Sample records for model rule-operator training

  1. Training effectiveness evaluation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, J.B.


    NAESCO's Training Effectiveness Evaluation Model (TEEM) integrates existing evaluation procedures with new procedures. The new procedures are designed to measure training impact on organizational productivity. TEEM seeks to enhance organizational productivity through proactive training focused on operation results. These results can be identified and measured by establishing and tracking performance indicators. Relating training to organizational productivity is not easy. TEEM is a team process. It offers strategies to assess more effectively organizational costs and benefits of training. TEEM is one organization's attempt to refine, manage and extend its training evaluation program

  2. 40 CFR 60.2635 - What are the operator training and qualification requirements? (United States)


    ...) Combustion controls and monitoring. (v) Operation of air pollution control equipment and factors affecting... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Operator Training and Qualification § 60.2635 What are...

  3. Mental models and user training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zupanič


    Full Text Available One of the functions of the reference service is user training which means teaching users how to use the library and it's information sorces (nowadays mainly computerized systems. While the scientific understanding of teaching/learning process is shifting, changes also affect the methods of user training in libraries.Human-computer interaction (HCI is an interdisciplinary and a very active research area which studies how humans use computers - their mental and behavioral characteristics. The application of psychological theories to HCI are especially great on three areas: psychological (mental, conceptual models, individual differences, and error behavior.The mental models theory is powerful tool for understanding the ways in which users interact with an information system. Claims, based on this theory can affect the methods (conceptualization of user training and the overall design of information systems.

  4. Army Training Study: Battalion Training Model Summary. (United States)


    LIVR ARTEPSACTI CMDR CAMOUFLAGECOEAN JUDGEMENT CONCEAL MAT CNELMOVE -. omw ,.r o TEMP PITS- , - - - ~E ~%- STANDAR4DS ROUNDS INF’HIEO[ *,.F,.CB POWER...A distillation of the requirements of that methodology are outlined below: a. Training requirements. Precise requirements in the form of battle

  5. Research on artistic gymnastics training guidance model (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Sun, Xianzhong


    Rhythmic gymnastics training guidance model, taking into consideration the features of artistic gymnastics training, is put forward to help gymnasts identify their deficiencies and unskilled technical movements and improve their training effects. The model is built on the foundation of both physical quality indicator model and artistic gymnastics training indicator model. Physical quality indicator model composed of bodily factor, flexibility-strength factor and speed-dexterity factor delivers an objective evaluation with reference to basic sport testing data. Training indicator model, based on physical fitness indicator, helps analyze the technical movements, through which the impact from each bodily factor on technical movements is revealed. AG training guidance model, in further combination with actual training data and in comparison with the data shown in the training indicator model, helps identify the problems in trainings, and thus improve the training effect. These three models when in combined use and in comparison with historical model data can check and verify the improvement in training effect over a certain period of time.

  6. Language Teaching Models in Teacher Training Programs


    Aslan, Alper


    Any language teacher who has gone through some kind of training program for the teaching of English should be familiar with various specific language teaching models that constitute the core of the training process. A language teaching model is a guide that helps the trainee to sequence the activities designed for the expectations and needs of learners in a lesson. This paper reviews the common language teaching models in teacher training programs (PPP, OHE, III, TTT, TBLT, ESA, ARC) and disc...

  7. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model (United States)

    Liu, Jing


    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  8. Training model for cerebral aneurysm clipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tenjin, M.D., Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Clipping of cerebral aneurysms is still an important skill in neurosurgery. We have made a training model for the clipping of cerebral aneurysms. The concepts for the model were 1: training model for beginners, 2: three dimensional manipulation using an operating microscope, 3: the aneurysm model is to be perfused by simulated blood causing premature rupture. The correct relationship between each tissue, and softness of the brain and vessels were characteristics of the model. The skull, brain, arteries, and veins were made using a 3D printer with data from DICOM. The brain and vessels were made from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. One training course was held and this model was useful for training of cerebral aneurysm surgery for young neurosurgeons.

  9. Models of Inservice Teacher Training. (United States)

    Mercado, Carmen I.

    The federally-funded New York Bilingual Education Multifunctional Support Center provides support services for Title VII and other bilingual education programs, and actively promotes the analysis and application of research findings relating to bilingual instruction and teacher training. It promotes professional development activities that are…

  10. Model of historical education and teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Daniel Mora Hernández


    Full Text Available In Mexico Model Historical Education is an educational proposal that is based on the interaction with primary sources and use of analytical concepts ("second order". Training model as part of the "representations" of student teachers of history and teaching -tradicionalistas- confronted with experiential activities. Follow the procedural learning teaching model. He concludes with the teaching work in real conditions ("situated learning", the drafting of a "receptional document" and the professional examination (reflexive teaching.This training model we have developed in the specialty of History of Bachelor of Secondary Education in Higher Normal School of Mexico since 2006, advising a hundred students.

  11. Developing a Successful Open Source Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Lopez


    Full Text Available Training programs for open source software provide a tangible, and sellable, product. A successful training program not only builds revenue, it also adds to the overall body of knowledge available for the open source project. By gathering best practices and taking advantage of the collective expertise within a community, it may be possible for a business to partner with an open source project to build a curriculum that promotes the project and supports the needs of the company's training customers. This article describes the initial approach used by Canonical, the commercial sponsor of the Ubuntu Linux operating system, to engage the community in the creation of its training offerings. We then discuss alternate curriculum creation models and some of the conditions that are necessary for successful collaboration between creators of existing documentation and commercial training providers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Александровна Лежнева


    Full Text Available The article explains the importance of the development of motive to succeed in adolescence. It is determined the value of the motive to achieve success in the further development of the teenager: a motive to achieve effective internal forces mobilized for the implementation of successful operation ensures the active involvement of teenagers in social and interpersonal relationships. As the primary means of motive development success is considered training. The author provides a definition of "training for success in life," creates a model of training for success in life, and describes its units (targeted, informative, technological, productive, reveals the successful development of the technology life strategy used during the training (self-presentation, targets, incentives, subject-orientation. The author pays attention to the need for a future psychologist to develop teenagers’ motive to achieve success through the mastery of competence in constructing a model of training for success in life, and its implementation in the course of professional activities. The main means of training students of psychology to the use of training success in life identified the additional educational programs and psychological section.DOI:

  13. Physically realistic modeling of maritime training simulation


    Cieutat , Jean-Marc


    Maritime training simulation is an important matter of maritime teaching, which requires a lot of scientific and technical skills.In this framework, where the real time constraint has to be maintained, all physical phenomena cannot be studied; the most visual physical phenomena relating to the natural elements and the ship behaviour are reproduced only. Our swell model, based on a surface wave simulation approach, permits to simulate the shape and the propagation of a regular train of waves f...

  14. A simplified approach to feedwater train modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollat, X.; Smoak, R.A.


