WorldWideScience

Sample records for model scientific psychology

  1. Discursive and scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Derek

    2012-09-01

    I begin with the origins of Loughborough University's Discourse and Rhetoric Group (DARG), and in particular discursive psychology (DP). Rather than attempting to summarize DP, versions of which are plentiful, the article attempts to clarify various relationships and tensions between DP and other kinds of social psychology, particularly experimental. Common sense psychology is defined as DP's topic rather than rival; the aim is to study how people deploy everyday psychological notions and manage psychological business within talk and text, and what they accomplish by such deployments, rather than trying, as experimental psychology is often characterized as doing, to replace it all with something purportedly better. Claims for DP being particularly interpretative rather than scientific are rejected, by appeal to an 'interpretative gap' between phenomena, data, analysis, and conclusions that all research must manage, that gap being often much larger in quantitative and experimental work. The importance of pursuing causal explanations of psychological phenomena is questioned, and the importance asserted, of discovering, through rigorous empirical and conceptual analysis, the normative bases of human conduct and accountability.

  2. Towards a comprehensive model of scientific research and professional practice in psychology

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    Jerzy Marian Brzeziński

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I present a model of associations between two social domains: the scientific research domain (here psychology and the professional practice domain. In the former case, its quality is determined by social and individual methodological awareness (MA. I introduce my own definition of MA. What determines the validity and usefulness of practical actions undertaken by professionals (e.g., assessment, therapy in the practice domain is the accurately constructed empirical theory high in descriptive power, explanatory power and predictive power. I propose a model (my own conceptualization in which I analyze information flow between the domains of scientific research (psychology as a science and professional practice (psychology as a profession. In the subsequent and final part I discuss my own model which links theory and practice: Scientific Research and Professional Practice in Psychology (SRPPP. The article ends with a presentation of three contexts in which the interrelationship between theory and practice is immersed: the ethical, psychological and cultural contexts.

  3. Towards a comprehensive model of scientific research and professional practice in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Marian Brzeziński

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I present a model of associations between two social domains: the scientific research domain (here psychology and the professional practice domain. In the former case, its quality is determined by social and individual methodological awareness (MA. I introduce my own definition of MA. What determines the validity and usefulness of practical actions undertaken by professionals (e.g., assessment, therapy in the practice domain is the accurately constructed empirical theory high in descriptive power, explanatory power and predictive power. I propose a model (my own conceptualization in which I analyze information flow between the domains of scientific research (psychology as a science and professional practice (psychology as a profession. In the subsequent and final part I discuss my own model which links theory and practice: Scientific Research and Professional Practice in Psychology (SRPPP. The article ends with a presentation of three contexts in which the interrelationship between theory and practice is immersed: the ethical, psychological and cultural contexts.

  4. Reporting Results from Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in Archives of Scientific Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rick H; Isherwood, Jennifer C

    2013-02-01

    Psychological research typically involves the analysis of data (e.g., questionnaire responses, records of behavior) using statistical methods. The description of how those methods are used and the results they produce is a key component of scholarly publications. Despite their importance, these descriptions are not always complete and clear. In order to ensure the completeness and clarity of these descriptions, the Archives of Scientific Psychology requires that authors of manuscripts to be considered for publication adhere to a set of publication standards. Although the current standards cover most of the statistical methods commonly used in psychological research, they do not cover them all. In this manuscript, we propose adjustments to the current standards and the addition of additional standards for a statistical method not adequately covered in the current standards-structural equation modeling (SEM). Adherence to the standards we propose would ensure that scholarly publications that report results of data analyzed using SEM are complete and clear.

  5. A Convenient Model for the Evolution of Early Psychology as a Scientific Discipline.

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    Epstein, Robert

    1981-01-01

    To help college students understand psychology, the article suggests that instructors develop curriculum based on the relationship between scientific and technological advances and the development of early psychology. Views of many nineteenth century psychologists are summarized, including Johann Friedrich Herbart, Hermann Lotze, and Georg…

  6. Cognitive Psychology and scientific education

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ignacio Pozo

    1996-01-01

    For many years, specific content knowledge has been the main criterion for curriculum design. Consequently, school curricula, specially in science, had almost the same kind of organization and the same contents. Today, however, it is recognized that other criteria must be taken into account in curriculum design such as, for example, the psychological source. The constructivist tradition in science education, for instance, emphasizes students’ cognitive capacities. In this paper a critical ana...

  7. Cognitive Psychology and scientific education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Pozo

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available For many years, specific content knowledge has been the main criterion for curriculum design. Consequently, school curricula, specially in science, had almost the same kind of organization and the same contents. Today, however, it is recognized that other criteria must be taken into account in curriculum design such as, for example, the psychological source. The constructivist tradition in science education, for instance, emphasizes students’ cognitive capacities. In this paper a critical analysis is carried out regarding the contribution of the Piagetian, misconceptions, and implicit theories approaches to curriculum design.

  8. 'Introspectionism' and the mythical origins of scientific psychology.

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    Costall, Alan

    2006-12-01

    According to the majority of the textbooks, the history of modern, scientific psychology can be tidily encapsulated in the following three stages. Scientific psychology began with a commitment to the study of mind, but based on the method of introspection. Watson rejected introspectionism as both unreliable and effete, and redefined psychology, instead, as the science of behaviour. The cognitive revolution, in turn, replaced the mind as the subject of study, and rejected both behaviourism and a reliance on introspection. This paper argues that all three stages of this history are largely mythical. Introspectionism was never a dominant movement within modern psychology, and the method of introspection never went away. Furthermore, this version of psychology's history obscures some deep conceptual problems, not least surrounding the modern conception of "behaviour," that continues to make the scientific study of consciousness seem so weird.

  9. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

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    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  10. Angela J. Grippo: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

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    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Angela J. Grippo for her creative contributions in investigating the association between depression and cardiovascular disease in preclinical animal models.…

  11. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C.M. Vorst

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  12. Scientific psychology within the Chinese language and cultural context.

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    Shen, Heyong

    2006-01-01

    The Scientific Psychology that was founded by Wilhelm Wundt appeared in China in the late nineteenth century. The scholars translated the name of psychology into Chinese as Xin-Li-Xue, for which the meaning of the words looks like "heartology," i.e., "the study of the heart." In Chinese, the same core structure related to "heart" (Xin) is found in most of the terms of psychology, such as emotion, thinking, will, forgetting, and memory. By translating Xin as "heart" instead of "mind," we maintain an embodied approach to understanding the "principles of the heart." Through a historical approach to the influence of Western psychology, a cultural analysis of the meaning of the term psychology in Chinese, and a focus on the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, we can witness the significance of psychology in the Chinese language and cultural context. I will use three parts to present psychology in the Chinese cultural context: the origins of Chinese psychology, from a historical approach; the meaning of "psychology" in Chinese, using a cultural analysis; and the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, focusing on the development and future.

  13. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

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    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt.

  14. Scientific objectivity and E. B. Titchener's experimental psychology.

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    Green, Christopher D

    2010-12-01

    Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison's recent book on the history of scientific objectivity showed that, over the course of the nineteenth century, natural scientists of many stripes became intensely concerned with the issue of the distorting influence that their own subjectivities might be having on their observations and representations of nature. At very nearly the same time, experimental psychology arose specifically to investigate scientifically the nature and structure of subjective consciousness. Although Daston and Galison briefly discussed some basic psychological issues-especially the discovery of differences in human color perception-they did not strongly connect the widespread European concern with scientific objectivity to the rise of experimental psychology. This essay critically examines the theoretical and empirical activities of the experimental psychologist who most energetically strove to discover the structure of subjective conscious experience, Edward Bradford Titchener. Titchener's efforts to produce an objective study of subjectivity reveal important tensions in early experimental psychology and also serve to situate experimental psychology at the center of an important intellectual struggle that was being waged across the natural sciences in the decades surrounding the turn of the twentieth century.

  15. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

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    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  16. Psychological models of suicide.

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    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  17. Social psychology of education as a branch of scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.Е. Sachkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the emergence of a new scientific field – social psychology of education. Most of the key phenomena that contemporary social psychology examines, cannot influence training and education success of an individual. Therefore, in addition to traditional general psychological, psycho-pedagogic, developmental, psychophysical and other approaches solving the problems of the education system; the possibility is considered of increasing the efficiency of the educational process by means of a rapidly growing social psychology. The prospects of this approach is evidenced by the results of numerous Russian and international research, including those performed in Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. The article discusses ways to develop the concept of the social psychology of education, approaches to the definition of its subject, goals and objectives, as well as new methods of the discipline. The possibilities of further use of the potential of social psychology are analyzed to address the efficiency of the educational process and the full personal development of students.

  18. The development of scientific psychological publishing in Italy

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    VITO TÙMMINO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, the question about the possibility of entering the psychological scientific in-formation has come to the fore. We know that scientific psychological information about research has not been placed at all psychologists’ disposal.Today in Italy, in spite of this, the scientific and research activity has been carried out by a marginal segment of psychologists who mostly work in the Academic area, but an important part of profes-sional psychologists devote themselves to research, above all in the clinical field. Researchers in Psychology publish an average of one article per year, almost always in the national language.The CRUI (Italian Universities vice-chancellors Conference has arranged an assessment parameter system for research taking into account the kind and place of editing, the score is from one to ten for editing in journals with a high Impact Factor, from one to twelve for books published both in Italy and abroad, from 0.1 to four for congress works, from 0.5 to five and from 0.2 to three for articles, included or excluded in the Journal citation report.

  19. Re-Visions of Psychology: Feminism as a Paradigm of Scientific Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Arlene

    An intellectual revolution is described in which the logic-centered, value-free model that has served as the foundation for paradigms in psychology is being reevaluated. As part of the intellectual revolution, feminism is presented as a paradigm of scientific inquiry meeting Thomas Kuhn's definition. The question is posed of whether psychologists…

  20. Mathematical modeling in psychological researches

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    Aleksandra Zyolko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the nature of mathematical modeling and its significance in psychological researches. The author distinguishes the types of mathematical models: deterministic, stochastic models and synergetic models. The system approach is proposed as an instrument of implementation of mathematical modelling in psychological research.

  1. Seeking quality scientific information for research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Colepicolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to present the researcher in Psychology techniques for search and retrieval of information for academic and science research. Is based on my experiences as university librarian and as a doctoral student in Psychology, in a project on scientometry of the Social Skills field.  This goal is to obtain information reliable and with quality to develop research, from sources of online information. Are recommended and described steps to the process of searching for scientific information, with examples from the Social Skills field: defining research topic; applying appropriate search tactics; selecting reliable sources of information and experts on the topic; translating research into the language of the information source; developing an effective search strategy; evaluating the quality and reliability of the obtained items. It is expected that by following these steps, the researcher obtain a coherent corpus with the subject, time saving and quality bibliographic.

  2. The beginnings of psychology in France: who was a "scientific" psychologist in the nineteenth century?

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    Carroy, Jacqueline; Plas, Régine

    2006-01-01

    During the last thirty years of the nineteenth century in France, a psychology calling itself "positive," "experimental," or "physiological" was developing in opposition to the official philosophy, eclectic spiritualism. Its bases were set forth by Hippolyte Taine and Théodule Ribot, who popularised foreign models among the academic and scientific public, opposing spiritualism on the one hand, and Auguste Comte's positivism on the other. At the end of the century, Pierre Janet put into practice Ribot's programme for psychology, while differentiating himself from Ribot on the question of the relationship between psychology and physiology. Meanwhile, Alfred Binet, influenced by Taine in the first part of his work, went on to develop "individual psychology," and Gabriel Tarde tried to establish "interpsychology," which never managed to become recognised as a discipline in its own right. We intend to reposition these "scientific" psychologists and their works in that intellectual, institutional, and political context existing in late-nineteenth-century France. We aim to show that "scientific" psychology was able to find its place in that context only within philosophy, by means of a strategy of co-existing insertion and differentiation. If a new discipline did emerge, it was only after compromise, and with limited institutionalisation.

  3. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  4. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  5. Spiritual heritage of national culture in the scientific tradition of the Psychological Institute

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    O.E. Serova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of the book by a famous Russian scientist M.V. Sokolov, "Essays on the history of psychological thoughts in Russia in XI – XVIII centuries." This is the only scientific and psychological monograph of the Soviet period, in which for the first time at the level of academic research the topical problem of historical and genetic roots of contemporary Soviet psychology has been posed and studied, the systematization of basic substantive aspects of the first psychological tractates has been done, and the basic principles of their methodology were highlighted: an integrative approach to systematization of psychological data on the hierarchy of man's inner world, obtained in a single field of cognitive potential of natural science and speculation methods. Comprehensive analysis of original documents allowed the scientist to identify a number of descriptive models of psychological issues development by medieval Russia sophists, belonging to different social strata and ideological lines, and critically overcome the ideology of Soviet period, distorting the perception of time frames of the process of the formation and maintenance of psychological demands of Russian people.

  6. [Representation models and clinical psychology].

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    Traube, P

    1993-01-01

    Clinical psychology often borrows vocabulary from medicine as well as its analysis schemes and explanation models. This survey will deal with all analysis schemes used by the clinical psychologist, explicitly or implicitly, to make it possible to understand the psychological functioning, and work on it as soon as a problem arises.

  7. Hugo Munsterberg's Attack on the Application of Scientific Psychology

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    Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    No individual in the early history of American psychology is more identified with the promotion of applied psychology than Hugo Munsterberg, whose books and articles on applied topics such as industrial psychology, forensic psychology, psychotherapy, and educational psychology made him one of the most visible psychologists of his day. But there is…

  8. Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-02-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive errors that can contribute to belief in pseudoscientific practices within school psychology and allied professions, (c) provide a list of 10 key warning signs of pseudoscience, illustrated by contemporary examples from school psychology and allied disciplines, and (d) offer 10 user-friendly prescriptions designed to encourage scientific thinking among school psychology practitioners and researchers. We argue that scientific thinking, although fallible, is ultimately school psychologists' best safeguard against a host of errors in thinking.

  9. Conceptual Change in Psychology Students' Acceptance of the Scientific Foundation of the Discipline

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    Amsel, Eric; Ashley, Aaron; Baird, Todd; Johnston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored conceptual change in undergraduate psychology students' acceptance of the scientific foundations of the discipline. In Study 1, Introductory Psychology students completed the Psychology as Science questionnaire (PAS) at the beginning and end of the semester and did so from their own (Self Condition) and their instructors'…

  10. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

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    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  11. Conceptual Change in Psychology Students' Acceptance of the Scientific Foundation of the Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsel, Eric; Ashley, Aaron; Baird, Todd; Johnston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored conceptual change in undergraduate psychology students' acceptance of the scientific foundations of the discipline. In Study 1, Introductory Psychology students completed the Psychology as Science questionnaire (PAS) at the beginning and end of the semester and did so from their own (Self Condition) and their instructors'…

  12. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  13. Formal and Informal Learning and First-Year Psychology Students' Development of Scientific Thinking: A Two-Wave Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M; Martín, Miguel H; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students' development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students' need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students' learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students' scientific thinking.

  14. Formal and Informal Learning and First-Year Psychology Students’ Development of Scientific Thinking: A Two-Wave Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M.; Martín, Miguel H.; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D.; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students’ development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students’ need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students’ learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students’ scientific thinking. PMID:28239363

  15. Factors That Help and Hinder Scientific Training in Counseling and Clinical Psychology Students

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    Marks, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to better understand scientific training within clinical and counseling psychology doctoral programs. A primary goal is to extend previous research by expanding the scientific training outcome variables from research interest and productivity to include additional characteristics of scientific mindedness such as…

  16. Factors That Help and Hinder Scientific Training in Counseling and Clinical Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to better understand scientific training within clinical and counseling psychology doctoral programs. A primary goal is to extend previous research by expanding the scientific training outcome variables from research interest and productivity to include additional characteristics of scientific mindedness such as…

  17. Measuring Scientific Reasoning for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sternberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the convergent and discriminant validation of a new assessment of scientific reasoning that could be used for graduate admissions in psychology, educational psychology, human development, and in the psychological sciences more generally. The full assessment ultimately consisted of tests of generating hypotheses, generating experiments, drawing conclusions, serving as a reviewer of a scientific article, and serving as an editor of a scientific journal. The tests had generally good convergent-discriminant validity. Certain socially defined ethnic/racial group differences were observed.

  18. Thomas L. Griffiths: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work, Thomas L. Griffiths has used probabilistic models and Bayesian learning methods to illuminate an extraordinarily wide range of problems in areas including causal reasoning, high-level hierarchical thinking, cultural evolution, theory formation, and cognitive development while also showing that thinking probabilistically can provide a genuine resolution of the age-old tension between nativism and empiricism. His rigorous mathematical and computational abilities are accompanied by an immensely creative imagination, a sure sense of the important problem, and an unerring touch for the right experiment. Griffith's Award citation and a selected biblography are also presented here.

  19. The emergence of "scientific" psychology in Italy between positivist philosophy and psychiatric tradition.

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    Cimino, Guido

    2006-01-01

    In Italy, the emergence of a psychology that can be considered "scientific" is not an event that can be easily ascribed to a precise date. It involves instead a general shift of ideas, gradual initiatives of a cultural and institutional nature, and new approaches to research, all of which together, in the course of the last thirty years of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century, form a "critical mass" that identifies psychology as an autonomous science, distinct from both philosophy and from neurophysiology and psychiatry. This event is embedded in--and favoured by--a matrix of positivist and evolutionist thought, which gives rise to the necessity and to the problem of confronting the study of mental phenomena with a "positive method," and therefore of detaching such phenomena from their philosophical grounds in order to lead them within the sphere of science. Among the numerous elaborations upon this theme, the works that occupy a particularly prominent place are those of the positivist philosopher Roberto Ardigò and of the anthropologist Giuseppe Sergi, who in view of their theoretical proposal of a "new" science of the mind are considered the precursors or pioneers of "scientific" psychology in Italy. The same positivist philosophical-cultural background simultaneously induced some psychiatrists to open their mental health centres to the first researches of a strictly psychological nature to be conducted with the experimental method. In this regard, a particularly important figure is that of Gabriele Buccola, who was especially dedicated to these investigations and was the first Italian scholar to approach in a systematic way experimental research on mental phenomena. Little by little, in the years bridging the two centuries, a second generation of scholars, for the most part psychiatrists by formation (among whom Ferrari, De Sanctis, Kiesow, and De Sarlo), began to hold lessons of experimental psychology in the universities, to

  20. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Daniel J. Bauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Daniel J. Bauer, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for the creative integration of sophisticated quantitative methods with empirical research in the psychological sciences. Bauer draws on his joint training as a developmental and quantitative psychologist to pursue the design,…

  1. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Adam K. Anderson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Adam K. Anderson, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for his outstanding contribution to understanding the representation of emotion and its influence on cognition. By combining psychological and neuroscience techniques with rigorous and creative experimental designs, Anderson has…

  2. Bob McMurray: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bob McMurray for pioneering research on speech and language processing in infants and adults. McMurray has conducted influential work on the graded nature of…

  3. Thomas L. Griffiths: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work,…

  4. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Daniel J. Bauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Daniel J. Bauer, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for the creative integration of sophisticated quantitative methods with empirical research in the psychological sciences. Bauer draws on his joint training as a developmental and quantitative psychologist to pursue the design,…

  5. Undergraduate Psychology's Scientific Identity Dilemma: Student and Instructor Interests and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Could the same interests that draw many students to psychology also predict departure from the major? I present a comparison of students and instructors with respect to professional interests and views of the scientific nature of psychology (Study 1) and an examination of the link between student interests and persistence in the major (Study 2).…

  6. Undergraduate Psychology's Scientific Identity Dilemma: Student and Instructor Interests and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Could the same interests that draw many students to psychology also predict departure from the major? I present a comparison of students and instructors with respect to professional interests and views of the scientific nature of psychology (Study 1) and an examination of the link between student interests and persistence in the major (Study 2).…

  7. Undergraduate Psychology's Scientific Identity Dilemma: Student and Instructor Interests and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Could the same interests that draw many students to psychology also predict departure from the major? I present a comparison of students and instructors with respect to professional interests and views of the scientific nature of psychology (Study 1) and an examination of the link between student interests and persistence in the major (Study 2).…

  8. [Psychology in the Spanish scientific domain through categories cocitation of Journal Citation Report 1990-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Martínez, Ana Teresa; Guerrero Bote, Vicente P; Vargas Quesada, Benjamín; Moya Anegón, Félix

    2008-08-01

    This work aims to reveal some aspects of the scientific domain of Psychology, in the context of the internationally visible Spanish science in the databases of the Citation Index of The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), which is represented by a map. We used the methodology of cocitation of thematic categories (JCR-Thompson Scientific), with which we obtained a representation of the scientific activity. The resulting map allowed us to focus on the area of Psychology, whose representation acts as database for the analysis of this discipline in the scientific field with international visibility. This study offers an empirical view of the underlying structure of Spanish Psychology. This is important because most scientists have an intuitive idea of this structure, but this may or may not be real. This way, we present a global vision of the entire discipline that favours its objective analysis as a function of scientists' behaviour as it affects their patterns of communication through the established formal channels.

  9. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  10. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  11. Research Funding for Psychology and Other Scientific Disciplines: An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Robert P.

    From 1967 to 1982 federally funded research in psychology became increasingly dependent upon money from the Department of Defense and the Department of Health and Human Services. This is a return to the funding patterns that existed prior to the Korean war. While exact comparisons cannot be made with figures from before 1967 (because of changes in…

  12. Scientific Theories and Naive Theories as Forms of Mental Representation: Psychologism Revived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William F.

    This paper analyzes recent work in psychology on the nature of the representation of complex forms of knowledge with the goal of understanding how theories are represented. The analysis suggests that, as a psychological form of representation, theories are mental structures that include theoretical entities (usually nonobservable), relationships among the theoretical entities, and relationships of the theoretical entities to the phenomena of some domain. A theory explains the phenomena in its domain by providing a conceptual framework for the phenomena that leads to a feeling of understanding in the reader/hearer. The explanatory conceptual framework goes beyond the original phenomena, integrates diverse aspects of the world, and shows how the original phenomena follow from the framework. This analysis is used to argue that mental models are the subclass of theories that use causal/mechanical explanatory frameworks. In addition, an argument is made for a new psychologism in the philosophy of science, in which the mental representation of scientific theories must be taken into account.

  13. Scientific communication in clinical psychology: examining patterns of citations and references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselica, Andrew M; Ruscio, John

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of scientific communication used citation mapping, establishing psychology as a 'hub science' from which many other fields draw information. Within psychology, the clinical and counselling discipline is a major 'knowledge broker'. This study analyzed scientific communication among three major subdisciplines of clinical psychology-the cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic and humanistic schools of thought-by examining patterns of references within and citations to 305 target articles published in leading journals of these subdisciplines. The results suggest that clinical researchers of each theoretical orientation engage in more insular scientific communication than an integrationist would find desirable and that cognitive-behavioural articles are more closely connected to mainstream psychology and related fields. Eclectic practitioners draw on several different theoretical orientations to inform their practice; as such, they should be interested in understanding the patterns of scientific communication within and across theoretical orientations. Practitioners work in a variety of different mental health settings, with a variety of other professionals in psychology-related fields, and should be interested in how much influence their particular theoretical orientation has on the work of colleagues. Many practitioners rely on new, evidence-based research to inform their work. The results of this study provide these individuals with an objective measure of the influence of empirical work in different areas of clinical psychology. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The horizontal worldview : A Wittgensteinian attitude towards scientific psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Ludger; Withagen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Many scientific psychologists (implicitly) adopt a vertical worldview. This worldview assumes a layered supervening ontology and thereby invites a reductionist stance on explanation. In the present article we direct attention to an alternative attitude towards reality, the horizontal worldview. We d

  15. Introduction: for a comparative history of the birth of "scientific" psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Guido

    2006-01-01

    This introduction to the Proceedings of the Beijing Symposium poses the problem of the birth of a "new psychology" that endeavors to become a science, considered within the cultural, scientific, social, and institutional context of each country. This problem can be subdivided into a series of other more specific questions, dealt with in part by the volume's contributions: the distinction between a "scientific" psychology and a "pre-scientific" one; the historical reconstruction of psychology as a "science," and of psychology as a "discipline" embedded in some institution; the time span in which the passage from the "old" to the "new" was achieved; the scientific-cultural and political-economic-social factors or conditions that influenced and favoured this birth. After a panoramic and "comparative" glance at the situation in different European countries (Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, and Russia) and some extra-European ones (United States, Brazil, Japan, and China), as presented in the texts of these Proceedings, there follow some considerations of a general nature that attempt to highlight analogies and differences in the historical development of the origin of "scientific" psychology in the various countries.

  16. The Project for a Scientific Psychology (1895): a Freudian anticipation of LTP-memory connection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Siracusano, Alberto; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2004-11-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is considered a reliable cellular model of several forms of learning and memory. Described for the first time in 1973, this synaptic phenomenon consists in the enduring facilitation of the communication between two neurons in response to the sustained activation of the synapses by which they are interconnected. In a book of 1895 entitled Project for a Scientific Psychology, Sigmund Freud theorized about the possibility of representing memory at the synaptic level as "a permanent alteration following an event", and anticipated several crucial physiological properties of LTP. In the present article we aim at presenting Freudian theory on the functional organization of the nervous system developed in the Project, with particular respect to his ideas of the cellular bases of memory.

  17. Spanish scientific journals on Psychology (II): editorial quality, visibility, internationality and editors attitude towards Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    ELEA GIMÉNEZ-TOLEDO; GLORIA RODRÍGUEZ-GARCÍA; MERCEDES DE LA MONEDA CORROCHANO

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present the situation of Spanish Psychology journals with regard to certain qual-ity parameters obtained from two Spanish journal evaluation systems (RESH and DICE), Latindex and others.First of all, the publishing profile is analyzed in relation to the publication frequency compliance and other international standards for scientific publications. In addition, the level of international dis-semination of Spanish Psychology journals in international databases is also examine...

  18. Impact of the Psychological Testing Assessment System (SATEPSI) for Scientific Publications in Psychological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur-Alves,Marcela; Silva, Renata Saldanha; Fernandes,Sthefanie Carvalho de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The strengthening of psychological assessment in Brazil in the twenty-first century can be understood as a result of the foundation of Psychological Test Evaluation System (SATEPSI, its Portuguese acronym) by Resolution 02/2003 of the Federal Council of Psychology. In this sense, the present study aimed to describe the impact of SATEPSI for research in the area. A survey of Brazilian researchers' publications was conducted in two periods in SciELO and BVS-Psi databases - 1993-2002 an...

  19. The Philosophical Background and Scientific Legacy of E. B. Titchener's Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beenfeldt, Christian

    This volume offers a new understanding of Titchener’s influential system of psychology popularly known as introspectionism, structuralism and as classical introspective psychology. Adopting a new perspective on introspectionism and seeking to assess the reasons behind its famous implosion......, this book reopens and rewrites the chapter in the history of early scientific psychology pertaining to the nature of E. B. Titchener’s psychological system. Arguing against the view that Titchener’s system was undone by an overreliance on introspection, the author explains how this idea was first introduced...... in defiance of introspection, not because of introspection. The book is divided into three parts. In Part I, British associationism is examined thoroughly. The author here discusses the psychology of influential empiricist philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, David Hartley, James Mill...

  20. The Psychological Scientific Community that Publishes in the Journal Universitas Psychologica (2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO MAURICIO RIVERA-GARZÓN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The bibliometric analysis is presented in the journal Universitas Psychologica of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana during the period 2002-2008, to identify the scientific community in the area of Psychology that published in the journal and to know the communication networks used by the community. It works with bibliometric methods to characterize the scientific community that publishes a journal, for which information was structured as follows: citante information to identify the relationships inherent in the scientific community psychology, and the information cited, which refers to the identification of the types or communication channels, which are cited in articles identified in the information citante, namely the community that publishes a journal with respect to the international scientific community

  1. The Road to Psychological Safety: Legal, Scientific, and Social Foundations for a Canadian National Standard on Psychological Safety in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Martin; Arnold, Ian; GermAnn, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    In Part 1 of this article, the legal and scientific origins of the concept of psychological safety are examined as background to, and support for, the new Canadian National Standard on Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace (CSA Z1003/BNQ 9700). It is shown that five factors influencing psychological safety can be identified as being…

  2. The clinical differential approach of Sante De Sanctis in Italian "scientific" psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Sante De Sanctis, a psychiatrist and psychologist, is one of the most representative figures of Italian "scientific" psychology. He is considered one of the founders of the discipline as well as one of its main protagonists in the years between the two World Wars. Both with his extensive scientific productions (which include more than three hundred works) and with his uninterrupted institutional activity, he has left his significant mark on the history of Italian psychology. He was the first professor of Experimental Psychology and was internationally known: some of his works have been published in French, Swiss, American, German, Scandinavian, and English journals, and some of his volumes have been translated into English and German. Together with the other psychologists of the second generation (Binet, Külpe, Münsterberg, Stern, Claparède, Ebbinghaus), he was the Italian psychologist who decided to enrich the classical paradigm of Wundt's physiological psychology, by developing during the twentieth century the program of methodological and epistemological enlargement of the discipline. In his fundamental treatise Psicologia Sperimentale, written in 1929-30, a clear modern conception of psychology emerged: it jointly included both the generalist aspect (with some studies on psychophysical proportionality, thought mimicry, dreams, attention, emotions, etc.) and the applicative one, which included psychopathology, labor psychology, educational psychology, and criminal psychology, all seen in a general experimental framework. The present paper aims precisely to highlight the originality of De Sanctis' experimentalism that applied the differential clinical approach to the discipline of psychology, causing it for the first time in Italy to be seen in a unitary way as both general and applied psychology.

  3. The Psychological Scientific Community that Publishes in the Journal Universitas Psychologica (2002-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Garzón, Diego Mauricio; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2009-01-01

    The bibliometric analysis is presented in the journal Universitas Psychologica of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana during the period 2002-2008, to identify the scientific community in the area of Psychology that published in the journal and to know the communication networks used by the commu nity. It works with bibliometric methods to characterize the scientific community that publishes a journal, for which information was structured as follows: citing information to identify the relatio...

  4. The contribution of William James to the origins of "scientific" psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Antonio M

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the specific nature of the contribution made by the psychology of William James to the construction of modern scientific psychology. Universally recognized as the father of American scientific psychology, William James still remains a much-debated scientist, mainly for two reasons. First, he was interested in subjects that were often very far from the narrow and traditional approaches taken by the greater part of his contemporary colleagues. Secondly, in order to enlighten psychological issues, he continued to adopt multidisciplinary contributions, rather than selecting only those that stemmed from experimental and specifically laboratory contexts. James has been recently inserted in the more complex international consortium of psychologists, psychiatrists, physicians, psychotherapists, and philosophers that has been called "the French-Swiss-English-and-American psychotherapeutic alliance." This does in reality seem a more appropriate framework for understanding the specificity of James's psychology. In order to illustrate the peculiar Jamesian way of thinking about psychological issues, this paper undertakes an examination of his classical concept of the "stream of thought." Here, in fact, many different contributions converge in defining and outlining "the primary fact of consciousness"--personal, subjective, and introspective observation; philosophical arguments; "mental experiments," and psychopathological experiences; but, most of all, neurological data derived specifically from brain physiology. This last contribution has been too often underestimated, as has also the background of James's training in the development of experimental psychology, neurology, and physiology at Harvard before 1890. The paper concludes with the assertion that James represents the prototype of a new way of defining the scientific quality of modern psychology, far from the narrow definition given by the laboratory experimentalists fresh from the German

  5. The discontinuity in scientific psychology at the University of Rome, 1907-1947: From general psychology to psychotechnics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgese, Giorgia; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Albani, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    This article examines the areas of research conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology of the University of Rome from 1907 to 1947, directed first by Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935), and then, from 1931 on, by Mario Ponzo (1882-1960). The method used to distinguish the topics and areas of research that characterized the Roman School during this period is the textual analysis of the titles of the journal in which studies completed at the laboratory were published, namely, Contributi del Laboratorio di Psicologia sperimentale [Psychological Contributions of the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology]. This empirical analysis, which complements and supports the historiographical interpretation, demonstrates the disciplines that emerged under a system managed by the directors over 2 periods of time in the pursuit of scientific psychology in Rome and in Italy. This analysis highlights the process of adjustment from a traditional, general approach to a more theoretical-technical application. This article is a new contribution to the Italian debate on the periodization of the "crisis" in Italian psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS ENEMIES: A REPLY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Vázquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology has been the subject of passionate attacks. Its novelty, its scientific scope, its intentions and even the honesty of its followers have been questioned. Furthermore, by extension, the concern of psychology on a whole with human well-being has been placed in doubt. In this review, we offer an answer to some disproportionate criticism and make an overview of the existing overwhelming evidence derived from the active, robust research agenda on positive emotions and cognitions (e.g., optimism and their relationship to health and psychological wellness. Psychology cannot ignore a growing general movement in social sciences and in political and economic discussion that places psychological well-being in the legitimate focus of attention. In this regard, positive psychology is contributing, with the best standard tools psychological research, to articulate and support a good part of the research in and promotion of those crucial issues. Finally, it is argued that, based on a true and respectful academic dialogue, psychology must inevitably and fluently integrate the focus on positive functioning for a more inclusive explanation of human nature.

  7. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Christian N. L. Olivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Christian N. L. Olivers, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for outstanding research on visual attention and working memory. Olivers uses classic experimental designs in an innovative and sophisticated way to determine underlying mechanisms. He has formulated important theoretical…

  8. J. David Creswell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize excellent young psychologists who have not held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. One of the 2014 award winners is J. David Creswell, for "outstanding and innovative research on mechanisms linking stress management strategies to disease." Creswell's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  9. Outside the Classroom and beyond Psychology: A Citation Analysis of the Scientific Influence of Teaching Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob; Walter, Mark I.; Yerkes, Kyle; Brady, Brittany; Erdman, Molly; Dantoni, Lindsay; Venables, Megan; Manry, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A primary objective for researchers who publish teaching activities and methods in the "Teaching of Psychology" (ToP) is to inform best practices in classroom teaching. Beyond the learning effect in the classroom, these ToP teaching activity and method articles may also have a "scientific" effect that heretofore researchers…

  10. Amanda Seed: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize excellent young psychologists who have not held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. One of the 2014 award winners is Amanda Seed, for "incisive and innovative contributions to comparative cognition." Seed's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  11. Outside the Classroom and beyond Psychology: A Citation Analysis of the Scientific Influence of Teaching Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob; Walter, Mark I.; Yerkes, Kyle; Brady, Brittany; Erdman, Molly; Dantoni, Lindsay; Venables, Megan; Manry, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A primary objective for researchers who publish teaching activities and methods in the "Teaching of Psychology" (ToP) is to inform best practices in classroom teaching. Beyond the learning effect in the classroom, these ToP teaching activity and method articles may also have a "scientific" effect that heretofore researchers…

  12. One Hundred Years of the Journal of Applied Psychology: Background, Evolution, and Scientific Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chen, Gilad; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-02-16

    To launch this Special Issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology celebrating the 1st century of the journal we conducted a review encompassing the background of the founding of the journal; a quantitative assessment of its evolution across the century; and an examination of trends examining article type, article length, authorship patterns, supplemental materials, and research support. The journal was founded in March of 1917 with hopeful optimism about the potential of psychology being applied to practical problems could enhance human happiness, well-being, and effectiveness. Our quantitative content assessment using both keyword frequencies and latent semantic analyses of raw content, in both bottom-up (corpus driven) and top-down modes (analyst driven), converged to document an evolution ranging from a broad and exploratory applied psychology to a more focused industrial psychology to an industrial and organizational psychology to an organizational psychology. With respect to other trends, during the first 4 decades 20 to 30% of journal items were book reviews, which then abruptly ceased in the mid-1950s. Articles have grown increasingly longer over time. Author teams are increasingly larger, and sole authored articles are vanishingly small in frequency. The use of supplemental materials and articles reporting research support have surged dramatically in the most recent period. Across the various foci we examined, our review portrays the evolution of the journal as reflecting the development of a mature, focused, and cumulative scientific discipline addressing psychological science applied to work and organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. On the Transcendence of Psychological Anthropology to Scientific Psychology%论心理人类学对科学心理学的超越

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田营; 彭运石

    2015-01-01

    心理人类学是相对人文化的领域,但与(科学)心理学在主题上相近且同样强调经验研究,因此心理学可将其作为“他者”加以了解、比照和借鉴。在人的理解层面,心理人类学重视人的社会、文化、生态、整体和意义维度,建构出了不同于心理学过分个体和还原的人的形象;在研究方式层面,心理人类学拓展出了一条迥异于心理学自然科学模式的合理道路,即强调异域-跨文化研究、本地人视角、民族志方法论、跨学科与伦理。未来,整个心理学可在“整合视野”的关照下,重审当前取向的合理性范围,并辩证吸收心理人类学等“他者”的智慧。%Psychological Anthropology relatively belongs to humanities. However, it shares the similarities of themes with (scientific) psychology,and both stress empirical research. Therefore it can be regarded as the "other" of psychology for studying,contrast and reference. At the level of understanding of human being,psychological anthropology,with em-phasis on socio-cultural, ecological, holism and meaning dimensions, constructs a pattern different from the psychology which is overly individualism and reductionism;At the level of research model,psychological anthropology provides a rea-sonable way quite different from the natural sci ence model of psychology, which focuses on the other-cultural and cross-cultural study,native perspective,ethnographic methodology,interdisciplinary and ethics. In future,guided by theory of“Integrated Horizon”,the whole psychology should review the rationality range of current paradigm and dialectically ab-sorb many others wisdom,such as psychological anthropology etc.

  14. [Tone psychology and music research as catalysts of experimental-scientific practice and methodology in the circle of Carl Stumpf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Sebastian

    2008-09-01

    The study of acoustics, harmonics and of music has been providing scientific models since Greek Antiquity. Since the early modern ages, two separate cultures began to emerge out of the study of music: a technical acoustics and an aesthetically and philosophically inspired musical criticism. In the writings of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1811) a scientific approach to musical aesthetics and to music perception is taking shape that reinstalls the listening process as a highly complex and logical phenomenon. By opening music for a scientific psychological investigation, Herbart pioneered the physiologically and acoustically grounded seminal work by Hermann von Helmholtz On the sensations of tone (1863) which the author considered a prerequisite for musical aesthetics and music theory. Helmholtz in turn inspired the philosopher and psychologist Carl Stumpf to further investigate musical perception (beginning in 1883). To Stumpf, it provided a paradigm for experimental psychology as mental functions and phenomena could be studied in detail. These functions and phenomena are the actual objects of scientific study in Stumpf's inductive and descriptive psychology. Combining insights from statistics, ethnology, anthropology, psychoacoustics and the cultural history of mankind, Stumpf and his team developed a new blend of science which absorbs styles of reasoning, analytical procedures and academic convictions from natural history, the natural sciences and the humanities but at the same time identifies shortcomings of these approaches that fail to grasp the complexities of psychic functions. Despite their reliance on the quasi-objective phonograph and despite their commitment to objectivity, precision and measurement, mental phenomena relating to tonal perception and to music provided too complex a challenge to be easily articulated and shared by the scientific community after 1900. The essay illustrates these tensions against the background of a history of objectivity.

  15. The contribution of the Florence Laboratory to the foundation of "scientific" psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Gabriella

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the history of Italian psychology have thoroughly and somewhat systematically analysed the particular characteristics and principal themes that distinguished this discipline in the period between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. With regard to the affirmation of a "scientific" psychology in Italy, these studies have emphasized the importance of the research conducted at the University of Florence in the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, founded in 1903 by Francesco De Sarlo. The results of the activity carried out in this laboratory are collected in the two volumes of Ricerche di Psicologia, published in 1905 and 1907. An analysis of these works clarifies the way in which De Sarlo and his collaborators intervened directly in the experimental activity. Various types of experimentation were conducted in the laboratory, such as those on the measurement of sensations and perceptions. The psychologists made use of adequate instruments, which they themselves often prepared or modified, without however neglecting an attentive survey of the states of consciousness. On the basis of a methodological approach that reconciles the accuracy of the measurements with the verification of the internal dimensions of the mental processes of the subjects undergoing the experimentation, the research carried out in the Florence Laboratory contributes to characterising, in an original way, the foundation of "scientific" psychology in Italy. In particular, by means of the publication of the results of this laboratory's research activity, Italian psychology acquired a new impulse to assert itself as an autonomous science and to promote its accreditation on an institutional level.

