting of both uni- and multicellular stages. They have long fascinated molecular, developmental and evolutionary biologists, and Dictyostelium discoideum is now one of the most widely studied eukaryotic microbial models. The first molecular phylogeny of Dictyostelia included most of the species known at the time and suggested an extremely deep taxon with a molecular depth roughly equivalent to Metazoa. The group was also shown to consist of four major clades, none of which correspond to traditional genera. Potential morphological justification was identified for three of the four major groups, on the basis of which tentative names were assigned. Results Over the past four years, the Mycetozoan Global Biodiversity Survey has identified many new isolates that appear to be new species of Dictyostelia, along with numerous isolates of previously described species. We have determined 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences for all of these new isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show at least 50 new species, and these arise from throughout the dictyostelid tree breaking up many previously isolated long branches. The resulting tree now shows eight well-supported major groups instead of the original four. The new species also expand the known morphological diversity of the previously established four major groups, violating nearly all previously suggested deep morphological patterns. Conclusions A greatly expanded phylogeny of Dictyostelia now shows even greater morphological plasticity at deep taxonomic levels. In fact, there now seem to be no obvious deep evolutionary trends across the group. However at a finer level, patterns in morphological character evolution are beginning to emerge. These results also suggest that there is a far greater diversity of Dictyostelia yet to be discovered, including novel morphologies.

  5. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Guttery

    Full Text Available Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

  6. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttery, Michael R.; Dahlgren, David K.; Messmer, Terry A.; Connelly, John W.; Reese, Kerry P.; Terletzky, Pat A.; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. PMID:23824519

  7. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  8. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  9. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise

  10. Faster Movement Speed Results in Greater Tendon Strain during the Loaded Squat Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Tendon dynamics influence movement performance and provide the stimulus for long-term tendon adaptation. As tendon strain increases with load magnitude and decreases with loading rate, changes in movement speed during exercise should influence tendon strain. Ten resistance-trained men [squat one repetition maximum (1RM) to body mass ratio: 1.65 ± 0.12] performed parallel-depth back squat lifts with 60% of 1RM load at three different speeds: slow fixed-tempo (TS: 2-s eccentric, 1-s pause, 2-s concentric), volitional-speed without a pause (VS) and maximum-speed jump (JS). In each condition joint kinetics, quadriceps tendon length (LT), patellar tendon force (FT), and rate of force development (RFDT) were estimated using integrated ultrasonography, motion-capture, and force platform recordings. Peak LT, FT, and RFDT were greater in JS than TS (p < 0.05), however no differences were observed between VS and TS. Thus, moving at faster speeds resulted in both greater tendon stress and strain despite an increased RFDT, as would be predicted of an elastic, but not a viscous, structure. Temporal comparisons showed that LT was greater in TS than JS during the early eccentric phase (10-14% movement duration) where peak RFDT occurred, demonstrating that the tendon's viscous properties predominated during initial eccentric loading. However, during the concentric phase (61-70 and 76-83% movement duration) differing FT and similar RFDT between conditions allowed for the tendon's elastic properties to predominate such that peak tendon strain was greater in JS than TS. Based on our current understanding, there may be an additional mechanical stimulus for tendon adaptation when performing large range-of-motion isoinertial exercises at faster movement speeds.

  11. Efficacy of prophylactic splenectomy for proximal advanced gastric cancer invading greater curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Yu; Haruta, Shusuke; Shindoh, Junichi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Masaki; Udagawa, Harushi

    2017-05-25

    For proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature, concomitant splenectomy is frequently performed to secure the clearance of lymph node metastases. However, prognostic impact of prophylactic splenectomy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the oncological significance of prophylactic splenectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature. Retrospective review of 108 patients who underwent total or subtotal gastrectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature was performed. Short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between the patients who underwent splenectomy (n = 63) and those who did not (n = 45). Patients who underwent splenectomy showed higher amount of blood loss (538 vs. 450 mL, p = 0.016) and morbidity rate (30.2 vs. 13.3, p = 0.041) compared with those who did not undergo splenectomy. In particular, pancreas-related complications were frequently observed among patients who received splenectomy (17.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.003). However, no significant improvement of long-term outcomes were confirmed in the cases with splenectomy (5-year recurrence-free rate, 60.2 vs. 67.3%; p = 0.609 and 5-year overall survival rates, 63.7 vs. 73.6%; p = 0.769). On the other hand, splenectomy was correlated with marginally better survival in patients with Borrmann type 1 or 2 gastric cancer (p = 0.072). For advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature, prophylactic splenectomy may have no significant prognostic impact despite the increased morbidity rate after surgery. Such surgical procedure should be avoided as long as lymph node involvement is not evident.