    This paper presents a method to simplify feedwater train models for power plants. A simple set of algebraic equations, based on mass and energy balances, is developed to replace complex representations of the components under certain assumptions. The method was tested and used to model the low pressure heaters of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant in a larger simulation

  15. Model of historical education and teacher training


    Gerardo Daniel Mora Hernández; Rosa Ortiz Paz


    In Mexico Model Historical Education is an educational proposal that is based on the interaction with primary sources and use of analytical concepts ("second order"). Training model as part of the "representations" of student teachers of history and teaching -tradicionalistas- confronted with experiential activities. Follow the procedural learning teaching model. He concludes with the teaching work in real conditions ("situated learning"), the drafting of a "receptional document" and the prof...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Polyakov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The implementation of the magnetically levitated train’s (MLT levitation force (LF occurs during the interaction between fields of superconducting train’s (STC and short-circuited track’s contours (STC, which are included in to levitation module (LU. Based on this, the purpose of this study is to obtain a correct description of such interaction. Methodology. At the present stage, the main and most universal tool for the analysis and synthesis of processes and systems is their mathematical and, in particular, computer modeling. At the same time, the radical advantages of this tool make even more important the precision of choosing a specific methodology for research conducting. This is particularly relevant in relation to such large and complex systems as MLT. For this reason, the work pays special attention to the reasoned choice of the selective features of the research paradigm. Findings. The analysis results of existing versions of LF implementation’s models show that each of them, along with the advantages, also has significant drawbacks. In this regard, one of the main results of the study should be the construction of this force implementation’s mathematical model, which preserves the advantages of the mentioned versions, but free from their shortcomings. The rationality of application, for the train’s LF researching, of an integrative holistic paradigm, which assimilates the advantages of the electric circuit's and magnetic field's theory’s, is reasonably justified in work. Originality. The scientific novelty of the research – in priority of such a paradigm’s and the corresponding version’s of the LF’s implementation’s model’s creating. Practical value. The main manifestation of the practical significance of the work is the possibility, in the case of using its results, to significantly increase the effectiveness of dynamic MLT research while reducing their resource costing.

  17. A Sustainable Model for Training Teachers to Use Pivotal Response Training (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica


    The increase in the rate of autism diagnoses has created a growing demand for teachers who are trained to use effective interventions. The train-the-trainer model, which involves training supervisors to train others, may be ideal for providing cost-effective training and ongoing support to teachers. Although research supports interventions, such…

  18. Exemplary Training Models in Industrial Technology. (United States)

    Hatton, Michael J., Comp.

    Prepared by Canadian, Chinese Taipei, and Thai educational agencies and based on surveys of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation member nations, this report provides descriptions of 52 exemplary industrial technology training models in Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, the People's Republic…

  19. Engineering teacher training models and experiences (United States)

    González-Tirados, R. M.


    Education Area, we renewed the programme, content and methodology, teaching the course under the name of "Initial Teacher Training Course within the framework of the European Higher Education Area". Continuous Training means learning throughout one's life as an Engineering teacher. They are actions designed to update and improve teaching staff, and are systematically offered on the current issues of: Teaching Strategies, training for research, training for personal development, classroom innovations, etc. They are activities aimed at conceptual change, changing the way of teaching and bringing teaching staff up-to-date. At the same time, the Institution is at the disposal of all teaching staff as a meeting point to discuss issues in common, attend conferences, department meetings, etc. In this Congress we present a justification of both training models and their design together with some results obtained on: training needs, participation, how it is developing and to what extent students are profiting from it.

  20. A Parent Training Model for Toilet Training Children with Autism (United States)

    Kroeger, K.; Sorensen, R.


    Background: Azrin & Foxx pioneered an intensive toilet training protocol for individuals with intellectual disability living in a residential setting. Since the development of the Rapid Toilet Training (RTT) protocol, many have replicated the efficacy, most notably in educational and outpatient treatment settings, but often training over longer…

  1. Model for behavior observation training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E. Jr.


    Continued behavior observation is mandated by ANSI/ANS 3.3. This paper presents a model for behavior observation training that is in accordance with this standard and the recommendations contained in US NRC publications. The model includes seventeen major topics or activities. Ten of these are discussed: Pretesting of supervisor's knowledge of behavior observation requirements, explanation of the goals of behavior observation programs, why behavior observation training programs are needed (legal and psychological issues), early indicators of emotional instability, use of videotaped interviews to demonstrate significant psychopathology, practice recording behaviors, what to do when unusual behaviors are observed, supervisor rationalizations for noncompliance, when to be especially vigilant, and prevention of emotional instability

  2. A clinical application of the training model. (United States)

    Gianotti, Patricia


    This article offers a perspective and a summary of Jack Danielian's (2010) Horneyan training model, highlighting the benefits of a meta-psychological approach for analysts in training and seasoned practitioners alike. To help illustrate the complexity of Karen Horney's views of character structure and character pathology, this article presents a model that reflects the dynamic tensions at play within individuals with narcissistic issues. It suggests that therapeutic listening can be tracked and that thematic material unfolds in a somewhat predictable, sequential, yet altogether systemic manner. Listening is not just art or intuition, nor is it merely interpretation of content based on a theoretical framework. It represents a way of holding the dialectic tension between conscious and unconscious, syntonic and dystonic. If we can better track these dynamic tensions, we can better anticipate and hopefully avoid clinical ruptures through the acting out of negative transference.

  3. Discriminative training of self-structuring hidden control neural models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Hartmann, Uwe; Hunnerup, Preben


    This paper presents a new training algorithm for self-structuring hidden control neural (SHC) models. The SHC models were trained non-discriminatively for speech recognition applications. Better recognition performance can generally be achieved, if discriminative training is applied instead. Thus...... we developed a discriminative training algorithm for SHC models, where each SHC model for a specific speech pattern is trained with utterances of the pattern to be recognized and with other utterances. The discriminative training of SHC neural models has been tested on the TIDIGITS database...

  4. A Training Model for Improving Journalists' Voice. (United States)

    Rodero, Emma; Diaz-Rodriguez, Celia; Larrea, Olatz


    Voice education is a crucial aspect for professionals (journalists, teachers, politicians, actors, etc.) who use their voices as a working tool. The main concerns about such education are that, first, there is little awareness of the importance of voice education, and second there is little research devoted to it. The consequences of this lack of training are indeed visible in professionals who suffer voice pathologies or work with little effectiveness. This study seeks to overcome this deficiency by proposing a training model tested with a control group and a pilot study. Speech samples from a group of experimental participants-journalism students-were collected before and after a training course designed to improve their main vocal and prosodic features. These samples were contrasted with a control group without training. Results indicated significant differences in all tested voice elements (breathing, articulation, loudness, pitch, jitter, speech rate, pauses, and stress) except for shimmer and harmonics. The participants were able to enhance their main vocal and prosodic elements, and therefore their expressiveness maintaining optimal vocal hygiene. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Teacher Training Models for a New South Africa. (United States)

    Kachelhoffer, P. M.