  16. Aspirational Model Teaching Criteria for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Boysen, Guy A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Tazeau, Yvette N.; Meyers, Steven A.; Sciutto, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the Society for the Teaching of Psychology commissioned a presidential task force to document teaching criteria for model psychology teachers in undergraduate education. The resulting list of criteria reflects activities related to face-to-face course interaction and online teaching, training, and education; course design; implementation…

  17. Developing students' understanding of scientific modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Christine Virginia

    Teaching students to create and use scientific models as well as to understand their nature has become an increasingly important goal in science education. This thesis reports on the evaluation of the Model-Enhanced ThinkerTools curriculum, a ten and a half week physics curriculum designed to develop students' understanding of scientific modeling. In the curricular trials, eight classes of seventh grade students participated in model-oriented activities such as creating non-Newtonian computer microworlds to embody their conceptual models of force and motion, evaluating the accuracy and plausibility of their models, and reflecting on the nature of models. Analysis of pre- and post-curricular assessments as well as student research books, project reports, and in-depth interviews indicate that students had a significantly better understanding of the nature and utility of models after completing the Model-Enhanced ThinkerTools curriculum. Students also gained an understanding of a number of processes for developing and evaluating models. While interacting with the software and engaging in reflective discussions about the nature of models, students learned that models can include abstract representations and that models are useful for predicting events and testing ideas. Students also demonstrated sophisticated understanding of models in their interviews several months after the curriculum, particularly about the nature and. utility of models. Further, the curriculum developed students' conceptual models of force and motion as well as their inquiry skills and epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge and learning. Correlations among the four pre/post curricular assessments suggest that modeling knowledge may play a role in the acquisition of the other types of knowledge. These results indicate that, while modeling knowledge may be difficult to develop, progress can be made by engaging students in generating and reflecting on the nature of models

  18. David Melcher: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents David Melcher, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. "For his elegant and groundbreaking work on one of the most important problems in perceptual psychology, the transfer of perceptual representations across eye movements. David Melcher's innovative experiments used perceptual aftereffects to show how remapping of visual locations underlies the creation of the percept of a clear and stable world. His work on the accumulation of memory contributed importantly to the understanding of natural perceptual representations and their neural underpinnings. His elegant reviews of transsaccadic perception communicated to a broad audience the remarkable capacity of the brain to create seamless perceptual representations despite the disruptions produced by eye movements." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Spanish scientific journals on Psychology (II: editorial quality, visibility, internationality and editors attitude towards Open Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEA GIMÉNEZ-TOLEDO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the situation of Spanish Psychology journals with regard to certain qual-ity parameters obtained from two Spanish journal evaluation systems (RESH and DICE, Latindex and others.First of all, the publishing profile is analyzed in relation to the publication frequency compliance and other international standards for scientific publications. In addition, the level of international dis-semination of Spanish Psychology journals in international databases is also examined, as a reflection of its quality and the interest that such a journal provokes in the scientific community. The best ten Spanish journals are identified according to the parameters considered in DICE: compliance with the publication frequency established, variety of institutions that contribute articles to the journal (contribu-tion openness, variety of institutions represented at the editorial board (editorial board openness, if it has a peer review system, the number of Latindex criteria that the journal fulfils and its level of pres-ence in international databases. Finally, editors’ attitude towards online journals and Open Access as well as the internationality of editorial boards and authorship are analysed.Some results: a most journals follow international publishing conventions and watch for the time-liness of publication; b a third of the journals are well represented in international databases; c taking into account six quality criteria, there are 25-30 high level or competitive journals; d a cautious atti-tude towards OA is observed in Spanish Psychology journals; e according to the “internationality” of Psychology as a scientific domain, journals must make an effort to include foreign members in their advisory or scientific boards in order to attract papers from other countries. Around 20 journals have good levels of foreign authors and advisors.

  20. Mathematics, experience and laboratories: Herbart's and Brentano's role in the rise of scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Wolfgang; Landerer, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present and compare two early attempts to establish psychology as an independent scientific discipline that had considerable influence in central Europe: the theories of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) and Franz Brentano (1838-1917). While both of them emphasize that psychology ought to be conceived as an empirical science, their conceptions show revealing differences. Herbart starts with metaphysical principles and aims at mathematizing psychology, whereas Brentano rejects all metaphysics and bases his method on a conception of inner perception (as opposed to inner observation) as a secondary consciousness, by means of which one gets to be aware of all of one's own conscious phenomena. Brentano's focus on inner perception brings him to deny the claim that there could be unconscious mental phenomena - a view that stands in sharp contrast to Herbart's emphasis on unconscious, "repressed" presentations as a core element of his mechanics of mind. Herbart, on the other hand, denies any role for psychological experiments, while Brentano encouraged laboratory work, thus paving the road for the more experimental work of his students like Stumpf and Meinong. By briefly tracing the fate of the schools of Herbart and Brentano, respectively, we aim to illustrate their impact on the development of psychological research, mainly in central Europe.

  1. Test Driven Development: Lessons from a Simple Scientific Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T. L.; Kuo, K.

    2010-12-01

    In the commercial software industry, unit testing frameworks have emerged as a disruptive technology that has permanently altered the process by which software is developed. Unit testing frameworks significantly reduce traditional barriers, both practical and psychological, to creating and executing tests that verify software implementations. A new development paradigm, known as test driven development (TDD), has emerged from unit testing practices, in which low-level tests (i.e. unit tests) are created by developers prior to implementing new pieces of code. Although somewhat counter-intuitive, this approach actually improves developer productivity. In addition to reducing the average time for detecting software defects (bugs), the requirement to provide procedure interfaces that enable testing frequently leads to superior design decisions. Although TDD is widely accepted in many software domains, its applicability to scientific modeling still warrants reasonable skepticism. While the technique is clearly relevant for infrastructure layers of scientific models such as the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), numerical and scientific components pose a number of challenges to TDD that are not often encountered in commercial software. Nonetheless, our experience leads us to believe that the technique has great potential not only for developer productivity, but also as a tool for understanding and documenting the basic scientific assumptions upon which our models are implemented. We will provide a brief introduction to test driven development and then discuss our experience in using TDD to implement a relatively simple numerical model that simulates the growth of snowflakes. Many of the lessons learned are directly applicable to larger scientific models.

  2. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...

  3. Rendering clinical psychology an evidence-based scientific discipline: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Stoyanov, Drozdstoj; Machamer, Peter K; Schaffner, Kenneth F

    2012-02-01

    Both modern neuroscience and clinical psychology taken as separate fields have failed to reveal the explanatory mechanisms underlying mental disorders. The evidence acquired inside the mono-disciplinary matrices of neurobiology, clinical psychology and psychopathology are deeply insufficient in terms of their validity, reliability and utility. Further, no effective trans-disciplinary connections have been developed between them. In this context, our case study aims at illustrating some specific facets of clinical psychology as a crucial discipline for explaining and understanding mental disorder. The methods employed in clinical psychology are scrutinized using the exemplar case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). We demonstrate that a clinical interview and a clinical psychological rating scale consist of the same kind of cognitive content. The provisional difference can be described in terms of its having two comparable complementary cognitive structures. The test is composed of self-evaluation reports (items) formulated as questions or statements. The psychopathological structured interview is formulated in terms of subjective experience indicated as symptoms (these are self-reports recorded by the physician), complemented with the so-called 'signs' or the presumably 'objective' observations of the overt behaviours of the patient. However, the cognitive content of clinical judgment is beyond any doubt as subjective as the narrative of the patient. None of the components of the structured psychopathological interview is independent of the inter-subjective system created in the situation of clinical assessment. Therefore, the protocols from various clinicians that serve to sustain the reliability claim of the 'scientific' Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders cannot be regarded as independent measurements of the cognitive content and value of the psychological rating scales or vice versa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Adam M. Grant: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Adam M. Grant, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. "For extensive, elegant, and programmatic research on the power of relational job design in enhancing employee motivation, productivity, and satisfaction; for creative and rigorous studies documenting the profound and surprising effects of connecting employees to their impact on others; for highlighting prosocial motivation, not only extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, as a key force behind employee behavior; and for demonstrating by example the feasibility and benefits of conducting field experiments, yielding studies rich in internal validity, external validity, and practical impact. In addition to his accomplishments, Adam M. Grant is known for his generosity as a scholar, teacher, and colleague." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. [Agustín Moreno: scientific psychology and women's legal responsibility in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Agustín Moreno Rodríguez (1886-1967) studied Medicine and Natural Sciences at the Central University of Spain, in Madrid. He was a student of Dr. Luis Simarro, the University's professor of Experimental Psychology and of Tomas Maestre, the University's professor of Medical Law, Toxicology and Psychiatry. In 1910, he published the text The woman's civil and penal responsibility during the menstrual period. In this work, he approaches the question of the legal responsibility of women, based on the principle of excitation/reaction of Claude Bernard and on his personal version of the concept of iteration elaborated by Luis Simarro. Dr. Moreno also defends the thesis that menstruation adds some uniqueness to the function of the feminine psyche and, therefore, modifies the responsibility of a woman's actions. We also comment on the predominant approach to the mind of women in the Spanish scientific psychology of that time and the reaction of the Spanish feminist intellectuals.

  6. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  7. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  8. Realism, instrumentalism, and scientific symbiosis: psychological theory as a search for truth and the discovery of solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Semin, Gün R; Berntson, Gary G

    2004-01-01

    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions and solving problems in a given domain. These philosophical perspectives have different strengths and weaknesses and have been regarded as incommensurate: Scientific realism fosters theoretical rigor, verifiability, parsimony, and debate, whereas scientific instrumentalism fosters theoretical innovation, synthesis, generativeness, and scope. The authors review the evolution of scientific realism and instrumentalism in psychology and propose that the categorical distinction between the 2 is overstated as a prescription for scientific practice. The authors propose that the iterative deployment of these 2 perspectives, just as the iterative application of inductive and deductive reasoning in science, may promote more rigorous, integrative, cumulative, and useful scientific theories.

  9. Industrialized Development Models of Agricultural Scientific and Technological Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements has become an extremely important part in agricultural structural adjustment and agricultural economic development. Basic models for industrialization of China’s agricultural scientific and technological achievements should be:( i) integrating scientific and technological development and production relying on large enterprises;( ii) integrating scientific research and development with agricultural scientific and technological achievements and scientific research institutions as support;( iii) spindle type transformation;( vi) agricultural scientific and technological demonstration area;( v) technology extension network.

  10. 两种“科学心理学”的理论区分%The Distinguishment between Scientific Psychology and Psychology of Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚彦辉; 燕燕

    2014-01-01

    在当代汉语学术语境中,一直有两种不同的“科学心理学”在各自的专业领域相对独立地使用着,二者分别是“心理学领域中的科学心理学”和“科学学视域下的科学心理学”。由于专业的领域分隔,研究者对彼此缺乏基本的了解,易造成混淆。实际上,“心理学领域中的科学心理学”乃是心理学“科学”追寻的历史后果;而“科学学视域下的科学心理学”则是以“科学”及“科学家”为对象的心理学研究。“心理学领域中的科学心理学”在目前的心理学研究中占据主导地位;而“科学学视域下的科学心理学”则长期隐而不显,近年来则有勃兴之势。%In Chinese academic background,scientific psychology and psychology of science were translated into the same name, but they were used in respective academic fields. Scientific psychology belongs to the field of psychology,and psychology of science belongs to the field of science of science. This phenomenon usually cause misunderstanding in Chinese background. In fact,scientific psychology is the result of psychological pursuit of scientific objective. Psychology of science is the research of taking science as object. Currently, scientific psychology occupies the dominant position in psychology, and psychology of science has not produced significant impact for a long time. In view of this, psychology of science is expected to become a new trend in science of science research.

  11. Fitting Hidden Markov Models to Psychological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Visser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov models have been used extensively in psychology of learning. Applications of hidden Markov models are rare however. This is partially due to the fact that comprehensive statistics for model selection and model assessment are lacking in the psychological literature. We present model selection and model assessment statistics that are particularly useful in applying hidden Markov models in psychology. These statistics are presented and evaluated by simulation studies for a toy example. We compare AIC, BIC and related criteria and introduce a prediction error measure for assessing goodness-of-fit. In a simulation study, two methods of fitting equality constraints are compared. In two illustrative examples with experimental data we apply selection criteria, fit models with constraints and assess goodness-of-fit. First, data from a concept identification task is analyzed. Hidden Markov models provide a flexible approach to analyzing such data when compared to other modeling methods. Second, a novel application of hidden Markov models in implicit learning is presented. Hidden Markov models are used in this context to quantify knowledge that subjects express in an implicit learning task. This method of analyzing implicit learning data provides a comprehensive approach for addressing important theoretical issues in the field.

  12. Théodule Ribot's ambiguous positivism: philosophical and epistemological strategies in the founding of French scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillin, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Théodule Ribot (1839-1916) is regarded by many historians of psychology as the "father" of the discipline in France. Ribot contributed to the development of a "new psychology" independent from philosophy, relying on the methods of the natural sciences. However, such an epistemological transition encountered fierce opposition from both the champions of the old-fashioned metaphysical psychology and the representatives of the "scientific spirit." This article focuses on the objections raised by the latter, and especially philosophers of science, against the possibility of a scientific psychology. For instance, according to Auguste Comte, psychology does not satisfy certain basic methodological requirements. To overcome these objections, Ribot, in his La Psychologie Anglaise Contemporaine (1870/1914), devised an epistemological strategy that amounted to invoking criticisms of Comte's views made by other representatives of the positivist school, such as John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Complex Networks in Psychological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemann, R. S.; Carvalho, L. S. A. V. D.; Donangelo, R.

    We develop schematic, self-organizing, neural-network models to describe mechanisms associated with mental processes, by a neurocomputational substrate. These models are examples of real world complex networks with interesting general topological structures. Considering dopaminergic signal-to-noise neuronal modulation in the central nervous system, we propose neural network models to explain development of cortical map structure and dynamics of memory access, and unify different mental processes into a single neurocomputational substrate. Based on our neural network models, neurotic behavior may be understood as an associative memory process in the brain, and the linguistic, symbolic associative process involved in psychoanalytic working-through can be mapped onto a corresponding process of reconfiguration of the neural network. The models are illustrated through computer simulations, where we varied dopaminergic modulation and observed the self-organizing emergent patterns at the resulting semantic map, interpreting them as different manifestations of mental functioning, from psychotic through to normal and neurotic behavior, and creativity.

  14. Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

    This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in

  15. Scientific Theories, Models and the Semantic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Krause

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the semantic view, a theory is characterized by a class of models. In this paper, we examine critically some of the assumptions that underlie this approach. First, we recall that models are models of something. Thus we cannot leave completely aside the axiomatization of the theories under consideration, nor can we ignore the metamathematics used to elaborate these models, for changes in the metamathematics often impose restrictions on the resulting models. Second, based on a parallel between van Fraassen’s modal interpretation of quantum mechanics and Skolem’s relativism regarding set-theoretic concepts, we introduce a distinction between relative and absolute concepts in the context of the models of a scientific theory. And we discuss the significance of that distinction. Finally, by focusing on contemporary particle physics, we raise the question: since there is no general accepted unification of the parts of the standard model (namely, QED and QCD, we have no theory, in the usual sense of the term. This poses a difficulty: if there is no theory, how can we speak of its models? What are the latter models of? We conclude by noting that it is unclear that the semantic view can be applied to contemporary physical theories.

  16. EFFECT SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY TEACHING MODELS AND SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE TO PHYSICS STUDENT OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Clara Natalia Sihotang

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether: (1) the student’s achievement taught by using Scientific Inquiry Teaching Models is better than that of taught by using Direct Instruction; (2) the student’s achievement who have a high scientific attitude is better than student who have low scientific attitude; and (3) there is interaction between Scientific Inquiry Teaching Models and scientific attitude for the student’s achievement. The results of research are: (1) the student’s achi...

  17. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.

  18. An extended dual search space model of scientific discovery learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joolingen, van Wouter R.; Jong, de Ton

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a theory of scientific discovery learning which is an extension of Klahr and Dunbar''s model of Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model. We present a model capable of describing and understanding scientific discovery learning in complex domains in terms of the SDDS fr

  19. A threshold model of investor psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod; Grinfeld, Michael; Lamba, Harbir; Seaman, Tim

    2005-08-01

    We introduce a class of agent-based market models founded upon simple descriptions of investor psychology. Agents are subject to various psychological tensions induced by market conditions and endowed with a minimal ‘personality’. This personality consists of a threshold level for each of the tensions being modeled, and the agent reacts whenever a tension threshold is reached. This paper considers an elementary model including just two such tensions. The first is ‘cowardice’, which is the stress caused by remaining in a minority position with respect to overall market sentiment and leads to herding-type behavior. The second is ‘inaction’, which is the increasing desire to act or re-evaluate one's investment position. There is no inductive learning by agents and they are only coupled via the global market price and overall market sentiment. Even incorporating just these two psychological tensions, important stylized facts of real market data, including fat-tails, excess kurtosis, uncorrelated price returns and clustered volatility over the timescale of a few days are reproduced. By then introducing an additional parameter that amplifies the effect of externally generated market noise during times of extreme market sentiment, long-time volatility correlations can also be recovered.

  20. V.V. Davydov – the founder of significant scientific school and director of the Psychological Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubtsov V.V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the stages of biography of the famous Russian psychologist Davydov, who was a brilliant leader of a large scientific group, director of the Psychological Institute of the RAE. The content of the work of Davydov’s scientific schools is based upon the three proverbial whales that define its theoretical, methodological and didactical boundaries: the theory of content generalization and con cept formation, psychological theory of learning activity and the system of developmental teaching. The article also outlines the results of researches conducted by V.V. Davydov’s scientific group. It is demon strated that for evaluating the effectivity of learning activity, the systems of assessment of theoretical thinking and its components (such as analysis, reflection, planning, systemic characteristics of thinking were elaborated for different object matter. Also the scientific group elaborated the criteria for assessing the levels of learning activity development, as a whole as well as its separate components. The scientific school of V.V. Davydov is a living and evolving organism. The disciples and followers of Davydov conduct empirical research that bring his ideas to life. The article analyzes the philosophical, methodological and psychological foundations of Davydov’s scientific school. The content of Davydov’s debates with Vygotsky concerning the mechanisms of theo retical generalization is outlined. Davydov’s point of view is illustrated by large empirical evidence

  1. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…

  2. Scientific evidence of the homeopathic epistemological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy is based on principles and a system of knowledge different from the ones supporting the conventional biomedical model: this epistemological conflict is the underlying reason explaining why it is so difficult to accept by present-day scientific reason. To legitimize homeopathy according to the standards of the latter, research must confirm the validity of its basic assumptions: principle of therapeutic similitude, trials of medicines on healthy individuals, individualized prescriptions and use of high dilutions. Correspondingly, basic research must supply experimental data and models to substantiate these principles of homeopathy, whilst clinical trials aim at confirming the efficacy and effectiveness of homeopathy in the treatment of disease. This article discusses the epistemological model of homeopathy relating its basic assumptions with data resulting from different fields of modern experimental research and supporting its therapeutic use on the outcomes of available clinical trials. In this regard, the principle of individualization of treatment is the sine qua non condition to make therapeutic similitude operative and consequently for homeopathic treatment to exhibit clinical efficacy and effectiveness.

  3. Is multicultural psychology a-scientific?: diverse methods for diversity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauce, Ana Mari

    2011-07-01

    This article asks, and answers three separate questions: What is multicultural psychology? What is psychological science? Are multicultural psychology and (empirical/positivist) psychological science incompatible? A brief overview of the history of science is provided emphasizing the emancipatory impulses behind a modernist, empirical, positivist approach to science. It is argued that such an approach is not incompatible with multicultural psychology. The author concludes that multicultural psychological will be strengthened if psychologists draw upon both qualitative and quantitative methods, including those that come from a positivist tradition, when investigating psychological and social issues as they affect diverse populations.

  4. Scientific and Financial Performance Measure A Simultaneous Model to Evaluate Scientific Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Handoko, L T

    2005-01-01

    An alternative model to measure simultaneously scientific and financial performances of scientific activities is proposed. This mathematical model focuses only on the final scientific outcomes in each fiscal year to gurantee the objectivity. The model is suited for the purpose of immediate and quantitative evaluation needed by policy makers to make decision in the subsequent fiscal year. The model can be applied to any branches of science, while it is also adjustable to varying macro-economic indicators. This enables the policy makers to evaluate equally scientific activities in various fields of science. It is argued that implementing the model could realize a fair, transparent and objective reward and punishment system in any scientific activities in order to improve both individual and institutional performances.

  5. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Psychoneuroimmunology and health psychology: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgendorf, Susan K; Costanzo, Erin S

    2003-08-01

    The biopsychosocial model describes interactions between psychosocial and biological factors in the etiology and progression of disease. How an individual interprets and responds to the environment determines responses to stress, influences health behaviors, contributes to the neuroendocrine and immune response, and may ultimately affect health outcomes. Health psychology interventions are designed to modulate the stress response and improve health behaviors by teaching individuals more adaptive methods of interpreting life challenges and more effective coping responses. These interactions are discussed in the context of aging.

  7. Tacit Beginnings Towards a Model of Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Rory J.

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an examination of the role tacit knowledge plays in understanding, and to provide a model to make such knowledge identifiable. To do this I first consider the needs of society, the ubiquity of information in our world and the future demands of the science classroom. I propose the use of more implicit or tacit understandings as foundational elements for the development of student knowledge. To justify this proposition I consider a wide range of philosophical and psychological perspectives on knowledge. Then develop a Model of Scientific Knowledge, based in large part on a similar model created by Paul Ernest (Social constructivism as a philosophy of mathematics, SUNY Press, Albany, NY, 1998a; Situated cognition and the learning of mathematics, University of Oxford Department of Educational Studies, Oxford, 1998b). Finally, I consider the work that has been done by those in fields beyond education and the ways in which tacit knowledge can be used as a starting point for knowledge building.

  8. Modeling Psychological Attributes in Psychology - An Epistemological Discussion: Network Analysis vs. Latent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Hervé; Falissard, Bruno; Kop, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Network Analysis is considered as a new method that challenges Latent Variable models in inferring psychological attributes. With Network Analysis, psychological attributes are derived from a complex system of components without the need to call on any latent variables. But the ontological status of psychological attributes is not adequately defined with Network Analysis, because a psychological attribute is both a complex system and a property emerging from this complex system. The aim of this article is to reappraise the legitimacy of latent variable models by engaging in an ontological and epistemological discussion on psychological attributes. Psychological attributes relate to the mental equilibrium of individuals embedded in their social interactions, as robust attractors within complex dynamic processes with emergent properties, distinct from physical entities located in precise areas of the brain. Latent variables thus possess legitimacy, because the emergent properties can be conceptualized and analyzed on the sole basis of their manifestations, without exploring the upstream complex system. However, in opposition with the usual Latent Variable models, this article is in favor of the integration of a dynamic system of manifestations. Latent Variables models and Network Analysis thus appear as complementary approaches. New approaches combining Latent Network Models and Network Residuals are certainly a promising new way to infer psychological attributes, placing psychological attributes in an inter-subjective dynamic approach. Pragmatism-realism appears as the epistemological framework required if we are to use latent variables as representations of psychological attributes.

  9. Current Scientific Evidence for a Polarized Cardiovascular Endurance Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydren, Jay R; Cohen, Bruce S

    2015-12-01

    Recent publications have provided new scientific evidence for a modern aerobic or cardiovascular endurance exercise prescription that optimizes the periodization cycle and maximizes potential endurance performance gains in highly trained individuals. The traditional threshold, high volume, and high-intensity training models have displayed limited improvement in actual race pace in (highly) trained individuals while frequently resulting in overreaching or overtraining (physical injury and psychological burnout). A review of evidence for replacing these models with the proven polarized training model seems warranted. This review provides a short history of the training models, summarizes 5 key studies, and provides example training programs for both the pre- and in-season periods. A polarized training program is characterized by an undulating nonlinear periodization model with nearly all the training time spent at a "light" (≤13) and "very hard" (≥17) pace with very limited time at "hard" (14-16) or race pace (6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion [RPE] scale). To accomplish this, the polarization training model has specific high-intensity workouts separated by one or more long slow distance workouts, with the exercise intensity remaining below ventilatory threshold (VT) 1 and/or blood lactate of less than 2 mM (A.K.A. below race pace). Effect sizes for increasing aerobic endurance performance for the polarized training model are consistently superior to that of the threshold training model. Performing a polarized training program may be best accomplished by: going easy on long slow distance workouts, avoiding "race pace" and getting after it during interval workouts.

  10. Current Status and Future Prospects of Clinical Psychology: Toward a Scientifically Principled Approach to Mental and Behavioral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B; McFall, Richard M; Shoham, Varda

    2008-11-01

    The escalating costs of health care and other recent trends have made health care decisions of great societal import, with decision-making responsibility often being transferred from practitioners to health economists, health plans, and insurers. Health care decision making increasingly is guided by evidence that a treatment is efficacious, effective-disseminable, cost-effective, and scientifically plausible. Under these conditions of heightened cost concerns and institutional-economic decision making, psychologists are losing the opportunity to play a leadership role in mental and behavioral health care: Other types of practitioners are providing an increasing proportion of delivered treatment, and the use of psychiatric medication has increased dramatically relative to the provision of psychological interventions. Research has shown that numerous psychological interventions are efficacious, effective, and cost-effective. However, these interventions are used infrequently with patients who would benefit from them, in part because clinical psychologists have not made a convincing case for the use of these interventions (e.g., by supplying the data that decision makers need to support implementation of such interventions) and because clinical psychologists do not themselves use these interventions even when given the opportunity to do so. Clinical psychologists' failure to achieve a more significant impact on clinical and public health may be traced to their deep ambivalence about the role of science and their lack of adequate science training, which leads them to value personal clinical experience over research evidence, use assessment practices that have dubious psychometric support, and not use the interventions for which there is the strongest evidence of efficacy. Clinical psychology resembles medicine at a point in its history when practitioners were operating in a largely prescientific manner. Prior to the scientific reform of medicine in the early 1900s

  11. Scientific tools, fake treatments, or triggers for psychological healing: how clinical trial participants conceptualise placebos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Felicity L; Jacobson, Eric E; Shaw, Jessica R; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2012-03-01

    Placebos are an essential tool in randomised clinical trials, where they are used to control for bias and contextual healing effects. Placebos and their effects are also studied from multiple diverse perspectives, but the perspectives of placebo recipients are seldom considered. Research shows that people form cognitive and affective representations of active treatments such as medicines, and that they use these representations to guide their behaviour; it seems reasonable to suggest that people might also think about and develop representations of placebos. We adopted a qualitative approach to examine in detail how participants in one RCT, conducted in the USA, conceptualised placebos. 12 people were interviewed 3 times each, at the start, middle, and end of a trial of placebo effects and acupuncture for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The interview data were analysed inductively and we identified four ways in which the participants conceptualised placebos: placebos are necessary for research; placebo effects are fake; placebo acupuncture is not real acupuncture; placebos have real effects mediated by psychological mechanisms. Participants' conceptualisations of placebos were dynamic and situated in a broader psychological and socio-cultural context. Seeing placebo effects as legitimate seemed to be facilitated by having more holistic models of healing, viewing IBS as psychological, and seeing treatment as multifactorial. However, some participants maintained a negative view of placebo effects (e.g. as illusions) that was apparently inconsistent with their other beliefs (e.g. in mind-body healing mechanisms). This may indicate a dominance of negative discourses around placebos at a socio-cultural level. Negative views of placebos are inconsistent with evidence that placebo treatments can have positive effects on symptoms. RCT participants should be informed about potential benefits of placebo treatments to avoid misunderstandings and unease. Future work should

  12. Cultures of Diversity: Considering Scientific and Humanistic Understandings in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Andrew M.; Simmons, Zachary L.; Downs, Andrew; Pitzer, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers of psychology tend to agree that learning about diversity is an important goal for undergraduate psychology courses. There is significantly less agreement about what aspects of diversity psychology students should understand. The current research proposes and investigates two potentially distinct ways students might understand diversity:…

  13. The Associative Basis of Scientific Creativity: A Model Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Kanli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is accepted as an important part of scientific skills. Scientific creativity proceeds from a need or urge to solve a problem, and in-volves the production of original and useful ideas or products. Existing scientific creativity theories and tests do not feature the very im-portant thinking processes, such as analogical and associative thinking, which can be consid-ered crucial in creative scientific problem solv-ing. Current study’s aim is to provide an alter-native model and explicate the associative basis of scientific creativity. Emerging from the re-viewed theoretical framework, Scientific Asso-ciations Model is proposed. This model claims that, similarity and mediation constitutes the basis of creativity and focuses on three compo-nents namely; associative thinking, analogical thinking (analogical reasoning & analogical problem solving and insight which are consid-ered to be main elements of scientific associa-tive thinking.

  14. Positive Psychology versus the Medical Model?: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex

    2006-01-01

    Comments on "Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions" by Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson (see record 2005-08033-003). Seligman and colleagues provided a progress report on positive psychology, reviewing the impressive developments over the past five years. We wholeheartedly support the positive psychology movement…

  15. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S-1920S: "OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY"/"REFLEXOLOGY" AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20(th) century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled "objective psychology" and from the 1910s renamed "reflexology." The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's "objective psychology" and "reflexology" occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20(th) century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that "objective psychology" and "reflexology" had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, "experimental pedagogy" in the pre-revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet "pedology" during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned "objective psychology"/"reflexology" as a transformative scientific movement.

  16. Artificial intelligence support for scientific model-building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific model-building can be a time-intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientific development team to understand. We believe that artificial intelligence techniques can facilitate both the model-building and model-sharing process. In this paper, we overview our effort to build a scientific modeling software tool that aids the scientist in developing and using models. This tool includes an interactive intelligent graphical interface, a high-level domain specific modeling language, a library of physics equations and experimental datasets, and a suite of data display facilities.

  17. Scientific biography, cognitive deficits, and laboratory practice. James McKeen Cattell and early American experimental psychology, 1880-1904.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Despite widespread interest in individual life histories, few biographies of scientists make use of insights derived from psychology, another discipline that studies people, their thoughts, and their actions. This essay argues that recent theoretical work in psychology and tools developed for clinical psychological practice can help biographical historians of science create and present fuller portraits of their subjects' characters and temperaments and more nuanced analyses of how these traits helped shape their subjects' scientific work. To illustrate this thesis, the essay examines the early career of James McKeen Cattell--an influential late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century experimental psychologist--through a lens offered by psychology and argues that Cattell's actual laboratory practices derived from an "accommodation" to a long-standing "cognitive deficit." These practices in turn enabled Cattell to achieve more precise experimental results than could any of his contemporaries; and their students readily adopted them, along with their behavioral implications. The essay concludes that, in some ways, American psychology's early twentieth-century move toward a behavioral understanding of psychological phenomena can be traced to Cattell's personal cognitive deficit. It closes by reviewing several "remaining general questions" that this thesis suggests.

  18. Randomly Stopped Sums: Models and Psychological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSmithson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to modeling the sums of a continuous random variable over a number of measurement occasions when the number of occasions also is a random variable. A typical example is summing the amounts of time spent attending to pieces of information in an information search task leading to a decision to obtain the total time taken to decide. Although there is a large literature on randomly stopped sums in financial statistics, it is largely absent from psychology. The paper begins with the standard modeling approaches used in financial statistics, and then extends them in two ways. First, the randomly stopped sums are modeled as ``life distributions'' such as the gamma or log-normal distribution. A simulation study investigates Type I error rate accuracy and power for gamma and log-normal versions of this model. Second, a Bayesian hierarchical approach is used for constructing an appropriate general linear model of the sums. Model diagnostics are discussed, and three illustrations are presented from real datasets.

  19. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  20. The Psychology of Delivering a Psychological Service: Self-Organised Learning as a Model for Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Jenner, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The article describes how one Educational Psychology Service in the UK developed a service delivery based on self-organised learning (SOL). This model is linked to the paradigms and discourses within which educational psychology and special educational needs work. The work described here is dedicated to the memory of Brian Roberts, academic, close…

  1. BEHAVIOR AND CONSCIOUSNESS. HISTORICAL ORIGIN OF THE ADVERSARY ALTERNATIVES IN THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS GARCÍA-VEGA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The word behavior has a reduccionist origin and meaning, the later has been commonly assumed since the mecanicistinterpretation of organic movement in Descartes, La Mettrie, Séchenov and Pávlov until nowadays. Watson continueswith this tendency making it the starting point of his psychology and, in fact, due to the category he studies, he will callhis school behaviorism.In 1924 Vygostky refuses to take this reduccionist and mecanicist model from reactology and reflexology and claims forpsychology the need of taking conscience into account, understanding conscience not as the movement of a machinethat reacts to a stimular situation, but as the dialectic activity of material human brain, that has reached its highestdegree of development.

  2. Towards a Model of Language Attrition: Neurobiological and Psychological Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Asako

    1992-01-01

    Presents a tentative cognitive-psychological model of language attrition, which draws on information from studies in second language attrition, neurobiology and psychology. Notes that this model is presented to demonstrate that a model based on consideration of the brain has the potential of providing a plausible account of the process of language…

  3. Key-Aspects of Scientific Modeling Exemplified by School Science Models: Some Units for Teaching Contextualized Scientific Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Models and modeling are core elements of scientific methods and consequently also are of key importance for the conception and teaching of scientific methodology. The epistemology of models and its transfer and adaption to nature of science education are not, however, simple themes. We present some conceptual units in which school science models…

  4. On the Construction of Psychology Scientific Research Laboratory%心理学科研实验室的建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨越

    2014-01-01

    The particularity of subjects for psychology experi-ments determines the special requirements of psychological re-search on laboratory environment, instrument functions and ex-periment control. Guided by psychological rules, with controlling psychological irrelevant variables and creating ideal experiment conditions as the purpose, this paper explored the construction of psychology scientific research laboratory from the inner environ-ment of laboratory and professional laboratory functions.%心理学实验对象的特殊性决定了心理学研究对实验室环境、仪器性能及实验控制的特殊要求。本文以心理学规律为指导,以控制心理学无关变量并创设理想的实验条件为目的,从实验室内外部环境与专业实验室功能上出发,探讨心理学科研实验室的建设。

  5. The Philosophical Background and Scientific Legacy of E. B. Titchener's Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beenfeldt, Christian

    This volume offers a new understanding of Titchener’s influential system of psychology popularly known as introspectionism, structuralism and as classical introspective psychology. Adopting a new perspective on introspectionism and seeking to assess the reasons behind its famous implosion, this b...

  6. Personal Construct Psychology Model of School Counselling Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truneckova, Deborah; Viney, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing focus on the mental health of young people by schools, greater attention is directed to the responsiveness and effectiveness of models of psychological practice in schools. A model will be presented with a coherent theoretical structure within which the school counsellor can understand the diverse psychological symptoms and…

  7. The logical foundations of scientific theories languages, structures, and models

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Decio

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the logical aspects of the foundations of scientific theories. Even though the relevance of formal methods in the study of scientific theories is now widely recognized and regaining prominence, the issues covered here are still not generally discussed in philosophy of science. The authors focus mainly on the role played by the underlying formal apparatuses employed in the construction of the models of scientific theories, relating the discussion with the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. The book describes the role played by this metamathematical framework in three main aspects: considerations of formal languages employed to axiomatize scientific theories, the role of the axiomatic method itself, and the way set-theoretical structures, which play the role of the models of theories, are developed. The authors also discuss the differences and philosophical relevance of the two basic ways of aximoatizing a scientific theory, namely Patrick Suppes’ set theoretical predicate...

  8. Ethical Standards of Scientific Research Involving Human Subjects in Brazil: Perspectives Concerning Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Leitão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBrazilian associations for research in human, social and applied social sciences have long sought ethical aspects regulation compatible with the epistemological, theoretical and methodological specificities of these sciences. Consequently, the Brazilian regulatory system (Research Ethics Committees/CEPs of the National Research Ethics Commission/CONEP is currently undergoing an important review process. This article presents the positions taken by the National Association of Research and Postgraduate Studies in Psychology - ANPEPP. The article: (1 highlights the origins of the current ethics review model, based on biomedical research; (2 summarizes criticisms recurrent to this model; (3 identifies the directions required for the improvement of the system; and (4 lists the challenges to be overcome in the current process of creating specific regulations for the human and social sciences. The considerations presented highlight two crucial points that challenge the construction of a specific resolution for research ethics in the human and social sciences: (1 the clear characterization of what is meant by 'research in the human and social sciences' - and that would, therefore, have its ethical review regulated from the perspective of the specific resolution for the human and social sciences; and (2 the definition of parameters from which different risk levels in studies can be identified.

  9. Becoming Scientific: Objectivity, Identity, and Relevance as Experienced by Graduate Students in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Yen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of a rigorous experimentalism in the discipline of psychology has imposed tight constraints on what can be asked in psychological research and what sorts of answers given. Over the course of psychology's history the interpretive agent has receded into the background to make way for a more concrete observation language and a mechanistic, functionalist description of mind and behavior. In this context of disciplinary loss and gain, how do psychology's fledgling practitioners—its graduate students—understand the significance of their own research efforts? In this paper, we present thematic and discursive analyses of interviews with a sample of psychology graduate students at a large, public, research university in North America. We explore the manner in which the imperatives of "objectivity," as applied to psychological research, serve paradoxically to enhance the validity of what students feel their research permits them to claim while reducing its personal and social significance. We look at how, in this compromise, students struggle to define their identities as scientists so as to allay doubts about the significance of their work. Their comments provide insight into how psychological knowledge is critically evaluated inside and outside the discipline, and how these two perspectives are dialectically related. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102260

  10. DSRM: An Ontology Driven Domain Scientific Data Retrieval Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology, a large number of domain scientific data have been accumulated with the characteristics of distribution and heterogeneity. It has important significance to acquire exact scientific data from multiple data sources for cooperative research. The existing data integration and information retrieval techniques cannot solve the problems of data semantic heterogeneity and retrieval inaccuracy very well. In this paper, an ontology driven domain scientific data retrieval model is proposed, which uses domain ontology to describe user query and queried data. User query is posed on domain ontology schema. Data retrieval for distributed and heterogeneous data sources is realized through constructing mapping relations between them and domain ontology schema. We developed a prototype for material scientific data, and the experimental results show that the proposed model is effective. Our model can also provide some means of use for reference to other domain scientific data retrieval.

  11. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  12. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  13. Providing the Scientific Backbone for Positive Psychology: A Multi-Level Conception of Human Thriving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennon M. Sheldon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with a consideration of what is missing in positive psychology – namely, an integrative framework within which to view the entire person, especially as nested within more-or-less supportive social contexts and cultures. Thus, I presented a multi-level hierarchical framework for considering and explaining human behavior, arguing that all levels of the framework are necessary for complete exposition. From this point of view, personality processes cannot be reduced to "mere" cognitive processes; there are trans-cognitive rules and laws operating at this higher level. I also considered a four level sub-framework within the personality level of analysis, consisting of organismic needs/characteristics, traits/dispositions, goals/intentions, and self/self-narratives. I contended that each of these spheres of the person operates via unique rules and regularities, processes that cannot be reduced to lower levels of analysis (such as biological, neurological, and cognitive levels of analysis. Finally, I described some recent research that simultaneously examines factors at multiple levels of the SLOPIC model, showing that each has influence for predicting SWB, and moreover, that all of these effects are mediated by basic need satisfaction. Hopefully this line of research will prove useful for other positive psychologists seeking "the big picture" on human flourishing.