  12. Faster Movement Speed Results in Greater Tendon Strain during the Loaded Squat Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Jacob E.; Newton, Robert U.; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tendon dynamics influence movement performance and provide the stimulus for long-term tendon adaptation. As tendon strain increases with load magnitude and decreases with loading rate, changes in movement speed during exercise should influence tendon strain. Methods: Ten resistance-trained men [squat one repetition maximum (1RM) to body mass ratio: 1.65 ± 0.12] performed parallel-depth back squat lifts with 60% of 1RM load at three different speeds: slow fixed-tempo (TS: 2-s eccentric, 1-s pause, 2-s concentric), volitional-speed without a pause (VS) and maximum-speed jump (JS). In each condition joint kinetics, quadriceps tendon length (LT), patellar tendon force (FT), and rate of force development (RFDT) were estimated using integrated ultrasonography, motion-capture, and force platform recordings. Results: Peak LT, FT, and RFDT were greater in JS than TS (p < 0.05), however no differences were observed between VS and TS. Thus, moving at faster speeds resulted in both greater tendon stress and strain despite an increased RFDT, as would be predicted of an elastic, but not a viscous, structure. Temporal comparisons showed that LT was greater in TS than JS during the early eccentric phase (10–14% movement duration) where peak RFDT occurred, demonstrating that the tendon's viscous properties predominated during initial eccentric loading. However, during the concentric phase (61–70 and 76–83% movement duration) differing FT and similar RFDT between conditions allowed for the tendon's elastic properties to predominate such that peak tendon strain was greater in JS than TS. Conclusions: Based on our current understanding, there may be an additional mechanical stimulus for tendon adaptation when performing large range-of-motion isoinertial exercises at faster movement speeds. PMID:27630574

  13. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents' Favorite Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-05-19

    Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ(2) tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be "mostly unhealthy" (69.3% vs 22.6%, P Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows' content would create a healthier media environment for youth.

  14. Show and tell: how supervisors facilitate leader development among transitioning leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Lisa; Park, Haeseen; Soltis, Jim; Forte-Trammell, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    We argue that studying leaders experiencing a job transition offers a unique opportunity to explore initial changes in leaders' development in their cognition and action. Here, we examine 2 early indicators of leaders' development-their acquisition of knowledge regarding their new role (a cognitive outcome) and the time they allocate toward leading others (a behavioral outcome)-and how supervisors can facilitate these forms of development among transitioning leaders. With a sample of 110 first-line leaders who we tracked over approximately 10 months at 4 different points in time, we tested the efficacy of supervisors' support in the form of modeling effective leadership behavior (i.e., "show") and the provision of job information (i.e., "tell"). Results from random coefficient modeling revealed that the interactive effect of supervisors' "show" and "tell" accelerates the rate of transitioning leaders' self-perceived role knowledge acquisition over time. This upward trajectory is even more pronounced for transitioning leaders who have not been exposed to an exceptional leader during their careers. Further, with a lagged design, we found that leaders who report greater role knowledge allocate more time toward leading others, thus indicating initial changes in these leaders' behavior. We discuss these findings in light of their theoretical and practical importance to the field of leader development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Machine-Learning-Based No Show Prediction in Outpatient Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Elvira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A recurring problem in healthcare is the high percentage of patients who miss their appointment, be it a consultation or a hospital test. The present study seeks patient’s behavioural patterns that allow predicting the probability of no- shows. We explore the convenience of using Big Data Machine Learning models to accomplish this task. To begin with, a predictive model based only on variables associated with the target appointment is built. Then the model is improved by considering the patient’s history of appointments. In both cases, the Gradient Boosting algorithm was the predictor of choice. Our numerical results are considered promising given the small amount of information available. However, there seems to be plenty of room to improve the model if we manage to collect additional data for both patients and appointments.

  16. Convergence between the Georgian Lesser and Greater Caucasus: Implications for seismic risk around Tbilisi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Giorgi; Floyd, Michael; Godoladze, Tea; King, Robert; Cowgill, Eric; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Hahubia, Galaktion; Reilinger, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The Caucasus region, including the Lesser and Greater Caucasus Mountains and intervening Rioni, Kartli and Kura basins, defines the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision between the Black and Caspian Seas. Although geodetic, geologic and seismological data attest to active crustal shortening in the region, both the structures accommodating this deformation and the potential seismic hazards they pose remain unclear. Here we present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made at 21 campaign sites and 4 continuous GPS stations in the Republic of Georgia from 2008 through 2015. The sites are located along two, 160 km-long, range-perpendicular profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone. The Racha profile in the west spans the Rioni Basin and epicentral area of the 1991 Mw6.9 Racha earthquake. To the east, the Tbilisi profile crosses near the capital city of Tbilisi, with a population of 1.2 million. To estimate site velocities, we processed the GPS observations using the GAMIT/GLOBK software package, and then combined new and previously published velocities in a common Eurasian reference frame. Both profiles indicate 3 mm/yr of shortening between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus. On the Racha profile, the locus of shortening roughly coincides with the Main Caucasus Thrust Fault as defined by the location of the 1991 Racha earthquake. In contrast, on the Tbilisi profile shortening is concentrated 40-60 km further south, in the vicinity of the Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault (locally, the Adjara-Trialeti Fault). Simple elastic models of planar faults in an elastic half-space indicate that convergence along the Racha profile is consistent with strain accumulation on a north-dipping thrust fault rooting beneath the Greater Caucasus, generally consistent with the coseismic fault parameters for the 1991 Racha earthquake. In contrast, principal convergence along the Tbilisi profile appears to be associated

