WorldWideScience

Sample records for model shock scattering

  1. Influence of interface scattering on shock waves in heterogeneous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Shiming; Ravichandran, Guruswami; Grady, Dennis E.

    2002-01-01

    In heterogeneous media, the scattering due to interfaces between dissimilar materials play an important role in shock wave dissipation and dispersion. In this work the influence of interface scattering effect on shock waves was studied by impacting flyer plates onto periodically layered polycarbonate/6061 aluminum, polycarbonate/304 stainless steel and polycarbonate/glass composites. The experimental results (using VISAR and stress gauges) indicate that the rise time of the shock front decreases with increasing shock strength, and increases with increasing mechanical impedance mismatch between layers; the strain rate at the shock front increases by about the square of the shock stress. Experimental and numerical results also show that due to interface scattering effect the shock wave velocity in periodically layered composites decreases. In some cases the shock velocity of a layered heterogeneous composite can be lower than that of either of its components

  2. On Modeling Risk Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Victor; Lee, Gabriel; Salyer, Kevin; Strobel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a financial accelerator model, we model time-varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) through the use of a mixture Normal model with time variation in the weights applied to the underlying distributions characterizing entrepreneur productivity. Specifically, we model capital producers (i.e. the entrepreneurs) as either low-risk (relatively small second moment for productivity) and high-risk (relatively large second moment for productivity) and the fraction of both types is...

  3. Laser light scattering in a laser-induced argon plasma: Investigations of the shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrzywka, B. [Obserwatorium Astronomiczne na Suhorze, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny, ulica Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Mendys, A., E-mail: agata.mendys@uj.edu.pl [Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Dzierzega, K.; Grabiec, M. [Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Pellerin, S. [GREMI, site de Bourges, Universite d' Orleans, CNRS, rue Gaston Berger BP 4043, 18028 Bourges (France)

    2012-08-15

    Shock wave produced by a laser induced spark in argon at atmospheric pressure was examined using Rayleigh and Thomson scattering. The spark was generated by focusing a laser pulse from the second harmonic ({lambda} = 532 nm) of a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser using an 80 mm focal length lens, with a fluence of 2 kJ{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. Images of the spark emission were recorded for times between 30 ns and 100 {mu}s after the laser pulse in order to characterize its spatial evolution. The position of the shock wave at several instants of its evolution and for several plasma regions was determined from the Rayleigh-scattered light of another nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 40 J{center_dot}cm{sup -2} fluence). Simultaneously, Thomson scattering technique was applied to determine the electron density and temperature in the hot plasma core. Attempts were made to describe the temporal evolution of the shock wave within a self-similar model, both by the simple Sedov-Taylor formula as well as its extension deduced by de Izarra. The temporal radial evolution of the shock position is similar to that obtained within theory taking into account the counter pressure of the ambient gas. Density profiles just behind the shock front are in qualitative agreement with those obtained by numerically solving the Euler equations for instantaneous explosion at a point with counter pressure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated shock wave evolution by Rayleigh scattering method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2D map of shockwave position for several times after plasma generation is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shock wave evolution is not satisfactorily described within self-similar models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evolution of shock position similar to theory taking into account counter pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density profile behind the shock similar to numerical solution of Euler equations.

  4. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  5. Coherent transmission of an ultrasonic shock wave through a multiple scattering medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Nicolas; Giammarinaro, Bruno; Derode, Arnaud; Barrière, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    We report measurements of the transmitted coherent (ensemble-averaged) wave resulting from the interaction of an ultrasonic shock wave with a two-dimensional random medium. Despite multiple scattering, the coherent waveform clearly shows the steepening that is typical of nonlinear harmonic generation. This is taken advantage of to measure the elastic mean free path and group velocity over a broad frequency range (2-15 MHz) in only one experiment. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with a linear theoretical model taking into account spatial correlations between scatterers. These results show that nonlinearity and multiple scattering are both present, yet uncoupled.

  6. Evolution of elastic x-ray scattering in laser-shocked warm dense lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugland, N L; Gregori, G; Bandyopadhyay, S; Brenner, C M; Brown, C R D; Constantin, C; Glenzer, S H; Khattak, F Y; Kritcher, A L; Niemann, C; Otten, A; Pasley, J; Pelka, A; Roth, M; Spindloe, C; Riley, D

    2009-12-01

    We have studied the dynamics of warm dense Li with near-elastic x-ray scattering. Li foils were heated and compressed using shock waves driven by 4-ns-long laser pulses. Separate 1-ns-long laser pulses were used to generate a bright source of 2.96 keV Cl Ly- alpha photons for x-ray scattering, and the spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 120 degrees using a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal operated in the von Hamos geometry. A variable delay between the heater and backlighter laser beams measured the scattering time evolution. Comparison with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations shows that the plasma is highly coupled during the first several nanoseconds, then relaxes to a moderate coupling state at later times. Near-elastic scattering amplitudes have been successfully simulated using the screened one-component plasma model. Our main finding is that the near-elastic scattering amplitudes are quite sensitive to the mean ionization state Z[over ] and by extension to the choice of ionization model in the radiation-hydrodynamics simulations used to predict plasma properties within the shocked Li.

  7. Evolution of elastic x-ray scattering in laser-shocked warm dense lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugland, N. L.; Niemann, C.; Gregori, G.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Spindloe, C.; Brenner, C. M.; Brown, C. R. D.; Constantin, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Khattak, F. Y.; Kritcher, A. L.; Otten, A.; Pelka, A.; Roth, M.; Pasley, J.; Riley, D.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the dynamics of warm dense Li with near-elastic x-ray scattering. Li foils were heated and compressed using shock waves driven by 4-ns-long laser pulses. Separate 1-ns-long laser pulses were used to generate a bright source of 2.96 keV Cl Ly-α photons for x-ray scattering, and the spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 120 deg. using a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal operated in the von Hamos geometry. A variable delay between the heater and backlighter laser beams measured the scattering time evolution. Comparison with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations shows that the plasma is highly coupled during the first several nanoseconds, then relaxes to a moderate coupling state at later times. Near-elastic scattering amplitudes have been successfully simulated using the screened one-component plasma model. Our main finding is that the near-elastic scattering amplitudes are quite sensitive to the mean ionization state Z and by extension to the choice of ionization model in the radiation-hydrodynamics simulations used to predict plasma properties within the shocked Li.

  8. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Faria, Luiz; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    2013-01-01

    : steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation

  9. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-03-08

    We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2−uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.

  10. Studying shocks in model astrophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly discuss some properties of the shocks in the existing models for quasi two-dimensional astrophysical flows. All of these models which allow the study of shock analytically have some unphysical characteristics due to inherent assumptions made. We propose a hybrid model for a thin flow which has fewer unpleasant features and is suitable for the study of shocks. (author). 5 refs

  11. Model for shock wave chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Aslan R; Faria, Luiz M; Rosales, Rodolfo R

    2013-03-08

    We propose the following model equation, u(t) + 1/2(u(2)-uu(s))x = f(x,u(s)) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, xorder partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.

  12. Numerical modeling of slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews previous attempt and the present status of efforts to understand the structure of slow shocks by means of time dependent numerical calculations. Studies carried out using MHD or hybrid-kinetic codes have demonstrated qualitative agreement with theory. A number of unresolved issues related to hybrid simulations of the internal shock structure are discussed in some detail. 43 refs., 8 figs

  13. Effect of losses on acceleration of energetic particles by diffusive scattering through shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, H.J.; Morfill, G.E.; Forman, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of local losses on the acceleration of energetic particles by shocks is discussed considering both energy losses of individual particles and damping processes for the scattering hydromagnetic waves. The calculations are all time asymptotic and steady state. For locally plane and infinitely extended shocks, the requirement for acceleration is that the loss time exceed the acceleration time. The resulting modifications of the spatial structure and of the momentum dependence of the cosmic-ray distribution are described. For acceleration to be a local effect within the Galaxy, the local scattering mean free path must be small compared to the effective overall galactic mean free path as deduced from the cosmic-ray escape time. The required strengths of the scattering wave fields are such that neutral molecular clouds do not allow acceleration; in a partially ionized, warm interstellar medium, quite large shock strengths are needed. Such strong shock discontinuities are surrounded by an ionization layer within which Alfven wave damping is presumably negligible. Given the spatial extent of the layer for strong shocks propagating into neutral interstellar clouds, the possibility of localized diffusive acceleration is investigated. The estimated strength and extent of the scattering region is not large enough to confine acceleration within the layer. Rather, it will extend across the whole cloud, whose integrated losses then determine the efficiency

  14. Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Brown, C R D; Davis, P; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Gericke, D O; Gregori, G; Holst, B; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Morse, E C; Pelka, A; Redmer, R; Roth, M; Vorberger, J; Wünsch, K; Glenzer, S H

    2009-12-11

    We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally, and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. Laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and plasmon scattering of a K-alpha x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for the screening of ion-ion interactions.

  15. High-energy effective action from scattering of QCD shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Balitsky

    2005-07-01

    At high energies, the relevant degrees of freedom are Wilson lines - infinite gauge links ordered along straight lines collinear to the velocities of colliding particles. The effective action for these Wilson lines is determined by the scattering of QCD shock waves. I develop the symmetric expansion of the effective action in powers of strength of one of the shock waves and calculate the leading term of the series. The corresponding first-order effective action, symmetric with respect to projectile and target, includes both up and down fan diagrams and pomeron loops.

  16. Reliability assessment of competing risks with generalized mixed shock models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Koosha; Feng, Qianmei; Coit, David W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates reliability modeling for systems subject to dependent competing risks considering the impact from a new generalized mixed shock model. Two dependent competing risks are soft failure due to a degradation process, and hard failure due to random shocks. The shock process contains fatal shocks that can cause hard failure instantaneously, and nonfatal shocks that impact the system in three different ways: 1) damaging the unit by immediately increasing the degradation level, 2) speeding up the deterioration by accelerating the degradation rate, and 3) weakening the unit strength by reducing the hard failure threshold. While the first impact from nonfatal shocks comes from each individual shock, the other two impacts are realized when the condition for a new generalized mixed shock model is satisfied. Unlike most existing mixed shock models that consider a combination of two shock patterns, our new generalized mixed shock model includes three classic shock patterns. According to the proposed generalized mixed shock model, the degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can simultaneously shift multiple times, whenever the condition for one of these three shock patterns is satisfied. An example using micro-electro-mechanical systems devices illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach with sensitivity analysis. - Highlights: • A rich reliability model for systems subject to dependent failures is proposed. • The degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can shift simultaneously. • The shift is triggered by a new generalized mixed shock model. • The shift can occur multiple times under the generalized mixed shock model.

  17. Neutron scattering and models: Silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.

    1996-07-01

    Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental silver were measured from 1.5 → 10 MeV at ∼ 100 keV intervals up to 3 MeV, at ∼ 200 keV intervals from 3 → 4 MeV, and at ∼ 500 keV intervals above 4 MeV. At ≤ 4 MeV the angular range of the measurements was ∼ 20 0 → 160 0 with 10 measured values below 3 MeV and 20 from 3 → 4 MeV at each incident energy. Above 4 MeV ≥ 40 scattering angles were used distributed between ∼ 17 0 and 16 0 All of the measured elastic distributions included some contributions due to inelastic scattering. Below 4 MeV the measurements determined cross sections for ten inelastically-scattered neutron groups corresponding to observed excitations of 328 ± 13, 419 ± 50, 748 ± 25, 908 ± 26, 115 ± 38, 1286 ± 25, 1507 ± 20, 1632 ± 30, 1835 ± 20 and 1944 ± 26 keV. All of these inelastic groups probably were composites of contributions from the two isotopes 107 Ag and 109 Ag. The experimental results were interpreted in terms of the spherical optical model and of rotational and vibrational coupled-channels models, and physical implications are discussed. In particular, the neutron-scattering results are consistent with a ground-state rotational band with a quadrupole deformation Β 2 = 0.20 ± ∼ 10% for both of the naturally-occurring silver isotopes

  18. Shock circle model for ejector performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yinhai; Cai, Wenjian; Wen, Changyun; Li, Yanzhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a novel shock circle model for the prediction of ejector performance at the critical mode operation is proposed. By introducing the 'shock circle' at the entrance of the constant area chamber, a 2D exponential expression for velocity distribution is adopted to approximate the viscosity flow near the ejector inner wall. The advantage of the 'shock circle' analysis is that the calculation of ejector performance is independent of the flows in the constant area chamber and diffuser. Consequently, the calculation is even simpler than many 1D modeling methods and can predict the performance of critical mode operation ejectors much more accurately. The effectiveness of the method is validated by two experimental results reported earlier. The proposed modeling method using two coefficients is shown to produce entrainment ratio, efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP) accurately and much closer to experimental results than those of 1D analysis methods

  19. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, S. A.; Farahbod, A. H.; Sobhanian, S.

    2014-01-01

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ∼4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ∼0.3  micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25

  20. Transmission characteristics of the kinematics of the laser-plasma shock wave in air in compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Dongshan; Xie Hongjun

    2006-01-01

    By comparing the kinematical equation of a shock wave in free air, the study of transmission characteristics of the laser plasma shock wave in Compton scattering is presented. The results show that the attenuation course of the kinematics of he laser plasma shock wave is related not only with the explosion fountainhead and the characteristics of the explosion course, total energy release, air elastic, but also with multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering. Because of the scattering the initial radius of the shock wave increases, the attenuation course shortens, the energy metastasis efficiency rises. The results of the numerical analysis and the actual values of the shock waves in air by a way intense explosion are very tallying. (authors)

  1. Competition Between Radial Loss and EMIC Wave Scattering of MeV Electrons During Strong CME-shock Driven Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M. K.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, Z.; Malaspina, D.; Millan, R. M.; Patel, M.; Qin, M.; Shen, X.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The two strongest storms of Solar Cycle 24, 17 March and 22 June 2015, provide a contrast between magnetospheric response to CME-shocks at equinox and solstice. The 17 March CME-shock initiated storm produced a stronger ring current response with Dst = - 223 nT, while the 22 June CME-shock initiated storm reached a minimum Dst = - 204 nT. The Van Allen Probes ECT instrument measured a dropout in flux for both events which can be characterized by magnetopause loss at higher L values prior to strong recovery1. However, rapid loss is seen at L 3 for the June storm at high energies with maximum drop in the 5.2 MeV channel of the REPT instrument coincident with the observation of EMIC waves in the H+ band by the EMFISIS wave instrument. The rapid time scale of loss can be determined from the 65 minute delay in passage of the Probe A relative to the Probe B spacecraft. The distinct behavior of lower energy electrons at higher L values has been modeled with MHD-test particle simulations, while the rapid loss of higher energy electrons is examined in terms of the minimum resonant energy criterion for EMIC wave scattering, and compared with the timescale for loss due to EMIC wave scattering which has been modeled for other storm events.2 1Baker, D. N., et al. (2016), Highly relativistic radiation belt electron acceleration, transport, and loss: Large solar storm events of March and June 2015, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 6647-6660, doi:10.1002/2016JA022502. 2Li, Z., et al. (2014), Investigation of EMIC wave scattering as the cause for the BARREL 17 January 2013 relativistic electron precipitation event: A quantitative comparison of simulation with observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8722-8729, doi:10.1002/2014GL062273.

  2. Constitutive modeling of shock response of PTFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reanyansky, Anatoly D [DSTO, AUSTRALIA; Bourne, Neil K [AWE, UK; Millett, Jeremy C F [AWE, UK

    2009-01-01

    The PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) material is complex and attracts attention of the shock physics researchers because it has amorphous and crystalline components. In turn, the crystalline component has four known phases with the high pressure transition to phase III. At the same time, as has been recently studied using spectrometry, the crystalline region is growing with load. Stress and velocity shock-wave profiles acquired recently with embedded gauges demonstrate feature that may be related to impedance mismatches between the regions subjected to some transitions resulting in density and modulus variations. We consider the above mentioned amorphous-to-crystalline transition and the high pressure Phase II-to-III transitions as possible candidates for the analysis. The present work utilizes a multi-phase rate sensitive model to describe shock response of the PTFE material. One-dimensional experimental shock wave profiles are compared with calculated profiles with the kinetics describing the transitions. The objective of this study is to understand the role of the various transitions in the shock response of PTFE.

  3. Scattering of field-aligned beam ions upstream of Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned beams are known to originate from the quasi-perpendicular side of the Earth's bow shock, while the diffuse ion population consists of accelerated ions at the quasi-parallel side of the bow shock. The two distinct ion populations show typical characteristics in their velocity space distributions. By using particle and magnetic field measurements from one Cluster spacecraft we present a case study when the two ion populations are observed simultaneously in the foreshock region during a high Mach number, high solar wind velocity event. We present the spatial-temporal evolution of the field-aligned beam ion distribution in front of the Earth's bow shock, focusing on the processes in the deep foreshock region, i.e. on the quasi-parallel side. Our analysis demonstrates that the scattering of field-aligned beam (FAB ions combined with convection by the solar wind results in the presence of lower-energy, toroidal gyrating ions at positions deeper in the foreshock region which are magnetically connected to the quasi-parallel bow shock. The gyrating ions are superposed onto a higher energy diffuse ion population. It is suggested that the toroidal gyrating ion population observed deep in the foreshock region has its origins in the FAB and that its characteristics are correlated with its distance from the FAB, but is independent on distance to the bow shock along the magnetic field.

  4. Scattering of field-aligned beam ions upstream of Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned beams are known to originate from the quasi-perpendicular side of the Earth's bow shock, while the diffuse ion population consists of accelerated ions at the quasi-parallel side of the bow shock. The two distinct ion populations show typical characteristics in their velocity space distributions. By using particle and magnetic field measurements from one Cluster spacecraft we present a case study when the two ion populations are observed simultaneously in the foreshock region during a high Mach number, high solar wind velocity event. We present the spatial-temporal evolution of the field-aligned beam ion distribution in front of the Earth's bow shock, focusing on the processes in the deep foreshock region, i.e. on the quasi-parallel side. Our analysis demonstrates that the scattering of field-aligned beam (FAB ions combined with convection by the solar wind results in the presence of lower-energy, toroidal gyrating ions at positions deeper in the foreshock region which are magnetically connected to the quasi-parallel bow shock. The gyrating ions are superposed onto a higher energy diffuse ion population. It is suggested that the toroidal gyrating ion population observed deep in the foreshock region has its origins in the FAB and that its characteristics are correlated with its distance from the FAB, but is independent on distance to the bow shock along the magnetic field.

  5. Neutron scattering and models: molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive interpretation of the fast-neutron interaction with elemental and isotopic molybdenum at energies of le 30 MeV is given. New experimental elemental-scattering information over the incident energy range 4.5 r a rrow 10 MeV is presented. Spherical, vibrational and dispersive models are deduced and discussed, including isospin, energy-dependent and mass effects. The vibrational models are consistent with the ''Lane potential''. The importance of dispersion effects is noted. Dichotomies that exist in the literature are removed. The models are vehicles for fundamental physical investigations and for the provision of data for applied purposes. A ''regional'' molybdenum model is proposed. Finally, recommendations for future work are made

  6. Monetary Shocks in Models with Inattentive Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando E; Lippi, Francesco; Paciello, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    We study models where prices respond slowly to shocks because firms are rationally inattentive. Producers must pay a cost to observe the determinants of the current profit maximizing price, and hence observe them infrequently. To generate large real effects of monetary shocks in such a model the time between observations must be long and/or highly volatile. Previous work on rational inattentiveness has allowed for observation intervals that are either constant-but-long ( e.g . Caballero, 1989 or Reis, 2006) or volatile-but-short ( e.g . Reis's, 2006 example where observation costs are negligible), but not both. In these models, the real effects of monetary policy are small for realistic values of the duration between observations. We show that non-negligible observation costs produce both of these effects: intervals between observations are infrequent and volatile. This generates large real effects of monetary policy for realistic values of the average time between observations.

  7. A Prognostic Model for Development of Profound Shock among Children Presenting with Dengue Shock Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Khanh Lam

    Full Text Available To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS.We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≥2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock, or ≥1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock, and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches.The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18% progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36% had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart.Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.

  8. Simple model for decay of laser generated shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainor, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple model is derived to calculate the hydrodynamic decay of laser-generated shock waves. Comparison with detailed hydrocode simulations shows good agreement between calculated time evolution of shock pressure, position, and instantaneous pressure profile. Reliability of the model decreases in regions of the target where superthermal-electron preheat effects become comparable to shock effects

  9. Fatigue and damage tolerance scatter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikher, Veniamin L.

    1994-09-01

    Effective Total Fatigue Life and Crack Growth Scatter Models are proposed. The first of them is based on the power form of the Wohler curve, fatigue scatter dependence on mean life value, cycle stress ratio influence on fatigue scatter, and validated description of the mean stress influence on the mean fatigue life. The second uses in addition are fracture mechanics approach, assumption of initial damage existence, and Paris equation. Simple formulas are derived for configurations of models. A preliminary identification of the parameters of the models is fulfilled on the basis of experimental data. Some new and important results for fatigue and crack growth scatter characteristics are obtained.

  10. A shock absorber model for structure-borne noise analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaziz, Marouane; Nacivet, Samuel; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2015-08-01

    Shock absorbers are often responsible for undesirable structure-borne noise in cars. The early numerical prediction of this noise in the automobile development process can save time and money and yet remains a challenge for industry. In this paper, a new approach to predicting shock absorber structure-borne noise is proposed; it consists in modelling the shock absorber and including the main nonlinear phenomena responsible for discontinuities in the response. The model set forth herein features: compressible fluid behaviour, nonlinear flow rate-pressure relations, valve mechanical equations and rubber mounts. The piston, base valve and complete shock absorber model are compared with experimental results. Sensitivity of the shock absorber response is evaluated and the most important parameters are classified. The response envelope is also computed. This shock absorber model is able to accurately reproduce local nonlinear phenomena and improves our state of knowledge on potential noise sources within the shock absorber.

  11. Collisionless Electrostatic Shock Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    equations with piston -like boundary conditions gives a solution for the shock behavior. • Assumes cold upstream ions, therefore neglecting shock...temperature ratio (>10) – Wave Train Wavelength – Shock-Front Mach Number – Reflected Ion Beam Velocity Gathering Experiment Data – Double Plasma Device...experimental shock data. • Inconsistencies in published 1969 double -plasma device data hampered validation. Future Work: Extension to Moderately

  12. RAYLEIGH SCATTERING MODELS WITH CORRELATION INTEGRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Kolomiets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers one of possible approaches to the use of the classical correlation concept in Rayleigh scattering models. Classical correlation in contrast to three types of correlations corresponding to stochastic point flows opens the door to the efficient explanation of the interaction between periodical structure of incident radiation and discreet stochastic structure of distributed scatters typical for Rayleigh problems.

  13. Modelling and validation of electromechanical shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoli, Andrea; Amati, Nicola; Girardello Detoni, Joaquim; Galluzzi, Renato; Gasparin, Enrico

    2013-08-01

    Electromechanical vehicle suspension systems represent a promising substitute to conventional hydraulic solutions. However, the design of electromechanical devices that are able to supply high damping forces without exceeding geometric dimension and mass constraints is a difficult task. All these challenges meet in off-road vehicle suspension systems, where the power density of the dampers is a crucial parameter. In this context, the present paper outlines a particular shock absorber configuration where a suitable electric machine and a transmission mechanism are utilised to meet off-road vehicle requirements. A dynamic model is used to represent the device. Subsequently, experimental tests are performed on an actual prototype to verify the functionality of the damper and validate the proposed model.

  14. Electron scattering in the interacting boson model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, AEL; Iachello, F; Rinat, A; Creswell, C

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the interacting boson model be used in the analysis of electron scattering data. Qualitative features of the expected behavior of the inelastic excitation of some 2 ÷ states inthe transitional Sm-Nd region are discussed

  15. On a Stochastic Failure Model under Random Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ji Hwan

    2013-02-01

    In most conventional settings, the events caused by an external shock are initiated at the moments of its occurrence. In this paper, we study a new classes of shock model, where each shock from a nonhomogeneous Poisson processes can trigger a failure of a system not immediately, as in classical extreme shock models, but with delay of some random time. We derive the corresponding survival and failure rate functions. Furthermore, we study the limiting behaviour of the failure rate function where it is applicable.

  16. out-of-n systems with shock model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distributed. Sarhan, A.M. and Abouammoh (2000) used the shock model to derive the re- liability function of k-out-of-n systems with nonindependent and nonidentical components. They assumed that a system is subjected to n + m independent types of shocks. Liu et al. (2008) proposed a model to evaluate the reliability ...

  17. Modeling and design of radiative hydrodynamic experiments with X-ray Thomson Scattering measurements on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K. H.; Lefevre, H. J.; Belancourt, P. X.; MacDonald, M. J.; Doeppner, T.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Johnsen, E.

    2017-10-01

    Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility studied the effect of radiation on shock-driven hydrodynamic instability growth. X-ray radiography images from these experiments indicate that perturbation growth is lower in highly radiative shocks compared to shocks with negligible radiation flux. The reduction in instability growth is attributed to ablation from higher temperatures in the foam for highly radiative shocks. The proposed design implements the X-ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) technique in the radiative shock tube platform to measure electron temperatures and densities in the shocked foam. We model these experiments with CRASH, an Eulerian radiation hydrodynamics code with block-adaptive mesh refinement, multi-group radiation transport and electron heat conduction. Simulations are presented with SiO2 and carbon foams for both the high temperature, radiative shock and the low-temperature, hydrodynamic shock cases. Calculations from CRASH give estimations for shock speed, electron temperature, effective ionization, and other quantities necessary for designing the XRTS diagnostic measurement. This work is funded by the LLNL under subcontract B614207, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Modeling small angle scattering data using FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, T.; Buckely, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) are important techniques for the characterisation of samples on the nanometer scale. From the scattered intensity pattern information about the sample such as particle size distribution, concentration and particle interaction can be determined. Since the experimental data is in reciprocal space and information is needed about real space, modeling of the scattering data to obtain parameters is extremely important and several paradigms are available. The use of computer programs to analyze the data is imperative for a robust description of the sample to be obtained. This presentation gives an overview of the SAS process and describes the data-modeling program FISH, written by R. Heenan 1983-2000. The results of using FISH to obtain the particle size distribution of bubbles in the aluminum hydrogen system and other systems of interest are described. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  19. Enhanced Scattering of Diffuse Ions on Front of the Earth's Quasi-Parallel Bow Shock: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, A.; Matsukiyo, S.; Otsuka, F.; Hada, T.; Lemperger, I.; Dandouras, I. S.; Barta, V.; Facsko, G. I.

    2017-12-01

    In the analysis we present a case study of three energetic upstream ion events at the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock based on multi-spacecraft data recorded by Cluster. The CIS-HIA instrument onboard Cluster provides partial energetic ion densities in 4 energy channels between 10 and 32 keV.The difference of the partial ion densities recorded by the individual spacecraft at various distances from the bow shock surface makes possible the determination of the spatial gradient of energetic ions.Using the gradient values we determined the spatial profile of the energetic ion partial densities as a function of distance from the bow shock and we calculated the e-folding distance and the diffusion coefficient for each event and each ion energy range. Results show that in two cases the scattering of diffuse ions takes place in a normal way, as "by the book", and the e-folding distance and diffusion coefficient values are comparable with previous results. On the other hand, in the third case the e-folding distance and the diffusion coefficient values are significantly lower, which suggests that in this case the scattering process -and therefore the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism also- is much more efficient. Our analysis provides an explanation for this "enhanced" scattering process recorded in the third case.

  20. Modeling Business Cycle with Financial Shocks Basing on Kaldor-Kalecki Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghui Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of financial factors on real business cycle is rising to one of the most popular discussions in the field of macro business cycle theory. The objective of this paper is to discuss the features of business cycle under financial shocks by quantitative technology. More precisely, we introduce financial shocks into the classical Kaldor-Kalecki business cycle model and study dynamics of the model. The shocks include external shock and internal shock, both of which are expressed as noises. The dynamics of the model can help us understand the effects of financial shocks on business cycle and improve our knowledge about financial business cycle. In the case of external shock, if the intensity of shock is less than some threshold value, the economic system behaves randomly periodically. If the intensity of shock is beyond the threshold value, the economic system will converge to a normalcy. In the case of internal shock, if the intensity of shock is less than some threshold value, the economic system behaves periodically as the case without shock. If the intensity of shock exceeds the threshold value, the economic system either behaves periodically or converges to a normalcy. It is uncertain. The case with both two kinds of shocks is more complicated. We find conditions of the intensities of shocks under which the economic system behaves randomly periodically or disorderly, or converges to normalcy. Discussions about the effects of financial shocks on the business cycle are presented.

  1. Modeling multiscale evolution of numerous voids in shocked brittle material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Wang, Wenqiang; He, Hongliang; Lu, Tiecheng

    2014-04-01

    The influence of the evolution of numerous voids on macroscopic properties of materials is a multiscale problem that challenges computational research. A shock-wave compression model for brittle material, which can obtain both microscopic evolution and macroscopic shock properties, was developed using discrete element methods (lattice model). Using a model interaction-parameter-mapping procedure, qualitative features, as well as trends in the calculated shock-wave profiles, are shown to agree with experimental results. The shock wave splits into an elastic wave and a deformation wave in porous brittle materials, indicating significant shock plasticity. Void collapses in the deformation wave were the natural reason for volume shrinkage and deformation. However, media slippage and rotation deformations indicated by complex vortex patterns composed of relative velocity vectors were also confirmed as an important source of shock plasticity. With increasing pressure, the contribution from slippage deformation to the final plastic strain increased. Porosity was found to determine the amplitude of the elastic wave; porosity and shock stress together determine propagation speed of the deformation wave, as well as stress and strain on the final equilibrium state. Thus, shock behaviors of porous brittle material can be systematically designed for specific applications.

  2. A scattering model for rain depolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, P. H.; Stutzman, W. L.; Bostian, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the amount of depolarization caused by precipitation for a propagation path. In the model the effects of each scatterer and their interactions are accounted for by using a series of simplifying steps. It is necessary only to know the forward scattering properties of a single scatterer. For the case of rain the results of this model for attenuation, differential phase shift, and cross polarization agree very well with the results of the only other model available, that of differential attenuation and differential phase shift. Calculations presented here show that horizontal polarization is more sensitive to depolarization than is vertical polarization for small rain drop canting angle changes. This effect increases with increasing path length.

  3. A model for radio emission from solar coronal shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J., E-mail: djwu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Solar coronal shocks are very common phenomena in the solar atmosphere and are believed to be the drivers of solar type II radio bursts. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open question. This paper proposes that electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission is responsible for the generation of radiation from the coronal shocks. In the present model, an energetic ion beam accelerated by the shock first excites the Alfvén wave (AW), then the excited AW leads to the formation of a density-depleted duct along the foreshock boundary of the shock. In this density-depleted duct, the energetic electron beam produced via the shock acceleration can effectively excite radio emission by ECM instability. Our results show that this model may potentially be applied to solar type II radio bursts.

  4. A model for radio emission from solar coronal shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Solar coronal shocks are very common phenomena in the solar atmosphere and are believed to be the drivers of solar type II radio bursts. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open question. This paper proposes that electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission is responsible for the generation of radiation from the coronal shocks. In the present model, an energetic ion beam accelerated by the shock first excites the Alfvén wave (AW), then the excited AW leads to the formation of a density-depleted duct along the foreshock boundary of the shock. In this density-depleted duct, the energetic electron beam produced via the shock acceleration can effectively excite radio emission by ECM instability. Our results show that this model may potentially be applied to solar type II radio bursts.

  5. Light Scatter in Optical Materials: Advanced Haze Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    contrast sensitivity with glare. This study measured angular scatter in the test articles , and showed that the cumulative (total) scatter beyond...Sample under laser illumination for angular scatter measurements ................................4  Figure 3: Scatter measurement system at a small...scatter effects image quality , visual performance and user acceptance. The purpose of the present effort was to develop a computational model that

  6. Laser Scattering Diagnostic for Shock Front Arrival and Electron Number Density, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Three diagnostic methods are proposed for measuring properties of interest in the post-shock regions of a hypersonic bow shock wave that is used for studying...

  7. Scattering Amplitudes and Worldsheet Models of QFTs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    I will describe recent progress on the study of scattering amplitudes via ambitwistor strings and the scattering equations. Ambitwistor strings are worldsheet models of quantum field theories, inspired by string theory. They naturally lead to a representation of amplitudes based on the scattering equations. While worldsheet models and related ideas have had a wide-ranging impact on the modern study of amplitudes, their direct application at loop level is a very recent success. I will show how a major difficulty in the loop-level story, the technicalities of higher-genus Riemann surfaces, can be avoided by turning the higher-genus surface into a nodal Riemann sphere, with the nodes representing the loop momenta. I will present new formulas for the one-loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity, with or without supersymmetry, and also some two-loop results.

  8. Modeling of Particle Acceleration at Multiple Shocks Via Diffusive Shock Acceleration: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. N.; Zank, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Successful forecasting of energetic particle events in space weather models require algorithms for correctly predicting the spectrum of ions accelerated from a background population of charged particles. We present preliminary results from a model that diffusively accelerates particles at multiple shocks. Our basic approach is related to box models (Protheroe and Stanev, 1998; Moraal and Axford, 1983; Ball and Kirk, 1992; Drury et al., 1999) in which a distribution of particles is diffusively accelerated inside the box while simultaneously experiencing decompression through adiabatic expansion and losses from the convection and diffusion of particles outside the box (Melrose and Pope, 1993; Zank et al., 2000). We adiabatically decompress the accelerated particle distribution between each shock by either the method explored in Melrose and Pope (1993) and Pope and Melrose (1994) or by the approach set forth in Zank et al. (2000) where we solve the transport equation by a method analogous to operator splitting. The second method incorporates the additional loss terms of convection and diffusion and allows for the use of a variable time between shocks. We use a maximum injection energy (Emax) appropriate for quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks (Zank et al., 2000, 2006; Dosch and Shalchi, 2010) and provide a preliminary application of the diffusive acceleration of particles by multiple shocks with frequencies appropriate for solar maximum (i.e., a non-Markovian process).

  9. Electron scattering in the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, A.E.L.; Iachello, F.; Creswell, C.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the interacting boson model be used in the analysis of electron scattering data. Qualitative features of the expected behavior of the inelastic excitation of some 2 + states in the transitional Sm-Nd region are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Bayesian Nonparametric Statistical Inference for Shock Models and Wear Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    also note that the results in Section 2 do not depend on the support of F .) This shock model have been studied by Esary, Marshall and Proschan (1973...Barlow and Proschan (1975), among others. The analogy of the shock model in risk and acturial analysis has been given by BUhlmann (1970, Chapter 2... Mathematical Statistics, Vol. 4, pp. 894-906. Billingsley, P. (1968), CONVERGENCE OF PROBABILITY MEASURES, John Wiley, New York. BUhlmann, H. (1970

  11. On Shocks Driven by High-mass Planets in Radiatively Inefficient Disks. III. Observational Signatures in Thermal Emission and Scattered Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Blake; Lyra, Wladimir; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2017-11-01

    Recent observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Be star HD 100546 show two bright features in infrared (H and {L}{\\prime } bands) at about 50 au,with one so far unexplained. We explore the observational signatures of a high-mass planet causing shock heating in order to determine if it could be the source of the unexplained infrared feature in HD 100546. More fundamentally, we identify and characterize planetary shocks as an extra, hitherto ignored, source of luminosity in transition disks. The RADMC-3D code is used to perform dust radiative transfer calculations on the hydrodynamical disk models, including volumetric heating. A stronger shock heating rate by a factor of 20 would be necessary to qualitatively reproduce the morphology of the second infrared source. Instead, we find that the outer edge of the gap carved by the planet heats up by about 50% relative to the initial reference temperature, which leads to an increase in the scale height. The bulge is illuminated by the central star, producing a lopsided feature in scattered light, as the outer gap edge shows an asymmetry in density and temperature attributable to a secondary spiral arm launched not from the Lindblad resonances but from the 2:1 resonance. We conclude that high-mass planets lead to shocks in disks that may be directly observed, particularly at wavelengths of 10 μm or longer, but that they are more likely to reveal their presence in scattered light by puffing up their outer gap edges and exciting multiple spiral arms.

  12. A critical analysis of shock models for chondrule formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammler, Sebastian M.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years many models of chondrule formation have been proposed. One of those models is the processing of dust in shock waves in protoplanetary disks. In this model, the dust and the chondrule precursors are overrun by shock waves, which heat them up by frictional heating and thermal exchange with the gas. In this paper we reanalyze the nebular shock model of chondrule formation and focus on the downstream boundary condition. We show that for large-scale plane-parallel chondrule-melting shocks the postshock equilibrium temperature is too high to avoid volatile loss. Even if we include radiative cooling in lateral directions out of the disk plane into our model (thereby breaking strict plane-parallel geometry) we find that for a realistic vertical extent of the solar nebula disk the temperature decline is not fast enough. On the other hand, if we assume that the shock is entirely optically thin so that particles can radiate freely, the cooling rates are too high to produce the observed chondrules textures. Global nebular shocks are therefore problematic as the primary sources of chondrules.

  13. On the Magnitude and Orientation of Stress during Shock Metamorphism: Understanding Peak Ring Formation by Combining Observations and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, A.; Poelchau, M.; Collins, G. S.; Timms, N.; Cavosie, A. J.; Lofi, J.; Salge, T.; Riller, U. P.; Ferrière, L.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Osinski, G.; Morgan, J. V.; Expedition 364 Science Party, I. I.

    2017-12-01

    Shock metamorphism occurs during the earliest moments after impact. The magnitude and orientation of shock leaves recordable signatures in rocks, which spatially vary across an impact structure. Consequently, observations of shock metamorphism can be used to understand deformation and its history within a shock wave, and to examine subsequent deformation during crater modification. IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 recovered nearly 600 m of shocked target rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub Crater. Samples from the expedition were used to measure the magnitude and orientation of shock in peak ring materials, and to determine the mechanism of peak-ring emplacement. Here, we present the results of petrographic analyses of the shocked granitic target rocks of the Chicxulub peak ring; using universal-stage optical microscopy, back-scattered electron images, and electron back-scatter diffraction. Deformation microstructures in quartz include planar deformation features (PDFs), feather features (FFs), which are unique to shock conditions, as well as planar fractures and crystal-plastic deformation bands. The assemblage of PDFs in quartz suggest that the peak-ring rocks experienced shock pressures of 15 GPa throughout the recovered drill core, and that the orientation of FFs are consistent with the present-day orientation of the maximum principal stress direction during shock is close to vertical. Numerical impact simulations of the impact event were run to determine the magnitude and orientation of principal stresses during shock and track those orientations throughout crater formation. Our results are remarkably consistent with the geological data, and accurately predict both the shock-pressure magnitudes, and the final near-vertical orientation of the direction of maximum principal stress in the shock wave. Furthermore, analysis of the state of stress throughout the impact event can be used to constrain the timing of fracture and fault orientations observed in the core

  14. Folding models for elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    The most widely used models are the optical model potential (OMP) for elastic scattering, and its generalization to non-spherical shapes, the deformed optical model potential (DOMP) for inelastic scattering. These models are simple and phenomenological; their parameters are adjusted so as to reproduce empirical data. Nonetheless, there are certain, not always well-defined, constraints to be imposed. The potential shapes and their parameter values must be reasonable and should vary in a smooth and systematic way with the masses of the colliding nuclei and their energy. One way of satisfying these constraints, without going back to a much more fundamental theory, is through the use of folding models. The basic justification for using potentials of the Woods-Saxon shape for nucleon-nucleus scattering, for example, is our knowledge that a nuclear density distribution is more-or-less constant in the nuclear interior with a diffuse surface. When this is folded with a short-range nucleon-nucleon interaction, the result is a similar shape with a more diffuse surface. Folding procedures allow us to incorporate many aspects of nuclear structure (although the nuclear size is one of the most important), as well as theoretical ideas about the effective interaction of two nucleons within nuclear matter. It also provides us with a means of linking information obtained from nuclear (hadronic) interactions with that from other sources, as well as correlating that from the use of different hadronic probes. Folding model potentials, single-folded potentials, and the double-folding model including applications to heavy-ion scattering are discussed

  15. On numerical considerations for modeling reactive astrophysical shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodore, Thomas L.; Messer, O. E. Bronson

    2014-01-01

    Simulating detonations in astrophysical environments is often complicated by numerical approximations to shock structure. A common prescription to ensure correct detonation speeds and associated quantities is to prohibit burning inside the numerically broadened shock. We have performed a series of simulations to verify the efficacy of this approximation and to understand how resolution and dimensionality might affect its use. Our results show that in one dimension, prohibiting burning in the shock is important wherever the carbon burning length is not resolved, in keeping with the results of Fryxell et al. In two dimensions, we find that the prohibition of shock burning effectively inhibits the development of cellular structure for all but the most highly resolved cases. We discuss the possible impacts this outcome may have on sub-grid models and detonation propagation in models of Type Ia supernovae, including potential impacts on observables.

  16. Gain curves and hydrodynamic modeling for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ignition of a precompressed thermonuclear fuel by means of a converging shock is now considered as a credible scheme to obtain high gains for inertial fusion energy. This work aims at modeling the successive stages of the fuel time history, from compression to final thermonuclear combustion, in order to provide the gain curves of shock ignition (SI). The leading physical mechanism at work in SI is pressure amplification, at first by spherical convergence, and by collision with the shock reflected at center during the stagnation process. These two effects are analyzed, and ignition conditions are provided as functions of the shock pressure and implosion velocity. Ignition conditions are obtained from a non-isobaric fuel assembly, for which we present a gain model. The corresponding gain curves exhibit a significantly lower ignition threshold and higher target gains than conventional central ignition.

  17. Measuring the Shock Stage of Asteroid Regolith Grains by Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Martinez, James; Sitzman, Scott; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Terada, Yasuko; Yagi, Naoto; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Ozawa, Hikaru; hide

    2018-01-01

    We have been analyzing Itokawa samples in order to definitively establish the degree of shock experienced by the regolith of asteroid Itokawa, and to devise a bridge between shock determinations by standard light optical petrography, crystal structures as determined by electron and X-ray diffraction. These techniques would then be available for samples returned from other asteroid regoliths.

  18. Shock ignition of thermonuclear fuel: principles and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzeni, S.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.; Schmitt, A.J.; Canaud, B.; Betti, R.; Perkins, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Shock ignition is an approach to direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) in which the stages of compression and hot spot formation are partly separated. The fuel is first imploded at a lower velocity than in conventional ICF. Close to stagnation, an intense laser spike drives a strong converging shock, which contributes to hot spot formation. Shock ignition shows potentials for high gain at laser energies below 1 MJ, and could be tested on the National Ignition Facility or Laser MegaJoule. Shock ignition principles and modelling are reviewed in this paper. Target designs and computer-generated gain curves are presented and discussed. Limitations of present studies and research needs are outlined. (special topic)

  19. Advanced Computational Modeling Approaches for Shock Response Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkevorkian, Armen; Kolaini, Ali R.; Peterson, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: (1) The activation of pyroshock devices such as explosives, separation nuts, pin-pullers, etc. produces high frequency transient structural response, typically from few tens of Hz to several hundreds of kHz. (2) Lack of reliable analytical tools makes the prediction of appropriate design and qualification test levels a challenge. (3) In the past few decades, several attempts have been made to develop methodologies that predict the structural responses to shock environments. (4) Currently, there is no validated approach that is viable to predict shock environments overt the full frequency range (i.e., 100 Hz to 10 kHz). Scope: (1) Model, analyze, and interpret space structural systems with complex interfaces and discontinuities, subjected to shock loads. (2) Assess the viability of a suite of numerical tools to simulate transient, non-linear solid mechanics and structural dynamics problems, such as shock wave propagation.

  20. Multi-scattering inversion for low model wavenumbers

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong

    2015-01-01

    modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update both the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most

  1. Directional Dipole Model for Subsurface Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Hachisuka, Toshiya; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rendering translucent materials using Monte Carlo ray tracing is computationally expensive due to a large number of subsurface scattering events. Faster approaches are based on analytical models derived from diffusion theory. While such analytical models are efficient, they miss out on some...... point source diffusion. A ray source corresponds better to the light that refracts through the surface of a translucent material. Using this ray source, we are able to take the direction of the incident light ray and the direction toward the point of emergence into account. We use a dipole construction...

  2. Model potential for electron scattering from rubidium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gien, T.E. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-28

    An analytic model potential for the e[sup -]-Rb[sup +] system is generated from experimental data, using an iteration method. The potential obtained can reproduce rather accurately the energy levels of rubidium. We employed it in the calculation of elastic differential cross sections for electron (and positron) scatterings from rubidium in the conventional Glauber approximation. The differential cross sections calculated in the model potential approach are compared to those in the frozen-core approach, employing either the Clementi-Roetti or the Szasz-McGinn wavefunctions. The core correlation and polarization effects are found to significantly affect the cross section results. (author).

  3. Model potential for electron scattering from rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gien, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    An analytic model potential for the e - -Rb + system is generated from experimental data, using an iteration method. The potential obtained can reproduce rather accurately the energy levels of rubidium. We employed it in the calculation of elastic differential cross sections for electron (and positron) scatterings from rubidium in the conventional Glauber approximation. The differential cross sections calculated in the model potential approach are compared to those in the frozen-core approach, employing either the Clementi-Roetti or the Szasz-McGinn wavefunctions. The core correlation and polarization effects are found to significantly affect the cross section results. (author)

  4. A new model for friction under shock conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambakizi F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at the developpement of a new model for friction under shock conditions. Thanks to a subgrid model and a specific Coulomb friction law, it takes into account the interface temperature and deformation but also the influence of asperities when the contact pressure is relatively low (≤ 3 GPa.

  5. A hybrid Scatter/Transform cloaking model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Licht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Scatter/Transform cloak is developed that combines the light bending of refraction characteristic of a Transform cloak with the scatter cancellation characteristic of a Scatter cloak. The hybrid cloak incorporates both Transform’s variable index of refraction with modified linear intrusions to maximize the Scatter cloak effect. Scatter/Transform improved the scattering cross-section of cloaking in a 2-dimensional space to 51.7% compared to only 39.6% or 45.1% respectively with either Scatter or Transform alone. Metamaterials developed with characteristics based on the new ST hybrid cloak will exhibit superior cloaking capabilities.

  6. Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Muxingzi

    2017-01-01

    of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous

  7. Practical model for the calculation of multiply scattered lidar returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.W.

    1998-01-01

    An equation to predict the intensity of the multiply scattered lidar return is presented. Both the scattering cross section and the scattering phase function can be specified as a function of range. This equation applies when the cloud particles are larger than the lidar wavelength. This approximation considers photon trajectories with multiple small-angle forward-scattering events and one large-angle scattering that directs the photon back toward the receiver. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations, exact double-scatter calculations, and lidar data demonstrate that this model provides accurate results. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  8. A multiple shock model for common cause failures using discrete Markov chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Wook; Kang, Chang Soon

    1992-01-01

    The most widely used models in common cause analysis are (single) shock models such as the BFR, and the MFR. But, single shock model can not treat the individual common cause separately and has some irrational assumptions. Multiple shock model for common cause failures is developed using Markov chain theory. This model treats each common cause shock as separately and sequently occuring event to implicate the change in failure probability distribution due to each common cause shock. The final failure probability distribution is evaluated and compared with that from the BFR model. The results show that multiple shock model which minimizes the assumptions in the BFR model is more realistic and conservative than the BFR model. The further work for application is the estimations of parameters such as common cause shock rate and component failure probability given a shock,p, through the data analysis

  9. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, Kristof, E-mail: kristof@itf.fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); KU Leuven, Electrical Engineering (ESAT) Department, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2015-09-28

    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  10. Application limits of finite element models for simulation of shock transfer processes in concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzik, Norbert J.; Eibl, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Shocks on building structures due to impact loads (drop of wreckage and heavy masses from accidents, transport operations, explosions, etc.), especially in case of a postulated aircraft crash, may lead to feasibility problems due to high-induced vibrations and large expenditures at safety-related systems accommodated inside the building structures. A rational and cost-effective qualification of the functionality of such systems requires the prediction of reliable information about the nature of structural responses induced by impact loading in the corresponding regions of the structure. The analytic derivation of realistic and reliable structural responses requires the application of adequate mathematical models and methods as well as a critical evaluation of all factors that influence the entire shock transmission path, from the area of impact to the site of installation of the affected component or system in the structure. Despite extensive studies and computational analyses of impact-induced shocks performed using finite element simulation method, limited and insufficient experimental results to date have precluded a complete investigation and clarification of several 'peculiarities' in the field of shock transmission in finite element models. This refers mainly to the divergence of results observed using FE models when not considering a the required FE element discretization ratio as well as to the attenuation and scatter behavior of the dynamic response results obtained for large building structures and given large distances between the load impact application areas and the component anchoring locations. The cause for such divergences are related to several up to now not clarified 'phenomena' of FE models especially the low-pass filtering effects and dispersion characteristics of FE models

  11. Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.

  12. Oil shocks in New Keynesian models: Positive and normative implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian

    Chapter 1 investigates optimal monetary policy response towards oil shocks in a New Keynesian model. We find that optimal policy, in general, becomes contractionary in response to an adverse oil shock. However, the optimal policy rule and the inflation-output trade-off depend on the specific structure of the model. The benchmark economy consists of a flexible-price energy sector and a sticky-price manufacturing sector where energy is used as an intermediate input. We show that optimal policy is to stabilize the sticky (core) price level. We then show that after incorporating a less oil-dependent sticky-price service sector, the model exhibits a trade-off in stabilizing prices and output gaps in the different sticky-price sectors. It predicts that central bank should not try to stabilize the core price level, and the economy will experience higher inflation and rising output gaps, even if central banks respond optimally. Chapter 2 addresses the observed volatility and persistence of real exchange rates and the terms of trade. It contributes to the literature with a quantitative study on the U.S. and Canada. A two-country New Keynesian model consisting of traded, non-traded, and oil production sectors is proposed to examine the time series properties of the real exchange rate, the terms of trade and the real oil price. We find that after incorporating several realistic features (namely oil price shocks, sector specific labor, non-traded goods, asymmetric pricing decisions of exporters and asymmetric consumer preferences over tradables), the benchmark model broadly matches the volatilities of the relative prices and some business cycle correlations. The model matches the data more closely after adding real demand shocks, suggesting their importance in explaining the relative price movements between the US and Canada. Chapter 3 explores several sources and transmission channels of international relative price movements. In particular, we elaborate on the role of

  13. Modeling of light scattering by icy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolova, L.; Mackowski, D.; Pitman, K.; Verbiscer, A.; Buratti, B.; Momary, T.