    Discusses social change and educational realities in South Africa, noting the relatively poor qualifications of black teachers. The paper also examines South African teacher training models and presents teacher training models suitable for developing countries. (SM)

  6. Training mode's influences on the relationships between training-load models during basketball conditioning. (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Tucker, Patrick S; Borges, Nattai R; Dalbo, Vincent J


    To compare perceptual and physiological training-load responses during various basketball training modes. Eight semiprofessional male basketball players (age 26.3 ± 6.7 y, height 188.1 ± 6.2 cm, body mass 92.0 ± 13.8 kg) were monitored across a 10-wk period in the preparatory phase of their training plan. Player session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) and heart-rate (HR) responses were gathered across base, specific, and tactical/game-play training modes. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationships between the sRPE model and 2 HR-based models: the training impulse (TRIMP) and summated HR zones (SHRZ). One-way ANOVAs were used to compare training loads between training modes for each model. Stronger relationships between perceptual and physiological models were evident during base (sRPE-TRIMP r = .53, P training load than the TRIMP (15-65 AU) and SHRZ models (27-170 AU) transitioning between training modes. While the training-load models were significantly correlated during each training mode, weaker relationships were observed during specific conditioning. Comparisons suggest that the HR-based models were less effective in detecting periodized increases in training load, particularly during court-based, intermittent, multidirectional drills. The practical benefits and sensitivity of the sRPE model support its use across different basketball training modes.

  7. The relationships between internal and external training load models during basketball training. (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent J


    The present investigation described and compared the internal and external training loads during basketball training. Eight semiprofessional male basketball players (mean ± SD, age: 26.3 ± 6.7 years; stature: 188.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 92.0 ± 13.8 kg) were monitored across a 7-week period during the preparatory phase of the annual training plan. A total of 44 total sessions were monitored. Player session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), heart rate, and accelerometer data were collected across each training session. Internal training load was determined using the sRPE, training impulse (TRIMP), and summated-heart-rate-zones (SHRZ) training load models. External training load was calculated using an established accelerometer algorithm. Pearson product-moment correlations with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to determine the relationships between internal and external training load models. Significant moderate relationships were observed between external training load and the sRPE (r42 = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.23-0.69, p training load and the SHRZ model (r42 = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.38-0.77, p training load models, the magnitude of the correlations and low commonality suggest that internal training load models measure different constructs of the training process than the accelerometer training load model in basketball settings. Basketball coaching and conditioning professionals should not assume a linear dose-response between accelerometer and internal training load models during training and are recommended to combine internal and external approaches when monitoring training load in players.

  8. A podcasting-based pre-service teacher training model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao


    Full Text Available Podcasting has been increasingly used as a new approach to broadcasting information. In the educational field, podcasting offers plenty of opportunities to improve and facilitate pre-service teacher training in normal schools. This study analyses the practice of using podcasting for teaching skills training, and proposes a TSTP (Teaching Skills Training on Podcasting model to improve the training effectiveness.

  9. An overview of the Zhejiang Model of Teacher Training


    Zheng, Dan-Dan; Gao, Yabing; Wang, Chao


    The quality of teacher training directly affects the quality of primary and secondary school teachers’ professional development and indirectly affects the quality of primary and secondary school education. With an interest in teacher development, this paper presents an overview of the Zhejiang model of teacher training, with specific reference to the training of Chinese language teachers. This paper analyses the guidance of government’s teacher training policy, the design of training programm...

  10. Testing algorithms for a passenger train braking performance model. (United States)


    "The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development funded a project to establish performance model to develop, analyze, and test positive train control (PTC) braking algorithms for passenger train operations. With a good brak...

  11. Development of a Generic Didactic Model for Simulator Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emmerik, M


    .... The development of such a model is motivated by the need to control training and instruction factors in research on simulator fidelity, the need to assess the benefit of training simulators, e.g...

  12. Australian and overseas models of general practice training. (United States)

    Hays, Richard B; Morgan, Simon


    General practice training in Australia continues to evolve. It is now the responsibility of an independent organisation, is delivered by regional training providers, and comprises a structured training program. Overseas, general practice varies in its importance to health care systems, and training models differ considerably. In some cases training is mandatory, in others voluntary, but the aim is always similar--to improve the quality of care delivered to the large majority of populations that access health care through primary care. We review the current status of vocational general practice training in Australia, compare it with selected training programs in international contexts, and describe how the local model is well placed to address future challenges. Challenges include changes in population demographics, increasing comorbidity, increasing costs of technology-based health care, increasing globalisation of health, and workforce shortages. Although general practice training in Australia is strong, it can improve further by learning from other training programs to meet these challengers.

  13. Modeling and Solving the Train Pathing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Yih Chen


    Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.

  14. Declarative terrain modeling for military training games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.M.; Tutenel, T.; Kraker, J.K.. de; Bidarra, R.


    Military training instructors increasingly often employ computer games to train soldiers in all sorts of skills and tactics. One of the difficulties instructors face when using games as a training tool is the creation of suitable content, including scenarios, entities, and corresponding terrain

  15. A pedagogical model for integrative training in conservation and sustainability (United States)

    Meredith Welch-Devine; Dean Hardy; J. Peter Brosius; Nik Heynen


    The benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary training are well documented, and several reviews have discussed the particular importance of interdisciplinary training for conservation scholars and practitioners. We discuss the progress within one university program to implement specific training models, elements, and tools designed to move beyond remaining barriers...

  16. A Model of the Antecedents of Training Transfer (United States)

    Mohammed Turab, Ghaneemah; Casimir, Gian


    Many organizations have invested heavily in training. However, only a small percentage of what is learnt from training is applied or transferred to the workplace. This study examines factors that influence training transfer. A conceptual model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action is hypothesized and tested. The sample consisted of 123 full-time…

  17. Dynamics of the Cogwheel Instructional Design Model: Integrating a Central Training Center with Subordinate Training Branches (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu


    This article discusses an effort to improve training performance in a large corporate conglomerate in South Korea. In particular, focus is placed on a new instructional design (ID) model named the Cogwheel ID model. The cogwheel metaphor is used to illustrate the integrated processes within complex training organizations, including organizational,…

  18. Cross-trained workforce planning models


    Ross, Emma


    Cross-training has emerged as an effective method for increasing workforce flexibility in the face of uncertain demand. Despite recently receiving substantial attention in workforce planning literature, a number of challenges towards making the best use of cross-training remain. Most notably, approaches to automating the allocation of workers to their skills are typically not scalable to industrial sized problems. Secondly, insights into the nature of valuable cross-training actions are restr...

  19. Southwest University's No-Fee Teacher-Training Model (United States)

    Chen, Shijian; Yang, Shuhan; Li, Linyuan


    The training model for Southwest University's no-fee teacher education program has taken shape over several years. Based on a review of the documentation and interviews with administrators and no-fee preservice students from different specialties, this article analyzes Southwest University's no-fee teacher-training model in terms of three main…

  20. Finite Elements Contact Modelling of Planetary Gear Trains (United States)

    Stoyanov, Svetlin; Dobrev, Vasko; Dobreva, Antoaneta


    The paper presents the application aspects of computer technologies concerning the process of creating theoretical contact models of planetary gear trains using Abaqus/Explicit. The necessary assumptions, constrains and specific features of these gear drives are discussed in details. The models created are appropriate and useful tools for computer simulation research of the dynamic behaviour of planetary gear trains.

  1. Relative effectiveness of assertive training, modelling and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the Relative Effectiveness of Assertive Training (AT), modelling (M) and a combination of Assertive Training and Modelling (AT & M) techniques in improving the social skills of primary school isolates and consequently reduce their isolate behaviour. The study is a quasi experimental research that ...