  17. Grizzly bear denning and potential conflict areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podruzny, Shannon; Cherry, Steve; Schwartz, Charles C.; Landenburger, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Increasing winter use of steep, high-elevation terrain by backcountry recreationists has elevated concern about disturbance of denning grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). To help identify areas where such conflicts might occur, we developed a spatially explicit model to predict potential denning areas in the GYE. Using a scan area of 630 m around each location, we assigned site attributes to 344 den locations of radio-trackedg rizzly bears from 1975-99. Attributesi dentified as predictorsf or the analysis included elevation, slope, an index of solar radiation, and forest cover. We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic to model the similarity between sites used by denning bears and each cell in the data layers. We used the final Mahalanobis distance model to produce maps of the study area. Potential denning habitat, based upon the model, is abundantw ithin the GYE. Ourr esultsc an be used by land managementa gencies to identifyp otentialc onflict sites and minimize effects of regulated activities on denning grizzly bears. We illustrate how the Gallatin National Forest (GNF) used the model to examine the overlap between potential snowmobile use areas and potential denning habitat as part of a Biological Assessment submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Shallow size-density relations within mammal clades suggest greater intra-guild ecological impact of large-bodied species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Østergaard; Faurby, Søren; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Population densities of species have a predictable relationship with their body mass on a global scale. This relationship is known as the size-density relationship (SDR). The relationship was originally found to be directly opposite of metabolic rate scaling, which led to the hypothesis of energetic equivalence. However, recent studies have suggested that the SDR varies between clades. Specifically, the SDR for certain mammal clades has been found to be less negative than the relationship across all mammals. The aim of the present study is to estimate phylogenetic variation in the scaling relationship, using a data-driven identification of natural phylogenetic substructure in the body size-density relation, and discuss its potential drivers. The classic model is often used to estimate natural population densities, and a further, practical aim is to improve it by incorporating variability among phylogenetic groups. We expand the model for the SDR relation of mammals to include clade-specific variation. We used a dataset with population and body mass estimates of 924 terrestrial mammal species, covering 97 families, and applied an algorithm identifying group-specific changes in the relationship across a family-level phylogeny. We show increased performance in species density estimation is achieved by incorporating clade-specific changes in the relationship compared to the classic model (increasing r 2 from .56 to .74 and ΔAIC c  = 466). While the global SDR across clades was confirmed to be similar to previous findings (r = -.74), the relationship within all sub-clades was less negative than the overall trend. Our results show that data-driven identification of phylogenetic substructure in the size-density relation substantially improves predictive accuracy of the model. The less negative relationship within clades compared to the overall trend and compared to within clade metabolic scaling suggest that the energetic equivalence rule does not hold. This

  19. Higher Insulin, Triglycerides, and Blood Pressure With Greater Trunk Fat in Tanner 1 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Heshka, Stanley; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the body fat distribution pattern in prepubertal Chinese children and to investigate the relationship between central fat distribution and specific biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Research Methods and Procedures The study was conducted in an urban Mainland Chinese (Jinan, Shandong) sample of children using a cross-sectional design. Pubertal status was determined by Tanner criteria. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, DXA measures of total body fat and trunk fat; fasting serum measures of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Multiple regression models were developed with the biomarkers of cardiovascular risk factor as the dependent variables, and adjustments were made for significant covariates, including sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, total body fat, trunk fat, and interactions. Results A total of 247 healthy prepubertal subjects were studied. After co-varying for age, weight, height, and extremity fat (the sum of arm fat and leg fat), girls had greater trunk fat than boys (p < 0.0001, R2 for model = 0.95). Insulin and triglyceride were positively related to central fat measured by DXA-trunk fat (p < 0.05) but not related to the waist circumference. In the blood pressure model, waist circumference was a significant predictor of both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, while DXA-trunk fat was associated with diastolic blood pressure only. Significant interactions between sex and trunk fat, and sex and total fat, were found in relation to diastolic blood pressure. Discussion In prepubertal Chinese children, greater trunk fat was significantly associated with higher insulin and triglyceride in boys and girls and was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in boys only. PMID:17426336

  20. Ecological factors influencing nest survival of greater sage-grouse in Mono County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolada, Eric J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Sedinger, James S.

    2009-01-01

    We studied nest survival of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in 5 subareas of Mono County, California, USA, from 2003 to 2005 to 1) evaluate the importance of key vegetation variables for nest success, and 2) to compare nest success in this population with other greater sage-grouse populations. We captured and radiotracked females (n  =  72) to identify nest sites and monitor nest survival. We measured vegetation at nest sites and within a 10-m radius around each nest to evaluate possible vegetation factors influencing nest survival. We estimated daily nest survival and the effect of explanatory variables on daily nest survival using nest-survival models in Program MARK. We assessed effects on daily nest survival of total, sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and nonsagebrush live shrub-cover, Robel visual obstruction, the mean of grass residual height and grass residual cover measurements within 10 m of the nest shrub, and area of the shrub, shrub height, and shrub type at the nest site itself. Assuming a 38-day exposure period, we estimated nest survival at 43.4%, with percent cover of shrubs other than sagebrush as the variable most related to nest survival. Nest survival increased with increasing cover of shrubs other than sagebrush. Also, daily nest survival decreased with nest age, and there was considerable variation in nest survival among the 5 subareas. Our results indicate that greater shrub cover and a diversity of shrub species within sagebrush habitats may be more important to sage-grouse nest success in Mono County than has been reported elsewhere.