    2014-07-01

    As a result of ground-based, space-based, and in-situ spacecraft mission observations, a great amount of photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic data of icy bodies (satellites of giant planets, Kuiper Belt objects, comet nuclei, and icy particles in cometary comae and rings) has been accumulated. These data have revealed fascinating light-scattering phenomena, such as the opposition surge resulting from coherent backscattering and shadow hiding and the negative polarization associated with them. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of these bodies are especially informative as the depth, width, and shape of the absorption bands of ice are sensitive not only to the ice abundance but also to the size of icy grains. Numerous NIR spectra obtained by Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) have been used to map the microcharacteristics of the icy satellites [1] and rings of Saturn [2]. VIMS data have also permitted a study of the opposition surge for icy satellites of Saturn [3], showing that coherent backscattering affects not only brightness and polarization of icy bodies but also their spectra [4]. To study all of the light-scattering phenomena that affect the photopolarimetric and spectroscopic characteristics of icy bodies, including coherent backscattering, requires computer modeling that rigorously considers light scattering by a large number of densely packed small particles that form either layers (in the case of regolith) or big clusters (ring and comet particles) . Such opportunity has appeared recently with a development of a new version MSTM4 of the Multi-Sphere T-Matrix code [5]. Simulations of reflectance and absorbance spectra of a ''target'' (particle layer or cluster) require that the dimensions of the target be significantly larger than the wavelength, sphere radius, and layer thickness. For wavelength-sized spheres and packing fractions typical of regolith, targets can contain dozens of thousands of spheres that, with the original MSTM

  14. Frontiers in Anisotropic Shock-Wave Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Epoxy IFPT simulated and experimental back surface velocities for 572, 788, and 1015 m/s. The experimental data Kevlar / Epoxy materials recovered after...model development for the Nextel and Kevlar / Epoxy materials subject to hypervelocity impact. They also performed the experimental inverse flyer test...IFPT) for Nextel and Kevlar / Epoxy . Their models were to be macro-mechanically based and suitable for implementation into a hydrocode coupled with EOS

  15. 3D numerical modeling of YSO accretion shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsakos T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of YSO accretion shocks is determined by radiative processes as well as the strength and structure of the magnetic field. A quasi-periodic emission signature is theoretically expected to be observed, but observations do not confirm any such pattern. In this work, we assume a uniform background field, in the regime of optically thin energy losses, and we study the multi-dimensional shock evolution in the presence of perturbations, i.e. clumps in the stream and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We perform 3D MHD simulations using the PLUTO code, modelling locally the impact of the infalling gas onto the chromosphere. We find that the structure and dynamics of the post-shock region is strongly dependent on the plasma-beta (thermal over magnetic pressure, different values of which may give distinguishable emission signatures, relevant for observations. In particular, a strong magnetic field effectively confines the plasma inside its flux tubes and leads to the formation of quasi-independent fibrils. The fibrils may oscillate out of phase and hence the sum of their contributions in the emission results in a smooth overall profile. On the contrary, a weak magnetic field is not found to have any significant effect on the shocked plasma and the turbulent hot slab that forms is found to retain its periodic signature.

  16. Multi-scattering inversion for low model wavenumbers

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-08-19

    A successful full wavenumber inversion (FWI) implementation updates the low wavenumber model components first for proper wavefield propagation description, and slowly adds the high-wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded data given by direct arrivals or the transmission parts of the single and double-scattering wave-fields developed from a predicted scatter field. We develop a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update both the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion so initially the high wavenumber (low scattering angle) components of the gradient is directed to the perturbation model and the low wavenumber (high scattering angle) components to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scattering angle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model.

  17. Structural model of dodecameric heat-shock protein Hsp21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutsdottir, Gudrun; Härmark, Johan; Weide, Yoran

    2017-01-01

    for investigating structure-function relationships of Hsp21 and understanding these sequence variations, we developed a structural model of Hsp21 based on homology modeling, cryo-EM, cross-linking mass spectrometry, NMR, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Our data suggest a dodecameric arrangement of two trimer...

  18. Comparisons of Air Radiation Model with Shock Tube Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; McCorkle, Evan; Bogdanoff, David W.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the predictive capability of shock layer radiation model appropriate for NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle lunar return entry. A detailed set of spectrally resolved radiation intensity comparisons are made with recently conducted tests in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The spectral range spanned from vacuum ultraviolet wavelength of 115 nm to infrared wavelength of 1400 nm. The analysis is done for 9.5-10.5 km/s shock passing through room temperature synthetic air at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.7 Torr. The comparisons between model and measurements show discrepancies in the level of background continuum radiation and intensities of atomic lines. Impurities in the EAST facility in the form of carbon bearing species are also modeled to estimate the level of contaminants and their impact on the comparisons. The discrepancies, although large is some cases, exhibit order and consistency. A set of tests and analyses improvements are proposed as forward work plan in order to confirm or reject various proposed reasons for the observed discrepancies.

  19. Decomposition in aluminium alloys: diffuse scattering and crystal modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam-Malik, A.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study the microstructure of metastable precipitates in Al-Ag and Al-Cu, so called pre-precipitates or Guinier-Preston (GP) zones, was investigated. In both systems important aspects of the microstructure are still controversially discussed. In Al-Ag two forms of GP zones are suggested; depending on the aging temperatures above or below about 443 K, ε- or η-zones should evolve. Differences between these two types of zones may be due to differences in internal order and/or composition. In Al-Cu the characterization of GP I zones is difficult because of the strong atomic displacements around the zones. The proper separation of short-range order and displacement scattering within a diffuse scattering experiment is still under discussion. The technique used to determine the short-range order in both alloys was diffuse scattering with neutrons and X-rays. To separate short-range order and displacement scattering, the methods of Georgopoulos-Cohen (X-ray scattering) and Borie-Sparks (neutron scattering) were used. Of main importance is the optimization of the scattering contrast and thus the scattering contribution due to short-range order. Short-range order scattering is rationalized in terms of pair correlations. Crystals may subsequently be modelled to visualize the microstructure. The Al-Ag system was investigated by diffuse X-ray wide-angle scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. The small-angle neutron scattering measurement was necessary since the GP zones in Al-Ag are almost spherical and the main scattering contribution is found close to the origin of reciprocal space. The small-angle scattering is not that important in the case of Al-Cu because the main scattering extends along (100) owing to the planar character of the GP I zones on (100) lattice planes. (author) 24 figs., 10 tabs., refs

  20. Simulating Microwave Scattering for Wetland Vegetation in Poyang Lake, Southeast China, Using a Coherent Scattering Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjuan Liao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed a polarimetric coherent electromagnetic scattering model for Poyang Lake wetland vegetation. Realistic canopy structures including curved leaves and the lodging situation of the vegetation were taken into account, and the situation at the ground surface was established using an Advanced Integral Equation Model combined with Oh’s 2002 model. This new model can reasonably describe the coherence effect caused by the phase differences of the electromagnetic fields scattered from different particles by different scattering mechanisms. We obtained good agreement between the modeling results and C-band data from the Radarsat-2 satellite. A simulation of scattering from the vegetation in Poyang Lake showed that direct vegetation scattering and the single-ground-bounce mechanism are the dominant scattering mechanisms in the C-band and L-band, while the effects of the double-ground-bounce mechanism are very small. We note that the curvature of the leaves and the lodging characteristics of the vegetation cannot be ignored in the modeling process. Monitoring soil moisture in the Poyang Lake wetland with the C-band data was not feasible because of the density and depth of Poyang Lake vegetation. When the density of Poyang Lake Carex increases, the backscattering coefficient either decreases or remains stable.

  1. Modeling X-Ray Scattering Process and Applications of the Scattering Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, Taher Lutfi

    1995-01-01

    Computer modeling of nondestructive inspections with x-rays is proving to be a very useful tool for enhancing the performance of these techniques. Two x-ray based inspection techniques are considered in this study. The first is "Radiographic Inspection", where an existing simulation model has been improved to account for scattered radiation effects. The second technique is "Inspection with Compton backscattering", where a new simulation model has been developed. The effect of scattered radiation on a simulated radiographic image can be insignificant, equally important, or more important than the effect of the uncollided flux. Techniques to account for the scattered radiation effects include Monte Carlo techniques, and solving the particle transport equation for photons. However, these two techniques although accurate, are computationally expensive and hence inappropriate for use in computer simulation of radiography. A less accurate approach but computationally efficient is the principle of buildup factors. Traditionally, buildup factors are defined for monoenergetic photons of energies typical of a nuclear reactor. In this work I have expanded the definition of buildup factors to include a bremsstrahlung spectrum of photons with energies typically used in radiography (keV's instead of MeV's). This expansion of the definition relies on an intensive experimental work to measure buildup factors for a white spectrum of x-rays. I have also developed a monte carlo code to reproduce the measured buildup factors. The code was then converted to a parallel code and distributed on a network of workstations to reduce the execution time. The second inspection technique is based on Compton backscattering, where photons are scattered at large angles, more than 90 degrees. The importance of this technique arises when the inspected object is very large, or when access is limited to only one side of the specimen. The downside of detecting photons from backscattering is the low

  2. Tracking the density evolution in counter-propagating shock waves using imaging X-ray scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zastrau, U.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kraus, D.; Benage, J. F.; Drake, R. P.; Efthimion, P.; Falk, Kateřina; Falcone, R.W.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Gauthier, M.; Granados, E.; Hastings, J.B.; Heimann, P.; Hill, K.; Keiter, P. A.; Lu, J.; MacDonald, M. J.; Montgomery, D. S.; Nagler, B.; Pablant, N.; Schropp, A.; Tobias, B.; Gericke, D.O.; Glenzer, S. H.; Lee, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2016), 1-4, č. článku 031108. ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1606; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Thomson scattering * metal transition * compression * deuterium * diamond * carbon * matter Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  3. Shock Absorbers Multi-Modeling and Suspension Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Ciprian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The standard dampers used by more 90% of vehicles have damping coefficients constant along stroke, so they can’t solve simultaneous all of them, situation solving practically using a relative dampingcoefficient able to made compromise between them. This paper design and simulation testing multi-models of two types of Damp (DSA and VZN. To compare the two types of suspension they are simulated in various road and load conditions. Analysis of simulation results is presente a new VZN shock absorber. This is an invention of the Institute of Mechanics of the Romanian Academy, and patented at European and U.S. [1], [2]. This is Called VZN shock absorber, iscoming from Variable Zeta Necessary acronym, for well moving in all road and load Conditions, Where zeta Represents the relative damping, Which is Adjusted automatically, stepwise, According to the piston positions [3,4,5]. Suspension systems are used in all air and ground transportation to protect that building transportation and cargo transported around against shocks and vibrations induced in the systemfrom the road Modifying damping coefficients (Zeta function piston position, being correlated with vehicle load and road unevenness.

  4. Modeling shock waves in an ideal gas: combining the Burnett approximation and Holian's conjecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi-Guang; Tang, Xiu-Zhang; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2008-07-01

    We model a shock wave in an ideal gas by combining the Burnett approximation and Holian's conjecture. We use the temperature in the direction of shock propagation rather than the average temperature in the Burnett transport coefficients. The shock wave profiles and shock thickness are compared with other theories. The results are found to agree better with the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) data than the Burnett equations and the modified Navier-Stokes theory.

  5. KN scattering in the nonrelativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    KN scattering is of interest as a probe of nuclear structure and, more fundamentally, as a laboratory for the study of nonresonant hadron-hadron interactions. KN is a I theoretically attractive channel because of its simplicity, having only S = 1/2, no one pion exchange contributions and no valence q anti q annihilation. It may therefore be useful for the study of short-ranged quark forces analogous to the NN repulsive core. Since there are two isospin states, comparison of two closely related amplitudes is possible. This contribution reviews the experimental status of S-wave KN scattering and related theoretical studies based on quark-gluon dynamics. The experimental low-energy S-wave phase shift is well established for I = 1, but is not yet well determined for I = 0. The ratio of I = 0 to I = 1 scattering lengths is an interesting number theoretically, and may discriminate between different scattering mechanisms. A measurement of these scattering lengths at DAPHNE would be a useful contribution to low energy hadron physics

  6. Modeling and evaluation of HE driven shock effects in copper with the MTS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.J.; Lassila, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Many experimental studies have investigated the effect of shock pressure on the post-shock mechanical properties of OFHC copper. These studies have shown that significant hardening occurs during shock loading due to dislocation processes and twinning. It has been demonstrated that when an appropriate initial value of the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) is specified, the post-shock flow stress of OFE copper is well described by relationships derived independently for unshocked materials. In this study we consider the evolution of the MTS during HE driven shock loading processes and the effect on the subsequent flow stress of the copper. An increased post shock flow stress results in a higher material temperature due to an increase in the plastic work. An increase in temperature leads to thermal softening which reduces the flow stress. These coupled effects will determine if there is melting in a shaped charge jet or a necking instability in an EFP Ww. 'Me critical factor is the evolution path followed combined with the 'current' temperature, plastic strain, and strain rate. Preliminary studies indicate that in simulations of HE driven shock with very high resolution zoning, the MTS saturates because of the rate dependence in the evolution law. On going studies are addressing this and other issues with the goal of developing a version of the MT'S model that treats HE driven, shock loading, temperature, strain, and rate effects apriori

  7. K correlations and facet models in diffuse scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, B.J.; Jakeman, E.; Baltes, H.P.; Steinle, B.

    1979-01-01

    The angular intensity distribution of radiation scattered by a wide range of random media can be accounted for by assuming effective source amplitude correlations involving modified Bessel functions Kv. We investigate how such correlations can be derived from physical models of stochastic scattering

  8. Diffraction scattering and the parton model in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.

    1985-01-01

    Arguments are presented that the validity of the parton model for hadron scattering in QCD is directly related to the occurrence of the Critical Pomeron description of diffraction scattering. An attractive route suggested for Electroweak and Grand Unification is also briefly described

  9. Reaction effects in diffusive shock acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.Oc.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the reaction of accelerated particles back on the shock wave in the diffusive-shock-acceleration model of cosmic-ray generation are investigated theoretically. Effects examined include changes in the shock structure, modifications of the input and output spectra, scattering effects, and possible instabilities in the small-scale structure. It is pointed out that the latter two effects are applicable to any spatially localized acceleration mechanism. 14 references

  10. Climate Shocks and Migration: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwisle, Barbara; Williams, Nathalie E.; Verdery, Ashton M.; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Malanson, George P.; Mucha, Peter J.; Frizzelle, Brian G.; McDaniel, Philip M.; Yao, Xiaozheng; Heumann, Benjamin W.; Prasartkul, Pramote; Sawangdee, Yothin; Jampaklay, Aree

    2016-01-01

    This is a study of migration responses to climate shocks. We construct an agent-based model that incorporates dynamic linkages between demographic behaviors, such as migration, marriage, and births, and agriculture and land use, which depend on rainfall patterns. The rules and parameterization of our model are empirically derived from qualitative and quantitative analyses of a well-studied demographic field site, Nang Rong district, Northeast Thailand. With this model, we simulate patterns of migration under four weather regimes in a rice economy: 1) a reference, ‘normal’ scenario; 2) seven years of unusually wet weather; 3) seven years of unusually dry weather; and 4) seven years of extremely variable weather. Results show relatively small impacts on migration. Experiments with the model show that existing high migration rates and strong selection factors, which are unaffected by climate change, are likely responsible for the weak migration response. PMID:27594725

  11. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A SIMPLE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF HEAT SHOCK RESPONSE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufi Neder Meyer

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain a simple model for the elicitation of the heat shock response in rats. Design: Laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratories. Sample: Seventy-nine adult male albino rats (weight range 200 g to 570 g. Procedures: Exposure to heat stress by heating animals in a warm bath for 5 min after their rectal temperatures reached 107.60 F (420 C. Liver and lung samples were collected for heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 detection (Western analysis. Results: Western analysis was positive for HSP70 in the liver and in the lungs of heated animals. There was a temporal correlation between heating and HSP70 detection: it was strongest 1 day after heating and reduced afterwards. No heated animals died. Conclusion: These data show that heating rats in a warm (45o C bath, according to parameters set in this model, elicits efficiently the heat shock response.OBJETIVO: Obter um modelo simples para tentar esclarecer a resposta ao choque térmico em ratos. LOCAL: Laboratório de pesquisa da Universidade. MÉTODO: Amostra: 79 ratos albinos, adultos, entre 200g a 570g. Procedimentos: Exposição ao calor, em banho quente, por 5 minutos, após a temperatura retal chegar a 42 graus centigrados. Biópsias de fígado e pulmão foram obtidas para detectar a proteina 70 (HSP 70, pelo "Western blot". RESULTADOS: As análises foram positivas nos animais aquecidos, com uma correlação entre aquecimento e constatação da HSP 70. Foi mais elevada no primeiro dia e não houve óbitos nos animais aquecidos. CONCLUSÃO: Os ratos aquecidos a 45 graus centígrados respondem eficientemente ao choque térmico.

  13. Hydrodynamic modelling of the shock ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The shock ignition concept in inertial confinement fusion uses an intense power spike at the end of an assembly laser pulse. The key features of shock ignition are the generation of a high ablation pressure, the shock pressure amplification by at least a factor of a hundred in the cold fuel shell and the shock coupling to the hot-spot. In this thesis, new semi-analytical hydrodynamic models are developed to describe the ignitor shock from its generation up to the moment of fuel ignition. A model is developed to describe a spherical converging shock wave in a pre-heated hot spot. The self-similar solution developed by Guderley is perturbed over the shock Mach number Ms ≥≥1. The first order correction accounts for the effects of the shock strength. An analytical ignition criterion is defined in terms of the shock strength and the hot-spot areal density. The ignition threshold is higher when the initial Mach number of the shock is lower. A minimal shock pressure of 20 Gbar is needed when it enters the hot-spot. The shock dynamics in the imploding shell is then analyzed. The shock is propagating into a non inertial medium with a high radial pressure gradient and an overall pressure increase with time. The collision with a returning shock coming from the assembly phase enhances further the ignitor shock pressure. The analytical theory allows to describe the shock pressure and strength evolution in a typical shock ignition implosion. It is demonstrated that, in the case of the HiPER target design, a generation shock pressure near the ablation zone on the order of 300-400 Mbar is needed. An analysis of experiments on the strong shock generation performed on the OMEGA laser facility is presented. It is shown that a shock pressure close to 300 Mbar near the ablation zone has been reached with an absorbed laser intensity up to 2 * 10 15 W:cm -2 and a laser wavelength of 351 nm. This value is two times higher than the one expected from collisional laser absorption only

  14. Formation of intermediate shocks in both two-fluid and hybrid models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.; Hada, T.

    1991-01-01

    Intermediate shocks are shocks with shock frame fluid velocities greater than the Alfven speed ahead and less than the Alfven speed behind, or equivalently, across intermediate shocks the sign of the transverse component of the magnetic field changes. These shocks had been considered extraneous, or nonevolutionary, or unstable, and they had been thought not to correspond to physical reality [Germain, 1960; Jeffrey and Taniuti, 1964; Kantrowitz and Petschek, 1966]. However, it has been shown that intermediate shocks can be formed from continuous waves according to dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) [Wu, 1987, 1988a, b, 1990]. Thus according to the formation argument which requires that physical shocks be formed by the wave steepening process, the intermediate shocks should be considered physical. Here, intermediate shocks are studied in a two-fluid model that includes finite ion inertia dispersion and in a hybrid model in which the full ion dynamics is retained while the electrons are treated as a massless fluid. The authors show that in both models intermediate shocks can be formed through wave steepening, meaning that they are stable and possess shock structures

  15. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  16. Drop Hammer Tests with Three Oleo Strut Models and Three Different Shock Strut Oils at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, M

    1954-01-01

    Drop hammer tests with different shock strut models and shock strut oils were performed at temperatures ranging to -40 C. The various shock strut models do not differ essentially regarding their springing and damping properties at low temperatures; however, the influence of the different shock strut oils on the springing properties at low temperatures varies greatly.

  17. Electron scattering studies by means of various nuclear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essaniyazov, Sh.; Juraev, Sh.; Ismatov, E.I.

    2006-01-01

    transition of nucleus into the excited state in the region of the discrete spectrum (ω>0). The study of the scattered electrons energy spectrum directly allows separation of the excited energy levels. The study of the inelastic electrons scattering gives opportunity to establish possible application of various nuclear models. Quasi-elastic scattering. A wide maximum in the energy spectrum of the scattered electrons corresponds to the direct collisions of the electron with particular nucleons in nucleus. (author)

  18. Two-component scattering model and the electron density spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, A. Z.; Tan, J. Y.; Esamdin, A.; Wu, X. J.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss a rigorous treatment of the refractive scintillation caused by a two-component interstellar scattering medium and a Kolmogorov form of density spectrum. It is assumed that the interstellar scattering medium is composed of a thin-screen interstellar medium (ISM) and an extended interstellar medium. We consider the case that the scattering of the thin screen concentrates in a thin layer represented by a δ function distribution and that the scattering density of the extended irregular medium satisfies the Gaussian distribution. We investigate and develop equations for the flux density structure function corresponding to this two-component ISM geometry in the scattering density distribution and compare our result with the observations. We conclude that the refractive scintillation caused by this two-component ISM scattering gives a more satisfactory explanation for the observed flux density variation than does the single extended medium model. The level of refractive scintillation is strongly sensitive to the distribution of scattering material along the line of sight (LOS). The theoretical modulation indices are comparatively less sensitive to the scattering strength of the thin-screen medium, but they critically depend on the distance from the observer to the thin screen. The logarithmic slope of the structure function is sensitive to the scattering strength of the thin-screen medium, but is relatively insensitive to the thin-screen location. Therefore, the proposed model can be applied to interpret the structure functions of flux density observed in pulsar PSR B2111 + 46 and PSR B0136 + 57. The result suggests that the medium consists of a discontinuous distribution of plasma turbulence embedded in the interstellar medium. Thus our work provides some insight into the distribution of the scattering along the LOS to the pulsar PSR B2111 + 46 and PSR B0136 + 57.

  19. a Proposed Benchmark Problem for Scatter Calculations in Radiographic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, G.-R.; Bellon, C.; Schumm, A.; Tabary, J.; Duvauchelle, Ph.

    2009-03-01

    Code Validation is a permanent concern in computer modelling, and has been addressed repeatedly in eddy current and ultrasonic modeling. A good benchmark problem is sufficiently simple to be taken into account by various codes without strong requirements on geometry representation capabilities, focuses on few or even a single aspect of the problem at hand to facilitate interpretation and to avoid that compound errors compensate themselves, yields a quantitative result and is experimentally accessible. In this paper we attempt to address code validation for one aspect of radiographic modeling, the scattered radiation prediction. Many NDT applications can not neglect scattered radiation, and the scatter calculation thus is important to faithfully simulate the inspection situation. Our benchmark problem covers the wall thickness range of 10 to 50 mm for single wall inspections, with energies ranging from 100 to 500 keV in the first stage, and up to 1 MeV with wall thicknesses up to 70 mm in the extended stage. A simple plate geometry is sufficient for this purpose, and the scatter data is compared on a photon level, without a film model, which allows for comparisons with reference codes like MCNP. We compare results of three Monte Carlo codes (McRay, Sindbad and Moderato) as well as an analytical first order scattering code (VXI), and confront them to results obtained with MCNP. The comparison with an analytical scatter model provides insights into the application domain where this kind of approach can successfully replace Monte-Carlo calculations.

  20. Diffuse Scattering Model of Indoor Wideband Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    segments in total and approximately 2 min running time on average computer. Frequency independent power levels at the walls around the circumference of the room and at four receiver locations in the middle of the room are observed. It is demonstrated that after finite period of initial excitation the field...... radio coverage predictions.......This paper presents a discrete-time numerical algorithm for computing field distribution in indoor environment by diffuse scattering from walls. Calculations are performed for a rectangular room with semi-reflective walls. The walls are divided into 0.5 x 0.5 m segments, resulting in 2272 wall...

  1. Significance of matrix diagonalization in modelling inelastic electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Z. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Hambach, R. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); University of Jena, Jena 07743 (Germany); Kaiser, U.; Rose, H. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Electron scattering is always applied as one of the routines to investigate nanostructures. Nowadays the development of hardware offers more and more prospect for this technique. For example imaging nanostructures with inelastic scattered electrons may allow to produce component-sensitive images with atomic resolution. Modelling inelastic electron scattering is therefore essential for interpreting these images. The main obstacle to study inelastic scattering problem is its complexity. During inelastic scattering, incident electrons entangle with objects, and the description of this process involves a multidimensional array. Since the simulation usually involves fourdimensional Fourier transforms, the computation is highly inefficient. In this work we have offered one solution to handle the multidimensional problem. By transforming a high dimensional array into twodimensional array, we are able to perform matrix diagonalization and approximate the original multidimensional array with its twodimensional eigenvectors. Our procedure reduces the complicated multidimensional problem to a twodimensional problem. In addition, it minimizes the number of twodimensional problems. This method is very useful for studying multiple inelastic scattering. - Highlights: • 4D problems are involved in modelling inelastic electron scattering. • By means of matrix diagonalization, the 4D problems can be simplified as 2D problems. • The number of 2D problems is minimized by using this approach.

  2. New statistical model of inelastic fast neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancicj, V.

    1975-07-01

    A new statistical model for treating the fast neutron inelastic scattering has been proposed by using the general expressions of the double differential cross section in impuls approximation. The use of the Fermi-Dirac distribution of nucleons makes it possible to derive an analytical expression of the fast neutron inelastic scattering kernel including the angular momenta coupling. The obtained values of the inelastic fast neutron cross section calculated from the derived expression of the scattering kernel are in a good agreement with the experiments. A main advantage of the derived expressions is in their simplicity for the practical calculations

  3. Boundary scattering in the ϕ{sup 4} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorey, Patrick [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Halavanau, Aliaksei [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics,BSU, Minsk Independence Avenue 4 (Belarus); Fermi National Laboratory,Pine St. and Kirk Rd., ZIP 60511, Mail Station 221, Batavia, Illinois (United States); Mercer, James [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Deloitte MCS Limited,Hill House, 1 Little New Street, London, EC4A 3TR (United Kingdom); Romanczukiewicz, Tomasz [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,Lojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Krakow (Poland); Shnir, Yasha [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics,BSU, Minsk Independence Avenue 4 (Belarus); BLTP, JINR,141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Oldenburg University,Postfach 2503 D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2017-05-19

    We study boundary scattering in the ϕ{sup 4} model on a half-line with a one-parameter family of Neumann-type boundary conditions. A rich variety of phenomena is observed, which extends previously-studied behaviour on the full line to include regimes of near-elastic scattering, the restoration of a missing scattering window, and the creation of a kink or oscillon through the collision-induced decay of a metastable boundary state. We also study the decay of the vibrational boundary mode, and explore different scenarios for its relaxation and for the creation of kinks.

  4. Channel modelling and performance analysis of V2I communication systems in blind bend scattering environments

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali; Hamdi, Rami; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a new geometrical blind bend scattering model for vehicle-to- infrastructure (V2I) communications. The proposed model takes into account single-bounce and double- bounce scattering stemming from fixed scatterers located

  5. Shock tube and chemical kinetic modeling study of the oxidation of 2,5-dimethylfuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirjean, Baptiste; Fournet, René; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Wang, Weijing; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A

    2013-02-21

    A detailed kinetic model describing the oxidation of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), a potential second-generation biofuel, is proposed. The kinetic model is based upon quantum chemical calculations for the initial DMF consumption reactions and important reactions of intermediates. The model is validated by comparison to new DMF shock tube ignition delay time measurements (over the temperature range 1300-1831 K and at nominal pressures of 1 and 4 bar) and the DMF pyrolysis speciation measurements of Lifshitz et al. [ J. Phys. Chem. A 1998 , 102 ( 52 ), 10655 - 10670 ]. Globally, modeling predictions are in good agreement with the considered experimental targets. In particular, ignition delay times are predicted well by the new model, with model-experiment deviations of at most a factor of 2, and DMF pyrolysis conversion is predicted well, to within experimental scatter of the Lifshitz et al. data. Additionally, comparisons of measured and model predicted pyrolysis speciation provides validation of theoretically calculated channels for the oxidation of DMF. Sensitivity and reaction flux analyses highlight important reactions as well as the primary reaction pathways responsible for the decomposition of DMF and formation and destruction of key intermediate and product species.

  6. Development of general X-ray scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Joe; Wendt, Scott

    2015-01-01

    X-ray scattering is a complex process made difficult to describe due to the effects of a complex energy spectrum interacting with a wide range of material types in complex geometry. The scattering is further complicated by the volume of material illuminated and the experimental configuration of the data acquisition. The importance of accounting for the key physics in scattering modeling is critical to the viability of the model. For example, scattering in the detector and the speed of the detector, as measured by the absorbed dose needed to produce a signal, are important in capturing undercut effects. Another example is the noise properties of the detectors are dependent on photon energy. We report on a semi-empirical treatment of x-ray scattering that includes a full energy treatment for a wide range of material types. We also include complex geometry effects that the part shape introduces. The treatment is based on experimental measurements using an energy dispersive germanium detector over energies from treatment is showing good results with experimental measurements of the scattering component agreeing with the model results to the 10% level over the range of x-ray energies and materials typical in industrial applications. Computation times for this model are in the 20 keV to 320 keV. Detector stripping routines for detector artifacts were developed. The computation time is in the range of a few minutes on a typical PC

  7. Quantification model of the consequences of monetary policy shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Emilia POPA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The monetary analysis based on the BVAR (Bayesian Vector Autoregression model is extremely important in the monetary policy implementation strategy, the information provided is important not only for the Central Bank, but also for the economic agents and the population. Therefore, conducting this analysis at the level of Romania helps to understand better the mechanism by which monetary policy is transmitted in order to achieve the set target, namely inflation targeting, but it also provides us with important information regarding the accession to the euro area. The model we are trying to test helps us understand through the correlations between the interest rate, GDP and the inflation rate how monetary policy responds to shocks. The model follows the methodology presented by Sims and Zha (1998 in the paper "Bayesian Methods for Dynamic Multivariate Models and Using the Bayesian Autoregressive Vector". In the analysis of this model, quarterly data for a minimum of three years, three variables are used to make the results relevant. The data needed to model the model are used in logarithmic form, except for the interest rate, and the outcome is applied to a differentiated premium operator. Of the variables used, the interest rate is the only one that does not allow seasonal adjustment.

  8. Electromagnetic Drop Scale Scattering Modelling for Dynamic Statistical Rain Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hipp, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This work simulates the scattering of electromagnetic waves by a rain field. The calculations are performed for the individual drops and accumulate to a time signal dependent on the dynamic properties of the rain field. The simulations are based on the analytical Mie scattering model for spherical rain drops and the simulation software considers the rain characteristics drop size (including their distribution in rain), motion, and frequency and temperature dependent permittivity. The performe...

  9. Incorporation of intraocular scattering in schematic eye models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, R.

    1985-01-01

    Beckmann's theory of scattering from rough surfaces is applied to obtain, from the experimental veiling glare functions, a diffuser that when placed at the pupil plane would produce the same scattering halo as the ocular media. This equivalent diffuser is introduced in a schematic eye model, and its influence on the point-spread function and the modulation-transfer function of the eye is analyzed

  10. Deep inelastic scattering in spontaneously broken gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloskokov, S.V.; Mikhov, S.G.; Morozov, P.T.; Stamenov, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Deep inelastic lepton hadron scattering in the simplest spontaneously broken symmetry (the Kibble model) is analyzed. A hypothesis that the invariant coupling constant of the quartic selfinteraction for large spacelike momenta tends to a finite asymptotic value without spoiling the asymptotic freedom for the invariant coupling constant of the Yang-Mills field is used. It is shown that Biorken scaling for the moments of the structure functions of the deep inelastic lepton hadron scattering is violated by powers of logarithms

  11. The string model of nuclear scattering: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Klaus

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the string model of hadronic and nuclear scattering at ultrarelativistic energies. The man purpose is to treat theoretical concepts common to essentially all successful models: strings, Pomerons, and their marriage int he string model approach. We stay an introductory level without going into technical details. (author)

  12. Material model validation for laser shock peening process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarchinta, H K; Grandhi, R V; Langer, K; Stargel, D S

    2009-01-01

    Advanced mechanical surface enhancement techniques have been used successfully to increase the fatigue life of metallic components. These techniques impart deep compressive residual stresses into the component to counter potentially damage-inducing tensile stresses generated under service loading. Laser shock peening (LSP) is an advanced mechanical surface enhancement technique used predominantly in the aircraft industry. To reduce costs and make the technique available on a large-scale basis for industrial applications, simulation of the LSP process is required. Accurate simulation of the LSP process is a challenging task, because the process has many parameters such as laser spot size, pressure profile and material model that must be precisely determined. This work focuses on investigating the appropriate material model that could be used in simulation and design. In the LSP process material is subjected to strain rates of 10 6  s −1 , which is very high compared with conventional strain rates. The importance of an accurate material model increases because the material behaves significantly different at such high strain rates. This work investigates the effect of multiple nonlinear material models for representing the elastic–plastic behavior of materials. Elastic perfectly plastic, Johnson–Cook and Zerilli–Armstrong models are used, and the performance of each model is compared with available experimental results

  13. Experimental models of sepsis and septic shock: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Alejandra G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients and trauma victims, mainly due to sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction. In contrast to preclinical studies, most clinical trials of promising new treatment strategies for sepsis have fails to demonstrate efficacy. Although many reasons could account for this discrepancy, the misinterpretation of preclinical data obtained from experimental studies, and especially the use of animal models that do not adequately mimic human sepsis may have been contributing factors. In this review, the benefits and limitations of various animal models of sepsis are discussed to clarify the extend to which findings are relevant to human sepsis, particularly with respect to the subsequent design and execution of clinical trials. Such models include intravascular infusion of endotoxin or live bacteria, bacterial peritonitis, cecal ligation and perforation, soft tissue infection, pneumonia or meningitis models, using different animal species including rats, mice, rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep and nonhuman primates. Despite several limitations, animal models remain essential in the development of all new therapies for sepsis and septic shock, because they provide fundamental information about the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and mechanism of drug action that cannot be duplicated by other methods. New therapeutic agents should be studies in infection models, even after the initiation of the septic process. Furthermore, debility conditions need to be reproduced to avoid the exclusive use of healthy animals, which often do not represent the human septic patient.

  14. Extended charge banking model of dual path shocks for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Derek J; Sweeney, James D

    2008-08-01

    Single path defibrillation shock methods have been improved through the use of the Charge Banking Model of defibrillation, which predicts the response of the heart to shocks as a simple resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit. While dual path defibrillation configurations have significantly reduced defibrillation thresholds, improvements to dual path defibrillation techniques have been limited to experimental observations without a practical model to aid in improving dual path defibrillation techniques. The Charge Banking Model has been extended into a new Extended Charge Banking Model of defibrillation that represents small sections of the heart as separate RC circuits, uses a weighting factor based on published defibrillation shock field gradient measures, and implements a critical mass criteria to predict the relative efficacy of single and dual path defibrillation shocks. The new model reproduced the results from several published experimental protocols that demonstrated the relative efficacy of dual path defibrillation shocks. The model predicts that time between phases or pulses of dual path defibrillation shock configurations should be minimized to maximize shock efficacy. Through this approach the Extended Charge Banking Model predictions may be used to improve dual path and multi-pulse defibrillation techniques, which have been shown experimentally to lower defibrillation thresholds substantially. The new model may be a useful tool to help in further improving dual path and multiple pulse defibrillation techniques by predicting optimal pulse durations and shock timing parameters.

  15. A model of diffraction scattering with unitary corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etim, E.; Malecki, A.; Satta, L.

    1989-01-01

    The inability of the multiple scattering model of Glauber and similar geometrical picture models to fit data at Collider energies, to fit low energy data at large momentum transfers and to explain the absence of multiple diffraction dips in the data is noted. It is argued and shown that a unitary correction to the multiple scattering amplitude gives rise to a better model and allows to fit all available data on nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions at all energies and all momentum transfers. There are no multiple diffraction dips

  16. Constraint on Parameters of Inverse Compton Scattering Model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B2319+60, two parameters of inverse Compton scattering model, the initial Lorentz factor and the factor of energy loss of relativistic particles are constrained. Key words. Pulsar—inverse Compton scattering—emission mechanism. 1. Introduction. Among various kinds of models for pulsar radio emission, the inverse ...

  17. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, S; Castelletto, S; Aruldoss, C; Scholten, R E; Roberts, A

    2007-01-01

    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres

  18. POLARIZATION IMAGING AND SCATTERING MODEL OF CANCEROUS LIVER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONGZHI LI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply different polarization imaging techniques for cancerous liver tissues, and compare the relative contrasts for difference polarization imaging (DPI, degree of polarization imaging (DOPI and rotating linear polarization imaging (RLPI. Experimental results show that a number of polarization imaging parameters are capable of differentiating cancerous cells in isotropic liver tissues. To analyze the contrast mechanism of the cancer-sensitive polarization imaging parameters, we propose a scattering model containing two types of spherical scatterers and carry on Monte Carlo simulations based on this bi-component model. Both the experimental and Monte Carlo simulated results show that the RLPI technique can provide a good imaging contrast of cancerous tissues. The bi-component scattering model provides a useful tool to analyze the contrast mechanism of polarization imaging of cancerous tissues.

  19. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, S; Castelletto, S; Aruldoss, C; Scholten, R E; Roberts, A [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres.

  20. Experimental investigation of shock wave diffraction over a single- or double-sphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. T.; Wang, T. H.; Hao, L. N.; Huang, B. Q.; Chen, W. J.; Shi, H. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the unsteady drag produced by the interaction of a shock wave with a single- and a double-sphere model is measured using imbedded accelerometers. The shock wave is generated in a horizontal circular shock tube with an inner diameter of 200 mm. The effect of the shock Mach number and the dimensionless distance between spheres is investigated. The time-history of the drag coefficient is obtained based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) band-block filtering and polynomial fitting of the measured acceleration. The measured peak values of the drag coefficient, with the associated uncertainty, are reported.

  1. Memory sparing, fast scattering formalism for rigorous diffraction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iff, W.; Kämpfe, T.; Jourlin, Y.; Tishchenko, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The basics and algorithmic steps of a novel scattering formalism suited for memory sparing and fast electromagnetic calculations are presented. The formalism, called ‘S-vector algorithm’ (by analogy with the known scattering-matrix algorithm), allows the calculation of the collective scattering spectra of individual layered micro-structured scattering objects. A rigorous method of linear complexity is applied to model the scattering at individual layers; here the generalized source method (GSM) resorting to Fourier harmonics as basis functions is used as one possible method of linear complexity. The concatenation of the individual scattering events can be achieved sequentially or in parallel, both having pros and cons. The present development will largely concentrate on a consecutive approach based on the multiple reflection series. The latter will be reformulated into an implicit formalism which will be associated with an iterative solver, resulting in improved convergence. The examples will first refer to 1D grating diffraction for the sake of simplicity and intelligibility, with a final 2D application example.

  2. Shock-induced electrical activity in polymeric solids. A mechanically induced bond scission model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    When polymeric solids are subjected to high-pressure shock loading, two anomalous electrical phenomena, shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization, are observed. The present paper proposes a model of mechanically induced bond scission within the shock front to account for the effects. An experimental study of shock-induced polarization in poly(pyromellitimide) (Vespel SP-1) is reported for shock compressions from 17 to 23% (pressures from 2.5 to 5.4 GPa). Poly(pyromellitimide) is found to be a strong generator of such polarization and the polarization is found to reflect an irreversible or highly hysteretic process. The present measurements are combined with prior measurements to establish a correlation between monomer structure and strength of shock-induced polarization; feeble signals are observed in the simpler monomer repeat units of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and polyethylene while the strongest signals are observed in more complex monomers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(pyromellitimide). It is also noted that there is an apparent correlation between shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization. Such shock-induced electrical activity is also found to be well correlated with the propensity for mechanical bond scission observed in experiments carried out in conventional mechanochemical studies. The bond scission model can account for characteristics observed for electrical activity in shock-loaded polymers and their correlation to monomer structure. Localization of elastic energy within the monomer repeat unit or along the main chain leads to the different propensities for bond scission and resulting shock-induced electrical activity

  3. Pion-nucleon scattering in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Pion-nucleon scattering in the (3.3) resonance region in the framework of chiral bag model(CBM) is considered. The effective Hamiltonian of πNΔ-system in the framework of the CBM contains πNN, πNΔ, πΔΔ interaction terms with the formfactor which is essentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The iteration of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3.3) and (3.1) scattering where the values of the parameters agree with CBM [ru

  4. A diffuse radar scattering model from Martian surface rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Jakosky, B. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    Remote sensing of Mars has been done with a variety of instrumentation at various wavelengths. Many of these data sets can be reconciled with a surface model of bonded fines (or duricrust) which varies widely across the surface and a surface rock distribution which varies less so. A surface rock distribution map from -60 to +60 deg latitude has been generated by Christensen. Our objective is to model the diffuse component of radar reflection based on this surface distribution of rocks. The diffuse, rather than specular, scattering is modeled because the diffuse component arises due to scattering from rocks with sizes on the order of the wavelength of the radar beam. Scattering for radio waves of 12.5 cm is then indicative of the meter scale and smaller structure of the surface. The specular term is indicative of large scale surface undulations and should not be causally related to other surface physical properties. A simplified model of diffuse scattering is described along with two rock distribution models. The results of applying the models to a planet of uniform fractional rock coverage with values ranging from 5 to 20% are discussed.

  5. The elastic scattering between heavy ions using Glauber model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmael, E.H.; El-Muhbad, SH.A.

    2002-01-01

    The differential cross sections of the elastic scattering of 1 2 C+ 12 C at energies 1016, 1449 and 2400 MeV and 1 6O +1 2C at energy 1503 MeV are calculated using high energy folding model. An analytical expression for the optical potential is derived. The effect of introducing imaginary phase and the dependence of the ratio of the real to imaginary parts of the forward nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude on the square of momentum transfer are taken into consideration. Two different types of nuclear densities of the projectile and the target nuclei are considered. The considered systems of interaction are studied by using both modified Glauber I and modified Glauber II. The results show that the elastic scattering differential cross section for the considered interacting systems can be satisfactorily reproduced by this model

  6. The collision of a strong shock with a gas cloud: a model for Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgro, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    The result of the collision of the shock with the cloud is a shock traveling around the cloud, a shock transmitted into the cloud, and a shock reflected from the cloud. By equating the cooling time of the posttransmitted shock gas to the time required for the transmitted shock to travel the length of the cloud, a critical cloud density n/subc/ /sup prime/ is defined. For clouds with density greater than n/subc/ /sup prime/, the posttransmitted shock gas cools rapidly and then emits the lines of the lower ionization stages of its constituent elements. The structure of such and its expected appearance to an observer are discussed and compared with the quasi-stationary condensations of Cas A. Conversely, clouds with density less than n/subc//sup prime/ remain hot for several thousand years, and are sources of X-radiation whose temperatures are much less than that of the intercloud gas. After the transmitted shock passes, the cloud pressure is greater than the pressure in the surrounding gas, causing the cloud to expand and the emission to decrease from its value just after the collision. A model in which the soft X-radiation of Cas A is due to a collection of such clouds is discussed. The faint emission patches to the north of Cas A are interpreted as preshocked clouds which will probably become quasi-stationary condensations after being hit by the shock

  7. Topics in Computational Modeling of Shock and Wave Propagation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazonas, George A; Main, Joseph A; Laverty, Rich; Su, Dan; Santare, Michael H; Raghupathy, R; Molinari, J. F; Zhou, F

    2006-01-01

    This report contains reprints of four papers that focus on various aspects of shock and wave propagation in cellular, viscoelastic, microcracked, and fragmented media that appear in the Proceedings...

  8. On terminating Poisson processes in some shock models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Maxim, E-mail: FinkelMI@ufs.ac.z [Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock (Germany); Marais, Francois, E-mail: fmarais@csc.co [CSC, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2010-08-15

    A system subject to a point process of shocks is considered. Shocks occur in accordance with the homogeneous Poisson process. Different criteria of system failure (termination) are discussed and the corresponding probabilities of failure (accident)-free performance are derived. The described analytical approach is based on deriving integral equations for each setting and solving these equations through the Laplace transform. Some approximations are analyzed and further generalizations and applications are discussed.

  9. On terminating Poisson processes in some shock models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Maxim; Marais, Francois

    2010-01-01

    A system subject to a point process of shocks is considered. Shocks occur in accordance with the homogeneous Poisson process. Different criteria of system failure (termination) are discussed and the corresponding probabilities of failure (accident)-free performance are derived. The described analytical approach is based on deriving integral equations for each setting and solving these equations through the Laplace transform. Some approximations are analyzed and further generalizations and applications are discussed.

  10. Detailed modeling of the statistical uncertainty of Thomson scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, L A; Parke, E; Hartog, D J Den

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty of electron density and temperature fluctuation measurements is determined by statistical uncertainty introduced by multiple noise sources. In order to quantify these uncertainties precisely, a simple but comprehensive model was made of the noise sources in the MST Thomson scattering system and of the resulting variance in the integrated scattered signals. The model agrees well with experimental and simulated results. The signal uncertainties are then used by our existing Bayesian analysis routine to find the most likely electron temperature and density, with confidence intervals. In the model, photonic noise from scattered light and plasma background light is multiplied by the noise enhancement factor (F) of the avalanche photodiode (APD). Electronic noise from the amplifier and digitizer is added. The amplifier response function shapes the signal and induces correlation in the noise. The data analysis routine fits a characteristic pulse to the digitized signals from the amplifier, giving the integrated scattered signals. A finite digitization rate loses information and can cause numerical integration error. We find a formula for the variance of the scattered signals in terms of the background and pulse amplitudes, and three calibration constants. The constants are measured easily under operating conditions, resulting in accurate estimation of the scattered signals' uncertainty. We measure F ≈ 3 for our APDs, in agreement with other measurements for similar APDs. This value is wavelength-independent, simplifying analysis. The correlated noise we observe is reproduced well using a Gaussian response function. Numerical integration error can be made negligible by using an interpolated characteristic pulse, allowing digitization rates as low as the detector bandwidth. The effect of background noise is also determined

  11. Modeling of detective quantum efficiency considering scatter-reduction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Woong; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Ho Kyung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The reduction of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) cannot be restored and thus has become a severe issue in digital mammography.1 Therefore, antiscatter grids are typically used in mammography. Scatter-cleanup performance of various scatter-reduction devices, such as air gaps,2 linear (1D) or cellular (2D) grids,3, 4 and slot-scanning devices,5 has been extensively investigated by many research groups. In the present time, a digital mammography system with the slotscanning geometry is also commercially available.6 In this study, we theoretically investigate the effect of scattered photons on the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) performance of digital mammography detectors by using the cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) approach. We show a simple DQE formalism describing digital mammography detector systems equipped with scatter reduction devices by regarding the scattered photons as additive noise sources. The LFD increased with increasing PMMA thickness, and the amounts of LFD indicated the corresponding SF. The estimated SFs were 0.13, 0.21, and 0.29 for PMMA thicknesses of 10, 20, and 30 mm, respectively. While the solid line describing the measured MTF for PMMA with 0 mm was the result of least-squares of regression fit using Eq. (14), the other lines were simply resulted from the multiplication of the fit result (for PMMA with 0 mm) with the (1-SF) estimated from the LFDs in the measured MTFs. Spectral noise-power densities over the entire frequency range were not much changed with increasing scatter. On the other hand, the calculation results showed that the spectral noise-power densities increased with increasing scatter. This discrepancy may be explained by that the model developed in this study does not account for the changes in x-ray interaction parameters for varying spectral shapes due to beam hardening with increasing PMMA thicknesses.

  12. Modeling of ion acceleration through drift and diffusion at interplanetary shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.

    1986-01-01

    A test particle simulation designed to model ion acceleration through drift and diffusion at interplanetary shocks is described. The technique consists of integrating along exact particle orbits in a system where the angle between the shock normal and mean upstream magnetic field, the level of magnetic fluctuations, and the energy of injected particles can assume a range of values. The technique makes it possible to study time-dependent shock acceleration under conditions not amenable to analytical techniques. To illustrate the capability of the numerical model, proton acceleration was considered under conditions appropriate for interplanetary shocks at 1 AU, including large-amplitude transverse magnetic fluctuations derived from power spectra of both ambient and shock-associated MHD waves.

  13. Quasi-one-dimensional scattering in a discrete model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel; Mølmer, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We study quasi-one-dimensional scattering of one and two particles with short-range interactions on a discrete lattice model in two dimensions. One of the directions is tightly confined by an arbitrary trapping potential. We obtain the collisional properties of these systems both at finite and zero...

  14. Elastic scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: Modeling and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Coello, V.

    1998-01-01

    excitation wavelengths (594 and 633 nm) and different metal (silver and gold) films. The near-field optical images obtained are related to the calculated SPP intensity distributions demonstrating that the model developed can be successfully used in studies of SPP elastic scattering, e.g., to design...

  15. Boson-soliton scattering in the sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the author calculates the boson-soliton scattering amplitudes for various processes in the sine-Gordon model to obtain results in agreement with the prediction of no-particle production and equality of ingoing and outgoing sets of momenta. (Auth.)

  16. Hamiltonian model analysis of ππ scattering and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obu, Mitsuaki

    2000-01-01

    A simple Hamiltonian model for ππ scattering and production is presented which incorporates resonant and background interactions. Analysis of isoscalar S wave ππ phase shift indicates that the background interaction plays only a minor role and the σ may be a dynamical resonance which is not originated from a corresponding bare state. (author)

  17. Effective single scattering albedo estimation using regional climate model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tesfaye, M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by modifying the optical parameterization of Regional Climate model (RegCM), the authors have computed and compared the Effective Single-Scattering Albedo (ESSA) which is a representative of VIS spectral region. The arid, semi...

  18. Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2

    cells containing equivalent anisotropic medium by the use of the linear slip equivalent model. Our. 16 results show ...... frequency regression predicted by equation (21) can be distorted by the effects of multiple scattering. 337 ..... other seismic attributes, at least for the relatively simple geometries of subsurface structure. 449.

  19. Model of K+p elastic scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-e-Aleem

    1985-01-01

    Very recent measurements of the angular distribution for K + p elastic scattering which show a structure near -t = 3.8(GeV/c) 2 , together with the total cross section and ratio of the real and imaginary parts of the scattering amplitude for 50 2 , have been fitted by using a simple Regge-pole model with phenomenological residue functions. The break in the slope near -t = 0.5 (GeV/c) 2 observed in the differential cross section has also been explained

  20. K-nucleon scattering and the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    The cloudy bag model (CBM) has been applied with considerable success to low energy meson-nucleon scattering. In this talk I will describe in particular calculations for kaon-nucleon and antikaon-nucleon scattering. The main emphasis will be on s-waves with special attention paid to the antikaon-nucleon system in the isospin zero channel where the Λ(1405) is important. In the CBM the Λ(1405) is an antikaon-nucleon bound state and I show that this interpretation is consistent with the antikaon-nucleon scattering in the region of the Λ(1670) and Λ(1800) although ambiguities in the phase shift analysis prevent a definite conclusion

  1. K-nucleon scattering and the cloudy bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B. K.

    1986-10-01

    The cloudy bag model (CBM) has been applied with considerable success to low energy meson-nucleon scattering. In this talk I will describe in particular calculations for kaon-nucleon and antikaon-nucleon scattering. The main emphasis will be on s-waves with special attention paid to the antikaon-nucleon system in the isospin zero channel where the Λ(1405) is important. In the CBM the Λ(1405) is an antikaon-nucleon bound state and I show that this interpretation is consistent with the antikaon-nucleon scattering in the region of the Λ(1670) and Λ(1800) although ambiguities in the phase shift analysis prevent a definite conclusion.