  2. An animal model to train Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Presch, I; Pommergaard, H C


    pigs, and a total of 55 surgeons have been educated to perform Lichtenstein's hernia repair in these animals. CONCLUSIONS: This new experimental surgical model for training Lichtenstein's hernia repair mimics the human inguinal anatomy enough to make it suitable as a training model. The operation...

  3. Common modelling approaches for training simulators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Training simulators for nuclear power plant operating staff have gained increasing importance over the last twenty years. One of the recommendations of the 1983 IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Nuclear Power Plant Training Simulators in Helsinki was to organize a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on some aspects of training simulators. The goal statement was: ''To establish and maintain a common approach to modelling for nuclear training simulators based on defined training requirements''. Before adapting this goal statement, the participants considered many alternatives for defining the common aspects of training simulator models, such as the programming language used, the nature of the simulator computer system, the size of the simulation computers, the scope of simulation. The participants agreed that it was the training requirements that defined the need for a simulator, the scope of models and hence the type of computer complex that was required, the criteria for fidelity and verification, and was therefore the most appropriate basis for the commonality of modelling approaches. It should be noted that the Co-ordinated Research Programme was restricted, for a variety of reasons, to consider only a few aspects of training simulators. This report reflects these limitations, and covers only the topics considered within the scope of the programme. The information in this document is intended as an aid for operating organizations to identify possible modelling approaches for training simulators for nuclear power plants. 33 refs

  4. Rasmussen's model of human behavior in laparoscopy training. (United States)

    Wentink, M; Stassen, L P S; Alwayn, I; Hosman, R J A W; Stassen, H G


    Compared to aviation, where virtual reality (VR) training has been standardized and simulators have proven their benefits, the objectives, needs, and means of VR training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) still have to be established. The aim of the study presented is to introduce Rasmussen's model of human behavior as a practical framework for the definition of the training objectives, needs, and means in MIS. Rasmussen distinguishes three levels of human behavior: skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behaviour. The training needs of a laparoscopic novice can be determined by identifying the specific skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior that is required for performing safe laparoscopy. Future objectives of VR laparoscopy trainers should address all three levels of behavior. Although most commercially available simulators for laparoscopy aim at training skill-based behavior, especially the training of knowledge-based behavior during complications in surgery will improve safety levels. However, the cost and complexity of a training means increases when the training objectives proceed from the training of skill-based behavior to the training of complex knowledge-based behavior. In aviation, human behavior models have been used successfully to integrate the training of skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior in a full flight simulator. Understanding surgeon behavior is one of the first steps towards a future full-scale laparoscopy simulator.

  5. Standardized training in nurse model travel clinics. (United States)

    Sofarelli, Theresa A; Ricks, Jane H; Anand, Rahul; Hale, Devon C


    International travel plays a significant role in the emergence and redistribution of major human diseases. The importance of travel medicine clinics for preventing morbidity and mortality has been increasingly appreciated, although few studies have thus far examined the management and staff training strategies that result in successful travel-clinic operations. Here, we describe an example of travel-clinic operation and management coordinated through the University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases. This program, which involves eight separate clinics distributed statewide, functions both to provide patient consult and care services, as well as medical provider training and continuing medical education (CME). Initial training, the use of standardized forms and protocols, routine chart reviews and monthly continuing education meetings are the distinguishing attributes of this program. An Infectious Disease team consisting of one medical doctor (MD) and a physician assistant (PA) act as consultants to travel nurses who comprise the majority of clinic staff. Eight clinics distributed throughout the state of Utah serve approximately 6,000 travelers a year. Pre-travel medical services are provided by 11 nurses, including 10 registered nurses (RNs) and 1 licensed practical nurse (LPN). This trained nursing staff receives continuing travel medical education and participate in the training of new providers. All nurses have completed a full training program and 7 of the 11 (64%) of clinic nursing staff serve more than 10 patients a week. Quality assurance measures show that approximately 0.5% of charts reviewed contain a vaccine or prescription error which require patient notification for correction. Using an initial training program, standardized patient intake forms, vaccine and prescription protocols, preprinted prescriptions, and regular CME, highly trained nurses at travel clinics are able to provide standardized pre-travel care to

  6. Model training tasks as a tool for the construction of training process for athletes in team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Kostyukevich


    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the design of the training process of athletes in team sports during an annual training cycle on the basis of model training tasks. The model training tasks are developed along with micro-and mesocycles, periods, and annual cycle for preparation of elite female volleyball players. The ratio of the training means and various types of training loads in the periods of macrocycle were determined. Introduction of model training tasks into the training process in team sports allows to efficiently plan and optimize the preparation of athletes, as well as to implement the principle of individualization in the development of a coherent team.

  7. Transfer Learning for OCRopus Model Training on Early Printed Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reul


    Full Text Available A method is presented that significantly reduces the character error rates for OCR text obtained from OCRopus models trained on early printed books when only small amounts of diplomatic transcriptions are available. This is achieved by building from already existing models during training instead of starting from scratch. To overcome the discrepancies between the set of characters of the pretrained model and the additional ground truth the OCRopus code is adapted to allow for alphabet expansion or reduction. The character set is now capable of flexibly adding and deleting characters from the pretrained alphabet when an existing model is loaded. For our experiments we use a self-trained mixed model on early Latin prints and the two standard OCRopus models on modern English and German Fraktur texts. The evaluation on seven early printed books showed that training from the Latin mixed model reduces the average amount of errors by 43% and 26%, compared to training from scratch with 60 and 150 lines of ground truth, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that even building from mixed models trained on standard data unrelated to the newly added training and test data can lead to significantly improved recognition results.

  8. Interactive training model of TRIZ for mechanical engineers in China (United States)

    Tan, Runhua; Zhang, Huangao


    Innovation is a process of taking an original idea and converting it into a business value, in which the engineers face some inventive problems which can be solved hardly by experience. TRIZ, as a new theory for companies in China, provides both conceptual and procedural knowledge for finding and solving inventive problems. Because the government plays a leading role in the diffusion of TRIZ, too many companies from different industries are waiting to be trained, but the quantity of the trainers mastering TRIZ is incompatible with that requirement. In this context, to improve the training effect, an interactive training model of TRIZ for the mechanical engineers in China is developed and the implementation in the form of training classes is carried out. The training process is divided into 6 phases as follows: selecting engineers, training stage-1, finding problems, training stage-2, finding solutions and summing up. The government, TRIZ institutions and companies to join the programs interact during the process. The government initiates and monitors a project in form of a training class of TRIZ and selects companies to join the programs. Each selected companies choose a few engineers to join the class and supervises the training result. The TRIZ institutions design the training courses and carry out training curriculum. With the beginning of the class, an effective communication channel is established by means of interview, discussion face to face, E-mail, QQ and so on. After two years training practices, the results show that innovative abilities of the engineers to join and pass the final examinations increased distinctly, and most of companies joined the training class have taken congnizance of the power of TRIZ for product innovation. This research proposes an interactive training model of TRIZ for mechanical engineers in China to expedite the knowledge diffusion of TRIZ.