  1. A collaborative project to improve identification and management of patients with chronic kidney disease in a primary care setting in Greater Manchester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, John; Harvey, Gill; Coleiro, Michelle; Butler, Brook; Barclay, Anna; Gwozdziewicz, Maciek; O'Donoghue, Donal; Hegarty, Janet

    2012-08-01

    Research has demonstrated a knowledge and practice gap in the identification and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In 2009, published data showed that general practices in Greater Manchester had a low detection rate for CKD. A 12-month improvement collaborative, supported by an evidence-informed implementation framework and financial incentives. 19 general practices from four primary care trusts within Greater Manchester. Number of recorded patients with CKD on practice registers; percentage of patients on registers achieving nationally agreed blood pressure targets. The collaborative commenced in September 2009 and involved three joint learning sessions, interspersed with practice level rapid improvement cycles, and supported by an implementation team from the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Greater Manchester. At baseline, the 19 collaborative practices had 4185 patients on their CKD registers. At final data collection in September 2010, this figure had increased by 1324 to 5509. Blood pressure improved from 34% to 74% of patients on practice registers having a recorded blood pressure within recommended guidelines. Evidence-based improvement can be implemented in practice for chronic disease management. A collaborative approach has been successful in enabling teams to test and apply changes to identify patients and improve care. The model has proved to be more successful for some practices, suggesting a need to develop more context-sensitive approaches to implementation and actively manage the factors that influence the success of the collaborative.

  2. Science in the Public Sphere: Greater Sage-grouse Conservation Planning from a Transdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Casazza, Michael L.; Caldwell, Margaret R.; Mathiasmeier, Teresa A.; Morgan, Peter M.; Overton, Cory T.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of scientific data and adaptive management techniques is critical to the success of species conservation, however, there are uncertainties about effective methods of knowledge exchange between scientists and decisionmakers. The conservation planning and implementation process for Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; ) in the Mono Basin, Calif. region, was used as a case study to observe the exchange of scientific information among stakeholders with differing perspectives; resource manager, scientist, public official, rancher, and others. The collaborative development of a risk-simulation model was explored as a tool to transfer knowledge between stakeholders and inform conservation planning and management decisions. Observations compiled using a transdisciplinary approach were used to compare the exchange of information during the collaborative model development and more traditional interactions such as scientist-led presentations at stakeholder meetings. Lack of congruence around knowledge needs and prioritization led to insufficient commitment to completely implement the risk-simulation model. Ethnographic analysis of the case study suggests that further application of epistemic community theory, which posits a strong boundary condition on knowledge transfer, could help support application of risk simulation models in conservation-planning efforts within similarly complex social and bureaucratic landscapes.

  3. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State University

    2013-05-22

    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most

  4. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess thesustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in theGreater Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phuyal, Khem P.

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  5. Epidemiological link of a major cholera outbreak in Greater Accra region of Ghana, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene-Adjei, Kennedy; Kenu, Ernest; Bandoh, Delia Akosua; Addo, Prince Nii Ossah; Noora, Charles Lwanga; Nortey, Priscillia; Afari, Edwin Andrew

    2017-10-11

    Cholera remains an important public health challenge globally. Several pandemics have occurred in different parts of the world and have been epidemiologically linked by different researchers to illustrate how the cases were spread and how they were related to index cases. Even though the risk factors associated with the 2014 cholera outbreak were investigated extensively, the link between index cases and the source of infection was not investigated to help break the transmission process. This study sought to show how the index cases from various districts of the Greater Accra Region may have been linked. We carried out a descriptive cross sectional study to investigate the epidemiological link of the 2014 cholera outbreak in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. An extensive review of all district records on cholera cases in the Greater Accra region was carried out. Index cases were identified with the help of line lists. Univariate analyses were expressed as frequency distributions, percentages, mean ± Standard Deviation, and rates (attack rates, case-fatality rates etc.) as appropriate. Maps were drawn using Arc GIS and Epi info software to describe the pattern of transmission. Up to 20,199 cholera cases were recorded. Sixty percent of the cases were between 20 and 40 years and about 58% (11,694) of the total cases were males. Almost 50% of the cases occurred in the Accra Metro district. Two-thirds of the index cases ate food prepared outside their home and had visited the Accra Metropolis. The 2014 cholera outbreak can be described as a propagated source outbreak linked to the Accra Metropolis. The link between index cases and the source of infection, if investigated earlier could have helped break the transmission process. Such investigations also inform decision-making about the appropriate interventions to be instituted to prevent subsequent outbreaks.

  6. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Knysak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  7. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls.

  8. Exposure to Sexual Stimuli Induces Greater Discounting Leading to Increased Involvement in Cyber Delinquency Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2018-02-01

    People frequently encounter sexual stimuli during Internet use. Research has shown that stimuli inducing sexual motivation can lead to greater impulsivity in men, as manifested in greater temporal discounting (i.e., a tendency to prefer smaller, immediate gains to larger, future ones). Extant findings in crime research suggest that delinquents tend to focus on short-term gains while failing to adequately think through the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior. We experimentally tested the possibility that exposure to sexual stimuli is associated with the tendency to engage in cyber delinquency among men, as a result of their overly discounting remote consequences. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to pictures of "sexy" women were more likely to discount the future and were more inclined to make cyber-delinquent choices (e.g., cyberbullying, cyber fraud, cyber theft, and illegal downloading), compared with male participants who rated the sex appeal of less sexy opposite-sex pictures. However, these relationships were not observed in female participants exposed to either highly or less sexy pictures of men. In Experiment 2, male participants exposed to sexual primes showed a greater willingness to purchase a wide range of counterfeit rather than authentic products online and experienced a higher likelihood of logging into the other person's Facebook webpage (i.e., invading online privacy). The discounting tendency mediated the link between exposure to sexual primes and the inclination to engage in cyber-delinquent behavior. These findings provide insight into a strategy for reducing men's involvement in cyber delinquency; that is, through less exposure to sexual stimuli and promotion of delayed gratification. The current results suggest that the high availability of sexual stimuli in cyberspace may be more closely associated with men's cyber-delinquent behavior than previously thought.