  2. Shock loading and reactive flow modeling studies of void induced AP/AL/HTPB propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. J.; Lindfors, A. J.

    1998-07-01

    The unreactive Hugoniot of a class 1.3 propellant has been investigated by shock compression experiments. The results are analyzed in terms of an ignition and growth reactive flow model using the DYNA2D hydrocode. The calculated shock ignition parameters of the model show a linear dependence on measured void volume which appears to reproduce the observed gauge records well. Shock waves were generated by impact in a 75 mm single stage powder gun. Manganin and PVDF pressure gauges provided pressure-time histories to 140 kbar. The propellants were of similar formulation differing only in AP particle size and the addition of a burn rate modifer (Fe2O3) from that of previous investigations. Results show neglible effect of AP particle size on shock response in contrast to the addition of Fe2O3 which appears to `stiffen' the unreactive Hugoniot and enhances significantly the reactive rates under shock. The unreactive Hugoniot, within experimental error, compares favorably to the solid AP Hugoniot. Shock experiments were performed on propellant samples strained to induce insitu voids. The material state was quantified by uniaxial tension dialatometry. The experimental records show a direct correlation between void volume (0 to 1.7%) and chemical reactivity behind the shock front. These results are discussed in terms of `hot spot' ignition resulting from the shock collapse of the voids.

  3. A new model for elastic deuteron-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etim, E.; Satta, L.

    1988-01-01

    Straightforward application of the Glauber multiple scattering theory is drammatically challenged by data on elastic deuteron-deuteron scattering. The challenge has been argued to be met by an improved representation of the ground state wave function of the deuteron as an admixture of S-and D-waves. In the light of the failure of the Glauber and geometrical picture models in general, to explain proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering data up to and including collider energies and for all momentum transfers, this argument becomes less and less compelling and more and more unconvincing. A model inspired by unitarity and which produces substantial elastic scattering through a unitarity sum over a specific class of intermediate states is presented. The model fits not only deuteron-deuteron, but also proton-proton, proton-antiproton and αN -> αN (N =α, d, He 3 ) data for all energies and momentum transfers. No detailed knowledge of ground state wave functions is required

  4. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.

  5. An empirical model of the Earth's bow shock based on an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallocchia, Giuseppe; Ambrosino, Danila; Trenchi, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    All of the past empirical models of the Earth's bow shock shape were obtained by best-fitting some given surfaces to sets of observed crossings. However, the issue of bow shock modeling can be addressed by means of artificial neural networks (ANN) as well. In this regard, here it is presented a perceptron, a simple feedforward network, which computes the bow shock distance along a given direction using the two angular coordinates of that direction, the bow shock predicted distance RF79 (provided by Formisano's model (F79)) and the upstream alfvénic Mach number Ma. After a brief description of the ANN architecture and training method, we discuss the results of the statistical comparison, performed over a test set of 1140 IMP8 crossings, between the prediction accuracies of ANN and F79 models.

  6. Improved bow shock models for Herbig-Haro objects - application to HH 2A-prime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Hartmann, L.; Hartigan, P.

    1988-01-01

    An improved version of the bow shock theory previously applied to Herbig-Haro objects is presented. The modifications provide a more accurate calculation of the ionization state of material entering the bow shock. The revised preionization does not drastically affect the emission-line predictions for a 200 km/s bow shock model, though the effects will be more severe for slower shock velocities. The line profiles of the new models resemble the observed profiles somewhat more closely, and the relative emission-line intensities typically differ by 30 percent from those predicted by the older models. The models agree well with new IUE spectra and existing optical data for HH 2A-prime. 32 references

  7. Impact of Scattering Model on Disdrometer Derived Attenuation Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael; Luini, Lorenzo; Nessel, James; Riva, Carlo (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) are currently entering the third year of a joint propagation study in Milan, Italy utilizing the 20 and 40 GHz beacons of the Alphasat TDP5 Aldo Paraboni scientific payload. The Ka- and Q-band beacon receivers were installed at the POLIMI campus in June of 2014 and provide direct measurements of signal attenuation at each frequency. Collocated weather instrumentation provides concurrent measurement of atmospheric conditions at the receiver; included among these weather instruments is a Thies Clima Laser Precipitation Monitor (optical disdrometer) which records droplet size distributions (DSD) and droplet velocity distributions (DVD) during precipitation events. This information can be used to derive the specific attenuation at frequencies of interest and thereby scale measured attenuation data from one frequency to another. Given the ability to both predict the 40 GHz attenuation from the disdrometer and the 20 GHz timeseries as well as to directly measure the 40 GHz attenuation with the beacon receiver, the Milan terminal is uniquely able to assess these scaling techniques and refine the methods used to infer attenuation from disdrometer data.In order to derive specific attenuation from the DSD, the forward scattering coefficient must be computed. In previous work, this has been done using the Mie scattering model, however, this assumes a spherical droplet shape. The primary goal of this analysis is to assess the impact of the scattering model and droplet shape on disdrometer derived attenuation predictions by comparing the use of the Mie scattering model to the use of the T-matrix method, which does not assume a spherical droplet. In particular, this paper will investigate the impact of these two scattering approaches on the error of the resulting predictions as well as on the relationship between prediction error and rain rate.

  8. Hydrodynamic modeling and simulations of shock ignition thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafon M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Shock Ignition (SI scheme [1] offers to reduce the laser requirements by relaxing the implosion phase to sub-ignition velocities and later adding an intense laser spike. Depending on laser energy, target characteristics and implosion velocity, high gains are expected [2,3]. Relevant intensities for scaled targets imploded in the velocity range from 150 to 400 km/s are defined at ignition thresholds. A range of moderate implosion velocities is specified to match safe implosions. These conditions for target design are then inferred for relevant NIF and LMJ shock-ignited targets.

  9. Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave Overpressure Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Many TBIs are associated with blast from improvised explosive devices.2–4 Explosions are physical, chemical , or nuclear reactions involving a rapid...ARL-TR-8210 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave...Research Laboratory Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave Overpressure Impacts by Nicole E Zander, Thuvan

  10. Improved Reactive Flow Modeling of the LX-17 Double Shock Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehagen, Thomas J.; Vitello, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Over driven double shock experiments provide a measurement of the properties of the reaction product states of the insensitive high explosive LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight). These experiments used two flyer materials mounted on the end of a projectile to send an initial shock through the LX-17, followed by a second shock of a higher magnitude into the detonation products. In the experiments, the explosive was initially driven by the flyer plate to pressures above the Chapman-Jouguet state. The particle velocity history was recorded by Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes pointing at an aluminum foil coated LiF window. The PDV data shows a sharp initial shock and decay, followed by a rounded second shock. Here, the experimental results are compared to 2D and 3D Cheetah reactive flow modeling. Our default Cheetah reactive flow model fails to accurately reproduce the decay of the first shock or the curvature or strength of the second shock. A new model is proposed in which the carbon condensate produced in the reaction zone is controlled by a kinetic rate. This allows the carbon condensate to be initially out of chemical equilibrium with the product gas. This new model reproduces the initial detonation peak and decay, and matches the curvature of the second shock, however, it still over-predicts the strength of the second shock. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  12. Thermal chemical-mechanical reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, A.L. III; Tarver, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The three dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian hydrodynamic computer code ALE3D with fully coupled thermal-chemical-mechanical material models provides the framework for the development of a physically realistic model of shock initiation and detonation of solid explosives. The processes of hot spot formation during shock compression, subsequent ignition of reaction or failure to react, growth of reaction in individual hot spots, and coalescence of reacting hot spots during the transition to detonation can now be modeled using Arrhenius chemical kinetic rate laws and heat transfer to propagate the reactive flow. This paper discusses the growth rates of reacting hot spots in HMX and TATB and their coalescence during shock to detonation transition. Hot spot deflagration rates are found to be fast enough to consume explosive particles less than 10 mm in diameter during typical shock duration times, but larger particles must fragment and create more reactive surface area in order to be rapidly consumed

  13. Nonlinear Monte Carlo model of superdiffusive shock acceleration with magnetic field amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Andrei M.; Ellison, Donald C.; Osipov, Sergei M.

    2017-03-01

    Fast collisionless shocks in cosmic plasmas convert their kinetic energy flow into the hot downstream thermal plasma with a substantial fraction of energy going into a broad spectrum of superthermal charged particles and magnetic fluctuations. The superthermal particles can penetrate into the shock upstream region producing an extended shock precursor. The cold upstream plasma flow is decelerated by the force provided by the superthermal particle pressure gradient. In high Mach number collisionless shocks, efficient particle acceleration is likely coupled with turbulent magnetic field amplification (MFA) generated by the anisotropic distribution of accelerated particles. This anisotropy is determined by fast particle transport, making the problem strongly nonlinear and multiscale. Here, we present a nonlinear Monte Carlo model of collisionless shock structure with superdiffusive propagation of high-energy Fermi accelerated particles coupled to particle acceleration and MFA, which affords a consistent description of strong shocks. A distinctive feature of the Monte Carlo technique is that it includes the full angular anisotropy of the particle distribution at all precursor positions. The model reveals that the superdiffusive transport of energetic particles (i.e., Lévy-walk propagation) generates a strong quadruple anisotropy in the precursor particle distribution. The resultant pressure anisotropy of the high-energy particles produces a nonresonant mirror-type instability that amplifies compressible wave modes with wavelengths longer than the gyroradii of the highest-energy protons produced by the shock.

  14. Phenomenological models of elastic nucleon scattering and predictions for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kundrat, V; Lokajicek, M; Prochazka, J

    2011-01-01

    The hitherto analyses of elastic collisions of charged nucleons involving common influence of Coulomb and hadronic scattering have been based practically on West and Yennie formula. However, this approach has been shown recently to be inadequate from experimental as well as theoretical points of view. The eikonal model enabling to determine physical characteristics in impact parameter space seems to be more pertinent. The contemporary phenomenological models admit, of course, different distributions of collision processes in the impact parameter space and cannot give any definite answer. Nevertheless, some predictions for the planned LHC energy that have been given on their basis may be useful, as well as the possibility of determining the luminosity from elastic scattering. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of RANS CFD modelling for pressurised thermal shock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander M Willemsen; Ed MJ Komen; Sander Willemsen

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The most severe Pressurised Thermal Shock (PTS) scenario is a cold water Emergency Core Coolant (ECC) injection into the cold leg during a LOCA. The injected ECC water mixes with the hot fluid present in the cold leg and flows towards the downcomer where further mixing takes place. When the cold mixture comes into contact with the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) wall, it may lead to large temperature gradients and consequently to high stresses in the RPV wall. Knowledge of these thermal loads is important for RPV remnant life assessments. The existing thermal-hydraulic system codes currently applied for this purpose are based on one-dimensional approximations and can, therefore, not predict the complex three-dimensional flows occurring during ECC injection. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be applied to predict these phenomena, with the ultimate benefit of improved remnant RPV life assessment. The present paper presents an assessment of various Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) CFD approaches for modeling the complex mixing phenomena occurring during ECC injection. This assessment has been performed by comparing the numerical results obtained using advanced turbulence models available in the CFX 5.6 CFD code in combination with a hybrid meshing strategy with experimental results of the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF). The UPTF was a full-scale 'simulation' of the primary system of the four loop 1300 MWe Siemens/KWU Pressurised Water Reactor at Grafenrheinfeld. The test vessel upper plenum internals, downcomer and primary coolant piping were replicas of the reference plant, while other components, such as core, coolant pump and steam generators were replaced by simulators. From the extensive test programme, a single-phase fluid-fluid mixing experiment in the cold leg and downcomer was selected. Prediction of the mixing and stratification is assessed by comparison with the measured temperature profiles at several locations

  16. Development of solar wind shock models with tensor plasma pressure for data analysis. Final technical report, 1 Aug 1970--31 Dec 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham-shrauner, B.

    1975-01-01

    The development of solar wind shock models with tensor plasma pressure and the comparison of some of the shock models with the satellite data from Pioneer 6 through Pioneer 9 are reported. Theoretically, difficulties were found in non-turbulent fluid shock models for tensor pressure plasmas. For microscopic shock theories nonlinear growth caused by plasma instabilities was frequently not clearly demonstrated to lead to the formation of a shock. As a result no clear choice for a shock model for the bow shock or interplanetary tensor pressure shocks emerged

  17. A model for precursor structure in supercritical perpendicular, collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwell, D.; Cairns, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Magnetosonic solitons may be given smooth increasing profiles by assuming the presence within the wave of a current distribution Jsub(y)(x) of trapped ions perpendicular to Bsub(z)(x) and the wave velocity Vsub(x). Suitable ions are found immediately upstream of perpendicular collisionless shock waves and these are coincident with the often observed 'foot' in magnetic field profiles of moderately supercritical shocks. The theory is applied to previous experiments by modelling Jsub(y)(x), where Jsub(y)(x) is observed, the profiles in the foot are reproduced and explained. Insight into a number of features of fast shocks is obtained. (author)

  18. Obe approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of approx. equal to 350 MeV. (orig.)

  19. Application of the weighted total field-scattering field technique to 3D-PSTD light scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuai; Gao, Taichang; Liu, Lei; Li, Hao; Chen, Ming; Yang, Bo

    2018-04-01

    PSTD (Pseudo Spectral Time Domain) is an excellent model for the light scattering simulation of nonspherical aerosol particles. However, due to the particularity of its discretization form of the Maxwell's equations, the traditional Total Field/Scattering Field (TF/SF) technique for FDTD (Finite Differential Time Domain) is not applicable to PSTD, and the time-consuming pure scattering field technique is mainly applied to introduce the incident wave. To this end, the weighted TF/SF technique proposed by X. Gao is generalized and applied to the 3D-PSTD scattering model. Using this technique, the incident light can be effectively introduced by modifying the electromagnetic components in an inserted connecting region between the total field and the scattering field region with incident terms, where the incident terms are obtained by weighting the incident field by a window function. To optimally determine the thickness of connection region and the window function type for PSTD calculations, their influence on the modeling accuracy is firstly analyzed. To further verify the effectiveness and advantages of the weighted TF/SF technique, the improved PSTD model is validated against the PSTD model equipped with pure scattering field technique in both calculation accuracy and efficiency. The results show that, the performance of PSTD seems to be not sensitive to variation of window functions. The number of the connection layer required decreases with the increasing of spatial resolution, where for spatial resolution of 24 grids per wavelength, a 6-layer region is thick enough. The scattering phase matrices and integral scattering parameters obtained by the improved PSTD show an excellent consistency with those well-tested models for spherical and nonspherical particles, illustrating that the weighted TF/SF technique can introduce the incident precisely. The weighted TF/SF technique shows higher computational efficiency than pure scattering technique.

  20. Synchronisation under shocks: The Lévy Kuramoto model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dale; Kalloniatis, Alexander C.

    2018-04-01

    We study the Kuramoto model of identical oscillators on Erdős-Rényi (ER) and Barabasi-Alberts (BA) scale free networks examining the dynamics when perturbed by a Lévy noise. Lévy noise exhibits heavier tails than Gaussian while allowing for their tempering in a controlled manner. This allows us to understand how 'shocks' influence individual oscillator and collective system behaviour of a paradigmatic complex system. Skewed α-stable Lévy noise, equivalent to fractional diffusion perturbations, are considered, but overlaid by exponential tempering of rate λ. In an earlier paper we found that synchrony takes a variety of forms for identical Kuramoto oscillators subject to stable Lévy noise, not seen for the Gaussian case, and changing with α: a noise-induced drift, a smooth α dependence of the point of cross-over of synchronisation point of ER and BA networks, and a severe loss of synchronisation at low values of α. In the presence of tempering we observe both analytically and numerically a dramatic change to the α synchronisation is sustained over a larger range of values of the 'noise strength' σ, improved compared to the α > 1 tempered cases. Analytically we study the system close to the phase synchronised fixed point and solve the tempered fractional Fokker-Planck equation. There we observe that densities show stronger support in the basin of attraction at low α for fixed coupling, σ and tempering λ. We then perform numerical simulations for networks of size N = 1000 and average degree d ¯ = 10. There, we compute the order parameter r as a function of σ for fixed α and λ and observe values of r ≈ 1 over larger ranges of σ for α synchronisation down to low values of α. We propose a mechanism for this in terms of the basic shape of the tempered stable Lévy densities for various α and how it feeds into Kuramoto oscillator dynamics and illustrate this with examples of specific paths.

  1. Model atmospheres with periodic shocks. [pulsations and mass loss in variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The pulsation of a long-period variable star generates shock waves which dramatically affect the structure of the star's atmosphere and produce conditions that lead to rapid mass loss. Numerical modeling of atmospheres with periodic shocks is being pursued to study the processes involved and the evolutionary consequences for the stars. It is characteristic of these complex dynamical systems that most effects result from the interaction of various time-dependent processes.

  2. Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Muxingzi

    2017-04-24

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a coherence-gated, micrometer-resolution imaging technique that focuses a broadband near-infrared laser beam to penetrate into optical scattering media, e.g. biological tissues. The OCT resolution is split into two parts, with the axial resolution defined by half the coherence length, and the depth-dependent lateral resolution determined by the beam geometry, which is well described by a Gaussian beam model. The depth dependence of lateral resolution directly results in the defocusing effect outside the confocal region and restricts current OCT probes to small numerical aperture (NA) at the expense of lateral resolution near the focus. Another limitation on OCT development is the presence of a mixture of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous papers have adopted the first Born approximation with the assumption of small perturbation of the incident field in inhomogeneous media. The Rytov method of the same order with smooth phase perturbation assumption benefits from a wider spatial range of validity. A deconvolution method for solving the inverse problem associated with the first Rytov approximation is developed, significantly reducing the defocusing effect through depth and therefore extending the feasible range of NA.

  3. Shock-darkening in ordinary chondrites: impact modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreau, J.; Kohout, Tomáš; Wünnemann, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, Special volume (2016), s. 285-285 ISSN 0367-5211. [ Nordic Geological Winter Meeting /32./. 13.01.2016-15.01.2016, Helsinki] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : impact, shock * reflectance spectra * chondrite * meteorite * Chelyabinsk Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.geologinenseura.fi/bulletin/Special_Volume_1_2016/BGSF-NGWM2016_Abstract_Volume.pdf

  4. Astrophysical radiative shocks: From modeling to laboratory experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzales, N.; Stehlé, C.; Audit, E.; Busquet, M.; Rus, Bedřich; Thais, F.; Acef, O.; Barroso, P.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Bauduin, D.; Kozlová, Michaela; Lery, T.; Madouri, A.; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2006), s. 535-540 ISSN 0263-0346 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 506350 - LASERLAB-EUROPE; European Commission(XE) 5592 - JETSET Grant - others:CNRS(FR) PNPS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laboratory astrophysics * laser plasmas * radiative shock waves * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.958, year: 2006

  5. Optical model calculation of neutron-nucleus scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Camarda, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    A program to calculate the total, elastic, reaction, and differential cross section of a neutron interacting with a nucleus is described. The interaction between the neutron and the nucleus is represented by a spherically symmetric complex potential that includes spin-orbit coupling. This optical model problem is solved numerically, and is treated with the partial-wave formalism of scattering theory. The necessary scattering theory required to solve this problem is briefly stated. Then, the numerical methods used to integrate the Schroedinger equation, calculate derivatives, etc., are described, and the results of various programming tests performed are presented. Finally, the program is discussed from a user's point of view, and it is pointed out how and where the program (OPTICAL) can be changed to satisfy particular needs

  6. Scattering and short-distance properties in field theory models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iagolnitzer, D.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of constructive field theory is not only to define models but also to establish their general properties of physical interest. We here review recent works on scattering and on short-distance properties for weakly coupled theories with mass gap such as typically P(φ) in dimension 2, φ 4 in dimension 3 and the (renormalizable, asymptotically free) massive Gross-Neveu (GN) model in dimension 2. Many of the ideas would apply similarly to other (possibly non renormalizable) theories that might be defined in a similar way via phase-space analysis

  7. Testing ion structure models with x-ray Thomson scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wünsch K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of various ionic structure models on the interpretation of the X-ray Thomson scattering signal. For the calculation of the ion structure, classical hypernetted chain equations are used applying different effective inter-particle potentials. It is shown that the different models lead to significant discrepancies in the theoretically predicted weight of the Rayleigh peak, in particular for small k-values where correlation effects are important. Here, we propose conditions which might allow for an experimental verification of the theories under consideration of experimental constraints of k-vector blurring.

  8. Epicardial shock-wave therapy improves ventricular function in a porcine model of ischaemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holfeld, Johannes; Zimpfer, Daniel; Albrecht-Schgoer, Karin; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Paulus, Patrick; Dumfarth, Julia; Thomas, Anita; Lobenwein, Daniela; Tepeköylü, Can; Rosenhek, Raphael; Schaden, Wolfgang; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein; Grimm, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Previously we have shown that epicardial shock-wave therapy improves left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a rat model of myocardial infarction. In the present experiments we aimed to address the safety and efficacy of epicardial shock-wave therapy in a preclinical large animal model and to further evaluate mechanisms of action of this novel therapy. Four weeks after left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation in pigs, the animals underwent re-thoracotomy with (shock-wave group, n = 6) or without (control group, n = 5) epicardial shock waves (300 impulses at 0.38 mJ/mm 2 ) applied to the infarcted anterior wall. Efficacy endpoints were improvement of LVEF and induction of angiogenesis 6 weeks after shock-wave therapy. Safety endpoints were haemodynamic stability during treatment and myocardial damage. Four weeks after LAD ligation, LVEF decreased in both the shock-wave (43 ± 3%, p wave animals 6 weeks after treatment (62 ± 9%, p = 0.006); no improvement was observed in controls (41 ± 4%, p = 0.36), yielding a significant difference. Quantitative histology revealed significant angiogenesis 6 weeks after treatment (controls 2 ± 0.4 arterioles/high-power field vs treatment group 9 ± 3; p = 0.004). No acute or chronic adverse effects were observed. As a potential mechanism of action in vitro experiments showed stimulation of VEGF receptors after shock-wave treatment in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Epicardial shock-wave treatment in a large animal model of ischaemic heart failure exerted a positive effect on LVEF improvement and did not show any adverse effects. Angiogenesis was induced by stimulation of VEGF receptors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Kinetic modeling of methyl butanoate in shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Lam K; Lin, Kuang C; Violi, Angela

    2008-12-25

    An increased necessity for energy independence and heightened concern about the effects of rising carbon dioxide levels have intensified the search for renewable fuels that could reduce our current consumption of petrol and diesel. One such fuel is biodiesel, which consists of the methyl esters of fatty acids. Methyl butanoate (MB) contains the essential chemical structure of the long-chain fatty acids and a shorter, but similar, alkyl chain. This paper reports on a detailed kinetic mechanism for MB that is assembled using theoretical approaches. Thirteen pathways that include fuel decomposition, isomerization, and propagation steps were computed using ab initio calculations [J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 94]. Rate constants from first principles for important reactions in CO(2) formation, namely CH(3)OCO=CH(3) + CO(2) (R1) and CH(3)OCO=CH(3)O + CO (R2) reactions, are computed at high levels of theory and implemented in the mechanism. Using the G3B3 potential energy surface together with the B3LYP/6-31G(d) gradient, Hessian and geometries, the rate constants for reactions R1 and R2 are calculated using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory with corrections from treatments for tunneling, hindered rotation, and variational effects. The calculated rate constants of reaction R1 differ from the data present in the literature by at most 20%, while those of reaction R2 are about a factor of 4 lower than the available values. The new kinetic model derived from ab initio simulations is combined with the kinetic mechanism presented by Fisher et al. [Proc. Combust. Inst. 2000, 28, 1579] together with the addition of the newly found six-centered unimolecular elimination reaction that yields ethylene and methyl acetate, MB = C(2)H(4) + CH(3)COOCH(3). This latter pathway requires the inclusion of the CH(3)COOCH(3) decomposition model suggested by Westbrook et al. [Proc. Combust. Inst. 2008, accepted]. The newly composed kinetic mechanism for MB is used to study the CO(2) formation

  10. Well-posed Euler model of shock-induced two-phase flow in bubbly liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukhvatullina, R. R.; Frolov, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    A well-posed mathematical model of non-isothermal two-phase two-velocity flow of bubbly liquid is proposed. The model is based on the two-phase Euler equations with the introduction of an additional pressure at the gas bubble surface, which ensures the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem for a system of governing equations with homogeneous initial conditions, and the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for radial pulsations of gas bubbles. The applicability conditions of the model are formulated. The model is validated by comparing one-dimensional calculations of shock wave propagation in liquids with gas bubbles with a gas volume fraction of 0.005-0.3 with experimental data. The model is shown to provide satisfactory results for the shock propagation velocity, pressure profiles, and the shock-induced motion of the bubbly liquid column.

  11. A composite model for a class of electric-discharge shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, R. T.; Baganoff, D.

    1973-01-01

    A gasdynamic model is presented and analyzed for a class of shock tubes that utilize both Joule heating and electromagnetic forces to produce high-speed shock waves. The model consists of several stages of acceleration in which acceleration to sonic conditions is achieved principally through heating, and further acceleration of the supersonic flow is obtained principally through use of electromagnetic forces. The utility of the model results from the fact that it predicts a quasi-steady flow process, mathematical analysis is straightforward, and it is even possible to remove one or more component stages and still have the model related to a possible shock-tube flow. Initial experiments have been performed where the electrical discharge configuration and current level were such that Joule heating was the dominant form of energy addition present. These experiments indicate that the predictions of the model dealing with heat addition correspond quite closely to reality. The experimental data together with the theory show that heat addition to the flowing driver gas after diaphragm rupture (approach used in the model) is much more effective in producing high-speed shock waves than heating the gas in the driver before diaphragm rupture, as in the case of the arc-driven shock tube.

  12. A preventive maintenance model for leased equipment subject to internal degradation and external shock damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiaojun; Wu, Changjie; Li, Yanting; Xi, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    A periodic preventive maintenance modeling method is proposed for leased equipment with continuous internal degradation and stochastic external shock damage considered simultaneously, which can facilitate the equipment lessor to optimize the maintenance schedule for the same kind of equipment rented by different lessees. A novel interactive mechanism between the continuous internal degradation and the stochastic external shock damage is established on the hazard rate of the equipment with integrating the imperfect effect of maintenance. Two improvement factors are defined for the modeling of imperfect maintenance. The number of failures resulting from internal degradation and from external shocks are both mathematically deduced based on this interactive mechanism. The optimal preventive maintenance scheme is obtained by minimizing the cumulative maintenance cost throughout the lease period. Numerical example shows that the proposed preventive maintenance model not only can reflect the reliability status of the equipment but also can clearly distinguish between the impact from internal degradation and that from external shocks. - Highlights: • We propose an imperfect periodic preventive maintenance model for leased equipment. • It can distinguish between the impact from internal degradation and that from external shocks. • An internal–external interactive mechanism is proposed. • Two improvement factors are introduced into the modeling of imperfect maintenance. • The model is helpful for the PM scheduling of the same equipment rented by different lessees.

  13. Shock structure in continuum models of gas dynamics: stability and bifurcation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simić, Srboljub S

    2009-01-01

    The problem of shock structure in gas dynamics is analysed through a comparative study of two continuum models: the parabolic Navier–Stokes–Fourier model and the hyperbolic system of 13 moments equations modeling viscous, heat-conducting monatomic gases within the context of extended thermodynamics. When dissipative phenomena are neglected these models both reduce to classical Euler's equations of gas dynamics. The shock profile solution, assumed in the form of a planar travelling wave, reduces the problem to a system of ordinary differential equations, and equilibrium states appear to be stationary points of the system. It is shown that in both models an upstream equilibrium state suffers an exchange of stability when the shock speed crosses the critical value which coincides with the highest characteristic speed of the Euler's system. At the same time a downstream equilibrium state could be seen as a steady bifurcating solution, while the shock profile represents a heteroclinic orbit connecting the two stationary points. Using centre manifold reduction it is demonstrated that both models, although mathematically different, obey the same transcritical bifurcation pattern in the neighbourhood of the bifurcation point corresponding to the critical value of shock speed, the speed of sound

  14. The Massive Yang-Mills Model and Diffractive Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Forshaw, J R; Parrinello, C

    1999-01-01

    We argue that the massive Yang-Mills model of Kunimasa and Goto, Slavnov, and Cornwall, in which massive gauge vector bosons are introduced in a gauge-invariant way without resorting to the Higgs mechanism, may be useful for studying diffractive scattering of strongly interacting particles. With this motivation, we perform in this model explicit calculations of S-matrix elements between quark states, at tree level, one loop, and two loops, and discuss issues of renormalisability and unitarity. In particular, it is shown that the S-matrix element for quark scattering is renormalisable at one-loop order and is only logarithmically non-renormalisable at two loops. The discrepancies in the ultraviolet regime between the one-loop predictions of this model and those of massless QCD are discussed in detail. In addition, some of the similarities and differences between the massive Yang-Mills model and theories with a Higgs mechanism are analysed at the level of the S-matrix. As an elementary application of the model ...

  15. Domain walls and fermion scattering in grand unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, D.A.; Vachaspati, T.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by grand unification, we study the properties of domain walls formed in a model with SU(5)xZ 2 symmetry which is spontaneously broken to SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1)/Z 6 , and subsequently to SU(3)xU(1)/Z 3 . Even after the first stage of symmetry breaking, the SU(3) symmetry is broken to SU(2)xU(1)/Z 2 on the domain wall. In a certain range of parameters, flux tubes carrying color- and hyper-charge live on the domain wall and appear as 'boojums' when viewed from one side of the domain wall. Magnetic monopoles are also formed in the symmetry breaking and those carrying color and hyper-charge can be repelled from the wall due to the Meissner effect, or else their magnetic flux can penetrate the domain wall in quantized units. After the second stage of symmetry breaking, fermions can transmute when they scatter with the domain wall, providing a simpler version of fermion-monopole scattering: for example, neutrinos can scatter into d-quarks, leaving behind electric charge and color which is carried by gauge field excitations living on the domain wall

  16. Triton: Scattering models and surface/atmosphere constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Modeling of Triton's spectrum indicates a bright scattering layer of optical depth τ≅3 overlying an optically deep layer of CH 4 with high absorption and little scattering. UV absorption in the spectrum indicates τ≅0.3 of red-yellow haze, although some color may also arise from complex organics partially visible on the surface. An analysis of this and other (spectro)photometric evidence indicates that Triton most likely has a bright surface, which was partially visible in 1977-1980. Geometric albedo p=0.62 +0.18 -0.12 , radius r = 1480 ± 180 km, and temperature T = 48 ± 6 K. With scattering optical depths of 0.3-3 and ∼1-10 mb of N 2 , a Mars-like atmospheric density and surface visibility pertain. Imaging with the 0.62μm CH 4 filter of the Voyager 2 wide angle camera could show ∼20% contrast between the average surface and clean exposures of CH 4 ice (which is not limited to the polar caps). Low far-infrared atmospheric opacity will in principle allow the detection of thermal gradients in the surface caused by optically transmitting but infrared opaque CH 4 and N 2 ice

  17. Mathematical Model of a Shim Valve of a Monotube Shock Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius Skačkauskas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the work, a mathematical model of a shim valve, used in monotube shock absorbers, designed to determine the deformations of the shims which form during the exploitation of the shock absorbers, is presented. The characteristic of the damping force formed by the shock absorber depends on the deformations. In the designed model, the amount, geometric dimensions, arrangement and the material properties of the shims are evaluated, and the contact forces, which form between the shims, are determined. The described model of the shim valve is presented in the environment of the software package MATLAB/Simulink, the analysis of the designed model is done using the software package ANSYS 15.0.

  18. Modelling Elastic Scattering and Light Transport in 3D Collagen Gel Constructs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bixio, L

    2001-01-01

    A model of elastic scattering and light propagation is presented, which can be used to obtain the scattering coefficient, the index of refraction and the distribution of the collagen fibrils in a gel...

  19. Static model calculation of pion-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takashi

    1975-01-01

    The p-wave pion-nucleon scattering phase-shifts are computed by the Chew-Low static model for pion incident energy of 0-300 MeV. The square of the unrenormalized coupling constant is taken to be f 2 =0.2, and the cutoff is made at k sub(max)=6μ. The computed 3,3 phase-shift passes through 90 deg about at the right energy. The other phase-shifts computed are small in rough agreement with experiment. (auth.)

  20. On model-independent analyses of elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.F.; Campos, S.D.; Menon, M.J.; Montanha, J.

    2007-01-01

    By means of an almost model-independent parametrization for the elastic hadron-hadron amplitude, as a function of the energy and the momentum transfer, we obtain good descriptions of the physical quantities that characterize elastic proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering (total cross section, r parameter and differential cross section). The parametrization is inferred on empirical grounds and selected according to high energy theorems and limits from axiomatic quantum field theory. Based on the predictive character of the approach we present predictions for the above physical quantities at the Brookhaven RHIC, Fermilab Tevatron and CERN LHC energies. (author)

  1. Development and Realization of a Shock Wave Test on Expert Flap Qualification Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fruytier, C.; Dell'Orco, F.; Ullio, R.; Gomiero, F.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology and the results of the shock test campaign conducted by TAS-I and TAS ETCA to qualify the EXPERT Flap in regards of shock wave and acoustic load generated by pyrocord detonation at stages 2/3 separation phase of the EXPERT vehicle. The design concept of the open flap (manufactured by MT AEROSPACE) is a fully integral manufactured, four sided control surface, with an additional stiffening rib and flanges to meet the first eigenfrequency and the allowable deformation requirement with a minimum necessary mass. The objectives were to reproduce equivalent loading at test article level in terms of pulse duration, front pressure, front velocity and acoustic emission. The Thales Alenia Space ETCA pyrotechnic shock test device is usually used to produce high level shocks by performing a shock on a test fixture supporting the unit under test. In this case, the facility has been used to produce a shock wave, with different requested physical characteristics, directed to the unit under test. Different configurations have been tried on a dummy of the unit to test, following an empirical process. This unusual work has lead to the definition of a nominal set- up meeting the requested physical parameters. Two blast sensors have been placed to acquire the pressure around the flap. The distance between the two sensors has allowed estimating the front pressure velocity. Then, several locations have been selected to acquire the acceleration responses on the unit when it was submitted to this environment. Additionally, a “standard” shock test has been performed on this model. The qualification of the flap, in regards of shock environment, has been successfully conducted.

  2. Modeling of shock wave propagation in large amplitude ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Gianmarco F; Trahey, Gregg E

    2008-01-01

    The Rankine-Hugoniot relation for shock wave propagation describes the shock speed of a nonlinear wave. This paper investigates time-domain numerical methods that solve the nonlinear parabolic wave equation, or the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, and the conditions they require to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot relation. Two numerical methods commonly used in hyperbolic conservation laws are adapted to solve the KZK equation: Godunov's method and the monotonic upwind scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL). It is shown that they satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot relation regardless of attenuation. These two methods are compared with the current implicit solution based method. When the attenuation is small, such as in water, the current method requires a degree of grid refinement that is computationally impractical. All three numerical methods are compared in simulations for lithotripters and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) where the attenuation is small compared to the nonlinearity because much of the propagation occurs in water. The simulations are performed on grid sizes that are consistent with present-day computational resources but are not sufficiently refined for the current method to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot condition. It is shown that satisfying the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions has a significant impact on metrics relevant to lithotripsy (such as peak pressures) and HIFU (intensity). Because the Godunov and MUSCL schemes satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions on coarse grids, they are particularly advantageous for three-dimensional simulations.

  3. RAMAN LIGHT SCATTERING IN PSEUDOSPIN-ELECTRON MODEL AT STRONG PSEUDOSPIN-ELECTRON INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S.Mysakovych

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anharmonic phonon contributions to Raman scattering in locally anharmonic crystal systems in the framework of the pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels are investigated. The case of strong pseudospin-electron coupling is considered. Pseudospin and electron contributions to scattering are taken into account. Frequency dependences of Raman scattering intensity for different values of model parameters and for different polarization of scattering and incident light are investigated.

  4. Thermodynamic parameters for mixtures of quartz under shock wave loading in views of the equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maevskii, K. K.; Kinelovskii, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The numerical results of modeling of shock wave loading of mixtures with the SiO 2 component are presented. The TEC (thermodynamic equilibrium component) model is employed to describe the behavior of solid and porous multicomponent mixtures and alloys under shock wave loading. State equations of a Mie–Grüneisen type are used to describe the behavior of condensed phases, taking into account the temperature dependence of the Grüneisen coefficient, gas in pores is one of the components of the environment. The model is based on the assumption that all components of the mixture under shock-wave loading are in thermodynamic equilibrium. The calculation results are compared with the experimental data derived by various authors. The behavior of the mixture containing components with a phase transition under high dynamic loads is described

  5. Time-history of shock waves overrunning three-dimensional, cylindrical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langheim, H.; Loeffler, E.

    To investigate the time-history of the Mach-stem of a shock wave overrunning a nuclear power plant shadowgraphs of threedimensional, cylindrical models with a globe cap were analysed. These models simulating the containment building differ only in the height of the cylinder. They were exposed with shock waves of shock strengths of 1.2 and 1.4, being equal to a peak reflexion overpressure of 0.45 resp. 1.0 bar. The time-histories of the Mach-stem differ only slightly. For this reason it can be stated that these time-histories are independent of the shock strength and the height of the cylinder in the prescribed range of the research program. In comparison with values given in the literature great differences were found at the rear side near the stagnation point of the globe cap resp. the stagnation line of the cylinder. The measured time for overrunning of the shock wave is the same as the time of arrival of the pressure-pulse at the interesting point of the model. This knowledge is a necessary premise for pressure-measurings from which the total load of structure can be determined. (orig.) [de

  6. Shock waves and rarefaction waves in magnetohydrodynamics. Pt. 1: A model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, R.S.; Roe, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    The present study consists of two parts. Here in Part I, a model set of conservation laws exactly preserving the MHD hyperbolic singularities is investigated to develop the general theory of the nonlinear evolution of MHD shock waves. Great emphasis is placed on shock admissibility conditions. By developing the viscosity admissibility condition, it is shown that the intermediate shocks are necessary to ensure that the planar Riemann problem is well-posed. In contrast, it turns out that the evolutionary condition is inappropriate for determining physically relevant MHD, shocks. In the general non-planar case, by studying canonical cases, we show that the solution of the Riemann problem is not necessarily unique - in particular, that it depends not only on reference states but also on the associated internal structure. Finally, the stability of intermediate shocks is discussed, and a theory of their nonlinear evolution is proposed. In Part 2, the theory of nonlinear waves developed for the model is applied to the MHD problem. It is shown that the topology of the MHD Hugoniot and wave curves is identical to that of the model problem. (Author)

  7. A new theoretical model for scattering of electrons by molecules. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, E.M.A.; Mu-tao, L.; Nogueira, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A new theoretical model for electron-molecule scattering is suggested. The e-H 2 scattering is studied and the superiority of the new model over the commonly used Independent Atom Model (IAM) is demonstrated. Comparing theoretical and experimental data for 40keV electrons scattered by H 2 utilizing the new model, its validity is proved, while Partial Wave and First Born calculations, employing the Independent Atom Model, strongly deviated from the experiment [pt

  8. Evidence on a Real Business Cycle Model with Neutral and Investment-Specific Technology Shocks using Bayesian Model Averaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Strachan (Rodney); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical support for a real business cycle model with two technology shocks is evaluated using a Bayesian model averaging procedure. This procedure makes use of a finite mixture of many models within the class of vector autoregressive (VAR) processes. The linear VAR model is

  9. Nonaligned shocks for discrete velocity models of the Boltzmann equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Greenberg

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available At the conclusion of I. Bonzani's presentation on the existence of structured shock solutions to the six-velocity, planar, discrete Boltzmann equation (with binary and triple collisions, Greenberg asked whether such solutions were possible in directions e(α=(cosα ,sinα when α was not one of the particle flow directions. This question generated a spirited discussion but the question was still open at the conclusion of the conference. In this note the author will provide a partial resolution to the question raised above. Using formal perturbation arguments he will produce approximate solutions to the equation considered by Bonzani which represent traveling waves propagating in any direction e(α=(cosα ,sinα.

  10. IDENTIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF A NOVEL MURINE MODEL FOR POLYTRAUMA AND SHOCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Lori F; Nacionales, Dina C; Cuenca, Alex G; Armbruster, Michael; Ungaro, Ricardo F; Abouhamze, Amer S; Lopez, Cecelia; Baker, Henry V; Moore, Frederick A; Ang, Darwin N; Efron, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel polytrauma model that better recapitulates the immunological response of the severely injured patient by combining long-bone fracture, muscle tissue damage and cecectomy with hemorrhagic shock, resulting in an equivalent Injury Severity Score of greater than 15. We compared this new polytrauma/shock model to historically-used murine trauma-hemorrhage models. Design Pre-clinical controlled in vivo laboratory study. Setting Laboratory of Inflammation Biology and Surgical Science. Subjects 6–10 wk old C57BL/6 (B6) mice Interventions Mice underwent 90 minutes of shock (MAP 30 mmHg) and resuscitation via femoral artery cannulation followed by either laparotomy (TH), laparotomy with femur fracture (H+FFx), or laparotomy with cecetomy and femur fracture with muscle tissue damage (PT). Mice were euthanized at two hours, one day and three days post injury. Measurements and Main Results The spleen, bone marrow, blood, and serum were collected from mice for analysis at the above time points. None of the models were lethal. Mice undergoing PT exhibited a more robust inflammatory response with significant elevations in cytokine/chemokine concentrations when compared to traditional models. PT was the only model to induce neutrophilia (Ly6G+CD11b+ cells) on days 1 and 3 (ppolytrauma model better replicates the human leukocyte, cytokine, and overall inflammatory response following injury and hemorrhagic shock. PMID:23399937

  11. A multiple-scales model of the shock-cell structure of imperfectly expanded supersonic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Jackson, J. A.; Seiner, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the development of an analytical model of the quasi-periodic shock-cell structure of an imperfectly expanded supersonic jet. The investigation represents a part of a program to develop a mathematical theory of broadband shock-associated noise of supersonic jets. Tam and Tanna (1982) have suggested that this type of noise is generated by the weak interaction between the quasi-periodic shock cells and the downstream-propagating large turbulence structures in the mixing layer of the jet. In the model developed in this paper, the effect of turbulence in the mixing layer of the jet is simulated by the addition of turbulent eddy-viscosity terms to the momentum equation. Attention is given to the mean-flow profile and the numerical solution, and a comparison of the numerical results with experimental data.

  12. Chemical kinetics modeling of the influence of molecular structure on shock tube ignition delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.

    1985-07-01

    The current capabilities of kinetic modeling of hydrocarbon oxidation in shock waves are discussed. The influence of molecular size and structure on ignition delay times are stressed. The n-paraffin fuels from CH 4 to n-C 5 H 12 are examined under shock tube conditions, as well as the branched chain fuel isobutane, and the computed results are compared with available experimental data. The modeling results show that it is important in the reaction mechanism to distinguish between abstraction of primary, secondary and tertiary H atom sites from the fuel molecule. This is due to the fact that both the rates and the product distributions of the subsequent alkyl radical decomposition reactions depend on which H atoms were abstracted. Applications of the reaction mechanisms to shock tube problems and to other practical problems such as engine knock are discussed

  13. Model-Free Views of Deep Inelastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Julian

    2014-11-01

    Perhaps I should point out first that my choice of topic was dictated by the injunction that the nature of this symposium should revolve around subjects that might be conceivably of interest to Viki. Viki has, along with most high energy physicists been very interested in the subject of deep inelastic electron scattering. With his characteristic attention to directly visualizable approaches to physical phenomena, he has dealt with this in terms of rather specific models, attempting then to give very elementary explanations of these fascinating phenomena. I thought he might be interested to see the other side of the coin, namely, the extent to which one can correlate and comprehend these physical effects without the use of specific models. I think this may lend a certain useful balance to the way things are looked at these days. So my remarks are directed to Viki but you're all welcome to eavesdrop...

  14. Practical methods to define scattering coefficients in a room acoustics computer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Xiangyang; Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    of obtaining the data becomes quite time consuming thus increasing the cost of design. In this paper, practical methods to define scattering coefficients, which is based on an approach of modeling surface scattering and scattering caused by limited size of surface as well as edge diffraction are presented...

  15. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Gerard; Roudot, Marie; Genetier, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Composite HMX and NTO based high explosives (HE) are widely used in ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside HE. Comparing to a pressed HE, a composite HE is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain - binder interface leading to a different behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. An investigation of how shock-to-detonation transition occurs inside composite HE containing RDX and NTO is proposed in this lecture. Two composite HE have been studied. The first one is HMX - HTPB 82:18. The second one is HMX - NTO - HTPB 12:72:16. These HE have been submitted to plane sustained shock waves at different pressure levels using a laboratory powder gun. Pressure signals are measured using manganin gauges inserted at several distances inside HE. The corresponding run-distances to detonation are determined using wedge test experiments where the plate impact is performed using a powder gun. Both HE exhibit a single detonation buildup curve in the distance - time diagram of shock-to-detonation transition. This feature seems a common shock-to-detonation behavior for composite HE without porosity. This behavior is also confirmed for a RDX - HTPB 85:15 based composite HE. Such a behavior is exploited to determine the heterogeneous reaction rate versus the shock pressure using a method based on the Cauchy-Riemann problem inversion. The reaction rate laws obtained allow to compute both run-distance to detonation and pressure signals.

  16. Light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities based on hybrid simplified spherical harmonics with radiosity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Peng, Zhen; Wang, Xiaorui; Ripoll, Jorge; Wang, Jing; Liang, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling light propagation in the whole body is essential and necessary for optical imaging. However, non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption regions commonly exist in biological tissues, which lead to inaccuracy of the existing light transport models. In this paper, a novel hybrid light transport model that couples the simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SPN) with the radiosity theory (HSRM) was presented, to accurately describe light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities. In the model, the radiosity theory was used to characterize the light transport in non-scattering regions and the SPN was employed to handle the scattering problems, including subsets of low-scattering and high absorption. A Neumann source constructed by the light transport in the non-scattering region and formed at the interface between the non-scattering and scattering regions was superposed into the original light source, to couple the SPN with the radiosity theory. The accuracy and effectiveness of the HSRM was first verified with both regular and digital mouse model based simulations and a physical phantom based experiment. The feasibility and applicability of the HSRM was then investigated by a broad range of optical properties. Lastly, the influence of depth of the light source on the model was also discussed. Primary results showed that the proposed model provided high performance for light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities.

  17. Model-unrestricted scattering potentials for light ions and their interpretation in the folding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermer, M.; Clement, H.; Frank, G.; Grabmayr, P.; Heberle, N.; Wagner, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    High-quality data for elastic proton, deuteron and α-particle scattering on 40 Ca and 208 Pb at 26-30 MeV/N have been analyzed in terms of the model-unrestricted Fourier-Bessel concept. While extracted scattering potentials show substantial deviations from Woods-Saxon shapes, their real central parts are well described by folding calculations using a common effective nucleon-nucleon interaction with a weak density dependence. (orig.)

  18. Fitting Data to Model: Structural Equation Modeling Diagnosis Using Two Scatter Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces two simple scatter plots for model diagnosis in structural equation modeling. One plot contrasts a residual-based M-distance of the structural model with the M-distance for the factor score. It contains information on outliers, good leverage observations, bad leverage observations, and normal cases. The other plot contrasts…

  19. Pressure measurements and an analytical model for laser-generated shock waves in solids at low irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Romain, J P; Dayma, G; Boustie, M; Resseguier, T D; Combis, P

    2002-01-01

    Low amplitude shock waves (from 1 to 300 bar) have been generated in gold layers deposited on a quartz substrate, by laser pulses at an incident fluence from 0.4 to 4.0 J cm sup - sup 2. The quartz was used as a pressure gauge for recording the induced shock profile. At a fluence <1.4 J cm sup - sup 2 , the shock pressure does not exceed 10 bar and the shock front is followed by a tension peak typical of an absorption in solid state. An analytical model of the compression-tension process has been developed, accounting for shock pressure and shock profile evolution as a function of irradiation conditions and material properties. From this model a mechanical interpretation is given to previous observations of spalling of the irradiated target surface.

  20. Pressure measurements and an analytical model for laser-generated shock waves in solids at low irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romain, J P [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Bonneau, F [Departement de Physique Theorique et Appliquee CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France); Dayma, G [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Boustie, M [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Resseguier, T de [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Combis, P [Departement de Physique Theorique et Appliquee CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France)

    2002-11-11

    Low amplitude shock waves (from 1 to 300 bar) have been generated in gold layers deposited on a quartz substrate, by laser pulses at an incident fluence from 0.4 to 4.0 J cm{sup -2}. The quartz was used as a pressure gauge for recording the induced shock profile. At a fluence <1.4 J cm{sup -2}, the shock pressure does not exceed 10 bar and the shock front is followed by a tension peak typical of an absorption in solid state. An analytical model of the compression-tension process has been developed, accounting for shock pressure and shock profile evolution as a function of irradiation conditions and material properties. From this model a mechanical interpretation is given to previous observations of spalling of the irradiated target surface.

  1. Pressure measurements and an analytical model for laser-generated shock waves in solids at low irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, J P; Bonneau, F; Dayma, G; Boustie, M; Resseguier, T de; Combis, P

    2002-01-01

    Low amplitude shock waves (from 1 to 300 bar) have been generated in gold layers deposited on a quartz substrate, by laser pulses at an incident fluence from 0.4 to 4.0 J cm -2 . The quartz was used as a pressure gauge for recording the induced shock profile. At a fluence -2 , the shock pressure does not exceed 10 bar and the shock front is followed by a tension peak typical of an absorption in solid state. An analytical model of the compression-tension process has been developed, accounting for shock pressure and shock profile evolution as a function of irradiation conditions and material properties. From this model a mechanical interpretation is given to previous observations of spalling of the irradiated target surface

  2. New test of bow-shock models of Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.C.; Bohm, K.H.; Solf, J.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Heidelberg, West Germany)

    1986-01-01

    Long-slit, high-resolution spectroscopy of the Herbig-Haro oject HH 32 has shown that the emission-line profiles in all four condensations A, B, C, and D show high- and low-velocity components. The spatial maxima of these two components are always arranged in a double-layer pattern, with the maximum of the high-velocity component 0.6-1.0 arcsecs closer to the central star (AS 353A) than the low-velocity maximum. A study of the emission-line profiles predicted from a model of a radiating bow shock shows that such a double-layer structure appears naturally for this type of flow. In this case both the high-velocity and the low-velocity components come from the post-shock gas, in agreement with the theoretical prediction that it should be very difficult to detect the pre-shock gas observationally. The present results agree qualitatively well with observations of HH 32, strengthening the case for a bow-shock interpretation of this Herbig-Haro object. It is shown that the double-layer effect will be more easily observable for bow shocks which move at a relatively large angle with respect to the plane of the sky (i.e., for Herbig-Haro objects which have large radial velocities). 31 references

  3. Modeling shock waves in an ideal gas: Going beyond the Navier-Stokes level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, B.L.; Patterson, C.W.; Mareschal, M.; Salomons, E.