  14. Strengthening introductory psychology: A new model for teaching the introductory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Regan A R; Hackathorn, Jana; Enns, Carolyn; Frantz, Susan; Cacioppo, John T; Loop, Trudy; Freeman, James E

    2016-01-01

    Introductory psychology (Intro Psych) is one of the most popular and frequently taught courses on college campuses, yet educators in psychology have limited knowledge about what is covered in classes around the nation or the extent to which class content reflects the current scope of the discipline. There is no explicit model to guide course content selection for the intro course, which poses substantial challenges for instructors. This article proposes a new model for teaching the intro course that integrates (a) scientific foundations, (b) 5 major domains or pillars of knowledge (biological, cognitive, developmental, social and personality, and mental and physical health), and (c) cross-cutting themes relevant to all domains (cultural and social diversity, ethics, variations in human functioning, and applications; American Psychological Association, 2014). We advocate for national assessment of the course, a similar introductory course for majors and nonmajors, the inclusion of experiential or laboratory components, and additional training resources for instructors of the intro course. Given the exponential growth of psychological knowledge and applications during the past decades, we caution against attempting to provide exhaustive coverage of all topic areas of psychology in a one-semester course. We conclude by discussing the challenges that lie ahead for the discipline of psychology as it launches this new model for Intro Psych.

  15. Software Engineering Tools for Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marc; Saboo, Pallabi; Sonsini, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Software tools were constructed to address issues the NASA Fortran development community faces, and they were tested on real models currently in use at NASA. These proof-of-concept tools address the High-End Computing Program and the Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction Program. Two examples are the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric model in Cell Fortran on the Cell Broadband Engine, and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) coupled atmosphere- ocean model called ModelE, written in fixed format Fortran.

  16. Five Facets of Mindfulness and Psychological Health: Evaluating a Psychological Model of the Mechanisms of Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness. PMID:26504498

  17. Scientific research in school psychology: Leading researchers weigh in on its past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Martinez, Rebecca S; Ty, Sophie V; McClain, Maryellen B

    2013-06-01

    A survey of established researchers in school psychology was conducted to reflect on the state of the science of school psychology research. A total of 54 members of the Society for the Study of School Psychology shared their perceptions of (a) the most significant findings of the past 25years that have influenced research and practice in school psychology, (b) current, exciting research topics, and (c) topics that are likely to guide the future of research in school psychology. Qualitative analyses revealed 6 major categories and 17 minor categories within the major categories. Four major categories were present across each of the three time periods: (a) Data-Informed Practices and their Implementation, (b) Theory Development, (c) Changing Role and Function, and (d) Biological Bases of Behavior. Additional major categories included Advances in Research Methodology and Psychometrics (found across past and present time periods) and There is Not One Single Most Important Idea (found during only the past time period). Quotations are provided to illustrate these categories and share the respondents' ideas in their own words. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN APPLICATION SCORING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological variables and scales suggested by Economic Psychology in predicting individuals’ default. Therefore, a sample of 555 individuals completed a self-completion questionnaire, which was composed of psychological variables and scales. By adopting the methodology of the logistic regression, the following psychological and behavioral characteristics were found associated with the group of individuals in default: a negative dimensions related to money (suffering, inequality and conflict; b high scores on the self-efficacy scale, probably indicating a greater degree of optimism and over-confidence; c buyers classified as compulsive; d individuals who consider it necessary to give gifts to children and friends on special dates, even though many people consider this a luxury; e problems of self-control identified by individuals who drink an average of more than four glasses of alcoholic beverage a day.

  19. Design Approaches to Support Preservice Teachers in Scientific Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific modeling. Our work has taken place across multiple years at three university sites, with preservice teachers focused on early childhood, elementary, and middle school teaching. Based on results from our empirical studies supporting these design decisions, we discuss design features of our modeling instruction in each iteration. Our results suggest some successes in supporting preservice teachers in engaging students in modeling practice. We propose design principles that can guide science teacher educators in incorporating modeling in teacher education.

  20. A psychological cascade model for persisting voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, FICRS; Cornelis, BE; Wuyts, FL; Kooijman, PGC; Schutte, HK; Oudes, MJ; Graamans, K

    2003-01-01

    In 76 teachers with persisting voice problems, the maintaining factors and coping strategies were examined. Physical, functional, psychological and socioeconomic factors were assessed. A parallel was drawn to a psychological cascade model designed for patients with chronic back pain. The majority of

  1. A psychological cascade model for persisting voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, FICRS; Cornelis, BE; Wuyts, FL; Kooijman, PGC; Schutte, HK; Oudes, MJ; Graamans, K

    2003-01-01

    In 76 teachers with persisting voice problems, the maintaining factors and coping strategies were examined. Physical, functional, psychological and socioeconomic factors were assessed. A parallel was drawn to a psychological cascade model designed for patients with chronic back pain. The majority of

  2. Towards a Model of Language Attrition: Neurobiological and Psychological Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshitomi, Asako

    1992-01-01

    Research in L2 attrition is a relatively new enterprise which is in need of a comprehensive theory/model. This paper presents a tentative cognitive-psychological model of language attrition, which draws on information from studies in L2 attrition, neurobiology, and psychology. This is to demonstrate that a model based on consideration of the brain has the potential of providing a plausible account of the process of language attrition, as well as the process of language acquisition.

  3. Modelling the Diffusion of Scientific Publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); D. Fok (Dennis)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper illustrates that salient features of a panel of time series of annual citations can be captured by a Bass type diffusion model. We put forward an extended version of this diffusion model, where we consider the relation between key characteristics of the diffusion process and f

  4. Modeling the diffusion of scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper illustrates that salient features of a panel of time series of annual citations can be captured by a Bass type diffusion model. We put forward an extended version of this diffusion model, where we consider the relation between key characteristics of the diffusion process and f

  5. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Merma Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the American Psychological Association (APA. The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific article is coherent with these rules. Overall, the rubric will concentrate on General Aspects of the article and on the Citation System. To do this, 10 articles that were published within 2012-2016 and included in the Journal Citation Report will be analyzed using technical expertise. After doing 5 pilot studies, the results showed the validity and the reliability of the instrument. Furthermore, the process showed the evidence of the possibilities of the rubric to contribute to uniform criteria that can be used as a didactic tool in different scenarios.

  6. Using a topological model in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mammen, Jens Skaun

    2016-01-01

    in this world encountering, selecting, and attaching to objects beyond our sensory interactions and in this way also relating to the individual objects’ history. This duality is necessary if we shall understand man as relating to the historical depth of our natural and cultural world, and to understand our...... the gap between psychology as part of Naturwissenschaft and of Geisteswissenschaft, and at the same time establish a common frame for understanding cognition and affection, and our practical and cultural life (Mammen and Mironenko 2015). The duality of sense and choice categories can be described formally...... are bridging psychology and mathematics and not only enriching psychology but also opening for a new interpretation of parts of the foundation of mathematics and logic....

  7. Enabling Interoperation of High Performance, Scientific Computing Applications: Modeling Scientific Data with the Sets & Fields (SAF) Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M C; Reus, J F; Matzke, R P; Arrighi, W J; Schoof, L A; Hitt, R T; Espen, P K; Butler, D M

    2001-02-07

    This paper describes the Sets and Fields (SAF) scientific data modeling system. It is a revolutionary approach to interoperation of high performance, scientific computing applications based upon rigorous, math-oriented data modeling principles. Previous technologies have required all applications to use the same data structures and/or meshes to represent scientific data or lead to an ever expanding set of incrementally different data structures and/or meshes. SAF addresses this problem by providing a small set of mathematical building blocks--sets, relations and fields--out of which a wide variety of scientific data can be characterized. Applications literally model their data by assembling these building blocks. A short historical perspective, a conceptual model and an overview of SAF along with preliminary results from its use in a few ASCI codes are discussed.

  8. Advancing the Scientific Foundation for Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C; Blossom, Jennifer B; Evans, Spencer C; Amaro, Christina M; Kanine, Rebecca M

    2016-05-24

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) has become a central focus in clinical child and adolescent psychology. As originally defined, EBP in psychology is the integration of the best available research evidence, patient characteristics, and clinical expertise. Although evidence-based perspectives have garnered widespread acceptance in recent years, there has also been some confusion and disagreement about the 3-part definition of EBP, particularly the role of research. In this article, we first provide a brief review of the development of EBP in clinical child and adolescent psychology. Next, we outline the following 4 points to help clarify the understanding of EBP: (a) knowledge should not be confused with epistemic processes, (b) research on clinician and client factors is needed for EBP, (c) research on assessment is needed for EBP, and (d) the 3-part conceptualization of EBP can serve as a useful framework to guide research. Based on these principles, we put forth a slightly revised conceptualization of EBP, in which the role of research is expanded and more clearly operationalized. Finally, based on our review of the literature, we offer illustrative examples of specific directions for future research to advance the evidence base for EBP in clinical child and adolescent psychology.

  9. World Scientific Production in Psychology [Producción Científica de Psicología a nivel mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix de Moya-Anegón

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines world scientific production in Psychology based on bibliometric indicators (scientific production, production’s percentage variation, average citations per document, normalized citation, impact, etc., for the period 2003–2008. The analysis is made by country, by research institutions, and scientific journals, using the Scopus (Elsevier, database of scientific literature. The results show that total world production has increased over the period studied. Four groups are acknowledge for each country, institutions, and journals, taking into account their values of scientific production, normalized citation, and subject specialization

  10. Multilevel modeling: overview and applications to research in counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H

    2011-04-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers of counseling psychology journals have had only limited exposure to MLM concepts. This paper provides an overview of MLM that blends mathematical concepts with examples drawn from counseling psychology. This tutorial is intended to be a first step in learning about MLM; readers are referred to other sources for more advanced explorations of MLM. In addition to being a tutorial for understanding and perhaps even conducting MLM analyses, this paper reviews recent research in counseling psychology that has adopted a multilevel framework, and it provides ideas for MLM approaches to future research in counseling psychology.

  11. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  12. Studying the existence and attributes of consensus on psychological concepts by a cognitive psychological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oravecz, Zita; Faust, Katherine; Batchelder, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research can take a variety of directions while building on theoretical concepts that are commonly shared among the population of researchers. We investigate the question of how agreement or consensus on basic scientific concepts can be measured. Our approach to the problem is based...... on a state-of-the-art cognitive psychometric technique, implemented in the theoretical framework of Cultural Consensus Theory (CCT). With this approach, consensus-based answers for questions exploring shared knowledge can be derived while basic factors of the human decision making process are accounted for...... of the individual, and is typically not a developmental change." The general goal of the paper is to demonstrate the utility of the CCT based approach as a method for investigating what current, working definitions of scientific concepts are....

  13. CSPBuilder - CSP based Scientific Workflow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Vinter, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for building CSP based applications, targeted for clusters and next generation CPU designs. CPUs are produced with several cores today and every future CPU generation will feature increasingly more cores, resulting in a requirement for concurrency that has...... not previously been called for. The framework is CSP presented as a scienti¿c work¿ow model, specialized for scienti¿c computing applications. The purpose of the framework is to enable scientists to exploit large parallel computation resources, which has previously been hard due of the dif¿culty of concurrent...... programming using threads and locks....

  14. Python for Scientific Computing Education: Modeling of Queueing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimiras Dolgopolovas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the methodology for the introduction to scientific computing based on model-centered learning. We propose multiphase queueing systems as a basis for learning objects. We use Python and parallel programming for implementing the models and present the computer code and results of stochastic simulations.

  15. A conceptual overview of a proactive health psychology service: the Tripler Health Psychology Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L C; Folen, R A; Porter, R I; Kellar, M A

    1999-06-01

    The military patient population, the demanding environment in which medical services are provided, and the rigors of the operational environment create a unique challenge for service members as well as military health care providers. Within the military medical system, the subspecialty of clinical health psychology may provide patient care and consultation interventions necessary to meet the demands of the unique Army medical and military communities. As funding and other resources decrease, military health psychologists can provide high-quality care to difficult-to-manage patients while increasing outcome efficacy and decreasing costs to the hospital. This paper provides a definition of clinical health psychology and a description of its unique interventions and applications and how these unique skills augment medical services. Moreover, we offer a conceptual model for an innovative health psychology program that will assist other military treatment facilities in designing programs to increase outcome efficacy and concurrently reduce costs and utilization of services.

  16. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  17. A `Semantic' View of Scientific Models for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    2013-07-01

    In this paper I inspect a `semantic' view of scientific models taken from contemporary philosophy of science—I draw upon the so-called `semanticist family', which frontally challenges the received, syntactic conception of scientific theories. I argue that a semantic view may be of use both for science education in the classrooms of all educational levels, and for research and innovation within the discipline of didactics of science. I explore and characterise a model-based account of the nature of science, and derive some implications that may be of interest for our community.

  18. Professional development model for science teachers based on scientific literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, B.; Ardianto, D.; Pursitasari, I. D.; Permana, I.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific literacy is considered as a benchmark of high and low quality of science education in a country. Teachers as a major component of learning at the forefront of building science literacy skills of students in the class. The primary purpose this study is development science teacher coaching model based on scientific literacy. In this article we describe about teacher science literacy and profile coaching model for science’ teachers based on scientific literacy which a part of study conducted in first year. The instrument used in this study consisted of tests, observation sheet, interview guides. The finding showed that problem of low scientific literacy is not only happen the students, but science’ teachers which is a major component in the learning process is still not satisfactory. Understanding science teacher is strongly associated with the background disciplinary. Science teacher was still weak when explaining scientific phenomena, mainly related to the material that relates to the concept of environmental. Coaching model generated from this study consisted of 8 stages by assuming the teacher is an independent learner, so the coaching is done with methods on and off, with time off for activities designed more.

  19. The Relation Between Psychological Change and Scientific Misconduct in Millikan’s Oil-drop Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Fumihito

    2013-01-01

    Robert Andrews Millikan submitted two papers on measurements of the elementary charge of the electron to Physical Review in 1911 and 1913. In the 1911 paper, Millikan disputed the results of Felix Ehrenhaft. Then, in the 1913 one, Millikan manipulated the data to “enhance” the accuracy of his measurements. This manipulation could be described as scientific misconduct. In this paper, I examine the differences in wording between the two papers statistically and analyze the relation between the ...

  20. TOWARDS A SCALABLE SCIENTIFIC DATA GRID MODEL AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizol Abdullah

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Data Grid mostly deals with large computational problems. It provides geographically distributed resources for large-scale data-intensive applications that generate large scientific data sets. This required the scientist in modern scientific computing communities involved in managing massive amounts of a very large data collections that are geographically distributed. Research in the area of grid has given various ideas and solutions to address these requirements. However, nowadays the number of participants (scientists and institutions that are involved in this kind of environment is increasing tremendously. This situation has lead to a problem of scalability. In order to overcome this problem we need a data grid model that can scale well with the increasing number of users. Peer-to-peer (P2P is one of the architectures that is a promising scale and dynamism environment. In this paper, we present a P2P model for Scientific Data Grid that utilizes the P2P services to address the scalability problem. By using this model, we study and propose various decentralized discovery strategies that intend to address the problem of scalability. We also investigate the impact of data replication that addresses the data distribution and reliability problem for our Scientific Data Grid model on the propose discovery strategies. For the purpose of this study, we have developed and used our own data grid simulation written using PARSEC. We illustrate our P2P Scientific Data Grid model and our data grid simulation used in this study. We then analyze the performance of the discovery strategies with and without the existence of replication strategies relative to their success rates, bandwidth consumption and average number of hop.

  1. Bayesian structural equation modeling in sport and exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach.

  2. Framework of Pattern Recognition Model Based on the Cognitive Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the fundamental theory of visual cognition mechanism and cognitive psychology,the visual pattern recognition model is introduced briefly.Three pattern recognition models,i.e.template-based matching model,prototype-based matching model and feature-based matching model are built and discussed separately.In addition,the influence of object background information and visual focus point to the result of pattern recognition is also discussed with the example of recognition for fuzzy letters and figures.

  3. High School Students "Do" and Learn Science through Scientific Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan Smetzer; Farnsworth, Valerie

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the research project Modeling for Understanding in Science Education (MUSE) which focuses on the improvement of high school students' learning. MUSE research investigated how lower and high achieving students learned to reason, inquire, present, and critique scientific arguments in a genetics course taught during the spring…

  4. SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AND MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF PROCESSES OF MINING

    OpenAIRE

    Kriuchkov, Anatolii Ivanovych

    2016-01-01

    The connection between mathematical models of the mining industry with the basic scientific principles. The method of simulation of random non-stationary processes in the form of a set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations and Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov using the principle of duality movement of mass in space

  5. Queuing Network Modeling of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Liu, Yili

    2008-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) is a basic but important form of dual-task information processing. Existing serial or parallel processing models of PRP have successfully accounted for a variety of PRP phenomena; however, each also encounters at least 1 experimental counterexample to its predictions or modeling mechanisms. This article…

  6. A model of psychological resilience for the Netherlands Armed Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Venrooij, W.; Berg, C. van den

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, a model of psychological resilience was developed for the Netherlands Armed Forces and a number of important relations were tested using a longitudinal design. The model of resilience was based on a systematic literature review of resilience in high-risk professions and intervi

  7. Statistical Modeling of Large-Scale Scientific Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Baldwin, C; Abdulla, G; Critchlow, T

    2003-11-15

    With the advent of massively parallel computer systems, scientists are now able to simulate complex phenomena (e.g., explosions of a stars). Such scientific simulations typically generate large-scale data sets over the spatio-temporal space. Unfortunately, the sheer sizes of the generated data sets make efficient exploration of them impossible. Constructing queriable statistical models is an essential step in helping scientists glean new insight from their computer simulations. We define queriable statistical models to be descriptive statistics that (1) summarize and describe the data within a user-defined modeling error, and (2) are able to answer complex range-based queries over the spatiotemporal dimensions. In this chapter, we describe systems that build queriable statistical models for large-scale scientific simulation data sets. In particular, we present our Ad-hoc Queries for Simulation (AQSim) infrastructure, which reduces the data storage requirements and query access times by (1) creating and storing queriable statistical models of the data at multiple resolutions, and (2) evaluating queries on these models of the data instead of the entire data set. Within AQSim, we focus on three simple but effective statistical modeling techniques. AQSim's first modeling technique (called univariate mean modeler) computes the ''true'' (unbiased) mean of systematic partitions of the data. AQSim's second statistical modeling technique (called univariate goodness-of-fit modeler) uses the Andersen-Darling goodness-of-fit method on systematic partitions of the data. Finally, AQSim's third statistical modeling technique (called multivariate clusterer) utilizes the cosine similarity measure to cluster the data into similar groups. Our experimental evaluations on several scientific simulation data sets illustrate the value of using these statistical models on large-scale simulation data sets.

  8. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  9. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  10. Using science and psychology to improve the dissemination and evaluation of scientific work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttliere, Brett T

    2014-01-01

    Here I outline some of what science can tell us about the problems in psychological publishing and how to best address those problems. First, the motivation behind questionable research practices is examined (the desire to get ahead or, at least, not fall behind). Next, behavior modification strategies are discussed, pointing out that reward works better than punishment. Humans are utility seekers and the implementation of current change initiatives is hindered by high initial buy-in costs and insufficient expected utility. Open science tools interested in improving science should team up, to increase utility while lowering the cost and risk associated with engagement. The best way to realign individual and group motives will probably be to create one, centralized, easy to use, platform, with a profile, a feed of targeted science stories based upon previous system interaction, a sophisticated (public) discussion section, and impact metrics which use the associated data. These measures encourage high quality review and other prosocial activities while inhibiting self-serving behavior. Some advantages of centrally digitizing communications are outlined, including ways the data could be used to improve the peer review process. Most generally, it seems that decisions about change design and implementation should be theory and data driven.

  11. The politics of physiological psychology. Ivan Pavlov's suppressed defense of scientific freedom and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, I L

    1993-01-01

    This statement, first presented at a plenary session of the Pavlovian Society on 9 October 1992, in Los Angeles, California, attempts to assess the recently released speech delivered by Ivan Pavlov in 1923, but publicly brought to light only in 1991, on the subject of "Communist Dogmatism and the Autonomy of Science." This speech, noteworthy for the courage of the delivery under adverse circumstances no less than the contents of its remarks, compels a new estimate of the place of science in a totalitarian system boasting an ideology of physiological psychology. It also sheds new light on the Russian Nobel laureate and pioneer in the areas of behavior modification induced by the functions of the higher nervous system. These remarks take an in-depth view of American radical and Marxian appraisals--how they followed the Soviet lead in harnessing Pavlov to the Communist cause, and in attempting to discredit the work of Sigmund Freud. This lethal combination of Communist political needs and ideological proclivities served to rationalize the implementation of slave labor as work therapy during the Stalinist era. The linkage of Pavlov to Makarenko in education and Michurin in biology serves as a case study in the manufacture of tradition. The collapse of the Soviet system permits a recasting of the history of science and Pavlov's place in Russian life. Such new conditions also provide a lesson in the distortive role of ideology in the evolution of modern science.

  12. Mixture Modeling: Applications in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hodis, Flaviu A.

    2016-01-01

    Model-based clustering methods, commonly referred to as finite mixture modeling, have been applied to a wide variety of cross-sectional and longitudinal data to account for heterogeneity in population characteristics. In this article, we elucidate 2 such approaches: growth mixture modeling and latent profile analysis. Both techniques are…

  13. Modeling time-lagged reciprocal psychological empowerment-performance relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, M Travis; Luciano, Margaret M; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Mathieu, John E; Dean, Matthew D

    2014-11-01

    Employee psychological empowerment is widely accepted as a means for organizations to compete in increasingly dynamic environments. Previous empirical research and meta-analyses have demonstrated that employee psychological empowerment is positively related to several attitudinal and behavioral outcomes including job performance. While this research positions psychological empowerment as an antecedent influencing such outcomes, a close examination of the literature reveals that this relationship is primarily based on cross-sectional research. Notably, evidence supporting the presumed benefits of empowerment has failed to account for potential reciprocal relationships and endogeneity effects. Accordingly, using a multiwave, time-lagged design, we model reciprocal relationships between psychological empowerment and job performance using a sample of 441 nurses from 5 hospitals. Incorporating temporal effects in a staggered research design and using structural equation modeling techniques, our findings provide support for the conventional positive correlation between empowerment and subsequent performance. Moreover, accounting for the temporal stability of variables over time, we found support for empowerment levels as positive influences on subsequent changes in performance. Finally, we also found support for the reciprocal relationship, as performance levels were shown to relate positively to changes in empowerment over time. Theoretical and practical implications of the reciprocal psychological empowerment-performance relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. A Model for a Doctor of Psychology Program in Forensic Psychology: Curriculum and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)

  15. A simple model of scientific progress - with examples

    CERN Document Server

    Scorzato, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of scientific research is to provide a description of the empirical data which is as accurate and comprehensive as possible, while relying on as few and simple assumptions as possible. In this paper, I propose a definition of the notion of "few and simple assumptions" that is not affected by known problems. This leads to the introduction of a simple model of scientific progress that is based only on empirical accuracy and conciseness. An essential point in this task is the understanding of the role played by "measurability" in the formulation of a scientific theory. This is the key to prevent artificially concise formulations. The model is confronted here with many possible objections and with challenging cases of real progress. Although I cannot exclude that the model might have some limitations, it includes all the cases of genuine progress examined here, and no spurious one. In this model, I stress the role of the "state of the art", which is the collection of all the theories that ar...

  16. Fraud, individuals, and networks: A biopsychosocial model of scientific frauds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J; Linkowski, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The problem of fraud, especially scientific fraud, is global and its identification risk is still in its infancy. Based on an in-depth analysis of several financial and scientific fraud trials, the authors propose a new and integrative model of scientific fraud. This model identifies two major levels for committing fraud: (i) at the personal skills level (micro-level) and (ii) at the network skills level (macro-level). Interacting continuously with each other, they form a dynamic, efficient, and integrative system: an integrative model of fraud. The micro-level refers to three factors: (i) personality organization, (ii) social competence, and (iii) the so-called triangle of fraud. The macro-level refers essentially to social network organization and social engineering. Then, the key to understanding and mostly controlling fraud is to consider both the individual and the environment in which they operate. Based on our model, several steps at the micro- and macro-levels can be proposed. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Future of Psychology: Evolutionary Approach to Scientific Psychology%进化心理学:心理科学的未来发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; David C. Geary

    2007-01-01

    @@ "Evolutionary psychology is an approach to psychology, in which knowledge and principles from evolutionary biology are put to use in research on the structure of the human mind" (Cosmides & Tooby,2001, p.1). The approach can be used to study and to provide broad theoretical framing of nearly all of the issues and topics within the traditionally defined fields of psychology. The 19 papers included in this special issue on evolutionary psychology are written by leading scholars in the field and address topics that can be organized by the familiar divisions of cognitive, developmental, and social psychology.

  18. A Model and a Metalanguage for Research on Psychological Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A model of two-person interaction in psychological counseling, which is derived from Alfred Schutz's phenomenological theory of social relations, and a computer-assisted metalanguage based on case-grammar theory are presented, and their applicability to the analysis of natural language in counseling is argued. (Author)

  19. Trauma and Victimization: A Model of Psychological Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, I. Lisa; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Synthesizes theoretical and empirical findings about psychological responses to traumatization across survivors of rape, childhood sexual or physical abuse, domestic violence, crime, disasters, and the Vietnam War. Describes five major categories of response and presents new theoretical model for understanding individual variations in victim…

  20. A Constructive Neural-Network Approach to Modeling Psychological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a particular computational modeling approach to the study of psychological development--that of constructive neural networks. This approach is applied to a variety of developmental domains and issues, including Piagetian tasks, shift learning, language acquisition, number comparison, habituation of visual attention, concept…

  1. Multilevel Modeling: Overview and Applications to Research in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers…

  2. Multilevel Modeling: Overview and Applications to Research in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers…

  3. A Constructive Neural-Network Approach to Modeling Psychological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a particular computational modeling approach to the study of psychological development--that of constructive neural networks. This approach is applied to a variety of developmental domains and issues, including Piagetian tasks, shift learning, language acquisition, number comparison, habituation of visual attention, concept…

  4. Model-based evaluation of scientific impact indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Medo, Matus

    2016-01-01

    Using bibliometric data artificially generated through a model of citation dynamics calibrated on empirical data, we compare several indicators for the scientific impact of individual researchers. The use of such a controlled setup has the advantage of avoiding the biases present in real databases, and allows us to assess which aspects of the model dynamics and which traits of individual researchers a particular indicator actually reflects. We find that the simple citation average performs well in capturing the intrinsic scientific ability of researchers, whatever the length of their career. On the other hand, when productivity complements ability in the evaluation process, the notorious $h$ and $g$ indices reveal their potential, yet their normalized variants do not always yield a fair comparison between researchers at different career stages. Notably, the use of logarithmic units for citation counts allows us to build simple indicators with performance equal to that of $h$ and $g$. Our analysis may provide ...

  5. Modelling tipping-point phenomena of scientific coauthorship networks

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Zheng; Yi, Dongyun; Zhenzheng, Ouyang; Li, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    In a range of scientific coauthorship networks, tipping points are detected in degree distributions, correlations between degrees and local clustering coefficients, etc. The existence of those tipping points could be treated as a result of the diversity of collaboration behaviours in scientific field. A growing geometric hypergraph built on a cluster of concentric circles is proposed to model two typical collaboration behaviours, namely the behaviour of leaders and that of other members in research teams. The model successfully predicts the tipping points, as well as many common features of coauthorship networks. For example, it realizes a process of deriving the complex scale-free property from the simple yes/no experiments. Moreover, it gives a reasonable explanation for the emergence of tipping points by the difference of collaboration behaviours between leaders and other members, which emerges in the evolution of research teams. The evolution synthetically addresses typical factors of generating collabora...

  6. 论威廉·詹姆斯的心理学科学观%On William James' Scientific View of Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方双虎

    2011-01-01

    威廉·詹姆斯(William James,1842—1910)被誉为“美国心理学之父”,他强烈反对当时学院派实验心理学家的小心理学观,在心理学史上第一次对他以前的心理学思想进行了整合,建构了一种整合的心理学科学观。他认为心理学既具有自然科学的性质,又具有人文科学的性质,这种科学观坚持心理学的人学性质,是一种“大心理学观”。詹姆斯的心理学科学观是解决当前心理学问题不可或缺的思想资源,对当前心理学研究工作具有重要的借鉴意义。%The scientific view of psychology is about the basic knowledge and understanding of what is "psychology" and what is "scientific" psychology. It is about the basic understanding of its nature, which determines the understanding of the subject matter and research methods of psychology. William James, known as Father of American Psychology, was the very first in the history of psychology who integrated previous psychological ideology. Furthermore, he was strongly opposed to the narrow psychological views of academic experimental psychologists at that time and put forward an integrated psychological view, which is called a kind of "broad psychological view". Such kind of scientific view not only adheres to the psychological properties of human nature, but also consists with the intermediate psychological orientation--psychology has both the nature of natural science and the humanities. Originally, James regarded psychology as a kind of natural science and considered psychology should be studied in the condition of natural history. It was impossible to work out all psychological issues because it followed the principle of cause-and-effect determinism. Therefore, James put forward that psychology also had the nature of the humanities. James emphasized that psychology should do some overall research on the psychological life of real people in reality. In other words

  7. Scientific Visualization & Modeling for Earth Systems Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj; Rodriguez, Waldo J.

    2003-01-01

    Providing research experiences for undergraduate students in Earth Systems Science (ESS) poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. This paper describes the development of an innovative model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research. In studying global climate change, experts typically use scientific visualization techniques applied to remote sensing data collected by satellites. In particular, many problems related to environmental phenomena can be quantitatively addressed by investigations based on datasets related to the scientific endeavours such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Working with data products stored at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers, visualization software specifically designed for students and an advanced, immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment, students engage in guided research projects during a structured 6-week summer program. Over the 5-year span, this program has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through science student partnerships with school-teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment).

  8. A generalized item response tree model for psychological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Minjeong; De Boeck, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A new item response theory (IRT) model with a tree structure has been introduced for modeling item response processes with a tree structure. In this paper, we present a generalized item response tree model with a flexible parametric form, dimensionality, and choice of covariates. The utilities of the model are demonstrated with two applications in psychological assessments for investigating Likert scale item responses and for modeling omitted item responses. The proposed model is estimated with the freely available R package flirt (Jeon et al., 2014b).

  9. Thermal performance modeling of NASA s scientific balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, H.; Cathey, H.

    The flight performance of a scientific balloon is highly dependant on the interaction between the balloon and its environment. The balloon is a thermal vehicle. Modeling a scientific balloon's thermal performance has proven to be a difficult analytical task. Most previous thermal models have attempted these analyses by using either a bulk thermal model approach, or by simplified representations of the balloon. These approaches to date have provided reasonable, but not very accurate results. Improvements have been made in recent years using thermal analysis tools developed for the thermal modeling of spacecraft and other sophisticated heat transfer problems. These tools, which now allow for accurate modeling of highly transmissive materials, have been applied to the thermal analysis of NASA's scientific balloons. A research effort has been started that utilizes the "Thermal Desktop" addition to AUTO CAD. This paper will discuss the development of thermal models for both conventional and Ultra Long Duration super-pressure balloons. This research effort has focused on incremental analysis stages of development to assess the accuracy of the tool and the required model resolution to produce usable data. The first stage balloon thermal analyses started with simple spherical balloon models with a limited number of nodes, and expanded the number of nodes to determine required model resolution. These models were then modified to include additional details such as load tapes. The second stage analyses looked at natural shaped Zero Pressure balloons. Load tapes were then added to these shapes, again with the goal of determining the required modeling accuracy by varying the number of gores. The third stage, following the same steps as the Zero Pressure balloon efforts, was directed at modeling super-pressure pumpkin shaped balloons. The results were then used to develop analysis guidelines and an approach for modeling balloons for both simple first order estimates and detailed

  10. Model-based evaluation of scientific impact indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medo, Matúš; Cimini, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    Using bibliometric data artificially generated through a model of citation dynamics calibrated on empirical data, we compare several indicators for the scientific impact of individual researchers. The use of such a controlled setup has the advantage of avoiding the biases present in real databases, and it allows us to assess which aspects of the model dynamics and which traits of individual researchers a particular indicator actually reflects. We find that the simple average citation count of the authored papers performs well in capturing the intrinsic scientific ability of researchers, regardless of the length of their career. On the other hand, when productivity complements ability in the evaluation process, the notorious h and g indices reveal their potential, yet their normalized variants do not always yield a fair comparison between researchers at different career stages. Notably, the use of logarithmic units for citation counts allows us to build simple indicators with performance equal to that of h and g . Our analysis may provide useful hints for a proper use of bibliometric indicators. Additionally, our framework can be extended by including other aspects of the scientific production process and citation dynamics, with the potential to become a standard tool for the assessment of impact metrics.

  11. The Institutionalization of Scientific Information: A Scientometric Model (ISI-S Model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a scientometric model (ISI-S model) for describing the institutionalization process of scientific information. ISI-S describes the information and knowledge systems of scientific publications as a global network of interdependent information and knowledge clusters that are dynamically changing by their content and size. (Author/LRW)

  12. A Multi-Dimensional Classification Model for Scientific Workflow Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Plale, Beth

    2010-04-05

    Workflows have been used to model repeatable tasks or operations in manufacturing, business process, and software. In recent years, workflows are increasingly used for orchestration of science discovery tasks that use distributed resources and web services environments through resource models such as grid and cloud computing. Workflows have disparate re uirements and constraints that affects how they might be managed in distributed environments. In this paper, we present a multi-dimensional classification model illustrated by workflow examples obtained through a survey of scientists from different domains including bioinformatics and biomedical, weather and ocean modeling, astronomy detailing their data and computational requirements. The survey results and classification model contribute to the high level understandingof scientific workflows.

  13. Els paradigmes científics en la investigació educativa i el model de camp psicològic Los paradigmas científicos en la investigación educativa y el modelo de campo psicológico Scientific paradigms in education research and the psychological field model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Solà Santesmases

    2009-01-01

    últimos años, en el ámbito de la investigación pedagógica, ha existido la necesidad implícita de enmarcar una tesis o artículo bajo la influencia de uno de los tres paradigmas clásicos de la racionalidad científica (Positivista, Interpretativo y Socio-crítico. Los discursos educativos han estado preñados de continuas referencias a los paradigmas científicos, destacando sus excelencias o limitaciones en función de cada ideología. Este hecho puede desorientar la preocupación científica real en el temor de sentirse etiquetado: vincular la investigación a un único paradigma puede comportar una lectura pretendidamente desviada del contenido. En esta línea de pensamiento, asumir el modelo teórico de campo para la investigación en pedagogía, permite no tener que pasar por el filtro de una elección que puede resultar artificiosa, negando al mismo tiempo, un actuar ecléctico que no sería nada más que la asunción selectiva del concepto «paradigma».In recent years in education research, there has been an implicit need to frame a thesis or article under the umbrella of one of the three classical paradigms of scientific rationality (positivist, interpretive and socio-critical. Educational discourse has been peppered with continuous references to the scientific paradigms, and their limitations or excellence has been highlighted depending on the ideology. This may interfere with real scientific concerns, due to the fear of being labelled: if research is linked to one paradigm, the interpretation of its content may be biased from the outset. In this line of thought, if researchers adopt a field model for education research, they can avoid making a choice that may be contrived and reject an eclectic method that is no more than a selective assumption of the “paradigm” concept.

  14. Darwinian Theory, Functionalism, and the First American Psychological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…

  15. A model of psychological adaptation to migration and resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, K J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the implications of migration for emotional status over time. Analysis of interview data provided by 25 Polish immigrants, who resided in the United States ranging from 4 months to 39 years, allowed the construction of a model describing migrants' psychological adaptation. Loss and disruption, novelty, occupational adjustment, language accommodation, and subordination were described as predominant aspects of migration and resettlement. Psychological adaptation required the dual task of resolving grief over losses and disruption involved with leaving Poland and of mastering resettlement conditions associated with novelty, occupation, language, and subordination. The model provides assessment parameters and direction for intervening with migrants who are distressed. The model may also be generalized to other types of life change as well.

  16. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  17. Integrating psychological research on girls with feminist activism: a model for building a liberation psychology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathryn E; Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S; Lyons, Aoife L

    2003-03-01

    A liberation psychology is needed to bridge the gap between psychology's focus on individual distress and broad social forces that foster such distress. We offer a model for bridging this gap by focusing on a specific area of psychology (psychological research on girls) and a specific social movement (feminist activism). Psychological research on girls and feminist activism share the common goal of improving the lives of girls and women. However, both have fallen short of this goal. This is due, in part, to the weaknesses associated with each endeavor and to the fact that the complementary strengths of each have remained isolated from the other. In this paper, we propose a common language and shared framework to integrate psychological research with feminist activism. First, we review the basic strengths and weaknesses associated with psychological research and feminist activism, with a particular focus on how they are distinct from one another. Second, we provide a taxonomic framework for integrating these two areas on the basis of the stress paradigm, with specific examples provided from our recent reviews of the literature and our own empirical work with adolescent girls. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future work needed to integrate psychological research on girls with feminist activism toward the goal of building a liberation psychology in the United States.

  18. Stimulating Scientific Reasoning with Drawing-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnes, Dewi; van Joolingen, Wouter; Leenaars, Frank

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the way students' reasoning about evolution can be supported by drawing-based modeling. We modified the drawing-based modeling tool SimSketch to allow for modeling evolutionary processes. In three iterations of development and testing, students in lower secondary education worked on creating an evolutionary model. After each iteration, the user interface and instructions were adjusted based on students' remarks and the teacher's observations. Students' conversations were analyzed on reasoning complexity as a measurement of efficacy of the modeling tool and the instructions. These findings were also used to compose a set of recommendations for teachers and curriculum designers for using and constructing models in the classroom. Our findings suggest that to stimulate scientific reasoning in students working with a drawing-based modeling, tool instruction about the tool and the domain should be integrated. In creating models, a sufficient level of scaffolding is necessary. Without appropriate scaffolds, students are not able to create the model. With scaffolding that is too high, students may show reasoning that incorrectly assigns external causes to behavior in the model.

  19. Motorcycle accidents, rider behaviour, and psychological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo; Doğruyol, Burak; Yıldırım, Zümrüt; Çoymak, Ahmet

    2012-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (a) investigate the factor structure of the Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) [Elliott, M.A., Baughan, B.J., Sexton, B.F., 2007. Errors and violations in relation to motorcyclists' crash risk. Accident Analysis and Prevention 39, 491-499] in among Turkish riders, and (b) study the relationships between different types of rider behaviour and motorcyclists' active and passive accidents and offences, and (c) investigate the usefulness of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Health Belief Model (HBM), and Locus of Control (T-LOC) in explaining rider behaviours. MRBQ was administered to a sample of motorcyclists (N=451). Principal components analysis yielded a 5-factor solution including traffic errors, control errors, speed violations, performance of stunts, and use of safety equipment. Annual mileage was related to higher number of active and passive accidents and offences whereas age was related to lower number of active and passive accidents. Stunts were the main predictors of active accidents and offences. Speeding violations predicted offences. Stunts and speeding violations were associated with the fate factor of the T-LOC, and with attitudes, subjective norms, and intention components of TPB, and cues to action and perceived severity components of the HBM. Use of safety equipment was related to the high level of perceived behavioural control and intention components of the TPB, the low score of perceived barriers component of the HBM, and the low fate factor of the T-LOC. While traffic errors were associated with the high score of perceived barriers and cues to action component of the HBM, control errors were related to the high score of vehicle and environment factor of the T-LOC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-Resolution Modeling of Large Scale Scientific Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, C; Abdulla, G; Critchlow, T

    2002-02-25

    Data produced by large scale scientific simulations, experiments, and observations can easily reach tera-bytes in size. The ability to examine data-sets of this magnitude, even in moderate detail, is problematic at best. Generally this scientific data consists of multivariate field quantities with complex inter-variable correlations and spatial-temporal structure. To provide scientists and engineers with the ability to explore and analyze such data sets we are using a twofold approach. First, we model the data with the objective of creating a compressed yet manageable representation. Second, with that compressed representation, we provide the user with the ability to query the resulting approximation to obtain approximate yet sufficient answers; a process called adhoc querying. This paper is concerned with a wavelet modeling technique that seeks to capture the important physical characteristics of the target scientific data. Our approach is driven by the compression, which is necessary for viable throughput, along with the end user requirements from the discovery process. Our work contrasts existing research which applies wavelets to range querying, change detection, and clustering problems by working directly with a decomposition of the data. The difference in this procedures is due primarily to the nature of the data and the requirements of the scientists and engineers. Our approach directly uses the wavelet coefficients of the data to compress as well as query. We will provide some background on the problem, describe how the wavelet decomposition is used to facilitate data compression and how queries are posed on the resulting compressed model. Results of this process will be shown for several problems of interest and we will end with some observations and conclusions about this research.