  9. CSR Strategies in Greater China: Global, East Asian, American, European Style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiduk Guenter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility emerged in the United States and spread to Europe and Asia while being adapted to national/local characteristics. Since borders between markets and societies are blurring and globalization is promoting MNCs which find themselves acting in hybrid societies, international institutions put efforts into the development and moral acceptance of global CSR standards. The scientific interest in CSR focused on the conflicts between company returns and benefits for society. The resulting concepts of performance-oriented, awareness-oriented and welfare-oriented CSR should facilitate the evaluation of CSR strategies implemented by MNCs. In research on the cultural dimensions of economies, it might be possible to allocate geographically the three concepts. Regarding the newly emerging Chinese MNCs, the paper aims to shed light on which concept they follow. On the one hand, CSR concepts of American and/or European MNCs that are present in China might serve as a role model; on the other hand, by learning from Taiwanese/ Hong Kong MNCs, a “greater China CSR approach” might emerge. Empirical studies and own field research suggest that compared to American and European companies, CSR is less deeply rooted in Chinese companies. Furthermore, significant differences between Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwanese companies indicate that a Greater Chinese CSR approach does not yet exist. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that American and European CSR concepts will experience a Chinese influence in the near future.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations.

  11. Similarity in volatile communities leads to increased herbivory and greater tropical forest diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Tara J; Martins de Moraes, Marcílio; Philbin, Casey; Oliveira, Celso; Cebrian Torrejon, Gerardo; Fumiko Yamaguchi, Lydia; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Dyer, Lee A; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J

    2017-07-01

    A longstanding paradigm in ecology is that there are positive associations between herbivore diversity, specialization, and plant species diversity, with a focus on taxonomic diversity. However, phytochemical diversity is also an informative metric, as insect herbivores interact with host plants not as taxonomic entities, but as sources of nutrients, primary metabolites, and mixtures of attractant and repellant chemicals. The present research examines herbivore responses to phytochemical diversity measured as volatile similarity in the tropical genus Piper. We quantified associations between naturally occurring volatile variation and herbivory by specialist and generalist insects. Intraspecific similarity of volatile compounds across individuals was associated with greater overall herbivory. A structural equation model supported the hypothesis that plot level volatile similarity caused greater herbivory by generalists, but not specialists, which led to increased understory plant richness. These results demonstrate that using volatiles as a functional diversity metric is informative for understanding tropical forest diversity and indicate that generalist herbivores contribute to the maintenance of diversity. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Seismic ground motion and hazard assessment of the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, southeastern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amponsah, P.E.; Banoeng-Yakubo, B.K.; Asiedu, D.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-08-01

    The seismic ground motion of the Greater Accra Metropolitan area has been computed and the hazard zones assessed using a deterministic hybrid approach based on the modal summation and finite difference methods. The seismic ground motion along four profiles located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area has been modelled using the 1939 earthquake of magnitude 6.5(M L ) as the scenario earthquake. Synthetic seismic waveforms from which parameters for engineering design such as peak ground acceleration, velocity and spectral amplifications have been produced along the geological cross sections. From the seismograms computed, the seismic hazard of the metropolis, expressed in terms of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity have been estimated. The peak ground acceleration estimated in the study ranges from 0.14 - 0.57 g and the peak ground velocity from 9.2 - 37.1cms -1 . The presence of low velocity sediments gave rise to high peak values and amplifications. The maximum peak ground accelerations estimated are located in areas with low velocity formations such as colluvium, continental and marine deposits. Areas in the metropolis underlain by unconsolidated sediments have been classified as the maximum damage potential zone and those underlain by highly consolidated geological materials are classified as low damage potential zone. The results of the numerical simulation have been extended to all areas in the metropolis with similar geological formation. (author)

  13. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  14. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  15. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, L.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions.

  16. Amplified Late Pliocene terrestrial warmth in northern high latitudes from greater radiative forcing and closed Arctic Ocean gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ran; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Fletcher, Tamara L.; Tabor, Clay R.; Ballantyne, Ashley P.; Brady, Esther C.

    2017-05-01

    Proxy reconstructions of the mid-Piacenzian warm period (mPWP, between 3.264 and 3.025 Ma) suggest terrestrial temperatures were much warmer in the northern high latitudes (55°-90°N, referred to as NHL) than present-day. Climate models participating in the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Phase 1 (PlioMIP1) tend to underestimate this warmth. For instance, the underestimate is ∼10 °C on average across NHL and up to 17 °C in the Canadian Arctic region in the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4). Here, we explore potential mPWP climate forcings that might contribute to this mPWP mismatch. We carry out seven experiments to assess terrestrial temperature responses to Pliocene Arctic gateway closure, variations in CO2 level, and orbital forcing at millennial time scale. To better compare the full range of simulated terrestrial temperatures with sparse proxy data, we introduce a pattern recognition technique that simplifies the model surface temperatures to a few representative patterns that can be validate with the limited terrestrial proxy data. The pattern recognition technique reveals two prominent features of simulated Pliocene surface temperature responses. First, distinctive patterns of amplified warming occur in the NHL, which can be explained by lowered surface elevation of Greenland, pattern and amount of Arctic sea ice loss, and changing strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Second, patterns of surface temperature response are similar among experiments with different forcing mechanisms. This similarity is due to strong feedbacks from responses in surface albedo and troposphere water vapor content to sea ice changes, which overwhelm distinctions in forcings from changes in insolation, CO2 forcing, and Arctic gateway closure. By comparing CCSM4 simulations with proxy records, we demonstrate that both model and proxy records show similar patterns of mPWP NHL terrestrial warmth, but the model underestimates the magnitude