    1993-01-01

    We model a shock wave in an ideal gas by solving a modified version of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations of hydrodynamics, where, following an earlier conjecture by Holian [Phys. Rev. A 37, 2562 (1988)], we use the temperature in the direction of shock propagation T xx , rather than the average temperature T=(T xx +T yy +T zz )/3, in the evaluation of the linear transport coefficients. The results are found to agree much better with the molecular-dynamics simulations of Salomons and Mareschal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 269 (1992)] than standard Navier-Stokes theory

  4. Analytical and numerical modelling of thermoviscous shocks in their interactions in nonlinear fluids including dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2010-01-01

    A wave equation, that governs finite amplitude acoustic disturbances in a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid, and includes nonlinear terms up to second order, is proposed. The equation preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the fundamental fluid dynamical equations in the non dissipative limit. An exact...... thermoviscous shock solution is derived. This solution is, in an overall sense, equivalent to the Taylor shock solution of the Burgers equation. However, in contrast to the Burgers equation, the model equation considered here is capable to describe waves propagating in opposite directions. Studies of head...

  5. Laser Beam Propagation Through Inhomogeneous Media with Shock-Like Profiles: Modeling and Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Ida, Nathan

    1997-01-01

    Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media has been studied for such diverse applications as propagation of radiowaves in atmosphere, light propagation through thin films and in inhomogeneous waveguides, flow visualization, and others. In recent years an increased interest has been developed in wave propagation through shocks in supersonic flows. Results of experiments conducted in the past few years has shown such interesting phenomena as a laser beam splitting and spreading. The paper describes a model constructed to propagate a laser beam through shock-like inhomogeneous media. Numerical techniques are presented to compute the beam through such media. The results of computation are presented, discussed, and compared with experimental data.

  6. Modeling Shock Induced Plasticity in Copper Single Crystal: Numerical and Strain Localization Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehadeh, M

    2011-01-01

    Multiscale dislocation dynamics plasticity (MDDP) simulations are carried out to address the following issues in modeling shock-induced plasticity: 1- the effect of finite element (FE) boundary conditions on shock wave characteristics and wave-dislocation interaction, 2- the effect of the evolution of the dislocation microstructure on lattice rotation and strain localization. While uniaxial strain is achieved with high accuracy using confined boundary condition, periodic boundary condition yields a disturbed wave profile due the edge effect. Including lattice rotation in the analysis leads to higher dislocation density and more localized plastic strain. (author)

  7. Modeling of high‐frequency seismic‐wave scattering and propagation using radiative transfer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua

    2017-01-01

    This is a study of the nonisotropic scattering process based on radiative transfer theory and its application to the observation of the M 4.3 aftershock recording of the 2008 Wells earthquake sequence in Nevada. Given a wide range of recording distances from 29 to 320 km, the data provide a unique opportunity to discriminate scattering models based on their distance‐dependent behaviors. First, we develop a stable numerical procedure to simulate nonisotropic scattering waves based on the 3D nonisotropic scattering theory proposed by Sato (1995). By applying the simulation method to the inversion of M 4.3 Wells aftershock recordings, we find that a nonisotropic scattering model, dominated by forward scattering, provides the best fit to the observed high‐frequency direct S waves and S‐wave coda velocity envelopes. The scattering process is governed by a Gaussian autocorrelation function, suggesting a Gaussian random heterogeneous structure for the Nevada crust. The model successfully explains the common decay of seismic coda independent of source–station locations as a result of energy leaking from multiple strong forward scattering, instead of backscattering governed by the diffusion solution at large lapse times. The model also explains the pulse‐broadening effect in the high‐frequency direct and early arriving S waves, as other studies have found, and could be very important to applications of high‐frequency wave simulation in which scattering has a strong effect. We also find that regardless of its physical implications, the isotropic scattering model provides the same effective scattering coefficient and intrinsic attenuation estimates as the forward scattering model, suggesting that the isotropic scattering model is still a viable tool for the study of seismic scattering and intrinsic attenuation coefficients in the Earth.

  8. Model for calculating shock loading and release paths for multicomponent geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.; Moran, B.; Burton, D.E.

    1981-07-01

    A model has been devised to calculate shock Hugoniots and release paths off the Hugoniots for multicomponent rocks containing silicate, carbonate, and water. Hugoniot equations of state are constructed from relatively simple measurements of rock properties including bulk density, grain density of the silicate component, and weight fractions of water and carbonate. Release paths off the composite Hugoniot are calculated by mixing release paths off the component Hugoniots according to their weight fractions. If the shock imparts sufficient energy to the component to cause vaporization, a gas equation of state is used to calculate the release paths. For less energetic shocks, the rock component will unload like a solid or liquid, taking into account the irreversible removal of air-filled porosity

  9. Model of fragmentation of limestone particles during thermal shock and calcination in fluidised beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J.; Pikkarainen, T.; Tourunen, A.; Rasanen, M.; Jantti, T. [VTT Technical Research Center, Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Fragmentation of limestone due to thermal shock and calcination in a fluidised bed was studied through experiments and modelling. The time for heating was estimated by model calculations and the time for calcination by measurements. Fragmentation due to thermal shock was carried out by experiments in a CO{sub 2} atmosphere in order to prevent the effect of calcination. It was found to be much less than fragmentation due to calcination. Average particle sizes before and after fragmentation are presented for several types of limestone. The effects of particle size and gas composition on the primary fragmentation were studied through experiments. Increasing the fluidisation velocity increased the tendency to fragment. The evolution of the particle size distribution (PSD) of limestone particles due to thermal shock and during calcination (or simultaneous calcination and sulphation) were calculated using a population balance model. Fragmentation due to thermal shock is treated as an instantaneous process. The fragmentation frequency during calcination is presented as exponentially decaying over time. In addition to the final PSD, this model also predicts the PSD during the calcination process. The fragmentation was practically found to end after 10 min. Furthermore. a population balance method to calculate the particle size distribution and amount of limestone in fluidised beds in dynamic and steady state, when feeding history is known, is presented.

  10. Thermodynamic model of the compaction of powder materials by shock waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, Durandus; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1994-01-01

    For powder materials a model is proposed to predict the mean temperature behind the shock wave, the ratio between the increase of thermal energy and increase of total internal energy, as well as the mean final temperature after release of adiabatic pressure. Further, the change of pressure, specific

  11. Social Skills Difficulty: Model of Culture Shock for International Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapdelaine, Raquel Faria; Alexitch, Louise R.

    2004-01-01

    This study expanded and tested Furnham and Bochner's (1982) model of culture shock, employing a sample of 156 male international students in a Canadian university. Path analysis was used to assess the effects of cultural differences, size of co-national group, family status, cross-cultural experience, and social interaction with hosts on culture…

  12. Attenuation of surface waves in porous media: Shock wave experiments and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, G.E; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this project we conduct experimental and numerical investigations on the attenuation mechanisms of surface waves in poroelastic materials. Viscous dissipation effects are modelled in the framework of Biot's theory. The experiments are performed using a shock tube technique. Quantitative agreement

  13. Non-local modelling of cyclic thermal shock damage including parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhof, F.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, rate dependent evolution laws are identified and characterized to model the mechanical (elasticity-based) and thermal damage occurring in coarse grain refractory material subject to cyclic thermal shock. The interacting mechanisms for elastic deformation driven damage induced by

  14. Optimal Design and Model Validation for Combustion Experiments in a Shock Tube

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan; Kim, Daesang; Tempone, Raul; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Farooq, Aamir; Knio, Omar; Prudhomme, Serge

    2014-01-01

    in the reaction rate functions. The control parameters are the initial hydrogen concentration and the temperature. First, we build a polynomial based surrogate model for the observable related to the reactions in the shock tube. Second, we use a novel MAP based

  15. A model of quasi-free scattering with polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodoro, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation, based on a simple model for spin-free coplanar and asymmetric reaction in 16 O, for 215 MeV incoming polarized protons confirms the use of the strong effective polarization of the knocked-out proton by the spin-orbit coupling and of the strong dependence of free, medium energy, proton-proton cross section on the relative orientation of the proton spins. Effective polarizations, momentum distributions and correlation cross sections have been calculated for the 1p sub(1/2), 1 p sub(3/2) and 1s sub(1/2) states in 16 O, using protons totally polarized orthogonal to the scattering plane. Harmonic oscillator and square wells have been used to generate the bound state wave functions, whereas the optical potentials have been taken spin-independent and purely imaginary [pt

  16. Study of α-16O scattering by orthogonality condition models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitschaft, A.M.; Canto, L.F.; Schechter, H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of approximate microscopic theories in α- 16 O scattering is investigated. The Orthogonality Condition Model (OCM) with both the direct potential of the Resonating Group Method (RMG) and with an effective local potential, V sub(eff), derived from Kernels of Generator Coordinate Method (GCM) is employed to study collisions at CM energies up to 30 MeV, for all relevant partial waves. Although the predictions of the OCM are consistent with 'exact' RGM results in both cases, the nuclear phase-shifts obtained with the effective potential are better. The presence of ambiguities in the derivation of V sub(eff) is noticed. The nature of such ambiguities is discussed. (Author) [pt

  17. Study of α-16O scattering by orthogonality condition models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitschaft, A.M.; Canto, L.F.; Schechter, H.

    1982-01-01

    The use of approximate microscopic theories in α- 16 O scattering is investigated. The Orthogonality Condition Model (OCM) with the direct potential of the Resonating Group Method (RGM) and with an effective local potential V sub(eff') derived from Kernels of the Generator Coordinate Method (GCM) is employed to study collisions at CM energies up to 30 MeV, for all relevant partial waves. Although the predictions of the OCM are consistent with 'exact' RGM results in both cases, the nuclear phase-shifts obtained with the effective potential are better. It is noticed the presence of ambiguities in the derivation of V sub(eff'). The nature of such ambiguities is discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality, model validation, and technology readiness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Blecke, Jill; Baker, Michael Sean; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Mitchell, John Anthony; Brake, Matthew Robert; Epp, David S.; Wittwer, Jonathan W.

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes the functional, model validation, and technology readiness testing of the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor in FY08. Functional testing of a large number of revision 4 parts showed robust and consistent performance. Model validation testing helped tune the models to match data well and identified several areas for future investigation related to high frequency sensitivity and thermal effects. Finally, technology readiness testing demonstrated the integrated elements of the sensor under realistic environments.

  19. Multiwaveband Variability of Blazars from Turbulent Plasma Passing through a Standing Shock: The Mother of Multi-zone Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    2011-09-01

    Multi-wavelength light curves of bright gamma-ray blazars (e.g., 3C 454.3) are compared with the model proposed by Marscher and Jorstad. In this scenario, much of the optical and high-energy radiation in a blazar is emitted near the 43 GHz core of the jet as seen in VLBA images, parsecs from the central engine. The main physical features are a turbulent ambient jet plasma that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the jet. The model allows for short time-scales of optical and gamma-ray variability by restricting the highest-energy electrons radiating at these frequencies to a small fraction of the turbulent cells, perhaps those with a particular orientation of the magnetic field relative to the shock front. Because of this, the volume filling factor at high frequencies is relatively low, while that of the electrons radiating below about 10 THz is near unity. Such a model is consistent with the (1) red-noise power spectra of flux variations, (2) shorter time-scales of variability at higher frequencies, (3) frequency dependence of polarization and its variability, and (4) breaks in the synchrotron spectrum by more than the radiative loss value of 0.5. Simulated light curves are generated by a numerical code that (as of May 2011) includes synchrotron radiation as well as inverse Compton scattering of seed photons from both a dust torus and a Mach disk at the jet axis. The latter source of seed photons produces more pronounced variability in gamma-ray than in optical light curves, as is often observed. More features are expected to be added to the code by the time of the presentation. This research is supported in part by NASA through Fermi grants NNX08AV65G and NNX10AO59G, and by NSF grant AST-0907893.

  20. Numerical modelling of multiple scattering between two elastical particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    in suspension have been studied extensively since Foldy's formulation of his theory for isotropic scattering by randomly distributed scatterers. However, a number of important problems related to multiple scattering are still far from finding their solutions. A particular, but still unsolved, problem......Multiple acoustical signal interactions with sediment particles in the vicinity of the seabed may significantly change the course of sediment concentration profiles determined by inversion from acoustical backscattering measurements. The scattering properties of high concentrations of sediments...... is the question of proximity thresholds for influence of multiple scattering in terms of particle properties like volume fraction, average distance between particles or other related parameters. A few available experimental data indicate a significance of multiple scattering in suspensions where the concentration...

  1. Topics in bound-state dynamical processes: semiclassical eigenvalues, reactive scattering kernels and gas-surface scattering models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.E.

    1979-05-01

    The difficulty of applying the WKB approximation to problems involving arbitrary potentials has been confronted. Recent work has produced a convenient expression for the potential correction term. However, this approach does not yield a unique correction term and hence cannot be used to construct the proper modification. An attempt is made to overcome the uniqueness difficulties by imposing a criterion which permits identification of the correct modification. Sections of this work are: semiclassical eigenvalues for potentials defined on a finite interval; reactive scattering exchange kernels; a unified model for elastic and inelastic scattering from a solid surface; and selective absorption on a solid surface

  2. Experimentally validated multiphysics computational model of focusing and shock wave formation in an electromagnetic lithotripter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovargue, Daniel E; Mitran, Sorin; Smith, Nathan B; Sankin, Georgy N; Simmons, Walter N; Zhong, Pei

    2013-08-01

    A multiphysics computational model of the focusing of an acoustic pulse and subsequent shock wave formation that occurs during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is presented. In the electromagnetic lithotripter modeled in this work the focusing is achieved via a polystyrene acoustic lens. The transition of the acoustic pulse through the solid lens is modeled by the linear elasticity equations and the subsequent shock wave formation in water is modeled by the Euler equations with a Tait equation of state. Both sets of equations are solved simultaneously in subsets of a single computational domain within the BEARCLAW framework which uses a finite-volume Riemann solver approach. This model is first validated against experimental measurements with a standard (or original) lens design. The model is then used to successfully predict the effects of a lens modification in the form of an annular ring cut. A second model which includes a kidney stone simulant in the domain is also presented. Within the stone the linear elasticity equations incorporate a simple damage model.

  3. Stochastic modeling for reliability shocks, burn-in and heterogeneous populations

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on shocks modeling, burn-in and heterogeneous populations, Stochastic Modeling for Reliability naturally combines these three topics in the unified stochastic framework and presents numerous practical examples that illustrate recent theoretical findings of the authors.  The populations of manufactured items in industry are usually heterogeneous. However, the conventional reliability analysis is performed under the implicit assumption of homogeneity, which can result in distortion of the corresponding reliability indices and various misconceptions. Stochastic Modeling for Reliability fills this gap and presents the basics and further developments of reliability theory for heterogeneous populations. Specifically, the authors consider burn-in as a method of elimination of ‘weak’ items from heterogeneous populations. The real life objects are operating in a changing environment. One of the ways to model an impact of this environment is via the external shocks occurring in accordance with some stocha...

  4. Modeling properties of chromospheric evaporation driven by thermal conduction fronts from reconnection shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Sean; Longcope, Dana [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic reconnection in the corona results in contracting flare loops, releasing energy into plasma heating and shocks. The hydrodynamic shocks produced in this manner drive thermal conduction fronts (TCFs) which transport energy into the chromosphere and drive upflows (evaporation) and downflows (condensation) in the cooler, denser footpoint plasma. Observations have revealed that certain properties of the transition point between evaporation and condensation (the 'flow reversal point' or FRP), such as temperature and velocity-temperature derivative at the FRP, vary between different flares. These properties may provide a diagnostic tool to determine parameters of the coronal energy release mechanism and the loop atmosphere. In this study, we develop a one-dimensional hydrodynamical flare loop model with a simplified three-region atmosphere (chromosphere/transition region/corona), with TCFs initiated by shocks introduced in the corona. We investigate the effect of two different flare loop parameters (post-shock temperature and transition region temperature ratio) on the FRP properties. We find that both of the evaporation characteristics have scaling-law relationships to the varied flare parameters, and we report the scaling exponents for our model. This provides a means of using spectroscopic observations of the chromosphere as quantitative diagnostics of flare energy release in the corona.

  5. Modelling grain-scattered ultrasound in austenitic stainless-steel welds: A hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowers, O.; Duxbury, D. J.; Velichko, A.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    The ultrasonic inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds can be challenging due to their coarse grain structure, charaterised by preferentially oriented, elongated grains. The anisotropy of the weld is manifested as both a ‘steering’ of the beam and the back-scatter of energy due to the macroscopic granular structure of the weld. However, the influence of weld properties, such as mean grain size and orientation distribution, on the magnitude of scattered ultrasound is not well understood. A hybrid model has been developed to allow the study of grain-scatter effects in austenitic welds. An efficient 2D Finite Element (FE) method is used to calculate the complete scattering response from a single elliptical austenitic grain of arbitrary length and width as a function of the specific inspection frequency. A grain allocation model of the weld is presented to approximate the characteristic structures observed in austenitic welds and the complete scattering behaviour of each grain calculated. This model is incorporated into a semi-analytical framework for a single-element inspection of a typical weld in immersion. Experimental validation evidence is demonstrated indicating excellent qualitative agreement of SNR as a function of frequency and a minimum SNR difference of 2 dB at a centre frequency of 2.25 MHz. Additionally, an example Monte-Carlo study is presented detailing the variation of SNR as a function of the anisotropy distribution of the weld, and the application of confidence analysis to inform inspection development

  6. π-π scattering in a consistent relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micu, L.

    1977-12-01

    Introducing the expression of the interpolating field of a pion as a product of suitable modified free quark fields and of a scalar unquantified field into the LSZ formalism one deduces the vanishing of the exotic amplitudes and of the π-π scattering lengths. The asymptotic vanishing of the elastic π - π scattering amplitude may also be obtained under special requirements. (author)

  7. Fresh Frozen Plasma Modulates Brain Gene Expression in a Swine Model of Traumatic Brain Injury and Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin; Bambakidis, Ted; Dekker, Simone E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) decreases brain lesion size and swelling in a swine model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that brain gene expression profiles after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock would be modulated by FFP resu...

  8. A Novel Porcine Model of Septic Shock Induced by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, we developed a novel porcine model of septic shock induced by ARDS due to severe MRSA pneumonia with characteristic hyperdynamic and hypodynamic phases in 24 h, which mimicked the hemodynamic changing of septic shock in human.

  9. Optical model analysis of intermediate energy p-4He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greben, J.M.; Gourishankar, R.

    1983-03-01

    Recent Wolfenstein R-parameter data are used to explain and resolve previous problems with optical model descriptions of p- 4 He elastic scattering at 500 MeV. An essential component in this optical model analysis is a qualitative interpretation of different features of the elastic data in terms of the Born approximation. First we show that the R-data require the real spin-orbit potential to have certain geometrical properties which were missing in previous analyses. We can then show that the fast fall-off of the cross-section for small angles, together with the rapid increase and subsequent decrease of the polarization, establishes the need for an attractive tail in the real central potentials can also be inferred from this qualitative analysis, in particular a strong reduction of the spin-orbit potential. Our final potential gives a reduction of the X 2 /datapoint by about 20 in comparison to previous potentials, and underlines the usefulness of the qualitative Born analysis

  10. A General Microscopic Traffic Model Yielding Dissipative Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Caputo, Jean Guy; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2018-01-01

    We consider a general microscopic traffic model with a delay. An algebraic traffic function reduces the equation to the Aw-Rascle microscopic model while a sigmoid function gives the standard “follow the leader”. For zero delay we prove that the homogeneous solution is globally stable...

  11. Effects of Shock and Turbulence Properties on Electron Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G.; Kong, F.-J.; Zhang, L.-H.

    2018-06-01

    Using test particle simulations, we study electron acceleration at collisionless shocks with a two-component model turbulent magnetic field with slab component including dissipation range. We investigate the importance of the shock-normal angle θ Bn, magnetic turbulence level {(b/{B}0)}2, and shock thickness on the acceleration efficiency of electrons. It is shown that at perpendicular shocks the electron acceleration efficiency is enhanced with the decrease of {(b/{B}0)}2, and at {(b/{B}0)}2=0.01 the acceleration becomes significant due to a strong drift electric field with long time particles staying near the shock front for shock drift acceleration (SDA). In addition, at parallel shocks the electron acceleration efficiency is increasing with the increase of {(b/{B}0)}2, and at {(b/{B}0)}2=10.0 the acceleration is very strong due to sufficient pitch-angle scattering for first-order Fermi acceleration, as well as due to the large local component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the shock-normal angle for SDA. On the other hand, the high perpendicular shock acceleration with {(b/{B}0)}2=0.01 is stronger than the high parallel shock acceleration with {(b/{B}0)}2=10.0, the reason might be the assumption that SDA is more efficient than first-order Fermi acceleration. Furthermore, for oblique shocks, the acceleration efficiency is small no matter whether the turbulence level is low or high. Moreover, for the effect of shock thickness on electron acceleration at perpendicular shocks, we show that there exists the bendover thickness, L diff,b. The acceleration efficiency does not noticeably change if the shock thickness is much smaller than L diff,b. However, if the shock thickness is much larger than L diff,b, the acceleration efficiency starts to drop abruptly.

  12. Atomistic modelling of scattering data in the Collaborative Computational Project for Small Angle Scattering (CCP-SAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Stephen J; Wright, David W; Zhang, Hailiang; Brookes, Emre H; Chen, Jianhan; Irving, Thomas C; Krueger, Susan; Barlow, David J; Edler, Karen J; Scott, David J; Terrill, Nicholas J; King, Stephen M; Butler, Paul D; Curtis, Joseph E

    2016-12-01

    The capabilities of current computer simulations provide a unique opportunity to model small-angle scattering (SAS) data at the atomistic level, and to include other structural constraints ranging from molecular and atomistic energetics to crystallography, electron microscopy and NMR. This extends the capabilities of solution scattering and provides deeper insights into the physics and chemistry of the systems studied. Realizing this potential, however, requires integrating the experimental data with a new generation of modelling software. To achieve this, the CCP-SAS collaboration (http://www.ccpsas.org/) is developing open-source, high-throughput and user-friendly software for the atomistic and coarse-grained molecular modelling of scattering data. Robust state-of-the-art molecular simulation engines and molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo force fields provide constraints to the solution structure inferred from the small-angle scattering data, which incorporates the known physical chemistry of the system. The implementation of this software suite involves a tiered approach in which GenApp provides the deployment infrastructure for running applications on both standard and high-performance computing hardware, and SASSIE provides a workflow framework into which modules can be plugged to prepare structures, carry out simulations, calculate theoretical scattering data and compare results with experimental data. GenApp produces the accessible web-based front end termed SASSIE-web , and GenApp and SASSIE also make community SAS codes available. Applications are illustrated by case studies: (i) inter-domain flexibility in two- to six-domain proteins as exemplified by HIV-1 Gag, MASP and ubiquitin; (ii) the hinge conformation in human IgG2 and IgA1 antibodies; (iii) the complex formed between a hexameric protein Hfq and mRNA; and (iv) synthetic 'bottlebrush' polymers.

  13. Modeling of plastic localization in aluminum and Al–Cu alloys under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnikov, V.S.; Mayer, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modeling of plastic deformation localization in pure aluminum and aluminum–copper alloys during the propagation of a plane shock wave. Modeling is carried out with the use of continual dislocation plasticity model in 2-D geometry. It is shown that the formation of localization bands occurs at an angle of 45° to the direction of propagation of the shock front. Effective initiators for plastic localization in pure aluminum are the perturbations of the initial dislocation density, in the alloys – perturbations of the dislocation density and the concentration of copper atoms. Perturbations of temperature field in a range of tens of kelvins are not so effective for plastic localization. In the alloy plastic localization intensity decreases with an increase of strain rate due to the thermally activated nature of the dislocation motion

  14. A System Shock Approach to Modelling Clandestine Network Disruption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dipper, Tamlan

    2004-01-01

    .... This model took as its focus the disruption of successful terrorist operations. In doing so it drew upon operational art, group behavioural studies, and psychological research into problem solving...

  15. Oscillations in a Growth Model with Capital, Technology and Environment with Exogenous Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper generalizes the dynamic growth model with wealth accumulation, technological change and environmental change by Zhang (2012 by making all the parameters as time-dependent parameters. The model treats physical capital accumulation, knowledge creation and utilization, and environmental change as endogenous variables. It synthesizes the basic ideas of the neoclassical growth theory, Arrow’s learning-by-doing model and the traditional dynamic models of environmental change within a comprehensive framework. The behavior of the household is described with an alternative approach to household behavior. We simulated the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points, motion of the dynamic system, and oscillations due to different exogenous shocks.

  16. Short pulse duration shock initiation experiments plus ignition and growth modeling on Composition B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Chadd M; Tarver, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Composition B (63% RDX, 36% TNT, 1% wax) is still a widely used energetic material whose shock initiation characteristics are necessary to understand. It is now possible to shock initiate Composition B and other secondary explosives at diameters well below their characteristic failure diameters for unconfined self-sustaining detonation. This is done using very high velocity, very thin, small diameter flyer plates accelerated by electric or laser power sources. Recently experimental detonation versus failure to detonate threshold flyer velocity curves for Composition B using several Kapton TM flyer thicknesses and diameters were measured. Flyer plates with diameters of 2 mm successfully detonated Composition B, which has a nominal failure diameter of 4.3 mm. The shock pressures required for these initiations are greater than the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) pressure in self-sustaining Composition B detonation waves. The initiation process is two-dimensional, because both rear and side rarefactions can affect the shocked Composition B reaction rates. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for Composition B is extended to yield accurate simulations of this new threshold velocity data for various flyer thicknesses.

  17. Effective Acceleration Model for the Arrival Time of Interplanetary Shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paouris, Evangelos; Mavromichalaki, Helen

    2017-12-01

    In a previous work (Paouris and Mavromichalaki in Solar Phys. 292, 30, 2017), we presented a total of 266 interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) with as much information as possible. We developed a new empirical model for estimating the acceleration of these events in the interplanetary medium from this analysis. In this work, we present a new approach on the effective acceleration model (EAM) for predicting the arrival time of the shock that preceds a CME, using data of a total of 214 ICMEs. For the first time, the projection effects of the linear speed of CMEs are taken into account in this empirical model, which significantly improves the prediction of the arrival time of the shock. In particular, the mean value of the time difference between the observed time of the shock and the predicted time was equal to +3.03 hours with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 18.58 hours and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 22.47 hours. After the improvement of this model, the mean value of the time difference is decreased to -0.28 hours with an MAE of 17.65 hours and an RMSE of 21.55 hours. This improved version was applied to a set of three recent Earth-directed CMEs reported in May, June, and July of 2017, and we compare our results with the values predicted by other related models.

  18. ATLS Hypovolemic Shock Classification by Prediction of Blood Loss in Rats Using Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Beom; Choi, Joon Yul; Park, Jee Soo; Kim, Deok Won

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, our input data set consisted of 78 rats, the blood loss in percent as a dependent variable, and 11 independent variables (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, respiration rate, temperature, perfusion index, lactate concentration, shock index, and new index (lactate concentration/perfusion)). The machine learning methods for multicategory classification were applied to a rat model in acute hemorrhage to predict the four Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) hypovolemic shock classes for triage in our previous study. However, multicategory classification is much more difficult and complicated than binary classification. We introduce a simple approach for classifying ATLS hypovolaemic shock class by predicting blood loss in percent using support vector regression and multivariate linear regression (MLR). We also compared the performance of the classification models using absolute and relative vital signs. The accuracies of support vector regression and MLR models with relative values by predicting blood loss in percent were 88.5% and 84.6%, respectively. These were better than the best accuracy of 80.8% of the direct multicategory classification using the support vector machine one-versus-one model in our previous study for the same validation data set. Moreover, the simple MLR models with both absolute and relative values could provide possibility of the future clinical decision support system for ATLS classification. The perfusion index and new index were more appropriate with relative changes than absolute values.

  19. Evaluation of kriging based surrogate models constructed from mesoscale computations of shock interaction with particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Oishik, E-mail: oishik-sen@uiowa.edu [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gaul, Nicholas J., E-mail: nicholas-gaul@ramdosolutions.com [RAMDO Solutions, LLC, Iowa City, IA 52240 (United States); Choi, K.K., E-mail: kyung-choi@uiowa.edu [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Jacobs, Gustaaf, E-mail: gjacobs@sdsu.edu [Aerospace Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92115 (United States); Udaykumar, H.S., E-mail: hs-kumar@uiowa.edu [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Macro-scale computations of shocked particulate flows require closure laws that model the exchange of momentum/energy between the fluid and particle phases. Closure laws are constructed in this work in the form of surrogate models derived from highly resolved mesoscale computations of shock-particle interactions. The mesoscale computations are performed to calculate the drag force on a cluster of particles for different values of Mach Number and particle volume fraction. Two Kriging-based methods, viz. the Dynamic Kriging Method (DKG) and the Modified Bayesian Kriging Method (MBKG) are evaluated for their ability to construct surrogate models with sparse data; i.e. using the least number of mesoscale simulations. It is shown that if the input data is noise-free, the DKG method converges monotonically; convergence is less robust in the presence of noise. The MBKG method converges monotonically even with noisy input data and is therefore more suitable for surrogate model construction from numerical experiments. This work is the first step towards a full multiscale modeling of interaction of shocked particle laden flows.

  20. 1D energy transport in a strongly scattering laboratory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijk, Kasper van; Scales, John A.; Haney, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) theory is often invoked to describe energy propagation in strongly scattering media. Fitting RT to measured wave field intensities is rather different at late times, when the transport is diffusive, than at intermediate times (around one extinction mean free time), when ballistic and diffusive behavior coexist. While there are many examples of late-time RT fits, we describe ultrasonic multiple scattering measurements with RT over the entire range of times--from ballistic to diffusive. In addition to allowing us to retrieve the scattering and absorption mean free paths independently, our results also support theoretical predictions in 1D that suggest an intermediate regime of diffusive (nonlocalized) behavior

  1. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  2. Bursts and shocks in a continuum shell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Bohr, Tomas; Jensen, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    We study a burst event, i.e., the evolution of an initial condition having support only in a finite interval of k-space, in the continuum shell model due to Parisi. We show that the continuum equation without forcing or dissipation can be explicitly written in characteristic form and that the right...

  3. Structure of intermediate shocks in collisionless anisotropic Hall-magnetohydrodynamics plasma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Arriaga, G.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of discontinuities within the double-adiabatic Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is discussed. These solutions are transitional layers where some of the plasma properties change from one equilibrium state to another. Under the assumption of traveling wave solutions with velocity C and propagation angle θ with respect to the ambient magnetic field, the Hall-MHD model reduces to a dynamical system and the waves are heteroclinic orbits joining two different fixed points. The analysis of the fixed points rules out the existence of rotational discontinuities. Simple considerations about the Hamiltonian nature of the system show that, unlike dissipative models, the intermediate shock waves are organized in branches in parameter space, i.e., they occur if a given relationship between θ and C is satisfied. Electron-polarized (ion-polarized) shock waves exhibit, in addition to a reversal of the magnetic field component tangential to the shock front, a maximum (minimum) of the magnetic field amplitude. The jumps of the magnetic field and the relative specific volume between the downstream and the upstream states as a function of the plasma properties are presented. The organization in parameter space of localized structures including in the model the influence of finite Larmor radius is discussed

  4. Simulated x-ray scattering of protein solutions using explicit-solvent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sanghyun; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Makowski, Lee; Roux, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    X-ray solution scattering shows new promise for the study of protein structures, complementing crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance. In order to realize the full potential of solution scattering, it is necessary to not only improve experimental techniques but also develop accurate and efficient computational schemes to relate atomistic models to measurements. Previous computational methods, based on continuum models of water, have been unable to calculate scattering patterns accurately, especially in the wide-angle regime which contains most of the information on the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. Here we present a novel formulation based on the atomistic description of water, in which scattering patterns are calculated from atomic coordinates of protein and water. Without any empirical adjustments, this method produces scattering patterns of unprecedented accuracy in the length scale between 5 and 100 A, as we demonstrate by comparing simulated and observed scattering patterns for myoglobin and lysozyme.

  5. Analysis of inelastic neutron scattering results on model compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vibrational spectroscopy; nitrogenous bases; inelastic neutron scattering. PACS No. ... obtain good quality, high resolution results in this region. Here the .... knowledge of the character of each molecular transition as well as the calculated.

  6. Expansions for model-independent analyses of inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.F.; Hilton, J.M.; Roberts, A.C.M.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the commonly-used Fourier-Bessel expansion for the transition density for inelastic electron scattering depends sensitively on an arbitrary parameter and is not realistic at large distances. Alternative expansions are suggested. (author)

  7. Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Ekanem

    2018-04-05

    Apr 5, 2018 ... scattering characteristics in fractured media and thus, validate the practical utility of using anisotropic .... to fluid flow. ... account the porosity of the host rock and assumes .... The free surface boundary conditions generally.

  8. A relativistic, meson exchange model of pion-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearces, B.C.; Jennings, B.K.

    1990-06-01

    A relativistic meson exchange approach to the pion-nucleon interaction is developed using a three-dimensional relativistic two-body propagator, and the results using different propagators are compared. The relativistic approach is able to describe low energy scattering up to 400 MeV above threshold, while preserving the soft pion theorems. The different propagators give similar results, as the form factors necessary to get a fit suppress much of the multiple scattering. (Author) (24 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.)

  9. Melting under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  10. Quantum graphs: a simple model for chaotic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottos, Tsampikos; Smilansky, Uzy

    2003-01-01

    We connect quantum graphs with infinite leads, and turn them into scattering systems. We show that they display all the features which characterize quantum scattering systems with an underlying classical chaotic dynamics: typical poles, delay time and conductance distributions, Ericson fluctuations, and when considered statistically, the ensemble of scattering matrices reproduces quite well the predictions of the appropriately defined random matrix ensembles. The underlying classical dynamics can be defined, and it provides important parameters which are needed for the quantum theory. In particular, we derive exact expressions for the scattering matrix, and an exact trace formula for the density of resonances, in terms of classical orbits, analogous to the semiclassical theory of chaotic scattering. We use this in order to investigate the origin of the connection between random matrix theory and the underlying classical chaotic dynamics. Being an exact theory, and due to its relative simplicity, it offers new insights into this problem which is at the forefront of the research in chaotic scattering and related fields

  11. Physics Model-Based Scatter Correction in Multi-Source Interior Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hao; Li, Bin; Jia, Xun; Cao, Guohua

    2018-02-01

    Multi-source interior computed tomography (CT) has a great potential to provide ultra-fast and organ-oriented imaging at low radiation dose. However, X-ray cross scattering from multiple simultaneously activated X-ray imaging chains compromises imaging quality. Previously, we published two hardware-based scatter correction methods for multi-source interior CT. Here, we propose a software-based scatter correction method, with the benefit of no need for hardware modifications. The new method is based on a physics model and an iterative framework. The physics model was derived analytically, and was used to calculate X-ray scattering signals in both forward direction and cross directions in multi-source interior CT. The physics model was integrated to an iterative scatter correction framework to reduce scatter artifacts. The method was applied to phantom data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical experimentation that were designed to emulate the image acquisition in a multi-source interior CT architecture recently proposed by our team. The proposed scatter correction method reduced scatter artifacts significantly, even with only one iteration. Within a few iterations, the reconstructed images fast converged toward the "scatter-free" reference images. After applying the scatter correction method, the maximum CT number error at the region-of-interests (ROIs) was reduced to 46 HU in numerical phantom dataset and 48 HU in physical phantom dataset respectively, and the contrast-noise-ratio at those ROIs increased by up to 44.3% and up to 19.7%, respectively. The proposed physics model-based iterative scatter correction method could be useful for scatter correction in dual-source or multi-source CT.

  12. Localization of a small change in a multiple scattering environment without modeling of the actual medium

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotonarivo , Sandrine; Walker , S.C.; Kuperman , W. A.; Roux , Philippe

    2011-01-01

    International audience; A method to actively localize a small perturbation in a multiple scattering medium using a collection of remote acoustic sensors is presented. The approach requires only minimal modeling and no knowledge of the scatterer distribution and properties of the scattering medium and the perturbation. The medium is ensonified before and after a perturbation is introduced. The coherent difference between the measured signals then reveals all field components that have interact...

  13. Resilience in shock and swim stress models of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Charles Drugan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental models of depression often entail exposing a rodent to a stressor and subsequently characterizing changes in learning and anhedonia, which may reflect symptoms of human depression. Importantly, not all people and not all laboratory rats exposed to stressors develop depressed behavior; these resilient individuals are the focus of our review. Herein we describe research from the learned helplessness and intermittent swim stress models of depression in which rats that were allowed to cope with the stressor appear to be behaviorally and neurochemically similar to rats that were not allowed to cope yet appeared resilient in behavioral tests. For example, rats exposed to inescapable tailshock, but do not develop learned helplessness, exhibit altered sensitivity to the behavioral effects of GABAA receptor antagonists and reduced in vitro benzodiazepine receptor ligand binding. This pattern suggested that resilience might involve activation of an endogenous benzodiazepine-like compound, possibly an allostatic modulator of the GABAA receptor like allopregnanolone. From the intermittent swim stress model, we have observed in resilient rats protection from stressor-induced glucocorticoid increases and immune activation. In order to identify the neural mediators of these correlates of resilience, non-invasive measures are needed to predict the resilient or vulnerable phenotype prior to analysis of neural endpoints. To this end, we found that ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs appear to predict the resilient phenotype in the intermittent swim stress paradigm. We propose that combining non-invasive predictive measures, such as USVs with biological endpoint measures, will facilitate future research into the neural correlates of resilience.

  14. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX, HMX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G; Roudot, M; Genetier, M; Mateille, P; Lefrançois, A

    2014-01-01

    HMX, RDX and NTO based cast-cured plastic bounded explosive (PBX) are widely used in insensitive ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside PBX. Comparing to a pressed PBX, a cast-cured PBX is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain-binder interface leading to a different burning behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. Here, we review the shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) and its modeling for cast-cured PBX containing HMX, RDX and NTO. Future direction is given in conclusion.

  15. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX, HMX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, G.; Roudot, M.; Genetier, M.; Mateille, P.; Lefrançois, A.

    2014-05-01

    HMX, RDX and NTO based cast-cured plastic bounded explosive (PBX) are widely used in insensitive ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside PBX. Comparing to a pressed PBX, a cast-cured PBX is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain-binder interface leading to a different burning behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. Here, we review the shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) and its modeling for cast-cured PBX containing HMX, RDX and NTO. Future direction is given in conclusion.

  16. Ion heating and energy partition at the heliospheric termination shock: hybrid simulations and analytical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, S Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Pin [BOSTON UNIV.; Schwadron, N A [BOSTON UNIV.; Lee, M [UNIV OF NEW HAMPSHIRE

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos hybrid simulation code is used to examine heating and the partition of dissipation energy at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock in the presence of pickup ions. The simulations are one-dimensional in space but three-dimensional in field and velocity components, and are carried out for a range of values of pickup ion relative density. Results from the simulations show that because the solar wind ions are relatively cold upstream, the temperature of these ions is raised by a relatively larger factor than the temperature of the pickup ions. An analytic model for energy partition is developed on the basis of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and a polytropic energy equation. The polytropic index {gamma} used in the Rankine-Hugoniot relations is varied to improve agreement between the model and the simulations concerning the fraction of downstream heating in the pickup ions as well as the compression ratio at the shock. When the pickup ion density is less than 20%, the polytropic index is about 5/3, whereas for pickup ion densities greater than 20%, the polytropic index tends toward 2.2, suggesting a fundamental change in the character of the shock, as seen in the simulations, when the pickup ion density is large. The model and the simulations both indicate for the upstream parameters chosen for Voyager 2 conditions that the pickup ion density is about 25% and the pickup ions gain the larger share (approximately 90%) of the downstream thermal pressure, consistent with Voyager 2 observations near the shock.

  17. A DATA-DRIVEN ANALYTIC MODEL FOR PROTON ACCELERATION BY LARGE-SCALE SOLAR CORONAL SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozarev, Kamen A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (United States); Schwadron, Nathan A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We have recently studied the development of an eruptive filament-driven, large-scale off-limb coronal bright front (OCBF) in the low solar corona, using remote observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ’s Advanced Imaging Assembly EUV telescopes. In that study, we obtained high-temporal resolution estimates of the OCBF parameters regulating the efficiency of charged particle acceleration within the theoretical framework of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). These parameters include the time-dependent front size, speed, and strength, as well as the upstream coronal magnetic field orientations with respect to the front’s surface normal direction. Here we present an analytical particle acceleration model, specifically developed to incorporate the coronal shock/compressive front properties described above, derived from remote observations. We verify the model’s performance through a grid of idealized case runs using input parameters typical for large-scale coronal shocks, and demonstrate that the results approach the expected DSA steady-state behavior. We then apply the model to the event of 2011 May 11 using the OCBF time-dependent parameters derived by Kozarev et al. We find that the compressive front likely produced energetic particles as low as 1.3 solar radii in the corona. Comparing the modeled and observed fluences near Earth, we also find that the bulk of the acceleration during this event must have occurred above 1.5 solar radii. With this study we have taken a first step in using direct observations of shocks and compressions in the innermost corona to predict the onsets and intensities of solar energetic particle events.

  18. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  19. How Non-Gaussian Shocks Affect Risk Premia in Non-Linear DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper studies how non-Gaussian shocks affect risk premia in DSGE models approximated to second and third order. Based on an extension of the results in Schmitt-Grohé & Uribe (2004) to third order, we derive propositions for how rare disasters, stochastic volatility, and GARCH affect any risk...... premia in a wide class of DSGE models. To quantify these effects, we then set up a standard New Keynesian DSGE model where total factor productivity includes rare disasters, stochastic volatility, and GARCH. We …find that rare disasters increase the mean level of the 10-year nominal term premium, whereas...

  20. Persistent vs. Permanent Income Shocks in the Buffer-Stock Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druedahl, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Thomas Høgholm

    2017-01-01

    relative risk aversion (CRRA) coefficient. If used for calibration, misspecified preferences could, for example, lead to a serious misjudgment in the value of social insurance mechanisms. Economic behavior, such as the marginal propensity to consume (MPC), of households simulated from the estimated......We investigate the effects of assuming a fully permanent income shock in a standard buffer-stock consumption model, when the true income process is only highly persistent. This assumption is computationally very advantageous, and thus often used, but might be problematic due to the implied...... (misspecified) model is, on the other hand, rather close to that from the correctly specified model....

  1. Model of homogeneous nucleus. Total and inelastic cross sections of nucleon-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, L.A.; Smorodinskaya, N.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the nucleon-nuckleus scattering amplitude at high energy can be easily calculated by generalization of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude and satisfies a simple factorization relation. As distinct from the Glauber model, the suggested approach makes no use of the nucleonic structure of the nucleus and the hadron-nucleus scattering amplitude is not expressed in terms of hadron-nucleon scattering amplitudes. The energy dependence of total and inelastic cross sections is successfully described for a number of nuclei

  2. Optimal Design and Model Validation for Combustion Experiments in a Shock Tube

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-06

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate functions. The control parameters are the initial hydrogen concentration and the temperature. First, we build a polynomial based surrogate model for the observable related to the reactions in the shock tube. Second, we use a novel MAP based approach to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments and select the best experimental set-ups corresponding to the optimal expected information gains. Third, we use the synthetic data to carry out virtual validation of our methodology.

  3. A One-Dimensional Relativistic Shock Model for the Light Curve of Gamma-ray Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Yue Su; Yi-Ping Qin; Jun-Hui Fan; Zhang-Yu Han

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the forming of gamma-ray burst pulses with a simple onedimensional relativistic shock model. The mechanism is that a "central engine" drives forward the nearby plasma inside the fireball to generate a series of pressure waves. We give a relativistic geometric recurrence formula that connects the time when the pressure waves are produced and the time when the corresponding shocks occurred. This relation enables us to relate the pulse magnitude with the observation time. Our analysis shows that the evolution of the pressure waves leads to a fast rise and an exponential decay pulses. In determining the width of the pulses, the acceleration time is more important than that of the deceleration.

  4. The electron density and temperature distributions predicted by bow shock models of Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bohm, K.H.; Raga, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The observable spatial electron density and temperature distributions for series of simple bow shock models, which are of special interest in the study of Herbig-Haro (H-H) objects are computed. The spatial electron density and temperature distributions are derived from forbidden line ratios. It should be possible to use these results to recognize whether an observed electron density or temperature distribution can be attributed to a bow shock, as is the case in some Herbig-Haro objects. As an example, the empirical and predicted distributions for H-H 1 are compared. The predicted electron temperature distributions give the correct temperature range and they show very good diagnostic possibilities if the forbidden O III (4959 + 5007)/4363 wavelength ratio is used. 44 refs

  5. Triiodothyronine Administration in a Model of Septic Shock: A Randomized Blinded Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Matthew J; Chapman, Marianne J; Torpy, David J; Kuchel, Timothy R; Clarke, Iain J; Nash, Coralie H; Fraser, Jonathan D; Ludbrook, Guy L

    2016-06-01

    Triiodothyronine concentration in plasma decreases during septic shock and may contribute to multiple organ dysfunction. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of administering triiodothyronine, with and without hydrocortisone, in a model of septic shock. Randomized blinded placebo-controlled trial. Preclinical research laboratory. Thirty-two sheep rendered septic with IV Escherichia coli and receiving protocol-guided sedation, ventilation, IV fluids, and norepinephrine infusion. Two hours following induction of sepsis, 32 sheep received a 24-hour IV infusion of 1) placebo + placebo, 2) triiodothyronine + placebo, 3) hydrocortisone + placebo, or 4) triiodothyronine + hydrocortisone. Primary outcome was the total amount of norepinephrine required to maintain a target mean arterial pressure; secondary outcomes included hemodynamic and metabolic indices. Plasma triiodothyronine levels increased to supraphysiological concentrations with hormonal therapy. Following 24 hours of study drug infusion, the amount of norepinephrine required was no different between the study groups (mean ± SD μg/kg; placebo + placebo group 208 ± 392; triiodothyronine + placebo group 501 ± 370; hydrocortisone + placebo group 167 ± 286; triiodothyronine + hydrocortisone group 466 ± 495; p = 0.20). There was no significant treatment effect on any hemodynamic variable, metabolic parameter, or measure of organ function. A 24-hour infusion of triiodothyronine, with or without hydrocortisone, in an ovine model of septic shock did not markedly alter norepinephrine requirement or any other physiological parameter.

  6. Kernel integration scatter model for parallel beam gamma camera and SPECT point source response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Scatter correction is a prerequisite for quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this paper a kernel integration scatter Scatter correction is a prerequisite for quantitative SPECT. In this paper a kernel integration scatter model for parallel beam gamma camera and SPECT point source response based on Klein-Nishina formula is proposed. This method models primary photon distribution as well as first Compton scattering. It also includes a correction for multiple scattering by applying a point isotropic single medium buildup factor for the path segment between the point of scatter an the point of detection. Gamma ray attenuation in the object of imaging, based on known μ-map distribution, is considered too. Intrinsic spatial resolution of the camera is approximated by a simple Gaussian function. Collimator is modeled simply using acceptance angles derived from the physical dimensions of the collimator. Any gamma rays satisfying this angle were passed through the collimator to the crystal. Septal penetration and scatter in the collimator were not included in the model. The method was validated by comparison with Monte Carlo MCNP-4a numerical phantom simulation and excellent results were obtained. The physical phantom experiments, to confirm this method, are planed to be done. (author)

  7. Eikonal multiple scattering model within the framework of Feynman's positron theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekou, A.

    1986-07-01

    The Bethe Salpeter equation for nucleon-nucleon, nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is eikonalized. Multiple scattering series is obtained. Contributions of three body interations are included. The model presented below may be used to investigate atomic collisions. (author)

  8. An application of the Dipole Pomeron model to the pion-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covolan, R.J.M.; Leite, E.E.; Montanha, J.; Soares, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Pomeron model is applied to the pion-proton elastic scattering aiming to describe the total and differential cross sections and the ρ ratio between the scattering amplitude real and imaginary parts. It is also discussed how far the present available experimental results lead to the necessity of adopting a (α 0 > 1) supercritical trajectory. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  9. Models for electromagnetic scattering from the sea at extremely low grazing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lewis B.

    1987-12-01

    The present state of understanding in the field of low-grazing-angle sea scatter is reviewed and extended. The important concept of shadowing is approached from the point of view of diffraction theory, and limits in wind speed and radar frequency are found for the application of shadowing theories based on geometrical optics. The implications of shadowing function based on illumination thresholding are shown to compare favorably with a variety of experimental results. Scattering from the exposed surface peaks is treated by a composite-surface Bragg model, and by wedge models using both physical optics and the method of equivalent currents. Curiously, the scattering levels predicted by these widely different approximations are all in fairly good agreement with experimental values for moderately low grazing angles (about 5 deg), with the physical optics wedge model being superior at 1 deg. A new scattering feature, the slosh, is introduced, with scattering behavior that resembles the temporal and polarization dependence of observed low angle returns from calm water. The plume model of scattering from breaking waves (from earlier work) is discussed as a source of high-intensity Sea Spikes. It is emphasized that the prediction of low angle scattering from the sea will require considerably more information about the shape, size, and distribution of the actual scattering features.

  10. Polarimetric SAR interferometry-based decomposition modelling for reliable scattering retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Neeraj; Kumar, Shashi; Tolpekin, Valentyn

    2016-05-01

    Fully Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data is used for scattering information retrieval from single SAR resolution cell. Single SAR resolution cell may contain contribution from more than one scattering objects. Hence, single or dual polarized data does not provide all the possible scattering information. So, to overcome this problem fully Polarimetric data is used. It was observed in previous study that fully Polarimetric data of different dates provide different scattering values for same object and coefficient of determination obtained from linear regression between volume scattering and aboveground biomass (AGB) shows different values for the SAR dataset of different dates. Scattering values are important input elements for modelling of forest aboveground biomass. In this research work an approach is proposed to get reliable scattering from interferometric pair of fully Polarimetric RADARSAT-2 data. The field survey for data collection was carried out for Barkot forest during November 10th to December 5th, 2014. Stratified random sampling was used to collect field data for circumference at breast height (CBH) and tree height measurement. Field-measured AGB was compared with the volume scattering elements obtained from decomposition modelling of individual PolSAR images and PolInSAR coherency matrix. Yamaguchi 4-component decomposition was implemented to retrieve scattering elements from SAR data. PolInSAR based decomposition was the great challenge in this work and it was implemented with certain assumptions to create Hermitian coherency matrix with co-registered polarimetric interferometric pair of SAR data. Regression analysis between field-measured AGB and volume scattering element obtained from PolInSAR data showed highest (0.589) coefficient of determination. The same regression with volume scattering elements of individual SAR images showed 0.49 and 0.50 coefficients of determination for master and slave images respectively. This study recommends use of

  11. Optical model theory of elastic electron- and positron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachain, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the basic idea of the optical model theory is to enable analysis of the elastic scattering of a particle from a complex target by replacing the complicated interactions between the beam and the target by an optical potential, or pseudopotential, in which the incident particle moves. Once the optical potential is determined the original many-body elastic scattering problem reduces to a one-body situation. The resulting optical potential is, however, a very complicated operator, and the formal expressions obtained from first principles for the optical potential can only be evaluated approximately in a few simple cases, such as high energy elastic hadron-nucleus scattering, for the the optical potential can be expressed in terms of two-body hadron-nucleon amplitudes, and the non-relativistic elastic scattering of fast charged particles by atoms. The elastic scattering of an electron or positron by a neutral atom at intermediate energies is here considered. Exchange effects between the projectile and the atomic electrons are considered; also absorption and polarisation effects. Applications of the full-wave optical model have so far only been made to the elastic scattering of fast electrons and positrons by atomic H, He, Ne, and Ar. Agreements of the optical model results with absolute measurements of differential cross sections for electron scattering are very good, an agreement that improves as the energy increases, but deteriorates quickly as the incident energy becomes lower than 50 eV for atomic H or 100 eV for He. For more complex atoms the optical model calculations also appear very encouraging. With regard to positron-atom elastic scattering the optical model results for positron-He scattering differ markedly at small angles from the corresponding electron-He values. It would be interesting to have experimental angular distributions of positron-atom elastic scattering in order to check predictions of the optical model theory. (U.K.)