  1. Multi-Resolution Modeling of Large Scale Scientific Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, C; Abdulla, G; Critchlow, T

    2002-02-25

    Data produced by large scale scientific simulations, experiments, and observations can easily reach tera-bytes in size. The ability to examine data-sets of this magnitude, even in moderate detail, is problematic at best. Generally this scientific data consists of multivariate field quantities with complex inter-variable correlations and spatial-temporal structure. To provide scientists and engineers with the ability to explore and analyze such data sets we are using a twofold approach. First, we model the data with the objective of creating a compressed yet manageable representation. Second, with that compressed representation, we provide the user with the ability to query the resulting approximation to obtain approximate yet sufficient answers; a process called adhoc querying. This paper is concerned with a wavelet modeling technique that seeks to capture the important physical characteristics of the target scientific data. Our approach is driven by the compression, which is necessary for viable throughput, along with the end user requirements from the discovery process. Our work contrasts existing research which applies wavelets to range querying, change detection, and clustering problems by working directly with a decomposition of the data. The difference in this procedures is due primarily to the nature of the data and the requirements of the scientists and engineers. Our approach directly uses the wavelet coefficients of the data to compress as well as query. We will provide some background on the problem, describe how the wavelet decomposition is used to facilitate data compression and how queries are posed on the resulting compressed model. Results of this process will be shown for several problems of interest and we will end with some observations and conclusions about this research.

  2. Enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla

    Inquiry learning as an educational method is gaining increasing support among elementary and middle school educators. In inquiry activities at the middle school level, students are typically asked to conduct investigations and infer causal relationships about multivariable causal systems. In these activities, students usually demonstrate significant strategic weaknesses and insufficient metastrategic understanding of task demands. Present work suggests that these weaknesses arise from students' deficient mental models of multivariable causality, in which effects of individual features are neither additive, nor constant. This study is an attempt to develop an intervention aimed at enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality. Three groups of students engaged in a scientific investigation activity over seven weekly sessions. By creating unique combinations of five features potentially involved in earthquake mechanism and observing associated risk meter readings, students had to find out which of the features were causal, and to learn to predict earthquake risk. Additionally, students in the instructional and practice groups engaged in self-directed practice in making scientific predictions. The instructional group also participated in weekly instructional sessions on making predictions based on multivariable causality. Students in the practice and instructional conditions showed small to moderate improvement in their attention to the evidence and in their metastrategic ability to recognize effective investigative strategies in the work of other students. They also demonstrated a trend towards making a greater number of valid inferences than the control group students. Additionally, students in the instructional condition showed significant improvement in their ability to draw inferences based on multiple records. They also developed more accurate knowledge about non-causal features of the system. These gains were maintained

  3. Uses and Limitations of Scientific Models: The Periodic Table as an Inductive Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Nava; Genut, Sara

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates that scientific laws about nature and their representative models, as taught and described by theory, are often different from the method as practiced. Focuses on the use of the Periodic Table as a scientific model. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  4. Counseling Psychology's Positive Psychological Agenda: A Model for Integration and Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, P. Alex

    2006-01-01

    Each of the Major Contribution's articles has traced counseling psychology's rich positive heritage. This reaction assesses this heritage in relation to positive psychology and considers the fundamental question of "To whose agenda are we working?" as psychological practitioners, locating the answer within the impact it has on our practice. The…

  5. Structure of the scientific community modelling the evolution of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-05

    Faced with the recurrent evolution of resistance to pesticides and drugs, the scientific community has developed theoretical models aimed at identifying the main factors of this evolution and predicting the efficiency of resistance management strategies. The evolutionary forces considered by these models are generally similar for viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants or arthropods facing drugs or pesticides, so interaction between scientists working on different biological organisms would be expected. We tested this by analysing co-authorship and co-citation networks using a database of 187 articles published from 1977 to 2006 concerning models of resistance evolution to all major classes of pesticides and drugs. These analyses identified two main groups. One group, led by ecologists or agronomists, is interested in agricultural crop or stock pests and diseases. It mainly uses a population genetics approach to model the evolution of resistance to insecticidal proteins, insecticides, herbicides, antihelminthic drugs and miticides. By contrast, the other group, led by medical scientists, is interested in human parasites and mostly uses epidemiological models to study the evolution of resistance to antibiotic and antiviral drugs. Our analyses suggested that there is also a small scientific group focusing on resistance to antimalaria drugs, and which is only poorly connected with the two larger groups. The analysis of cited references indicates that each of the two large communities publishes its research in a different set of literature and has its own keystone references: citations with a large impact in one group are almost never cited by the other. We fear the lack of exchange between the two communities might slow progress concerning resistance evolution which is currently a major issue for society.

  6. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  7. The origins of psychology in Italy: Themes and authors that emerge through a content analysis of the Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica [Journal of Scientific Philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro

    2012-08-01

    This article examines the scientific-cultural context of the second half of the 1800s, during which psychological science emerged in Italy. The article explores the contribution made by the emergence of the primary research traditions of that period, namely, physiological anthropology and phreniatry, by means of a methodology that combines content analysis with a classical historiographical study of the period. Themes and authors deriving from the various disciplines in the human and natural sciences were identified through a content analysis of the Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica [Journal of Scientific Philosophy], a periodical that is representative of Italian positivism. The analysis highlights the epistemological perspective held by scholars who, distancing themselves from the mechanistic reductionism of the proponents of positivism, integrated a naturalistic and evolutionary conceptualization with the neo-Kantian critique. A clearly delineated naturalistic and differential perspective of scientific research that brought about the birth of psychology as an experimental discipline in Italy in the 1900s emerges from the analysis, including psychology and psychopathology as studied by the phreniatrists Gabriele Buccola, Enrico Morselli, and Eugenio Tanzi; Tito Vignoli and Giuseppe Sergi's work in comparative anthropology; Giulio Fano's approach and contribution to physiology; and Enrico Ferri's contribution to criminology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Predatory Journals, Piracy and New Models of Publishing Scientific Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Smutný

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper responds to observed absurd impacts associated with predatory journals, both at the personal and institutional level. There is mentioned the basic procedure to identify predatory journal and how to find it in Beall’s list. Briefly are commented the consequences associated with the first study in the Czech Republic dealing with the number of articles published in predatory journals, which are inserted into the Information register of R&D results (RIV by research institutions. On this basis, a part of the funding for universities and research organizations in the Czech Republic is redistributed. Furthermore, there are commented approaches to financing journals and publishing articles, in particular, a new model of paying membership fees used by the publication platform PeerJ. Finally, the issue of the availability of scientific articles including piracy issues is discussed. Described development, which we are currently witnessing, transforms the current system of science and related publishing of scientific articles or knowledge sharing within the society.

  9. Modeling nonuniversal citation distributions: the role of scientific journals

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Zheng; Zhang, Li-Jie; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2013-01-01

    Whether a scientific paper to be cited is related not only to the influence of its author(s) but also to the journal publishing it. Scientists, either proficient or tender, usually submit their most important work to prestigious journals which receives high citations than the ordinary. Thus, scientific journals play a crucial role in citation networks. In this paper, we address this issue and develop a model for citations networks via an intrinsic nodal weight function and an intuitive ageing mechanism. In the network, each node is endowed with a weight which represents its quality determined by the journal publishing it. All the nodes have two discrete stages: active and inactive. The evolution of the network combines the addition of new active nodes randomly connected to existing active ones and the transition of old active nodes to the inactive. The node-degree distribution of resulting networks shows a nonuniversal scaling: the distribution has exponential behaviour for small degree and a power-law tail f...

  10. Report for the Office of Scientific and Technical Information: Population Modeling of the Emergence and Development of Scientific Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettencourt, L. M. A. (LANL); Castillo-Chavez, C. (Arizona State University); Kaiser, D. (MIT); Wojick, D. E. (IIA)

    2006-10-04

    coarse-grained approach to modeling the time-evolution of scientific fields mathematically, through adaptive models of contagion. That is, our models are inspired by epidemic contact processes, but take into account the social interactions and processes whereby scientific ideas spread - social interactions gleaned from close empirical study of historical cases. Variations in model parameters can increase or hamper the speed at which a field develops. In this way, models for the spread of 'infectious' ideas can be used to identify pressure points in the process of innovation that may allow for the evaluation of possible interventions by those responsible for promoting innovation, such as funding agencies. This report is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces and discusses the population model used here to describe the dynamics behind the establishment of scientific fields. The approach is based on a succinct (coarse) description of contact processes between scientists, and is a simplified version of a general class of models developed in the course of this work. We selected this model based primarily on its ability to treat a wide range of data patterns efficiently, across several different scientific fields. We also describe our methods for estimating parameter values, our optimization techniques used to match the model to data, and our method of generating error estimates. Section 3 presents brief accounts of six case studies of scientific evolution, measured by the growth in number of active authors over time, and shows the results of fitting our model to these data, including extrapolations to the near future. Section 4 discusses these results and provides some perspectives on the values and limitations of the models used. We also discuss topics for further research which should improve our ability to predict (and perhaps influence) the course of future scientific research. Section 5 provides more detail on the broad class of epidemic models developed as

  11. Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology VII: The Relative Utility of "Ancestor Analysis" from Scientific and Educational Vantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Michael Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses, from various vantages, Ryan Tweney's (this issue) pedagogical technique of employing historical replications of psychological experiments with graduate students in psychology. A "prima facie" perspective suggests great promise for this sort of academic "ancestor analysis," particularly given the enthusiasm and skill…

  12. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  13. Modelling Scientific Argumentation in the Classroom : Teachers perception and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probosari, R. M.; Sajidan; Suranto; Prayitno, B. A.; Widyastuti, F.

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher’s perception about scientific argumentation and how they practice it in their classroom. Thirty biology teachers in high school participated in this study and illustrated their perception of scientific argumentation through a questionnaire. This survey research was developed to measure teachers’ understanding of scientific argumentation, what they know about scientific argumentation, the differentiation between argument and reasoning, how they plan teaching strategies in order to make students’ scientific argumentation better and the obstacles in teaching scientific argumentation. The result conclude that generally, teachers modified various representation to accommodate student’s active participation, but most of them assume that argument and reasoning are similar. Less motivation, tools and limited science’s knowledge were considered as obstacles in teaching argumentation. The findings can be helpful to improving students’ abilities of doing scientific argumentation as a part of inquiry.

  14. Diffusion models in experimental psychology: a practical introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Andreas; Nagler, Markus; Lerche, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic diffusion models (Ratcliff, 1978) can be used to analyze response time data from binary decision tasks. They provide detailed information about cognitive processes underlying the performance in such tasks. Most importantly, different parameters are estimated from the response time distributions of correct responses and errors that map (1) the speed of information uptake, (2) the amount of information used to make a decision, (3) possible decision biases, and (4) the duration of nondecisional processes. Although this kind of model can be applied to many experimental paradigms and provides much more insight than the analysis of mean response times can, it is still rarely used in cognitive psychology. In the present paper, we provide comprehensive information on the theory of the diffusion model, as well as on practical issues that have to be considered for implementing the model.

  15. Psychological implications of outdoor adventure model of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a synthetic analysis of the Outdoor Adventure Education model in the context of three elementary components: the environment – in relation to the theory of space from the perspective of sociological and pedagogical theory of space; personal perspective and growth as well as social development – in relation to psychological phenomena that accompany the individual and group involved in the process of Outdoor Adventure Education. The aim is to present how these processes determine the effects of education and what personalities’ elements are involved.

  16. Toward a general psychological model of tension and suspense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eLehne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tension and suspense are powerful emotional experiences that occur in a wide variety of contexts (e.g., in music, film, literature, and everyday life. The omnipresence of tension experiences suggests that they build on very basic cognitive and affective mechanisms. However, the psychological underpinnings of tension experiences remain largely unexplained, and tension and suspense are rarely discussed from a general, domain-independent perspective. In this paper, we argue that tension experiences in different contexts (e.g., musical tension or suspense in a movie build on the same underlying psychological processes. We discuss key components of tension experiences and propose a domain-independent model of tension and suspense. According to this model, tension experiences originate from states of conflict, instability, dissonance, or uncertainty that trigger predictive processes directed at future events of emotional significance. We also discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying experiences of tension. The model provides a theoretical framework that can inform future empirical research on tension phenomena.

  17. Can Psychological Expectation Models Be Adapted for Placebo Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-01-01

    Placebo responses contribute substantially to the effect and clinical outcome of medical treatments. Patients' expectations have been identified as one of the major mechanisms contributing to placebo effects. However, to date a general theoretical framework to better understand how patient expectations interact with features of medical treatment has not been developed. In this paper we outline an expectation model that can be used as framework for experimental studies on both placebo and nocebo mechanisms. This model is based on psychological concepts of expectation development, expectation maintenance, and expectation change within the typical paradigms used in placebo research. This theoretical framework reflects the dynamic aspects of the interaction between expectations and medical treatment, and offers a platform to combine psychological and neurophysiological research activities. Moreover, this model can be used to identify important future research questions. For example, we argue that the dynamic processes of expectation maintenance vs. expectation changes are not sufficiently addressed in current research on placebo mechanisms. Therefore, the question about how to change and optimize patients' expectations prior to treatment should be a special focus of future clinical research.

  18. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  19. Application of Z-Number Based Modeling in Psychological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Aliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilates exercises have been shown beneficial impact on physical, physiological, and mental characteristics of human beings. In this paper, Z-number based fuzzy approach is applied for modeling the effect of Pilates exercises on motivation, attention, anxiety, and educational achievement. The measuring of psychological parameters is performed using internationally recognized instruments: Academic Motivation Scale (AMS, Test of Attention (D2 Test, and Spielberger’s Anxiety Test completed by students. The GPA of students was used as the measure of educational achievement. Application of Z-information modeling allows us to increase precision and reliability of data processing results in the presence of uncertainty of input data created from completed questionnaires. The basic steps of Z-number based modeling with numerical solutions are presented.

  20. Multi-Resolution Modeling of Large Scale Scientific Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, C; Abdulla, G; Critchlow, T

    2003-01-31

    This paper discusses using the wavelets modeling technique as a mechanism for querying large-scale spatio-temporal scientific simulation data. Wavelets have been used successfully in time series analysis and in answering surprise and trend queries. Our approach however is driven by the need for compression, which is necessary for viable throughput given the size of the targeted data, along with the end user requirements from the discovery process. Our users would like to run fast queries to check the validity of the simulation algorithms used. In some cases users are welling to accept approximate results if the answer comes back within a reasonable time. In other cases they might want to identify a certain phenomena and track it over time. We face a unique problem because of the data set sizes. It may take months to generate one set of the targeted data; because of its shear size, the data cannot be stored on disk for long and thus needs to be analyzed immediately before it is sent to tape. We integrated wavelets within AQSIM, a system that we are developing to support exploration and analyses of tera-scale size data sets. We will discuss the way we utilized wavelets decomposition in our domain to facilitate compression and in answering a specific class of queries that is harder to answer with any other modeling technique. We will also discuss some of the shortcomings of our implementation and how to address them.

  1. Effects of Theodore Millon's Teaching, Mentorship, Theory, and Scientific Contributions on Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the impact of Theodore Millon's work on the disciplines of health psychology and behavioral medicine over the past 5 decades spanning from the late 1960s to present. The article is written from my perspectives as a graduate student mentored by Millon on through my faculty career as a collaborator in test construction and empirical validation research. Several of the most recent entries in this summary reflect projects that were ongoing at the time of his passing, revealing the innovation and visionary spirit that he demonstrated up until the end of his life. Considering that this summary is restricted to Millon's contributions to the disciplines of health psychology and behavioral medicine, this work comprises only a small portion of his larger contribution to the field of psychology and the areas of personality theory and psychological assessment more broadly.

  2. Understanding Social-Force Model in Psychological Principles of Collective Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    To well understand crowd behavior, microscopic models have been developed in recent decades, in which an individual's behavioral/psychological status can be modeled and simulated. A well-known model is the social-force model innovated by physical scientists. This model has been widely accepted and mainly used in simulation of mass evacuation in the past decade. A problem, however, is that the testing results of the model were not explained in consistency with the social-psychological findings, resulting in misunderstanding of the model by social-psychologists. This paper will bridge the gap between psychological studies and physical explanation about this model. We interpret this physics-based model from a psychological perspective, clarifying that the model is consistent with psychological studies on stress and time-pressure. The simulation result of this model actually explicates how stress could improve or impair collective performance of crowd behaviors.

  3. Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counseling Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Respect for diversity and for values different from one's own is a central value of counseling psychology training programs. The valuing of diversity is also consistent with the profession of psychology as mandated by the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and as discussed in the Guidelines and…

  4. Multilevel Autoregressive Modeling in Psychology: Snags and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, N.K.

    2016-01-01

    Psychological processes are of interest in all areas of psychology, and all such processes occur within individuals over time. Some examples of psychological processes are the regulation of daily mood, the effect of job motivation on job performance and vice versa, or social interactions between a p

  5. Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counseling Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Respect for diversity and for values different from one's own is a central value of counseling psychology training programs. The valuing of diversity is also consistent with the profession of psychology as mandated by the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and as discussed in the Guidelines and…

  6. Applying the cube model to pediatric psychology: development of research competency skills at the doctoral level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan-Swain, Avi; Hankins, Shirley L; Gilliam, Margaux Barnes; Ross, Kelly; Reynolds, Nina; Milby, Jesse; Schwebel, David C

    2012-03-01

    This article considers the development of research competencies in professional psychology and how that movement might be applied to training in pediatric psychology. The field of pediatric psychology has a short but rich history, and experts have identified critical competencies. However, pediatric psychology has not yet detailed a set of research-based competencies. This article initially reviews the competency initiative in professional psychology, including the cube model as it relates to research training. Next, we review and adapt the knowledge-based/foundational and applied/functional research competencies proposed by health psychology into a cube model for pediatric psychology. We focus especially on graduate-level training but allude to its application throughout professional development. We present the cube model as it is currently being applied to the development of a systematic research competency evaluation for graduate training at our medical/clinical psychology doctoral program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Based on the review and synthesis of the literature on research competency in professional psychology we propose future initiatives to develop these competencies for the field of pediatric psychology. The cube model can be successfully applied to the development of research training competencies in pediatric psychology. Future research should address the development, implementation, and assessment of the research competencies for training and career development of future pediatric psychologists.

  7. ICTP: A Successful Model of International Scientific Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The importance of international scientific collaboration in the changing world where the centre of gravity of fundamental research may be moving towards the east and the south is addressed. The unique role of ICTP in supporting global science is highlighted.

  8. On Psychology in Scientific Pursuit from the Psychological History%从心理学的历史看心理学对科学化的追求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟硕

    2012-01-01

    The development history of different schools of western pscychology is introduced. It is pointed out that the essence is its own internal logic of self-development and evolution of thought history which is called the history of science psychology.%介绍了西方心理学各流派的发展历史,指出其实质就是关于其自身发展的内在逻辑及思想演变的历史,即心理科学发展的历史。

  9. DSRM: An Ontology Driven Domain Scientific Data Retrieval Model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    With the development of information technology, a large number of domain scientific data have been accumulated with the characteristics of distribution and heterogeneity. It has important significance to acquire exact scientific data from multiple data sources for cooperative research. The existing data integration and information retrieval techniques cannot solve the problems of data semantic heterogeneity and retrieval inaccuracy very well. In this paper, an ontology driven domain scientifi...

  10. Investigating the Relationship between Students' Views of Scientific Models and Their Development of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Lin, Jang-Long

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the nature of models and engaging in modeling practice have been emphasized in science education. However, few studies discuss the relationships between students' views of scientific models and their ability to develop those models. Hence, this study explores the relationship between students' views of scientific models and their self-generated models, and also whether views of models and modeling practice may be influenced by other factors, such as science learning performance and interest. The participants were 402 ninth-grade students in Taiwan. Data were collected using the Students' Understanding of Models in Science (SUMS) survey and students' self-evaluations of their own science learning interests and performance on a Likert-scale. The students' self-developed models explaining why three different magnetic phenomena occur were also evaluated on a schema of five levels, from lower (observational and fragmented models) to higher (microscopic and coherent models).The results reveal that most students' models remained only at the level of description of observable magnetic phenomena. A small number of the students were able to visualize unseen mechanisms, but these models were fragmented. However, several students with better science learning performance were able to develop coherent microscopic models to explain the three magnetic phenomena. The analyses indicated that most sub-factors of the SUMS survey were positively correlated with students' self-developed models, science learning performance and science learning interest. This study provides implications for teaching the nature of models and modeling practice.

  11. FSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the ne rvous system, including psycholog ical functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the nervous system, including psychological functions. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions...

  12. Supervision in School Psychology: The Developmental/Ecological/Problem-Solving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dennis J.; Cruise, Tracy K.; Huber, Brenda J.; Swerdlik, Mark E.; Newman, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Effective supervision models guide the supervisory relationship and supervisory tasks leading to reflective and purposeful practice. The Developmental/Ecological/Problem-Solving (DEP) Model provides a contemporary framework for supervision specific to school psychology. Designed for the school psychology internship, the DEP Model is also…

  13. Charlotte: Scientific Modeling and Simulation Under the Software as a Service Paradigm Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA spends considerable effort supporting the efforts of collaborating researchers. These researchers are interested in interacting with scientific models provided...

  14. Selected scientific aspects of marathon racing. An update on fluid replacement, immune function, psychological factors and the gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, P B; Nieman, D C; O'Connor, P J

    1993-02-01

    Four topics are addressed: fluid/fuel replacement during the marathon, marathoning and susceptibility to infection, psychological aspects of elite marathoners and the gender gap in marathon performance. Although these topics are diverse, they all relate to practical questions raised by coaches and athletes. Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that it is advisable for marathoners to consume 800 to 1000 L/h of sports drink providing 45 to 60 g/h of carbohydrate. It is strongly suggested to practice fluid consumption during training sessions as it is probable that tolerance to drinking during running is a trainable adaptation. Epidemiological and clinical research support the concept that marathon training and racing increase the runner's risk of upper respiratory tract infections because of negative changes in immune function. Susceptibility to infection may be reduced by proper nutrition, adequate sleep, appropriate recovery between vigorous workouts and minimal exposure to sick people during periods of heavy training and major races. Although psychological research in this area is still limited, evidence suggests that elite marathoners rely primarily on associative strategies during competition while judiciously dissociating in order to cope with pain. It is recommended that coaches and athletes interested in employing psychological interventions seek assistance from professionals well trained in the fields of both psychology and exercise science. Will women soon outrun men? Over the past 2 decades societal views and training practices of women distance runners have changed greatly, yet certain performance-related biological differences between men and women are unlikely to change.

  15. Associations between psychological variables and pain in experimental pain models. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M S; Horjales-Araujo, E; Dahl, J B

    2015-10-01

    The association between pain and psychological characteristics has been widely debated. Thus, it remains unclear whether an individual's psychological profile influences a particular pain experience, or if previous pain experience contributes to a certain psychological profile. Translational studies performed in healthy volunteers may provide knowledge concerning psychological factors in healthy individuals as well as basic pain physiology. The aim of this review was to investigate whether psychological vulnerability or specific psychological variables in healthy volunteers are predictive of the level of pain following experimental pain models. A systematic search on the databases, PubMed, Embase, Cochcrane library, and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed during September 2014. All trials investigating the association between psychological variables and experimental pain in healthy volunteers were considered for inclusion. Twenty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 2637 healthy volunteers. The included trials investigated a total of 45 different psychological tests and 27 different types of pain models. The retrieved trials did not present a sufficiently homogenous group to perform meta-analysis. The collected results were diverse. A total of 16 trials suggested that psychological factors may predict the level of pain, seven studies found divergent results, and six studies found no significant association between psychological variables and experimental pain. Psychological factors may have predictive value when investigating experimental pain. However, due to substantial heterogeneity and methodological shortcomings of the published literature, firm conclusions are not possible. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A conceptual model of psychological contracts in construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Ke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of relationship style contracting is recognised in the construction industry. Both public and private sector clients are stipulating more integrated and collaborative forms of procurement. Despite relationship and integrated contractual arrangement being available for some time, it is clear that construction firms have been slow to adopt them. Hence it is timely to examine how social exchanges, via unwritten agreement and behaviours, are being nurtured in construction projects. This paper adopted the concept of Psychological Contracts (PC to describe unwritten agreement and behaviours. A conceptual model of the PC is developed and validated using the results from a questionnaire survey administered to construction professionals in Australia. The results uncovered the relationships that existed amongst relational conditions and relational benefits, the PC and the partners’ satisfaction. The results show that all the hypotheses in the conceptual model of the PC are supported, suggesting the PC model is important and may have an effect on project performance and relationship quality among contracting parties. A validated model of the PC in construction was then developed based on the correlations among each component. The managerial implications are that past relationships and relationship characteristics should be taken into account in the selection of procurement partners and the promise of future resources, support and tangible relational outcomes are also vital. It is important for contracting parties to pay attention to unwritten agreements (the PC and behaviours when managing construction projects.

  17. The concept of ego threat in social and personality psychology: is ego threat a viable scientific construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Terry, Meredith L; Batts Allen, Ashley; Tate, Eleanor B

    2009-08-01

    Although widely invoked as an explanation for psychological phenomena, ego threat has been conceptualized and induced in a variety of ways. Most contemporary research conceptualizes ego threat as a threat to a person's self-image or self-esteem, but experimental operationalizations of ego threat usually confound threats to self-esteem with threats to public image or decreased control over negative events, leading to an inability to distinguish the effects of threats to people's personal egos from threats to public image or threats to feelings of control. This article reviews research on ego threat, discusses experimental manipulations that confound ego threat with other processes, and makes recommendations regarding the use of ego threat as a construct in personality and social psychology.

  18. Students' Views of Scientific Models and Modeling: Do Representational Characteristics of Models and Students' Educational Levels Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential impact of the representational characteristics of models and students' educational levels on students' views of scientific models and modeling (VSMM). An online multimedia questionnaire was designed to address three major aspects of VSMM, namely the "nature of models," the "nature…

  19. A Preventative Model of School Consultation: Incorporating Perspectives from Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin-Little, K. Angeleque; Little, Steven G.; Delligatti, Nina

    2004-01-01

    Using the principles of mental health and behavioral consultation, combined with concepts from positive psychology, this paper generates a new preventative model of school consultation. This model has two steps: (1) the school psychologist aids the teacher in the development and use of his/her personal positive psychology (e.g., optimism,…

  20. Modeling Scientific Research Articles – Shifting Perspectives and Persistent Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waard, Anita; Kircz, Joost

    2008-01-01

    We review over 10 years of research at Elsevier and various Dutch academic institutions on establishing a new format for the scientific research article. Our work rests on two main theoretical principles: the concept of modular documents, consisting of content elements that can exist and be publishe

  1. Using the Scientific Method to Engage Mathematical Modeling: An Investigation of pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Lester A. C.; Ng, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how to use the scientific method as the framework to introduce mathematical model. Two interdisciplinary activities, targeted for students in grade 6 or grade 7, are explained to show the application of the scientific method while building a mathematical model to investigate the relationship between the…

  2. Scientific aesthetics: three steps forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-11-01

    Leder and Nadal (2014, this issue) examine the current state of scientific aesthetics through the lens of a prescient psychological model proposed 10 years ago. These retrospective points to several future directions of which I touch on three: the nature of aesthetic emotions, the time course of emotions in aesthetic episodes, and the relationship of art and evolution.

  3. Interactive Scientific Visualization in 3D Virtual Reality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Popovski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific visualization in technology of virtual reality is a graphical representation of virtual environment in the form of images or animation that can be displayed with various devices such as Head Mounted Display (HMD or monitors that can view threedimensional world. Research in real time is a desirable capability for scientific visualization and virtual reality in which we are immersed and make the research process easier. In this scientific paper the interaction between the user and objects in the virtual environment аrе in real time which gives a sense of reality to the user. Also, Quest3D VR software package is used and the movement of the user through the virtual environment, the impossibility to walk through solid objects, methods for grabbing objects and their displacement are programmed and all interactions between them will be possible. At the end some critical analysis were made on all of these techniques on various computer systems and excellent results were obtained.

  4. Psychology in the education of nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Silva Bandeira de Melo; Rodrigo Miranda; Sérgio Dias Cirino; Regina Helena de Freitas Campos

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the teaching of psychology in the education of nurses in the first decades of the twentieth century in Brazil. We present aspects related to nursing schools from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. Topics presented in the psychology courses in the education of nurses were connected to the psychological debates at that time. During this period, we can see the changing from a training based on working experiences to a new model based on the scientific knowledge. The Brazilian governme...

  5. Biographies of Eminent Women in Psychology: Models for Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Laurel; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to recognize women's contributions to the field of psychology, biographies of Margaret Floy Washburn, Mary Cover Jones, Karen Horney, Susan Grey, Edna Heidbreder, Ann Roe, and Mary Whitton Calkins are presented. (BEF)

  6. Associations between psychological variables and pain in experimental pain models. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M S; Horjales-Araujo, E; Dahl, J B

    2015-01-01

    . Translational studies performed in healthy volunteers may provide knowledge concerning psychological factors in healthy individuals as well as basic pain physiology. The aim of this review was to investigate whether psychological vulnerability or specific psychological variables in healthy volunteers...... are predictive of the level of pain following experimental pain models. METHODS: A systematic search on the databases, PubMed, Embase, Cochcrane library, and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed during September 2014. All trials investigating the association between psychological variables and experimental pain...... a sufficiently homogenous group to perform meta-analysis. The collected results were diverse. A total of 16 trials suggested that psychological factors may predict the level of pain, seven studies found divergent results, and six studies found no significant association between psychological variables...

  7. Health psychology as a context for massage therapy: a conceptual model with CAM as mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, Glenn M; Rich, Grant J

    2014-04-01

    Health psychology represents a context within which massage therapy research, education, and practice can be positioned for the mutual benefit of both. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) more often than not plays a mediating role in relating massage therapy to health psychology. On occasion, though, the linkage between health psychology and massage therapy can be quite direct without the mediating influence of CAM. This paper, accordingly, advances a conceptual model via both flowchart and Venn diagram displays for viewing the health psychology context for massage therapy with the possibility of CAM as a mediating factor. Attention is also given to the broad range of issues constituting contemporary health psychology as well as its correspondence to an equally diverse array of client populations and health conditions addressed in massage therapy research. Future directions in the areas of health psychology, CAM, and massage therapy are proposed with a view toward a mutual and reciprocal benefit accruing to these behavioral and health science arenas.

  8. Developing Students’ Reflections about the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical...... position held by the modeler(s) and the practitioners in the extra-mathematical domain. For students to experience the significance of different scientific practices and cultures for the function and status of mathematical modeling in other sciences, students need to be placed in didactical situations...... in situations in which they can experience and be challenged to reflect upon and criticize, the use of modeling and the significance of the context for the function and status of modeling and models in scientific practices. We present Nicolas Rashevsky’s model of cell division from the 1930s together...

  9. Multicultural Grand Rounds: Competency-Based Training Model for Clinical Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students to enter the field of psychology as competent professionals requires that multicultural practices be infused into all areas of training. This article describes how the Grand Rounds model was adapted to a graduate clinical psychology training program to foster applied learning in multicultural competence. This extension of Grand…

  10. Application of the Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity to the Admission Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, Michael I.; Juntunen, Cindy L.; Duan, Changming

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the responsibility of counseling psychology programs to communicate and implement the professional training values regarding diversity as articulated in the "Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity" (henceforth the "Values Statement") clearly and directly in the advertising and admission…

  11. Simple Quantum Model of Learning Explains the Yerkes-Dodson Law in Psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2012-01-01

    We propose the simple model of learning based on which we derive and explain the Yerkes-Dodson law - one of the oldest laws of experimental psychology. The approach uses some ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) and develops the method of statistical description of psychological systems that was proposed by author earlier.

  12. Application of the Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity to the Admission Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, Michael I.; Juntunen, Cindy L.; Duan, Changming

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the responsibility of counseling psychology programs to communicate and implement the professional training values regarding diversity as articulated in the "Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity" (henceforth the "Values Statement") clearly and directly in the advertising and admission…

  13. Applying the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model to Older Sport Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary

    2011-01-01

    According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…

  14. Multicultural Grand Rounds: Competency-Based Training Model for Clinical Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students to enter the field of psychology as competent professionals requires that multicultural practices be infused into all areas of training. This article describes how the Grand Rounds model was adapted to a graduate clinical psychology training program to foster applied learning in multicultural competence. This extension of Grand…

  15. Parental Support, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Adjustment: An Integrative Model with Late Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An integrative predictive model was applied to responses of 241 college freshmen to examine interrelationships among parental support, adaptive coping strategies, and psychological adjustment. Social support from both parents and a nonconflictual parental relationship were positively associated with adolescents' psychological adjustment. (SLD)

  16. Scientific Playworlds: a Model of Teaching Science in Play-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2017-09-01

    Eminent scientists, like Einstein, worked with theoretical contradiction, thought experiments, mental models and visualisation—all characteristics of children's play. Supporting children's play is a strength of early childhood teachers. Promising research shows a link between imagination in science and imagination in play. A case study of 3 preschool teachers and 26 children (3.6-5.9 years; mean age of 4.6 years) over 6 weeks was undertaken, generating 59.6 h of digital observations and 788 photographs of play practices. The research sought to understand (1) how imaginative play promotes scientific learning and (2) examined how teachers engaged children in scientific play. Although play pedagogy is a strength of early childhood teachers, it was found that transforming imaginary situations into scientific narratives requires different pedagogical characteristics. The study found that the building of collective scientific narratives alongside of discourses of wondering were key determinants of science learning in play-based settings. Specifically, the pedagogical principles of using a cultural device that mirrors the science experiences, creating imaginary scientific situations, collectively building scientific problem situations, and imagining the relations between observable contexts and non-observable concepts, changed everyday practices into a scientific narrative and engagement. It is argued that these unique pedagogical characteristics promote scientific narratives in play-based settings. An approach, named as Scientific Playworlds, is presented as a possible model for teaching science in play-based settings.

  17. EVALUACIÓN OBJETIVA DE LOS TRATAMIENTOS PSICOLÓGICOS: MODELOS BASADOS EN LA CIENCIA/ OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENTS: SCIENCE-BASED MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBA ELISABETH MUSTACA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen an increase in clinical researchthat uses the scientific method for its validation, mainly due tothe influence of the empirically supported treatments (ESTsmovement that started in the 1990s. The article describes thebackground, objectives, and results of ESTs, as well as two intervention models that complement them: one that promotesresearch on the type of therapeutic relation that guaranteesgreater success of the therapies, and one that seeks to optimizemental health care systems. The conclusion is that mostESTs are techniques based on experimental psychology, andthat the scientific method is the best tool available to addressthe complex problem of human behavior.

  18. A new psychological intervention: "512 Psychological Intervention Model" used for military rescuers in Wenchuan Earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Zhu, Xia; Zhang, Yinling; Liang, Jie; Liu, Xufeng; Yang, Yebing; Yang, Hai; Miao, Danmin

    2012-07-01

    We sought to compare the efficacy of the "512 Psychological Intervention Model" (that is, "512 PIM", a new psychological intervention) with debriefing on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression of Chinese military rescuers in relation to a control group that had no intervention. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 2,368 military rescuers 1 month after this event and then at follow-up 1, 2 and 4 months later to evaluate changes in symptoms of PTSD, anxiety and depression based on DSM-IV criteria, respectively. Baseline analysis suggested no significant differences between the study groups. Severity of PTSD, anxiety and depression decreased over time in all three groups, with significant differences between the groups in symptoms of PTSD (P military rescuers in reducing symptoms of PTSD, anxiety and depression after a crisis.

  19. Accelerating scientific codes by performance and accuracy modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Fabregat-Traver, Diego; Bientinesi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Scientific software is often driven by multiple parameters that affect both accuracy and performance. Since finding the optimal configuration of these parameters is a highly complex task, it extremely common that the software is used suboptimally. In a typical scenario, accuracy requirements are imposed, and attained through suboptimal performance. In this paper, we present a methodology for the automatic selection of parameters for simulation codes, and a corresponding prototype tool. To be amenable to our methodology, the target code must expose the parameters affecting accuracy and performance, and there must be formulas available for error bounds and computational complexity of the underlying methods. As a case study, we consider the particle-particle particle-mesh method (PPPM) from the LAMMPS suite for molecular dynamics, and use our tool to identify configurations of the input parameters that achieve a given accuracy in the shortest execution time. When compared with the configurations suggested by exp...

  20. An application of Huber model on the effect of psychological empowerment of employees on organizational learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdie Mirzaiefar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive–survey study is to determine the effect of psychological empowerment of employees on organizational learning based on Huber model. The study selects a sample of 54 people randomly from 499 regular employees of a Gas distribution firm located in province of Lorestan, Iran. For collecting data, two questionnaires of Huber organizational learning and psychological empowerment based on Spreitzer (1995 model [Spreitzer, G. M. (1995. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 38(5, 1442-1465.] are used. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of organizational and psychological empowerment questionnaires are 0.706 and 0.92, respectively. SPSS software and linear regression test, binomial test, Pearson correlation test, and Friedman tests are used to analyze data and examine the hypotheses. The results of the data analysis show that psychological empowerment of employees could influence on organizational learning aspects in organization, significantly.

  1. A model of real estate and psychological factors in decision-making to buy real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Grum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the psychological characteristics of potential real estate buyers connected with their decision to buy. Through a review of research, it reveals that most studies of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate have a partial and dispersed orientation, and examine individual factors independently. It appears that the research area is lacking clearly defined models of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate that would integrally and relationally explain the role of psychological characteristics of real estate buyers and their expectations in relation to a decision to buy. The article identifies two sets of psychological factors, motivational and emotional, determines their interaction with potential buyers’ expectations when deciding to purchase real estate and offers starting points for forming a model.

  2. Neighborhood disorder, sleep quality, and psychological distress: testing a model of structural amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D; Burdette, Amy M; Hale, Lauren

    2009-12-01

    Using data from the 2004 Survey of Texas Adults (n=1504), we examine the association between perceived neighborhood disorder and psychological distress. Building on previous research, we test whether the effect of neighborhood disorder is mediated and moderated by sleep quality. Our specific analytic strategy follows a two-stage theoretical model of structural amplification. In the first stage, perceptions of neighborhood disorder increase psychological distress indirectly by reducing sleep quality. In the second stage, the effect of neighborhood disorder on psychological distress is amplified by poor sleep quality. The results of our analyses are generally consistent with our theoretical model. We find that neighborhood disorder is associated with poorer sleep quality and greater psychological distress. We also observe that the positive association between neighborhood disorder and psychological distress is mediated (partially) and moderated (amplified) by poor sleep quality.

  3. A pragmatic basis for judging models and theories in health psychology: the axiomatic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedslund, G

    2000-03-01

    Psychology and its subfield of health psychology suffer from a lack of standardized terminology and a unified theoretical framework for the prediction and explanation of health behaviour. Hence, it is difficult to establish whether a given theory is logically consistent and to compare different theories. Science involves both empirical and conceptual issues. It is asserted that psychology has overemphasized the former and underemphasized the latter. Empirical psychology needs an explicit, shared conceptual system in order to develop its theories. An example of an axiomatic method (Psycho-Logic; see e.g. J. Smedslund.Psychological Inquiry 1991a; 2: 325-338) is applied to show how the Health Belief Model,the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory all conform to the a priori conditions of acting. One implication is that studies of the predictive power of theories stated as definitional truths only assess auxiliary hypotheses, i.e. the extent to which the measuring instruments are reliable and valid. On the other hand, the introduction of logic into health psychology can facilitate genuine empirical studies by helping to avoid so-called 'pseudoempirical' work (Smedslund, J. In Smith, Harré & Van Langenhove (Eds.) Rethinking psychology, 1995). Systems such as Psycho-Logic can also enhance conceptual integration by using logic to explicate and demonstrate intuitive relations. Implications for practitioners are discussed briefly.