  17. Prosimian primates show ratio dependence in spontaneous quantity discriminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mychal Jones

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We directly tested the predictions of the approximate number system (ANS and the object file system in the spontaneous numerical judgments of prosimian primates. Prior work indicates that when human infants and a few species of nonhuman animals are given a single-trial choice between two sequentially baited buckets they choose the bucket with the greater amount of food but only when the quantities are small. This pattern of results has been interpreted as evidence that a limited capacity object-file system is used to track small numbers of objects and that the ANS is not invoked under these circumstances. Here we tested prosimian primates in food choice comparisons that were chosen to contrast predictions of the ANS and object-file systems. We found that prosimian primates consistently chose the larger of two sets when they differed by a 1:3 ratio regardless of whether both values were small (≤ 3, both values were large (> 3, or there was one small and one large value. Prosimians were not able to robustly discriminate quantities that differed by a 1:2 ratio for the same three conditions, nor did they show a preference for small quantities that differed by a 2:3 ratio. These results implicate the ANS in the spontaneous numerical discriminations of nonhuman primates.

  18. Greater Cortical Thickness in Elderly Female Yoga Practitioners—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. Afonso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoga, a mind-body activity that requires attentional engagement, has been associated with positive changes in brain structure and function, especially in areas related to awareness, attention, executive functions and memory. Normal aging, on the other hand, has also been associated with structural and functional brain changes, but these generally involve decreased cognitive functions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare brain cortical thickness (CT in elderly yoga practitioners and a group of age-matched healthy non-practitioners. We tested 21 older women who had practiced hatha yoga for at least 8 years and 21 women naive to yoga, meditation or any mind-body interventions who were matched to the first group in age, years of formal education and physical activity level. A T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence was acquired for each participant. Yoga practitioners showed significantly greater CT in a left prefrontal lobe cluster, which included portions of the lateral middle frontal gyrus, anterior superior frontal gyrus and dorsal superior frontal gyrus. We found greater CT in the left prefrontal cortex of healthy elderly women who trained yoga for a minimum of 8 years compared with women in the control group.

  19. Flexible ureteroscopy versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy as primary treatment for renal stones 2 cm or greater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akar EC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erin Akar, Bodo E KnudsenDepartment of Urology, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: The purpose of this review, based on the current evidence in the literature, is whether ureteroscopy (URS is a comparable primary treatment option to the current gold standard of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL for the treatment of large kidney stones 2 cm or greater. The lack of prospective randomized trials directly comparing URS and PCNL makes comparison challenging. The numerous studies are not standardized in terms of their definition of stone-free or how stone size is reported. In order to standardize comparison of results, we used a stone-free definition of <4 mm after one procedure per imaging of the author’s choice, since how each patient was imaged postoperatively was not reported. The results from the literature show that moderately large stones from 2 to 3 cm treated ureteroscopically have similar outcomes to PCNL. Stone-free rates with URS decrease when stone size is above 3 cm. Our interpretation of the literature suggests that a current limitation of URS is that multiple procedures for URS would be required to achieve comparable stone-free rates to PCNL, particularly for stones greater than 4 cm.Keywords: ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, lithotripsy, urinary calculi

  20. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes submitted to banded gastric bypass: greater incidence of dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel; Galvão Neto, Manoel; Moretto, Myriam; Barancelli, Fabiano; Schroer, Caroline Eckerdt; Mottin, Cláudio Corá

    2009-11-01

    Dumping syndrome is one of ten most common complications in morbidly obese patients operated. Recent studies in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in patients submitted to gastric bypass led us to examine the different outcomes in this group of patients. Our objective was to determine the difference in the prevalence of dumping syndrome in patients with DM2 submitted to gastric bypass. In this retrospective study, 49 diabetic and 54 non-diabetic morbidly obese patients were submitted to gastric bypass and followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The occurrence of dumping was determined by the patient's medical chart, where it was considered positive if recorded in at least one of three evaluations. The 103 patients evaluated had a mean BMI of 49.5 +/- 9.3 kg/m(2) and mean age of 38 +/- 9.7 years, with 75.7% being women. The prevalence of dumping syndrome in this population was 24.3%. The prevalence of dumping was greater in patients with DM2 (44.9%) when compared to the control group (5.6%; p DM2 as the only variable associated with dumping syndrome. Dumping syndrome is a common postoperative complication in gastric bypass. Patients with DM2 show a greater postoperative prevalence of dumping.