  12. Optical-potential model for electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.; Oza, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that the addition of a matrix optical potential to a close-coupling calculation should lead to improved results in studies of electron-atom scattering. This procedure is described with use of a pseudostate expansion to evaluate the optical potential. The integro-differential equations are solved by a linear-algebraic method. As a test case, applications are made to electron-hydrogen scattering, and the results are compared with those obtained by other calculational procedures, and with experiment

  13. Modeling traveling-wave Thomson scattering using PIConGPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debus, Alexander; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas; Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Steiniger, Klaus; Pausch, Richard; Huebl, Axel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) laser pulses are pulse-front tilted and dispersion corrected beams that enable all-optical free-electron lasers (OFELs) up to the hard X-ray range. Electrons in such a side-scattering geometry experience the TWTS laser field as a continuous plane wave over centimeter to meter interaction lengths. After briefly discussing which OFEL scenarios are currently numerically accessible, we detail implementation and tests of TWTS beams within PIConGPU (3D-PIC code) and show how numerical dispersion and boundary effects are kept under control.

  14. The physiology of blood loss and shock: New insights from a human laboratory model of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Alicia M; Howard, Jeffrey T; Convertino, Victor A

    2017-04-01

    The ability to quickly diagnose hemorrhagic shock is critical for favorable patient outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the time course and involvement of the various physiological mechanisms that are active during volume loss and that have the ability to stave off hemodynamic collapse. This review provides new insights about the physiology that underlies blood loss and shock in humans through the development of a simulated model of hemorrhage using lower body negative pressure. In this review, we present controlled experimental results through utilization of the lower body negative pressure human hemorrhage model that provide novel insights on the integration of physiological mechanisms critical to the compensation for volume loss. We provide data obtained from more than 250 human experiments to classify human subjects into two distinct groups: those who have a high tolerance and can compensate well for reduced central blood volume (e.g. hemorrhage) and those with low tolerance with poor capacity to compensate.We include the conceptual introduction of arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow oscillations, reflex-mediated autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, and respiration that function to protect adequate tissue oxygenation through adjustments in cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance. Finally, unique time course data are presented that describe mechanistic events associated with the rapid onset of hemodynamic failure (i.e. decompensatory shock). Impact Statement Hemorrhage is the leading cause of death in both civilian and military trauma. The work submitted in this review is important because it advances the understanding of mechanisms that contribute to the total integrated physiological compensations for inadequate tissue oxygenation (i.e. shock) that arise from hemorrhage. Unlike an animal model, we introduce the utilization of lower body negative pressure as a noninvasive model that allows for the study of progressive

  15. Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify deficiencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the measured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the definition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares fit of the predicted to the measured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new definition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.

  16. Modeling of the plasma generated in a rarefied hypersonic shock layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbar, Erin D.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a rigorous numerical model is developed to simulate the plasma generated in a rarefied, hypersonic shock layer. The model uses the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to treat the particle collisions and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method to simulate the plasma dynamics in a self-consistent manner. The model is applied to compute the flow along the stagnation streamline in front of a blunt body reentering the Earth's atmosphere at very high velocity. Results from the rigorous DSMC-PIC model are compared directly to the standard DSMC modeling approach that uses the ambipolar diffusion approximation to simulate the plasma dynamics. It is demonstrated that the self-consistent computation of the plasma dynamics using the rigorous DSMC-PIC model captures many physical phenomena not accurately predicted by the standard modeling approach. These computations represent the first assessment of the validity of the ambipolar diffusion approximation when predicting the rarefied plasma generated in a hypersonic shock layer.

  17. Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carried out which provide valuable insight for improving our understanding of nuclear reactions. One of the interesting aspects is to understand the effect of the halo structure, on elastic scattering cross-sections at near-Coulomb barrier energies in reactions induced by neutron halo nuclei and weakly bound radioactive ...

  18. Phenomenological models of elastic nucleon scattering and predictions for LHC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, J.; Kundrát, Vojtěch; Lokajíček, Miloš; Procházka, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 843, č. 1 (2010), s. 84-106 ISSN 0550-3213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : high energy elastic hadron scattering Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.642, year: 2010

  19. Shock and rarefaction waves in a hyperbolic model of incompressible materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Ruggeri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to investigate shock and rarefaction waves in a hyperbolic model of incompressible materials. To this aim, we use the so-called extended quasi-thermal-incompressible (EQTI model, recently proposed by Gouin & Ruggeri (H. Gouin, T. Ruggeri, Internat. J. Non-Linear Mech. 47 688–693 (2012. In particular, we use as constitutive equation a variant of the well-known Bousinnesq approximation in which the specific volume depends not only on the temperature but also on the pressure. The limit case of ideal incompressibility, namely when the thermal expansion coefficient and the compressibility factor vanish, is also considered.

  20. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This report documents the outcome of the assessment.

  1. Multi-messenger Light Curves from Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Internal Shock Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Mauricio [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP), The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Heinze, Jonas; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Murase, Kohta, E-mail: bustamanteramirez.1@osu.edu, E-mail: walter.winter@desy.de, E-mail: jonas.heinze@desy.de, E-mail: murase@psu.edu [Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA16802 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma-rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure can be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  2. A History of constitutive modeling via molecular dynamics: Shock waves in fluids and gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holian B.L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From its inception in the mid-Fifties, the method of molecular-dynamics (MD computer simulations has been used to probe the foundations of statistical mechanics, first for equilibrium equation-of-state averages, and then for transport properties from equilibrium fluctuations. Traditional statistical mechanical theoreticians were shocked to see that this new-fangled computational physics approach was feasible, even with incredibly tiny samples (on the order of a hundred atoms. When direct measurement of transport coefficients by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD was proposed in the early Seventies, even greater resistance was encountered from the traditionalists – though evidence for convergence with the equilibrium fluctuation method gradually accumulated. In the late Seventies and early Eighties, shock-wave simulations by NEMD made it possible to test directly the principal continuum constitutive theory for fluids, namely, Navier-Stokes viscous flow and Fourier’s Law of heat conduction. To everyone’s surprise – and the consternation of many – NEMD, once again, demonstrated that continuum theory applies at embarrassingly small (atomistic time and length scales. We pursue this early line of work into the modern era, showing how NEMD shock-wave simulations can still provide surprising insights and improvements upon our understanding of constitutive modeling.

  3. Multi-messenger light curves from gamma-ray bursts in the internal shock model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Mauricio [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP); Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Murase, Kohta [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure tend to be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  4. Oxidative stress may be involved in distant organ failure in tourniquet shock model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikata, Rie; Kato, Naho; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

    2014-03-01

    Crush syndrome is characterized by prolonged shock resulting from extensive muscle damage and multiple organ failure. However, the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure has not yet been completely elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the molecular biological and histopathological aspects of distant organ injury in crush syndrome by using tourniquet shock model mice. DNA microarray analysis of the soleus muscle showed an increase in the mRNA levels of Cox-2, Hsp70, c-fos, and IL-6, at 3h after ischemia/reperfusion injury at the lower extremity. In vivo staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) showed edema and degeneration in the soleus muscle, but no change in the distant organs. Immunohistological staining of the HSP70 protein revealed nuclear translocation in the soleus muscle, kidney, liver, and lung. The c-fos mRNA levels were elevated in the soleus muscle, kidney, and liver, displaying nuclear translocation of c-FOS protein. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis suggested the involvement of apoptosis in ischemia/reperfusion injury in the soleus muscle. Apoptotic cells were not found in greater quantities in the kidney. Oxidative stress, as determined using a free radical elective evaluator (d-ROM test), markedly increased after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, examination of immunohistological changes and determination of oxidative stress are proposed to be useful in evaluating the extent of tourniquet shock, even before changes are observed by HE staining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. P11 πN scattering in a potential model and in the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss P 11 πN scattering in a model where the π is coupled to quark bags for baryons N, R, Δ. From the underlying qqπ couplings we derive B'Bπ vertices which are used in a solution of a πN, πΔ two-channel scattering problem. Using one bag radius from a fit to P 33 πN data, we are unable to reproduce delta 11 . A fit requires a Roper radius Rsub(R) > Rsub(N). We discuss the sensitivity of the fit to small variations in other bag parameters. The theory is compared with a simple potential model and with field theories employing baryons instead of quark fields. (orig.)

  6. Shock drift acceleration in the presence of waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the initial results of a model designed to study the modification of the scatter-free, shock drift acceleration of energetic test particles by wave activity in the vicinity of a quasi-perpendicular, fast-mode MHD shock. It is emphasized that the concept of magnetic moment conservation is a valid approximation only in the perpendicular and nearly perpendicular regimes, when the angle theta-Bn between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field vector is in the range from 70 deg to 90 deg. The present investigation is concerned with one step in a program which is being developed to combine the shock drift and diffusive processes at a shock of arbitrary theta-Bn.

  7. Systemic release of cytokines and heat shock proteins in porcine models of polytrauma and hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Todd A.; Romero, Jacqueline; Bach, Harold H.; Strom, Joel A.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Majetschak, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define systemic release kinetics of a panel of cytokines and heat shock proteins (HSP) in porcine polytrauma/hemorrhage models and to evaluate whether they could be useful as early trauma biomarkers. Design and Setting Prospective study in a research laboratory. Subjects Twenty-one Yorkshire pigs. Measurements and Main Results Pigs underwent polytrauma (femur fractures/lung contusion, P), hemorrhage (mean arterial pressure 25-30mmHg, H), polytrauma plus hemorrhage (P/H) or sham procedure (S). Plasma was obtained at baseline, in 5-15min intervals during a 60min shock period without intervention and in 60-120min intervals during fluid resuscitation for up to 300min. Plasma was assayed for IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, IFNγ, TGFβ, TNFα, HSP40, HSP70 and HSP90 by ELISA. All animals after S, P and H survived (n=5/group). Three of six animals after P/H died. IL-10 increased during shock after P and this increase was attenuated after H. TNFα increased during the shock period after P, H and also after S. P/H abolished the systemic IL-10 and TNFα release and resulted in 20-30% increased levels of IL-6 during shock. As fluid resuscitation was initiated TNFα and IL-10 levels decreased after P, H and P/H, HSP 70 increased after P, IL-6 levels remained elevated after P/H and also increased after P and S. Conclusions Differential regulation of the systemic cytokine release after polytrauma and/or hemorrhage, in combination with the effects of resuscitation, can explain the variability and inconsistent association of systemic cytokine/HSP levels with clinical variables in trauma patients. Insults of major severity (P/H) partially suppress the systemic inflammatory response. The plasma concentrations of the measured cytokines/HSPs do not reflect injury severity or physiological changes in porcine trauma models and are unlikely to be able to serve as useful trauma biomarkers in patients. PMID:21983369

  8. Modeling Shocks Detected by Voyager 1 in the Local Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K.; Pogorelov, N. V. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Burlaga, L. F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    The magnetometer (MAG) on Voyager 1 ( V1 ) has been sampling the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) since 2012 August. The V1 MAG observations have shown draped ISMF in the very local interstellar medium disturbed occasionally by significant enhancements in magnetic field strength. Using a three-dimensional, data-driven, multi-fluid model, we investigated these magnetic field enhancements beyond the heliopause that are supposedly associated with solar transients. To introduce time-dependent effects at the inner boundary at 1 au, we used daily averages of the solar wind parameters from the OMNI data set. The model ISMF strength, direction, and proton number density are compared with V1 data beyond the heliopause. The model reproduced the large-scale fluctuations between 2012.652 and 2016.652, including major events around 2012.9 and 2014.6. The model also predicts shocks arriving at V1 around 2017.395 and 2019.502. Another model driven by OMNI data with interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) removed at the inner boundary suggests that ICMEs may play a significant role in the propagation of shocks into the interstellar medium.

  9. Comparison of analytic source models for head scatter factor calculation and planar dose calculation for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Guanghua; Liu, Chihray; Lu Bo; Palta, Jatinder R; Li, Jonathan G

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to choose an appropriate head scatter source model for the fast and accurate independent planar dose calculation for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MLC. The performance of three different head scatter source models regarding their ability to model head scatter and facilitate planar dose calculation was evaluated. A three-source model, a two-source model and a single-source model were compared in this study. In the planar dose calculation algorithm, in-air fluence distribution was derived from each of the head scatter source models while considering the combination of Jaw and MLC opening. Fluence perturbations due to tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf end and leaf transmission were taken into account explicitly. The dose distribution was calculated by convolving the in-air fluence distribution with an experimentally determined pencil-beam kernel. The results were compared with measurements using a diode array and passing rates with 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria were reported. It was found that the two-source model achieved the best agreement on head scatter factor calculation. The three-source model and single-source model underestimated head scatter factors for certain symmetric rectangular fields and asymmetric fields, but similar good agreement could be achieved when monitor back scatter effect was incorporated explicitly. All the three source models resulted in comparable average passing rates (>97%) when the 3%/3 mm criterion was selected. The calculation with the single-source model and two-source model was slightly faster than the three-source model due to their simplicity

  10. Comparison of analytic source models for head scatter factor calculation and planar dose calculation for IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Guanghua [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Liu, Chihray; Lu Bo; Palta, Jatinder R; Li, Jonathan G [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0385 (United States)

    2008-04-21

    The purpose of this study was to choose an appropriate head scatter source model for the fast and accurate independent planar dose calculation for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MLC. The performance of three different head scatter source models regarding their ability to model head scatter and facilitate planar dose calculation was evaluated. A three-source model, a two-source model and a single-source model were compared in this study. In the planar dose calculation algorithm, in-air fluence distribution was derived from each of the head scatter source models while considering the combination of Jaw and MLC opening. Fluence perturbations due to tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf end and leaf transmission were taken into account explicitly. The dose distribution was calculated by convolving the in-air fluence distribution with an experimentally determined pencil-beam kernel. The results were compared with measurements using a diode array and passing rates with 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria were reported. It was found that the two-source model achieved the best agreement on head scatter factor calculation. The three-source model and single-source model underestimated head scatter factors for certain symmetric rectangular fields and asymmetric fields, but similar good agreement could be achieved when monitor back scatter effect was incorporated explicitly. All the three source models resulted in comparable average passing rates (>97%) when the 3%/3 mm criterion was selected. The calculation with the single-source model and two-source model was slightly faster than the three-source model due to their simplicity.

  11. Evaluation of attenuating materials: model for the distribution of scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Paulo R.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for the behaviour of the distribution of photon scattered by attenuating media is presented. Shielding barriers or attenuating materials used in tests of quality control in radiology are proposed. Comparative results for Lucite are reported

  12. Choice of theoretical model for beam scattering at accelerator output foil for particle energy determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagyra, V.S.; Ryabka, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    For measuring the charged particle energy calculations of mean square angles of electron beam multiple Coulomb scattering at output combined accelerator target were undertaken according to seven theoretical models. Mollier method showed the best agreement with experiments

  13. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set

  14. Model independent dispersion approach to proton Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Radescu, E.E.

    1980-12-01

    The proton Compton scattering at low and intermediate energies is studied by means of a dispersion framework which exploits in an optimal way the (fixed momentum transfer) analyticity properties of the amplitudes in conjunction with the consequences of the (s-channel) unitarity. The mathematical background of the work consists of methods specific to boundary value problems for analytic vector-valued functions and interpolation theory. In comparison with previous related work, the external problems to be solved now are much more difficult because of the inclusion of the photoproduction input and also lead to additional computational complications. The lower bounds on the differential cross-section, obtained without any reference to subtractions and annihilation channel contributions, appear sufficiently restrictive to evidentiate rigorously some inconsistencies between results of single pion photoproduction multipole extractions and proton Compton scattering data. (author)

  15. Polarized bow shocks reveal features of the winds and environments of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manisha

    2018-01-01

    Massive stars strongly affect their surroundings through their energetic stellar winds and deaths as supernovae. The bow shock structures created by fast-moving massive stars contain important information about the winds and ultimate fates of these stars as well as their local interstellar medium (ISM). Since bow shocks are aspherical, the light scattered in the dense shock material becomes polarized. Analyzing this polarization reveals details of the bow shock geometry as well as the composition, velocity, density, and albedo of the scattering material. With these quantities, we can constrain the properties of the stellar wind and thus the evolutionary state of the star, as well as the dust composition of the local ISM.In my dissertation research, I use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that I optimized to simulate the polarization signatures produced by both resolved and unresolved stellar wind bow shocks (SWBS) illuminated by a central star and by shock emission. I derive bow shock shapes and densities from published analytical calculations and smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) models. In the case of the analytical SWBS and electron scattering, I find that higher optical depths produce higher polarization and position angle rotations at specific viewing angles compared to theoretical predictions for low optical depths. This is due to the geometrical properties of the bow shock combined with multiple scattering effects. For dust scattering, the polarization signature is strongly affected by wavelength, dust grain properties, and viewing angle. The behavior of the polarization as a function of wavelength in these cases can distinguish among different dust models for the local ISM. In the case of SPH density structures, I investigate how the polarization changes as a function of the evolutionary phase of the SWBS. My dissertation compares these simulations with polarization data from Betelgeuse and other massive stars with bow shocks. I discuss the

  16. Accounting for scattering in the Landauer-Datta-Lundstrom transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Олексійович Кругляк

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scattering of carriers in the LDL transport model during the changes of the scattering times in the collision processes is considered qualitatively. The basic relationship between the transmission coefficient T and the average mean free path  is derived for 1D conductor. As an example, the experimental data for Si MOSFET are analyzed with the use of various models of reliability.

  17. Problems of phenomenological description of elastic pp scattering at the LHC predictions of contemporary models

    CERN Document Server

    Kundrát, Vojtech; Kaspar, Jan; Procházka, Jirí

    2010-01-01

    The standard description of common influence of both the Coulomb and hadronic elastic scattering in the proton - proton elastic collisions at high energies with the help of West and Yennie complete amplitude is shown to be theoretically inconsistent. The approach being based on the eikonal model amplitude removes these troubles. The preference of its applica- tion to the analysis of experimental data and in obtaining the predictions of contemporary models for proton - proton high energy elastic hadronic scattering are discussed.

  18. 14O+p elastic scattering in a microscopic cluster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descouvemont, P.; Baye, D.; Leo, F.

    2006-01-01

    The 14O+p elastic scattering is analyzed in a fully microscopic cluster model. With the Resonating Group Method associated with the microscopic R-matrix theory, phase shifts and cross sections are calculated. Data on 16O+p are used to test the precision of the model. For the 14O+p elastic scattering, an excellent agreement is found with recent experimental data. Resonances properties in 15F are discussed

  19. A unified model for diffractive and inelastic scattering of a light atom from a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.E.; Miller, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A simple model for gas-surface scattering is presented which permits treatment of inelastic effects in diffractive systems. The model, founded on an impulsive collision assumption, leads to an intensity distribution which is just a sum of contributions from n-phonon scattering events. Furthemore, by using a convenient form for the repulsive interaction potential, analytic expressions are obtained for the elastic and one-phonon intensities that are in qualitative agreement with experimental results. (Auth.)

  20. A mesoscopic reaction rate model for shock initiation of multi-component PBX explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y R; Duan, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Ou, Z C; Huang, F L

    2016-11-05

    The primary goal of this research is to develop a three-term mesoscopic reaction rate model that consists of a hot-spot ignition, a low-pressure slow burning and a high-pressure fast reaction terms for shock initiation of multi-component Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX). Thereinto, based on the DZK hot-spot model for a single-component PBX explosive, the hot-spot ignition term as well as its reaction rate is obtained through a "mixing rule" of the explosive components; new expressions for both the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term are also obtained by establishing the relationships between the reaction rate of the multi-component PBX explosive and that of its explosive components, based on the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term of a mesoscopic reaction rate model. Furthermore, for verification, the new reaction rate model is incorporated into the DYNA2D code to simulate numerically the shock initiation process of the PBXC03 and the PBXC10 multi-component PBX explosives, and the numerical results of the pressure histories at different Lagrange locations in explosive are found to be in good agreements with previous experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND ACCELERATION AT SHOCK WAVES IN A FOCUSED TRANSPORT MODEL: IMPLICATIONS FOR MIXED SOLAR PARTICLE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Dröge, W. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Gedalin, M. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion Unversity of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2016-03-20

    We use numerical solutions of the focused transport equation obtained by an implicit stochastic differential equation scheme to study the evolution of the pitch-angle dependent distribution function of protons in the vicinity of shock waves. For a planar stationary parallel shock, the effects of anisotropic distribution functions, pitch-angle dependent spatial diffusion, and first-order Fermi acceleration at the shock are examined, including the timescales on which the energy spectrum approaches the predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory. We then consider the case that a flare-accelerated population of ions is released close to the Sun simultaneously with a traveling interplanetary shock for which we assume a simplified geometry. We investigate the consequences of adiabatic focusing in the diverging magnetic field on the particle transport at the shock, and of the competing effects of acceleration at the shock and adiabatic energy losses in the expanding solar wind. We analyze the resulting intensities, anisotropies, and energy spectra as a function of time and find that our simulations can naturally reproduce the morphologies of so-called mixed particle events in which sometimes the prompt and sometimes the shock component is more prominent, by assuming parameter values which are typically observed for scattering mean free paths of ions in the inner heliosphere and energy spectra of the flare particles which are injected simultaneously with the release of the shock.

  2. Chronic Porcine Two-Hit Model with Hemorrhagic Shock and textitPseudomonas aeruginosa Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Eissner, B.;Matz, K.;Smorodchenko, A.;Röschmann, A.;Specht, B. U. v.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is still a major cause of death despite well-developed therapeutical strategies such as antibiotics and supportive medication. The aim of this study was to characterize the long-term effects of a two-hit porcine sepsis model with a hemorrhagic shock as ‘first hit’ followed by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infusion as ‘second hit’. Materials and Methods: Twelve juvenile healthy pigs were anesthetized and hemodynamically monitored. The two-hit group (n = 6) underwent a hemorrhagic...

  3. Comparison of Hydroxocobalamin Versus Norepinephrine Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Servere Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Severe Septic Shock presented at/published to SURF Conference, San Antonio, TX 20 May 2016 with MDWJ 41-108, and has...of Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center (WHASC) internship and residency programs. 3. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences...must complete page two of this form: a. In Section 2, add the funding source for your study (e.g., S9 MOW CRD Graduate Health Sciences Education (GHSE

  4. Letter: Modeling reactive shock waves in heterogeneous solids at the continuum level with stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittell, D. E.; Yarrington, C. D.; Lechman, J. B.; Baer, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    A new paradigm is introduced for modeling reactive shock waves in heterogeneous solids at the continuum level. Inspired by the probability density function methods from turbulent reactive flows, it is hypothesized that the unreacted material microstructures lead to a distribution of heat release rates from chemical reaction. Fluctuations in heat release, rather than velocity, are coupled to the reactive Euler equations which are then solved via the Riemann problem. A numerically efficient, one-dimensional hydrocode is used to demonstrate this new approach, and simulation results of a representative impact calculation (inert flyer into explosive target) are discussed.

  5. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Ruefenacht, D; Delpy, D T

    2006-01-01

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware

  6. Optical modeling of plasma-deposited ZnO films: Electron scattering at different length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoops, Harm C. M.; Loo, Bas W. H. van de; Smit, Sjoerd; Ponomarev, Mikhail V.; Weber, Jan-Willem; Sharma, Kashish; Kessels, Wilhelmus M. M.; Creatore, Mariadriana

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an optical modeling study on electron scattering mechanisms in plasma-deposited ZnO layers is presented. Because various applications of ZnO films pose a limit on the electron carrier density due to its effect on the film transmittance, higher electron mobility values are generally preferred instead. Hence, insights into the electron scattering contributions affecting the carrier mobility are required. In optical models, the Drude oscillator is adopted to represent the free-electron contribution and the obtained optical mobility can be then correlated with the macroscopic material properties. However, the influence of scattering phenomena on the optical mobility depends on the considered range of photon energy. For example, the grain-boundary scattering is generally not probed by means of optical measurements and the ionized-impurity scattering contribution decreases toward higher photon energies. To understand this frequency dependence and quantify contributions from different scattering phenomena to the mobility, several case studies were analyzed in this work by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The obtained electrical parameters were compared to the results inferred by Hall measurements. For intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO), the in-grain mobility was obtained by fitting reflection data with a normal Drude model in the IR range. For Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO), besides a normal Drude fit in the IR range, an Extended Drude fit in the UV-vis range could be used to obtain the in-grain mobility. Scattering mechanisms for a thickness series of Al:ZnO films were discerned using the more intuitive parameter “scattering frequency” instead of the parameter “mobility”. The interaction distance concept was introduced to give a physical interpretation to the frequency dependence of the scattering frequency. This physical interpretation furthermore allows the prediction of which Drude models can be used in a specific

  7. Stochastic modelling of fusion-product transport and thermalization with nuclear elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveaux, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are developed to model fusion-product (fp) transport and thermalization with both Rutherford scattering and nuclear elastic scattering (NES) in high-temperature (T/sub i/, T/sub e-/ > 50 keV), advanced-fuel (e.g. Cat-D, D- 3 He) plasmas. A discrete-event model is used to superimpose NES collisions on a Rutherford scattering model that contains the Spitzer coefficients of drag, velocity diffusion (VD), and pith-angle scattering (PAS). The effects of NES on fp transport and thermalization are investigated for advanced-fuel, Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) plasmas that have a significant Hamiltonian-canonical angular momentum (H-Ptheta) space loss cone which scales with the characteristic size (S identical with R/sub HV//3p/sub i/) and applied vacuum magnetic field (B 0 )

  8. Scattering of particles with inclusions. Modeling and inverse problem solution in the Rayleigh-Gans approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, F A; Frontini, G L; Elicabe, G E

    2011-01-01

    An analytic model for the scattering of a spherical particle with spherical inclusions has been proposed under the RG approximation. The model can be used without limitations to describe an X-ray scattering experiment. However, for light scattering several conditions must be fulfilled. Based on this model an inverse methodology is proposed to estimate the radii of host particle and inclusions, the number of inclusions and the Distance Distribution Functions (DDF's) of the distances between inclusions and the distances between inclusions and the origin of coordinates. The methodology is numerically tested in a light scattering example in which the host particle is eliminated by matching the refractive indices of host particle and medium. The results obtained for this cluster particle are very satisfactory.

  9. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  10. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  11. SHOCK, Nonlinear Dynamic Structure Analysis, Spring and Mass Model, Runge-Kutta-Gill Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielson, V. K.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SHOCK calculates the dynamic response of a structure modeled as a spring-mass system having one or two degrees of freedom for each mass when subjected to specified environments. The code determines the behavior of each lumped mass (displacement, velocity, and acceleration for each degree of freedom) and the behavior of each spring or coupling (force, shear, moment, and displacement) as a function of time. Two types of models, axial, having one degree of freedom, and lateral, having two degrees of freedom at each mass can be processed. Damping can be included in all models and shock spectrums of responses can be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: Two methods of numerical integration of the second-order dynamic equations are provided: the Runge-Kutta-Gill method with variable step-size is recommended for highly nonlinear problems, and a variation of the Newmark-Beta method is available for use with large linear problems. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 100 masses, 200 springs or couplings. Complex arrangements of nonlinear options must be carefully checked by the user

  12. Modelling the complete operation of a free-piston shock tunnel for a low enthalpy condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilvray, M.; Dann, A. G.; Jacobs, P. A.

    2013-07-01

    Only a limited number of free-stream flow properties can be measured in hypersonic impulse facilities at the nozzle exit. This poses challenges for experimenters when subsequently analysing experimental data obtained from these facilities. Typically in a reflected shock tunnel, a simple analysis that requires small amounts of computational resources is used to calculate quasi-steady gas properties. This simple analysis requires initial fill conditions and experimental measurements in analytical calculations of each major flow process, using forward coupling with minor corrections to include processes that are not directly modeled. However, this simplistic approach leads to an unknown level of discrepancy to the true flow properties. To explore the simple modelling techniques accuracy, this paper details the use of transient one and two-dimensional numerical simulations of a complete facility to obtain more refined free-stream flow properties from a free-piston reflected shock tunnel operating at low-enthalpy conditions. These calculations were verified by comparison to experimental data obtained from the facility. For the condition and facility investigated, the test conditions at nozzle exit produced with the simple modelling technique agree with the time and space averaged results from the complete facility calculations to within the accuracy of the experimental measurements.

  13. Cloud-In-Cell modeling of shocked particle-laden flows at a ``SPARSE'' cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, Soren; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Sen, Oishik; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-11-01

    A common tool for enabling process-scale simulations of shocked particle-laden flows is Eulerian-Lagrangian Particle-Source-In-Cell (PSIC) modeling where each particle is traced in its Lagrangian frame and treated as a mathematical point. Its dynamics are governed by Stokes drag corrected for high Reynolds and Mach numbers. The computational burden is often reduced further through a ``Cloud-In-Cell'' (CIC) approach which amalgamates groups of physical particles into computational ``macro-particles''. CIC does not account for subgrid particle fluctuations, leading to erroneous predictions of cloud dynamics. A Subgrid Particle-Averaged Reynolds-Stress Equivalent (SPARSE) model is proposed that incorporates subgrid interphase velocity and temperature perturbations. A bivariate Gaussian source distribution, whose covariance captures the cloud's deformation to first order, accounts for the particles' momentum and energy influence on the carrier gas. SPARSE is validated by conducting tests on the interaction of a particle cloud with the accelerated flow behind a shock. The cloud's average dynamics and its deformation over time predicted with SPARSE converge to their counterparts computed with reference PSIC models as the number of Gaussians is increased from 1 to 16. This work was supported by AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-16-1-0008.

  14. Systemic Inflammatory Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury, Femur Fracture, and Shock: An Experimental Murine Polytrauma Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Probst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite broad research in neurotrauma and shock, little is known on systemic inflammatory effects of the clinically most relevant combined polytrauma. Experimental investigation in an animal model may provide relevant insight for therapeutic strategies. We describe the effects of a combined injury with respect to lymphocyte population and cytokine activation. Methods. 45 male C57BL/6J mice (mean weight 27 g were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine. Animals were subjected to a weight drop closed traumatic brain injury (WD-TBI, a femoral fracture and hemorrhagic shock (FX-SH. Animals were subdivided into WD-TBI, FX-SH and combined trauma (CO-TX groups. Subjects were sacrificed at 96 h. Blood was analysed for cytokines and by flow cytometry for lymphocyte populations. Results. Mortality was 8%, 13% and 47% for FX-SH, WD-TBI and CO-TX groups (P<0.05. TNFα (11/13/139 for FX-SH/WD-TBI/CO-TX; P<0.05, CCL2 (78/96/227; P<0.05 and IL-6 (16/48/281; P=0.05 showed significant increases in the CO-TX group. Lymphocyte populations results for FX-SH, WD-TBI and CO-TX were: CD-4 (31/21/22; P= n.s., CD-8 (7/28/34, P<0.05, CD-4-CD-8 (11/12/18; P= n.s., CD-56 (36/7/8; P<0.05. Conclusion. This study shows that a combination of closed TBI and femur-fracture/ shock results in an increase of the humoral inflammation. More attention to combined injury models in inflammation research is indicated.

  15. Use of artificial intelligence to identify cardiovascular compromise in a model of hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Todd F; Knapp, Jason; Amburn, Philip; Clay, Bruce A; Kabrisky, Matt; Rogers, Steven K; Garcia, Victor F

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether a prototype artificial intelligence system can identify volume of hemorrhage in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock. Prospective in vivo animal model of hemorrhagic shock. Research foundation animal surgical suite; computer laboratories of collaborating industry partner. Nineteen, juvenile, 25- to 35-kg, male and female swine. Anesthetized animals were instrumented for arterial and systemic venous pressure monitoring and blood sampling, and a splenectomy was performed. Following a 1-hr stabilization period, animals were hemorrhaged in aliquots to 10, 20, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50% of total blood volume with a 10-min recovery between each aliquot. Data were downloaded directly from a commercial monitoring system into a proprietary PC-based software package for analysis. Arterial and venous blood gas values, glucose, and cardiac output were collected at specified intervals. Electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, mixed venous oxygen saturation, temperature (core and blood), mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, pulse oximetry, and end-tidal CO(2) were continuously monitored and downloaded. Seventeen of 19 animals (89%) died as a direct result of hemorrhage. Stored data streams were analyzed by the prototype artificial intelligence system. For this project, the artificial intelligence system identified and compared three electrocardiographic features (R-R interval, QRS amplitude, and R-S interval) from each of nine unknown samples of the QRS complex. We found that the artificial intelligence system, trained on only three electrocardiographic features, identified hemorrhage volume with an average accuracy of 91% (95% confidence interval, 84-96%). These experiments demonstrate that an artificial intelligence system, based solely on the analysis of QRS amplitude, R-R interval, and R-S interval of an electrocardiogram, is able to accurately identify hemorrhage volume in a porcine model of lethal

  16. A Path Loss Model for Non-Line-of-Sight Ultraviolet Multiple Scattering Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadler BrianM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultraviolet (UV signal transmission undergoes rich scattering and strong absorption by atmospheric particulates. We develop a path loss model for a Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS link. The model is built upon probability theory governing random migration of photons in free space, undergoing scattering, in terms of angular direction and distance. The model analytically captures the contributions of different scattering orders. Thus it relaxes the assumptions of single scattering theory and provides more realistic results. This allows us to assess the importance of high-order scattering, such as in a thick atmosphere environment, where short range NLOS UV communication is enhanced by hazy or foggy weather. By simulation, it is shown that the model coincides with a previously developed Monte Carlo model. Additional numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of link geometry and atmospheric conditions. The results indicate the inherent tradeoffs in beamwidth, pointing angles, range, absorption, and scattering and so are valuable for NLOS communication system design.

  17. Scattering function for a model of interacting surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, P.; Gonnella, G.; Maritan, A.

    1993-01-01

    The two-point correlation function of an ensemble of interacting closed self-avoiding surfaces on a cubic lattice is analyzed in the disordered phase, which corresponds to the paramagnetic region in a related spin formulation. Mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulations predict the existence of a disorder line which corresponds to a transition from an exponential decay to an oscillatory damped behavior of the two-point correlation function. The relevance of the results for the description of amphiphilic systems in a microemulsion phase is discussed. The scattering function is also calculated for a bicontinuous phase coexisting with the paramagnetic phase

  18. Light-scattering models applied to circumstellar dust properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, Melanie; Mann, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    Radiation pressure force, Poynting-Robertson effect, and collisions are important to determine the size distribution of dust in circumstellar debris disks with the two former parameters depending on the light-scattering properties of grains. We here present Mie and discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) calculations to describe the optical properties of dust particles around β Pictoris, Vega, and Fomalhaut in order to study the influence of the radiation pressure force. We find that the differences between Mie and DDA calculations are lower than 30% for all porosities. Therefore, Mie calculations can be used to determine the cut-off limits which contribute to the size distribution for the different systems

  19. Small angle neutron scattering modeling of copper-rich precipitates in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, S.

    1997-11-01

    The magnetic to nuclear scattering intensity ratio observed in the scattering from copper rich precipitates in irradiated pressure vessel steels is much smaller than the value of 11.4 expected for a pure copper precipitate in iron. A model for precipitates in pressure vessel steels which matches the observed scattering typically incorporates manganese, nickel, silicon and other elements and it is assumed that the precipitate is non-magnetic. In the present work consideration is given to the effect of composition gradients and ferromagnetic penetration into the precipitate on the small angle scattering cross section for copper rich clusters as distinguished from conventional precipitates. The calculation is an extension of a scattering model for micelles which consist of shells of varying scattering density. A discrepancy between recent SANS scattering experiments on pressure vessel steels was found to be related to applied magnetic field strength. The assumption of cluster structure and its relation to atom probe FIM findings as well as the effects of insufficient field for magnetic saturation is discussed

  20. Comparison of models and measurements of angle-resolved scatter from irregular aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, Adam B.; Richardson, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and validated a method for modeling the elastic scattering properties of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape at near- and mid-wave infrared wavelengths. The method, based on Gaussian random particles, calculates the ensemble-average optical cross section and Mueller scattering matrix, using the measured aerodynamic size distribution and previously-reported refractive index as inputs. The utility of the Gaussian particle model is that it is controlled by only two parameters (σ and Γ) which we have optimized such that the model best reproduces the full angle-resolved Mueller scattering matrices measured at λ=1.55 µm in the Standoff Aerosol Active Signature Testbed (SAAST). The method has been applied to wet-generated singlet biological spore samples, dry-generated biological spore clusters, and kaolin. The scattering computation is performed using the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA), which requires significant computational resources, and is thus implemented on LLGrid, a large parallel grid computer. For the cases presented, the best fit Gaussian particle model is in good qualitative correspondence with microscopy images of the corresponding class of particles. The measured and computed cross sections agree well within a factor of two overall, with certain cases bearing closer correspondence. In particular, the DDA reproduces the shape of the measured scatter function more accurately than Mie predictions. The DDA-computed depolarization factors are also in good agreement with measurement. - Highlights: • We model elastic scattering of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape. • We calculate cross sections and Mueller matrix using random particle shape model. • Scatter models employ refractive index and measured size distribution as inputs. • Discrete dipole approximation (DDA) with parallelization enables model calculations. • DDA-modeled cross section and Mueller matrix agree well with measurements at 1.55 μm

  1. A computer graphics based model for scattering from objects of arbitrary shapes in the optical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Narendra S.; Rozehnal, Ivan; Thompson, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-graphics-based model, named DIANA, is presented for generation of objects of arbitrary shape and for calculating bidirectional reflectances and scattering from them, in the visible and infrared region. The computer generation is based on a modified Lindenmayer system approach which makes it possible to generate objects of arbitrary shapes and to simulate their growth, dynamics, and movement. Rendering techniques are used to display an object on a computer screen with appropriate shading and shadowing and to calculate the scattering and reflectance from the object. The technique is illustrated with scattering from canopies of simulated corn plants.

  2. Computer program to solve two-dimensional shock-wave interference problems with an equilibrium chemically reacting air model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Christopher E.

    1990-08-01

    The computer program EASI, an acronym for Equilibrium Air Shock Interference, was developed to calculate the inviscid flowfield, the maximum surface pressure, and the maximum heat flux produced by six shock wave interference patterns on a 2-D, cylindrical configuration. Thermodynamic properties of the inviscid flowfield are determined using either an 11-specie, 7-reaction equilibrium chemically reacting air model or a calorically perfect air model. The inviscid flowfield is solved using the integral form of the conservation equations. Surface heating calculations at the impingement point for the equilibrium chemically reacting air model use variable transport properties and specific heat. However, for the calorically perfect air model, heating rate calculations use a constant Prandtl number. Sample calculations of the six shock wave interference patterns, a listing of the computer program, and flowcharts of the programming logic are included.

  3. High temperature shock tube experiments and kinetic modeling study of diisopropyl ketone ignition and pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barari, Ghazal

    2017-03-10

    Diisopropyl ketone (DIPK) is a promising biofuel candidate, which is produced using endophytic fungal conversion. In this work, a high temperature detailed combustion kinetic model for DIPK was developed using the reaction class approach. DIPK ignition and pyrolysis experiments were performed using the UCF shock tube. The shock tube oxidation experiments were conducted between 1093K and 1630K for different reactant compositions, equivalence ratios (φ=0.5–2.0), and pressures (1–6atm). In addition, methane concentration time-histories were measured during 2% DIPK pyrolysis in argon using cw laser absorption near 3400nm at temperatures between 1300 and 1400K near 1atm. To the best of our knowledge, current ignition delay times (above 1050K) and methane time histories are the first such experiments performed in DIPK at high temperatures. Present data were used as validation targets for the new kinetic model and simulation results showed fair agreement compared to the experiments. The reaction rates corresponding to the main consumption pathways of DIPK were found to have high sensitivity in controlling the reactivity, so these were adjusted to attain better agreement between the simulation and experimental data. A correlation was developed based on the experimental data to predict the ignition delay times using the temperature, pressure, fuel concentration and oxygen concentration.

  4. High temperature shock tube experiments and kinetic modeling study of diisopropyl ketone ignition and pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barari, Ghazal; Pryor, Owen; Koroglu, Batikan; Sarathy, Mani; Masunov, Artë m E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2017-01-01

    Diisopropyl ketone (DIPK) is a promising biofuel candidate, which is produced using endophytic fungal conversion. In this work, a high temperature detailed combustion kinetic model for DIPK was developed using the reaction class approach. DIPK ignition and pyrolysis experiments were performed using the UCF shock tube. The shock tube oxidation experiments were conducted between 1093K and 1630K for different reactant compositions, equivalence ratios (φ=0.5–2.0), and pressures (1–6atm). In addition, methane concentration time-histories were measured during 2% DIPK pyrolysis in argon using cw laser absorption near 3400nm at temperatures between 1300 and 1400K near 1atm. To the best of our knowledge, current ignition delay times (above 1050K) and methane time histories are the first such experiments performed in DIPK at high temperatures. Present data were used as validation targets for the new kinetic model and simulation results showed fair agreement compared to the experiments. The reaction rates corresponding to the main consumption pathways of DIPK were found to have high sensitivity in controlling the reactivity, so these were adjusted to attain better agreement between the simulation and experimental data. A correlation was developed based on the experimental data to predict the ignition delay times using the temperature, pressure, fuel concentration and oxygen concentration.

  5. Modeling elastic wave propagation in kidney stones with application to shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Robin O; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2005-10-01

    A time-domain finite-difference solution to the equations of linear elasticity was used to model the propagation of lithotripsy waves in kidney stones. The model was used to determine the loading on the stone (principal stresses and strains and maximum shear stresses and strains) due to the impact of lithotripsy shock waves. The simulations show that the peak loading induced in kidney stones is generated by constructive interference from shear waves launched from the outer edge of the stone with other waves in the stone. Notably the shear wave induced loads were significantly larger than the loads generated by the classic Hopkinson or spall effect. For simulations where the diameter of the focal spot of the lithotripter was smaller than that of the stone the loading decreased by more than 50%. The constructive interference was also sensitive to shock rise time and it was found that the peak tensile stress reduced by 30% as rise time increased from 25 to 150 ns. These results demonstrate that shear waves likely play a critical role in stone comminution and that lithotripters with large focal widths and short rise times should be effective at generating high stresses inside kidney stones.

  6. Picture book of nucleon--nucleon scattering: amplitudes, models, double- and triple-spin observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Stevens, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive study of nucleon-nucleon scattering is presented with particular emphasis on the underlying amplitude structure. The five complex NN amplitudes are determined as a function of energy and momentum transfer from existing pp, anti pp, and np elastic scattering data and np and anti pp CHEX data. Some constraints determined from meson-baryon fits are imposed. The resulting amplitudes are used to make predictions of forthcoming double- and triple-spin measurements, and are also compared with the model amplitudes of Kane and Seidl. In addition, the usefulness of transversity amplitudes in NN scattering is discussed, the status of our present knowledge concerning them is examined, and model predictions of these amplitudes are displayed. The paper is presented in a ''picture book'' form so that the reader can get a good overview of NN scattering by studying the figures and reading the tables and figure captions

  7. The small heat shock proteins from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans: gene expression, phylogenetic analysis, and structural modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Daniela A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that has been successfully used in metal bioleaching. In this study, an analysis of the A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 genome revealed the presence of three sHSP genes, Afe_1009, Afe_1437 and Afe_2172, that encode proteins from the HSP20 family, a class of intracellular multimers that is especially important in extremophile microorganisms. Results The expression of the sHSP genes was investigated in A. ferrooxidans cells submitted to a heat shock at 40°C for 15, 30 and 60 minutes. After 60 minutes, the gene on locus Afe_1437 was about 20-fold more highly expressed than the gene on locus Afe_2172. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses showed that the sHSPs from A. ferrooxidans are possible non-paralogous proteins, and are regulated by the σ32 factor, a common transcription factor of heat shock proteins. Structural studies using homology molecular modeling indicated that the proteins encoded by Afe_1009 and Afe_1437 have a conserved α-crystallin domain and share similar structural features with the sHSP from Methanococcus jannaschii, suggesting that their biological assembly involves 24 molecules and resembles a hollow spherical shell. Conclusion We conclude that the sHSPs encoded by the Afe_1437 and Afe_1009 genes are more likely to act as molecular chaperones in the A. ferrooxidans heat shock response. In addition, the three sHSPs from A. ferrooxidans are not recent paralogs, and the Afe_1437 and Afe_1009 genes could be inherited horizontally by A. ferrooxidans.

  8. 3-D Model of Broadband Emission from Supernova Remnants Undergoing Non-linear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Ellison, Donald C.

    2008-07-02

    We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occurring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to develop a flexible platform, which can be generalized to include effects such as MFA, and which can be easily adapted to various SNR environments, including Type Ia SNRs, which explode in a constant density medium, and Type II SNRs, which explode in a pre-supernova wind. When applied to a specific SNR, our model will predict cosmic-ray spectra and multi-wavelength morphology in projected images for instruments with varying spatial and spectral resolutions. We show examples of these spectra and images and emphasize the importance of measurements in the hard X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-ray bands for investigating key ingredients in the acceleration mechanism, and for deducing whether or not TeV emission is produced by IC from electrons or pion-decay from protons.

  9. The scattering matrix is non-trivial for weakly coupled P(phi)2 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterwalder, K.; Seneor, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that for sufficiently small coupling constant lambda the lambdaP(phi) 2 quantum field theory models have a scattering matrix which is different from 1. The other method is to write the scattering matrix elements as polynomials in lambda, whose coefficients, though themselves functions of lamda, are uniformly bounded for lambda sufficiently small. The first order term in that expansion is the one given by perturbation theory. (Auth.)

  10. A new modelling of the multigroup scattering cross section in deterministic codes for neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloo, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    In reactor physics, calculation schemes with deterministic codes are validated with respect to a reference Monte Carlo code. The remaining biases are attributed to the approximations and models induced by the multigroup theory (self-shielding models and expansion of the scattering law using Legendre polynomials) to represent physical phenomena (resonant absorption and scattering anisotropy respectively). This work focuses on the relevance of a polynomial expansion to model the scattering law. Since the outset of reactor physics, the latter has been expanded on a truncated Legendre polynomial basis. However, the transfer cross sections are highly anisotropic, with non-zero values for a very small range of the cosine of the scattering angle. Besides, the finer the energy mesh and the lighter the scattering nucleus, the more exacerbated is the peaked shape of this cross section. As such, the Legendre expansion is less suited to represent the scattering law. Furthermore, this model induces negative values which are non-physical. In this work, various scattering laws are briefly described and the limitations of the existing model are pointed out. Hence, piecewise-constant functions have been used to represent the multigroup scattering cross section. This representation requires a different model for the diffusion source. The discrete ordinates method which is widely employed to solve the transport equation has been adapted. Thus, the finite volume method for angular discretization has been developed and implemented in Paris environment which hosts the S n solver, Snatch. The angular finite volume method has been compared to the collocation method with Legendre moments to ensure its proper performance. Moreover, unlike the latter, this method is adapted for both the Legendre moments and the piecewise-constant functions representations of the scattering cross section. This hybrid-source method has been validated for different cases: fuel cell in infinite lattice

  11. Clonidine reduces norepinephrine and improves bone marrow function in a rodent model of lung contusion, hemorrhagic shock, and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamo, Ines G; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Ramos, Harry; Loftus, Tyler J; Efron, Philip A; Mohr, Alicia M

    2017-03-01

    Propranolol has been shown previously to restore bone marrow function and improve anemia after lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that daily clonidine administration would inhibit central sympathetic outflow and restore bone marrow function in our rodent model of lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 6 days of restraint stress after lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock during which the animals received clonidine (75 μg/kg) after the restraint stress. On postinjury day 7, we assessed urine norepinephrine, blood hemoglobin, plasma granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and peripheral blood mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells, as well as bone marrow cellularity and erythroid progenitor cell growth. The addition of clonidine to lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic restraint stress significantly decreased urine norepinephrine levels, improved bone marrow cellularity, restored erythroid progenitor colony growth, and improved hemoglobin (14.1 ± 0.6 vs 10.8 ± 0.6 g/dL). The addition of clonidine to lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic restraint stress significantly decreased hematopoietic progenitor cells mobilization and restored granulocyte colony stimulating factor levels. After lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic restraint stress, daily administration of clonidine restored bone marrow function and improved anemia. Alleviating chronic stress and decreasing norepinephrine is a key therapeutic target to improve bone marrow function after severe injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpretation of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering on PAA by rotational diffusion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bata, L.; Vizi, J.; Kugler, S.

    1974-10-01

    First the most important data determined by other methods for para azoxy anisolon (PAA) are collected. This molecule makes a rotational oscillational motion around the mean molecular direction. The details of this motion can be determined by inelastic neutron scattering. Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements were carried out without orienting magnetic field on a time-of-flight facility with neutron beam of 4.26 meV. For the interpretation of the results two models, the spherical rotation diffusion model and the circular random walk model are investigated. The comparison shows that the circular random walk model (with N=8 sites, d=4A diameter and K=10 10 s -1 rate constant) fits very well with the quasi-elastic neutron scattering, while the spherical rotational diffusion model seems to be incorrect. (Sz.N.Z.)

  13. Analysis of pp scattering at the CERN ISR energies in the multiple Regge pole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrij, A.I.; Kobylinsky, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The simple Regge model is suggested for describing data on proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies. The simplest variant of the Regge model can be formulated as a sum of two pomerons, the first being a moving double pole and the second - a fixed simple pole. Comparison with known data is given. The model gives an infinite rise of the total cross section of pp-scattering. The differential cross section changes slowly with energy. The models of two pomerons reproduce many features of the geometric scaling, in particular, the shift of the dip and rise of scattering total cross section at the second maximum. The considered model is rather simple and is well consistent with experiment

  14. A combined nonlinear and hysteresis model of shock absorber for quarter car simulation on the basis of experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Barethiye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling dynamic characteristics of an automotive shock absorber is a challenging task due to its complex behavior. In the present paper, the nonparametric and hybrid approach is proposed to represent the nonlinear and hysteresis characteristics of the shock absorber. An experiment is carried out on a car damper utilizing INSTRON to obtain force-velocity characteristics of the shock absorber. The experimental data is used to devise two different models, namely, piecewise linear model and hysteresis model, to capture the damping properties of the absorber and for consequent use in simulations. The complexity involved due to certain physical phenomenon such as oil compressibility, gas entrapment etc. gives rise to hysteresis behavior and the present paper tries to model such behavior with the help of Neural Networks. Finally, a combined (hybrid shock absorber model (including the characteristics of both piecewise linear and hysteresis behavior is developed in Simulink and integrated into a quarter car simulation to verify its feasibility. The results generated by the combined (hybrid model are compared with linear as well as piecewise linear model and the comparison shows that the proposed model substantially a better option to study the vehicle characteristics more accurately and precisely.