  4. The role of psychological inflexibility in Beck's cognitive model of depression in a sample of undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ruiz

    Full Text Available Beck's cognitive model of depression proposes that depressogenic schemas have an effect on depressive symptoms by increasing the frequency of negative automatic thoughts in response to negative life events. We aimed to test a moderated, serial mediation model where psychological inflexibility, a core concept of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT model of psychopathology, both mediates and moderates the relationship between depressogenic schemas and the frequency of negative automatic thoughts. A cross-sectional design was used in which 210 undergraduates responded to questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. Results supported the proposed moderated mediation model. Both psychological inflexibility and negative automatic thoughts were significant mediators of the relationship between depressogenic schemas and depressive symptoms, and psychological inflexibility also moderated the effect of depressogenic schemas on negative automatic thoughts. We conclude that the role of psychological inflexibility in the cognitive model of depression deserves more attention.

  5. Discovery of the faithfulness gene: a model of transmission and transformation of scientific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eva G T; Clémence, Alain

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the diffusion and transformation of scientific information in everyday discussions. Based on rumour models and social representations theory, the impact of interpersonal communication and pre-existing beliefs on transmission of the content of a scientific discovery was analysed. In three experiments, a communication chain was simulated to investigate how laypeople make sense of a genetic discovery first published in a scientific outlet, then reported in a mainstream newspaper and finally discussed in groups. Study 1 (N=40) demonstrated a transformation of information when the scientific discovery moved along the communication chain. During successive narratives, scientific expert terminology disappeared while scientific information associated with lay terminology persisted. Moreover, the idea of a discovery of a faithfulness gene emerged. Study 2 (N=70) revealed that transmission of the scientific message varied as a function of attitudes towards genetic explanations of behaviour (pro-genetics vs. anti-genetics). Pro-genetics employed more scientific terminology than anti-genetics. Study 3 (N=75) showed that endorsement of genetic explanations was related to descriptive accounts of the scientific information, whereas rejection of genetic explanations was related to evaluative accounts of the information.

  6. A methodology for constructing the calculation model of scientific spreadsheets

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, de, Ans; Wielemaker, J.; Schreiber, G.; Wielinga, B.; Top, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Spreadsheets models are frequently used by scientists to analyze research data. These models are typically described in a paper or a report, which serves as single source of information on the underlying research project. As the calculation workflow in these models is not made explicit, readers are not able to fully understand how the research results are calculated, and trace them back to the underlying spreadsheets. This paper proposes a methodology for semi-automatically deriving the calcu...

  7. A Simultaneous Model to measure Academic and Financial Performances of Scientific Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Handoko, L T

    2005-01-01

    I propose a new model to measure simultaneously academic and financial performances of scientific activities quantitatively. The tool is very simple and can be applied to any branches of science, while it is also adjustable to varying macroeconomic indicators. I argue that implementing the model could realize a fair and objective decisionmaking and also reward and punishment system in order to improve the individual and institutional performances in scientific activities.

  8. Research Models of the Future for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Gerald V.

    This paper presents three different aspects of research in industrial and organizational psychology. First, characteristics of major advances in science, and in the social and behavioral sciences are given, including: (1) team research is more common for major advances; and (2) young men under 35 are responsible for many major contributions.…

  9. Automan : A psychologically based model of a human driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quispel, L; Warris, S; Heemskerk, A; Mulder, LJM; van Wolffelaar, PC; Maarse, FJ; Akkerman, AE; Brand, AN; Mulder, LJM

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autonomous agent for controlling vehicles in a traffic simulator. This agent is based on recent developments in artificial intelligence, autonomous robotics and cognitive psychology. The goal of the agent is to simulate realistic driving behavior. The agent is c

  10. Automan : A psychologically based model of a human driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quispel, L; Warris, S; Heemskerk, A; Mulder, LJM; van Wolffelaar, PC; Maarse, FJ; Akkerman, AE; Brand, AN; Mulder, LJM

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autonomous agent for controlling vehicles in a traffic simulator. This agent is based on recent developments in artificial intelligence, autonomous robotics and cognitive psychology. The goal of the agent is to simulate realistic driving behavior. The agent is c

  11. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT WORK PROCESSES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION TEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account ...

  12. The psychological disengagement model among women in science, engineering, and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Ann M; Tougas, Francine; Rinfret, Natalie; Monger, Tanya

    2015-09-01

    Psychological responses to personal relative deprivation based on self/outgroup comparisons (named self/outgroup PRD) were explored among women in science, engineering, and technology according to the Psychological Disengagement Model. Three studies revealed that the experience of self/outgroup PRD increased women's likelihood of discounting the feedback they received at work. In turn, discounting led them to devalue their profession. Each study further documented the damaging effect of both psychological disengagement mechanisms. Study 1 (N = 93) revealed that discounting and devaluing were associated with decreased self-esteem. These results were replicated in Studies 2 and 3. Study 2 (N = 163) demonstrated that discounting and devaluing were also associated with reduced self-esteem stability. Study 3 (N = 187) further showed that psychological disengagement was also associated with women's occupational commitment. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are considered. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Distinguishing Mediational Models and Analyses in Clinical Psychology: Atemporal Associations Do Not Imply Causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, E Samuel; Cervone, Daniel; Bryant, Jessica; McKinney, Cliff; Liu, Richard T; Nadorff, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    A popular way to attempt to discern causality in clinical psychology is through mediation analysis. However, mediation analysis is sometimes applied to research questions in clinical psychology when inferring causality is impossible. This practice may soon increase with new, readily available, and easy-to-use statistical advances. Thus, we here provide a heuristic to remind clinical psychological scientists of the assumptions of mediation analyses. We describe recent statistical advances and unpack assumptions of causality in mediation, underscoring the importance of time in understanding mediational hypotheses and analyses in clinical psychology. Example analyses demonstrate that statistical mediation can occur despite theoretical mediation being improbable. We propose a delineation of mediational effects derived from cross-sectional designs into the terms temporal and atemporal associations to emphasize time in conceptualizing process models in clinical psychology. The general implications for mediational hypotheses and the temporal frameworks from within which they may be drawn are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Umesh C; Kumari, Sony; Nagendra, H R

    2015-01-01

    Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, breathing control methods, and silencing the mind through meditation. Though yoga has received less scientific consideration, there has been a significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population. Mindfulness and self-control practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression linked thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state rather than to control them. The positive effects of yoga on the improvement of personality traits are already proven. This paper introduces a simple model of cost-effective, trials of yoga intervention at the workplace which could result in the twin benefits of substantial savings from losses for the employers by reducing the CWB and health improvements for the employees by reducing the negative affectivity and aggression. Internet databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and APA PsycNET were accessed. The available data were systematically reviewed in a structured manner and analyzed.

  15. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh C Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Counterproductive work behavior (CWB has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, breathing control methods, and silencing the mind through meditation. Though yoga has received less scientific consideration, there has been a significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population. Mindfulness and self-control practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression linked thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state rather than to control them. The positive effects of yoga on the improvement of personality traits are already proven. This paper introduces a simple model of cost-effective, trials of yoga intervention at the workplace which could result in the twin benefits of substantial savings from losses for the employers by reducing the CWB and health improvements for the employees by reducing the negative affectivity and aggression. Internet databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and APA PsycNET were accessed. The available data were systematically reviewed in a structured manner and analyzed.

  16. U.S. Geoid Heights, Scientific Model (G96SSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the G96SSS model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...

  17. Enhancing Access to Scientific Models through Standard Web Services Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to investigate the feasibility and value of the "Software as a Service" paradigm in facilitating access to Earth Science numerical models. We...

  18. Peningkatan Keterlibatan Dalam Perkuliahan Scientific Writing Menggunakan Model Pengajaran Social Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwartono Suwartono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to solve student low involvement in Scientific Writing classes.The method used in this research was Classroom Action Research (CAR. The planned action was Social Inquiry teaching model, i.e. an autonomous instruction in which students do inquiries for facts (new knowledge on scientific writings along with the linguistic aspects of writings and exercises in communicating the inquiry results within the classroom society are prioritized. The CAR employed Lewin's cyclic model. The model procedures are: (1 identification, evaluation and formulation of the problem; (2 fact finding; (3 review of literature; (4 information gathering to test hypothesis; (5 selection of the planned action procedures; (6 implementation; and (7 interpretation of the data and overall evaluation. The CAR's result has shown that teaching Scientific Writing using Social Inquiry can promote student involvement in scientific writing class activities.

  19. Psychological resilience, pain catastrophizing, and positive emotions: perspectives on comprehensive modeling of individual pain adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, John A; Zautra, Alex J

    2013-03-01

    Pain is a complex construct that contributes to profound physical and psychological dysfunction, particularly in individuals coping with chronic pain. The current paper builds upon previous research, describes a balanced conceptual model that integrates aspects of both psychological vulnerability and resilience to pain, and reviews protective and exacerbating psychosocial factors to the process of adaptation to chronic pain, including pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and positive psychological resources predictive of enhanced pain coping. The current paper identifies future directions for research that will further enrich the understanding of pain adaptation and espouses an approach that will enhance the ecological validity of psychological pain coping models, including introduction of advanced statistical and conceptual models that integrate behavioral, cognitive, information processing, motivational and affective theories of pain.

  20. Promoting and Supporting Scientific Argumentation in the Classroom: The Evaluate-Alternatives Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an instructional model that science teachers can use to promote and support student engagement in scientific argumentation. This model is called the evaluate-alternatives instructional model and it is grounded in current research on argumentation in science education (e.g., Berland and Reiser 2009; McNeill and Krajcik 2006;…

  1. Statistical modelling of usual intake. Scientific report submitted to EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Arcella, D.; Bakker, M.; Boeing, H.; Boon, P.E.; Crépét, A.; Dekkers, A.; Boer, de W.; Dodd, K.W.; Ferrari, P.; Goedhart, P.W.; Hart, A.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Kennedy, M.; Kipnis, V.; Knüppel, S.; Merten, C.; Ocké, M.; Slob, W.

    2010-01-01

    Within the EFSA Article 36 project “European Tool Usual Intake” (ETUI) a workshop was organised in May 2010 where the different available models to calculate usual intake were presented and discussed. This report integrates the workshop background document, the presentations given by experts, and th

  2. A scientific cognitive behavioral model of tinnitus: novel conceptualizations of tinnitus distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence eMcKenna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of psychological factors in tinnitus distress has been formally recognized for almost three decades. The psychological understanding of why tinnitus can be a distressing condition posits that it becomes problematic when it acquires an emotive significance through cognitive processes. Principle therapeutic efforts are directed at reducing or removing the cognitive (and behavioral obstacles to habituation. Here, the evidence relevant to a new psychological model of tinnitus is critically reviewed. The model posits that patients’ interpretations of tinnitus and the changes in behavior that result are given a central role in creating and maintaining distress. The importance of selective attention and the possibility that this leads to distorted perception of tinnitus is highlighted. From this body of evidence, we propose a coherent cognitive behavioral model of tinnitus distress that is more in keeping with contemporary psychological theories of clinical problems (particularly that of insomnia and which postulates a number of behavioral processes that are seen as cognitively mediated. This new model provides testable hypotheses to guide future research to unravel the complex mechanisms underpinning tinnitus distress. It is also well suited to define individual symptomatology and to provide a framework for the delivery of cognitive behavior therapy.

  3. Scientific and conceptual flaws of coercive treatment models in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Susanne; van der Eijk, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    In conceptual debates on addiction, neurobiological research has been used to support the idea that addicted drug users lack control over their addiction-related actions. In some interpretations, this has led to coercive treatment models, in which, the purpose is to 'restore' control. However, neurobiological studies that go beyond what is typically presented in conceptual debates paint a different story. In particular, they indicate that though addiction has neurobiological manifestations that make the addictive behaviour difficult to control, it is possible for individuals to reverse these manifestations through their own efforts. Thus, addicted individuals should not be considered incapable of making choices voluntarily, simply on the basis that addiction has neurobiological manifestations, and coercive treatment models of addiction should be reconsidered in this respect.

  4. Data Relationships: Towards a Conceptual Model of Scientific Data Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourcle, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    As the amount of data, types of processing and storage formats increase, the total number of record permutations increase dramatically. The result is an overwhelming number of records that make identifying the best data object to answer a user's needs more difficult. The issue is further complicated as each archive's data catalog may be designed around different concepts - - anything from individual files to be served, series of similarly generated and processed data, or something entirely different. Catalogs may not only be flat tables, but may be structured as multiple tables with each table being a different data series, or a normalized structure of the individual data files. Merging federated search results from archives with different catalog designs can create situations where the data object of interest is difficult to find due to an overwhelming number of seemingly similar or entirely unwanted records. We present a reference model for discussing data catalogs and the complex relationships between similar data objects. We show how the model can be used to improve scientist's ability to quickly identify the best data object for their purposes and discuss technical issues required to use this model in a federated system.

  5. Scientific Competencies in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…

  6. Scientific Competencies in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…

  7. Scientific models red atoms, white lies and black boxes in a yellow book

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlee, Philip

    2016-01-01

    A zebrafish, the hull of a miniature ship, a mathematical equation and a food chain - what do these things have in common? They are examples of models used by scientists to isolate and study particular aspects of the world around us. This book begins by introducing the concept of a scientific model from an intuitive perspective, drawing parallels to mental models and artistic representations. It then recounts the history of modelling from the 16th century up until the present day. The iterative process of model building is described and discussed in the context of complex models with high predictive accuracy versus simpler models that provide more of a conceptual understanding. To illustrate the diversity of opinions within the scientific community, we also present the results of an interview study, in which ten scientists from different disciplines describe their views on modelling and how models feature in their work. Lastly, it includes a number of worked examples that span different modelling approaches a...

  8. The Role of Wellbeing and Wellness: A Positive Psychological Model in Supporting Young People With ASCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.

  9. Evaluation Model for Scientific Quality Based on Rough Sets and Its Empirical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dun; HU Pei; JIANG Chao-zhe; LIU Li

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the questionnaires recollected from 74 different government departments in Chengdu, China, an evaluation model for scientific quality of civil servants was developed with the rough set theory. In the empirical study, a series of important rules were given to help to check and forecast the degree of the scientific quality of civil servants by using the reduction algorithm, and the total accuracy of prediction was 93.2%.

  10. Whole earth modeling: developing and disseminating scientific software for computational geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, a great deal of specialized scientific software for modeling and data analysis has been developed by individual researchers or small groups of scientists working on their own specific research problems. As the magnitude of available data and computer power has increased, so has the complexity of scientific problems addressed by computational methods, creating both a need to sustain existing scientific software, and expand its development to take advantage of new algorithms, new software approaches, and new computational hardware. To that end, communities like the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) have been established to support the use of best practices in scientific computing for solid earth geophysics research and teaching. Working as a scientific community enables computational geophysicists to take advantage of technological developments, improve the accuracy and performance of software, build on prior software development, and collaborate more readily. The CIG community, and others, have adopted an open-source development model, in which code is developed and disseminated by the community in an open fashion, using version control and software repositories like Git. One emerging issue is how to adequately identify and credit the intellectual contributions involved in creating open source scientific software. The traditional method of disseminating scientific ideas, peer reviewed publication, was not designed for review or crediting scientific software, although emerging publication strategies such software journals are attempting to address the need. We are piloting an integrated approach in which authors are identified and credited as scientific software is developed and run. Successful software citation requires integration with the scholarly publication and indexing mechanisms as well, to assign credit, ensure discoverability, and provide provenance for software.

  11. Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on job strain in nursing work settings: expanding Kanter's model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, H K; Finegan, J; Shamian, J; Wilk, P

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we tested an expanded model of Kanter's structural empowerment, which specified the relationships among structural and psychological empowerment, job strain, and work satisfaction. Strategies proposed in Kanter's empowerment theory have the potential to reduce job strain and improve employee work satisfaction and performance in current restructured healthcare settings. The addition to the model of psychological empowerment as an outcome of structural empowerment provides an understanding of the intervening mechanisms between structural work conditions and important organizational outcomes. A predictive, nonexperimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 404 Canadian staff nurses. The Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire, the Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, the Job Content Questionnaire, and the Global Satisfaction Scale were used to measure the major study variables. Structural equation modelling analyses revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data based on various fit indices (chi 2 = 1140, df = 545, chi 2/df ratio = 2.09, CFI = 0.986, RMSEA = 0.050). The amount of variance accounted for in the model was 58%. Staff nurses felt that structural empowerment in their workplace resulted in higher levels of psychological empowerment. These heightened feelings of psychological empowerment in turn strongly influenced job strain and work satisfaction. However, job strain did not have a direct effect on work satisfaction. These results provide initial support for an expanded model of organizational empowerment and offer a broader understanding of the empowerment process.

  12. A Scientist-Practitioner Model of Psychological Assessment: Implications for Training, Practice and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Paul M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a prototypical model for psychological assessment that reformulates a model of the counselor-as-scientist. Integrates the model's theory and research on human inference, judgment, and decision making; research on threats to accurate clinical prediction; and findings about counselor characteristics associated with effective judgment…

  13. Toward an integrated, causal, and psychological model of climato-economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughnan, Steve; Bratanova, Boyka; Kuppens, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Van de Vliert puts forward a model of how climate and economics interact to shape human needs, stresses, and freedoms. Although we applaud the construction of this model, we suggest that more needs to be done. Specifically, by adopting a multi-level and experimental approach, we can develop an integrated, causal, and psychological model of climato-economics.

  14. A model for the effects of psychological pricing in Gabor-Granger price studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M; Leeflang, PSH

    We present a model of consumers' price sensitivity that explicitly deals with the existence of so-called psychological price levels or odd prices, i.e. prices ending in an odd number. The model is formulated in a latent class framework, in which splines are used to model utility as a function of

  15. A model for the effects of psychological pricing in Gabor-Granger price studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M; Leeflang, PSH

    1998-01-01

    We present a model of consumers' price sensitivity that explicitly deals with the existence of so-called psychological price levels or odd prices, i.e. prices ending in an odd number. The model is formulated in a latent class framework, in which splines are used to model utility as a function of pri

  16. Online Library of Scientific Models, A New Way to Teach, Learn, and Share Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem H. Elrefaei

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available While scientific models are usually communicated in paper format, the need to reprogram every model by every user results in a huge loss of efforts, time and money, hence lengthening the educational and research developing cycle and loosing the learning experience and expertise gained by every user. We demonstrate a new portal www.imodelit.com that hosts a library of scientific models for electrical engineers in the form of java applets. They are all conformal, informative, with strong input and output filing system. The software design allows a fast developing cycle and it represents a strong infrastructure that can be shared by researchers to develop their own applets to be posted on the library. We aim for a community based library of scientific models that enhances the e-learning process for engineering students.

  17. From Mental Game to Cultural Praxis: A Cultural Studies Model's Implications for the Future of Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryba, Tatiana V.; Wright, Handel Kashope

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of a cultural studies as praxis heuristic "model: for transforming sport psychology". It provides a brief introduction to both cultural studies and sport psychology and discusses a cultural studies intersection with sport studies and sport psychology. Cultural studies, it asserts, provides one of several…

  18. A reciprocal effects model of the temporal ordering of basic psychological needs and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinent, Guillaume; Guillet-Descas, Emma; Moiret, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Using self-determination theory as the framework, we examined the temporal ordering between satisfaction and thwarting of basic psychological needs and motivation. We accomplished this goal by using a two-wave 7-month partial least squares path modeling approach (PLS-PM) among a sample of 94 adolescent athletes (Mage = 15.96) in an intensive training setting. The PLS-PM results showed significant paths leading: (a) from T1 satisfaction of basic psychological need for competence to T2 identified regulation, (b) from T1 external regulation to T2 thwarting and satisfaction of basic psychological need for competence, and (c) from T1 amotivation to T2 satisfaction of basic psychological need for relatedness. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between basic psychological need and motivation varied depending on the type of basic need and motivation assessed. Basic psychological need for competence predicted identified regulation over time whereas amotivation and external regulation predicted basic psychological need for relatedness or competence over time.

  19. School Culture, Basic Psychological Needs, Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement: Testing a Casual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Badri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture is s common system of believes, values and artifacts that the members of a society use it in their relations, and it transfers from one generation to another. The school culture is a system of norms, meanings and values between school members. One of STD (self-determination theory components is basic psychological needs that emphasizes on Relatedness, Competence and Autonomy to accomplish the motivation. Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. It seems that school culture, basic psychological needs and motivation has immense effect on academic achievement. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relation between students' perceived school culture, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation and academic achievement in a causal model. 296 high school students (159 females and 137 males in Tabriz, north - west of Iran, participated in this research and completed the students' perceived school culture questionnaire based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions (femininity, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and power distance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results of the path analysis showed that fulfillment of basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation has positive effect on academic achievement. Uncertainty avoidance and power distance have also negative effect on fulfillment of psychological needs, but the influence of femininity on this variable was positive. Also, collectivism has no significant effect on it. In general, the findings showed that if school culture supports students' autonomy, they will experience fulfillment of their basic psychological needs, and attain higher intrinsic motivation and academic achievement.

  20. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation…

  1. Building a model based on scientific consensus for Life Cycle Impact Assessment of chemicals:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark; Jolliet, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Achieving consensus among scientists is often a challenge - particularly in model development. In this article we describe a recent scientific consensus-building process for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) models applied to chemical emissions - including the strategy, execution, and results...

  2. Virtue ethics, positive psychology, and a new model of science and engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-04-01

    This essay develops a new conceptual framework of science and engineering ethics education based on virtue ethics and positive psychology. Virtue ethicists and positive psychologists have argued that current rule-based moral philosophy, psychology, and education cannot effectively promote students' moral motivation for actual moral behavior and may even lead to negative outcomes, such as moral schizophrenia. They have suggested that their own theoretical framework of virtue ethics and positive psychology can contribute to the effective promotion of motivation for self-improvement by connecting the notion of morality and eudaimonic happiness. Thus this essay attempts to apply virtue ethics and positive psychology to science and engineering ethics education and to develop a new conceptual framework for more effective education. In addition to the conceptual-level work, this essay suggests two possible educational methods: moral modeling and involvement in actual moral activity in science and engineering ethics classes, based on the conceptual framework.

  3. Conception and Organizational and Structural Models of Psychological Service in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrodin Yu.M.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the discussion of the key problems of practical psychology of education and to formulation of the main principles of conception of the psychological service in education, which is considered as one of the most important elements of the whole educational system modernization. Based on the data obtained by the monitoring of the psychological service in Russian education, conducted in 2006-2008, as well as on the analysis of the research materials, the service development strategy is formulated that determines the key directions of its' work till 2020 year. The mechanism of this strategy realization will be formulated as a suggested structural and functional model of the psychological service in education. The variants of organization of psychological service in education on the federal, as well as regional and municipal levels, specified under the regional and other contextual peculiarities, can be applied in creating particular versions of psychological service aimed at the different categories: gifted children and children with special educational needs, orphans and deviant children, children that suffer difficulties in learning, etc. the example of concrete target model of work with child's giftedness is widely described in the article.

  4. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT WORK PROCESSES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of its staff. Tasks include: definition of the main characteristics of the production team and their severity, the analysis of these characteristics and identifying opportunities for their transformation, development of recommendations for management of social-psychological work on effects on the characteristics of the collective enterprise.Practical study of the activities of a number of businesses have shown the need to improve socio-psychological support of management processes production team: introducing a social and psychological planning team and develop the practice of sociological research on the state of the team, to ensure the smoothing of relations between workers and management through periodic meetings, creations of conditions for feedback, maintaining healthy competition among team members.

  5. Modeling the relations of ethical leadership and clinical governance with psychological empowerment in nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goona Fathi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethical leadership appeared as a new approach in the leadership perspective and provided the ground for promoting individual and organizational efficiency by giving priorities to ethics in organizations. In this regard, the present study was conducted with the aim of modeling the relations of ethical leadership and clinical governance with psychological empowerment among nurses of public hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: the research method was descriptive survey. The study sample consisted of all nurses (n=550 working in public hospitals of Kermanshah University of Medical Science for whom 163 nurses were selected using simple random sampling. The tools for data collection were ethical leadership, clinical governance and psychology empowerment questionnaires whose validity and reliability were confirmed. The structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between ethical leadership and clinical governance (P<0.01 and psychological empowerment (P<0.01. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between clinical governance and psychological empowerment (P<0.05. Based on the results of the research, ethical leadership directly and through clinical governance affected the nurses’ psychological empowerment (P<0.05. Conclusion: reliance on ethics and ethical leadership in hospitals, in addition to providing the space and ground for improving the effectiveness of clinical governance approach, can promote the feeling of psychological empowerment in nurses. Accordingly, the ethical issues are required to be taken into consideration in hospitals.

  6. Visualizing the impact of art: An update and comparison of current psychological models of art experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew ePelowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of empirical and psychological approaches to art study, especially regarding cognitive models of art processing experience. This new emphasis on modeling has often become the basis for our theoretical understanding of human interaction with art. Models also often define areas of focus and hypotheses for new empirical research, and are increasingly important for connecting psychological theory to discussions of the brain. However, models are often made by different researchers, with quite different emphases or visual styles. Inputs and psychological outcomes may be differently considered, or can be under-reported with regards to key functional components. Thus, we may lose the major theoretical improvements and ability for comparison that can be had with models. To begin addressing this, this paper presents a theoretical assessment, comparison, and new articulation of a selection of key contemporary cognitive or information-processing-based approaches detailing the mechanisms underlying the viewing of art. We review six major models in contemporary psychological aesthetics. We in turn present redesigns of these models using a unified visual form, in some cases making additions or creating new models where none had previously existed. We also frame these approaches in respect to their targeted outputs (e.g., emotion, appraisal, physiological reaction and their strengths within a more general framework of early, intermediate and later processing stages. This is used as a basis for general comparison and discussion of implications and future directions for modeling, and for theoretically understanding our engagement with visual art.

  7. Articulating uncertainty as part of scientific argumentation during model-based exoplanet detection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Teaching scientific argumentation has emerged as an important goal for K-12 science education. In scientific argumentation, students are actively involved in coordinating evidence with theory based on their understanding of the scientific content and thinking critically about the strengths and weaknesses of the cited evidence in the context of the investigation. We developed a one-week-long online curriculum module called "Is there life in space?" where students conduct a series of four model-based tasks to learn how scientists detect extrasolar planets through the “wobble” and transit methods. The simulation model allows students to manipulate various parameters of an imaginary star and planet system such as planet size, orbit size, planet-orbiting-plane angle, and sensitivity of telescope equipment, and to adjust the display settings for graphs illustrating the relative velocity and light intensity of the star. Students can use model-based evidence to formulate an argument on whether particular signals in the graphs guarantee the presence of a planet. Students' argumentation is facilitated by the four-part prompts consisting of multiple-choice claim, open-ended explanation, Likert-scale uncertainty rating, and open-ended uncertainty rationale. We analyzed 1,013 scientific arguments formulated by 302 high school student groups taught by 7 teachers. We coded these arguments in terms of the accuracy of their claim, the sophistication of explanation connecting evidence to the established knowledge base, the uncertainty rating, and the scientific validity of uncertainty. We found that (1) only 18% of the students' uncertainty rationale involved critical reflection on limitations inherent in data and concepts, (2) 35% of students' uncertainty rationale reflected their assessment of personal ability and knowledge, rather than scientific sources of uncertainty related to the evidence, and (3) the nature of task such as the use of noisy data or the framing of

  8. Science teacher candidates' perceptions about roles and nature of scientific models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez Turkoglu, Ayse; Oztekin, Ceren

    2016-05-01

    Background: Scientific models have important roles in science and science education. For scientists, they provide a means for generating new knowledge or function as an accessible summary of scientific studies. In science education, on the other hand, they are accessible representations of abstract concepts, and are also organizational frameworks to teach and learn inaccessible facts. As being indispensable parts of learning and doing science, use of scientific models in science classes should be reinforced. At this point, uncovering pre-service science teachers' (PSTs) understandings of scientific models are of great importance since they will design and conduct teaching situations for their students. Purpose: The study aimed to provide an answer to the research question: What understandings do PSTs possess about scientific models? Sample: The sample of the study consisted of 14 PSTs enrolled in an Elementary Science Education program in a public university in Ankara, Turkey. Design and methods: Data were collected by using an open-item instrument and semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed by using qualitative data analysis methods. Results: Findings showed that PSTs held fragmented views of models by having informed views in some aspects while having naïve views on others. That is, although they displayed a constructivist orientation by acknowledging the presence of multiple models for the same phenomenon depending on scientists' perspectives or creativity involved in the production of scientific knowledge, PSTs also expressed logical positivist views by believing that models should be close to the real phenomena that they represent. Findings further revealed that PSTs generally conceptualized models' materialistic uses, yet they did not think much about their theoretical and conceptual uses. It was observed that roles like reifying and visualizing were overestimated and models were dominantly characterized as three-dimensional representations

  9. Diffusion versus linear ballistic accumulation: different models but the same conclusions about psychological processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkin, C.; Brown, S.; Heathcote, A.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative models for response time and accuracy are increasingly used as tools to draw conclusions about psychological processes. Here we investigate the extent to which these substantive conclusions depend on whether researchers use the Ratcliff diffusion model or the Linear Ballistic

  10. Maori Cultural Efficacy and Subjective Wellbeing: A Psychological Model and Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houkamau, Carla A.; Sibley, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Maori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand, experience a range of negative outcomes. Psychological models and interventions aiming to improve outcomes for Maori tend to be founded on a "culture-as-cure" model. This view promotes cultural efficacy as a critical resilience factor that should improve outcomes for Maori. This is a founding…

  11. A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

  12. Response Grouping in the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) Paradigm: Models and Contamination Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Rolf; Miller, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Response grouping is a ubiquitous phenomenon in psychological refractory period (PRP) tasks, yet it hampers the analysis of dual-task performance. To account for response grouping, we developed several extended versions of the standard bottleneck model, each of which incorporates a possible grouping mechanism into this model. Computer simulations…

  13. The Strength-Based Counseling Model: A Paradigm Shift in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elsie J.

    2006-01-01

    Sometimes, it is difficult for a profession to move forward because its members interpret emerging conceptual models from the perspective of old frameworks. Each of the five reactants in this issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" interpreted the strength-based counseling model within their own self-adopted framework--Adlerian psychology, role…

  14. Maori Cultural Efficacy and Subjective Wellbeing: A Psychological Model and Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houkamau, Carla A.; Sibley, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Maori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand, experience a range of negative outcomes. Psychological models and interventions aiming to improve outcomes for Maori tend to be founded on a "culture-as-cure" model. This view promotes cultural efficacy as a critical resilience factor that should improve outcomes for Maori. This is a founding premise…

  15. A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

  16. Models of Temporal Discounting 1937-2000: An Interdisciplinary Exchange between Economics and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüne-Yanoff, Till

    2015-12-01

    Today's models of temporal discounting are the result of multiple interdisciplinary exchanges between psychology and economics. Although these exchanges did not result in an integrated discipline, they had important effects on all disciplines involved. The paper describes these exchanges from the 1930s onwards, focusing on two episodes in particular: an attempted synthesis by psychiatrist George Ainslie and others in the 1970s; and the attempted application of this new discounting model by a generation of economists and psychologists in the 1980s, which ultimately ended in the diversity of measurements disappointment. I draw four main conclusions. First, multiple notions of temporal discounting must be conceptually distinguished. Second, behavioral economics is not an integration or unification of psychology and economics. Third, the analysis identifies some central disciplinary markers that distinguish modeling strategies in economics and psychology. Finally, it offers a case of interdisciplinary success that does not fit the currently dominant account of interdisciplinarity as integration.

  17. The effects of nutrition labeling on consumer food choice: a psychological experiment and computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Peter; Shultz, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the usability of existing and proposed labeling schemes. Here, we report an experiment on how four different labeling schemes affect the speed and nutritional value of food choices. We then apply decision field theory, a leading computational model of human decision making, to simulate the experimental results. The psychology experiment shows that quantitative, single-attribute labeling schemes have greater usability than multiattribute and binary ones, and that they remain effective under moderate time pressure. The computational model simulates these psychological results and provides explanatory insights into them. This work shows how experimental psychology and computational modeling can contribute to the evaluation and improvement of nutrition-labeling schemes.

  18. "On Clocks and Clouds:" Confirming and Interpreting Climate Models as Scientific Hypotheses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, L.

    2009-12-01

    The certainty of climate change projected under various scenarios of emissions using general circulation models is an issue of vast societal importance. Unlike numerical weather prediction, a problem to which general circulation models are also applied, projected climate changes usually lie outside of the range of external forcings for which the models generating these changes have been directly evaluated. This presentation views climate models as complex scientific hypotheses and thereby frames these models within a well-defined process of both advancing scientific knowledge and recognizing its limitations. Karl Popper's Logik der Forschung (The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1934) and 1965 essay “On Clocks and Clouds” capture well the methodologies and challenges associated with constructing climate models. Indeed, the process of a problem situation generating tentative theories, refined by error elimination, characterizes aptly the routine of general circulation model development. Limitations on certainty arise from the distinction Popper perceived in types of natural processes, which he exemplified by clocks, capable of exact measurement, and clouds, subject only to statistical approximation. Remarkably, the representation of clouds in general circulation models remains the key uncertainty in understanding atmospheric aspects of climate change. The asymmetry of hypothesis falsification by negation and much vaguer development of confidence in hypotheses consistent with some of their implications is an important practical challenge to confirming climate models. The presentation will discuss the ways in which predictions made by climate models for observable aspects of the present and past climate can be regarded as falsifiable hypotheses. The presentation will also include reasons why “passing” these tests does not provide complete confidence in predictions about the future by climate models. Finally, I will suggest that a “reductionist” view, in

  19. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  20. Psychological and physical dimensions explaining life satisfaction among the elderly: a structural model examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Tomás, José Manuel; Oliver, Amparo; Navarro, Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to analyze the effects of psychological well-being, physical functioning and socio-demographic factors on life satisfaction. Both a bivariate and a multivariate level of analyses have been used. Finally, a structural model explaining life satisfaction has been developed and validated. With respect to bivariate relations, there was evidence of significant positive relations between psychological well-being dimensions and life satisfaction and between physical conditions and life satisfaction as well. Also, as age increased there was a slow decrease in life satisfaction. Educational level was positively related to life satisfaction. A structural model gave valuable information about the pattern of multivariate relationships among the variables. A first result of the model was the large effect of physical and psychological well-being on life satisfaction, albeit it was psychological well-being the major predictor of life satisfaction. A second result was that the effects of socio-demographic variables on life satisfaction were low and they operated through the effects that maintain either on psychological well-being (or its individual indicators) or on physical conditions. The role gender or age played was indirect rather than direct.

  1. From Practice to Praksis - models in Danish coaching psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Kyndesen, Anna Imer; Palmer, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The article gives a brief outline of the broadness of coaching models and moves on to describe in detail the model PRAKSIS, which has been developed from the English language PRACTICE model. This model is considered to be a key tool in solution-focused coaching and therapy. Thus, PRAKSIS...

  2. Capable of Suicide: A Functional Model of the Acquired Capability Component of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2010-01-01

    A functional model of the acquired capability for suicide, a component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, is presented. A component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide a functional model of the acquired capability for suicide is presented. The model integrates the points discussed by…

  3. Psychology in the education of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Silva Bandeira de Melo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the teaching of psychology in the education of nurses in the first decades of the twentieth century in Brazil. We present aspects related to nursing schools from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. Topics presented in the psychology courses in the education of nurses were connected to the psychological debates at that time. During this period, we can see the changing from a training based on working experiences to a new model based on the scientific knowledge. The Brazilian government sponsored this transformation, which was grounded in a broad context of the raising of the worth of sciences in the country. Psychological knowledge contributed for the establishment of a new theoretical and practical nursing training. Analyzing teaching of psychology in the education of nurses contributes to a better understanding of psychology as a discipline in Brazil.

  4. Students' Views of Scientific Models and Modeling: Do Representational Characteristics of Models and Students' Educational Levels Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential impact of the representational characteristics of models and students' educational levels on students' views of scientific models and modeling (VSMM). An online multimedia questionnaire was designed to address three major aspects of VSMM, namely the nature of models, the nature of modeling, and the purpose of models. The three scales of representational characteristics included modality, dimensionality, and dynamics. A total of 102 eighth graders and 87 eleventh graders were surveyed. Both quantitative data and written responses were analyzed. The influence of the representational characteristics seemed to be more salient on the nature of models and the purpose of models. Some interactions between the educational levels and the representational characteristics showed that the high school students were more likely to recognize textual representations and pictorial representations as models, while also being more likely to appreciate the differences between 2D and 3D models. However, some other differences between educational levels did not necessarily suggest that the high school students attained more sophisticated VSMM. For instance, in considering what information should be included in a model, students' attention to particular affordances of the representation can lead to a more naive view of modeling. Implications for developing future questionnaires and for teaching modeling are suggested in this study.

  5. On the scientific status of cognitive appraisal models of anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, R J

    2001-05-01

    The cognitive paradigm for understanding and treating anxiety disorders comprises two distinct and potentially incompatible approaches: appraisal and information-processing. Advocates of the latter approach have sharply criticized the scientific adequacy of the appraisal models popularized by cognitive therapists. The purpose of this essay is to provide a reappraisal of these critiques of appraisal, and to defend an argument for methodological pluralism.

  6. Citations, References and the Growth of Scientific Literature: A Model of Dynamic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, Tadeusz K.; Hillinger, Claude

    1971-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented which explains the observed exponential growth rates of citations and references in a scientific discipline. The independent variables are the growth rate of the number of articles published and the decay rate of citation of old literature. (13 references) (Author)

  7. Advanced Applications of Structural Equation Modeling in Counseling Psychology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P.; Haase, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a data-analytic technique that allows researchers to test complex theoretical models. Most published applications of SEM involve analyses of cross-sectional recursive (i.e., unidirectional) models, but it is possible for researchers to test more complex designs that involve variables observed at multiple…

  8. Schizophrenia: A Cognitive Model and Its Implications for Psychological Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a cognitive model of schizophrenia stating that schizophrenic behavior is caused by a disturbance in sensory input and stored material integration. Cites research to support this model. Outlines the manner in which a disturbance in sensory input integration relates to schizophrenic symptoms and discusses the model's relevance for…

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A RATING MODEL OF THE ASSESSMENT OF SCIENTIFIC PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Kalachikhin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of organization of scientific projects competition in a higher education institution is investigated in the article. The method of expert evaluations is taken as a basis and the factorial variables are used at calculation. The rules of processing of model parameters, calculation of intermediate variables, calculation of a total rating and division of objects into classes on value of a rating are the results. The developed technique allows increasing validity of results of competitive selection during planning scientific researches.

  10. Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system and an orographic precipitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, L.; Knapp, L.

    1996-01-01

    Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.

  11. Implications of the Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity for Education and Training in Professional Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grus, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Quality education and training is a commitment made to future generations of psychologists by those assuming the role of a faculty member or supervisor. One widely recognized hallmark of quality in professional psychology education and training is accreditation of doctoral programs by the American Psychological Association's Commission on…

  12. Implications of the Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity for Education and Training in Professional Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grus, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Quality education and training is a commitment made to future generations of psychologists by those assuming the role of a faculty member or supervisor. One widely recognized hallmark of quality in professional psychology education and training is accreditation of doctoral programs by the American Psychological Association's Commission on…

  13. EcoCasting: Using NetLogo models of aquatic ecosystems to teach scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, C. K.; Jona, K.