  9. Virtual Laparoscopic Training System Based on VCH Model. (United States)

    Tang, Jiangzhou; Xu, Lang; He, Longjun; Guan, Songluan; Ming, Xing; Liu, Qian


    Laparoscopy has been widely used to perform abdominal surgeries, as it is advantageous in that the patients experience lower post-surgical trauma, shorter convalescence, and less pain as compared to traditional surgery. Laparoscopic surgeries require precision; therefore, it is imperative to train surgeons to reduce the risk of operation. Laparoscopic simulators offer a highly realistic surgical environment by using virtual reality technology, and it can improve the training efficiency of laparoscopic surgery. This paper presents a virtual Laparoscopic surgery system. The proposed system utilizes the Visible Chinese Human (VCH) to construct the virtual models and simulates real-time deformation with both improved special mass-spring model and morph target animation. Meanwhile, an external device that integrates two five-degrees-of-freedom (5-DOF) manipulators was designed and made to interact with the virtual system. In addition, the proposed system provides a modular tool based on Unity3D to define the functions and features of instruments and organs, which could help users to build surgical training scenarios quickly. The proposed virtual laparoscopic training system offers two kinds of training mode, skills training and surgery training. In the skills training mode, the surgeons are mainly trained for basic operations, such as laparoscopic camera, needle, grasp, electric coagulation, and suturing. In the surgery-training mode, the surgeons can practice cholecystectomy and removal of hepatic cysts by guided or non-guided teaching.

  10. Preliminary development of the Active Colonoscopy Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi J


    Full Text Available JungHun Choi1, Kale Ravindra1, Randolph Robert1, David Drozek21Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; 2College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USAAbstract: Formal colonoscopy training requires a significant amount of time and effort. In particular, it requires actual patients for a realistic learning experience. The quality of colonoscopy training varies, and includes didactic courses and procedures proctored by skilled surgeons. A colonoscopy training model is occasionally used as part of the training method, but the effects are minute due to both the simple and tedious training procedures. To enhance the educational effect of the colonoscopy training model, the Active Colonoscopy Training Model (ACTM has been developed. ACTM is an interactive colonoscopy training device which can create the environment of a real colonoscopy procedure as closely as possible. It comprises a configurable rubber colon, a human torso, sensors, a display, and the control part. The ACTM provides audio and visual interaction to the trainee by monitoring important factors, such as forces caused by the distal tip and the shaft of the colonoscope and the pressure to open up the lumen and the localization of the distal tip. On the computer screen, the trainee can easily monitor the status of the colonoscopy, which includes the localization of the distal tip, maximum forces, pressure inside the colon, and surgery time. The forces between the rubber colon and the constraints inside the ACTM are measured and the real time display shows the results to the trainee. The pressure sensors will check the pressure at different parts of the colon. The real-time localized distal tip gives the colonoscopy trainee easier and more confident operation without introducing an additional device in the colonoscope. With the current need for colonoscopists and physicians, the ACTM can play an essential role resolving the problems of the current

  11. Thiel embalming method for cadaver preservation: a review of new training model for urologic skills training. (United States)

    Healy, Samuel E; Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W; Nabi, Ghulam


    The use of endourology training models is on the rise. Surgical practice is moving toward a more minimally invasive approach and deficits in surgical exposure by enforcement of the European Working Time Directive call for simulation models to be anatomically sound. Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been found to demonstrate efficacy in tissue quality, elasticity, and handling in addition to playing a role in teaching and training. This review summarizes the current status of the Thiel method and its role in urologic skills training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Further Evaluation of a Brief, Intensive Teacher-Training Model (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Strobel, Margaret; Garro, Joanie


    The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the outcomes of a model program that was designed to train current teachers of children with autism. Nine certified special education teachers participating in an intensive 5-day summer training program were taught a relatively large number of specific skills in two areas (preference assessment and…

  13. Stochastic modelling of train delays and delay propagation in stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.


    A trade-off exists between efficiently utilizing the capacity of railway networks and improving the reliability and punctuality of train operations. This dissertation presents a new analytical probability model based on blocking time theory which estimates the knock-on delays of trains caused by

  14. Modeling Cultural Behavior for Military Virtual Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Kerbusch, P.J.M.; Schram, J.


    Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and

  15. Modeling cultural behavior for military virtual training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, P.; Schram, J.; Bosch, K. van den


    Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and

  16. Addressing Development Vision 2025: Appropriate Training Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriately trained Human Resources for Health (HRH) are key inputs in the realisation of high quality livelihood, the first attribute of Tanzania‟s Development Vision 2025. Within this attribute elements related to HRH include: access to quality primary health care for all, reduction in infant and maternal mortality rates by ...

  17. Improving Training Results through Behavior Modeling. (United States)

    Arwady, Joseph W.


    Contains a partial inventory of sales training strategies and video techniques that heighten viewer involvement and promote transfer of learning to performance situations such as selling. These strategies have been used by Monroe Systems for Business, a manufacturer and distributor of business calculating equipment which recently expanded its…

  18. Modeling the Optimization of Intermodal Train Schedules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    In order to see a shift in modal split in favour of trains as envisioned by the European Union it is necessary for intermodal transport solutions to compete with trucking. Assuming it is possible to compete on price it is necessary to achieve transit times in intermodal networks that are similar...

  19. Preparing radiology staff to meet service goals: a training model. (United States)

    Ricciardone, E B; Stepanovich, P H; West, V T


    This article describes a model used to train radiology staff in customer service relations at a large southeastern medical center. Information about the needs of the radiology department and staff was acquired through quantitative and qualitative assessments. The primary goal of the training was twofold: 1) to develop employee awareness of customer expectations and 2) to develop problem-solving skills to respond to customer service related issues. Instructional methods compatible with adult learning were used and training results were assessed. Positive changes in employee attitudes and behaviors are described and recommendations for training development and implementation are discussed.

  20. Spreadsheet Decision Support Model for Training Exercise Material Requirements Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tringali, Arthur


    ... associated with military training exercises. The model combines the business practice of Material Requirements Planning and the commercial spreadsheet software capabilities of Lotus 1-2-3 to calculate the requirements for food, consumable...

  1. Systems Engineering Model and Training Application for Desktop Environment (United States)

    May, Jeffrey T.


    Provide a graphical user interface based simulator for desktop training, operations and procedure development and system reference. This simulator allows for engineers to train and further understand the dynamics of their system from their local desktops. It allows the users to train and evaluate their system at a pace and skill level based on the user's competency and from a perspective based on the user's need. The simulator will not require any special resources to execute and should generally be available for use. The interface is based on a concept of presenting the model of the system in ways that best suits the user's application or training needs. The three levels of views are Component View, the System View (overall system), and the Console View (monitor). These views are portals into a single model, so changing the model from one view or from a model manager Graphical User Interface will be reflected on all other views.