  15. Simulation of complete neutron scattering experiments: from model systems to liquid germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugouvieux, V.

    2004-11-01

    In this thesis, both theoretical and experimental studies of liquids are done. Neutron scattering enables structural and dynamical properties of liquids to be investigated. On the theoretical side, molecular dynamics simulations are of great interest since they give positions and velocities of the atoms and the forces acting on each of them. They also enable spatial and temporal correlations to be computed and these quantities are also available from neutron scattering experiments. Consequently, the comparison can be made between results from molecular dynamics simulations and from neutron scattering experiments, in order to improve our understanding of the structure and dynamics of liquids. However, since extracting reliable data from a neutron scattering experiment is difficult, we propose to simulate the experiment as a whole, including both instrument and sample, in order to gain understanding and to evaluate the impact of the different parasitic contributions (absorption, multiple scattering associated with elastic and inelastic scattering, instrument resolution). This approach, in which the sample is described by its structure and dynamics as computed from molecular dynamics simulations, is presented and tested on isotropic model systems. Then liquid germanium is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering and both classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. This enables us to simulate the experiment we performed and to evaluate the influence of the contributions from the instrument and from the sample on the detected signal. (author)

  16. Localization of a small change in a multiple scattering environment without modeling of the actual medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonarivo, S T; Walker, S C; Kuperman, W A; Roux, P

    2011-12-01

    A method to actively localize a small perturbation in a multiple scattering medium using a collection of remote acoustic sensors is presented. The approach requires only minimal modeling and no knowledge of the scatterer distribution and properties of the scattering medium and the perturbation. The medium is ensonified before and after a perturbation is introduced. The coherent difference between the measured signals then reveals all field components that have interacted with the perturbation. A simple single scatter filter (that ignores the presence of the medium scatterers) is matched to the earliest change of the coherent difference to localize the perturbation. Using a multi-source/receiver laboratory setup in air, the technique has been successfully tested with experimental data at frequencies varying from 30 to 60 kHz (wavelength ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm) for cm-scale scatterers in a scattering medium with a size two to five times bigger than its transport mean free path. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  17. CRAPONE, Optical Model Potential Fit of Neutron Scattering Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, F.; Fratamico, G.; Reffo, G.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Automatic search for local and non-local optical potential parameters for neutrons. Total, elastic, differential elastic cross sections, l=0 and l=1 strength functions and scattering length can be considered. 2 - Method of solution: A fitting procedure is applied to different sets of experimental data depending on the local or non-local approximation chosen. In the non-local approximation the fitting procedure can be simultaneously performed over the whole energy range. The best fit is obtained when a set of parameters is found where CHI 2 is at its minimum. The solution of the system equations is obtained by diagonalization of the matrix according to the Jacobi method

  18. Intification and modelling of flight characteristics for self-build shock flyer type UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid., Z. A.; Dardin, A. S. F. Syed.; Azid, A. A.; Ahmad, K. A.

    2018-02-01

    The development of an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) requires a fundamentals studies of the UAV's flight characteristic. The aim of this study is to identify and model the flight characteristic of a conventional fixed-wing type UAV. Subsequence to this, the mode of flight of the UAV can be investigated. One technique to identify the characteristic of a UAV is a flight test where it required specific maneuvering to be executed while measuring the attitude sensor. In this study, a simple shock flyer type UAV was used as the aircraft. The result shows that the modeled flight characteristic has a significant relation with actual values but the fitting value is rather small. It is suggested that the future study is conducted with an improvement of the physical UAV, data filtering and better system identification methods.

  19. Experimental models of acute infection and Toll-like receptor driven septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Ruth; Spiller, Stephan; Fichte, Sylvia; Dreher, Stefan; Kirschning, Carsten J

    2009-01-01

    Mainly Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections, but also other infections such as with fungal or viral pathogens, can cause the life-threatening clinical condition of septic shock. Transgression of the host immune response from a local level limited to the pathogen's place of entry to the systemic level is recognised as a major mode of action leading to sepsis. This view has been established upon demonstration of the capacity of specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to elicit symptoms of septic shock upon systemic administration. Immune stimulatory PAMPs are agonists of soluble, cytoplasmic, as well as/or cell membrane-anchored and/or -spanning pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, reflection of pathogen-host crosstalk triggering sepsis pathogenesis upon an infection by a host response to challenge with an isolated PAMP is incomplete. Therefore, an experimental model more reflective of pathogen-host interaction requires experimental host confrontation with a specific pathogen in its viable form resulting in a collective stimulation of a variety of specific PRRs. This chapter describes methods to analyse innate pathogen sensing by the host on both a cellular and systemic level.

  20. Multiscale modeling, coarse-graining and shock wave computer simulationsin materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Steinhauser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available My intention in this review article is to briefly discuss several major topics of presentdaycomputational materials science in order to show their importance for state-of-the-art materialsmodeling and computer simulation. The topics I discuss are multiscale modeling approaches forhierarchical systems such as biological macromolecules and related coarse-graining techniques, whichprovide an effcient means to investigate systems on the mesoscale, and shock wave physics whichhas many important and interesting multi- and interdisciplinary applications in research areas wherephysics, biology, chemistry, computer science, medicine and even engineering meet. In fact, recently,as a new emerging field, the use of coarse-grained approaches for the simulation of biologicalmacromolecules such as lipids and bilayer membranes and the investigation of their interaction withshock waves has become very popular. This emerging area of research may contribute not only toan improved understanding of the microscopic details of molecular self-assembly but may also leadto enhanced medical tumor treatments which are based on the destructive effects of High IntensityFocused Ultrasound (HIFU or shock waves when interacting with biological cells and tissue; theseare treatments which have been used in medicine for many years, but which are not well understoodfrom a fundamental physical point of view.

  1. Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  2. Arrival times of Flare/Halo CME associated shocks at the Earth: comparison of the predictions of three numerical models with these observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The arrival times at L1 of eleven travelling shocks associated both with X-ray flaring and with halo CMEs recorded aboard SOHO/LASCO have been considered. Close to the Sun the velocities of these events were estimated using either Type II radio records or CME speeds. Close to the Earth the shocks were detected in the data of various solar wind plasma, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and energetic particle experiments aboard SOHO, ACE, WIND, INTERBALL-1 and IMP-8. The real-time shock arrival predictions of three numerical models, namely the Shock Time of Arrival Model (STOA, the Interplanetary Shock Propagation Model (ISPM and the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry Solar Wind Model (HAFv.2 were tested against these observations. This is the first time that energetic protons (tens of keV to a few MeV have been used to complement plasma and IMF data in validating shock propagation models. The models were all generally successful in predicting shock arrivals. STOA provided the smallest values of the "predicted minus measured" arrival times and displayed a typical predictive precision better than about 8 h. The ratio of the calculated standard deviation of the transit times to Earth to the standard deviation of the measurements was estimated for each model (treating interacting events as composite shocks and these ratios turned out to be 0.60, 1.15 and 1.02 for STOA, ISPM and HAFv.2, respectively. If an event in the sample for which the shock velocity was not well known is omitted from consideration, these ratios become 0.36, 0.76 and 0.81, respectively. Larger statistical samples should now be tested. The ratio of the in situ shock velocity and the "Sun to L1" transit velocity (Vsh /Vtr was in the range of 0.7–0.9 for individual, non-interacting, shock events. HAFv.2 uniquely provided information on those changes in the COBpoint (the moving Connection point on the shock along the IMF to the OBserver which directly influenced energetic particle rise times

  3. A vehicle-to-infrastructure channel model for blind corner scattering environments

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we derive a new geometrical blind corner scattering model for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. The proposed model takes into account single-bounce and double-bounce scattering stemming from fixed scatterers located on both sides of the curved street. Starting from the geometrical blind corner model, the exact expression of the angle of departure (AOD) is derived. Based on this expression, the probability density function (PDF) of the AOD and the Doppler power spectrum are determined. Analytical expressions for the channel gain and the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF) are provided under non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. Moreover, we investigate the impact of the position of transmitting vehicle relatively to the receiving road-side unit on the channel statistics. The proposed channel model is useful for the design and analysis of future V2I communication systems. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

  4. Implementing the correlated fermi gas nuclear model for quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tockstein, Jameson

    2017-09-01

    When studying neutrino oscillations an understanding of charged current quasielastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus scattering is imperative. This interaction depends on a nuclear model as well as knowledge of form factors. Neutrino experiments, such as MiniBooNE, often use the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) nuclear model. Recently, the Correlated Fermi Gas (CFG) nuclear model was suggested in, based on inclusive and exclusive scattering experiments at JLab. We implement the CFG model for CCQE scattering. In particular, we provide analytic expressions for this implementation that can be used to analyze current and future neutrino CCQE data. This project was supported through the Wayne State University REU program under NSF Grant PHY-1460853 and by the DOE Grant DE-SC0007983.

  5. Light scattering in plane dielectric layers: Modeling in the 2d reciprocal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexey A.; Tishchenko, Alexandre V.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized source method previously developed for the light diffraction calculation on periodic dielectric structures is applied for the light scattering calculation in non-periodic planar media. This significantly enlarges the domain of applicability of Fourier-methods in light scattering modeling since the generalized source method is of much less numerical complexity than other rigorous methods used. -- Highlights: ► Method for light scattering simulation in planar layers. ► The approach is fairly independent of scattering particles’ shape. ► The method is based on the rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations. ► Each calculation stage allows the accuracy control by the convergence monitoring. ► Possibility to consider any practically possible dielectric materials.

  6. Shock-acceleration of a pair of gas inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Nunez, Jose Alonso; Reese, Daniel; Oakley, Jason; Rothamer, David; Bonazza, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    A shock wave moving through the interstellar medium distorts density inhomogeneities through the deposition of baroclinic vorticity. This process is modeled experimentally in a shock tube for a two-bubble interaction. A planar shock wave in nitrogen traverses two soap-film bubbles filled with argon. The two bubbles share an axis that is orthogonal to the shock wave and are separated from one another by a distance of approximately one bubble diameter. Atomization of the soap-film by the shock wave results in dispersal of droplets that are imaged using Mie scattering with a laser sheet through the bubble axis. Initial condition images of the bubbles in free-fall (no holder) are taken using a high-speed camera and then two post-shock images are obtained with two laser pulses and two cameras. The first post-shock image is of the early time compression stage when the sphere has become ellipsoidal, and the second image shows the emergence of vortex rings which have evolved due to vorticity depostion by the shock wave. Bubble morphology is characterized with length scale measurements.

  7. Efficient scatter model for simulation of ultrasound images from computed tomography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, J. P.; Lo Vercio, L.; Rubi, P.; Fernandez Vera, E.; Barbuzza, R.; Del Fresno, M.; Larrabide, I.

    2015-12-01

    Background and motivation: Real-time ultrasound simulation refers to the process of computationally creating fully synthetic ultrasound images instantly. Due to the high value of specialized low cost training for healthcare professionals, there is a growing interest in the use of this technology and the development of high fidelity systems that simulate the acquisitions of echographic images. The objective is to create an efficient and reproducible simulator that can run either on notebooks or desktops using low cost devices. Materials and methods: We present an interactive ultrasound simulator based on CT data. This simulator is based on ray-casting and provides real-time interaction capabilities. The simulation of scattering that is coherent with the transducer position in real time is also introduced. Such noise is produced using a simplified model of multiplicative noise and convolution with point spread functions (PSF) tailored for this purpose. Results: The computational efficiency of scattering maps generation was revised with an improved performance. This allowed a more efficient simulation of coherent scattering in the synthetic echographic images while providing highly realistic result. We describe some quality and performance metrics to validate these results, where a performance of up to 55fps was achieved. Conclusion: The proposed technique for real-time scattering modeling provides realistic yet computationally efficient scatter distributions. The error between the original image and the simulated scattering image was compared for the proposed method and the state-of-the-art, showing negligible differences in its distribution.

  8. Modelling and nonlinear shock waves for binary gas mixtures by the discrete Boltzmann equation with multiple collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The discrete Boltzmann equation is a mathematical model in the kinetic theory of gases which defines the time and space evolution of a system of gas particles with a finite number of selected velocities. Discrete kinetic theory is an interesting field of research in mathematical physics and applied mathematics for several reasons. One of the relevant fields of application of the discrete Boltzmann equation is the analysis of nonlinear shock wave phenomena. Here, a new multiple collision regular plane model for binary gas mixtures is proposed within the discrete theory of gases and applied to the analysis of the classical problems of shock wave propagation

  9. Elastic pion-nucleon P-wave scattering in soliton models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzwarth, G.

    1990-01-01

    The equivalence of low-energy P-wave πN scattering in soliton models with the well-established Δ-isobar model is shown to hold even if all constraints on redundant collective variables are ignored. This provides strong support for the unusual (time-derivative) form of meson-baryon coupling in such models, and for the expectation that the soliton description of πN-scattering can be reliably extended down to pion threshold energies in a technically simple way. (orig.)

  10. First-order Fermi acceleration of the diffuse ion population near the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The flux of 30-65 keV particles observed by the ISEE-3 200 earth radii upstream is shown to be an upstream escape of the energetic ions in the earth's bow shock. A formal solution to the transport equation for the distribution function of energetic particles upstream from an isotropic monoenergetic source of particles/sq cm at a plane shock where the plasma changes speed is found, and escape conditions are defined. The efficiency of the acceleration is calculated to depend on the charge/particle, and fluxes near and far upstream of the shock are described analytically. Any model which takes into account shock acceleration by diffusive scattering with significant escape losses produces the observed spectrum close to the shock. The escape loss upstream is demonstrated to control the spectrum and the variation of flux and anisotropy with distance from the shock.

  11. The effect of roughness model on scattering properties of ice crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor; Diedenhoven, Bastiaan van

    2016-01-01

    We compare stochastic models of microscale surface roughness assuming uniform and Weibull distributions of crystal facet tilt angles to calculate scattering by roughened hexagonal ice crystals using the geometric optics (GO) approximation. Both distributions are determined by similar roughness parameters, while the Weibull model depends on the additional shape parameter. Calculations were performed for two visible wavelengths (864 nm and 410 nm) for roughness values between 0.2 and 0.7 and Weibull shape parameters between 0 and 1.0 for crystals with aspect ratios of 0.21, 1 and 4.8. For this range of parameters we find that, for a given roughness level, varying the Weibull shape parameter can change the asymmetry parameter by up to about 0.05. The largest effect of the shape parameter variation on the phase function is found in the backscattering region, while the degree of linear polarization is most affected at the side-scattering angles. For high roughness, scattering properties calculated using the uniform and Weibull models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness parameter, especially when a Weibull shape parameter of 0.75 is used. For smaller roughness values, a shape parameter close to unity provides a better agreement. Notable differences are observed in the phase function over the scattering angle range from 5° to 20°, where the uniform roughness model produces a plateau while the Weibull model does not. - Highlights: • We compare scattering by hexagonal crystals for uniform and Weibull roughness models. • The Weibull shape parameter has a stronger effect on the phase function at backscattering. • DoLP is mostly affected at the side-scattering angles. • For high roughness, the two models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness. • A plateau from 5° to 20° is observed in the phase function when using the uniform model.

  12. Dynamics of the aortic arch submitted to a shock loading: Parametric study with fluid-structure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baroudi, A; Razafimahery, F; Rakotomanana, L

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to present some fluid-structure models for analyzing the dynamics of the aorta during a brusque loading. Indeed, various lesions may appear at the aortic arch during car crash or other accident such as brusque falling. Aortic stresses evolution are simulated during the shock at the cross section and along the aorta. One hot question was that if a brusque deceleration can generate tissue tearing, or a shock is necessary to provoke such a damage. Different constitutive laws of blood are then tested whereas the aorta is assumed linear and elastic. The overall shock model is inspired from an experimental jig. We show that the viscosity has strong influence on the stress and parietal moments and forces. The nonlinear viscosity has no significant additional effects for healthy aorta, but modifies the stress and parietal loadings for the stenotic aorta.

  13. A Source-Term Based Boundary Layer Bleed/Effusion Model for Passive Shock Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurle, Robert A.; Norris, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    A modeling framework for boundary layer effusion has been developed based on the use of source (or sink) terms instead of the usual practice of specifying bleed directly as a boundary condition. This framework allows the surface boundary condition (i.e. isothermal wall, adiabatic wall, slip wall, etc.) to remain unaltered in the presence of bleed. This approach also lends itself to easily permit the addition of empirical models for second order effects that are not easily accounted for by simply defining effective transpiration values. Two effusion models formulated for supersonic flows have been implemented into this framework; the Doerffer/Bohning law and the Slater formulation. These models were applied to unit problems that contain key aspects of the flow physics applicable to bleed systems designed for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems. The ability of each model to predict bulk bleed properties was assessed, as well as the response of the boundary layer as it passes through and downstream of a porous bleed system. The model assessment was performed with and without the presence of shock waves. Three-dimensional CFD simulations that included the geometric details of the porous plate bleed systems were also carried out to supplement the experimental data, and provide additional insights into the bleed flow physics. Overall, both bleed formulations fared well for the tests performed in this study. However, the sample of test problems considered in this effort was not large enough to permit a comprehensive validation of the models.

  14. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2015-10-01

    The demand for fuels with high anti-knock quality has historically been rising, and will continue to increase with the development of downsized and turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Butanol isomers, such as 2-butanol and tert-butanol, have high octane ratings (RON of 105 and 107, respectively), and thus mixed butanols (68.8% by volume of 2-butanol and 31.2% by volume of tert-butanol) can be added to the conventional petroleum-derived gasoline fuels to improve octane performance. In the present work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range of 800-1200K. Next, 10vol% and 20vol% of mixed butanols (MB) were blended with two different toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane (TPRF) fuel blends having octane ratings of RON 90/MON 81.7 and RON 84.6/MON 79.3. These MB/TPRF mixtures were investigated in the shock tube conditions similar to those mentioned above. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the low- and high-temperature oxidation of mixed butanols and MB/TPRF blends. The proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data with some deviations at low temperatures. The effect of mixed butanols addition to TPRFs is marginal when examining the ignition delay times at high temperatures. However, when extended to lower temperatures (T < 850K), the model shows that the mixed butanols addition to TPRFs causes the ignition delay times to increase and hence behaves like an octane booster at engine-like conditions. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  15. Meso-scale modelling of the heat conductivity effect on the shock response of a porous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnyansky, A. D.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding of deformation mechanisms of porous materials under shock compression is important for tailoring material properties at the shock manufacturing of advanced materials from substrate powders and for studying the response of porous materials under shock loading. Numerical set-up of the present work considers a set of solid particles separated by air representing a volume of porous material. Condensed material in the meso-scale set-up is simulated with a viscoelastic rate sensitive material model with heat conduction formulated from the principles of irreversible thermodynamics. The model is implemented in the CTH shock physics code. The meso-scale CTH simulation of the shock loading of the representative volume reveals the mechanism of pore collapse and shows in detail the transition from a high porosity case typical for abnormal Hugoniot response to a moderate porosity case typical for conventional Hugoniot response. Results of the analysis agree with previous analytical considerations and support hypotheses used in the two-phase approach.

  16. Double shock experiments and reactive flow modeling on LX-17 to understand the reacted equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandersall, Kevin S; Garcia, Frank; Fried, Laurence E; Tarver, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data from measurements of the reacted state of an energetic material are desired to incorporate reacted states in modeling by computer codes. In a case such as LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight), where the time dependent kinetics of reaction is still not fully understood and the reacted state may evolve over time, this information becomes even more vital. Experiments were performed to measure the reacted state of LX-17 using a double shock method involving the use of two flyer materials (with known properties) mounted on the projectile that send an initial shock through the material close to or above the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state followed by a second shock at a higher magnitude into the detonated material. By measuring the parameters of the first and second shock waves, information on the reacted state can be obtained. The LX-17 detonation reaction zone profiles plus the arrival times and amplitudes of reflected shocks in LX-17 detonation reaction products were measured using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes and an aluminum foil coated LiF window. A discussion of this work will include the experimental parameters, velocimetry profiles, data interpretation, reactive CHEETAH and Ignition and Growth modeling, as well as detail on possible future experiments.

  17. Channel modelling and performance analysis of V2I communication systems in blind bend scattering environments

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a new geometrical blind bend scattering model for vehicle-to- infrastructure (V2I) communications. The proposed model takes into account single-bounce and double- bounce scattering stemming from fixed scatterers located on both sides of a curved street. Starting from the geometrical blind bend model, the exact expression of the angle of departure (AOD) is derived. Based on this expression, the probability density function (PDF) of the AOD and the Doppler power spectrum are determined. Analytical expressions for the channel gain and the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF) are provided under non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. Additionally, we investigate the impact of the position of transmitting vehicle relatively to the receiving road-side unit on the channel statistics. Moreover, we study the performance of different digital modulations over a sum of singly and doubly scattered (SSDS) channel. Note that the proposed V2I channel model falls under the umbrella of SSDS channels since the transmitted signal undergoes a combination of single-bounce and double-bounce scattering. We study some characteristic quantities of SSDS channels and derive expressions for the average symbol error probability of several modulation schemes over SSDS channels with and without diversity combining. The validity of these analytical expressions is confirmed by computer-based simulations.

  18. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF MUELLER MATRIX PATTERNS FOR POLARIZATION SCATTERING MODEL OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E DU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a model to describe polarized photon scattering in biological tissues. In this model, tissues are simplified to a mixture of scatterers and surrounding medium. There are two types of scatterers in the model: solid spheres and infinitely long solid cylinders. Variables related to the scatterers include: the densities and sizes of the spheres and cylinders, the orientation and angular distribution of cylinders. Variables related to the surrounding medium include: the refractive index, absorption coefficient and birefringence. In this paper, as a development we introduce an optical activity effect to the model. By comparing experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, we analyze the backscattering Mueller matrix patterns of several tissue-like media, and summarize the different effects coming from anisotropic scattering and optical properties. In addition, we propose a possible method to extract the optical activity values for tissues. Both the experimental and simulated results show that, by analyzing the Mueller matrix patterns, the microstructure and optical properties of the medium can be obtained. The characteristic features of Mueller matrix patterns are potentially powerful tools for studying the contrast mechanisms of polarization imaging for medical diagnosis.

  19. Scattering of topological solitons on barriers and holes of deformed Sine-Gordon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Alawi, Jassem H; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J

    2008-01-01

    We study various scattering properties of topological solitons in two classes of models, which are the generalizations of the Sine-Gordon model and which have recently been proposed by Bazeia et al. These two classes of models depend on a positive real nonzero parameter n but in this paper we consider the models only for its integer values as when n = 2 (for the first class) and n = 1 (for the second class), the model reduces to the Sine-Gordon one. We take the soliton solutions of these models (generalizations of the 'kink' solution of the Sine-Gordon model) and consider their scattering on potential holes and barriers. We present our results for n = 1, ..., 6. We find that, like in the Sine-Gordon models, the scattering on the barrier is very elastic while the scattering on the hole is inelastic and can, at times, lead to a reflection. We discuss the dependence of our results on n and find that the critical velocity for the transmission through the hole is lowest for n = 3

  20. Simulated small-angle scattering patterns for a plastically deformed model composite material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenoy, V.B.; Cleveringa, H.H.M.; Phillips, R.; Giessen, E. van der; Needleman, A.

    2000-01-01

    The small-angle scattering patterns predicted by discrete dislocation plasticity versus local and non-local continuum plasticity theory are compared in a model problem. The problem considered is a two-dimensional model composite with elastic reinforcements in a crystalline matrix subject to

  1. Study of light scattering by a granulated coated sphere - a model of granulated blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurkin, M.A.; de Kanter, D.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    We performed extensive simulations of light scattering by granulated coated sphere model using the discrete dipole approximation and varying model parameters in the ranges of sizes and refractive indices of granulated blood cells. We compared these results with predictions of Maxwell-Garnett

  2. A simplified mathematical model for scattered transmission of X-rays in raw brown coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braune, M.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model is presented which renders it possible to calculate the ash content of lignite from scattered transmission of X radiation taking into account two grain classes, the bulk density, and the fill height. The fine grain is assigned to sand and the coarse one to lignite. The model provides a correlation between the fine grain content and the counting rate

  3. A Spectral Geometrical Model for Compton Scatter Tomography Based on the SSS Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazantsev, Ivan G.; Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2016-01-01

    The forward model of single scatter in the Positron Emission Tomography for a detector system possessing an excellent spectral resolution under idealized geometrical assumptions is investigated. This model has the form of integral equations describing a flux of photons emanating from the same ann...

  4. Soft and diffractive scattering with the cluster model in Herwig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieseke, Stefan; Loshaj, Frasher; Kirchgaesser, Patrick [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We present a new model for soft interactions in the event-generator Herwig. The model consists of two components. One to model diffractive final states on the basis of the cluster hadronization model and a second component that addresses soft multiple interactions as multiple particle production in multiperipheral kinematics. We present much improved results for minimum-bias measurements at various LHC energies. (orig.)

  5. An introduction to some mathematical aspects of scattering theory in models of quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.

    1974-01-01

    An elementary introduction is given to some results, problems and methods of the recent study of scattering in models developed in connection with constructive quantum field theory. A deliberate effort has been made to be understandable also for mathematicians having some notions of non-relativistic quantum mechanics but no specific previous knowledge of quantum field theory. The Fock space, the free fields and the free Hamiltonian are introduced and the singular perturbation problem posed by local relativistic interaction is discussed. Scattering theory is first discussed for the simplified cases of space cut-off interactions and of translation invariant interactions with persistent vacuum. The Wightman-Haag-Ruelle axiomatic framework is given as a guide for the construction of models with local, relativistic interactions and of the corresponding scattering theory. The verification of the axioms is carried through in a class of models with local relativistic interactions in two-dimensional space-time. (Auth.)

  6. Radius anomaly in the diffraction model for heavy-ion elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, L. N.; Mukherjee, S. N.

    1984-04-01

    The elastic scattering of heavy ions, 20Ne on 208Pb, 20Ne on 235U, 84Kr on 208Pb, and 84Kr on 232Th, is examined within the framework of Frahn's diffraction model. An analysis of the experiment using the "quarter point recipe" of the expected Fresnel cross sections yields a larger radius for 208Pb than the radii for 235U and 232Th. It is shown that inclusion of the nuclear deformation in the model removes the above anomaly in the radii, and the assumption of smooth cutoff of the angular momentum simultaneously leads to a better fit to elastic scattering data, compared to those obtained by the earlier workers on the assumption of sharp cutoff. [NUCLEAR REACTIONS Elastic scattering, 20Ne+208Pb (161.2 MeV), 20Ne+235U (175 MeV), 84Kr+208Pb (500 MeV), 84Kr+232Th (500 MeV), diffraction model, nuclear deformation.

  7. Particle force model effects in a shock-driven multiphase instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W. J.; Denissen, N.; McFarland, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents simulations on a shock-driven multiphase instability (SDMI) at an initial particle volume fraction of 1% with the addition of a suite of particle force models applicable in dense flows. These models include pressure-gradient, added-mass, and interparticle force terms in an effort to capture the effects neighboring particles have in non-dilute flow regimes. Two studies are presented here: the first seeks to investigate the individual contributions of the force models, while the second study focuses on examining the effect of these force models on the hydrodynamic evolution of a SDMI with various particle relaxation times (particle sizes). In the force study, it was found that the pressure gradient and interparticle forces have little effect on the instability under the conditions examined, while the added-mass force decreases the vorticity deposition and alters the morphology of the instability. The relaxation-time study likewise showed a decrease in metrics associated with the evolution of the SDMI for all sizes when the particle force models were included. The inclusion of these models showed significant morphological differences in both the particle and carrier species fields, which increased as particle relaxation times increased.

  8. Modeling Acute Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Injury: Challenges and Guidelines for Preclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoleda, Jordi L; Watts, Sarah A; Reynolds, Penny S; Thiemermann, Christoph; Brohi, Karim

    2017-12-01

    Trauma is responsible for a large proportion of the world's burden of disease, and is by far the biggest killer of young adults. Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death and its effects are directly correlated with the incidence multi-organ failure in survivors. Trauma research is challenging due to patient heterogeneity, limited randomized controlled trials, and in vitro studies that fail to mimic the systemic injury response. Preclinical research remains essential for mechanistic and therapeutic discovery. Yet modeling the multifaceted nature of traumatic injury poses important experimental and welfare challenges associated with the onset of injury and prehospital and intra-operative care, the limited inter-species validation of coagulation profiles, the use of anesthesia/analgesia, and its impact on the systemic response to trauma; and the challenge of sustaining intensive care in recovery models. Proper model selection depends on the purpose of a given model and the criteria by which the experimental readouts will be clinically relevant. Such complexity warrants further refinement of experimental methodology and outcome measures to improve its clinical efficacy, while ensuring animal well-being. We review the experimental methodologies currently used for modeling traumatic hemorrhagic shock and addressing their impact on clinical translation. The aim of the review is to improve transparency and form a consensus when reporting methodology in trauma modeling.

  9. Modelling of thermal shock experiments of carbon based materials in JUDITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikova, O.V.; Pestchanyi, S.; Koza, Y.; Linke, J.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of hot plasma with material in fusion devices can result in material erosion and irreversible damage. Carbon based materials are proposed for ITER divertor armour. To simulate carbon erosion under high heat fluxes, electron beam heating in the JUDITH facility has been used. In this paper, carbon erosion under energetic electron impact is modeled by the 3D thermomechanics code 'PEGASUS-3D'. The code is based on a crack generation induced by thermal stress. The particle emission observed in thermal shock experiments is a result of breaking bonds between grains caused by thermal stress. The comparison of calculations with experimental data from JUDITH shows good agreement for various incident power densities and pulse durations. A realistic mean failure stress has been found. Pre-heating of test specimens results in earlier onset of brittle destruction and enhanced particle loss in agreement with experiments

  10. Modelling of thermal shock experiments of carbon based materials in JUDITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogorodnikova, O.V. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, EURATOM-Association, IWV-2, 52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: o.ogorodnikova@fz-juelich.de; Pestchanyi, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, EURATOM-Associaton, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Koza, Y. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, EURATOM-Association, IWV-2, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, EURATOM-Association, IWV-2, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    The interaction of hot plasma with material in fusion devices can result in material erosion and irreversible damage. Carbon based materials are proposed for ITER divertor armour. To simulate carbon erosion under high heat fluxes, electron beam heating in the JUDITH facility has been used. In this paper, carbon erosion under energetic electron impact is modeled by the 3D thermomechanics code 'PEGASUS-3D'. The code is based on a crack generation induced by thermal stress. The particle emission observed in thermal shock experiments is a result of breaking bonds between grains caused by thermal stress. The comparison of calculations with experimental data from JUDITH shows good agreement for various incident power densities and pulse durations. A realistic mean failure stress has been found. Pre-heating of test specimens results in earlier onset of brittle destruction and enhanced particle loss in agreement with experiments.

  11. Modelling of thermal shock experiments of carbon based materials in JUDITH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Pestchanyi, S.; Koza, Y.; Linke, J.

    2005-03-01

    The interaction of hot plasma with material in fusion devices can result in material erosion and irreversible damage. Carbon based materials are proposed for ITER divertor armour. To simulate carbon erosion under high heat fluxes, electron beam heating in the JUDITH facility has been used. In this paper, carbon erosion under energetic electron impact is modeled by the 3D thermomechanics code 'PEGASUS-3D'. The code is based on a crack generation induced by thermal stress. The particle emission observed in thermal shock experiments is a result of breaking bonds between grains caused by thermal stress. The comparison of calculations with experimental data from JUDITH shows good agreement for various incident power densities and pulse durations. A realistic mean failure stress has been found. Pre-heating of test specimens results in earlier onset of brittle destruction and enhanced particle loss in agreement with experiments.

  12. Assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Models for Shock Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, James R.; Oberkampf, William L.; Wolf, Richard T.; Orkwis, Paul D.; Turner, Mark G.; Babinsky, Holger

    2011-01-01

    A workshop on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) prediction of shock boundary-layer interactions (SBLIs) was held at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. As part of the workshop numerous CFD analysts submitted solutions to four experimentally measured SBLIs. This paper describes the assessment of the CFD predictions. The assessment includes an uncertainty analysis of the experimental data, the definition of an error metric and the application of that metric to the CFD solutions. The CFD solutions provided very similar levels of error and in general it was difficult to discern clear trends in the data. For the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes methods the choice of turbulence model appeared to be the largest factor in solution accuracy. Large-eddy simulation methods produced error levels similar to RANS methods but provided superior predictions of normal stresses.

  13. Off-critical statistical models: factorized scattering theories and bootstrap program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussardo, G.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze those integrable statistical systems which originate from some relevant perturbations of the minimal models of conformal field theories. When only massive excitations are present, the systems can be efficiently characterized in terms of the relativistic scattering data. We review the general properties of the factorizable S-matrix in two dimensions with particular emphasis on the bootstrap principle. The classification program of the allowed spins of conserved currents and of the non-degenerate S-matrices is discussed and illustrated by means of some significant examples. The scattering theories of several massive perturbations of the minimal models are fully discussed. Among them are the Ising model, the tricritical Ising model, the Potts models, the series of the non-unitary minimal models M 2,2n+3 , the non-unitary model M 3,5 and the scaling limit of the polymer system. The ultraviolet limit of these massive integrable theories can be exploited by the thermodynamics Bethe ansatz, in particular the central charge of the original conformal theories can be recovered from the scattering data. We also consider the numerical method based on the so-called conformal space truncated approach which confirms the theoretical results and allows a direct measurement of the scattering data, i.e. the masses and the S-matrix of the particles in bootstrap interaction. The problem of computing the off-critical correlation functions is discussed in terms of the form-factor approach

  14. Shock tube and modeling study of 2,7-dimethyloctane pyrolysis and oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sijie; Sarathy, Mani; Davidson, David Frank; Hanson, Ronald Kenneth; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight iso-paraffinic molecules are found in conventional petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch (FT), and other alternative hydrocarbon fuels, yet fundamental combustion studies on this class of compounds are lacking. In the present work, ignition delay time measurements in 2,7-dimethyloctane/air were carried out behind reflected shock waves using conventional and constrained reaction volume (CRV) methods. The ignition delay time measurements covered the temperature range 666-1216K, pressure range 12-27atm, and equivalence ratio of 0.5 and 1. The ignition delay time temperatures span the low-, intermediate- and high-temperature regimes for 2,7-dimethyloctane (2,7-DMO) oxidation. Clear evidence of negative temperature coefficient behavior was observed near 800K. Fuel time-history measurements were also carried out in pyrolysis experiments in mixtures of 2000ppm 2,7-DMO/argon at pressures near 16 and 35atm, and in the temperature range of 1126-1455K. Based on the fuel removal rates, the overall 2,7-DMO decomposition rate constant can be represented with k =4.47×105 exp(-23.4[kcal/mol]/RT) [1/s]. Ethylene time-history measurements in pyrolysis experiments at 16atm are also provided. The current shock tube dataset was simulated using a novel chemical kinetic model for 2,7-DMO. The reaction mechanism includes comprehensive low- and high-temperature reaction classes with rate constants assigned using established rules. Comparisons between the simulated and experimental data show simulations reproduce the qualitative trends across the entire range of conditions tested. However, the present kinetic modeling simulations cannot quantitatively reproduce a number of experimental data points, and these are analyzed herein.

  15. Multiscale modeling of beryllium: quantum mechanics and laser-driven shock experiments using novel diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.C.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Kyrala, George A.; Hauer, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanics was used to construct a thermodynamically complete and rigorous equation of state for beryllium in the hexagonal and body-centred cubic structures, and to predict elastic constants as a function of compression. The equation of state agreed well with Hugoniot data and previously-published equations of state, but the temperatures were significantly different. The hexagonal/bcc phase boundary agreed reasonably well with published data, suggesting that the temperatures in our new equation of state were accurate. Shock waves were induced in single crystals and polycrystalline foils of beryllium, by direct illumination using the TRIDENT laser at Los Alamos. The velocity history at the surface of the sample was measured using a line-imaging VISAR, and transient X-ray diffraction (TXD) records were obtained with a plasma backlighter and X-ray streak cameras. The VISAR records exhibited elastic precursors, plastic waves, phase changes and spall. Dual TXD records were taken, in Bragg and Laue orientations. The Bragg lines moved in response to compression in the uniaxial direction. Because direct laser drive was used, the results had to be interpreted with the aid of radiation hydrodynamics simulations to predict the loading history for each laser pulse. In the experiments where there was evidence of polymorphism in the VISAR record, additional lines appeared in the Bragg and Laue records. The corresponding pressures were consistent with the phase boundary predicted by the quantum mechanical equation of state for beryllium. A model of the response of a single crystal of beryllium to shock loading is being developed using these new theoretical and experimental results. This model will be used in meso-scale studies of the response of the microstructure, allowing us to develop a more accurate representation of the behaviour of polycrystalline beryllium.

  16. Shock tube and modeling study of 2,7-dimethyloctane pyrolysis and oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sijie

    2015-05-01

    High molecular weight iso-paraffinic molecules are found in conventional petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch (FT), and other alternative hydrocarbon fuels, yet fundamental combustion studies on this class of compounds are lacking. In the present work, ignition delay time measurements in 2,7-dimethyloctane/air were carried out behind reflected shock waves using conventional and constrained reaction volume (CRV) methods. The ignition delay time measurements covered the temperature range 666-1216K, pressure range 12-27atm, and equivalence ratio of 0.5 and 1. The ignition delay time temperatures span the low-, intermediate- and high-temperature regimes for 2,7-dimethyloctane (2,7-DMO) oxidation. Clear evidence of negative temperature coefficient behavior was observed near 800K. Fuel time-history measurements were also carried out in pyrolysis experiments in mixtures of 2000ppm 2,7-DMO/argon at pressures near 16 and 35atm, and in the temperature range of 1126-1455K. Based on the fuel removal rates, the overall 2,7-DMO decomposition rate constant can be represented with k =4.47×105 exp(-23.4[kcal/mol]/RT) [1/s]. Ethylene time-history measurements in pyrolysis experiments at 16atm are also provided. The current shock tube dataset was simulated using a novel chemical kinetic model for 2,7-DMO. The reaction mechanism includes comprehensive low- and high-temperature reaction classes with rate constants assigned using established rules. Comparisons between the simulated and experimental data show simulations reproduce the qualitative trends across the entire range of conditions tested. However, the present kinetic modeling simulations cannot quantitatively reproduce a number of experimental data points, and these are analyzed herein.

  17. Excitation function of elastic $pp$ scattering from a unitarily extended Bialas-Bzdak model

    CERN Document Server

    Nemes, F.; Csanád, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Bialas-Bzdak model of elastic proton-proton scattering assumes a purely imaginary forward scattering amplitude, which consequently vanishes at the diffractive minima. We extended the model to arbitrarily large real parts in a way that constraints from unitarity are satisfied. The resulting model is able to describe elastic $pp$ scattering not only at the lower ISR energies but also at $\\sqrt{s}=$7~TeV in a statistically acceptable manner, both in the diffractive cone and in the region of the first diffractive minimum. The total cross-section as well as the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is predicted for the future LHC energies of $\\sqrt{s}=$13, 14, 15~TeV and also to 28~TeV. A non-trivial, significantly non-exponential feature of the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is analyzed and the excitation function of the non-exponential behavior is predicted. The excitation function of the shadow profiles is discussed and related to saturation at small ...

  18. First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.

    2016-01-01

    A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell–Lorentz equations, we trace the development

  19. First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.

    2018-01-01

    A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell–Lorentz equations, we trace the development

  20. First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, Michael I., E-mail: michael.i.mishchenko@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Dlugach, Janna M. [Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 27 Zabolotny Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Yurkin, Maxim A. [Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, SB RAS, Institutskaya str. 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bi, Lei [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Cairns, Brian [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Liu, Li [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Columbia University, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Panetta, R. Lee [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Travis, Larry D. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Yang, Ping [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zakharova, Nadezhda T. [Trinnovim LLC, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell–Lorentz equations, we trace the development

  1. First-Principles Modeling Of Electromagnetic Scattering By Discrete and Discretely Heterogeneous Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.

    2016-01-01

    A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell's equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell- Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations, we trace the development of

  2. Reynolds stress turbulence model applied to two-phase pressurized thermal shocks in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mérigoux, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.merigoux@edf.fr; Laviéville, Jérôme; Mimouni, Stéphane; Guingo, Mathieu; Baudry, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • NEPTUNE-CFD is used to model two-phase PTS. • k-ε model did produce some satisfactory results but also highlights some weaknesses. • A more advanced turbulence model has been developed, validated and applied for PTS. • Coupled with LIM, the first results confirmed the increased accuracy of the approach. - Abstract: Nuclear power plants are subjected to a variety of ageing mechanisms and, at the same time, exposed to potential pressurized thermal shock (PTS) – characterized by a rapid cooling of the internal Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) surface. In this context, NEPTUNE-CFD is used to model two-phase PTS and give an assessment on the structural integrity of the RPV. The first available choice was to use standard first order turbulence model (k-ε) to model high-Reynolds number flows encountered in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary circuits. In a first attempt, the use of k-ε model did produce some satisfactory results in terms of condensation rate and temperature field distribution on integral experiments, but also highlights some weaknesses in the way to model highly anisotropic turbulence. One way to improve the turbulence prediction – and consequently the temperature field distribution – is to opt for more advanced Reynolds Stress turbulence Model. After various verification and validation steps on separated effects cases – co-current air/steam-water stratified flows in rectangular channels, water jet impingements on water pool free surfaces – this Reynolds Stress turbulence Model (R{sub ij}-ε SSG) has been applied for the first time to thermal free surface flows under industrial conditions on COSI and TOPFLOW-PTS experiments. Coupled with the Large Interface Model, the first results confirmed the adequacy and increased accuracy of the approach in an industrial context.

  3. Ion mobilities in diatomic gases: measurement versus prediction with non-specular scattering models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Carlos; Hogan, Christopher J

    2013-05-16

    Ion/electrical mobility measurements of nanoparticles and polyatomic ions are typically linked to particle/ion physical properties through either application of the Stokes-Millikan relationship or comparison to mobilities predicted from polyatomic models, which assume that gas molecules scatter specularly and elastically from rigid structural models. However, there is a discrepancy between these approaches; when specular, elastic scattering models (i.e., elastic-hard-sphere scattering, EHSS) are applied to polyatomic models of nanometer-scale ions with finite-sized impinging gas molecules, predictions are in substantial disagreement with the Stokes-Millikan equation. To rectify this discrepancy, we developed and tested a new approach for mobility calculations using polyatomic models in which non-specular (diffuse) and inelastic gas-molecule scattering is considered. Two distinct semiempirical models of gas-molecule scattering from particle surfaces were considered. In the first, which has been traditionally invoked in the study of aerosol nanoparticles, 91% of collisions are diffuse and thermally accommodating, and 9% are specular and elastic. In the second, all collisions are considered to be diffuse and accommodating, but the average speed of the gas molecules reemitted from a particle surface is 8% lower than the mean thermal speed at the particle temperature. Both scattering models attempt to mimic exchange between translational, vibrational, and rotational modes of energy during collision, as would be expected during collision between a nonmonoatomic gas molecule and a nonfrozen particle surface. The mobility calculation procedure was applied considering both hard-sphere potentials between gas molecules and the atoms within a particle and the long-range ion-induced dipole (polarization) potential. Predictions were compared to previous measurements in air near room temperature of multiply charged poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) ions, which range in morphology from

  4. Heat shock and thermotolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a model beef gravy system and ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, V K; Klein, P G; Marmer, B S

    1998-04-01

    Duplicate beef gravy or ground beef samples inoculated with a suspension of a four-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were subjected to sublethal heating at 46 degrees C for 15-30 min, and then heated to a final internal temperature of 60 degrees C. Survivor curves were fitted using a linear model that incorporated a lag period (TL), and D-values and 'time to a 4D inactivation' (T4D) were calculated. Heat-shocking allowed the organism to survive longer than non-heat-shocked cells; the T4D values at 60 degrees C increased 1.56- and 1.50-fold in beef gravy and ground beef, respectively. In ground beef stored at 4 degrees C, thermotolerance was lost after storage for 14 h. However, heat-shocked cells appeared to maintain their thermotolerance for at least 24 h in ground beef held to 15 or 28 degrees C. A 25 min heat shock at 46 degrees C in beef gravy resulted in an increase in the levels of two proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 69 kDa. These two proteins were shown to be immunologically related to GroEL and DnaK, respectively. Increased heat resistance due to heat shock must be considered while designing thermal processes to assure the microbiological safety of thermally processed foods.

  5. Examining platelet-fibrin interactions during traumatic shock in a swine model using platelet contractile force and clot elastic modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan J; Martin, Erika J; Brophy, Donald F; Ward, Kevin R

    2011-07-01

    A significant proportion of severely injured patients develop early coagulopathy, characterized by abnormal clot formation, which impairs resuscitation and increases mortality. We have previously demonstrated an isolated decrease in clot strength by thrombelastography in a swine model of nonresuscitated traumatic shock. In order to more closely examine platelet-fibrin interactions in this setting, we define the observed decrease in clot strength in terms of platelet-induced clot contraction and clot elastic modulus using the Hemostasis Analysis System (HAS) (Hemodyne Inc., Richmond, Virginia, USA). Whole blood was sampled for HAS measurements, metabolic measurements, cell counts, and fibrinogen concentration at baseline prior to injury and again at a predetermined level of traumatic shock defined by oxygen debt. Male swine (N=17) received femur fracture and controlled arterial hemorrhage to achieve an oxygen debt of 80 ml/kg. Platelet counts were unchanged, but fibrinogen concentration was reduced significantly during shock (167.6 vs. 66.7 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Platelet contractile force generated during clot formation did not change during shock (11.7 vs. 10.4 kdynes, P=0.41), but clot elastic modulus was dynamically altered, resulting in a lower final value (22.9 vs. 17.3 kdynes/cm, Pshock, platelet function was preserved, whereas terminal clot elastic modulus was reduced during shock in a manner most consistent with early changes in the mechanical properties of the developing fibrin fiber network.

  6. Calculation of the thermal neutron scattering kernel using the synthetic model. Pt. 2. Zero-order energy transfer kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive unified description of the application of Granada's Synthetic Model to the slow-neutron scattering by the molecular systems is continued. Detailed formulae for the zero-order energy transfer kernel are presented basing on the general formalism of the model. An explicit analytical formula for the total scattering cross section as a function of the incident neutron energy is also obtained. Expressions of the free gas model for the zero-order scattering kernel and for total scattering kernel are considered as a sub-case of the Synthetic Model. (author). 10 refs

  7. SCT: a suite of programs for comparing atomistic models with small-angle scattering data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David W; Perkins, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques characterize proteins in solution and complement high-resolution structural studies. They are of particular utility when large proteins cannot be crystallized or when the structure is altered by solution conditions. Atomistic models of the averaged structure can be generated through constrained modelling, a technique in which known domain or subunit structures are combined with linker models to produce candidate global conformations. By randomizing the configuration adopted by the different elements of the model, thousands of candidate structures are produced. Next, theoretical scattering curves are generated for each model for trial-and-error fits to the experimental data. From these, a small family of best-fit models is identified. In order to facilitate both the computation of theoretical scattering curves from atomistic models and their comparison with experiment, the SCT suite of tools was developed. SCT also includes programs that provide sequence-based estimates of protein volume (either incorporating hydration or not) and add a hydration layer to models for X-ray scattering modelling. The original SCT software, written in Fortran, resulted in the first atomistic scattering structures to be deposited in the Protein Data Bank, and 77 structures for antibodies, complement proteins and anionic oligosaccharides were determined between 1998 and 2014. For the first time, this software is publicly available, alongside an easier-to-use reimplementation of the same algorithms in Python. Both versions of SCT have been released as open-source software under the Apache 2 license and are available for download from https://github.com/dww100/sct.

  8. Re-evaluation of model-based light-scattering spectroscopy for tissue spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Condon; Šćepanović, Obrad; Mirkovic, Jelena; McGee, Sasha; Yu, Chung-Chieh; Fulghum, Stephen; Wallace, Michael; Tunnell, James; Bechtel, Kate; Feld, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Model-based light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) seemed a promising technique for in-vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in multiple organs. In the studies, the residual spectrum, the difference between the observed and modeled diffuse reflectance spectra, was attributed to single elastic light scattering from epithelial nuclei, and diagnostic information due to nuclear changes was extracted from it. We show that this picture is incorrect. The actual single scattering signal arising from epithelial nuclei is much smaller than the previously computed residual spectrum, and does not have the wavelength dependence characteristic of Mie scattering. Rather, the residual spectrum largely arises from assuming a uniform hemoglobin distribution. In fact, hemoglobin is packaged in blood vessels, which alters the reflectance. When we include vessel packaging, which accounts for an inhomogeneous hemoglobin distribution, in the diffuse reflectance model, the reflectance is modeled more accurately, greatly reducing the amplitude of the residual spectrum. These findings are verified via numerical estimates based on light propagation and Mie theory, tissue phantom experiments, and analysis of published data measured from Barrett’s esophagus. In future studies, vessel packaging should be included in the model of diffuse reflectance and use of model-based LSS should be discontinued. PMID:19405760

  9. Deeply virtual Compton scattering in a relativistic quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzenberg, T.

    2007-09-15

    This thesis is mainly concerned with a model calculation for generalized parton distributions (GPDs). We calculate vectorial- and axial GPDs for the N{yields}N and N{yields}{delta} transition in the framework of a light front quark model. This requires the elaboration of a connection between transition amplitudes and GPDs. We provide the first quark model calculations for N{yields}{delta} GPDs. The examination of transition amplitudes leads to various model independent consistency relations. These relations are not exactly obeyed by our model calculation since the use of the impulse approximation in the light front quark model leads to a violation of Poincare covariance. We explore the impact of this covariance breaking on the GPDs and form factors which we determine in our model calculation and find large effects. The reference frame dependence of our results which originates from the breaking of Poincare covariance can be eliminated by introducing spurious covariants. We extend this formalism in order to obtain frame independent results from our transition amplitudes. (orig.)

  10. Further Examination of a Simplified Model for Positronium-Helium Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzi, J.; Drachman, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    While carrying out investigations on Ps-He scattering we realized that it would be possible to improve the results of a previous work on zero-energy scattering of ortho-positronium by helium atoms. The previous work used a model to account for exchange and also attempted to include the effect of short-range Coulomb interactions in the close-coupling approximation. The 3 terms that were then included did not produce a well-converged result but served to give some justification to the model. Now we improve the calculation by using a simple variational wave function, and derive a much better value of the scattering length. The new result is compared with other computed values, and when an approximate correction due to the van der Waals potential is included the total is consistent with an earlier conjecture.