    2010-12-01

    The EcoCasting project from the Office of STEM Education Partnerships (OSEP) at Northwestern University has developed a computer model-based curriculum for high school environmental science classes to study complexity in aquatic ecosystems. EcoCasting aims to deliver cutting edge scientific research on bioaccumulation in invaded Great Lakes food webs to high school classes. Scientists and environmental engineers at Northwestern are investigating unusual bioaccumulation patterns in invaded food webs of the Great Lakes. High school students are exploring this authentic data to understand what is causing the anomalies in the data. Students use a series of NetLogo agent-based models of an aquatic ecosystem to study how toxins accumulate in the food web. Using these models, students learn about predator-prey relationships, bioaccumulation, and invasive species. Students are confronted with contradictory data collected by scientists and investigate alternative food web mechanisms at work. By studying the individual variables, students learn common scientific principles. When multiple variables are combined in a unifying model, students learn that the interactions lead to unexpected outcomes. Students learn about the complexity of the ecosystem and gain proficiency interpreting computer models and scientific data collection in this curriculum. Model of aquatic food chain

  14. Dyadic effects of attitude toward aging on psychological well-being of older Malaysian couples: an actor–partner interdependence model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momtaz YA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Jariah Masud, Sharifah Azizah Haron, Rahimah IbrahimInstitute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: There is a growing body of literature indicating that attitudes toward aging significantly affect older adults’ psychological well-being. However, there is a paucity of scientific investigations examining the role of older adults’ attitudes toward aging on their spouses' psychological well-being. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the dyadic effects of attitude toward aging on the psychological well-being of older couples.Methods: Data for the present study, consisting of 300 couples aged 50 years and older, were drawn from a community-based survey entitled “Poverty among Elderly Women: Case Study of Amanah Ikhtiar” conducted in Peninsular Malaysia. An actor–partner interdependence model using AMOS version 20 (Europress Software, Cheshire, UK was used to analyze the dyadic data.Results: The mean ages of the husbands and wives in this sample were 60.37 years (±6.55 and 56.33 years (±5.32, respectively. Interdependence analyses revealed significant association between older adults’ attitudes toward aging and the attitudes of their spouses (intraclass correlation =0.59; P<0.001, and similar interdependence was found for psychological well-being (intraclass correlation =0.57; P<0.001. The findings from AMOS revealed that the proposed model fits the data (CMIN/degrees of freedom =3.23; goodness-of-fit index =0.90; confirmatory fit index =0.91; root mean square error of approximation =0.08. Results of the actor–partner independence model indicated that older adults’ psychological well-being is significantly predicted by their spouses' attitudes toward aging, both among older men (critical ratio =2.92; P<0.01 and women (critical ratio =2.70; P<0.01. Husbands’ and wives’ own reports of their attitudes toward aging were significantly

  15. Cold and hot cognition: quantum probability theory and realistic psychological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J

    2013-06-01

    Typically, human decision making is emotionally "hot" and does not conform to "cold" classical probability (CP) theory. As quantum probability (QP) theory emphasises order, context, superimposition states, and nonlinear dynamic effects, one of its major strengths may be its power to unify formal modeling and realistic psychological theory (e.g., information uncertainty, anxiety, and indecision, as seen in the Prisoner's Dilemma).

  16. The psychological influences on participation in Wheelchair Rugby: a social relational model of disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Haslett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport and exercise psychology research in disability sport seldom engages with social models of disability. As a result, the socio-historical landscape of disability is underrepresented in sport psychology research. The aim of this study is to interpret influences on participation in disability sport through the conceptual lens of the social relational model (SRM of disability (Thomas, 1999, 2004, 2007. Ten Irish adult male athletes with physical disabilities participated in semi-structured interviews exploring the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in Wheelchair Rugby. Deductive thematic analysis produced four themes influenced by the social relational model: impairment effects; societal attitudes and discourse; opportunities and access; and psychological well-being. Links were made to the experience of embodied impairment, classification, oppression, inequality, media, independence, and self-efficacy. The analysis illustrates how cultural constructions of disability are inextricably linked to individual influences on participation in Wheelchair Rugby. The results indicate that in disability sport participation, the experience of social oppression, inequality and cultural stereotypes of disability can be synonymous with the personal experience of physical impairment. The implication of this research is that there is a value in sport and exercise psychology practitioners utilising the social relational model as a tool to conceptualise the lived experience of physical disability.

  17. Relations between Minuchin's Structural Family Model and Kohut's Self-Psychology Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perosa, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…

  18. Models of knowledge management in Russian institutions: social and psychological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestik Timofei Aleksandrovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents socio-psychological analysis of five knowledge management models used in Russian institutions: knowledge management in projects, virtual expert groups, competence centers, knowledge management via organization development and open innovations. Special attention is given to the consequences of transition to network-based knowledge management.

  19. The Need for a Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Jackson, Aaron P.; Neville, Helen A.; Illfelder-Kaye, Joyce; Winterowd, Carrie L.; Loewy, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    The authors articulate the need for a "Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity" (henceforth "Values Statement"). They discuss the historic unwillingness of the field to address values in a sophisticated or complex way and highlight the increasingly common training scenario in which trainees state that certain…

  20. A Model of Parental Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control in Academically Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…

  1. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  2. Utilizing Natural Structure of the Research Literature in Psychology as a Model for Bibliographic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, L. James

    1979-01-01

    Offered as an alternative to the search strategy model for bibliographic instruction, the approach to library instruction in psychology which is described involves analysis of the natural structure of the research literature. An example using Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance is presented. Twelve references are cited. (EJS)

  3. Utilizing Natural Structure of the Research Literature in Psychology as a Model for Bibliographic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, L. James

    1979-01-01

    Offered as an alternative to the search strategy model for bibliographic instruction, the approach to library instruction in psychology which is described involves analysis of the natural structure of the research literature. An example using Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance is presented. Twelve references are cited. (EJS)

  4. Adherence to a Wellness Model and Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermon, David A.; Hazler, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between college students' perceived psychological well-being and the quality of their lives on five variables associated with a five-factor holistic wellness model. Results revealed a significant relationship between five dimensions of wellness and both short-term state and long-term trait constructs of psychological…

  5. 警卫专业心理训练模式研究%A Study of a Psychological Training Model for the Undergraduates of the Security Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国烨

    2012-01-01

    Psychological training is an effective method to improve the level of mental quality for the security personnel. Psychological training for the undergraduates of the security department has its own characters and the goal. It is significant to establish a scientific and reasonable training model, and to make a study of a research training system in accordance with the requirement of security specialty systemically, which is meaningful for the forces and academy.%心理训练是提高警卫专业学员心理素质的有效途径之一。警卫专业心理训练有着自身的特征和训练目标。构建科学合理的训练模式,系统研究符合警卫专业需求的训练体系对部队和院校有着长远的意义。

  6. Growing complex network of citations of scientific papers -- measurements and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Golosovsky, M

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the mechanism of a complex network growth we focus on the network of citations of scientific papers and use a combination of the theoretical and experimental tools to uncover microscopic details of this network growth. Namely, we develop a stochastic model of citation dynamics based on copying/redirection/triadic closure mechanism. In a complementary and coherent way, the model accounts both for statistics of references of scientific papers and for their citation dynamics. Originating in empirical measurements, the model is cast in such a way that it can be verified quantitatively in every aspect. Such verification is performed by measuring citation dynamics of Physics papers. The measurements revealed nonlinear citation dynamics, the nonlinearity being intricately related to network topology. The nonlinearity has far-reaching consequences including non-stationary citation distributions, diverging citation trajectory of similar papers, runaways or "immortal papers" with infinite citation lifetime ...

  7. Precursor models construction at preschool education: an approach to improve scientific education in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABRINA PATRICIA CANEDO- IBARRA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore young children scientific precursor models construction and how the designed teaching strategy was successful for improving science learning at preschool in a social context. We describe how 6 years old children built a precursor model of flotation based on density. The exploratory study used a qualitative data collection and analysis following a pre-interview, instructional process and post-interview design. On analyzing children’s answers after the instructional period, we realized that several children were led to both the construction of a precursor model and a general qualitative upgrade in reasoning. We conclude that learning activities were effective and that the approach used in this study may help expand and improve teaching and learning of scientific concepts in preschool education

  8. Identifying Multiple Levels of Discussion-Based Teaching Strategies for Constructing Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Grant; Clement, John

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify specific types of discussion-based strategies that two successful high school physics teachers using a model-based approach utilized in attempting to foster students' construction of explanatory models for scientific concepts. We found evidence that, in addition to previously documented dialogical strategies that teachers utilize to engage students in effectively communicating their scientific ideas in class, there is a second level of more cognitively focused model-construction-supporting strategies that these teachers utilized in attempting to foster students' learning. A further distinction between macro and micro strategy levels within the set of cognitive strategies is proposed. The relationships between the resulting three levels of strategies are portrayed in a diagramming system that tracks discussions over time. The study attempts to contribute to a clearer understanding of how discussion-leading strategies may be used to scaffold the development of conceptual understanding.

  9. Mediating objects: scientific and public functions of models in nineteenth-century biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- and three-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. I argue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions in the light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverse roles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory. Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often reflect their different audiences that included specialized scientists, students, and the general public. In this sense, models in nineteenth-century biology can be understood as mediators between theory, data, and their diverse audiences.

  10. The Model of Optimum Economic Growth with the Induced Scientific-Technological Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilenko Viktor A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the economic dynamics of the Harrod – Domar model, a model of optimum economic growth in line with the induced scientific-technological progress (STP has been built. In order to reflect the induced scientific-technological progress, with this model is proposed to further allocate the income element that is specially used for the investment of innovation activity, implementation of which reduces the capital intensity in development of the discussed economy. For the simplest way of presenting an economic mechanism for the investment of induced STP, analytical solutions of an appropriate task in optimum management have been obtained. Studying these decisions allowed to reveal the characteristics of the impact of parameters of scientific-technological progress and the analyzed economic system on choosing the best trajectory for its evolution. Possible directions for further developing the results presented can be considered the tasks in building and analyzing models of optimum economic growth that implement different investment options for the induced STP, as well as the models in which this investment mechanism is not exogenouslyed, but rather the result of the corresponding economic-mathematical research.

  11. The estimated and look-ahead model of scientific and technical capacityof region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vital'evna Zolotukhina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of scientific and technical capacity of Russian regions to the possibility of their sustainable development in the modern world. At the same time clarified the concept of «sustainable development», which in the extended treatment is disclosed in dynamic, static and efficiently-factorial aspects. The essential features of sustainable regional development (economic growth and high living standards, the effectiveness of the sectoral structure of economy, solidarity and partnership between the subjects of regional cooperation, coevolution, etc. within the framework of a comprehensive, integrative approach are identified.The algorithm of an indicative estimation of scientific and technical capacity of region for the purpose of research of its influence on sustainability of the social and economic development reveals; integrated indicators of a sustainable development and the scientific and technical capacity of the several Russian regions on the basis of computation of corresponding individual and private indicators are calculated. The choice of indicators due to the proposed theoretical and methodological approach to understanding the phenomena is under consideration. Generated by means of carrying out the correlation and regression analysis the econometric model allows to predict degree of stability of regional economy at escalating of separate components of scientific and technical capacity (in particular, its productive, human and financial components, identified in the analysis of the most important from the standpoint of sustainable development in the region. Results of practical application of model are approved on an example of regions of Privolzhsky Federal District

  12. Somatic Expression of Psychological Problems (Somatization: Examination with Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Seda Çolak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to define which psychological symptoms (somatization, depression, obsessive ‐ compulsive, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism cause somatic reactions at most. Total effect of these psychological symptoms on somatic symptoms had been investigated. Study was carried out with structural equation model to research the relation between the psychological symptoms and somatization. The main material of the research is formed by the data obtained from 492 people. SCL‐90‐R scale was used in order to obtain the data. As a result of the structural equation analysis, it has been found that 1Psychoticism, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation do not predict somatic symptoms.2There is a negative relation between interpersonal sensitivity level mand somatic reactions.3Anxiety symptoms had been found as causative to occur the highest level of somatic reactions.

  13. Ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: testing basic assumptions of the developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juang, Linda P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test three fundamental theoretical propositions from Phinney's (1990) developmental model about the relations among ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: (a) ethnic identity is more strongly related to identity coherence for ethnic minorities than for Whites; (b) ethnic identity is more strongly related to psychological functioning for ethnic minorities than for Whites; and (c) identity coherence mediates the association between ethnic identity and psychological functioning for ethnic minorities, but not for Whites. These hypotheses were tested in three independent samples of ethnically diverse youth. In general, we found weak to moderate support for these three hypotheses, suggesting that the theoretically proposed differences in ethnic identity between ethnic minorities and Whites may not be supported by data. Implications for theory and measurement of ethnic identity are discussed.

  14. Dynamic P-Technique for Modeling Patterns of Data: Applications to Pediatric Psychology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Brandon S.; Rausch, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Dynamic p-technique (DPT) is a potentially useful statistical method for examining relationships among dynamic constructs in a single individual or small group of individuals over time. The purpose of this article is to offer a nontechnical introduction to DPT. Method An overview of DPT analysis, with an emphasis on potential applications to pediatric psychology research, is provided. To illustrate how DPT might be applied, an example using simulated data is presented for daily pain and negative mood ratings. Results The simulated example demonstrates the application of DPT to a relevant pediatric psychology research area. In addition, the potential application of DPT to the longitudinal study of adherence is presented. Conclusion Although it has not been utilized frequently within pediatric psychology, DPT could be particularly well-suited for research in this field because of its ability to powerfully model repeated observations from very small samples. PMID:21486938

  15. Bayesian latent variable models for the analysis of experimental psychology data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Edgar C; Wang, Ting

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we address the use of Bayesian factor analysis and structural equation models to draw inferences from experimental psychology data. While such application is non-standard, the models are generally useful for the unified analysis of multivariate data that stem from, e.g., subjects' responses to multiple experimental stimuli. We first review the models and the parameter identification issues inherent in the models. We then provide details on model estimation via JAGS and on Bayes factor estimation. Finally, we use the models to re-analyze experimental data on risky choice, comparing the approach to simpler, alternative methods.

  16. Open Knee: Open Source Modeling & Simulation to Enable Scientific Discovery and Clinical Care in Knee Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Virtual representations of the knee joint can provide clinicians, scientists, and engineers the tools to explore mechanical function of the knee and its tissue structures in health and disease. Modeling and simulation approaches such as finite element analysis also provide the possibility to understand the influence of surgical procedures and implants on joint stresses and tissue deformations. A large number of knee joint models are described in the biomechanics literature. However, freely accessible, customizable, and easy-to-use models are scarce. Availability of such models can accelerate clinical translation of simulations, where labor intensive reproduction of model development steps can be avoided. The interested parties can immediately utilize readily available models for scientific discovery and for clinical care. Motivated by this gap, this study aims to describe an open source and freely available finite element representation of the tibiofemoral joint, namely Open Knee, which includes detailed anatomical representation of the joint's major tissue structures, their nonlinear mechanical properties and interactions. Three use cases illustrate customization potential of the model, its predictive capacity, and its scientific and clinical utility: prediction of joint movements during passive flexion, examining the role of meniscectomy on contact mechanics and joint movements, and understanding anterior cruciate ligament mechanics. A summary of scientific and clinically directed studies conducted by other investigators are also provided. The utilization of this open source model by groups other than its developers emphasizes the premise of model sharing as an accelerator of simulation-based medicine. Finally, the imminent need to develop next generation knee models are noted. These are anticipated to incorporate individualized anatomy and tissue properties supported by specimen-specific joint mechanics data for evaluation, all acquired in vitro from varying age

  17. Psicologia organizacional e do trabalho no Brasil: desenvolvimento científico contemporâneo Work and organizational psychology on Brazil: contemporary scientific development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maria Tonetto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de levantamento de artigos publicados em Psicologia Organizacional e do Trabalho (POT, de 2001 a 2005, nas revistas brasileiras: Estudos de Psicologia, Psicologia e Sociedade, Psicologia em Estudo, Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, Psicologia USP, e Psicologia: Organizações e Trabalho. A análise considerou número de artigos, temas, metodologia, referências, formação profissional e área de atuação dos autores. De 1105 textos publicados, 178 (16% foram em POT. Os artigos foram classificados em nove categorias temáticas. Do total de artigos analisados, 30% eram teóricos e 70% empíricos. A maioria dos autores é de psicólogos e está vinculada às universidades. Dentre os principais resultados, destacam-se a diversidade temática e metodológica da produção científica em POT, bem como a preocupação em contemplar as mudanças sociais, econômicas, políticas e tecnológicas. A produção de conhecimento está voltada tanto para subsidiar intervenções como para impulsionar o desenvolvimento teórico da área.This paper is a survey about Work and Organizational Psychology (WOP of articles published from 2001 to 2005 in the following Brazilian journals: Estudos de Psicologia, Psicologia e Sociedade, Psicologia em Estudo, Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, Psicologia USP, and Psicologia: Organizações e Trabalho. The analysis examined the number of papers, themes, methodology, references, professional education and the authors' area of practice. Out of 1105 published papers, 178 (16% were on WOP. The papers were classified in nine theme categories. From the total amount of papers analyzed, 30% were theoretical and 70% empirical. Most authors are psychologists and are connected to universities. Among the main results, it was highlighted the thematic and methodological diversity of scientific production on WOP as well as the concern on social, economic, political

  18. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  19. Much Pain, Little Gain? Paradigm-Specific Models and Methods in Experimental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, Thorsten

    2011-03-01

    Paradigm-oriented research strategies in experimental psychology have strengths and limitations. On the one hand, experimental paradigms play a crucial epistemic and heuristic role in basic psychological research. On the other hand, empirical research is often limited to the observed effects in a certain paradigm, and theoretical models are frequently tied to the particular features of the given paradigm. A paradigm-driven research strategy therefore jeopardizes the pursuit of research questions and theoretical models that go beyond a specific paradigm. As one example of a more integrative approach, recent research on illusory and spurious correlations has attempted to overcome the limitations of paradigm-specific models in the context of biased contingency perception and social stereotyping. Last but not least, the use of statistical models for the analysis of elementary cognitive functions is a means toward a more integrative terminology and theoretical perspective across different experimental paradigms and research domains. © The Author(s) 2011.

  20. An introduction to spiritual psychology: overview of the literature, east and west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovic, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the philosophical background to spiritual psychology and selectively reviews Western and Eastern literature on the subject. The world views of theism, atheism, and agnosticism are defined and critiqued, and the boundaries of scientific knowledge discussed. The views of James, Jung, and Freud are reviewed, and the contributions of humanistic psychology noted. Contemporary spiritual psychology is then summarized with reference to recent literature on theistic psychotherapy, Buddhist psychology, mind-body medicine, and transpersonal psychology. Sri Aurobindo's work is introduced as a modern Asian perspective on theistic psychology, and his model of the relationship between the "soul" and the unconscious described. Finally, a brief clinical vignette is given.

  1. An Interdisciplinary Model for Connecting Writing, Psychology, and Printmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Staci

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an effective model for a manageable interdisciplinary project that shows students the connections among art, English, and other disciplines; gives composition students an external audience for their writing; and emphasizes the importance of research in the process of creating arguments and art. This interdisciplinary project…

  2. Neurocomputational Models of Cognitive Development and Processing: Proceedings of the 14th Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents peer-reviewed versions of papers presented at the 14th Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (NCPW14), which took place in July 2014 at Lancaster University, UK. The workshop draws international attendees from the cutting edge of interdisciplinary research in psychology, computational modeling, artificial intelligence and psychology, and aims to drive forward our understanding of the mechanisms underlying a range of cognitive processes.

  3. Scientific psychology in Brazil in the 20th century: the dialogue with European researchers, a look at Brazilian culture and a successful process of professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Regina Helena de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    The first laboratories of psychology established in Brazil were organized in the early twentieth century by professionals trained in medical schools or in education. These laboratories, linked to mental health hospitals or to normal schools, followed guidelines suggested by Edouard Claparède, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Geneva, and by Alfred Binet, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Paris (Sorbonne). Besides replicating experimental studies done in Europe, their purpose was to study the psychological characteristics of the population attended by the mental health or educational systems. The themes explored by the researchers were the comparison of psychological processes in normal and mentally troubled individuals, or the study of the mental development of school-age children. The meaning of the word "laboratory" became associated with applied psychology, and with the adaptation to the Brazilian population of mental tests elaborated in other countries (mainly in France). Around the 1940s and 1950s, with the establishment of the teaching of psychology in higher learning institutions, research in the area expanded. Two authors are mainly responsible for this expansion: Lourenço Filho (1897-1970), and Helena Antipoff (1892-1974). Their work, still inspired by Claparède and Binet, contributed to the development of important lines of research in psychology in Brazil, with a lasting influence on subsequent generations of psychologists. From the 1960s onwards, with the regulation of the profession of psychologist, formal university programs increased strongly, and, in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive system of graduate programs in psychology was established, contributing to the professionalization of research in the field.

  4. A Sense of Place: Integrating Environmental Psychology into Marine Socio-Ecological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, I. E.; Fleming, A.; Fulton, E.; Plaganyi-Lloyd, E.

    2016-02-01

    Sense of place is a concept that is increasingly applied in different social research contexts where it can act as a bridge between disciplines that might otherwise work in parallel. A sense of place is a well established and flexible concept that has been empirically measured using different survey methods. The psychological principals and theories that underpin sense of place have been inextricably linked to the quality of ecological systems and the impact on development of the system, and vice versa. Ecological models and scenario analyses play an important role in characterising, assessing and predicting the potential impacts of alternative developments and other changes affecting ecological systems. To improve the predictive accuracy of ecological models, human drivers, interactions, and uses have been dynamically incorporated, for instance, through management strategy evaluation applied to marine ecosystem models. However, to date no socio-ecological models (whether terrestrial or marine) have been developed that incorporate a dynamic feedback between ecosystem characteristics and peoples' sense of place. These models thus essentially ignore the influence of environmental psychology on the way people use and interact with ecosystems. We develop a proof of concept and provide a mathematical basis for a Sense of Place Index (SoPI) that allows the quantitative integration of environmental psychology into socio-ecological models. Incorporating dynamic feedback between the SoPI for different resource user groups and the ecological system improves the accuracy and precision of predictions regarding future resource use as well as, ultimately, the potential state of the resource to be developed.

  5. Verification of a Predictive Model of Psychological Health at Work in Canada and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Boudrias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the invariance of a predictive model of psychological health at work (PHW in Canada and France. The model a defines PHW as an integrative second-order variable (low distress, high well-being and b includes three categories of PHW inductors (job demands, personal resources and social-organizational resources and one psychological intermediate variable (needs satisfaction that were found to be directly or indirectly related to PHW in a previous study on a sample of French teachers (Boudrias, Desrumaux, Gaudreau, Nelson, Savoie and Brunet, 2011. To test if this model is invariant across countries, these data from French teachers ('N' = 391 were reanalyzed and compared with data from a sample of Canadian teachers ('N' = 480 who completed the same set of questionnaires. Results from structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the model is completely invariant across the two samples. Therefore, pathways to PHW appeared to generalize across these samples of teachers without the addition of other cultural variables. This PHW model suggests that personal resources exert considerable influence directly and indirectly on psychological health through multiple mediators. Research implications and study limitations are discussed.

  6. Multilevel models from biology to psychology: mission impossible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Robert M; Howe, Andrew G; Howe, Andrew S; Sabb, Fred W

    2013-08-01

    Systematic efforts are underway to address major flaws in the current diagnostic taxonomy of mental disorders, fostering hope that a new nosology might be based on brain biology. The National Institute of Mental Health Research Domains Criteria (RDoC) initiative aims to redefine mental illness leveraging information that spans molecular to behavioral levels of analysis. Major effort is still needed to forge multilevel conceptual and measurement models capable of representing knowledge within and across these levels. The development of such models may help refine and share complex hypotheses, and reduce the risk of replacing the current taxonomy with dimensions and/or categories that manifest little incremental biological validity. To create useful models we need to define concepts, relations among concepts, and links to supporting evidence. Some methods already enable representation of concepts and measures at the levels of behavioral and basic biological processes, but a major gap at the level of neural circuitry must be bridged to link basic biological and behavioral levels. We provide a schematic framework, using as an example the representation of selected "working memory" concepts and evidence across multiple levels of analysis as these have been described in the RDoC Workshops. This example illustrates multiple challenges and some possible solutions that may help clarify the aims of individual research projects and enable integration of diverse efforts on RDoC and related initiatives. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Effect of levels of inquiry model of science teaching on scientific literacy domain attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmad, Maulana; Suhandi, Andi

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to obtain an overview of the increase scientific literacy attitudes domain in high school students as the effects of the Levels of Inquiry (LOI) model of science teaching. This research using a quasi-experimental methods and randomizedpretest-posttest control group design. The subject of this research was students of grade X in a senior high school in Purwakarta and it consists of two classes who were divided into experimental class (30 students) and control class (30 students). While experimental class was taught LOIand control class was taught Interactive Lecture Demonstration (ILD). Data were collected using an attitude scale scientific literacy test which is based on the Likert scale. Data were analyzed using normality test, homogeneity test, and t-test to the value of N-gain attitude of scientific literacy scale test. The result of percentage average N-gain experimental class and control are 49 and 31 that classified into medium improvement category. Based on the results of hypothesis testing on the N-gain value obtained by the Sig.(One-tailed) 0.000 attitude of students who got learning by LOI is higher than students who got learning by ILD. It can be concluded that the effect of LOI is better to improve scientific literacy domain attitudes significantly.

  8. A model of psychological evaluation of educational environment and its empirical indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Laktionova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the study is to identify ways of complex psychological assessment of educational en-vironment quality, the nature of conditions that affect positive personal development of its members. The solution to this problem is to develop science-based content and technology sup-port for psychological evaluation of the educational environment. The purpose of the study was theoretical rationale and empirical testing of a model of psychological examination of education-al environment. The study is based on the assumption that in order to assess the quality of the educational environment in the aspect of its personality developing potential, we need to create a model of psychological examination as a special developmental system, reflected in terms of the personal characteristics of its subjects. The empirical material is based on a study sample of 717 students and 438 teachers from 28 educational institutions that participated in the program of urban pilot sites of the Department of Education of Moscow. In total, 1,155 people took part it the study.

  9. A model of scientific attitudes assessment by observation in physics learning based scientific approach: case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusliana Ekawati, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to produce a model of scientific attitude assessment in terms of the observations for physics learning based scientific approach (case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school). Development of instruments in this study adaptation of the Plomp model, the procedure includes the initial investigation, design, construction, testing, evaluation and revision. The test is done in Surakarta, so that the data obtained are analyzed using Aiken formula to determine the validity of the content of the instrument, Cronbach’s alpha to determine the reliability of the instrument, and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis with LISREL 8.50 program. The results of this research were conceptual models, instruments and guidelines on scientific attitudes assessment by observation. The construct assessment instruments include components of curiosity, objectivity, suspended judgment, open-mindedness, honesty and perseverance. The construct validity of instruments has been qualified (rated load factor > 0.3). The reliability of the model is quite good with the Alpha value 0.899 (> 0.7). The test showed that the model fits the theoretical models are supported by empirical data, namely p-value 0.315 (≥ 0.05), RMSEA 0.027 (≤ 0.08)

  10. Are opinions based on science: modelling social response to scientific facts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Iñiguez

    Full Text Available As scientists we like to think that modern societies and their members base their views, opinions and behaviour on scientific facts. This is not necessarily the case, even though we are all (over- exposed to information flow through various channels of media, i.e. newspapers, television, radio, internet, and web. It is thought that this is mainly due to the conflicting information on the mass media and to the individual attitude (formed by cultural, educational and environmental factors, that is, one external factor and another personal factor. In this paper we will investigate the dynamical development of opinion in a small population of agents by means of a computational model of opinion formation in a co-evolving network of socially linked agents. The personal and external factors are taken into account by assigning an individual attitude parameter to each agent, and by subjecting all to an external but homogeneous field to simulate the effect of the media. We then adjust the field strength in the model by using actual data on scientific perception surveys carried out in two different populations, which allow us to compare two different societies. We interpret the model findings with the aid of simple mean field calculations. Our results suggest that scientifically sound concepts are more difficult to acquire than concepts not validated by science, since opposing individuals organize themselves in close communities that prevent opinion consensus.

  11. Are opinions based on science: modelling social response to scientific facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Tagüeña-Martínez, Julia; Kaski, Kimmo K; Barrio, Rafael A

    2012-01-01

    As scientists we like to think that modern societies and their members base their views, opinions and behaviour on scientific facts. This is not necessarily the case, even though we are all (over-) exposed to information flow through various channels of media, i.e. newspapers, television, radio, internet, and web. It is thought that this is mainly due to the conflicting information on the mass media and to the individual attitude (formed by cultural, educational and environmental factors), that is, one external factor and another personal factor. In this paper we will investigate the dynamical development of opinion in a small population of agents by means of a computational model of opinion formation in a co-evolving network of socially linked agents. The personal and external factors are taken into account by assigning an individual attitude parameter to each agent, and by subjecting all to an external but homogeneous field to simulate the effect of the media. We then adjust the field strength in the model by using actual data on scientific perception surveys carried out in two different populations, which allow us to compare two different societies. We interpret the model findings with the aid of simple mean field calculations. Our results suggest that scientifically sound concepts are more difficult to acquire than concepts not validated by science, since opposing individuals organize themselves in close communities that prevent opinion consensus.

  12. Models of proximate and ultimate causation in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, G

    1992-11-01

    B. F. Skinner saw behavior as a product of three levels of evolution. J. R. Kantor and Gregory Bateson noted similar relations. This article describes and applies basic evolutionary concepts to each level: (a) phylogenic, (b) ontogenic, and (c) cultural evolution. Each level is analyzed in terms of (a) units of selection, (b) variety of units required for the selection process, (c) selection pressures, (d) interactions among levels, and (e) implications for understanding and predicting behavior. Distinguishing between models of proximate and ultimate causation, as in biology, may help clarify research problems posed by, and facilitate better communication among, psychologists.

  13. Pragmatism, mathematical models, and the scientific ideal of prediction and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J

    2015-05-01

    Mathematical models are often held to be valuable, if not necessary, for theories and explanations in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The present review suggests that mathematical models primarily derived from the observation of functional relations do indeed contribute to the scientific value of theories and explanations, even though the final form of the models appears to be highly abstract. However, mathematical models not primarily so derived risk being essentialist in character, based on a particular view of formal causation. Such models invite less effective and frequently mentalistic theories and explanations of behavior. Models may be evaluated in terms of both (a) the verbal processes responsible for their origin and development and (b) the prediction and control engendered by the theories and explanations that incorporate the models, however indirect or abstract that prediction and control may be. Overall, the present review suggests that technological application and theoretical contemplation may be usefully viewed as continuous and overlapping forms of scientific activity, rather than dichotomous and mutually exclusive.

  14. Ensuring confidence in predictions: A scheme to assess the scientific validity of in silico models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Mark; Ellison, Claire M; Cronin, Mark T D; Pastor, Manuel; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Munoz-Muriendas, Jordi; Pognan, Francois; Madden, Judith C

    2015-06-23

    The use of in silico tools within the drug development process to predict a wide range of properties including absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity has become increasingly important due to changes in legislation and both ethical and economic drivers to reduce animal testing. Whilst in silico tools have been used for decades there remains reluctance to accept predictions based on these methods particularly in regulatory settings. This apprehension arises in part due to lack of confidence in the reliability, robustness and applicability of the models. To address this issue we propose a scheme for the verification of in silico models that enables end users and modellers to assess the scientific validity of models in accordance with the principles of good computer modelling practice. We report here the implementation of the scheme within the Innovative Medicines Initiative project "eTOX" (electronic toxicity) and its application to the in silico models developed within the frame of this project.

  15. Models and theories of brain function in cognition within a framework of behavioral cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Sirel; Başar, Erol

    2006-05-01

    The present article presents a nonexhaustive collection of contemporary models and theories on brain function and discusses these models and theories within a framework of explanatory formulations in behavioral cognitive psychology. Such a mission was accomplished by evaluating the cognitive implications in the explanatory formulations with respect to established laws/principles and models/theories of behavioral cognitive psychology. The article also points to problem areas of behavioral cognitive psychology for which the explanatory formulations have solutions to offer. The article shows that the cinematographic hypothesis, the new visual model, the synergetic model, and the theory of whole-brain-work emphasize various aspects of perception. The formulations on P300 theory emphasize attention and also working memory. The theory on cognits is a comprehensive account of memory. Characteristic to all of these explanatory formulations and also to that on the complexity and its evolution and that on neurocognitive networks is the emphasis on selective distribution, integration to the point of supersynergy, and dynamicity. Such a viewpoint was not only applied to the operations of the brain but also of cognition. With such a conceptualization, the explanatory formulations could account for cognitive processes other than the ones emphasized. A common aspect in a majority of the formulations is the utilization of the oscillatory activity as the valid activity of the brain. The article points out that a frontier in cognitive psychophysiology would be the study of the genetics of brain oscillations.

  16. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  17. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  18. FILLING IN THE GAPS OF CHRONIC PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS DISEASE MODELS: WHAT'S METABOLIC PROFILING HAVE TO DO WITH IT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic psychological stress has profound effects on human health and well being, and it is generally accepted that psychological stress is a burgeoning public health problem in modern day life. However, models used to describe or predict stress-related disease are generally plagued by the paucity o...

  19. The Relational-Behavior Model: The Relationship between Intrinsic Motivational Instruction and Extrinsic Motivation in Psychologically Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study examined the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction in psychology courses. Among a sample of 33 college students enrolled in two undergraduate psychology courses, a Spearman rho analysis revealed a significant relationship between the intrinsic motivational factors (e.g. student/class…

  20. CERN’s model for international scientific collaboration to be discussed at UNOG

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 2 November, on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the United Nations, CERN and UNOG will co-host a one-day symposium, with the support of Switzerland and France. The event will bring together policy-makers, scientists and members of civil society to debate how to construct synergies across communities as a means to drive global objectives. CERN people are invited to the Palais des Nations to take part.   CERN's seat at the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York. How does CERN work? How are goals achieved in such a complex environment where diverse communities work together in the interests of science? CERN’s model for international scientific collaboration is being looked at with growing interest by an increasingly large community of experts in various fields. Scientific advances and accomplishments are testament to the effectiveness of the model and prove that ambitious scientific programmes can be carried out only by communities c...

  1. Analyzing Ocean Tracks: A model for student engagement in authentic scientific practices using data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, K.; Krumhansl, R.; Brown, C.; DeLisi, J.; Kochevar, R.; Sickler, J.; Busey, A.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Block, B.

    2013-12-01

    The collection of large quantities of scientific data has not only transformed science, but holds the potential to transform teaching and learning by engaging students in authentic scientific work. Furthermore, it has become imperative in a data-rich world that students gain competency in working with and interpreting data. The Next Generation Science Standards reflect both the opportunity and need for greater integration of data in science education, and emphasize that both scientific knowledge and practice are essential elements of science learning. The process of enabling access by novice learners to data collected and used by experts poses significant challenges, however, recent research has demonstrated that barriers to student learning with data can be overcome by the careful design of data access and analysis tools that are specifically tailored to students. A group of educators at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) and scientists at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station are collaborating to develop and test a model for student engagement with scientific data using a web-based platform. This model, called Ocean Tracks: Investigating Marine Migrations in a Changing Ocean, provides students with the ability to plot and analyze tracks of migrating marine animals collected through the Tagging of Pacific Predators program. The interface and associated curriculum support students in identifying relationships between animal behavior and physical oceanographic variables (e.g. SST, chlorophyll, currents), making linkages between the living world and climate. Students are also supported in investigating possible sources of human impact to important biodiversity hotspots in the Pacific Ocean. The first round of classroom testing revealed that students were able to easily access and display data on the interface, and collect measurements from the animal tracks and oceanographic data layers. They were able to link multiple types of data to draw powerful

  2. The psychological contract: is the UK National Health Service a model employer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Sandra; Whiting, Fiona

    2007-05-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) is facing recruitment challenges that mean it will need to become an 'employer of choice' if it is to continue to attract high-quality employees. This paper reports the findings from a study focusing on allied health professional staff (n = 67), aimed at establishing the expectations of the NHS inherent in their current psychological contract and to consider whether the government's drive to make the NHS a model employer meets those expectations. The findings show that the most important aspects of the psychological contract were relational and based on the investment made in the employment relationship by both parties. The employment relationship was one of high involvement but also one where transactional contract items, such as pay, were still of some importance. Although the degree of employee satisfaction with the relational content of the psychological contract was relatively positive, there was, nevertheless, a mismatch between levels of importance placed on such aspects of the contract and levels of satisfaction, with employees increasingly placing greater emphasis on those items the NHS is having the greatest difficulty providing. Despite this apparent disparity between employee expectation and the fulfilment of those expectations, the overall health of the psychological contract was still high.

  3. Integrating economic and psychological insights in binary choice models with social interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ostasiewicz, K; Magnuszewski, P; Radosz, A; Sendzimir, J; Tyc, M H; Goliczewski, Piotr; Magnuszewski, Piotr; Ostasiewicz, Katarzyna; Radosz, Andrzej; Sendzimir, Jan; Tyc, Michal H.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a class of binary choice models with social interactions. We propose a unifying perspective that integrates economic models using a utility function and psychological models using an impact function. A general approach for analyzing the equilibrium structure of these models within mean-field approximation is developed. It is shown that within a mean-field approach both the utility function and the impact function models are equivalent to threshold models. The interplay between heterogeneity and randomness in model formulation is discussed. A general framework is applied in a number of examples leading to some well-known models but also showing the possibility of more complex dynamics related to multiple equilibria. Our synthesis can provide a basis for many practical applications extending the scope of binary choice models.

  4. Authorship of scientific articles within an ethical-legal framework: quantitative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Y. Vallejo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining authorship and the order of authorship in scientific papers, in modern interdisciplinary and interinstitutional science, has become complex at a legal and ethical level. Failure to define authorship before or during the research, creates subsequent problems for those considered authors of a publication or lead authors of a work, particularly so, once the project or manuscript is completed. This article proposes a quantitative and qualitative model to determine authorship within a scientific, ethical and legal frame. The principles used for the construction of this design are based on 2 criteria: a stages of research and scientific method involving: 1. Planning and development of the research project, 2. Design and data collection, 3. Presentation of results, 4. Interpretation of results, 5. Manuscript preparation to disseminate new knowledge to the scientific community, 6. Administration and management, and b weighting coefficients in each phase, to decide on authorship and ownership of the work. The model also considers and distinguishes whether the level and activity performed during the creation of the work and the diffusion of knowledge is an intellectual or practical contribution; this distinction both contrasts and complements the elements protected by copyright laws. The format can be applied a priori and a posteriori to the completion of a project or manuscript and can conform to any research and publication. The use of this format will quantitatively resolve: 1. The order of authorship (first author and co-author order, 2. Determine the inclusion and exclusion of contributors, taking into account ethical and legal principles, and 3. Percentages of economic rights for each authors.

  5. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel\\'s MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  6. A tale of two slinkies: learning about scientific models in a student-driven classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Punit; Berggren, Calvin; Livezey, Jesse; Olf, Ryan

    2014-11-01

    We describe a set of conceptual activities and hands-on experiments based around understanding the dynamics of a slinky that is hung vertically and released from rest. The motion, or lack thereof, of the bottom of the slinky after the top is dropped sparks students' curiosity by challenging their expectations and provides context for learning about scientific model building. This curriculum helps students learn about the model building process by giving them an opportunity to enlist their collective intellectual and creative resources to develop and explore two different physical models of the falling slinky system. By engaging with two complementary models, students not only have the opportunity to understand an intriguing phenomenon from multiple perspectives, but also learn deeper lessons about the nature of scientific understanding, the role of physical models, and the experience of doing science. The activities we present were part of a curriculum developed for a week-long summer program for incoming freshmen as a part of the Compass Project at UC Berkeley, but could easily be implemented in a wide range of classrooms at the high school or introductory college level.

  7. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  8. The Practice-oriented Model of «School Psychology» Master's Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruschenko T.Y.,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We presented the experience in the development and testing the module “Psychological diagnosis of students” of the “School psychology” master program in “Psychological and pedagogical education” training direction. We discussed contemporary contexts of design educational modules that are defined by ideas of cultural-historical approach of the scientific school of L.S. Vygotsky, educational theories and activities of developing education by D.B. Elkonin, V.V. Davydov, collectively distributed educational activity of V.V. Rubtsov. We analyzed the issue of professional competence training in educational psychologists at higher education. We presented the connection between the content of masters training and the requirements of the Professional standard “Teacher-psychologist (the psychologist in education”. Within the context of the network of educational organizations we paid special attention to the content and organization of distributed practice as the basic condition of master’s professional competences formation and their readiness for the implementation of the working activities.