  2. Research for Future Training Modeling and Simulation Strategies (United States)


    Simulation (M&S) — 2010 Research,” for the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, Systems Engineering, Director, Modeling and... siri -nearing-launch-of-personal-artificial- intelligence/. 11 virtual assistant ...this TMSSP addresses: • Defense Training Environment (DTE) • Personal Learning Assistant (PLA), and • More agile business models for training. This

  3. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay


    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  4. Modeling the Effects of Stress: An Approach to Training (United States)

    Cuper, Taryn


    Stress is an integral element of the operational conditions experienced by combat medics. The effects of stress can compromise the performance of combat medics who must reach and treat their comrades under often threatening circumstances. Examples of these effects include tunnel vision, loss of motor control, and diminished hearing, which can result in an inability to perceive further danger, satisfactorily treat the casualty, and communicate with others. While many training programs strive to recreate this stress to aid in the experiential learning process, stress inducement may not always be feasible or desired. In addition, live simulations are not always a practical, convenient, and repeatable method of training. Instead, presenting situational training on a personal computer is proposed as an effective training platform in which the effects of stress can be addressed in a different way. We explore the cognitive and motor effects of stress, as well as the benefits of training for mitigating these effects in real life. While many training applications focus on inducing stress in order to "condition" the stress response, the author explores the possibilities of modeling stress to produce a similar effect. Can presenting modeled effects of stress help prepare or inoculate soldiers for stressful situations in which they must perform at a high level? This paper investigates feasibility of modeling stress and describes the preliminary design considerations of a combat medic training system that utilizes this method of battlefield preparation.

  5. A High-Speed Train Operation Plan Inspection Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rui


    Full Text Available We developed a train operation simulation tool to inspect a train operation plan. In applying an improved Petri Net, the train was regarded as a token, and the line and station were regarded as places, respectively, in accordance with the high-speed train operation characteristics and network function. Location change and running information transfer of the high-speed train were realized by customizing a variety of transitions. The model was built based on the concept of component combination, considering the random disturbance in the process of train running. The simulation framework can be generated quickly and the system operation can be completed according to the different test requirements and the required network data. We tested the simulation tool when used for the real-world Wuhan to Guangzhou high-speed line. The results showed that the proposed model can be developed, the simulation results basically coincide with the objective reality, and it can not only test the feasibility of the high-speed train operation plan, but also be used as a support model to develop the simulation platform with more capabilities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Ursulyak


    Full Text Available Purpose. Using scientific publications the paper analyzes the mathematical models developed in Ukraine, CIS countries and abroad for theoretical studies of train dynamics and also shows the urgency of their further improvement. Methodology. Information base of the research was official full-text and abstract databases, scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists, professional periodicals, materials of scientific and practical conferences, methodological materials of ministries and departments. Analysis of publications on existing mathematical models used to solve a wide range of problems associated with the train dynamics study shows the expediency of their application. Findings. The results of these studies were used in: 1 design of new types of draft gears and air distributors; 2 development of methods for controlling the movement of conventional and connected trains; 3 creation of appropriate process flow diagrams; 4 development of energy-saving methods of train driving; 5 revision of the Construction Codes and Regulations (SNiP ΙΙ-39.76; 6 when selecting the parameters of the autonomous automatic control system, created in DNURT, for an auxiliary locomotive that is part of a connected train; 7 when creating computer simulators for the training of locomotive drivers; 8 assessment of the vehicle dynamic indices characterizing traffic safety. Scientists around the world conduct numerical experiments related to estimation of train dynamics using mathematical models that need to be constantly improved. Originality. The authors presented the main theoretical postulates that allowed them to develop the existing mathematical models for solving problems related to the train dynamics. The analysis of scientific articles published in Ukraine, CIS countries and abroad allows us to determine the most relevant areas of application of mathematical models. Practicalvalue. The practical value of the results obtained lies in the scientific validity

  7. Novel brain model for training of deep microvascular anastomosis. (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Yasui, Nobuyuki; Ono, Hidenori


    Models of the brain and skull were developed using a selective laser sintering method for training in the procedures of deep microvascular anastomosis. Model A has an artificial skull with two craniotomies, providing fronto-temporal-subtemporal and suboccipital windows. The brain in Model A is soft and elastic, and consists of the brainstem and a hemispheric part with a detailed surface. Rehearsals or training for anastomosis to the insular part of the middle cerebral artery, superior cerebellar artery, posterior cerebral artery, and posterior inferior cerebellar artery can be performed through the craniotomies. Model B has an artificial skull with a bifrontal craniotomy and an artificial brain consisting of the bilateral frontal lobes with an interhemispheric fissure and corpus callosum. Rehearsals or training for anastomosis of the callosal segment of the anterior cerebral artery can be practiced through this craniotomy. These realistic models will help to develop skills for deep vascular anastomosis, which remains a challenging neurosurgical procedure, even for experienced neurosurgeons.

  8. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah model on the job training (pelatihan kerja di industri mampu meningkatkan kemampuan keterampilan mahasiswa program studi vokasi bidang manufaktur di Universitas Tujuh Belas Agustus Surabaya. Penelitian ini mengambil data pada mahasiswa di Program Studi Vokasi bidang manufaktur sejumlah 20 orang untuk menguji validitas dan reliabilitas angket dan sejumlah 30 orang mahasiswa untuk menguji pengaruh on the job training terhadap kemampuan keterampilan mahasiswa yang meliputi aspek afektif, kognitif dan psikomotorik. Pengumpulan data melalui angket, observasi, dan wawancara. Metode analisis menggunakan regresi untuk mengetahui pengaruh antara variabel on the job training terhadap variabel kemampuan keterampilan mahasiswa. Diketahui hasil persamaan regresi bahwa semakin baik model on the job training diterapkan, maka semakin baik pula peningkatan kemampuan keterampilan yang dimiliki mahasiswa. Besarnya pengaruh model on the job training terhadap keterampilan sebesar 0.701 atau 70.1%. Dihasilkan model pembelajaran on the job training yang dilakukan mampu mempengaruhi peningkatan kemampuan keterampilan calon lulusan program studi vokasi bidang manufaktur

  10. Adopsi Model Competency Based Training dalam Kewirausahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Santra


    Full Text Available The aim of the research is improving the teaching method in entrepreneurship subject. This research adopted the competency based training (CBT into the entrepreneurship. The major task in this research is formulated and designed the entrepreneurship competency. Entrepreneurship competency indicated by Personal, Strategic and Situational and Business competence. All of entrepreneurship competences are described into sub topic of competence. After designing and formulating the game and simulation the research continuing to implement the competency based training in the real class. The time consumed to implementing the CBT one semester, starting on September 2006 to early February 2007. The lesson learnt from the implementation period, the CBT could improve the student competence in Personal, Situational Strategic and Business. The three of the competencies are important for the success entrepreneur. It is a sign of application of “Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi”. There are many evidences to describe the achievement of the CBT in entrepreneurship subject. Firstly, physically achievement, that all of the student’s business plan could became the real business. The evidences are presented by picture of the student’s real business. Secondly theoretically achievement, that the Personal, Situational Strategic and Business competence statistically have significant relation with Business Plan even Real Business quality. The effect of the Personal, Situational Strategic and Business competence to Business Plan quality is 84.4%. and, to the Real Business quality 77.2%. The statistic’s evidence suggests that the redesign of the entrepreneurship subject is the right way. The content of the entrepreneur competence (Personal, Situational and Strategic and Business competence have impact to the student to conduct and running for own business.