  11. Three particle scattering at high energies in a model with eikonal Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.F.; Kuzmichev, V.E.

    1980-04-01

    The three particle collision process 3 → 3 with relative motion of each pair of particles described by a model with eikonal Hamiltonian is investigated. No additional restrictions on the motion of the particles (such as the fixed scattering centre approximation) are imposed. A unique, exact analytical solution of the three-particle problem is then shown to exist. An explicit expression for the 3 → 3 amplitude in the general case off the energy shell is obtained as the result of the exact summation of the multiple scattering series. It is shown that this series terminates on the energy shell. A new formula for the mutual cancellation of terms in the multiple scattering series in a model with eikonal Hamiltonian is found. (orig.)

  12. Resonance-sum model for Reggeization in the scattering of particles with arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.J.; Durand, L.; Wali, K.C.

    1976-01-01

    Using a field-theoretic description of nonzero-spin particles, center-of-mass helicity amplitudes have been obtained which correspond to pole terms in four-particle reactions with arbitrary-spin external particles. Construction of a van Hove-Durand--type model starting from these helicity amplitudes (which have a well specified kinematic structure in the field-theoretic description) is discussed. Special attention has been paid to boson-fermion scattering. Straightforward Reggeization of helicity amplitudes assuming linear trajectories is known to produce parity doubling. One cannot have a pure fermion Regge pole unaccompanied by cuts. This conclusion has important consequences on both fitting data using Regge formulas in, say, backward scattering in boson-fermion scattering and theoretical considerations such as dual bootstrap models

  13. A successive order of scattering model for solving vector radiative transfer in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Qilong; Duan Minzheng

    2004-01-01

    A full vector radiative transfer model for vertically inhomogeneous plane-parallel media has been developed by using the successive order of scattering approach. In this model, a fast analytical expansion of Fourier decomposition is implemented and an exponent-linear assumption is used for vertical integration. An analytic angular interpolation method of post-processing source function is also implemented to accurately interpolate the Stokes vector at arbitrary angles for a given solution. It has been tested against the benchmarks for the case of randomly orientated oblate spheroids, illustrating a good agreement for each stokes vector (within 0.01%). Sensitivity tests have been conducted to illustrate the accuracy of vertical integration and angle interpolation approaches. The contribution of each scattering order for different optical depths and single scattering albedos are also analyzed

  14. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx. 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity.

  15. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R.B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity

  16. K-correlation power spectral density and surface scatter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Michael G.

    2006-08-01

    The K-Correlation or ABC model for surface power spectral density (PSD) and BRDF has been around for years. Eugene Church and John Stover, in particular, have published descriptions of its use in describing smooth surfaces. The model has, however, remained underused in the optical analysis community partially due to the lack of a clear summary tailored toward that application. This paper provides the K-Correlation PSD normalized to σ(λ) and BRDF normalized to TIS(σ,λ) in a format intended to be used by stray light analysts. It is hoped that this paper will promote use of the model by analysts and its incorporation as a standard tool into stray light modeling software.

  17. Simulation on scattering features of biological tissue based on generated refractive-index model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baoyong; Ding Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Important information on morphology of biological tissue can be deduced from elastic scattering spectra, and their analyses are based on the known refractive-index model of tissue. In this paper, a new numerical refractive-index model is put forward, and its scattering properties are intensively studied. Spectral decomposition [1] is a widely used method to generate random medium in geology, but it is never used in biology. Biological tissue is different from geology in the sense of random medium. Autocorrelation function describe almost all of features in geology, but biological tissue is not as random as geology, its structure is regular in the sense of fractal geometry [2] , and fractal dimension can be used to describe its regularity under random. Firstly scattering theories of this fractal media are reviewed. Secondly the detailed generation process of refractive-index is presented. Finally the scattering features are simulated in FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) Solutions software. From the simulation results, we find that autocorrelation length and fractal dimension controls scattering feature of biological tissue.

  18. Disequilibrium macro model and catastrophe theory: the case of an oil shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, I.

    1983-01-01

    This study builds a simple disequilibrium macromodel of a small open economy that imports oil from an exogenous unit. The model is motivated by very slow adjustment of prices and wages to disequilibrium. Output on the other hand adjusts to its final level instantaneously. A rationing scheme is specified that explicitly takes into account the spillover effects and differentiates between notional, effective, and actual quantities. In a Solow-Stiglitz (1968) setting, a dynamic model is developed in which the dynamic forces depend on the economic environment specified by the Malinvandian regimes: Classical Unemployment, Keynesian Unemployment, Repressed Inflation, and the Walrasian Equilibrium. Given that dynamic system, the author seeks to identify the stationary points of the system (quasi-equilibria) and to find their stability properties. To the disequilibrium model an oil shock is introduced and its effects on employment, real output, real wage, and the stationary points of the system are investigated. A one-time increase (decrease) in the real price of oil and a continuous increase (decrease) in the real price of oil are considered. The path the economy takes and, in particular, the continuous and discontinuous behavior of the quasi-equilibria are investigated. Finally, the model government policy is incorporated and different policy alternatives are studied.

  19. DAM-BREAK SHOCK WAVES WITH FLOATING DEBRIS: EXPERIMENTALANALYSIS AND TWO-PHASE MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mambretti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To predict floods and debris flow dynamics a numerical model, based on 1D De Saint Venant (SV equations, was developed. The McCormack – Jameson shock capturing scheme was employed for the solution of the equations, written in a conservative law form. This technique was applied to determine both the propagation and the profile of a two – phase debris flow resulting from the instantaneous and complete collapse of a storage dam. To validate the model, comparisons have been made between its predictions and laboratory measurements concerning flows of water and homogeneous granular mixtures in a uniform geometry flume reproducing dam – break waves. Agreements between computational and experimental results are considered very satisfactory for mature (non – stratified debris flows, which embrace most real cases. To better predict immature (stratified flows, the model should be improved in order to feature, in a more realistic way, the distribution of the particles of different size within the mixture. On the whole, the model proposed can easily be extended to channels with arbitrary cross sections for debris flow routing, as well as for solving different problems of unsteady flow in open channels by incorporating the appropriate initial and boundary conditions.

  20. Modeling of laser induced air plasma and shock wave dynamics using 2D-hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Prem Kiran; S, Sai Shiva; Chelikani, Leela; Ikkurthi, Venkata Ramana; C. D., Sijoy; Chaturvedi, Shashank; Acrhem, University Of Hyderabad Team; Computational Analysis Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Visakhapatnam Team

    2017-06-01

    The laser induced air plasma dynamics and the SW evolution modeled using the two dimensional hydrodynamic code by considering two different EOS: ideal gas EOS with charge state effects taken into consideration and Chemical Equilibrium applications (CEA) EOS considering the chemical kinetics of different species will be presented. The inverse bremsstrahlung absorption process due to electron-ion and electron-neutrals is considered for the laser-air interaction process for both the models. The numerical results obtained with the two models were compared with that of the experimental observations over the time scales of 200 - 4000 ns at an input laser intensity of 2.3 ×1010 W/cm2. The comparison shows that the plasma and shock dynamics differ significantly for two EOS considered. With the ideas gas EOS the asymmetric expansion and the subsequent plasma dynamics have been well reproduced as observed in the experiments, whereas with the CEA model these processes were not reproduced due to the laser energy absorption occurring mostly at the focal volume. ACRHEM team thank DRDO, India for funding.

  1. Inactivation of GABAA receptor is related to heat shock stress response in organism model Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Gabriela; Elizalde, Alejandro; Trujillo, Xochitl; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Mendoza-Magaña, María Luisa; Hernandez-Chavez, Abel; Hernandez, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying oxidative stress (OS) resistance are not completely clear. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a good organism model to study OS because it displays stress responses similar to those in mammals. Among these mechanisms, the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is thought to affect GABAergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat shock stress (HS) on GABAergic activity in C. elegans. For this purpose, we tested the effect of exposure to picrotoxin (PTX), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), hydrogen peroxide, and HS on the occurrence of a shrinking response (SR) after nose touch stimulus in N2 (WT) worms. Moreover, the effect of HS on the expression of UNC-49 (GABAA receptor ortholog) in the EG1653 strain and the effect of GABA and PTX exposure on HSP-16.2 expression in the TJ375 strain were analyzed. PTX 1 mM- or H2O2 0.7 mM-exposed worms displayed a SR in about 80 % of trials. GABA exposure did not cause a SR. HS prompted the occurrence of a SR as did PTX 1 mM or H2O2 0.7 mM exposure. In addition, HS increased UNC-49 expression, and PTX augmented HSP-16.2 expression. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that oxidative stress, through either H2O2 exposure or application of heat shock, inactivates the GABAergic system, which subsequently would affect the oxidative stress response, perhaps by enhancing the activity of transcription factors DAF-16 and HSF-1, both regulated by the IIS pathway and related to hsp-16.2 expression.

  2. Design of Wideband MIMO Car-to-Car Channel Models Based on the Geometrical Street Scattering Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurilla Avazov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO car-to-car (C2C channel model based on the geometrical street scattering model. Starting from the geometrical model, a MIMO reference channel model is derived under the assumption of single-bounce scattering in line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS propagation environments. The proposed channel model assumes an infinite number of scatterers, which are uniformly distributed in two rectangular areas located on both sides of the street. Analytical solutions are presented for the space-time-frequency cross-correlation function (STF-CCF, the two-dimensional (2D space CCF, the time-frequency CCF (TF-CCF, the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF, and the frequency correlation function (FCF. An efficient sum-of-cisoids (SOCs channel simulator is derived from the reference model. It is shown that the temporal ACF and the FCF of the SOC channel simulator fit very well to the corresponding correlation functions of the reference model. To validate the proposed channel model, the mean Doppler shift and the Doppler spread of the reference model have been matched to real-world measurement data. The comparison results demonstrate an excellent agreement between theory and measurements, which confirms the validity of the derived reference model. The proposed geometry-based channel simulator allows us to study the effect of nearby street scatterers on the performance of C2C communication systems.

  3. The Glauber model and heavy ion reaction and elastic scattering cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Ajay [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India); Shukla, Prashant, E-mail: pshukla@barc.gov.in [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-05-15

    We revisit the Glauber model to study the heavy ion reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions at low and intermediate energies. The Glauber model takes nucleon–nucleon cross sections and nuclear densities as inputs and has no free parameter and thus can predict the cross sections for unknown systems. The Glauber model works at low energies down to Coulomb barrier with very simple modifications. We present new parametrization of measured total cross sections as well as ratio of real to imaginary parts of the scattering amplitudes for pp and np collisions as a function of nucleon kinetic energy. The nuclear (charge) densities obtained by electron scattering form factors measured in large momentum transfer range are used in the calculations. The heavy ion reaction cross sections are calculated for light and heavy systems and are compared with available data measured over large energy range. The model gives excellent description of the data. The elastic scattering angular distributions are calculated for various systems at different energies. The model gives good description of the data at small momentum transfer but the calculations deviate from the data at large momentum transfer.

  4. Improved quantitative 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT reconstruction with Monte Carlo scatter modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaraja, Yuni K; Chun, Se Young; Srinivasa, Ravi N; Kaza, Ravi K; Cuneo, Kyle C; Majdalany, Bill S; Novelli, Paula M; Ljungberg, Michael; Fessler, Jeffrey A

    2017-12-01

    In 90 Y microsphere radioembolization (RE), accurate post-therapy imaging-based dosimetry is important for establishing absorbed dose versus outcome relationships for developing future treatment planning strategies. Additionally, accurately assessing microsphere distributions is important because of concerns for unexpected activity deposition outside the liver. Quantitative 90 Y imaging by either SPECT or PET is challenging. In 90 Y SPECT model based methods are necessary for scatter correction because energy window-based methods are not feasible with the continuous bremsstrahlung energy spectrum. The objective of this work was to implement and evaluate a scatter estimation method for accurate 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT imaging. Since a fully Monte Carlo (MC) approach to 90 Y SPECT reconstruction is computationally very demanding, in the present study the scatter estimate generated by a MC simulator was combined with an analytical projector in the 3D OS-EM reconstruction model. A single window (105 to 195-keV) was used for both the acquisition and the projector modeling. A liver/lung torso phantom with intrahepatic lesions and low-uptake extrahepatic objects was imaged to evaluate SPECT/CT reconstruction without and with scatter correction. Clinical application was demonstrated by applying the reconstruction approach to five patients treated with RE to determine lesion and normal liver activity concentrations using a (liver) relative calibration. There was convergence of the scatter estimate after just two updates, greatly reducing computational requirements. In the phantom study, compared with reconstruction without scatter correction, with MC scatter modeling there was substantial improvement in activity recovery in intrahepatic lesions (from > 55% to > 86%), normal liver (from 113% to 104%), and lungs (from 227% to 104%) with only a small degradation in noise (13% vs. 17%). Similarly, with scatter modeling contrast improved substantially both visually and in

  5. Pion-nucleon scattering in the Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effective hamiltonian of the πNΔ-system in the framework of the Chiral Bag Model (CBM) contains πNN-, πNΔ-, πΔΔ-interaction terms with a form factor which is esstentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The interation of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3,3) and (3,1) phase shifts [in the (3,3) resonance region] where the values of the paramters agree with the CBM. (orig.)

  6. Simple Regge pole model for Compton scattering of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that by a phenomenological choice of the residue functions, the differential cross section for ν p → ν p, including the very recent measurements up to - t=4.3 (GeV/c) 2 , can be explained at all measured energies greater than 2 GeV with simple Regge pole model

  7. Advanced DPSM approach for modeling ultrasonic wave scattering in an arbitrary geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Susheel K.; Banerjee, Sourav; Kundu, Tribikram

    2011-04-01

    Several techniques are used to diagnose structural damages. In the ultrasonic technique structures are tested by analyzing ultrasonic signals scattered by damages. The interpretation of these signals requires a good understanding of the interaction between ultrasonic waves and structures. Therefore, researchers need analytical or numerical techniques to have a clear understanding of the interaction between ultrasonic waves and structural damage. However, modeling of wave scattering phenomenon by conventional numerical techniques such as finite element method requires very fine mesh at high frequencies necessitating heavy computational power. Distributed point source method (DPSM) is a newly developed robust mesh free technique to simulate ultrasonic, electrostatic and electromagnetic fields. In most of the previous studies the DPSM technique has been applied to model two dimensional surface geometries and simple three dimensional scatterer geometries. It was difficult to perform the analysis for complex three dimensional geometries. This technique has been extended to model wave scattering in an arbitrary geometry. In this paper a channel section idealized as a thin solid plate with several rivet holes is formulated. The simulation has been carried out with and without cracks near the rivet holes. Further, a comparison study has been also carried out to characterize the crack. A computer code has been developed in C for modeling the ultrasonic field in a solid plate with and without cracks near the rivet holes.

  8. Iota-dependent resonance absorption in the optical model description of alpha particle elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, K.; Jarczyk, L.; Maciuk, B.; Zipper, W.

    1976-01-01

    Alpha particle scattering from 28 Si has been studied at five bombarding energies from 23.5 to 28.5 MeV. iota-dependent resonance absorption has been introduced to the optical model analysis of 28 Si (α,β) 28 Si reaction. (author)

  9. Additive quark model and double scattering of pions and protons in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.; Czyz, W.; Kisielewska, D.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the additive quark model is compatible with the data on double scattering of pions and protons in deuterium. The cross-section for interaction of the hadrons created in the first collision with the second nucleon of the target is determined to be 20-25 mb. (author)

  10. Deep-inelastic lepton scattering in an SU(3) x U(1) gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, K.; Sastry, C.V.

    1976-01-01

    Linear relations and sum rules for deep-inelastic lepton scattering are derived in the light-cone algebra approach from a set of weak, neutral, and electromagnetic currents based on an SU(3) x U(1) gauge model proposed by Schechter and Ueda

  11. Assessing the sensitivity and robustness of prediction models for apple firmness using spectral scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral scattering is useful for nondestructive sensing of fruit firmness. Prediction models, however, are typically built using multivariate statistical methods such as partial least squares regression (PLSR), whose performance generally depends on the characteristics of the data. The aim of this ...

  12. A study on basic theory for CDCC method for three-body model of deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuji

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the CDCC method is valid for treating the decomposition process involved in deuteron scattering on the basis of a three-body model. However, theoretical support has not been developed for this method. The present study is aimed at determining whether a solution by the CDCC method can be obtained 'correctly' from a 'realistic' model Hamiltonian for deuteron scattering. Some researchers have recently pointed out that there are some problems with the conventional CDCC calculation procedure in view of the general scattering theory. These problems are associated with asymptotic froms of the wave functions, convergence of calculations, and boundary conditions. Considerations show that the problem with asymptotic forms of the wave function is not a fatal defect, though some compromise is necessary. The problem with the convergence of calculations is not very serious either. Discussions are made of the handling of boundary conditions. Thus, the present study indicates that the CDCC method can be applied satisfactorily to actual deuteron scattering, and that the model wave function for the CDCC method is consistent with the model Hamiltonian. (Nogami, K.)

  13. A surface diffuse scattering model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices is studied on the basis of the results previously obtained, considering a surface diffuse scattering; the importance of the results obtained for a better understanding of the influence of the fringing field in surface charge coupled devices is discussed. (author)

  14. Channel Parameter Estimation for Scatter Cluster Model Using Modified MUSIC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the scatter cluster models which precisely evaluate the performance of the wireless communication system have been proposed in the literature. However, the conventional SAGE algorithm does not work for these scatter cluster-based models because it performs poorly when the transmit signals are highly correlated. In this paper, we estimate the time of arrival (TOA, the direction of arrival (DOA, and Doppler frequency for scatter cluster model by the modified multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm. Using the space-time characteristics of the multiray channel, the proposed algorithm combines the temporal filtering techniques and the spatial smoothing techniques to isolate and estimate the incoming rays. The simulation results indicated that the proposed algorithm has lower complexity and is less time-consuming in the dense multipath environment than SAGE algorithm. Furthermore, the estimations’ performance increases with elements of receive array and samples length. Thus, the problem of the channel parameter estimation of the scatter cluster model can be effectively addressed with the proposed modified MUSIC algorithm.

  15. Ion-reversibility studies in amorphous solids using the two-atom scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, O.S.

    1981-06-01

    An analytical two-atom scattering model has been developed to treat the recent discovery of the enhancement near 180 0 of Rutherford backscattering yields from disordered solids. In contrast to conventional calculations of Rutherford backscattering that treat scattering from a single atom only (the backscattering atom), the present model includes the interaction of a second atom lying between the target surface and the backscattering plane. The projectile ion makes a glancing collision with this second atom both before and after it is backscattered. The model predicts an enhancement effect whose physical origin arises from the tolerance of path for those ions whose inward and outward trajectories lie in the vicinity of the critical impact parameter. Results using Moliere scattering show how the yield enhancement depends on ion energy, backscattering depth, exit angle, scattering potential, atomic numbers of the projectile and target, and target density. In the model the critical impact parameter and critical angle play important roles. It is shown that these quantities depend on a single dimensionless parameter and analytical expressions for them are given which are accurate to better than 1%

  16. Folding model analysis of the nucleus–nucleus scattering based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 6. Folding model analysis of the nucleus–nucleus scattering based on Jacobi coordinates. F PAKDEL A A RAJABI L NICKHAH. Regular Volume 87 Issue 6 December 2016 Article ID 90 ...

  17. Models of direct reactions and quantum pre-equilibrium for nucleon scattering on spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.

    2006-01-01

    When a nucleon collides with a target nucleus, several reactions may occur: elastic and inelastic scatterings, charge exchange... In order to describe these reactions, different models are involved: the direct reactions, pre-equilibrium and compound nucleus models. Our goal is to study, within a quantum framework and without any adjustable parameter, the direct and pre-equilibrium reactions for nucleons scatterings off double closed-shell nuclei. We first consider direct reactions: we are studying nucleon scattering with the Melbourne G-matrix, which represents the interaction between the projectile and one target nucleon, and with random phase approximation (RPA) wave functions which describe all target states. This is a fully microscopic approach since no adjustable parameters are involved. A second part is dedicated to the study of nucleon inelastic scattering for large energy transfer which necessarily involves the pre-equilibrium mechanism. Several models have been developed in the past to deal with pre-equilibrium. They start from the Born expansion of the transition amplitude which is associated to the inelastic process and they use several approximations which have not yet been tested. We have achieved some comparisons between second order cross sections which have been calculated with and without these approximations. Our results allow us to criticize some of these approximations and give several directions to improve the quantum pre-equilibrium models. (author)

  18. Dynamics in a one-dimensional ferrogel model: relaxation, pairing, shock-wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Menzel, Andreas M; Löwen, Hartmut

    2018-05-23

    Ferrogels are smart soft materials, consisting of a polymeric network and embedded magnetic particles. Novel phenomena, such as the variation of the overall mechanical properties by external magnetic fields, emerge consequently. However, the dynamic behavior of ferrogels remains largely unveiled. In this paper, we consider a one-dimensional chain consisting of magnetic dipoles and elastic springs between them as a simple model for ferrogels. The model is evaluated by corresponding simulations. To probe the dynamics theoretically, we investigate a continuum limit of the energy governing the system and the corresponding equation of motion. We provide general classification scenarios for the dynamics, elucidating the touching/detachment dynamics of the magnetic particles along the chain. In particular, it is verified in certain cases that the long-time relaxation corresponds to solutions of shock-wave propagation, while formations of particle pairs underlie the initial stage of the dynamics. We expect that these results will provide insight into the understanding of the dynamics of more realistic models with randomness in parameters and time-dependent magnetic fields.

  19. High-energy pp and p-barp scattering and the model of geometric scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Jakes, P.; Novak, M.

    1982-10-01

    The model of geometric scaling is used to predict the evolution of the diffractive dip-peak structure of pp and p-barp differential cross-sections with increasing energy. Previous calculation for pp scattering made by Dias de Deus and Kroll is carried out with new data and their predictions confirmed. Recent data on p-barp scattering are used to make an analogous analysis for this process as well. It turns out that the p-barp differential cross-section behaves analogously, the main difference being that, in the p-barp case, the dip-peak structure should not completely disappear with increasing energy. (author)

  20. Density model for medium range order in amorphous materials: application to small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, B.; Tournarie, M.; Chieux, P.; Convert, P.

    1983-06-01

    We consider a family of randomly spaced parallel planes, each plane dressed with a density function, h(x), where x is the distance from the plane. An expression for the volume scattering power from a system of N such families with random orientations in space is derived from Fourier transform of h(x), which can subsequently be determined from experimental observations. This density model is used to interpret the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) results for the amorphous alloy TbCusub(3.54)

  1. Wave packet formulation of the boomerang model for resonant electron--molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Turner, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent formulation of the boomerang model for resonant electron--molecule scattering is presented in terms of a wave packet propagating on the complex potential surface of the metastable anion. The results of calculations using efficient semiclassical techniques for propagating the wave packet are found to be in excellent agreement with full quantum-mechanical calculations of vibrational excitation cross sections in e - --N 2 scattering. The application of the wave packet formulation as a computational and conceptual approach to the problem of resonant collisions with polyatomic molecules is discussed in the light of recent wave packet calculations on polyatomic photodissociation and Raman spectra

  2. High energy charge exchange np and antipp scattering using the dual fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigt, G.

    1976-01-01

    The five independent helicity amplitudes Phisub(i)(s, t) calculated by Mandelstam from the Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond model for fermion-antifermion scattering are used in the Regge limit for a phenomenological description of high energy np and antipp charge exchange scattering. A forward spike which widens with increasing energy as well as an energy dependence changing from lower to higher energy data are reproduced by these non-evasive dual Born amplitudes using π, A 2 and rho Regge pole t-channel exchanges. (author)

  3. Inelastic scattering in a local polaron model with quadratic coupling to bosons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the inelastic scattering probabilities in the wide band limit of a local polaron model with quadratic coupling to bosons. The central object is a two-particle Green's function which is calculated exactly using a purely algebraic approach. Compared with the usual linear interaction term...... a quadratic interaction term gives higher probabilities for inelastic scattering involving a large number of bosons. As an application we consider the problem hot-electron-mediated energy transfer at surfaces and use the delta self-consistent field extension of density-functional theory to calculate...

  4. Separating form factor and nuclear model effects in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieske, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    When studying neutrino oscillations an understanding of charged current quasielastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus scattering is imperative. This interaction depends on a nuclear model as well as knowledge of form factors. In the past, CCQE data from the MiniBooNE experiment was analyzed assuming the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) nuclear model, an axial dipole form factor in, and using the the z-expansion for the axial form factor in. We present the first analysis that combines a non-RFG nuclear model, in particular the Correlated Fermi Gas nuclear model (CFG) of, and the z expansion for the axial form factor. This will allow us to separate form factor and nuclear model effects in CCQE scattering. This project was supported through the Wayne State University REU program under NSF Grant PHY-1460853 and by the DOE Grant DE-SC0007983.

  5. Ward Identity and Scattering Amplitudes for Nonlinear Sigma Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ian; Yin, Zhewei

    2018-02-01

    We present a Ward identity for nonlinear sigma models using generalized nonlinear shift symmetries, without introducing current algebra or coset space. The Ward identity constrains correlation functions of the sigma model such that the Adler's zero is guaranteed for S -matrix elements, and gives rise to a subleading single soft theorem that is valid at the quantum level and to all orders in the Goldstone decay constant. For tree amplitudes, the Ward identity leads to a novel Berends-Giele recursion relation as well as an explicit form of the subleading single soft factor. Furthermore, interactions of the cubic biadjoint scalar theory associated with the single soft limit, which was previously discovered using the Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of tree amplitudes, can be seen to emerge from matrix elements of conserved currents corresponding to the generalized shift symmetry.

  6. SHOCK CONNECTIVITY IN THE 2010 AUGUST AND 2012 JULY SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS INFERRED FROM OBSERVATIONS AND ENLIL MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, H. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y.; Mays, M. L.; Jian, L. K.; Odstrcil, D.

    2016-01-01

    During periods of increased solar activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can occur in close succession and proximity to one another. This can lead to the interaction and merger of CME ejecta as they propagate in the heliosphere. The particles accelerated in these shocks can result in complex solar energetic particle (SEP) events, as observing spacecraft form both remote and local shock connections. It can be challenging to understand these complex SEP events from in situ profiles alone. Multipoint observations of CMEs in the near-Sun environment, from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory –Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph, greatly improve our chances of identifying the origin of these accelerated particles. However, contextual information on conditions in the heliosphere, including the background solar wind conditions and shock structures, is essential for understanding SEP properties well enough to forecast their characteristics. Wang–Sheeley–Arge WSA-ENLIL + Cone modeling provides a tool to interpret major SEP event periods in the context of a realistic heliospheric model and to determine how much of what is observed in large SEP events depends on nonlocal magnetic connections to shock sources. We discuss observations of the SEP-rich periods of 2010 August and 2012 July in conjunction with ENLIL modeling. We find that much SEP activity can only be understood in the light of such models, and in particular from knowing about both remote and local shock source connections. These results must be folded into the investigations of the physics underlying the longitudinal extent of SEP events, and the source connection versus diffusion pictures of interpretations of SEP events.

  7. SHOCK CONNECTIVITY IN THE 2010 AUGUST AND 2012 JULY SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS INFERRED FROM OBSERVATIONS AND ENLIL MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, H. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y. [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Mays, M. L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Jian, L. K.; Odstrcil, D., E-mail: hbain@ssl.berkeley.edu [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    During periods of increased solar activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can occur in close succession and proximity to one another. This can lead to the interaction and merger of CME ejecta as they propagate in the heliosphere. The particles accelerated in these shocks can result in complex solar energetic particle (SEP) events, as observing spacecraft form both remote and local shock connections. It can be challenging to understand these complex SEP events from in situ profiles alone. Multipoint observations of CMEs in the near-Sun environment, from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory –Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph, greatly improve our chances of identifying the origin of these accelerated particles. However, contextual information on conditions in the heliosphere, including the background solar wind conditions and shock structures, is essential for understanding SEP properties well enough to forecast their characteristics. Wang–Sheeley–Arge WSA-ENLIL + Cone modeling provides a tool to interpret major SEP event periods in the context of a realistic heliospheric model and to determine how much of what is observed in large SEP events depends on nonlocal magnetic connections to shock sources. We discuss observations of the SEP-rich periods of 2010 August and 2012 July in conjunction with ENLIL modeling. We find that much SEP activity can only be understood in the light of such models, and in particular from knowing about both remote and local shock source connections. These results must be folded into the investigations of the physics underlying the longitudinal extent of SEP events, and the source connection versus diffusion pictures of interpretations of SEP events.

  8. Homogenization of linearly anisotropic scattering cross sections in a consistent B1 heterogeneous leakage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marleau, G.; Debos, E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main problems encountered in cell calculations is that of spatial homogenization where one associates to an heterogeneous cell an homogeneous set of cross sections. The homogenization process is in fact trivial when a totally reflected cell without leakage is fully homogenized since it involved only a flux-volume weighting of the isotropic cross sections. When anisotropic leakages models are considered, in addition to homogenizing isotropic cross sections, the anisotropic scattering cross section must also be considered. The simple option, which consists of using the same homogenization procedure for both the isotropic and anisotropic components of the scattering cross section, leads to inconsistencies between the homogeneous and homogenized transport equation. Here we will present a method for homogenizing the anisotropic scattering cross sections that will resolve these inconsistencies. (author)

  9. Particle size distribution models of small angle neutron scattering pattern on ferro fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistin Asri Ani; Darminto; Edy Giri Rachman Putra

    2009-01-01

    The Fe 3 O 4 ferro fluids samples were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The investigation of ferro fluids microstructure is known to be one of the most important problems because the presence of aggregates and their internal structure influence greatly the properties of ferro fluids. The size and the size dispersion of particle in ferro fluids were determined assuming a log normal distribution of particle radius. The scattering pattern of the measurement by small angle neutron scattering were fitted by the theoretical scattering function of two limitation models are log normal sphere distribution and fractal aggregate. Two types of particle are detected, which are presumably primary particle of 30 Armstrong in radius and secondary fractal aggregate of 200 Armstrong with polydispersity of 0.47 up to 0.53. (author)

  10. The practical implementation of a scatter model for portal imaging at 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, Mike; Evans, Philip M.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed validation of a physical model for scattered radiation in portal images at 10 MV is presented. The ratio of the signal due to scattered radiation to the signal due to primary radiation (SPR) in an electronic portal image is defined. A simple physical model for SPR on the central axis (SPR*) was presented by Swindell and Evans for 6 MV and validated for field sizes up to 320 cm 2 . In this paper, the model is extended to 10 MV and validated for field sizes up to 625 cm 2 . The model is first compared with Monte Carlo modelled data for field areas A from 40 to 320 cm 2 , scatterer thicknesses d of 5 to 35 cm water and scatterer to detector distances L 2 of 40 to 100 cm. The physical model has one free parameter, which is fitted empirically using these data. Second, experimental measurements are performed with A from 40 to 625 cm 2 , d from 4.6 to 27.4 cm and L 2 fixed at 100 cm. The root mean square (rms) difference between the physical model and the Monte Carlo calculations was less than 0.001 for all L 2 greater than 60 cm. Agreement between experimentally measured and physically modelled data amounts to a radiological thickness error of at best 0.7 mm in 273.6 mm and at worst 0.4 in 45.6 mm. The model performs equally well at all field sizes tested. This study shows that the Swindell and Evans SPR* model is accurate at 10 MV for L 2 greater than 60 cm for all A up to 625 cm 2 . (author)

  11. Kaon-Nucleon scattering in a constituent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, S.

    2002-06-01

    We have investigated Kaon-Nucleon (KN) interaction in a constituent quark model in the momentum range for the Kaon between 0 and 1 GeV/c in the laboratory frame. This study has been motivated by the fact that in an approach relying on a boson exchange mechanism the Bonn group was forced, in order to obtain good agreement with I = 0 s-wave phase shifts, to add the exchange of a short range fictitious repulsive scalar meson. This need for repulsion, whose range (∼ 0.2 fm) is smaller than the nucleon radius, clearly shows that the quark substructure of the nucleons and K + mesons cannot be neglected. The Kaon-Nucleon phase shifts are calculated in a quark potential model using the resonating group method (RGM). We have to cope with a five body problem with antisymmetrization with respect to the four ordinary quarks of the Kaon-Nucleon system. One requirement of our approach is that the quark-quark interaction must give a quite good description of the hadron spectra. One goal of the present work aims at determining the influence of a relativistic kinematics, in this constituent quark model, for the calculation of KN phase shifts. We have also investigated s, p, d, f, g waves KN elastic phase shifts and we have included a spin-orbit term in the quark-quark interaction. Then we have studied the influence of medium and long range exchange mechanism in the quark quark interaction on KN phase shifts. (author)

  12. Modeling higher twist contributions to deep inelastic scattering with diquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1994-01-01

    The most recent detailed data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions allow a precise determination of higher twist contributions. Quark-quark correlations induced by color forces are expected to be a natural explanation for such effects; indeed, a quark-diquark picture of the nucleon, previously introduced in the description of several exclusive processes at intermediate Q 2 values, is found to model the proton higher twist data with great accuracy. The resulting parameters are consistent with the diquark properties suggested by other experimental and theoretical analyses. (author)

  13. Modelling higher twist contributions to deep inelastic scattering with diquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Penna Firme, A.; Soares, J.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de

    1994-08-01

    The most recent detailed data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions allow a precise determination of higher twist contributions. Quark-quark correlations induced by colour forces are expected to be a natural explanation for such effects: indeed, a quark-diquark picture of the nucleon, previously introduced in the description of several exclusive processes at intermediate Q 2 values, is found to model the proton higher twist data with great accuracy. The resulting parameters are consistent with the diquark properties suggested by other experimental and theoretical analyses. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  14. Testing the constituent quark model in KN scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, S. E-mail: lemaire@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B

    2003-02-10

    The kaon-nucleon S, P, D, F, G waves phase shifts have been calculated using a non-relativistic quark potential model and the resonating group method (RGM). The calculation has been performed using quark-quark potential which both includes gluon, pion and sigma exchanges and reproduces as well as possible the meson spectrum. The agreement obtained with the existing experimental phase shifts is quite poor. The results are also compared with a previous calculation based only on gluon exchanges at the quark level.

  15. Testing the constituent quark model in KN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, S.; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2003-01-01

    The kaon-nucleon S, P, D, F, G waves phase shifts have been calculated using a non-relativistic quark potential model and the resonating group method (RGM). The calculation has been performed using quark-quark potential which both includes gluon, pion and sigma exchanges and reproduces as well as possible the meson spectrum. The agreement obtained with the existing experimental phase shifts is quite poor. The results are also compared with a previous calculation based only on gluon exchanges at the quark level

  16. High-Mach number, laser-driven magnetized collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, Derek B.; Fox, W.; Haberberger, D.; Fiksel, G.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2017-01-01

    Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in space and astrophysical systems, and the class of supercritical shocks is of particular importance due to their role in accelerating particles to high energies. While these shocks have been traditionally studied by spacecraft and remote sensing observations, laboratory experiments can provide reproducible and multi-dimensional datasets that provide complementary understanding of the underlying microphysics. We present experiments undertaken on the OMEGA and OMEGA EP laser facilities that show the formation and evolution of high-Mach number collisionless shocks created through the interaction of a laser-driven magnetic piston and magnetized ambient plasma. Through time-resolved, 2-D imaging we observe large density and magnetic compressions that propagate at super-Alfvenic speeds and that occur over ion kinetic length scales. Electron density and temperature of the initial ambient plasma are characterized using optical Thomson scattering. Measurements of the piston laser-plasma are modeled with 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which are used to initialize 2-D particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction between the piston and ambient plasmas. The numerical results show the formation of collisionless shocks, including the separate dynamics of the carbon and hydrogen ions that constitute the ambient plasma and their effect on the shock structure. Furthermore, the simulations also show the shock separating from the piston, which we observe in the data at late experimental times.

  17. Multiple scattering modeling pipeline for spectroscopy and photometry of airless Solar System objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Antti; Väisänen, Timo; Markkanen, Johannes; Martikainen, Julia; Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri

    2017-10-01

    We combine numerical tools to analyze the reflectance spectra of granular materials. Our motivation comes from the lack of tools when it comes to intimate mixing of materials and modeling space-weathering effects with nano- or micron-sized inclusions. The current practice is to apply a semi-physical models such as the Hapke models (e.g., Icarus 195, 2008). These are expressed in a closed form so that they are fast to apply. The problem is that the validity of the model is not guaranteed, and the derived properties related to particle scattering can be unrealistic (JQSRT 113, 2012).Our pipeline consists of individual scattering simulation codes and a main program that chains them together. The chain for analyzing a macroscopic target with space-weathered mineral would go as: (1) Scattering properties of small inclusions inside a host matrix are derived using exact Maxwell equation solvers. From the scattering properties, we use the so-called incoherent fields and Mueller matrices as input for the next step; (2) Scattering by a regolith grain is solved using a geometrical optics method with surface reflections, internal absorption, and internal diffuse scattering; (3) The radiative transfer simulation is executed inputting the regolith grains from the previous step as the scatterers in a macroscopic planar volume element.For the most realistic asteroid reflectance model, the chain would produce the properties of a planar surface element. Then, a shadowing simulation over the surface elements would be considered, and finally the asteroid phase function would be solved by integrating the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the planar element over the object's realistic shape model.The tools in the proposed chain already exist, and practical task for us is to tie these together into an easy-to-use public pipeline. We plan to open the pipeline as a web-based open service a dedicated server, using Django application server and Python environment for the

  18. Evaluating model parameterizations of submicron aerosol scattering and absorption with in situ data from ARCTAS 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Alvarado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of the scattering and absorption of ultraviolet and visible radiation by aerosols is essential for accurate simulations of atmospheric chemistry and climate. Closure studies using in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption can be used to evaluate and improve models of aerosol optical properties without interference from model errors in aerosol emissions, transport, chemistry, or deposition rates. Here we evaluate the ability of four externally mixed, fixed size distribution parameterizations used in global models to simulate submicron aerosol scattering and absorption at three wavelengths using in situ data gathered during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS campaign. The four models are the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI Combo model, GEOS-Chem v9-02, the baseline configuration of a version of GEOS-Chem with online radiative transfer calculations (called GC-RT, and the Optical Properties of Aerosol and Clouds (OPAC v3.1 package. We also use the ARCTAS data to perform the first evaluation of the ability of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP v2.1 to simulate submicron aerosol scattering and absorption when in situ data on the aerosol size distribution are used, and examine the impact of different mixing rules for black carbon (BC on the results. We find that the GMI model tends to overestimate submicron scattering and absorption at shorter wavelengths by 10–23 %, and that GMI has smaller absolute mean biases for submicron absorption than OPAC v3.1, GEOS-Chem v9-02, or GC-RT. However, the changes to the density and refractive index of BC in GC-RT improve the simulation of submicron aerosol absorption at all wavelengths relative to GEOS-Chem v9-02. Adding a variable size distribution, as in ASP v2.1, improves model performance for scattering but not for absorption, likely due to the assumption in ASP v2.1 that BC is present at a constant mass

  19. Optical scatter imaging of cellular and mitochondrial swelling in brain tissue models of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee James

    2001-08-01

    The severity of brain edema resulting from a stroke can determine a patient's survival and the extent of their recovery. Cellular swelling is the microscopic source of a significant part of brain edema. Mitochondrial swelling also appears to be a determining event in the death or survival of the cells that are injured during a stroke. Therapies for reducing brain edema are not effective in many cases and current treatments of stroke do not address mitochondrial swelling at all. This dissertation is motivated by the lack of a complete understanding of cellular swelling resulting from stroke and the lack of a good method to begin to study mitochondrial swelling resulting from stroke in living brain tissue. In this dissertation, a novel method of detecting mitochondrial and cellular swelling in living hippocampal slices is developed and validated. The system is used to obtain spatial and temporal information about cellular and mitochondrial swelling resulting from various models of stroke. The effect of changes in water content on light scatter and absorption are examined in two models of brain edema. The results of this study demonstrate that optical techniques can be used to detect changes in water content. Mie scatter theory, the theoretical basis of the dual- angle scatter ratio imaging system, is presented. Computer simulations based on Mie scatter theory are used to determine the optimal angles for imaging. A detailed account of the early systems is presented to explain the motivations for the system design, especially polarization, wavelength and light path. Mitochondrial sized latex particles are used to determine the system response to changes in scattering particle size and concentration. The dual-angle scatter ratio imaging system is used to distinguish between osmotic and excitotoxic models of stroke injury. Such distinction cannot be achieved using the current techniques to study cellular swelling in hippocampal slices. The change in the scatter ratio is

  20. Mechanisms Involved in Secondary Cardiac Dysfunction in Animal Models of Trauma and Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick M; Wall, Johanna; Naganathar, Veena; Brohi, Karim; De'Ath, Henry D

    2017-10-01

    Clinical evidence reveals the existence of a trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) that is associated with poor patient outcomes. The mechanisms leading to TISCI in injured patients are uncertain. Conversely, animal models of trauma hemorrhage have repeatedly demonstrated significant cardiac dysfunction following injury, and highlighted mechanisms through which this might occur. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the animal studies describing TISCI and its pathophysiology.Basic science models of trauma show evidence of innate immune system activation via Toll-like receptors, the exact protagonists of which remain unclear. Shortly following trauma and hemorrhage, cardiomyocytes upregulate gene regulatory protein and inflammatory molecule expression including nuclear factor kappa beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6. This is associated with expression of membrane bound adhesion molecules and chemokines leading to marked myocardial leukocyte infiltration. This cell activation and infiltration is linked to a rise in enzymes that cause oxidative and nitrative stress and subsequent protein misfolding within cardiomyocytes. Such protein damage may lead to reduced contractility and myocyte apoptosis. Other molecules have been identified as cardioprotective following injury. These include p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and heat shock proteins.The balance between increasing damaging mediators and a reduction in cardio-protective molecules appears to define myocardial function following trauma. Exogenous therapeutics have been trialled in rodents with promising abilities to favorably alter this balance, and subsequently lead to improved cardiac function.

  1. Generalized Chou-Yang model for p(antip)p and. lambda. (anti. lambda. )p elastic scattering at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-E-Aleem; Azhar, I.A.

    1988-06-01

    The various characteristics of pp and antipp elastic scattering at high energies are explained by using the generalized Chou-Yang model which takes into consideration the anisotropic scattering of objects constituting colliding particles. The model is also used to extract the form factor and radius of the ..lambda.. particle.

  2. Simulation of shock-induced bubble collapse using a four-equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, E.; Hoarau, Y.; Zeidan, D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the interaction between a planar incident shock wave with a cylindrical gas bubble. Simulations are performed using an inviscid compressible one-fluid solver based upon three conservation laws for the mixture variables, namely mass, momentum, and total energy along with a supplementary transport equation for the volume fraction of the gas phase. The study focuses on the maximum pressure generated by the bubble collapse. The influence of the strength of the incident shock is investigated. A law for the maximum pressure function of the Mach number of the incident shock is proposed.

  3. A General Model of the Atmospheric Scattering in the Wavelength Interval 300 - 1100nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dimitrov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have presented and developed new theoretic-empirical models of the extinction coefficients of the molecular scattering in the lower, close to the ground troposphere. We have included the indicatrices of backscattering. The models have been presented using general analytical functions valid for the whole wavelength interval 300-1100 nm and for the whole interval of visibility from 0.1 km up to 50 km. The results have been compared in quantity with the model and experimental data of other authors. The modeling of troposphere scattering is necessary for the analysis and design of all optoelectronic free space systems: atmospheric optical communication systems, location systems for atmospheric research (LIDAR, optical radiometric systems.

  4. The Nature of Scatter at the DARHT Facility and Suggestions for Improved Modeling of DARHT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morneau, Rachel Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klasky, Marc Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program [1] is designed to sustain and evaluate the nuclear weapons stockpile while foregoing underground nuclear tests. The maintenance of a smaller, aging U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing requires complex computer calculations [14]. These calculations in turn need to be verified and benchmarked [14]. A wide range of research facilities have been used to test and evaluate nuclear weapons while respecting the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) [2]. Some of these facilities include the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories, and the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research will focus largely on DARHT (although some information from Cygnus and the Los Alamos Microtron may be used in this research) by modeling it and comparing to experimental data. DARHT is an electron accelerator that employs high-energy flash x-ray sources for imaging hydro-tests. This research proposes to address some of the issues crucial to understanding DARHT Axis II and the analysis of the radiographic images produced. Primarily, the nature of scatter at DARHT will be modeled and verified with experimental data. It will then be shown that certain design decisions can be made to optimize the scatter field for hydrotest experiments. Spectral effects will be briefly explored to determine if there is any considerable effect on the density reconstruction caused by changes in the energy spectrum caused by target changes. Finally, a generalized scatter model will be made using results from MCNP that can be convolved with the direct transmission of an object to simulate the scatter of that object at the detector plane. The region in which with this scatter model is appropriate will be explored.

  5. π- -12C elastic scattering above the Δ resonance using diffraction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafah, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Phenomenological analysis of the π - - 12 C elastic scattering differential cross-section at 400, 486, 500, 584, 663, 672 and 766 MeV is presented. The analysis is made in the diffraction model framework using recently proposed parameterization of the phase-shift function. Good description of the experimental data is achieved at all energies. Microscopic interpretation of the parameters of the phase-shift function is provided in terms of Helm's model density parameters. (author)

  6. Vibrational spectroscopy of shock-compressed fluid N2 and O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S.C.; Moore, D.S.; Shaw, M.S.; Johnson, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Single-pulse multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) was used to observe the vibrational spectra of liquid N 2 shock-compressed to several pressures and temperatures up to 41 GPa and 5200 K and liquid O 2 shock-compressed to several pressures and temperatures up to 10 GPa and 1000 K. For N 2 , the experimental spectra were compared to synthetic spectra calculated using a semiclassical model for CARS intensities and estimated vibrational frequencies, peak Raman susceptibilities, and Raman line widths. The question of excited state populations in the shock-compressed state is addressed

  7. A MULTIPLE SCATTERING POLARIZED RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODEL: APPLICATION TO HD 189733b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Yung, Yuk L. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Natraj, Vijay; Swain, Mark R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA-JPL), Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhang, Xi [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wiktorowicz, Sloane J., E-mail: pkk@gps.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We present a multiple scattering vector radiative transfer model that produces disk integrated, full phase polarized light curves for reflected light from an exoplanetary atmosphere. We validate our model against results from published analytical and computational models and discuss a small number of cases relevant to the existing and possible near-future observations of the exoplanet HD 189733b. HD 189733b is arguably the most well observed exoplanet to date and the only exoplanet to be observed in polarized light, yet it is debated if the planet’s atmosphere is cloudy or clear. We model reflected light from clear atmospheres with Rayleigh scattering, and cloudy or hazy atmospheres with Mie and fractal aggregate particles. We show that clear and cloudy atmospheres have large differences in polarized light as compared to simple flux measurements, though existing observations are insufficient to make this distinction. Futhermore, we show that atmospheres that are spatially inhomogeneous, such as being partially covered by clouds or hazes, exhibit larger contrasts in polarized light when compared to clear atmospheres. This effect can potentially be used to identify patchy clouds in exoplanets. Given a set of full phase polarimetric measurements, this model can constrain the geometric albedo, properties of scattering particles in the atmosphere, and the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit. The model is used to interpret new polarimetric observations of HD 189733b in a companion paper.

  8. Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, Tanja; Vauhkonen, Marko; Kolehmainen, Ville; Arridge, Simon R; Kaipio, Jari P

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model is extended for light propagation in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions. The light propagation is modelled with the radiative transfer equation in sub-domains in which the assumptions of the diffusion approximation are not valid. The diffusion approximation is used elsewhere in the domain. The two equations are coupled through their boundary conditions and they are solved simultaneously using the finite element method. The streamline diffusion modification is used to avoid the ray-effect problem in the finite element solution of the radiative transfer equation. The proposed method is tested with simulations. The results of the coupled model are compared with the finite element solutions of the radiative transfer equation and the diffusion approximation and with results of Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the coupled model can be used to describe photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions more accurately than the conventional diffusion model

  9. Shock Tunnel Studies of the Hypersonic Flowfield around the Hypervelocity Ballistic Models with Aerospikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakalyani, G.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    Reduced drag and aerodynamic heating are the two basic design requirements for any hypersonic vehicle [1]. The flowfield around an axisymmetric blunt body is characterized by a bow shockwave standing ahead of its nose. The pressure and temperature behind this shock wave are very high. This increased pressure and temperature are responsible for the high levels of drag and aerodynamic heating over the body. In the past, there have been many investigations on the use of aerospikes as a drag reduction tool. These studies on spiked bodies aim at reducing both the drag and aerodynamic heating by modifying the hypersonic flowfield ahead of the nose of the body [2]. However, most of them used very simple configurations to experimentally study the drag reduction using spikes at hypersonic speeds [3] and therefore very little experimental data is available for a realistic geometric configuration. In the present study, the standard AGARD Hypervelocity Ballistic model 1 is used as the test model. The addition of the spike to the blunt body significantly alters the flowfield ahead of the nose, leading to the formation of a low pressure conical recirculation region, thus causing a reduction in drag and wall heat flux [4]. In the present investigation, aerodynamic drag force is measured over the Hypervelocity Ballistic model-1, with and without spike, at a flow enthalpy of 1.7 MJ/kg. The experiments are carried out at a Mach number of 8 and at zero angle of attack. An internally mountable accelerometer based 3-component force balance system is used to measure the aerodynamic forces on the model. Also computational studies are carried out to complement the experiments.

  10. A condition-based maintenance of a dependent degradation-threshold-shock model in a system with multiple degradation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballé, N.C.; Castro, I.T.; Pérez, C.J.; Lanza-Gutiérrez, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a condition-based maintenance strategy for a system subject to two dependent causes of failure: degradation and sudden shocks. The internal degradation is reflected by the presence of multiple degradation processes in the system. Degradation processes start at random times following a Non-homogeneous Poisson process and their growths are modelled by using a gamma process. When the deterioration level of a degradation process exceeds a predetermined value, we assume that a degradation failure occurs. Furthermore, the system is subject to sudden shocks that arrive at the system following a Doubly Stochastic Poisson Process. A sudden shock provokes the total breakdown of the system. Thus, the state of the system is evaluated at inspection times and different maintenance tasks can be carried out. If the system is still working at an inspection time, a preventive maintenance task is performed if the deterioration level of a degradation process exceeds a certain threshold. A corrective maintenance task is performed if the system is down at an inspection time. A preventive (corrective) maintenance task implies the replacement of the system by a new one. Under this maintenance strategy, the expected cost rate function is obtained. A numerical example illustrates the analytical results. - Highlights: • A condition-based maintenance model is proposed. • Two dependent causes of failure are considered: deterioration and external shocks. • Deterioration is given by multiple degradation processes growing by a gamma process. • The initiation of degradation processes follows a Non-homogeneous Poisson process. • External shocks arrive at the system by using a Doubly Stochastic Poisson Process

  11. Large Scale Earth's Bow Shock with Northern IMF as Simulated by PIC Code in Parallel with MHD Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Suleiman

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a 3D kinetic model (particle-in-cell, PIC) for the description of the large scale Earth's bow shock. The proposed version is stable and does not require huge or extensive computer resources. Because PIC simulations work with scaled plasma and field parameters, we also propose to validate our code by comparing its results with the available MHD simulations under same scaled solar wind (SW) and (IMF) conditions. We report new results from the two models. In both codes the Earth's bow shock position is found to be ≈14.8 R E along the Sun-Earth line, and ≈29 R E on the dusk side. Those findings are consistent with past in situ observations. Both simulations reproduce the theoretical jump conditions at the shock. However, the PIC code density and temperature distributions are inflated and slightly shifted sunward when compared to the MHD results. Kinetic electron motions and reflected ions upstream may cause this sunward shift. Species distributions in the foreshock region are depicted within the transition of the shock (measured ≈2 c/ ω pi for Θ Bn = 90° and M MS = 4.7) and in the downstream. The size of the foot jump in the magnetic field at the shock is measured to be (1.7 c/ ω pi ). In the foreshocked region, the thermal velocity is found equal to 213 km s-1 at 15 R E and is equal to 63 km s -1 at 12 R E (magnetosheath region). Despite the large cell size of the current version of the PIC code, it is powerful to retain macrostructure of planets magnetospheres in very short time, thus it can be used for pedagogical test purposes. It is also likely complementary with MHD to deepen our understanding of the large scale magnetosphere.