  9. The Structural Model of Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being for Pregnancy-Specific Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatian, Mahrokh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Dilgony, Taibeh; Shams, Jamal; Zaeri, Farid

    2017-04-26

    Women experience different types of stress in their lifetime. The present study was conducted to examine the structural model of spirituality and psychological well-being for pregnancy-specific stress. The present descriptive correlational study was conducted on 450 pregnant Iranian women (150 women from each trimester) in Dehdasht city in 2015. Data were collected using the personal-social questionnaire, the pregnancy-specific stress questionnaire, the spirituality questionnaire and the psychological well-being questionnaire and were then analyzed in SPSS-16 and Lisrel-8.8 for carrying out a path analysis. The fit indices of the model indicate the good fit and high compatibility of the model and rational relationships between the variables (GFI = 0.94, NFI = 0.85, CFI = 0.94 and RMSEA = 0.048). Of the variables that affected pregnancy-specific stress through both paths, spirituality had a positive effect (B = 0.11) and the personal-social variable a negative effect (B = -0.37). Psychological well-being affected pregnancy-specific stress negatively and directly and through one path only (B = -0.59). The results obtained through the model confirm the effect of spirituality and psychological well-being in reducing pregnancy-specific stress. Given that handling stress has a major role in the quality of daily life in pregnant women, stress management skills are recommended to be promoted among pregnant women so as to mitigate stress and its negative consequences.

  10. Which psychological factors influence Internet addiction? Evidence through an integrative model

    OpenAIRE

    Burnay, Jonathan; Billieux, Joël; Blairy, Sylvie; Laroi, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Since the appearance of Internet, several preoccupations have appeared as a result, with Internet addiction being one of the most common. The goals of the present study were two-fold. First, to examine which psychological factors are relevant to explain Internet addiction, including impulsivity, passion and social provision. Second, to incorporate all these factors into an integrative model. Based on multiple regressions and path analysis, results revealed a positive relation between Internet...

  11. A participative model for undertaking and evaluating scientific communication in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Public communication of Science and Technology (PCST) is an integral part of the mission of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and widely carried out among the scientific community. Recently it has also become a research field investigating practices, channels, tools and models of public engagement and their impact on the relation between Science and Society. Understanding such aspects is increasingly considered relevant for an effective and aware outreach. Within this context, CNR has adopted some innovative communication approaches addressed to different publics, such as stakeholders, users, media, young people and the general public, using participative methodologies. Besides being practices of communication promoting the scientific culture, such initiatives aim at understanding the models at the basis of the relationship between the scientific community and the public. To what extent do scientists put their communication and involvement strategies in discussion? Do they use to have a real exchange with their publics in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the participatory techniques they adopt in communicating and disseminating their activities? In this paper we present a case study of a communication and educational proposal recently developed by CNR in order to promote a mutual exchange between Education/School and Research, that are the most important actors in the production and the revision of the scientific knowledge. The proposal brings an ongoing CNR research project (its steps, subjects, tools, activities, costs etc) in classrooms, making use of interactive Earth Sciences workshops conducted directly by researchers. The ongoing CNR project shared with students studies Innovative Methodologies of Earth Observation supporting the Agricultural sector in Lombardy. It aims at exploiting the Aerospace Earth Observation (EO) tools to develop dedicated agricultural downstream services that will bring added economic value and benefits for Lombardy

  12. Positive Instruction in Music Studios: Introducing a New Model for Teaching Studio Music in Schools Based upon Positive Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Patston, Tim; Waters, Lea

    2015-01-01

    This practice paper explores the intersection of school studio-music pedagogy and positive psychology in order to enhance students’ learning and engagement. The paper has a practitioner focus and puts forward a new model of studio teaching, the Positive Instruction in Music Studios (PIMS) model that guides teachers through four key positive psychology processes that can be used in a music lesson: positive priming, strengths spotting, positive pause, and process praise. The model provides a ne...

  13. Positive Instruction in Music Studios: Introducing a New Model for Teaching Studio Music in Schools Based upon Positive Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Patston, Tim; Waters, Lea

    2015-01-01

    This practice paper explores the intersection of school studio-music pedagogy and positive psychology in order to enhance students? learning and engagement. The paper has a practitioner focus and puts forward a new model of studio teaching, the Positive Instruction in Music Studios (PIMS) model that guides teachers through four key positive psychology processes that can be used in a music lesson: positive priming, strengths spotting, positive pause, and process praise. The model provides a ne...

  14. The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: intrusive memories and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Clark, Ian A; Visser, Renée M; Hagenaars, Muriel A; Holmes, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an experimental psychopathology model to study both exposure and reactions to psychological trauma, including the hallmark symptom of intrusive memories. We reviewed 74 articles that have used this paradigm since the earliest review (Holmes & Bourne, 2008) until July 2014. Highlighting the different stages of trauma processing, i.e. pre-, peri- and post-trauma, the studies are divided according to manipulations before, during and after film viewing, for experimental as well as correlational designs. While the majority of studies focussed on the frequency of intrusive memories, other reactions to trauma were also modelled. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of trauma, consider ethical issues, and suggest future directions. By understanding the basic mechanisms underlying trauma symptom development, we can begin to translate findings from the laboratory to the clinic, test innovative science-driven interventions, and in the future reduce the debilitating effects of psychopathology following stressful and/or traumatic events.

  15. 人流对未婚女性的身心影响与科学引导措施%The Abortion Impact on Unmarried Women's Physical and Psychological and Scientific Guidance Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究并探讨人流对未婚女性的身心影响及科学的引导措施。方法对106例接受人工流产的未婚女性进行身心实况调查,并实施科学的引导措施。结果经统计发现,人流未婚女性的身心都有较大的伤害,主要表现在紧张、恐惧、焦虑、抑郁、躯体不适等。实施科学引导措施后,患者的身心实况得到明显改善。结论对未婚先孕的女性在人流前后应实施科学的引导措施,心理疏导尤为重要。它可以明显减少术后综合征的发生,提高未婚人流女性的生活质量及心理健康水平。%Objective Research and explore the abortion impact on unmar ied women's physical and psychological condition and scientific guidance measures.Methods Conduct a survey of physical and psychological on 106 cases of unmar ied women who accepted of abortion,and implement scientific guidance measures.Results The statistics found that, abortion have greater harm on physical and psychological for unmar ied women,mainly in nervous ,fear, anxiety, depression, discomfort in physical and so on.Patients' physical and psychological condition had impoved significantly after implement scientific guidance measures.Conclusion For unwed women who are conceived,scientific guide measures should be taken before and after abortion.It can reduce the incidence of postoperative syndrome significantly, improve the quality of life and mental health of women who are unmarried and abortion.

  16. Stepping into the Unknown: Three Models for the Teaching and Learning of the Opening Sections of Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Different genres of scientific articles have begun to diffuse into science curricula. Among them, adapted primary literature (APL) retains the characteristics of scientific research articles, while adapting their contents to the knowledge level of students in the 11th to 12th grades. We present three models for the teaching and learning of the…

  17. Computational Scientific Inquiry with Virtual Worlds and Agent-Based Models: New Ways of Doing Science to Learn Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Richards, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose computational scientific inquiry (CSI) as an innovative model for learning important scientific knowledge and new practices for "doing" science. This approach involves the use of a "game-like" virtual world for students to experience virtual biological fieldwork in conjunction with using an agent-based…

  18. Stepping into the Unknown: Three Models for the Teaching and Learning of the Opening Sections of Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Different genres of scientific articles have begun to diffuse into science curricula. Among them, adapted primary literature (APL) retains the characteristics of scientific research articles, while adapting their contents to the knowledge level of students in the 11th to 12th grades. We present three models for the teaching and learning of the…

  19. Computational Scientific Inquiry with Virtual Worlds and Agent-Based Models: New Ways of Doing Science to Learn Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Richards, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose computational scientific inquiry (CSI) as an innovative model for learning important scientific knowledge and new practices for "doing" science. This approach involves the use of a "game-like" virtual world for students to experience virtual biological fieldwork in conjunction with using an agent-based…

  20. Selenium, copper and iron in veterinary medicine-From clinical implications to scientific models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann-Ziehank, Esther

    2016-09-01

    Diseases related to copper, selenium or iron overload or deficiency are common and well-described in large animal veterinary medicine. Some of them certainly have the potential to serve as useful animal models for ongoing research in the field of trace elements. Obvious advantages of large animal models compared to laboratory animal models like rats and mice are the option of long-term, consecutive examinations of progressive deficient or toxic stages and the opportunity to collect various, high volume samples for repeated measurements. Nevertheless, close cooperation between scientific disciplines is necessary as scientists using high sophisticated analytical methods and equipment are not regularly in touch with scientists working with large animal diseases. This review will give an introduction into some typical animal diseases related to trace elements and will present approaches where the animal diseases were used already as a model for interdisciplinary research.

  1. A geometric graph model of the coevolution between citations and coauthorships in scientific papers

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Zheng; Li, Jianping; Li, Miao; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-01-01

    Collaborations and citations within scientific research grow simultaneously and interact dynamically. Modelling the coevolution between them helps to study many phenomena that can be approached only through combining citation and coauthorship data. A geometric graph for the coevolution is proposed, the mechanism of which synthetically expresses the interactive impacts of authors and papers in a geometrical way. The model is validated against a data set of papers published in PNAS during 2000-2015. The validation shows the ability to reproduce a range of features observed with citation and coauthorship data combined and separately. Particulary, in the empirical distribution of citations per author there exist two limits, in which the distribution appears as a generalized Poisson and a power-law respectively. Our model successfully reproduces the shape of the distribution, and provides an explanation for how the shape emerges. The model also captures the empirically positive correlations between the numbers of ...

  2. Historical Scientific Models and Theories as Resources for Learning and Teaching: The Case of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a history of research and theories on sliding friction between solids. This history is divided into four phases: from Leonardo da Vinci to Coulomb and the establishment of classical laws of friction; the theories of lubrication and the Tomlinson's theory of friction (1850-1930); the theories of wear, the Bowden and Tabor's synthesis and the birth of Tribology (1930-1980); nanotribology, friction at the atomic scale, and new fields of research (after 1980). Attention is given to recent research, so giving the sense of a topic that is still alive and currently an object of interest, with interpretative controversies. The development of explanatory and visual models is especially stressed, in connection with students' common ideas and with didactic purposes. The history shows that many models proposed in the past have been modified but not abandoned, so that here the scientific evolution has worked more by adding than by eliminating. The last sections discuss problems and proposals on teaching friction and the possible uses in teaching of models, images and theories found in history. Concerning the role of the history in science teaching, the case of friction has particular features, because some recent developments are unknown to most teachers and many results, also not very recent, contrast with the laws usually proposed in textbooks. Here history can supply a number of models, examples and experiments which can constitute useful resources to improve student understanding, joining together objectives of cultural value and of better scientific knowledge.

  3. Stereotypes Can "Get Under the Skin": Testing a Self-Stereotyping and Psychological Resource Model of Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Luis M; Paredez, Stefanie M

    2014-06-01

    The authors draw upon social, personality, and health psychology to propose and test a self-stereotyping and psychological resource model of overweight and obesity. The model contends that self-stereotyping depletes psychological resources, namely self-esteem, that help to prevent overweight and obesity. In support of the model, mediation analysis demonstrates that adult Hispanics who highly self-stereotype had lower levels of self-esteem than those who self-stereotype less, which in turn predicted higher levels of body mass index (overweight and obesity levels). Furthermore, the model did not hold for the referent sample, White participants, and an alternative mediation model was not supported. These data are the first to theoretically and empirically link self-stereotyping and self-esteem (a psychological resource) with a strong physiological risk factor for morbidity and short life expectancy in stigmatized individuals. Thus, this research contributes to understanding ethnic-racial health disparities in the United States and beyond.

  4. Coupling of a continuum ice sheet model and a discrete element calving model using a scientific workflow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Shahbaz; Vallot, Dorothée; Zwinger, Thomas; Neukirchen, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Scientific communities generate complex simulations through orchestration of semi-structured analysis pipelines which involves execution of large workflows on multiple, distributed and heterogeneous computing and data resources. Modeling ice dynamics of glaciers requires workflows consisting of many non-trivial, computationally expensive processing tasks which are coupled to each other. From this domain, we present an e-Science use case, a workflow, which requires the execution of a continuum ice flow model and a discrete element based calving model in an iterative manner. Apart from the execution, this workflow also contains data format conversion tasks that support the execution of ice flow and calving by means of transition through sequential, nested and iterative steps. Thus, the management and monitoring of all the processing tasks including data management and transfer of the workflow model becomes more complex. From the implementation perspective, this workflow model was initially developed on a set of scripts using static data input and output references. In the course of application usage when more scripts or modifications introduced as per user requirements, the debugging and validation of results were more cumbersome to achieve. To address these problems, we identified a need to have a high-level scientific workflow tool through which all the above mentioned processes can be achieved in an efficient and usable manner. We decided to make use of the e-Science middleware UNICORE (Uniform Interface to Computing Resources) that allows seamless and automated access to different heterogenous and distributed resources which is supported by a scientific workflow engine. Based on this, we developed a high-level scientific workflow model for coupling of massively parallel High-Performance Computing (HPC) jobs: a continuum ice sheet model (Elmer/Ice) and a discrete element calving and crevassing model (HiDEM). In our talk we present how the use of a high

  5. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  6. Does attainment of Piaget's formal operational level of cognitive development predict student understanding of scientific models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Richard Dennis, II

    Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer standards. Effective methods of instruction will need to be developed to enable students to achieve these standards. The literature reveals an inconsistent history of success with modeling education. These same studies point to a possible cognitive development component which might explain why some students succeeded and others failed. An environmental science course, rich in modeling experiences, was used to test both the extent to which knowledge of models and modeling could be improved over the course of one semester, and more importantly, to identify if cognitive ability was related to this improvement. In addition, nature of science knowledge, particularly related to theories and theory change, was also examined. Pretest and posttest results on modeling (SUMS) and nature of science (SUSSI), as well as data from the modeling activities themselves, was collected. Cognitive ability was measured (CTSR) as a covariate. Students' gain in six of seven categories of modeling knowledge was at least medium (Cohen's d >.5) and moderately correlated to CTSR for two of seven categories. Nature of science gains were smaller, although more strongly correlated with CTSR. Student success at creating a model was related to CTSR, significantly in three of five sub-categories. These results suggest that explicit, reflective experience with models can increase student knowledge of models and modeling (although higher cognitive ability students may have more success), but successfully creating models may depend more heavily on cognitive ability. This finding in particular has implications in the grade placement of modeling standards and

  7. Using an Agent-Based Modeling Simulation and Game to Teach Socio-Scientific Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori L. Scarlatos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In our modern world, where science, technology and society are tightly interwoven, it is essential that all students be able to evaluate scientific evidence and make informed decisions. Energy Choices, an agent-based simulation with a multiplayer game interface, was developed as a learning tool that models the interdependencies between the energy choices that are made, growth in local economies, and climate change on a global scale. This paper presents the results of pilot testing Energy Choices in two different settings, using two different modes of delivery.

  8. Ecological Interventionist Causal Models in Psychosis: Targeting Psychological Mechanisms in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Depp, Colin A; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-03-01

    Integrated models of psychotic disorders have posited a number of putative psychological mechanisms that may contribute to the development of psychotic symptoms, but it is only recently that a modest amount of experience sampling research has provided evidence on their role in daily life, outside the research laboratory. A number of methodological challenges remain in evaluating specificity of potential causal links between a given psychological mechanism and psychosis outcomes in a systematic fashion, capitalizing on longitudinal data to investigate temporal ordering. In this article, we argue for testing ecological interventionist causal models that draw on real world and real-time delivered, ecological momentary interventions for generating evidence on several causal criteria (association, time order, and direction/sole plausibility) under real-world conditions, while maximizing generalizability to social contexts and experiences in heterogeneous populations. Specifically, this approach tests whether ecological momentary interventions can (1) modify a putative mechanism and (2) produce changes in the mechanism that lead to sustainable changes in intended psychosis outcomes in individuals' daily lives. Future research using this approach will provide translational evidence on the active ingredients of mobile health and in-person interventions that promote sustained effectiveness of ecological momentary interventions and, thereby, contribute to ongoing efforts that seek to enhance effectiveness of psychological interventions under real-world conditions.

  9. Selected neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral influences on subjective sleep quality in nurses: a structure equation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Huey Chung

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined relationships among neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral factors with regard to their effects on sleep quality. We used a structure equation model to investigate behavioral and psychological factors that influence neurophysiological regulation of sleep in shift workers. Using a cross-sectional study design, we tested the model with a sample of 338 female nurses working rotating shifts at an urban regional hospital. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ and short-form Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ were used to measure neurophysiological factors involved in morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress. The Sleep Hygiene Awareness and Practice Scale (SHAPS and Profile of Mood States Short Form (POMS-SF were completed to measure behavioral factors of sleep hygiene practices and psychological factors of mood states. In addition, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI measured participant's self-reported sleep quality. The results revealed that sleep hygiene practices and mood states mediated the effects of morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress on sleep quality. Our findings provide support for developing interventions to enhance sleep hygiene and maintain positive mood states to reduce the influence of neurophysiological factors on sleep quality among shift workers.

  10. Selected neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral influences on subjective sleep quality in nurses: a structure equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Huey; Liu, Wen-I; Lee, Hui-Ling; Hsu, Nanly

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined relationships among neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral factors with regard to their effects on sleep quality. We used a structure equation model to investigate behavioral and psychological factors that influence neurophysiological regulation of sleep in shift workers. Using a cross-sectional study design, we tested the model with a sample of 338 female nurses working rotating shifts at an urban regional hospital. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and short-form Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) were used to measure neurophysiological factors involved in morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress. The Sleep Hygiene Awareness and Practice Scale (SHAPS) and Profile of Mood States Short Form (POMS-SF) were completed to measure behavioral factors of sleep hygiene practices and psychological factors of mood states. In addition, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) measured participant's self-reported sleep quality. The results revealed that sleep hygiene practices and mood states mediated the effects of morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress on sleep quality. Our findings provide support for developing interventions to enhance sleep hygiene and maintain positive mood states to reduce the influence of neurophysiological factors on sleep quality among shift workers.

  11. Growing complex network of citations of scientific papers: Modeling and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosovsky, Michael; Solomon, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    We consider the network of citations of scientific papers and use a combination of the theoretical and experimental tools to uncover microscopic details of this network growth. Namely, we develop a stochastic model of citation dynamics based on the copying-redirection-triadic closure mechanism. In a complementary and coherent way, the model accounts both for statistics of references of scientific papers and for their citation dynamics. Originating in empirical measurements, the model is cast in such a way that it can be verified quantitatively in every aspect. Such validation is performed by measuring citation dynamics of physics papers. The measurements revealed nonlinear citation dynamics, the nonlinearity being intricately related to network topology. The nonlinearity has far-reaching consequences including nonstationary citation distributions, diverging citation trajectories of similar papers, runaways or "immortal papers" with infinite citation lifetime, etc. Thus nonlinearity in complex network growth is our most important finding. In a more specific context, our results can be a basis for quantitative probabilistic prediction of citation dynamics of individual papers and of the journal impact factor.

  12. Growing complex network of citations of scientific papers: Modeling and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosovsky, Michael; Solomon, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    We consider the network of citations of scientific papers and use a combination of the theoretical and experimental tools to uncover microscopic details of this network growth. Namely, we develop a stochastic model of citation dynamics based on the copying-redirection-triadic closure mechanism. In a complementary and coherent way, the model accounts both for statistics of references of scientific papers and for their citation dynamics. Originating in empirical measurements, the model is cast in such a way that it can be verified quantitatively in every aspect. Such validation is performed by measuring citation dynamics of physics papers. The measurements revealed nonlinear citation dynamics, the nonlinearity being intricately related to network topology. The nonlinearity has far-reaching consequences including nonstationary citation distributions, diverging citation trajectories of similar papers, runaways or "immortal papers" with infinite citation lifetime, etc. Thus nonlinearity in complex network growth is our most important finding. In a more specific context, our results can be a basis for quantitative probabilistic prediction of citation dynamics of individual papers and of the journal impact factor.

  13. Psychological Assessment with the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders: Tradition and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Mark H; Hopwood, Christopher J; Krueger, Robert F; Morey, Leslie C; Pincus, Aaron L; Wright, Aidan G C

    2017-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD; APA, 2013) represents an innovative system for simultaneous psychiatric classification and psychological assessment of personality disorders (PD). The AMPD combines major paradigms of personality assessment and provides an original, heuristic, flexible, and practical framework that enriches clinical thinking and practice. Origins, emerging research, and clinical application of the AMPD for diagnosis and psychological assessment are reviewed. The AMPD integrates assessment and research traditions, facilitates case conceptualization, is easy to learn and use, and assists in providing patient feedback. New as well as existing tests and psychometric methods may be used to operationalize the AMPD for clinical assessments.

  14. The hoarding dimension of OCD: psychological comorbidity and the five-factor personality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSalle-Ricci, V Holland; Arnkoff, Diane B; Glass, Carol R; Crawley, Sarah A; Ronquillo, Jonne G; Murphy, Dennis L

    2006-10-01

    Although hoarding has been associated with several psychological disorders, it is most frequently linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study assessed hoarding obsessions and compulsions in 204 individuals with OCD, and evaluated how hoarding was related to obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, psychological comorbidity, and personality as measured by the five-factor model. Results indicated that hoarding in OCD is a dimensional variable that is positively associated with dysphoria, total number of lifetime Axis I disorders, and lifetime histories of bipolar I, PTSD, and body dysmorphic disorder. Hoarding was negatively correlated with the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) factor of Conscientiousness and positively associated with the NEO-PI-R factor of Neuroticism. When all personality and psychopathology variables were entered into a regression equation, dysphoria, bipolar II disorder, Conscientiousness, age, and Extraversion emerged as significant predictors of hoarding severity. Recommendations are made for clinicians and for future research.

  15. Appraisement on Contributive Ratio of Scientific and Technical Progresses in Milk Productive Enterprises by Model C2GS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Futian; SUN Liqun; YANG Guanglin

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technical progress has been the driving forces of enterprises development. Milk productive enterprises are developing faster and growing better. It is very important to measure the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises. And the appraisement could help to develop milk productive enterprises. The model C2GS2 was established to appraise the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises in the research. And the appraisement on the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises was made by the model. In the results of appraisement, science and technology play a main role in milk productive enterprises. It is shown that our milk productive enterprises are developed by scientific and technical progress while not by input of productive factors.

  16. The Use of Video Technology to Enhance Researcher Capacity to Meet Scientific and Moral Criteria for Evaluation of Discursive Psychological Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jenny; Clarke, David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to justify and reflect upon the way in which video technologies were employed in data generation for a study of student agency in a science classroom using discursive psychology. The research was designed with the purpose of providing new understanding of how students develop a sense of themselves as responsible agents…

  17. Assessment of a model for achieving competency in administration and scoring of the WAIS-IV in postgraduate psychology students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rachel Margaret Roberts; Melissa eDavis

    2015-01-01

    .... Twenty three postgraduate psychology students underwent training in using the WAIS-IV according to a best-practice teaching model that involved didactic teaching, independent study of the test manual...

  18. Structural Model of psychological risk and protective factors affecting on quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease: A psychocardiology model

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Khayyam Nekouei; Alireza Yousefy; Hamid Taher Neshat Doost; Gholamreza Manshaee; Masoumeh Sadeghei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conducted researches show that psychological factors may have a very important role in the etiology, continuity and consequences of coronary heart diseases. This study has drawn the psychological risk and protective factors and their effects in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD) in a structural model. It aims to determine the structural relations between psychological risk and protective factors with quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease. Materials and M...

  19. Computational Models of Cognitive Processes: Proceedings of the 13th Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (Ncpw13)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayor, Julien; Gomez, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Computational Models of Cognitive Processes collects refereed versions of papers presented at the 13th Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (NCPW13) that took place in July 2012, in San Sebastian (Spain). This workshop series is a well-established and unique forum that brings together researchers from such diverse disciplines as artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science, neurobiology, philosophy and psychology to discuss their latest work on models of cognitive proces...

  20. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  1. Psychological Test Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psychological test.

  2. ANALYZE CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS AND SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE IN PHYSICS LEARNING USED INQUIRY TRAINING AND DIRECT INSTRUCTION LEARNING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Parsaoran Damanik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1 the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2 The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3 To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which students of private junior high school Two Raya Kahean District Simalungun. Population choose random sample of each class. Instrument used consisted of: (1 test the scientific attitude of students through a questionnaire with 25 statements questionnaire number (2 test the critical thinking skills in the form of descriptions by 9 questions. The data were analyzed according to ANAVA. It showed that: (1 There are differences in students' critical thinking of skills achievement Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction model, (2 there was a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at high is better than who thought there is a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at low. (3 There was no interaction between Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction with the scientific attitude students' to increase student’s critical thinking of skills.

  3. The multi-component model of working memory: explorations in experimental cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovs, G; Baddeley, A

    2006-04-28

    There are a number of ways one can hope to describe and explain cognitive abilities, each of them contributing a unique and valuable perspective. Cognitive psychology tries to develop and test functional accounts of cognitive systems that explain the capacities and properties of cognitive abilities as revealed by empirical data gathered by a range of behavioral experimental paradigms. Much of the research in the cognitive psychology of working memory has been strongly influenced by the multi-component model of working memory [Baddeley AD, Hitch GJ (1974) Working memory. In: Recent advances in learning and motivation, Vol. 8 (Bower GA, ed), pp 47-90. New York: Academic Press; Baddeley AD (1986) Working memory. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press; Baddeley A. Working memory: Thought and action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press]. By expanding the notion of a passive short-term memory to an active system that provides the basis for complex cognitive abilities, the model has opened up numerous questions and new lines of research. In this paper we present the current revision of the multi-component model that encompasses a central executive, two unimodal storage systems: a phonological loop and a visuospatial sketchpad, and a further component, a multimodal store capable of integrating information into unitary episodic representations, termed episodic buffer. We review recent empirical data within experimental cognitive psychology that has shaped the development of the multicomponent model and the understanding of the capacities and properties of working memory. Research based largely on dual-task experimental designs and on neuropsychological evidence has yielded valuable information about the fractionation of working memory into independent stores and processes, the nature of representations in individual stores, the mechanisms of their maintenance and manipulation, the way the components of working memory relate to each other, and the role they play in other

  4. Policy Issues in Accessibility and Interoperability of Scientific Data: Experiences from the Carbon Modeling Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, P.; Peckham, S. D.; Gower, S. T.; Batzli, S.

    2010-12-01

    Large-scale terrestrial ecosystem modeling is highly parameterized, and requires lots of historical data. Routine model runs can easily utlize hundreds of Gigabytes, even Terabytes of data on tens, perhaps hundreds of parameters. It is a given that no one modeler can or does collect all the required data. All modelers depend upon other scientists, and governmental and research agencies for their data needs. This is where data accessibility and interoperability become crucial for the success of the project. Having well-documented and quality data available in a timely fashion can greatly assist a project's progress, while the converse can bring the project to a standstill, leading to a large amount of wasted staff time and resources. Data accessibility is a complex issue -- at best, it is an unscientific composite of a variety of factors: technological, legal, cultural, semantic, and economic. In reality, it is a concept that most scientists only worry about when they need some data, and mostly never after their project is complete. The exigencies of the vetting, review and publishing processes overtake the long-term view of making one's own data available to others with the same ease and openness that was desired when seeking data from others. This presentation describes our experience with acquiring data for our carbon modeling efforts, dealing with federal, state and local agencies, variety of data formats, some published, some not so easy to find, and documentation that ranges from excellent to non-existent. A set of indicators are proposed to place and determine the accessibility of scientific data -- those we are seeking and those we are producing -- in order to bring some transparency and clarity that can make data acquisition and sharing easier. The paper concludes with a proposal to utilize a free, open and well-recognized data marks such as CC0 (CC-Zero), Public Domain Dedication License, and CC-BY created by Creative Commons that would advertize the

  5. Built To Last: Using Iterative Development Models for Sustainable Scientific Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiak, M. E.; Truslove, I.; Savoie, M.

    2013-12-01

    In scientific research, software development exists fundamentally for the results they create. The core research must take focus. It seems natural to researchers, driven by grant deadlines, that every dollar invested in software development should be used to push the boundaries of problem solving. This system of values is frequently misaligned with those of the software being created in a sustainable fashion; short-term optimizations create longer-term sustainability issues. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has taken bold cultural steps in using agile and lean development and management methodologies to help its researchers meet critical deadlines, while building in the necessary support structure for the code to live far beyond its original milestones. Agile and lean software development and methodologies including Scrum, Kanban, Continuous Delivery and Test-Driven Development have seen widespread adoption within NSIDC. This focus on development methods is combined with an emphasis on explaining to researchers why these methods produce more desirable results for everyone, as well as promoting developers interacting with researchers. This presentation will describe NSIDC's current scientific software development model, how this addresses the short-term versus sustainability dichotomy, the lessons learned and successes realized by transitioning to this agile and lean-influenced model, and the current challenges faced by the organization.

  6. Positive Psychological Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Rationale, Theoretical Model, and Intervention Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff C. Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D have suboptimal adherence to recommended diet, physical activity, and/or medication. Current approaches to improve health behaviors in T2D have been variably effective, and successful interventions are often complex and intensive. It is therefore vital to develop interventions that are simple, well-accepted, and applicable to a wide range of patients who suffer from T2D. One approach may be to boost positive psychological states, such as positive affect or optimism, as these constructs have been prospectively and independently linked to improvements in health behaviors. Positive psychology (PP interventions, which utilize systematic exercises to increase optimism, well-being, and positive affect, consistently increase positive states and are easily delivered to patients with chronic illnesses. However, to our knowledge, PP interventions have not been formally tested in T2D. In this paper, we review a theoretical model for the use of PP interventions to target health behaviors in T2D, describe the structure and content of a PP intervention for T2D patients, and describe baseline data from a single-arm proof-of-concept (N=15 intervention study in T2D patients with or without depression. We also discuss how PP interventions could be combined with motivational interviewing (MI interventions to provide a blended psychological-behavioral approach.

  7. Aspects of Piaget's cognitive developmental psychology and neurobiology of psychotic disorders - an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Grant, Phillip; von Georgi, Richard; Huber, Martin T

    2008-09-01

    Psychological, neurobiological and neurodevelopmental approaches have frequently been used to provide pathogenic concepts on psychotic disorders. However, aspects of cognitive developmental psychology have hardly been considered in current models. Using a hypothesis-generating approach an integration of these concepts was conducted. According to Piaget (1896-1980), assimilation and accommodation as forms of maintenance and modification of cognitive schemata represent fundamental processes of the brain. In general, based on the perceived input stimuli, cognitive schemata are developed resulting in a conception of the world, the realistic validity and the actuality of which is still being controlled and modified by cognitive adjustment processes. In psychotic disorders, however, a disproportion of environmental demands and the ability to activate required neuronal adaptation processes occurs. We therefore hypothesize a failure of the adjustment of real and requested output patterns. As a consequence autonomous cognitive schemata are generated, which fail to adjust with reality resulting in psychotic symptomatology. Neurobiological, especially neuromodulatory and neuroplastic processes play a central role in these perceptive and cognitive processes. In conclusion, integration of cognitive developmental psychology into the existing pathogenic concepts of psychotic disorders leads to interesting insights into basic disease mechanisms and also guides future research in the cognitive neuroscience of such disorders.

  8. Personality is of central concern to understand health: towards a theoretical model for health psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels. PMID:23772230

  9. Personality is of central concern to understand health: towards a theoretical model for health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2013-05-01

    This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels.

  10. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  11. Five decades of tackling models for stiff fluid dynamics problems a scientific autobiography

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour Kh

    2014-01-01

    Rationality - as opposed to 'ad-hoc' - and asymptotics - to emphasize the fact that perturbative methods are at the core of the theory - are the two main concepts associated with the Rational Asymptotic Modeling (RAM) approach in fluid dynamics when the goal is to specifically provide useful models accessible to numerical simulation via high-speed computing. This approach has contributed to a fresh understanding of Newtonian fluid flow problems and has opened up new avenues for tackling real fluid flow phenomena, which are known to lead to very difficult mathematical and numerical problems irrespective of turbulence. With the present scientific autobiography the author guides the reader through his somewhat non-traditional career; first discovering fluid mechanics, and then devoting more than fifty years to intense work in the field. Using both personal and general historical contexts, this account will be of benefit to anyone interested in the early and contemporary developments of an important branch of the...

  12. Evaluating psychological interventions in a novel experimental human model of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Ben; Marshall, Jemma E; Meron, Daniel; Baldwin, David S; Chadwick, Paul; Munafò, Marcus R; Garner, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation of 7.5% carbon dioxide increases anxiety and autonomic arousal and provides a novel experimental model of anxiety with which to evaluate pharmacological and psychological treatments for anxiety. To date several psychotropic drugs including benzodiazepines, SSRIs and SNRIs have been evaluated using the 7.5% CO2 model; however, it has yet to be used to evaluate psychological interventions. We compared the effects of two core psychological components of mindfulness-meditation (open monitoring and focused attention) against general relaxation, on subjective, autonomic and neuropsychological outcomes in the 7.5% CO2 experimental model. 32 healthy screened adults were randomized to complete 10 min of guided open monitoring, focused attention or relaxation, immediately before inhaling 7.5% CO2 for 20 min. During CO2-challenge participants completed an eye-tracking measure of attention control and selective attention. Measures of subjective anxiety, blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and immediately following intervention and CO2-challenge. OM and FA practice reduced subjective feelings of anxiety during 20-min inhalation of 7.5% CO2 compared to relaxation control. OM practice produced a strong anxiolytic effect, whereas the effect of FA was more modest. Anxiolytic OM and FA effects occurred in the absence of group differences in autonomic arousal and eye-movement measures of attention. Our findings are consistent with neuropsychological models of mindfulness-meditation that propose OM and FA activate prefrontal mechanisms that support emotion regulation during periods of anxiety and physiological hyper-arousal. Our findings complement those from pharmacological treatment studies, further supporting the use of CO2 challenge to evaluate future therapeutic interventions for anxiety.

  13. Using Flexible Data-Driven Frameworks to Enhance School Psychology Training and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Stephanie L.; Hendricker, Elise

    2016-01-01

    While a great number of scientific advances have been made in school psychology, the research to practice gap continues to exist, which has significant implications for training future school psychologists. Training in flexible, data-driven models may help school psychology trainees develop important competencies that will benefit them throughout…

  14. Periodic and chaotic psychological stress variations as predicted by a social support buffered response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.

  15. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.

  16. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  17. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  18. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  19. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  20. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  1. Modelling the effects of subjective and objective decision making in scientific peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Uck; Peacey, Mike W; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-02-06

    The objective of science is to advance knowledge, primarily in two interlinked ways: circulating ideas, and defending or criticizing the ideas of others. Peer review acts as the gatekeeper to these mechanisms. Given the increasing concern surrounding the reproducibility of much published research, it is critical to understand whether peer review is intrinsically susceptible to failure, or whether other extrinsic factors are responsible that distort scientists' decisions. Here we show that even when scientists are motivated to promote the truth, their behaviour may be influenced, and even dominated, by information gleaned from their peers' behaviour, rather than by their personal dispositions. This phenomenon, known as herding, subjects the scientific community to an inherent risk of converging on an incorrect answer and raises the possibility that, under certain conditions, science may not be self-correcting. We further demonstrate that exercising some subjectivity in reviewer decisions, which serves to curb the herding process, can be beneficial for the scientific community in processing available information to estimate truth more accurately. By examining the impact of different models of reviewer decisions on the dynamic process of publication, and thereby on eventual aggregation of knowledge, we provide a new perspective on the ongoing discussion of how the peer-review process may be improved.

  2. Construction and reality: Mario Bunge's scientific realism and the teaching of sciences through models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Pietrocola

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we criticize the constructivist movement, which according to our view has overestimated the role of individual constructions, in detriment to the ontological dimension of scientific knowledge. It will be developed based on some critical papers directed to the constructivist movement and on an analysis of the reception of Thomas Kuhn's ideas by research in science teaching. One of our conclusions will suggest that constructivism does not place enough emphasis in the grasping of a reality that is associated to the physical world. That ends up reflecting a weakening of scientific knowledge in face of other forms of knowledge., establishing a kind of epistemological relativism among the various forms of knowing. In this sense, we present Mario Bunge's ideas on the role of models in science and their linkages to reality. Thus, we aim at minimizing the excesses contained in constructivist and realist theses, that is, the trend to view each human construction as an activity that does not have any links to the ontological dimension of the world, and to see all realism as a purge of human action.

  3. Psychobiological responses to social threat: evolution of a psychological model in psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Margaret E

    2009-01-01

    There exists a bidirectional network of interactions between the central nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system. The existence of these pathways allows stressful life experience to impact the immune system with important implications for health. One powerful elicitor of changes in the autonomic, endocrine and immune systems is threat to social status. This review describes the development of a human model of social status threat that specifies a set of contextual, psychological and biological pathways that may underlie the health consequences of threats to social status and regard. The role of cognitive processes in shaping the physiological response to the social world will be emphasized.

  4. The Model Analyst’s Toolkit: Scientific Model Development, Analysis, and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    R, Simulink , Matlab ), they are largely so general in purpose (e.g., Excel, R) or so focused on computational models in particular (e.g., Simulink ... Simulink , Matlab ), that they are not ideal for rapid model exploration or for use by non-computational scientists. These tools also largely ignore... Matlab ), that they are not ideal for rapid model exploration or for use by non-computational scientists. They also largely ignore the problem of

  5. The model of complexity against common psychological anxiety towards death models

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Leonardo Yovany; Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety towards death has been a subject of investigation since different psychological perspectives. It takes part in tanatology courses directed for health careers students and for health professional attending terminal patients. Anxiety towards death is a complex phenomenon which involves the individual coping skills but also the confrontation of the individual´s whole life experience, the integration of it and the expectations and living resolutions, the mourning into a implacable time. T...

  6. Gibson’s ecological approach – a model for the benefits of a theory driven psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Golonka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most other sciences, psychology has no true core theory to guide a coherent research programme. It does have James J Gibson’s ecological approach to visual perception, however, which we suggest should serve as an example of the benefits a good theory brings to psychological research. Here we focus on an example of how the ecological approach has served as a guide to discovery, shaping and constraining a recent hypothesis about how humans perform coordinated rhythmic movements (Bingham 2004a, b. Early experiments on this task were framed in a dynamic pattern approach. This phenomenological, behavioural framework (e.g. Jeka & Kelso 1989 classifies the behaviour of complex action systems in terms of the key order parameters, and describes the dynamical stability of the system as it responds to perturbations. Dynamical systems, however, while a valuable toolkit, is not a theory of behaviour, and this style of research is unable to successfully predict data it is not explicitly designed to fit. More recent work by Bingham & colleagues has used dynamical systems to formalise hypotheses derived from Gibson’s ecological approach to perception and action, with a particular emphasis on perceptual information. The resulting model (Bingham 2001, 2004a, b; Snapp-Childs et al. 2011 has had great success with both the phenomena it was designed to explain as well as a wide range of empirical results from a version of the task it is not specifically designed to explain (specifically, learning a novel coordination. This model and the research programme that produced it stand as an example of the value of theory driven research, and we use it to illustrate the contemporary importance the ecological approach has for psychology.

  7. A pre-scientific psychology. Some reflections about the introduction and the first chapter of Prolegomena for a history of the concept of time in Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alberto Andrade Rodríguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a reflection arising from the introduction and first chapter of the text prolegomena to a history of the concept of time by Martin Heidegger. This reflection questions the epistemological status of psychology and the philosophical nature of its object of study. It Intends to question the study objects that are proposed from its scientist approach, a portions of the contributions of Heidegger about the particularity of the social sciences and the need for a pre-theoretical reflection that questions the being itself of the phenomenon, in this case, the phenomenon of mind. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.

  8. Are opinions based on science: Modelling social response to scientific facts

    CERN Document Server

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kaski, Kimmo K; Barrio, R A

    2011-01-01

    As scientists we like to think that modern societies and their members base their views, opinions and behaviour on scientific facts. However, this is not necessarily the case, even though we are all exposed to information flow through various channels of the media, i.e. newspapers, television, radio, internet, and web. Sociologists think this happens because individuals get conflicting information from the mass media and they hold different attitudes toward the information, i.e. external and personal factors affect the opinion of an individual. The attitudes are in turn variant because of their cultural, educational, and environmental differences. In this paper we shall investigate the dynamical development of opinion in a population of agents by using a computational model of opinion formation in a co-evolving or adaptive network of socially linked agents. The personal and external effects are taken into account by assigning an individual attitude parameter to each agent and by subjecting all to an external ...