  1. Major depressive disorder is characterized by greater reward network activation to monetary than pleasant image rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoski, Moria J; Rittenberg, Alison; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2011-12-30

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in normally rewarding activities, is a hallmark feature of unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A growing body of literature has identified frontostriatal dysfunction during reward anticipation and outcomes in MDD. However, no study to date has directly compared responses to different types of rewards such as pleasant images and monetary rewards in MDD. To investigate the neural responses to monetary and pleasant image rewards in MDD, a modified Monetary Incentive Delay task was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses during anticipation and receipt of monetary and pleasant image rewards. Participants included nine adults with MDD and 13 affectively healthy controls. The MDD group showed lower activation than controls when anticipating monetary rewards in right orbitofrontal cortex and subcallosal cortex, and when anticipating pleasant image rewards in paracingulate and supplementary motor cortex. The MDD group had relatively greater activation in right putamen when anticipating monetary versus pleasant image rewards, relative to the control group. Results suggest reduced reward network activation in MDD when anticipating rewards, as well as relatively greater hypoactivation to pleasant image than monetary rewards. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring the greater San Pedro Bay region using autonomous underwater gliders during fall of 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Robert E.; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Davis, Russ E.

    2009-06-01

    Glider surveys of the greater San Pedro Bay region in the Southern California Bight during the fall of 2006 demonstrated the utility of autonomous underwater gliders in a coastal region with complex flow and significant anthropogenic inputs. Three Spray gliders repeatedly surveyed between Santa Catalina Island and the coast of Southern California collecting profiles of temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll fluorescence and estimates of vertically averaged currents. These observations provided context for shelf transport studies during the Huntington Beach 2006 experiment and showed the transition from summer to winter conditions. Vertically averaged currents were predominantly poleward following topography with horizontal scales of approximately 20 km. The gliders surveyed a small cyclonic eddy near Santa Catalina Island and provided a unique view of the structure of the eddy. Nitrate concentration within the euphotic zone was estimated to be 19% greater within the eddy and led to significantly elevated chlorophyll concentrations at the subsurface maximum. Glider observations of salinity reliably detected the distinctly fresh signature of the effluent plume from an ocean outfall near Huntington Beach, California. The salinity anomaly caused by the plume was used to track the spread of the plume as it was advected poleward and away from the coast while remaining subsurface.

  3. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Structural and reservoir quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusillon, Elme; Clerc, Nicolas; Makhloufi, Yasin; Brentini, Maud; Moscariello, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    A reservoir assessment was performed in the Greater Geneva Basin to evaluate the geothermal resources potential of low to medium enthalpy (Moscariello, 2016). For this purpose, a detail structural analysis of the basin was performed (Clerc et al., 2016) simultaneously with a reservoir appraisal study including petrophysical properties assessment in a consistent sedimentological and stratigraphical frame (Brentini et al., 2017). This multi-disciplinary study was organised in 4 steps: (1) investigation of the surrounding outcrops to understand the stratigraphy and lateral facies distribution of the sedimentary sequence from Permo-Carboniferous to Lower Cretaceous units; (2) development of 3D geological models derived from 2D seismic and well data focusing on the structural scheme of the basin to constrain better the tectonic influence on facies distribution and to assess potential hydraulic connectivity through faults between reservoir units ; (3) evaluation of the distribution, geometry, sedimentology and petrophysical properties of potential reservoir units from well data; (4) identification and selection of the most promising reservoir units for in-depth rock type characterization and 3D modeling. Petrophysical investigations revealed that the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian Reef Complex and the underlying Calcaires de Tabalcon units are the most promising geothermal reservoir targets (porosity range 10-20%; permeability to 1mD). Best reservoir properties are measured in patch reefs and high-energy peri-reefal depositional environments, which are surrounded by synchronous tight lagoonal deposits. Associated highly porous dolomitized intervals reported in the western part of the basin also provide enhanced reservoir quality. The distribution and geometry of best reservoir bodies is complex and constrained by (1) palaeotopography, which can be affected by synsedimentary fault activity during Mesozoic times, (2) sedimentary factors such as hydrodynamics, sea level variations

  4. A high-resolution 1961-1990 monthly temperature climatology for the greater Alpine region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebl, Johann; Auer, Ingeborg; Boehm, Reinhard; Schoener, Wolfgang [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), Vienna (Austria); Maugeri, Maurizio; Lentini, Gianluca; Spinoni, Jonathan [Univ. of Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physics; Brunetti, Michele; Nanni, Teresa [Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Italian National Research Council (ISAC-CNR), Bologna (Italy); Tadic, Melita Percec [Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ), Zagreb (Croatia); Bihari, Zita [Hungarian Meteorological Service (OMSZ), Budapest (Hungary); Dolinar, Mojca [Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (ARSO), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mueller-Westermeier, Gerhard [German Meteorological Service (DWD), Offenbach (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The main object of the presented study was the creation of a high-resolution monthly temperature climatology for the greater Alpine region (GAR). This climatology, which is determined from observational averages for the period 1961-1990, necessitated a multinational, high-quality temperature dataset, in which especially inhomogeneities due to different methods of means estimation had to be regarded. Based on multilinear regression techniques and regionalisation, significant model improvements could be reached by adjusting for mesoscale effects in cold air pools, coastal and lakeshore belts, urban areas and slopes. The final 1 x 1 km grids allowing temperature description of the orographically complex Alpine terrain with an accuracy of 1 C have been made available for further applications at the web pages of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. (orig.)