  11. Analysis of different training models for handball goalkeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Muñoz Moreno


    Full Text Available The importance of the goalkeeper for the team performance is critical, however, publications on specific preparation are few in number, with no clear lines of work. The present study aims to analyze the different methodologies used in the specific training handball goalkeeper, by setting what the different training models as well as deepen the potential applications of each.For this purpose, it was conducted an extensive literature review, categorizing each document based on the performance factor on which prioritizes: physical-technical, perceptual and tactical. The analysis of results found that there were no other models than those categorized, being more numerous publications falling under physical and technical training, followed by the perceptive and very few exist on tactical training. In light of the results seems essential to conduct a specific training program for goalkeeper, taking into account the most relevant variables for optimal performance. No single factor seems more relevant to any stage of training, it being necessary to deepen it.Keywords: specific training, perception, decision making, tactical

  12. Modeling initiation trains based on HMX and TATB (United States)

    Drake, R. C.; Maisey, M.


    There will always be a requirement to reduce the size of initiation trains. However, as the size is reduced the performance characteristics can be compromised. A detailed science-based understanding of the processes (ignition and growth to detonation) which determine the performance characteristics is required to enable compact and robust initiation trains to be designed. To assess the use of numerical models in the design of initiation trains a modeling study has been undertaken, with the aim of understanding the initiation of TATB and HMX charges by a confined, surface mounted detonator. The effect of detonator diameter and detonator confinement on the formation of dead zones in the acceptor explosives has been studied. The size of dead zones can be reduced by increasing the diameter of the detonator and by increasing the impedance of the confinement. The implications for the design of initiation trains are discussed.

  13. Teacher Training by Means of a School-Based Model (United States)

    Richter, Barry


    The purpose of the study was to explore how a school-based training model (SBTM) could help to address the shortage of teachers. This model also allows, among other aspects, for poor and disadvantaged students to study while they gain experience. This article reports on the results of the SBTM implemented by a South African university, whereby…

  14. Brief Therapy: A Model for Early Counselor Training. (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.


    Presents a model for conducting brief, problem-focused counseling as a way to teach trainees the verbal skills and structuring methods that promote efficient problem clarification and resolution. Identifies the model's skills requirements and discusses its advantages for use in training. (BH)

  15. Simulating disturbances and modelling expected train passenger delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker


    Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. It has only relatively recently become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays. This paper describes how it is possible to use a passenger regularity model...

  16. Modelling expected train passenger delays on large scale railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker


    Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First...

  17. Counseling and Human Sexuality: A Training Model. (United States)

    Fyfe, Bill


    Presents a counseling and human sexuality course model that provides counselors with an information base in human sexuality and assists them in exploring the emotional aspects of sexuality. Human sexuality is a vital aspect of personal development. (Author)

  18. Training Effectiveness at PT XYZ Using Kirkpatrick Model and Return on Investment of Training (ROI-Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny


    Full Text Available The goal of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of Kirkpatrick model and Return on Investment of Training at PT XYZ. Observation was applied to this research. The result has shown several facts such as trainee’s feedback score was 4,62 above 4,10 as required by the company in terms of reaction, the average final exam score was 3,66 above 3,00 as required by the company in terms of learning, the trainees’ superiors’ feedback score was 3,53 above 3,00 as required by the company and Return on Investment of Training (ROI-Training was 58,88% above 15% as required by the company. With these results, the company can conclude that the program is effective in nurturing its supervisory leaders.

  19. Chicken and porcine models for training in laparoscopy and robotics. (United States)

    Ganpule, Arvind; Chhabra, Jaspreet Singh; Desai, Mahesh


    To review the most recent literature and contemporary role of the use of porcine and chicken models in laparoscopic and robotic simulation exercises, for training and skill assessment. There are multiple types of the simulators which include mechanical, virtual reality, hybrid simulators and animal models. The recent literature has seen insurgence of several of such simulators, specifically the animate ones comprising porcine and chicken models. The different training models reported have evolved from generalized and simpler, to a more task dedicated and complex versions. Unlike in the past, the recent publications include analysis of these models incorporating different measures of validity assessment. On account of the natural tissue properties inherent to these porcine and chicken models, they are proving to be instrumental in acquisition of higher surgical skills such as dissection, suturing and use of energy sources, all of which are required in real-time clinical scenarios be it laparoscopy or robotic-assisted procedures. In-vivo training in the animal model continues to be, perhaps, the most sophisticated training method before resorting to real-time surgery.

  20. Cumulative Training Dose's Effects on Interrelationships Between Common Training-Load Models During Basketball Activity. (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dascombe, Ben J; Dalbo, Vincent J


    The influence of various factors on training-load (TL) responses in basketball has received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes and influence of cumulative training dose on TL responses and interrelationships during basketball activity. Ten state-level Australian male junior basketball players completed 4 × 10-min standardized bouts of simulated basketball activity using a circuit-based protocol. Internal TL was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), summated heart-rate zones (SHRZ), Banister training impulse (TRIMP), and Lucia TRIMP models. External TL was assessed via measurement of mean sprint and circuit speeds. Temporal TL comparisons were performed between 10-min bouts, while Pearson correlation analyses were conducted across cumulative training doses (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 0-40 min). sRPE TL increased (P basketball activity. sRPE TL was only significantly related to Lucia TRIMP (r = .66-.69; P training doses (r = .84-.89; P basketball training doses lasting beyond 20 min. Thus, the interchangeability of commonly used internal and external TL approaches appears dose-dependent during basketball activity, with various psychophysiological mediators likely underpinning temporal changes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.S. Yadavalli


    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal planning of manpower training programmes in a manpower system with two grades is discussed. The planning of manpower training within a given organization involves a trade-off between training costs and expected return. These planning problems are examined through models that reflect the random nature of manpower movement in two grades. To be specific, the system consists of two grades, grade 1 and grade 2. Any number of persons in grade 2 can be sent for training and after the completion of training, they will stay in grade 2 and will be given promotion as and when vacancies arise in grade 1. Vacancies arise in grade 1 only by wastage. A person in grade 1 can leave the system with probability p. Vacancies are filled with persons in grade 2 who have completed the training. It is assumed that there is a perfect passing rate and that the sizes of both grades are fixed. Assuming that the planning horizon is finite and is T, the underlying stochastic process is identified as a finite state Markov chain and using dynamic programming, a policy is evolved to determine how many persons should be sent for training at any time k so as to minimize the total expected cost for the entire planning period T.