  9. Simulation of ODE/PDE models with MATLAB, OCTAVE and SCILAB scientific and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vande Wouwer, Alain; Vilas, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of ODE/PDE Models with MATLAB®, OCTAVE and SCILAB shows the reader how to exploit a fuller array of numerical methods for the analysis of complex scientific and engineering systems than is conventionally employed. The book is dedicated to numerical simulation of distributed parameter systems described by mixed systems of algebraic equations, ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs). Special attention is paid to the numerical method of lines (MOL), a popular approach to the solution of time-dependent PDEs, which proceeds in two basic steps: spatial discretization and time integration. Besides conventional finite-difference and -element techniques, more advanced spatial-approximation methods are examined in some detail, including nonoscillatory schemes and adaptive-grid approaches. A MOL toolbox has been developed within MATLAB®/OCTAVE/SCILAB. In addition to a set of spatial approximations and time integrators, this toolbox includes a collection of applicatio...

  10. Teaching Scientific Computing: A Model-Centered Approach to Pipeline and Parallel Programming with C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimiras Dolgopolovas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present an approach to the introduction into pipeline and parallel computing, using a model of the multiphase queueing system. Pipeline computing, including software pipelines, is among the key concepts in modern computing and electronics engineering. The modern computer science and engineering education requires a comprehensive curriculum, so the introduction to pipeline and parallel computing is the essential topic to be included in the curriculum. At the same time, the topic is among the most motivating tasks due to the comprehensive multidisciplinary and technical requirements. To enhance the educational process, the paper proposes a novel model-centered framework and develops the relevant learning objects. It allows implementing an educational platform of constructivist learning process, thus enabling learners’ experimentation with the provided programming models, obtaining learners’ competences of the modern scientific research and computational thinking, and capturing the relevant technical knowledge. It also provides an integral platform that allows a simultaneous and comparative introduction to pipelining and parallel computing. The programming language C for developing programming models and message passing interface (MPI and OpenMP parallelization tools have been chosen for implementation.

  11. Building virtual planets with global climate models: a scientific endeavour (David Bates Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Francois

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of the Global Climate Models (GCMs) originally developed for the Earth, it has been possible to develop GCMs for the other terrestrial environments in our solar system: Venus, Mars, Titan, Triton and Pluto. The ambition behind the development of GCMs is high: the ultimate goal is to build numerical simulators only based on universal physical or chemical equations, yet able to reproduce or predict all the available observations on a given planet, without any ad-hoc forcing. In other words, we aim at creating in our computers virtual planets "behaving" exactly like the actual planets. In reality of course, nature is always more complex than expected, but we learn a lot in the process. On the basis of our experience in the solar system, we can also envisage to build realistic climate models to predict the environment on any terrestrial planets that we can imagine. Such a tool is useful for conducting scientific investigations on the possible climates on terrestrial extrasolar planets, or to study past environments in the solar system. Can we trust such a model when no direct observation is available? In this talk, I will review the lessons learned from the modelling of observable planets, the successes and failures of GCMs, and present recent and exotic applications.

  12. Models of traumatic experiences and children's psychological adjustment: the roles of perceived parenting and the children's own resources and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, R L; Qouta, S; el Sarraj, E

    1997-08-01

    The relations between traumatic events, perceived parenting styles, children's resources, political activity, and psychological adjustment were examined among 108 Palestinian boys and girls of 11-12 years of age. The results showed that exposure to traumatic events increased psychological adjustment problems directly and via 2 mediating paths. First, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more negative parenting they experienced. And, the poorer they perceived parenting, the more they suffered from high neuroticism and low self-esteem. Second, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more active they were, the more they suffered from psychological adjustment problems. Good perceived parenting protected children's psychological adjustment by making them less vulnerable in two ways. First, traumatic events decreased their intellectual, creative, and cognitive resources, and a lack of resources predicted many psychological adjustment problems in a model excluding perceived parenting. Second, political activity increased psychological adjustment problems in the same model, but not in the model including good parenting.

  13. An explanatory model regarding the relationships between psychological traits and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tested a theoretical model of the relationships between certain psychological variables and creativity. Specifically, the relationships among intelligence, personality, intrinsic motivation, creative self-efficacy, and ideational creativity were examined. This study was conducted with a sample of 180 college students (136 women and 44 men who were evaluated with regard to the variables above in two sessions outside the regular academic schedule. The results obtained via structural equation analysis supported the model and revealed that the independent variables (intelligence and personality and the intermediate variables (intrinsic motivation and creative self-efficacy that comprise the proposed model influenced creativity. Furthermore, creative self-efficacy was the most significant trait associated with ideational creativity.

  14. Novel developments in benthic modelling to address scientific and policy challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Artioli, Yuri; Bruggeman, Jorn; Aldridge, John; Blackford, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of benthic systems in supporting, regulating and providing marine ecosystem services requires better understanding of their functioning and their response and resilience to stressors. Novel observational methods for the investigation of dynamics of benthic-pelagic coupling in shelf seas are being developed and new data is being collected. Therefore there is an increasing demand for robust representation of benthic processes in marine biogeochemical and ecosystem models, which would improve our understanding of whole systems and benthic-pelagic coupling, rather than act as mere closure terms for pelagic models. However, for several decades development of benthic models has lagged behind their pelagic counterparts. To address contemporary scientific, policy and societal challenges, the biogeochemical and ecological model ERSEM (European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model), including its benthic sub-model, was recently recoded in a scalable and modular format adopting the approach of FABM (Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models). Within the Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry research programme, a series of additional processes have been included, such as a sedimentary carbonate system, a resuspendable fluff layer, and the simulation of advective sediments. It was shown that the inclusion of these processes changes the dynamics of benthic-pelagic fluxes as well as modifying the benthic food web. Comparison of model results with in-situ data demonstrated a general improvement of model performance and highlighted the importance of the benthic system in overall ecosystem dynamics. As an example, our simulations have shown that inclusion of a resuspendable fluff layer facilitates regeneration of inorganic nutrients in the water column due to degradation of resuspended organic material by pelagic bacteria. Moreover, the composition of fluff was found to be important for trophic interactions, and therefore indirectly affects benthic community composition. Where

  15. Educational and psychological interventions to improve outcomes for recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and their families: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Sandra B; Dougherty, Cynthia M; Sears, Samuel F; Carroll, Diane L; Goldstein, Nathan E; Mark, Daniel B; McDaniel, George; Pressler, Susan J; Schron, Eleanor; Wang, Paul; Zeigler, Vicki L

    2012-10-23

    Significant mortality benefits have been documented in recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs); however, the psychosocial distress created by the underlying arrhythmia and its potential treatments in patients and family members may be underappreciated by clinical care teams. The disentanglement of cardiac disease and device-related concerns is difficult. The majority of ICD patients and families successfully adjust to the ICD, but optimal care pathways may require additional psychosocial attention to all ICD patients and particularly those experiencing psychosocial distress. This state-of-the-science report was developed on the basis of an analysis and critique of existing science to (1) describe the psychological and quality-of-life outcomes after receipt of an ICD and describe related factors, such as patient characteristics; (2) describe the concerns and educational/informational needs of ICD patients and their family members; (3) outline the evidence that supports interventions for improving educational and psychological outcomes for ICD patients; (4) provide recommendations for clinical approaches for improving patient outcomes; and (5) identify priorities for future research in this area. The ultimate goal of this statement is to improve the precision of identification and care of psychosocial distress in ICD patients to maximize the derived benefit of the ICD.

  16. Integrating behavioral-motive and experiential-requirement perspectives on psychological needs: a two process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M

    2011-10-01

    Psychological need theories offer much explanatory potential for behavioral scientists, but there is considerable disagreement and confusion about what needs are and how they work. A 2-process model of psychological needs is outlined, viewing needs as evolved functional systems that provide both (a) innate psychosocial motives that tend to impel adaptive behavior and (b) innate experiential requirements that when met reinforce adaptive behavior and promote mental health. The literature is reviewed to find support for 8 hypotheses derived from this model: that certain basic psychosocial motives are present at birth; that successful enactment of these motives supports the functioning and wellness of all humans; that individual differences in these motives develop in childhood; that these strong motive dispositions tend to produce the satisfying experiences they seek; that motive dispositions do not moderate the effect of motive-corresponding need satisfaction on well-being but do moderate the effect of assigned goal-type on rated self-concordance for those goals; that need dissatisfaction and need satisfaction correspond to the separable behavioral-motive and experiential-reward aspects of needs; and that motives and needs can become decoupled when chronic dissatisfaction of particular requirements warps or depresses the corresponding motives, such that the adaptive process fails in its function. Implications for self-determination theory and motive disposition theory are considered.

  17. Exploring teachers' learning: A teacher's experiences integrating scientific modeling in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Maza, Mirta Elizabeth

    that were consistent with the project's goals, thus shaping and adding to her PCK repertoire. Some activities were maintained through the years; in other cases there was a connection among CK development and her developing PCK. In all of these cases, there was a need for CK around modeling to be integrated into practice activities. However, her views and evaluation of the practice reflected a greater commitment to students' learning than to aspects of modeling related to scientific content or metamodeling. The structure presented in the MoDeLS activities makes sense to her from the pedagogical perspective. This made her inclusion of modeling into the science practices easier. There were complex interactions among learning new CK, new PCK sets from other units she was teaching, and her existing PCK on specific topics not necessarily connected to the modeling approach. These interactions played an important role in how Ms. Delaney was able to transform her PCK. There were some elements that were easily acknowledged and tried in her practice, while others were not reflected upon or included in her teaching. Whether some PCK elements were more or less included depended not only on Ms. Delaney's CK, her conception of learning and her confidence, but also on the quality of the examples provided and her professional development support as well as students' activities and learning situations. In conclusion all major PCK features were developed when Ms. Delaney integrated the modeling approach into her practice. Instrumental in shaping how her PCK grew were her advancement in CK comprehension and students' responses to the proposed activities. The findings are consistent with the idea that PCK is complex and deeply interconnected. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. Trends and biases in global scientific literature about ecological niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, U L; Cunha, H F; Nabout, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, ecological niche models have been employed to investigate the potential geographical distribution of species. However, it is necessary to analyze the vast number of publications on this topic to understand the trends and biases of research using ecological niche models (ENMs). Therefore, this study aims to investigate trends in the scientific literature regarding studies on ENMs. For the quantitative analysis of the literature on ENMs, we performed a search in the Thomson ISI (Web of Science) database between 1991 and 2013. The search identified 3042 papers containing preselected keywords in either the title or abstract. The results showed that the number of papers has increased over the years (r=0.77, Pplants (402 papers, or 28.36% of the total). There was no relationship between the modeling method used and the taxonomic group studied (χ2=4.8, P=0.15). Finally, the wide availability of biological, environmental and computational resources has elicited the broad use of tools for ENMs. Despite the conceptual discussions of the ENMs, this method is currently the most effective way to evaluate the potential geographical distribution of species, and to predict the distribution under different environmental conditions (i.e., future or past scenarios).

  19. Modeling and analysis of hybrid pixel detector deficiencies for scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-01

    Semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors often consist of a pixellated sensor layer bump bonded to a matching pixelated readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor can range from high resistivity Si to III-V materials, whereas a Si CMOS process is typically used to manufacture the ROIC. Independent, device physics and electronic design automation (EDA) tools are used to determine sensor characteristics and verify functional performance of ROICs respectively with significantly different solvers. Some physics solvers provide the capability of transferring data to the EDA tool. However, single pixel transient simulations are either not feasible due to convergence difficulties or are prohibitively long. A simplified sensor model, which includes a current pulse in parallel with detector equivalent capacitor, is often used; even then, spice type top-level (entire array) simulations range from days to weeks. In order to analyze detector deficiencies for a particular scientific application, accurately defined transient behavioral models of all the functional blocks are required. Furthermore, various simulations, such as transient, noise, Monte Carlo, inter-pixel effects, etc. of the entire array need to be performed within a reasonable time frame without trading off accuracy. The sensor and the analog front-end can be modeling using a real number modeling language, as complex mathematical functions or detailed data can be saved to text files, for further top-level digital simulations. Parasitically aware digital timing is extracted in a standard delay format (sdf) from the pixel digital back-end layout as well as the periphery of the ROIC. For any given input, detector level worst-case and best-case simulations are performed using a Verilog simulation environment to determine the output. Each top-level transient simulation takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The impact of changing key parameters such as sensor Poissonian shot noise, analog front-end bandwidth, jitter due to

  20. Making Sense of Complexity with FRE, a Scientific Workflow System for Climate Modeling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhorst, A. R.; Balaji, V.; Yakovlev, A.

    2010-12-01

    A workflow is a description of a sequence of activities that is both precise and comprehensive. Capturing the workflow of climate experiments provides a record which can be queried or compared, and allows reproducibility of the experiments - sometimes even to the bit level of the model output. This reproducibility helps to verify the integrity of the output data, and enables easy perturbation experiments. GFDL's Flexible Modeling System Runtime Environment (FRE) is a production-level software project which defines and implements building blocks of the workflow as command line tools. The scientific, numerical and technical input needed to complete the workflow of an experiment is recorded in an experiment description file in XML format. Several key features add convenience and automation to the FRE workflow: ● Experiment inheritance makes it possible to define a new experiment with only a reference to the parent experiment and the parameters to override. ● Testing is a basic element of the FRE workflow: experiments define short test runs which are verified before the main experiment is run, and a set of standard experiments are verified with new code releases. ● FRE is flexible enough to support short runs with mere megabytes of data, to high-resolution experiments that run on thousands of processors for months, producing terabytes of output data. Experiments run in segments of model time; after each segment, the state is saved and the model can be checkpointed at that level. Segment length is defined by the user, but the number of segments per system job is calculated to fit optimally in the batch scheduler requirements. FRE provides job control across multiple segments, and tools to monitor and alter the state of long-running experiments. ● Experiments are entered into a Curator Database, which stores query-able metadata about the experiment and the experiment's output. ● FRE includes a set of standardized post-processing functions as well as the ability

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Pixel Detector Deficiencies for Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Northwestern U. (main); Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermilab; Hoff, James R. [Fermilab; Mohseni, Hooman [Northwestern U. (main)

    2015-08-28

    Semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors often consist of a pixellated sensor layer bump bonded to a matching pixelated readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor can range from high resistivity Si to III-V materials, whereas a Si CMOS process is typically used to manufacture the ROIC. Independent, device physics and electronic design automation (EDA) tools are used to determine sensor characteristics and verify functional performance of ROICs respectively with significantly different solvers. Some physics solvers provide the capability of transferring data to the EDA tool. However, single pixel transient simulations are either not feasible due to convergence difficulties or are prohibitively long. A simplified sensor model, which includes a current pulse in parallel with detector equivalent capacitor, is often used; even then, spice type top-level (entire array) simulations range from days to weeks. In order to analyze detector deficiencies for a particular scientific application, accurately defined transient behavioral models of all the functional blocks are required. Furthermore, various simulations, such as transient, noise, Monte Carlo, inter-pixel effects, etc. of the entire array need to be performed within a reasonable time frame without trading off accuracy. The sensor and the analog front-end can be modeling using a real number modeling language, as complex mathematical functions or detailed data can be saved to text files, for further top-level digital simulations. Parasitically aware digital timing is extracted in a standard delay format (sdf) from the pixel digital back-end layout as well as the periphery of the ROIC. For any given input, detector level worst-case and best-case simulations are performed using a Verilog simulation environment to determine the output. Each top-level transient simulation takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The impact of changing key parameters such as sensor Poissonian shot noise, analog front-end bandwidth, jitter due to

  2. Psychological Empowerment of the Devotees by Use of Structural Equations Modeling Case study: All Devotees of Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seid Mehdi Veiseh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychological empowerment refers to the process of increase of internal motivation proportional to the performance of delivered duties, including recognition aspects such as being affective, worthiness, meaningfulness and right of choice. This study is Objective to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment of the devotees and the variables work life quality, organizational justice, social support and social health. Methodology research: This is a descriptive – correlation study in which the structural equation modeling is used. The populations include all devotees of Ilam who were selected by use of Cochrane's formula. From the results, it became clear that psychological empowerment of the devotees is directly affected by the factors such as social health, social support, work life quality and organizational justice. Moreover, the variable work life quality has more influence on the psychological empowerment of the devotees.

  3. Structural Model for the Effects of Environmental Elements on the Psychological Characteristics and Performance of the Employees of Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Realyvásquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the comprehension of these effects may help optimize manufacturing systems regarding their employees’ psychological characteristics and performance from a macroergonomic perspective. As the method, a new macroergonomic compatibility questionnaire (MCQ was developed and statistically validated, and 158 respondents at four manufacture companies were considered. Noise, lighting and temperature, humidity and air quality (THAQ were used as independent variables and psychological characteristics and employees’ performance as dependent variables. To propose and test the hypothetical causal model of significant relationships among the variables, a data analysis was deployed. Results found that the macroergonomic compatibility of environmental elements presents significant direct effects on employees’ psychological characteristics and either direct or indirect effects on the employees’ performance. THAQ had the highest direct and total effects on psychological characteristics. Regarding the direct and total effects on employees’ performance, the psychological characteristics presented the highest effects, followed by THAQ conditions. These results may help measure and optimize manufacturing systems’ performance by enhancing their macroergonomic compatibility and quality of life at work of the employees.

  4. Structural Model for the Effects of Environmental Elements on the Psychological Characteristics and Performance of the Employees of Manufacturing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realyvásquez, Arturo; Maldonado-Macías, Aidé Aracely; García-Alcaraz, Jorge; Cortés-Robles, Guillermo; Blanco-Fernández, Julio

    2016-01-05

    This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the comprehension of these effects may help optimize manufacturing systems regarding their employees' psychological characteristics and performance from a macroergonomic perspective. As the method, a new macroergonomic compatibility questionnaire (MCQ) was developed and statistically validated, and 158 respondents at four manufacture companies were considered. Noise, lighting and temperature, humidity and air quality (THAQ) were used as independent variables and psychological characteristics and employees' performance as dependent variables. To propose and test the hypothetical causal model of significant relationships among the variables, a data analysis was deployed. Results found that the macroergonomic compatibility of environmental elements presents significant direct effects on employees' psychological characteristics and either direct or indirect effects on the employees' performance. THAQ had the highest direct and total effects on psychological characteristics. Regarding the direct and total effects on employees' performance, the psychological characteristics presented the highest effects, followed by THAQ conditions. These results may help measure and optimize manufacturing systems' performance by enhancing their macroergonomic compatibility and quality of life at work of the employees.

  5. Does Attainment of Piaget's Formal Operational Level of Cognitive Development Predict Student Understanding of Scientific Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Richard Dennis, II.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer…

  6. Positive Instruction in Music Studios: Introducing a New Model for Teaching Studio Music in Schools Based upon Positive Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patston, Tim; Waters, Lea

    This practice paper explores the intersection of school studio-music pedagogy and positive psychology in order to enhance students' learning and engagement. The paper has a practitioner focus and puts forward a new model of studio teaching, the Positive Instruction in Music Studios (PIMS) model that guides teachers through four key positive psychology processes that can be used in a music lesson: positive priming, strengths spotting, positive pause, and process praise. The model provides a new, positively oriented approach to studio-music pedagogy that can be integrated into specific methods-based programs to enhance student learning and engagement.

  7. The Model Analyst’s Toolkit: Scientific Model Development, Analysis, and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    from oil sources (kWh) Adjusted savings: energy depletion (% of GNI) Inflation , consumer prices (annual %) Real interest rate ("lo) ~tion, GDP deflat...of economic activity and by statically high levels of infant mortality. Similarly, we found that when the conflict ended, we saw decreases in poverty ...variability in the system being modeled or because of variability introduced by a fixed sampling rate ). What we need is a novel way of evaluating the true

  8. CONSERVATION PROCESS MODEL (CPM: A TWOFOLD SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SCOPE IN THE INFORMATION MODELLING FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fiorani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to develop an instrument able to adequately support the conservation process by means of a twofold approach, based on both BIM environment and ontology formalisation. Although BIM has been successfully experimented within AEC (Architecture Engineering Construction field, it has showed many drawbacks for architectural heritage. To cope with unicity and more generally complexity of ancient buildings, applications so far developed have shown to poorly adapt BIM to conservation design with unsatisfactory results (Dore, Murphy 2013; Carrara 2014. In order to combine achievements reached within AEC through BIM environment (design control and management with an appropriate, semantically enriched and flexible The presented model has at its core a knowledge base developed through information ontologies and oriented around the formalization and computability of all the knowledge necessary for the full comprehension of the object of architectural heritage an its conservation. Such a knowledge representation is worked out upon conceptual categories defined above all within architectural criticism and conservation scope. The present paper aims at further extending the scope of conceptual modelling within cultural heritage conservation already formalized by the model. A special focus is directed on decay analysis and surfaces conservation project.

  9. Conservation Process Model (cpm): a Twofold Scientific Research Scope in the Information Modelling for Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, D.; Acierno, M.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present research is to develop an instrument able to adequately support the conservation process by means of a twofold approach, based on both BIM environment and ontology formalisation. Although BIM has been successfully experimented within AEC (Architecture Engineering Construction) field, it has showed many drawbacks for architectural heritage. To cope with unicity and more generally complexity of ancient buildings, applications so far developed have shown to poorly adapt BIM to conservation design with unsatisfactory results (Dore, Murphy 2013; Carrara 2014). In order to combine achievements reached within AEC through BIM environment (design control and management) with an appropriate, semantically enriched and flexible The presented model has at its core a knowledge base developed through information ontologies and oriented around the formalization and computability of all the knowledge necessary for the full comprehension of the object of architectural heritage an its conservation. Such a knowledge representation is worked out upon conceptual categories defined above all within architectural criticism and conservation scope. The present paper aims at further extending the scope of conceptual modelling within cultural heritage conservation already formalized by the model. A special focus is directed on decay analysis and surfaces conservation project.

  10. On the Urgent Need for Action Aimed at the Capitalization of the Social and Psychological Components of Scientific and Technological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovych, A.S.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The problems of national science social capital falling are analyzed, attention is focused on the fact that the level of science support by the state and industry depends not only on the economic situation, but mostly on its authority in society, public confidence that is the external component of science social capital. It is substantiated the necessity of increased efforts of the scientific community towards popularizing the achievements of national science and the formation of large-scale program of activities to increase the authority of science in general and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in particular.

  11. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Kaori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. Methods The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status, psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social variables (social support, environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Results Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on

  12. Conceptual modeling and the Lexicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.A.C.

    1997-01-01

    'Conceptual Modeling and the Lexicon' investigates the linguistic aspects of conceptual modeling, concentrating on the terminology part. The author combines theoretical ideas and empirical facts from various scientific fields, such as cognitive psychology, computer science, lexicography, psycholingu

  13. Discrete Lognormal Model as an Unbiased Quantitative Measure of Scientific Performance Based on Empirical Citation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Joao; Zeng, Xiaohan; Amaral, Luis

    2013-03-01

    Assessing the career performance of scientists has become essential to modern science. Bibliometric indicators, like the h-index are becoming more and more decisive in evaluating grants and approving publication of articles. However, many of the more used indicators can be manipulated or falsified by publishing with very prolific researchers or self-citing papers with a certain number of citations, for instance. Accounting for these factors is possible but it introduces unwanted complexity that drives us further from the purpose of the indicator: to represent in a clear way the prestige and importance of a given scientist. Here we try to overcome this challenge. We used Thompson Reuter's Web of Science database and analyzed all the papers published until 2000 by ~1500 researchers in the top 30 departments of seven scientific fields. We find that over 97% of them have a citation distribution that is consistent with a discrete lognormal model. This suggests that our model can be used to accurately predict the performance of a researcher. Furthermore, this predictor does not depend on the individual number of publications and is not easily ``gamed'' on. The authors acknowledge support from FCT Portugal, and NSF grants

  14. The Model of Unreliable Elements (Human Resources) Intellectual Management System on the Basis of Their Psychological and Personal Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabtsev, Timofey; Antonova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The Article suggests a possible approach to creation of the Intellectual Management System for human resources and personnel (during their professional tasks solving), and that could consider personal characteristics and psychological condition of the human resources as an “unreliable” element. The Article describes some elements of the Intellectual Management System: professional activity model and “unreliable” element (human resources) model.

  15. Mentoring ethnic minority counseling and clinical psychology students: A multicultural, ecological, and relational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anne W; Yeh, Christine J; Krumboltz, John D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to understand the role of race and culture in successful mentoring relationships in graduate school. We examined the practices of 9 faculty mentors working with 15 ethnic minority doctoral students in counseling and clinical psychology. Grounded theory was used to discern unifying patterns and to formulate a theory of multicultural mentoring. Five overall themes significant to multicultural mentoring emerged: (a) career support and guidance tailored for ethnic minorities, (b) relationality between mentors and protégés, (c) significance of contexts, (d) interconnections across contexts, and (e) multidirectionality of interactions between contexts. The 5 themes combined to form a multicultural, ecological, and relational model of mentoring. Our findings suggest that mentoring ethnic minority students can be successful, productive, and satisfying for both mentors and protégés when mentors possess the necessary skills, time, commitment, and multicultural competencies. Implications for doctoral programs in counseling and clinical psychology are discussed, along with recommendations for future research directions.

  16. Italian psychology under protection: Agostino Gemelli between Catholicism and fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Giannone, Anna; Giuliani, Alessia

    2013-05-01

    Between the 1930s and 1940s, Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) was the main Italian psychologist; he accepted and promoted an empirical conception of psychology influenced by neo-Thomism. The views of Gemelli were a landmark for many psychologists and psychological models in Catholic universities. Gemelli, moreover, throughout his scientific activity, continued ongoing work of expertise in matters concerning science, morality, and psychology. He was a Franciscan monk but also an officer of the Italian air force, a psychologist, and a rector. During the period of fascist rule in Italy, Gemelli sought compromise solutions to foster the survival of psychological institutions. Around his story, contrasting interpretations have emerged. The aim of this article is to look at Agostino Gemelli as an important historical subject to understand the ways in which scientific enterprises and institutions are likely to be influenced by political regimes and by the dogmatic and intolerant milieu. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Modeling the Uptake of Scientific Information by the Public and Opinion Flow in Society (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Brown, G. D.; Cook, J.

    2013-12-01

    Improved communication of scientific findings requires knowledge not only of how people process information, but also how such information spreads through society and how people's opinions are shaped by those of others. Recent advances in cognitive science have yielded mathematical modeling techniques that permit the detailed analysis of individuals' cognition as well as the behavior of communities in the aggregate. We present two case studies that highlight the insights that can be derived from mathematical models of cognition: We show how rational processing of information (i.e., Bayesian hypothesis revision) can nonetheless give rise to seemingly 'irrational' belief updating, as for example when acceptance of human-caused global warming decreases among conservatives in response to evidence for human-caused global warming. We also show in an agent-based simulation how social norms can lead to polarization of societies. The model assumes that agents located within a social network observe the behavior of neighbours and infer from their behavior the social distribution of particular attitudes (e.g. towards climate change). Agents are assumed to dislike behaviours that are extreme within their neighbourhood (social extremeness aversion), and hence have a tendency to conform. However, agents are also assumed to prefer choices that are consistent with their own true beliefs (authenticity preference). Expression of attitudes reflects a compromise between these opposing principles. The model sheds light on the role of perceived rather than actual social consensus on attitudes to climate change. This is particularly relevant given the widespread perception among those who reject climate science that the percentage of the public that is sharing their beliefs is much higher than it actually is.

  18. Testing a social psychological model of strategy use with students of english as a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tsung-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    This replication study tested MacIntyre's Social Psychological Model of Strategy Use. Participants were 137 first-year college students (100 men and 37 women), all in their late teens or early 20s, learning English as a foreign language in a university in Taiwan. McIntyre specified three conditions for use of language-learning strategies in his model: awareness of the strategy, having a reason to use it, and not having a reason not to use it. Stepwise multiple regression analyses of data measured by Oxford's 50-item Strategy Inventory for Language Learning partially support this model because only Knowledge about the Strategy (representing the first condition) and Difficulty about Using It (representing the third condition) made significant independent contributions to the prediction of use of most of the 50 strategies. Close examination of the results poses questions about MacIntyre and Noels' thesis, as implied in their revised model, that reason to use the strategy and reason not to use the strategy are independent. The present replication suggests a need for further revision of the model. Use of methods more advanced than the multiple regression is recommended to test and refine the model.

  19. Scientific Foundations of Audiology : Perspectives from Physics, Biology, Modeling, and Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cacace, Anthony T.; de Kleine, Emile; Holt, Avril Genene; van Dijk, Pim

    2016-01-01

    With advancements across various scientific and medical fields, professionals in audiology are in a unique position to integrate cutting-edge technology with real-world situations. Scientific Foundations of Audiology provides a strong basis and philosophical framework for understanding various

  20. Engaging Fifth Graders in Scientific Modeling to Learn about Evaporation and Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokayem, Hayat; Schwarz, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Reform efforts in science education have aimed at fostering scientific literacy by helping learners meaningfully engage in scientific practices to make sense of the world. In this paper, we report on our second year of unit implementation that has investigated 34 fifth grade students' (10-year-olds) learning about evaporation and condensation…

  1. Scientific Communication in the Developing World in an Open Access Mode: The SciELO Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rogerio Meneghini; Abel L. Packer

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) program and its three main objectives. Then the paper presents the methodology of open access to scientific information by the SciELO. At last, it shows the perspectives of open access in developing countries.

  2. Psychological Contract,Organizational Innovation Climate and the Scientific and Technical Personnel's Innovation Performance%心理契约、组织创新气候与科技人才创新绩效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易蓉; 周学军

    2015-01-01

    Based on the scientific and technical personnel’s innovation performance as our research object ,we collected the scientific and technical activation data of the manufacturing industry above designated size during the period from 2000 to 2012 ,we constructed the explicit index systems of psychological contract ,organizational innovation climate and the scientif‐ic and technical personnel’s innovation performance ,and investigate the relationship among these systems .The empirical research indicates that there exists the significant characteristic of transactional psychological contract between the scientif‐ic and technical personnel and the manufacturing industry’s enterprises ,and there also exists the balanced psychological contract between these enterprises and the senior talent .The influence on the innovation performance shows different man‐ifestation by these factors in organizational innovation climate ,R&D investment and government support have positive effect on the performance ,the effect of technology acquisition ,market and technological competition have just the opposite influence .Eventually ,some correlative suggestions for improving the efficiency of technology talents have been put for‐w ard .%以我国制造业科技人才创新绩效为研究对象,采集了2000—2012年规模以上制造业科技活动统计面板数据,构建了心理契约、创新气候与科技人才创新绩效的显性指标体系,并研究了三者之间的关系。研究发现:制造业科技人才与企业之间显现出交易型心理契约特征,高级人才与企业之间显现出平衡型心理契约特征;组织创新气候各因素对科技人才创新绩效影响各不相同,研发投入和政府支持力度为正向效应,技术引进、市场和技术竞争为负向效应。

  3. THE EFFECT OF MODEL SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY USING MEDIA PhET TOWARD SKILLS PROCESS OF SCIENCE VIEWED FROM CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda Safarati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of research to analyse: the science process skills that are taught in a model of scientific inquiry using the media PhET better than students taught by learning direct instruction, science process skills of physics students who has the critical thinking skills using a model of scientific inquiry than average -rata better than students who have critical thinking skills using a direct model of instruction above average, the interaction of scientific inquiry learning model using PhET...

  4. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimley, Brian, E-mail: brian.plimley@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  5. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimley, Brian; Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong; Vetter, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  6. [Evolutionary development of human psyche in Wilber's integral psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koberda, Przemysław

    2008-01-01

    Darwin's evolution theory is fundamental for modern biology. But the logic of evolutionary development seems to have a wider context. Several observations and psychological investigations show convincingly that the extent of the development of human psyche is a continuation of the biological evolution. Developmental levels of consciousness, seen both from the individual and collective perspective, are discussed in the writings by the American investigator and philosopher Ken Wilber. His integral model, which has evoIved into integral psychology, forms a logical and inspiring basis for further scientific deliberations in the fields of psychology and medical sciences.

  7. Psicologia e pobreza no Brasil: produção de conhecimento e atuação do psicólogo Psychology and poverty in Brazil: scientific production and psychologist practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Maria Bezerra Dantas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A pobreza revela-se, no Brasil, como questão de primeira ordem. A Psicologia, inserida no campo social e cuja história aponta uma ação comprometida socialmente, não poderia ficar alheia a essa situação. O objetivo do presente trabalho é investigar as respostas que têm sido produzidas sobre essa questão, a partir do exame da literatura, buscando analisar as proposições e os limites e impactos das intervenções. Foi realizada uma pesquisa documental em três etapas: construção de um banco de dados com 312 publicações; recuperação dos resumos de 109 artigos; seleção, leitura e análise de 47 artigos. A produção acerca do tema é dispersa, heterogênea e possui interseção com outras áreas do conhecimento. Verifica-se um avanço na produção de conhecimento e atuação com populações pobres. No entanto, ainda é necessário construir teorias e técnicas inovadoras de trabalho, bem como compreender os limites estruturais dessa atuação.Poverty is a main theme in Brazil. Psychology, as a welfare profession, and given its historical concerns with social actions, could not be away from this theme. The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature on this subject, analyzing the propositions, the intervention's limits and impacts. We carried out a three stages document-based study: (1 online databases survey (312 papers identified; (2 109 scientific abstracts accessed; (3 47 scientific papers selected, read and analyzed. The production about the main theme (poverty is dispersed, heterogeneous, and related to other fields of knowledge. In general, it appears that Psychology has improved the scientific production and experiences with poor population. However, it is necessary to build up theories and technical innovations and also to understand structural boundaries for professional practice.

  8. FORMULATION OF A THE ORETICAL MODEL OF QUALITY OF LIFE FROM PSYCHOLOGY

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    SERGIO TRUJILLO*

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a modest theoretical contribution to the study of the quality of life over the life cycle span,with emphasis on the older adult. The collective writing is the result of debates which took place during the twoyears of the social practice project «Quality of Life and Life Cycle Span» carried out at the Psychology Faculty ofthe Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, which had as one of its objectives the investigation of the psychologicaldimension of the quality of life. The teamwork consisted in the compilation of some theoretical fundamentals ofthe process, after which a model is formulated proposing the dynamic integration of the dimensions, especially thepsychological, which affect the quality of life.

  9. A model of quantum-like decision-making with applications to psychology and cognitive science

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    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    We consider the following model of decision-making by cognitive systems. We present an algorithm -- quantum-like representation algorithm (QLRA) -- which provides a possibility to represent probabilistic data of any origin by complex probability amplitudes. Our conjecture is that cognitive systems developed the ability to use QLRA. They operate with complex probability amplitudes, mental wave functions. Since the mathematical formalism of QM describes as well (under some generalization) processing of such quantum-like (QL) mental states, the conventional quantum decision-making scheme can be used by the brain. We consider a modification of this scheme to describe decision-making in the presence of two ``incompatible'' mental variables. Such a QL decision-making can be used in situations like Prisoners Dilemma (PD) as well as others corresponding to so called disjunction effect in psychology and cognitive science.

  10. Logotherapy and positive psychology

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    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-01-01

    Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in ...

  11. The strength model of self-control in sport and exercise psychology

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    Chris eEnglert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The strength model of self-control assumes that all acts of self-control (e.g., emotion regulation, persistence are empowered by a single global metaphorical strength that has limited capacity. This strength can become temporarily depleted after a primary self-control act, which, in turn, can impair performance in subsequent acts of self-control. Recently, the assumptions of the strength model of self-control also have been adopted and tested in the field of sport and exercise psychology. The present review paper aims to give an overview of recent developments in self-control research based on the strength model of self-control. Furthermore, recent research on interventions on how to improve and revitalize self-control strength will be presented. Finally, the strength model of self-control has been criticized lately, as well as expanded in scope, so the present paper will also discuss alternative explanations of why previous acts of self-control can lead to impaired performance in sport and exercise.

  12. Psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors: a latent growth modeling approach.

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    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C; Lam, Simon S K

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the relationships among psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors (generating, spreading, implementing innovative ideas at work) over a 6-month period. Results indicate that the effects of psychological contract breaches on employees are not static. Specifically, perceptions of psychological contract breaches strengthened over time and were associated with decreased levels of affective commitment over time. Further, increased perceptions of psychological contract breaches were associated with decreases in innovation-related behaviors. We also found evidence that organizational commitment mediates the relationship between psychological contract breaches and innovation-related behaviors. These results highlight the importance of examining the nomological network of psychological contract breaches from a change perspective.

  13. An Empirical Assessment of REBT Models of Psychopathology and Psychological Health in the Prediction of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms.

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    Oltean, Horea-Radu; Hyland, Philip; Vallières, Frédérique; David, Daniel Ovidiu

    2017-03-28

    This study aimed to assess the validity of two models which integrate the cognitive (satisfaction with life) and affective (symptoms of anxiety and depression) aspects of subjective well-being within the framework of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) theory; specifically REBT's theory of psychopathology and theory of psychological health. 397 Irish and Northern Irish undergraduate students completed measures of rational/irrational beliefs, satisfaction with life, and anxiety/depression symptoms. Structural equation modelling techniques were used in order to test our hypothesis within a cross-sectional design. REBT's theory of psychopathology (χ2 = 373.78, d.f. = 163, p < .001; comparative fit index (CFI) = .92; Tucker Lewis index (TLI) = .91; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .06 (95% CI = .05 to .07); standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = .07) and psychological health (χ2 = 371.89, d.f. = 181, p < .001; CFI = .93; TLI = .92; RMSEA = .05 (95% CI = .04 to .06); SRMR = .06) provided acceptable fit of the data. Moreover, the psychopathology model explained 34% of variance in levels of anxiety/depression, while the psychological health model explained 33% of variance. This study provides important findings linking the fields of clinical and positive psychology within a comprehensible framework for both researchers and clinicians. Findings are discussed in relation to the possibility of more effective interventions, incorporating and targeting not only negative outcomes, but also positive concepts within the same model.

  14. The Scientific Enlightenment System in Russia in the Early Twentieth Century as a Model for Popularizing Science

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    Balashova, Yuliya B.

    2016-01-01

    This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…

  15. Effects of '"Environmental Chemistry" Elective Course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry Model on Some Variables

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    Çalik, Muammer; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Artun, Hüseyin; Küçük, Zeynel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of "environmental chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and technological pedagogical content knowledge…

  16. Effects of '"Environmental Chemistry" Elective Course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry Model on Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Artun, Hüseyin; Küçük, Zeynel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of "environmental chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and technological pedagogical content knowledge…

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Model-Supported Scientific Inquiry Training Program for Elementary Teachers in Indonesia

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    Ertikanto, Chandra; Herpratiwi; Yunarti, Tina; Saputra, Andrian

    2017-01-01

    A teacher training program, named Model-Supported Scientific Inquiry Training Program (MSSITP) has been successfully developed to improve the inquiry skills of Indonesian elementary teachers. The skills enhanced by MSSITP are defining problems, formulating hypotheses, planning and doing investigations, drawing conclusions, and communicating the…

  18. Elementary School Students' Emotions When Exploring an Authentic Socio-Scientific Issue through the Use of Models

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    Nicolaou, Chr. Th.; Evagorou, M.; Lymbouridou, Chr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the belief that emotions are important in the learning process, research in the area of emotions and learning, especially in science, is scant. Modelling and SSI argumentation have shared with respect to the emphasis in recent science standards reports as core scientific practices that need to be part of science teaching and learning. Even…

  19. Cognitive Psychology Meets Psychometric Theory: On the Relation between Process Models for Decision Making and Latent Variable Models for Individual Differences

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    van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…

  20. Conservation psychology as a field of study

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    Polona Kalc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades the importance of psychology has become more prominent when addressing environmental issues. At the turn of the millennium a new field of psychological research was introduced to scientific community. The so-called conservation psychology strives to merge and spur basic and applied psychological research from the field of (proenvironmental behaviour and sustainable development. Together with environmental and population psychology, it forms Division 34 of American Psychological Association. However, conservation psychology is not a broadly known and renowned field of study in Slovenia. Therefore, the main purpose of the present article is to introduce conservation psychology as a possible field of study to Slovenian psychologists.