  12. A Recipe for implementing the Arrhenius-Shock-Temperature State Sensitive WSD (AWSD) model, with parameters for PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, Tariq Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-03

    A reactive ow model for the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) based plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 is presented. This newly devised model is based primarily on the shock temperature of the material, along with local pressure, and accurately models a broader range of detonation and initiation scenarios. The equation of state for the reactants and products, as well as the thermodynamic closure of pressure and temperature equilibration are carried over from the Wescott-Stewart-Davis (WSD) model7,8. Thus, modifying an existing WSD model in a hydrocode should be rather straightforward.

  13. Heat Shock Response Associated with Hepatocarcinogenesis in a Murine Model of Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angileri, Francesca; Morrow, Geneviève; Roy, Vincent; Orejuela, Diana; Tanguay, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a metabolic liver disease caused by genetic defects of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme necessary to complete the breakdown of tyrosine. The severe hepatic dysfunction caused by the lack of this enzyme is prevented by the therapeutic use of NTBC (2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione). However despite the treatment, chronic hepatopathy and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still observed in some HT1 patients. Growing evidence show the important role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in many cellular processes and their involvement in pathological diseases including cancer. Their survival-promoting effect by modulation of the apoptotic machinery is often correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in a number of cancers. Here, we sought to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver dysfunction and tumor development in a murine model of HT1. Differential gene expression patterns in livers of mice under HT1 stress, induced by drug retrieval, have shown deregulation of stress and cell death resistance genes. Among them, genes coding for HSPB and HSPA members, and for anti-apoptotic BCL-2 related mitochondrial proteins were associated with the hepatocarcinogenetic process. Our data highlight the variation of stress pathways related to HT1 hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting the role of HSPs in rendering tyrosinemia-affected liver susceptible to the development of HCC

  14. Heat Shock Response Associated with Hepatocarcinogenesis in a Murine Model of Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Angileri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1 is a metabolic liver disease caused by genetic defects of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH, an enzyme necessary to complete the breakdown of tyrosine. The severe hepatic dysfunction caused by the lack of this enzyme is prevented by the therapeutic use of NTBC (2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethylbenzoyl] cyclohexane-1,3-dione. However despite the treatment, chronic hepatopathy and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are still observed in some HT1 patients. Growing evidence show the important role of heat shock proteins (HSPs in many cellular processes and their involvement in pathological diseases including cancer. Their survival-promoting effect by modulation of the apoptotic machinery is often correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in a number of cancers. Here, we sought to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver dysfunction and tumor development in a murine model of HT1. Differential gene expression patterns in livers of mice under HT1 stress, induced by drug retrieval, have shown deregulation of stress and cell death resistance genes. Among them, genes coding for HSPB and HSPA members, and for anti-apoptotic BCL-2 related mitochondrial proteins were associated with the hepatocarcinogenetic process. Our data highlight the variation of stress pathways related to HT1 hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting the role of HSPs in rendering tyrosinemia-affected liver susceptible to the development of HCC.

  15. Heat Shock Response Associated with Hepatocarcinogenesis in a Murine Model of Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angileri, Francesca; Morrow, Geneviève; Roy, Vincent; Orejuela, Diana; Tanguay, Robert M., E-mail: robert.tanguay@ibis.ulaval.ca [Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Genetics, Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS) and PROTEO, 1030 avenue de la médecine, Université Laval, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2014-04-23

    Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a metabolic liver disease caused by genetic defects of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme necessary to complete the breakdown of tyrosine. The severe hepatic dysfunction caused by the lack of this enzyme is prevented by the therapeutic use of NTBC (2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione). However despite the treatment, chronic hepatopathy and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still observed in some HT1 patients. Growing evidence show the important role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in many cellular processes and their involvement in pathological diseases including cancer. Their survival-promoting effect by modulation of the apoptotic machinery is often correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in a number of cancers. Here, we sought to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver dysfunction and tumor development in a murine model of HT1. Differential gene expression patterns in livers of mice under HT1 stress, induced by drug retrieval, have shown deregulation of stress and cell death resistance genes. Among them, genes coding for HSPB and HSPA members, and for anti-apoptotic BCL-2 related mitochondrial proteins were associated with the hepatocarcinogenetic process. Our data highlight the variation of stress pathways related to HT1 hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting the role of HSPs in rendering tyrosinemia-affected liver susceptible to the development of HCC.

  16. A Laminar Model for the Magnetic Field Structure in Bow-Shock Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciantini, N.

    2018-05-01

    Bow Shock Pulsar Wind Nebulae are a class of non-thermal sources, that form when the wind of a pulsar moving at supersonic speed interacts with the ambient medium, either the ISM or in a few cases the cold ejecta of the parent supernova. These systems have attracted attention in recent years, because they allow us to investigate the properties of the pulsar wind in a different environment from that of canonical Pulsar Wind Nebulae in Supernova Remnants. However, due to the complexity of the interaction, a full-fledged multidimensional analysis is still laking. We present here a simplified approach, based on Lagrangian tracers, to model the magnetic field structure in these systems, and use it to compute the magnetic field geometry, for various configurations in terms of relative orientation of the magnetic axis, pulsar speed and observer direction. Based on our solutions we have computed a set of radio emission maps, including polarization, to investigate the variety of possible appearances, and how the observed emission pattern can be used to constrain the orientation of the system, and the possible presence of turbulence.

  17. Structural model of the 50S subunit of E.Coli ribosomes from solution scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svergun, D.I.; Koch, M.H.J. [Hamburg Outstation (Germany); Pedersen, J.S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Serdyuk, I.N. [Inst. of Protein Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The application of new methods of small-angle scattering data interpretation to a contrast variation study of the 50S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli in solution is described. The X-ray data from contrast variation with sucrose are analyzed in terms of the basic scattering curves from the volume inaccessible to sucrose and from the regions inside this volume occupied mainly by RNA and by proteins. From these curves models of the shape of the 50S and its RNA-rich core are evaluated and positioned so that their difference produces a scattering curve which is in good agreement with the scattering from the protein moiety. Basing on this preliminary model, the X-ray and neutron contrast variation data of the 50S subunit in aqueous solutions are interpreted in the frame of the advanced two-phase model described by the shapes of the 50S subunit and its RNA-rich core taking into account density fluctuations inside the RNA and the protein moiety. The shape of the envelope of the 50S subunit and of the RNA-rich core are evaluated with a resolution of about 40A. The shape of the envelope is in good agreement with the models of the 50S subunit obtained from electron microscopy on isolated particles. The shape of the RNA-rich core correlates well with the model of the entire particle determined by the image reconstruction from ordered sheets indicating that the latter model which is based on the subjective contouring of density maps is heavily biased towards the RNA.

  18. Structural model of the 50S subunit of E.Coli ribosomes from solution scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svergun, D.I.; Koch, M.H.J.; Pedersen, J.S.; Serdyuk, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    The application of new methods of small-angle scattering data interpretation to a contrast variation study of the 50S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli in solution is described. The X-ray data from contrast variation with sucrose are analyzed in terms of the basic scattering curves from the volume inaccessible to sucrose and from the regions inside this volume occupied mainly by RNA and by proteins. From these curves models of the shape of the 50S and its RNA-rich core are evaluated and positioned so that their difference produces a scattering curve which is in good agreement with the scattering from the protein moiety. Basing on this preliminary model, the X-ray and neutron contrast variation data of the 50S subunit in aqueous solutions are interpreted in the frame of the advanced two-phase model described by the shapes of the 50S subunit and its RNA-rich core taking into account density fluctuations inside the RNA and the protein moiety. The shape of the envelope of the 50S subunit and of the RNA-rich core are evaluated with a resolution of about 40A. The shape of the envelope is in good agreement with the models of the 50S subunit obtained from electron microscopy on isolated particles. The shape of the RNA-rich core correlates well with the model of the entire particle determined by the image reconstruction from ordered sheets indicating that the latter model which is based on the subjective contouring of density maps is heavily biased towards the RNA

  19. Low-energy Shock Wave Therapy Ameliorates Erectile Dysfunction in a Pelvic Neurovascular Injuries Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixi; Matheu, Melanie P; Sun, Fionna; Wang, Lin; Sanford, Melissa T; Ning, Hongxiu; Banie, Lia; Lee, Yung-Chin; Xin, Zhongcheng; Guo, Yinglu; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) caused by pelvic injuries is a common complication of civil and battlefield trauma with multiple neurovascular factors involved, and no effective therapeutic approach is available. To test the effect and mechanisms of low-energy shock wave (LESW) therapy in a rat ED model induced by pelvic neurovascular injuries. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) at newborn were divided into 4 groups: sham surgery (Sham), pelvic neurovascular injury by bilateral cavernous nerve injury and internal pudendal bundle injury (PVNI), PVNI treated with LESW at low energy (Low), and PVNI treated with LESW at high energy (High). After LESW treatment, rats underwent erectile function measurement and the tissues were harvested for histologic and molecular study. To examine the effect of LESW on Schwann cells, in vitro studies were conducted. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurement, histological examination, and Western blot (WB) were conducted. Cell cycle, Schwann cell activation-related markers were examined in in vitro experiments. LESW treatment improves erectile function in a rat model of pelvic neurovascular injury by leading to angiogenesis, tissue restoration, and nerve generation with more endogenous EdU(+) progenitor cells recruited to the damaged area and activation of Schwann cells. LESW facilitates more complete re-innervation of penile tissue with regeneration of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive nerves from the MPG to the penis. In vitro experiments demonstrated that LESW has a direct effect on Schwann cell proliferation. Schwann cell activation-related markers including p-Erk1/2 and p75 were upregulated after LESW treatment. LESW-induced endogenous progenitor cell recruitment and Schwann cell activation coincides with angiogenesis, tissue, and nerve generation in a rat model of pelvic neurovascular injuries. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by

  20. The role of magnetic loops in particle acceleration at nearly perpendicular shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    The acceleration of superthermal ions is investigated when a planar shock that is on average nearly perpendicular propagates through a plasma in which the magnetic field is the superposition of a constant uniform component plus a random field of transverse hydromagnetic fluctuations. The importance of the broadband nature of the transverse magnetic fluctuations in mediating ion acceleration at nearly perpendicular shocks is pointed out. Specifically, the fluctuations are composed of short-wavelength components which scatter ions in pitch angle and long-wavelength components which are responsible for a spatial meandering of field lines about the mean field. At nearly perpendicular shocks the field line meandering produces a distribution of transient loops along the shock. As an application of this model, the acceleration of a superthermal monoenergetic population of seed protons at a perpendicular shock is investigated by integrating along the exact phase-space orbits.

  1. Quantitative understanding of Forbush decrease drivers based on shock-only and CME-only models using global signature of February 14, 1978 event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghav, Anil; Lotekar, Ajay; Bhaskar, Ankush; Vichare, Geeta; Yadav, Virendra

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the Forbush decrease (FD) event that occurred on February 14, 1978 using 43 neutron monitor observatories to understand the global signature of FD. We have studied rigidity dependence of shock amplitude and total FD amplitude. We have found almost the same power law index for both shock phase amplitude and total FD amplitude. Local time variation of shock phase amplitude and maximum depression time of FD have been investigated which indicate possible effect of shock/CME orientation. We have analyzed rigidity dependence of time constants of two phase recovery. Time constants of slow component of recovery phase show rigidity dependence and imply possible effect of diffusion. Solar wind speed was observed to be well correlated with slow component of FD recovery phase. This indicates solar wind speed as possible driver of recovery phase. To investigate the contribution of interplanetary drivers, shock and CME in FD, we have used shock-only and CME-only models. We have applied these models separately to shock phase and main phase amplitudes respectively. This confirms presently accepted physical scenario that the first step of FD is due to propagating shock barrier and second step is due to flux rope of CME/magnetic cloud

  2. Quantitative understanding of Forbush decrease drivers based on shock-only and CME-only models using global signature of February 14, 1978 event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghav, Anil; Lotekar, Ajay [University Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400098 (India); Bhaskar, Ankush; Vichare, Geeta; Yadav, Virendra, E-mail: raghavanil1984@gmail.com, E-mail: ankushbhaskar@gmail.com, E-mail: ablotekar@gmail.com, E-mail: vicharegeeta@gmail.com, E-mail: virendray.iig@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Plot 5, Sector 18, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai-410218 (India)

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the Forbush decrease (FD) event that occurred on February 14, 1978 using 43 neutron monitor observatories to understand the global signature of FD. We have studied rigidity dependence of shock amplitude and total FD amplitude. We have found almost the same power law index for both shock phase amplitude and total FD amplitude. Local time variation of shock phase amplitude and maximum depression time of FD have been investigated which indicate possible effect of shock/CME orientation. We have analyzed rigidity dependence of time constants of two phase recovery. Time constants of slow component of recovery phase show rigidity dependence and imply possible effect of diffusion. Solar wind speed was observed to be well correlated with slow component of FD recovery phase. This indicates solar wind speed as possible driver of recovery phase. To investigate the contribution of interplanetary drivers, shock and CME in FD, we have used shock-only and CME-only models. We have applied these models separately to shock phase and main phase amplitudes respectively. This confirms presently accepted physical scenario that the first step of FD is due to propagating shock barrier and second step is due to flux rope of CME/magnetic cloud.

  3. Finite Element Modeling of Material Fatigue and Cracking Problems for Steam Power System HP Devices Exposed to Thermal Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlicki Jakub

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed analysis of the material damaging process due to low-cycle fatigue and subsequent crack growth under thermal shocks and high pressure. Finite Element Method (FEM model of a high pressure (HP by-pass valve body and a steam turbine rotor shaft (used in a coal power plant is presented. The main damaging factor in both cases is fatigue due to cycles of rapid temperature changes. The crack initiation, occurring at a relatively low number of load cycles, depends on alternating or alternating-incremental changes in plastic strains. The crack propagation is determined by the classic fracture mechanics, based on finite element models and the most dangerous case of brittle fracture. This example shows the adaptation of the structure to work in the ultimate conditions of high pressure, thermal shocks and cracking.

  4. A Novel mouse model of enhanced proteostasis: Full-length human heat shock factor 1 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Anson; Wei, Rochelle; Halade, Dipti; Yoo, Si-Eun; Ran, Qitao; Richardson, Arlan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Development of mouse overexpressing native human HSF1 in all tissues including CNS. → HSF1 overexpression enhances heat shock response at whole-animal and cellular level. → HSF1 overexpression protects from polyglutamine toxicity and favors aggresomes. → HSF1 overexpression enhances proteostasis at the whole-animal and cellular level. -- Abstract: The heat shock response (HSR) is controlled by the master transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 maintains proteostasis and resistance to stress through production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). No transgenic model exists that overexpresses HSF1 in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 and observed a 2-4-fold increase in HSF1 mRNA and protein expression in all tissues studied of HSF1 transgenic (HSF1 +/0 ) mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates, including several regions of the CNS. Basal expression of HSP70 and 90 showed only mild tissue-specific changes; however, in response to forced exercise, the skeletal muscle HSR was more elevated in HSF1 +/0 mice compared to WT littermates and in fibroblasts following heat shock, as indicated by levels of inducible HSP70 mRNA and protein. HSF1 +/0 cells elicited a significantly more robust HSR in response to expression of the 82 repeat polyglutamine-YFP fusion construct (Q82YFP) and maintained proteasome-dependent processing of Q82YFP compared to WT fibroblasts. Overexpression of HSF1 was associated with fewer, but larger Q82YFP aggregates resembling aggresomes in HSF1 +/0 cells, and increased viability. Therefore, our data demonstrate that tissues and cells from mice overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 exhibit enhanced proteostasis.

  5. N-Acetylcysteine and Desferoxamine Reduce Pulmonary Oxidative Stress Caused by Hemorrhagic Shock in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Alexandra; Staikou, Chryssoula; Karmaniolou, Iosifina; Orfanos, Nikolaos; Mylonas, Anastassios; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Pafiti, Agathi; Papalois, Apostolos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Smyrniotis, Vassilios; Theodoraki, Kassiani

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the pulmonary oxidative stress and possible protective effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and Desferoxamine (DFX)in a porcine model subjected to hemorrhagic shock. Twenty-one pigs were randomly allocated to Group-A (sham, n = 5), Group-B (fluid resuscitation, n = 8) and Group-C (fluid, NAC and DFX resuscitation, n = 8). Groups B and C were subjected to a 40-min shock period induced by liver trauma, followed by a 60-min resuscitation period. During shock, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was maintained at 30-40 mmHg. Resuscitation consisted of crystalloids (35 mL/kg) and colloids (18 mL/kg) targeting to MAP normalization (baseline values ± 10%). In addition, Group-C received pretreatment with NAC 200 mg/kg plus DFX 2 g as intravenous infusions. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined in lung tissue homogenates. Also, histological examination of pulmonary tissue specimens was performed. TBARS were higher in Group-B than in Group-A or Group-C: 2.90 ± 0.47, 0.57 ± 0.10, 1.78 ± 0.47 pmol/μg protein, respectively (p 0.05). GPx activity did not differ significantly between the three groups (p > 0.05). Lung histology was improved in Group-C versus Group-B, with less alveolar collapse, interstitial edema and inflammation. NAC plus DFX prevented the increase of pulmonary oxidative stress markers and protein damage after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock and had beneficial effect on lung histology. NAC/DFX combination may be used in the multimodal treatment of hemorrhagic shock, since it may significantly prevent free radical injury in the lung.

  6. A fully microscopic model of 200 MeV proton-12C elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karataglidis, S.; Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.; de Swiniarski, R.

    1996-01-01

    An effective two nucleon (NN) interaction in the nuclear medium is defined from an accurate mapping of the NN g matrices obtained by solving the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations for infinite nuclear matter. That effective interaction is used in a fully microscopic calculation of the nonlocal effective proton- 12 C interaction from which are obtained predictions of the differential cross section and analysing power for 200 MeV elastic scattering. The relative motion wave functions so found are used as the distorted waves in a distorted wave approximation (DWA) study of select inelastic scattering events. The effective NN interaction is used as the transition operator in those calculations. The relevant nuclear spectroscopy for the elastic and DWA (p, p') calculations is found from a full (0 + 2) ℎω shell model evaluation of the positive parity states while a restricted (1 + 3)ℎω has been used to give the negative parity states. Results are compared with those of the 0p-shell model of Cohen and Kurath or with those based upon axially symmetric, projected Hartree-Fock calculations. The diverse structure model wave functions are assessed by using them in calculations to compare with measured longitudinal, transverse electric and transverse magnetic form factors from electron scattering to many of the excited states of 12 C. Using those models of the structure of 12 C in the completely microscopic model of the elastic and inelastic scattering of 200 MeV protons, good fits have been found to the cross section and analysing power data. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs

  7. An evaluation of the ENDF/GASKET model for thermal neutron scattering in heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, M.J.; Antunez, H.M.

    1977-06-01

    The ENDF/GASKET model for computing thermal neutron scattering was selected for studies undertaken with the purpose of getting thoroughly acquainted with the behavior of the heavy water as a moderator. As a first step in its evaluation, the scattering law S(α,β) was computed with ENDF/GASKET. A comparison of the values so obtained with others previously measured or computed showed that the model is not completely satisfactory in this respect. This is attributed to coherent scattering not included in the model and to the need of improving its frequency spectrum. Any way, the experimental values show serious descrepancies and it is difficult to reach definitive conclusions. The Legendre moments of the double differential cross section and its microscopic values were also computed. As it was found by other authors, the incoherent approximation of ENDF/GASKET results in a drastic departure from the measured total cross section below 0,006 eV. In addition, the discrepancies between measured and calculated average μ, might also imply that the coherence effects are appreciable at higher energies. Also decay constance and diffusion parameters were computed for D 2 O (100%), and these agree well with values of other sources. The measurement and computation of neutron spectra in heavy water is presently intented for the sake of completing evaluation. So far two alternatives are foreseen for further work: the improvement of ENDF/GASKET, or the evaluation of the more recent Jarvis model. (author) [es

  8. Note on neutron scattering and the optical model near A = 208

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, P.; Havel, D.; Smith, A.

    1976-09-01

    Elastic neutron scattering cross sections of 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb and 209 Bi are measured at incident neutron energy intervals of approx. 25 keV from 0.6 to 1.0 MeV with resolutions of approx. 25 keV. Optical model parameters are obtained from the energy-averaged experimental results for each of the isotopes. The observed elastic-neutron-scattering distributions and derived parameters for the lead isotopes (doubly magic or neutron holes in the closed shell) tend to differ from those of 209 Bi (doubly closed shell plus a proton). These potentials, derived in the approx. spherical region of A approximately 208, are extrapolated for the analysis of total and scattering cross sections of 238 U introducing only a small N-Z/A dependence and the known deformation of 238 U. Good descriptions of 238 U total cross sections are obtained from a few hundred keV to 10.0 MeV and the prediction of measured scattering distributions in the low MeV region are as suitable as frequently reported with other specially developed potentials

  9. The complete electroweak effect and perfection of Bhabha scattering in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chengye; Fang Zhenyun; Chen Xuewen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we make a close and systematic research on Bhabha scattering in the electroweak unification of the standard model (SM). In concrete research methods we make the quantum field theory of perturbation theory in a new computing mode -renormalization chain propagation theory, and do an application to the Bhabha scattering calculation research. In SM, in order to consider complete electrical weak effect about Bhabha scattering internal process, we seek out the complex renormalization mixing-loop chain propagators constituted by photon y and intermediate boson Z 0 , and then calculate the Bhabha scattering cross section about this kind of propagator by transfer complete electrical weak reaction. Within the observed errors, the calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental values. Also, the main research results not only confirm the action of the particle reaction accuracy by SM theory for describing the electrical weak effect; but also suggests the SM theory may be a per ect theory and that the theory prophecy's Higgs 'mysterious particles' (which is of particular concern in the field of academic) have the large possibility to be eventually found. (authors)

  10. Oxidative stress in deep scattering layers: Heat shock response and antioxidant enzymes activities of myctophid fishes thriving in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Rita; Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Pires, Vanessa; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-12-01

    Diel vertical migrators, such as myctophid fishes, are known to encounter oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) during daytime in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and, therefore, have to cope with temperature and oxidative stress that arise while ascending to warmer, normoxic surface waters at night-time. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant defense strategies and heat shock response (HSR) in two myctophid species, namely Triphoturus mexicanus and Benthosema panamense, at shallow and warm surface waters (21 kPa, 20-25 °C) and at hypoxic, cold (≤1 kPa, 10 °C) mesopelagic depths. More specifically, we quantified (i) heat shock protein concentrations (HSP70/HSC70) (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], and (iii) lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. HSP70/HSC70 levels increased in both myctophid species at warmer, well-oxygenated surface waters probably to prevent cellular damage (oxidative stress) due to increased oxygen demand under elevated temperatures and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. On the other hand, CAT and GST activities were augmented under hypoxic conditions, probably as preparatory response to a burst of oxyradicals during the reoxygenation phase (while ascending). SOD activity decreased under hypoxia in B. panamense, but was kept unchanged in T. mexicanus. MDA levels in B. panamense did not change between the surface and deep-sea conditions, whereas T. mexicanus showed elevated MDA and HSP70/HSC70 concentrations at warmer surface waters. This indicated that T. mexicanus seems to be not so well tuned to temperature and oxidative stress associated to diel vertical migrations. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how different species might respond to the impacts of environmental stressors (e.g. expanding mesopelagic hypoxia

  11. Investigation of Intravenous Hydroxocobalamin Compared to Hextend for Resuscitation in a Swine Model of Uncontrolled Hemorrhagic Shock: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-27

    in blood loss from the injury (1005 vs 1100 ml). There was a significant difference by time between groups (pɘ.5) post treatment. No significant...effective as IV Hextend® in improving systolic blood pressure (SBP) in a controlled hemorrhagic shock model. We aimed to compare IV hydroxocobalamin (HOC...volume, portable drug that improves blood pressure and survival. Objective To compare systolic blood pressure over time in swine that have

  12. Splenectomy Versus Sham Splenectomy in a Swine Model of Controlled Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Søren R; Caulkett, Nigel A; Brookfield, Caroline E; Warren, Amy; Pang, Jessica M

    2016-10-01

    Splenectomy is controversial in acute hemorrhagic shock models. To compare splenectomized (SP) versus sham-splenectomized (SSP) swine during acute controlled hemorrhage. Twenty-six male Landrace White swine (mean body weight ± standard deviation, 33.8 ± 2.9 kg) were used. Ethics approval was obtained. Landrace swine underwent splenectomy (n = 13) or sham-splenectomy (n = 13), were bled to mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 40 mm Hg, which was held for 60 min, given 125 mL IV RescueFlow, held for a further 60 min, given whole blood, and held for a final 60 min. Tissue oxygen saturation, thromboelastography, oncotic pressure, urine volume and specific gravity, complete blood count, serum chemistry, body temperature, hematocrit, total solids, arterial and mixed venous blood gas, bispectral index, SAP, MAP, DAP, cardiac index, total blood volume (TBV) removed and returned, rate of hemorrhage and transfusion, spleen weight, heart rate (HR), arterial pH, lactate, PaO2, PaCO2, respiratory rate, cranial mesenteric and renal artery blood flow were recorded. Groups were compared using two-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni (P splenectomy for the duration of the experiment (P splenectomy (P Splenectomy likely accounts for the transient increase in hematocrit and the higher HR in SP swine prior to hemorrhage, and the differences in TBV removed between the two groups during hemorrhage. With a fixed end point model using a moderate rate of acute hemorrhage and an MAP of 40 mm Hg, splenectomy is not necessary and may confound results.

  13. Microscopic cluster model analysis of 14O+p elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baye, D.; Descouvemont, P.; Leo, F.

    2005-01-01

    The 14 O+p elastic scattering is discussed in detail in a fully microscopic cluster model. The 14 O cluster is described by a closed p shell for protons and a closed p3/2 subshell for neutrons in the translation-invariant harmonic-oscillator model. The exchange and spin-orbit parameters of the effective forces are tuned on the energy levels of the 15 C mirror system. With the generator-coordinate and microscopic R-matrix methods, phase shifts and cross sections are calculated for the 14 O+p elastic scattering. An excellent agreement is found with recent experimental data. A comparison is performed with phenomenological R-matrix fits. Resonances properties in 15 F are discussed

  14. Scattering data for modelling positron tracks in gaseous and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F; Roldán, A M; Krupa, K; García, G; McEachran, R P; Machacek, J R; Buckman, S J; Sullivan, J P; White, R D; Marjanović, S; Petrović, Z Lj; Brunger, M J; Chiari, L; Limão-Vieira, P

    2016-01-01

    We present in this study a self-consistent set of scattering cross sections for positron collisions with water molecules, in the energy range 0.1–10 000 eV, with the prime motivation being to provide data for modelling purposes. The structure of the database is based on a new model potential calculation, including interference terms, which provides differential and integral elastic as well as integral inelastic positron scattering cross sections for water molecules over the whole energy range considered here. Experimental and theoretical data available in the literature have been integrated into the database after a careful analysis of their uncertainties and their self-consistency. These data have been used as input parameters for a step-by-step Monte Carlo simulation procedure, providing valuable information on energy deposition, positron range, and the relative percentages of specific interactions (e.g. positronium formation, direct ionisation, electronic, vibrational and rotational excitations) in gaseous and liquid water. (paper)

  15. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of sup 58 Ni and nuclear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Chiba, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment)

    1991-07-01

    The neutron total cross sections of {sup 58}Ni were measured from {approx} 1 to > 10 MeV using white-source techniques. Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from {approx} 4.5 to 10 MeV at {approx} 0.5 MeV intervals with {ge} 75 differential values per distribution. Differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured, corresponding to fourteen levels with excitations up to 4.8 MeV. The measured results, combined with relevant values available in the literature, were interpreted in terms of optical-statistical and coupled-channels model using both vibrational and rotational coupling schemes. The physical implications of the experimental results nd their interpretation are discussed in the contexts of optical-statistical, dispersive-optical, and coupled-channels models. 61 refs.

  16. LAI inversion from optical reflectance using a neural network trained with a multiple scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The inversion of the leaf area index (LAI) canopy parameter from optical spectral reflectance measurements is obtained using a backpropagation artificial neural network trained using input-output pairs generated by a multiple scattering reflectance model. The problem of LAI estimation over sparse canopies (LAI 1000 percent for low LAI. Minimization methods applied to merit functions constructed from differences between measured reflectances and predicted reflectances using multiple-scattering models are unacceptably sensitive to a good initial guess for the desired parameter. In contrast, the neural network reported generally yields absolute percentage errors of <30 percent when weighting coefficients trained on one soil type were applied to predicted canopy reflectance at a different soil background.

  17. Structure of liposome encapsulating proteins characterized by X-ray scattering and shell-modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Mitsuhiro; Kimura, Ryota; Takeuchi, Kazuki; Hagiwara, Yoshihiko; Kawai-Hirai, Rika; Ohta, Noboru; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Shimuzu, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Wide-angle X-ray scattering data using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source are presented. Lipid liposomes are promising drug delivery systems because they have superior curative effects owing to their high adaptability to a living body. Lipid liposomes encapsulating proteins were constructed and the structures examined using synchrotron radiation small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SR-SWAXS). The liposomes were prepared by a sequential combination of natural swelling, ultrasonic dispersion, freeze-throw, extrusion and spin-filtration. The liposomes were composed of acidic glycosphingolipid (ganglioside), cholesterol and phospholipids. By using shell-modeling methods, the asymmetric bilayer structure of the liposome and the encapsulation efficiency of proteins were determined. As well as other analytical techniques, SR-SWAXS and shell-modeling methods are shown to be a powerful tool for characterizing in situ structures of lipid liposomes as an important candidate of drug delivery systems

  18. Modelling small-angle scattering data from complex protein-lipid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Søren Andreas Røssell

    This thesis consists of two parts. The rst part is divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 gives a general introduction to the bio-molecular systems that have been studied. These are membrane proteins and their lipid environments in the form of phospholipid nanodiscs. Membrane proteins...... the techniques very well suited for the study of the nanodisc system. Chapter 3 explains two different modelling approaches that can be used in the analysis of small-angle scattering data from lipid-protein complexes. These are the continuous approach where the system of interest is modelled as a few regular...... combine the bene ts of each of the methods and give unique structural information about relevant bio-molecular complexes in solution. Chapter 4 describes the work behind a proposal of a small-angle neutron scattering instrument for the European Spallation Source under construction in Lund. The instrument...

  19. Alterations to the relativistic Love-Franey model and their application to inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The fictitious axial-vector and tensor mesons for the real part of the relativistic Love-Franey interaction are removed. In an attempt to make up for this loss, derivative couplings are used for the π and ρ mesons. Such derivative couplings require the introduction of axial-vector and tensor contact term corrections. Meson parameters are then fit to free nucleon-nucleon scattering data. The resulting fits are comparable to those of the relativistic Love-Franey model provided that the contact term corrections are included and the fits are weighted over the physically significant quantity of twice the tensor minus the axial-vector Lorentz invariants. Failure to include contact term corrections leads to poor fits at higher energies. The off-shell behavior of this model is then examined by looking at several applications from inelastic proton-nucleus scattering

  20. Role of pseudo-turbulent stresses in shocked particle clouds and construction of surrogate models for closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, O.; Gaul, N. J.; Davis, S.; Choi, K. K.; Jacobs, G.; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    Macroscale models of shock-particle interactions require closure terms for unresolved solid-fluid momentum and energy transfer. These comprise the effects of mean as well as fluctuating fluid-phase velocity fields in the particle cloud. Mean drag and Reynolds stress equivalent terms (also known as pseudo-turbulent terms) appear in the macroscale equations. Closure laws for the pseudo-turbulent terms are constructed in this work from ensembles of high-fidelity mesoscale simulations. The computations are performed over a wide range of Mach numbers ( M) and particle volume fractions (φ ) and are used to explicitly compute the pseudo-turbulent stresses from the Favre average of the velocity fluctuations in the flow field. The computed stresses are then used as inputs to a Modified Bayesian Kriging method to generate surrogate models. The surrogates can be used as closure models for the pseudo-turbulent terms in macroscale computations of shock-particle interactions. It is found that the kinetic energy associated with the velocity fluctuations is comparable to that of the mean flow—especially for increasing M and φ . This work is a first attempt to quantify and evaluate the effect of velocity fluctuations for problems of shock-particle interactions.

  1. The zig-zag walk with scattering and absorption on the real half line and in a lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Darwin-Hamilton equations, describing one-dimensional transport with scattering and absorption, are expanded into a recursion. The solution involves ballot numbers. The recurrence probability as function of scattering order is given by Catalan numbers. To reproduce this analytical result in a lattice model, a novel relation between Narayana and Catalan numbers is derived.

  2. The energy-dependent backward-forward-isotropic scattering model with some applications to the neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    A multigroup formalism is developed for the backward-forward-isotropic scattering model of neutron transport. Some exact solutions are obtained in two-group theory for slab and spherical geometry. The results are useful for benchmark problems involving multigroup anisotropic scattering. (author)

  3. Convergent J-matrix calculation of the Poet-Temkin model of electron-hydrogen scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that the Poet-Temkin model of electron-hydrogen scattering could be solved to any required accuracy using the J-matrix method. The convergence in the basis size is achieved to an accuracy of better than 2% with the inclusion of 37 basis L 2 functions. Previously observed pseudoresonances in the J-matrix calculation naturally disappear with an increase in basis size. No averaging technique is necessary to smooth the convergent J-matrix results. (Author)

  4. Cluster folding-model for quasi-elastic scattering of 23Na from 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, A.; Johnson, R.C.; Tostevin, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    A cluster model of 23 Na is used to calculate the 23 Na-target interaction potentials by folding the cluster wavefunction with the cluster-target interaction potentials. Coupled channels calculations are carried out for the quasi-elastic scattering of polarized 23 Na from 208 Pb at 170 MeV and compared with recent experiments. Qualitative agreement with experiment is obtained when the interaction is adjusted by a single overall normalization constant. (author)

  5. Cloudy bag model calculation of P11 πN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.

    1981-05-01

    πN, πΔ scattering in the cloudy bag model (CBM) is considered using an elementary π field and bare bag states for N, Δ, Nsup(*)(1470). The resulting 2-channel problem is solved neglecting intermediate states with anti-baryons and states with more than a single pion. It is shown that delta 11 may be reproduced for parameters close to their theoretical values. The fit thus provides a test for the CBM. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic model for the elastic form factor in diffraction scattering of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashin, A.F.; Evstratenko, A.S.; Lepeshkin, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    An explicit expression is obtained for the differential pp(p-bar)-scattering cross section in the diffraction-cone region by employing the thermodynamic model for the elastic form factor previously proposed in Ref. 4. Data for the energy region 16.3≤(s)/sup 1/2/ ≤546 GeV have been analyzed and significant deviations have been discovered from the commonly used approximations in the form of linear or quadratic exponentials

  7. Two-phase pressurized thermal shock investigations using a 3D two-fluid modeling of stratified flow with condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.; Coste, P.; Bestion, D.; Boucker, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a local 3D two-fluid model for a turbulent stratified flow with/without condensation, which can be used to predict two-phase pressurized thermal shock, is presented. A modified turbulent K- model is proposed with turbulence production induced by interfacial friction. A model of interfacial friction based on a interfacial sublayer concept and three interfacial heat transfer models, namely, a model based on the small eddies controlled surface renewal concept (HDM, Hughes and Duffey, 1991), a model based on the asymptotic behavior of the Eddy Viscosity (EVM), and a model based on the Interfacial Sublayer concept (ISM) are implemented into a preliminary version of the NEPTUNE code based on the 3D module of the CATHARE code. As a first step to apply the above models to predict the two-phase thermal shock, the models are evaluated by comparison of calculated profiles with several experiments: a turbulent air-water stratified flow without interfacial heat transfer; a turbulent steam-water stratified flow with condensation; turbulence induced by the impact of a water jet in a water pool. The prediction results agree well with the experimental data. In addition, the comparison of three interfacial heat transfer models shows that EVM and ISM gave better prediction results while HDM highly overestimated the interfacial heat transfers compared to the experimental data of a steam water stratified flow

  8. Generalized Veneziano model for pion scattering off isovector currents and the scaling limit

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, H J; Rolhe, K D

    1972-01-01

    Starting from a local one-particle approximation scheme for the commutator of two conserved currents, the authors construct a generalized Veneziano model for pion scattering off neutral and charged isovector currents, satisfying the constraints of current conservation and current algebra. The model factorizes correctly on the leading Regge trajectories and incorporates the proper Regge behaviour for strong amplitudes. Fixed poles are found to be present in the s and t channels of the one- and two-current amplitudes. Furthermore, the model makes definite predictions about the structure of Schwinger terms and of the 'seagull' terms in the retarded commutator. (13 refs).

  9. Integrative structural modeling with small angle X-ray scattering profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneidman-Duhovny Dina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent technological advances enabled high-throughput collection of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS profiles of biological macromolecules. Thus, computational methods for integrating SAXS profiles into structural modeling are needed more than ever. Here, we review specifically the use of SAXS profiles for the structural modeling of proteins, nucleic acids, and their complexes. First, the approaches for computing theoretical SAXS profiles from structures are presented. Second, computational methods for predicting protein structures, dynamics of proteins in solution, and assembly structures are covered. Third, we discuss the use of SAXS profiles in integrative structure modeling approaches that depend simultaneously on several data types.

  10. Asymmetric dark matter and CP violating scatterings in a UV complete model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldes, Iason; Bell, Nicole F.; Millar, Alexander J.; Volkas, Raymond R. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale,School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia)

    2015-10-21

    We explore possible asymmetric dark matter models using CP violating scatterings to generate an asymmetry. In particular, we introduce a new model, based on DM fields coupling to the SM Higgs and lepton doublets, a neutrino portal, and explore its UV completions. We study the CP violation and asymmetry formation of this model, to demonstrate that it is capable of producing the correct abundance of dark matter and the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. Crucial to achieving this is the introduction of interactions which violate CP with a T{sup 2} dependence.

  11. Asymmetric dark matter and CP violating scatterings in a UV complete model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldes, Iason; Bell, Nicole F.; Millar, Alexander J.; Volkas, Raymond R., E-mail: i.baldes@student.unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: n.bell@unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: amillar@student.unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: raymondv@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 Australia (Australia)

    2015-10-01

    We explore possible asymmetric dark matter models using CP violating scatterings to generate an asymmetry. In particular, we introduce a new model, based on DM fields coupling to the SM Higgs and lepton doublets, a neutrino portal, and explore its UV completions. We study the CP violation and asymmetry formation of this model, to demonstrate that it is capable of producing the correct abundance of dark matter and the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. Crucial to achieving this is the introduction of interactions which violate CP with a T{sup 2} dependence.

  12. Low-volume resuscitation using polyethylene glycol-20k in a preclinical porcine model of hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Valerie; Limkemann, Ashley; Liebrecht, Loren; Blocher, Charles; Ferrada, Paula; Aboutanos, Michel; Mangino, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    Polyethylene glycol-20k (PEG-20k) is highly effective for low-volume resuscitation (LVR) by increasing tolerance to the low-volume state. In our rodent shock model, PEG-20k increased survival and expanded the "golden hour" 16-fold compared to saline. The molecular mechanism is largely attributed to normalizations in cell and tissue fluid shifts after low-flow ischemia resulting in efficient microvascular exchange. The objective of this study was to evaluate PEG-20k as an LVR solution for hemorrhagic shock in a preclinical model. Anesthetized male Yorkshire pigs (30-40 kg) were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 to 40 mm Hg. Once lactate reached 7 mmol/L, either saline (n = 5) or 10% PEG-20k (n = 5) was rapidly infused at 10% calculated blood volume. The primary outcome was LVR time, defined by the time from LVR administration to the time when lactate again reached 7 mmol/L. Other outcomes measured included MAP, heart rate, cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation, splanchnic blood flow, and hemoglobin. Relative to saline, PEG-20k given after controlled hemorrhage increased LVR time by 16-fold, a conservative estimate given that the lactate never rose after LVR in the PEG-20k group. Survival was 80% for PEG-20k LVR compared to 0% for the saline controls (p the intravascular compartment. In a preclinical model of controlled hemorrhagic shock, PEG-20k-based LVR solution increased tolerance to the shock state 16-fold compared to saline. Polyethylene glycol-20k is a superior crystalloid for LVR that may increase safe transport times in the prehospital setting and find use in hospital emergency departments and operating rooms for patients awaiting volume replacement or normalization of cell, tissue, and compartment fluid volumes.

  13. Memory effects in microscopic traffic models and wide scattering in flow-density data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Martin; Helbing, Dirk

    2003-10-01

    By means of microscopic simulations we show that noninstantaneous adaptation of the driving behavior to the traffic situation together with the conventional method to measure flow-density data provides a possible explanation for the observed inverse-λ shape and the wide scattering of flow-density data in “synchronized” congested traffic. We model a memory effect in the response of drivers to the traffic situation for a wide class of car-following models by introducing an additional dynamical variable (the “subjective level of service”) describing the adaptation of drivers to the surrounding traffic situation during the past few minutes and couple this internal state to parameters of the underlying model that are related to the driving style. For illustration, we use the intelligent-driver model (IDM) as the underlying model, characterize the level of service solely by the velocity, and couple the internal variable to the IDM parameter “time gap” to model an increase of the time gap in congested traffic (“frustration effect”), which is supported by single-vehicle data. We simulate open systems with a bottleneck and obtain flow-density data by implementing “virtual detectors.” The shape, relative size, and apparent “stochasticity” of the region of the scattered data points agree nearly quantitatively with empirical data. Wide scattering is even observed for identical vehicles, although the proposed model is a time-continuous, deterministic, single-lane car-following model with a unique fundamental diagram.

  14. An assessment of the DORT method on simple scatterers using boundary element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélat, P; Ter Haar, G; Saffari, N

    2015-05-07

    The ability to focus through ribs overcomes an important limitation of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system for the treatment of liver tumours. Whilst it is important to generate high enough acoustic pressures at the treatment location for tissue lesioning, it is also paramount to ensure that the resulting ultrasonic dose on the ribs remains below a specified threshold, since ribs both strongly absorb and reflect ultrasound. The DORT (décomposition de l'opérateur de retournement temporel) method has the ability to focus on and through scatterers immersed in an acoustic medium selectively without requiring prior knowledge of their location or geometry. The method requires a multi-element transducer and is implemented via a singular value decomposition of the measured matrix of inter-element transfer functions. The efficacy of a method of focusing through scatterers is often assessed by comparing the specific absorption rate (SAR) at the surface of the scatterer, and at the focal region. The SAR can be obtained from a knowledge of the acoustic pressure magnitude and the acoustic properties of the medium and scatterer. It is well known that measuring acoustic pressures with a calibrated hydrophone at or near a hard surface presents experimental challenges, potentially resulting in increased measurement uncertainties. Hence, the DORT method is usually assessed experimentally by measuring the SAR at locations on the surface of the scatterer after the latter has been removed from the acoustic medium. This is also likely to generate uncertainties in the acoustic pressure measurement. There is therefore a strong case for assessing the efficacy of the DORT method through a validated theoretical model. The boundary element method (BEM) applied to exterior acoustic scattering problems is well-suited for such an assessment. In this study, BEM was used to implement the DORT method theoretically on locally reacting spherical scatterers, and to assess its focusing

  15. On the Use of Generalized Volume Scattering Models for the Improvement of General Polarimetric Model-Based Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a general polarimetric model-based decomposition framework was proposed by Chen et al., which addresses several well-known limitations in previous decomposition methods and implements a simultaneous full-parameter inversion by using complete polarimetric information. However, it only employs four typical models to characterize the volume scattering component, which limits the parameter inversion performance. To overcome this issue, this paper presents two general polarimetric model-based decomposition methods by incorporating the generalized volume scattering model (GVSM or simplified adaptive volume scattering model, (SAVSM proposed by Antropov et al. and Huang et al., respectively, into the general decomposition framework proposed by Chen et al. By doing so, the final volume coherency matrix structure is selected from a wide range of volume scattering models within a continuous interval according to the data itself without adding unknowns. Moreover, the new approaches rely on one nonlinear optimization stage instead of four as in the previous method proposed by Chen et al. In addition, the parameter inversion procedure adopts the modified algorithm proposed by Xie et al. which leads to higher accuracy and more physically reliable output parameters. A number of Monte Carlo simulations of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data are carried out and show that the proposed method with GVSM yields an overall improvement in the final accuracy of estimated parameters and outperforms both the version using SAVSM and the original approach. In addition, C-band Radarsat-2 and L-band AIRSAR fully polarimetric images over the San Francisco region are also used for testing purposes. A detailed comparison and analysis of decomposition results over different land-cover types are conducted. According to this study, the use of general decomposition models leads to a more accurate quantitative retrieval of target parameters. However, there

  16. Low Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Improves Erectile Function in a Model of Type II Diabetes Independently of NO/cGMP Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaly-Kaddoum, Rana; Giuliano, François; Laurin, Miguel; Gorny, Diane; Kergoat, Micheline; Bernabé, Jacques; Vardi, Yoram; Alexandre, Laurent; Behr-Roussel, Delphine

    2016-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction is highly prevalent in type II diabetes mellitus. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy improves erectile function in patients with erectile dysfunction of vasculogenic origin, including diabetes. However, its mode of action remains unknown. We investigated the effects of low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy compared to or combined with sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in a type II diabetes mellitus model. Our purpose was to test our hypothesis of a mode of action targeting the cavernous nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. GK rats, a validated model of type II diabetes mellitus, and age matched Wistar rats were treated with low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy twice weekly for 3 weeks. Treatment was repeated after a 3-week no-treatment interval. The penis was stretched and dipped in a specifically designed water-filled cage. Shock waves were delivered by a calibrated probe yielding a controlled energy flux density (0.09 mJ/mm(2)). The probe was attached to an electrohydraulic unit with a focused shock wave source, allowing for accurate extrapolation to humans. Following a 4-week washout period erectile function was assessed as well as endothelium dependent and independent, and nitrergic relaxations of the corpus cavernosum of GK rats. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy significantly improved erectile function in GK rats to the same extent as sildenafil. Treatment effects were potentiated when combined with sildenafil. Shock wave effects were not associated with improved cavernous endothelium dependent or independent, or nitrergic reactivity. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy improved erectile function in GK rats. Unexpectedly, this was not mediated by a nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate dependent mechanism. Sildenafil increased shock wave efficacy. This preclinical paradigm to deliver low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy to the rat penis should

  17. Finite difference modelling of scattered hydrates and its implications in gas-hydrate exploration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M.V.

    coming from individual scatterers 12 . However, the scatterers which lie within the first Fresnel zone interfere constructively. Therefore, the BSR ampli- tude in a zero-offset section represents all the scatterers lying within the first Fresnel zone...

  18. Correlations in microscopic optical model for nucleon elastic scattering off doubly closed-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.; Karataglidis, S.; Bauge, E.; Delaroche, J.P.; Gogny, D.

    2006-01-01

    The random phase approximation (RPA) long-range correlations are known to play a significant role in understanding the depletion of single particle-hole states observed in (e,e ' ) and (e,e ' p) measurements. Here the RPA theory, implemented using the D1S force is considered for the specific purpose of building correlated ground states and related one-body density matrix elements. These may be implemented and tested in a fully microscopic optical model for NA scattering off doubly closed-shell nuclei. A method is presented to correct for the correlations overcounting inherent to the RPA formalism. One-body density matrix elements in the uncorrelated (i.e., Hartree-Fock) and correlated (i.e., RPA) ground states are then challenged in proton scattering studies based on the Melbourne microscopic optical model to highlight the role played by the RPA correlations. Agreement between the parameter free scattering predictions and measurements is good for incident proton energies ranging from 200 MeV down to approximately 60 MeV and becomes gradually worse in the lower energy range. Those features point unambiguously to the relevance of the g-matrix method to build microscopic optical model potentials at medium energies, and emphasize the need to include nucleon-phonon coupling, that is, a second-order component of the Feshbach type in the potential at lower energies. Illustrations are given for proton scattering observables measured up to 201 MeV for the 16 O, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, and 208 Pb target nuclei

  19. Calculation of accurate small angle X-ray scattering curves from coarse-grained protein models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stovgaard Kasper

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing projects have expanded the gap between the amount of known protein sequences and structures. The limitations of current high resolution structure determination methods make it unlikely that this gap will disappear in the near future. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS is an established low resolution method for routinely determining the structure of proteins in solution. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for the efficient calculation of accurate SAXS curves from coarse-grained protein models. Such a method can for example be used to construct a likelihood function, which is paramount for structure determination based on statistical inference. Results We present a method for the efficient calculation of accurate SAXS curves based on the Debye formula and a set of scattering form factors for dummy atom representations of amino acids. Such a method avoids the computationally costly iteration over all atoms. We estimated the form factors using generated data from a set of high quality protein structures. No ad hoc scaling or correction factors are applied in the calculation of the curves. Two coarse-grained representations of protein structure were investigated; two scattering bodies per amino acid led to significantly better results than a single scattering body. Conclusion We show that the obtained point estimates allow the calculation of accurate SAXS curves from coarse-grained protein models. The resulting curves are on par with the current state-of-the-art program CRYSOL, which requires full atomic detail. Our method was also comparable to CRYSOL in recognizing native structures among native-like decoys. As a proof-of-concept, we combined the coarse-grained Debye calculation with a previously described probabilistic model of protein structure, TorusDBN. This resulted in a significant improvement in the decoy recognition performance. In conclusion, the presented method shows great promise for

  20. Technology shocks matter

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas D. M. Fisher

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses the neoclassical growth model to identify the effects of technological change on the US business cycle. In the model there are two sources of technological change: neutral, which effects the production of all goods homogeneously, and investment-specific. Investment-specific shocks are the unique source of the secular trend in the real price of investment goods, while shocks to both kinds of technology are the only factors which affect labor productivity in the long run. Consis...