  5. Female Emotional Eaters Show Abnormalities in Consummatory and Anticipatory Food Reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that emotional eaters show greater neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake than nonemotional eaters and whether these differences are amplified during a negative versus neutral mood state. Method Female emotional eaters and nonemotional eaters (N = 21) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution while in a negative and neutral mood. Results Emotional eaters showed greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior cingulate (ACC) in response to anticipated receipt of milkshake and greater activation in the pallidum, thalamus, and ACC in response to receipt of milkshake during a negative relative to a neutral mood. In contrast, nonemotional eaters showed decreased activation in reward regions during a negative versus a neutral mood. Discussion Results suggest that emotional eating is related to increased anticipatory and consummatory food reward, but only during negative mood. PMID:19040270

  6. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  7. Multiple malignant extragastrointestinal stromal tumors of the greater omentum and results of immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Han; Boo, Yoon-Jung; Jung, Cheol-Woong; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Seung-Joo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Sang-Dae; Chae, Yang-Suk; Kim, Chong-Suk

    2007-01-01

    To report an extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) that occurs outside the gastrointestinal tract and shows unique clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features. In our case, we experienced multiple soft tissue tumors that originate primarily in the greater omentum, and in immunohistochemical analysis, the tumors showed features that correspond to malignant EGIST. Two large omental masses measured 15 cm x 10 cm and 5 cm × 4 cm sized and several small ovoid fragments were attached t...

  8. Effects of spatial attention on motion discrimination are greater in the left than right visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Rain G; Petrich, Jennifer A F; Dobkins, Karen R

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate differences in the effects of spatial attention between the left visual field (LVF) and the right visual field (RVF), we employed a full/poor attention paradigm using stimuli presented in the LVF vs. RVF. In addition, to investigate differences in the effects of spatial attention between the dorsal and ventral processing streams, we obtained motion thresholds (motion coherence thresholds and fine direction discrimination thresholds) and orientation thresholds, respectively. The results of this study showed negligible effects of attention on the orientation task, in either the LVF or RVF. In contrast, for both motion tasks, there was a significant effect of attention in the LVF, but not in the RVF. These data provide psychophysical evidence for greater effects of spatial attention in the LVF/right hemisphere, specifically, for motion processing in the dorsal stream. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Lower inhibitory control interacts with greater pain catastrophizing to predict greater pain intensity in women with migraine and overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galioto, Rachel; O'Leary, Kevin C; Thomas, J Graham; Demos, Kathryn; Lipton, Richard B; Gunstad, John; Pavlović, Jelena M; Roth, Julie; Rathier, Lucille; Bond, Dale S

    2017-12-01

    Pain catastrophizing (PC) is associated with more severe and disabling migraine attacks. However, factors that moderate this relationship are unknown. Failure of inhibitory control (IC), or the ability to suppress automatic or inappropriate responses, may be one such factor given previous research showing a relationship between higher PC and lower IC in non-migraine samples, and research showing reduced IC in migraine. Therefore, we examined whether lower IC interacts with increased PC to predict greater migraine severity as measured by pain intensity, attack frequency, and duration. Women (n = 105) aged 18-50 years old (M = 38.0 ± 1.2) with overweight/obesity and migraine who were seeking behavioral treatment for weight loss and migraine reduction completed a 28-day smartphone-based headache diary assessing migraine headache severity. Participants then completed a modified computerized Stroop task as a measure of IC and self-report measures of PC (Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]), anxiety, and depression. Linear regression was used to examine independent and joint associations of PC and IC with indices of migraine severity after controlling for age, body mass index (BMI) depression, and anxiety. Participants on average had BMI of 35.1 ± 6.5 kg/m 2 and reported 5.3 ± 2.6 migraine attacks (8.3 ± 4.4 migraine days) over 28 days that produced moderate pain intensity (5.9 ± 1.4 out of 10) with duration of 20.0 ± 14.2 h. After adjusting for covariates, higher PCS total (β = .241, SE = .14, p = .03) and magnification subscale (β = .311, SE = .51, p < .01) scores were significant independent correlates of longer attack duration. IC interacted with total PCS (β = 1.106, SE = .001, p = .03) rumination (β = 1.098, SE = .001, p = .04), and helplessness (β = 1.026, SE = .001, p = .04) subscale scores to predict headache pain intensity, such that the association between PC

  10. Project Summary (2012-2015) – Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, Ross [University of Central Florida; Benscoter, Brian [Florida Atlantic University; Comas, Xavier [Florida Atlantic University; Sumner, David [USGS; DeAngelis, Donald [USGS

    2015-04-07

    Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change The objectives of this project are to: 1) quantify above- and below-ground carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems along a seasonal hydrologic gradient in the headwaters region of the Greater Everglades watershed; 2) develop budgets of ecosystem gaseous carbon exchange (carbon dioxide and methane) across the seasonal hydrologic gradient; 3) assess the impact of climate drivers on ecosystem carbon exchange in the Greater Everglades headwater region; and 4) integrate research findings with climate-driven terrestrial ecosystem carbon models to examine the potential influence of projected future climate change on regional carbon cycling. Note: this project receives a one-year extension past the original performance period - David Sumner (USGS) is not included in this extension.

  11. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings[direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building[direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building[direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements[indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over$11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of$0.084/kWh and$5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent. These

  12. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and i