  2. Plasticine Model: An Useful Surgical Training in Plastic Surgery. (United States)

    Ji, Chenyang; Li, Ruiting; Liang, Weiqiang; Chen, Yuhong; Zhang, Jinming


    To help surgical trainees reach a deep understanding of plastic operations, we developed and evaluated an economical and convenient model using plasticine for plastic surgical training. From Sep of 2012 to Dec of 2014, we invited 57 medical interns to participate in a program designed for the qualitative evaluation of this model. In this program, 57 interns were asked to simulate certain surgical operations under guidance of the experienced staff of our department using the plasticine model. The value of the plasticine model was evaluated through questionnaire surveys. Their acceptance of the plasticine model, as well as the benefits and the flaws, was evaluated by the questionnaire survey. All the participants completed the training session as well as the questionnaire, all of whom felt that the plasticine model had increased their familiarity with the surgical procedure they were assigned. By remodeling plasticine, the trainees understood either the brief surgical procedures or some confusing operative details in plastic surgery. In the questionnaire surveys, the trainees showed considerable consensus with the training program. The flaws of this method were also listed. The flaws generally reflected that "it is difficult to model into a vivid image" and "it is not suitable for all the operation". Overall, the plasticine model is accepted by the participants in this survey. This model is economical and versatile, and could be used as a complementary training tool for novices in simulated operation training of plastic surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors

  3. Stochastic models for spike trains of single neurons

    CERN Document Server

    Sampath, G


    1 Some basic neurophysiology 4 The neuron 1. 1 4 1. 1. 1 The axon 7 1. 1. 2 The synapse 9 12 1. 1. 3 The soma 1. 1. 4 The dendrites 13 13 1. 2 Types of neurons 2 Signals in the nervous system 14 2. 1 Action potentials as point events - point processes in the nervous system 15 18 2. 2 Spontaneous activi~ in neurons 3 Stochastic modelling of single neuron spike trains 19 3. 1 Characteristics of a neuron spike train 19 3. 2 The mathematical neuron 23 4 Superposition models 26 4. 1 superposition of renewal processes 26 4. 2 Superposition of stationary point processe- limiting behaviour 34 4. 2. 1 Palm functions 35 4. 2. 2 Asymptotic behaviour of n stationary point processes superposed 36 4. 3 Superposition models of neuron spike trains 37 4. 3. 1 Model 4. 1 39 4. 3. 2 Model 4. 2 - A superposition model with 40 two input channels 40 4. 3. 3 Model 4. 3 4. 4 Discussion 41 43 5 Deletion models 5. 1 Deletion models with 1nd~endent interaction of excitatory and inhibitory sequences 44 VI 5. 1. 1 Model 5. 1 The basic de...

  4. Gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is indispensable that members of the medical profession receive the technical training needed to enable them to rapidly obtain effective vascular access. Training procedures should be used judiciously to familiarize students with the technique. However, existing models are expensive or ineffective, and models need to be developed that are similar to what will be encountered in real patients.OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate creation and application of a gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture.METHOS: The model was made using a mixture of colorless gelatin and water in a transparent plastic receptacle with two pairs of orifices of different diameters, through which two plastic tubes were inserted, to simulate blood vessels.RESULTS: The model was a close approximation to the real medical procedure in several aspects, since gelatin has a similar consistency to human tissues, providing a more faithful reproduction of the tactile sensation at the moment when the needle reaches the interior of a vessel and its contents are aspirated.CONCLUSIONS: The method proposed here can be used to easily construct a low-cost model using everyday materials that is suitable for large-scale training of ultrasound-guided puncture.

  5. Teacher training by means of a school-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Richter


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore how a school-based training model (SBTM could help to address the shortage of teachers. This model also allows, among other aspects, for poor and disadvantaged students to study while they gain experience. This article reports on the results of the SBTM implemented by a South African university, whereby student teachers are appointed at schools as assistant teachers. A mixed method study was preferred in order to explore the effectiveness of the model. The findings of the research indicate that the majority of teachers, lecturers, students and members of school managements involved were positive regarding the SBTM, and that the advantages of the model outweighed the challenges. It is therefore recommended that the model be implemented as an alternative teacher training programme for the special conditions prevailing in South Africa, as well as other countries that experience a teacher shortage.

  6. Training Teachers Towards Responsibility in Future Education: Innovative Models. (United States)

    Butler-Arlosoff, Nava

    The importance of teacher education is stressed, and two models for teacher education in Israel, one for teachers of gifted children in an urban environment and the other for training teachers of culturally different children, are offered. The teachers of gifted children were provided with a theory and practice course, a workshop, and practical…

  7. relative effectiveness of assertive training, modelling and their

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    Imo State University. Owerri e-mail: Abstract. The study investigated the Relative Effectiveness of Assertive Training (AT), modelling (M) and ... conversation skills; assertiveness skills, play interaction skills; self-related ... possession of poor, inefficient or inadequate social skills, low self-esteem,.

  8. Effect of a training model in local anesthesia teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Baart, J.A.; Maas, N.E.; Bachet, I.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preclinical use of a training model in local anesthesia teaching on the subsequent clinical administration of a local anesthetic. Sixty-five dental students gave their first injection to a fellow dental student: twenty-two students after previous experience

  9. Estimation model of training support system for Finite Element Analysis and implementation of training scenario as knowledge patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Murayama


    Full Text Available This paper presents an arrangement method of FEA modeling knowledge by using a design pattern methodology, and deals with an estimation method of FEA training scenario. The prototype support system and its training knowledge can be arranged and classified in several patterns, while the mechanics of a beam structure has been picked up as an example of training subject. Essential evaluation problems were prepared for checking the synthetic achievement and the effectivity of training support system onto any beginners of the code called MARC/MENTAT has been investigated. Through the simulation with the prototype training support system, an evaluation model as the synthetic achievement test for any training scenario was shown with the degree vector. Observing the reusability of training programs, the compression rate of iterated common operations was estimated for the prototype training support system.

  10. A phoneme-based student model for adaptive spelling training


    Baschera, Gian-Marco; Gross, Markus H.


    We present a novel phoneme-based student model for spelling training. Our model is data driven, adapts to the user and provides information for, e.g., optimal word selection. We describe spelling errors using a set of features accounting for phonemic, capitalization, typo, and other error categories. We compute the influence of individual features on the error expectation values based on previous input data using Poisson regression. This enables us to predict error expectation values and to c...

  11. The preceptor--preceptee model for faculty "cross-training". (United States)

    Warren, M C


    In the review of the literature, the author notes several discussions concerning collaboration between nursing education and service agencies for updating faculty clinical practice. This article addresses the Preceptor-Preceptee model for Faculty "Cross-training," including the permission process, method, needs analysis, and evaluation. A concluding statement by the author strongly recommends the utilization of the faculty practice model to enhance the faculty's competence in clinical nursing areas.

  12. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling (United States)

    Feraco, Angela M.; Brand, Sarah R.; Mack, Jennifer W.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Block, Susan D.; Wolfe, Joanne


    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. PMID:26822066

  13. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling. (United States)

    Feraco, Angela M; Brand, Sarah R; Mack, Jennifer W; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Block, Susan D; Wolfe, Joanne


    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A new training model for robot-assisted urethrovesical anastomosis and posterior muscle-fascial reconstruction: the Verona training technique. (United States)

    Cacciamani, G; De Marco, V; Siracusano, S; De Marchi, D; Bizzotto, L; Cerruto, M A; Motton, G; Porcaro, A B; Artibani, W


    A training model is usually needed to teach robotic surgical technique successfully. In this way, an ideal training model should mimic as much as possible the "in vivo" procedure and allow several consecutive surgical simulations. The goal of this study was to create a "wet lab" model suitable for RARP training programs, providing the simulation of the posterior fascial reconstruction. The second aim was to compare the original "Venezuelan" chicken model described by Sotelo to our training model. Our training model consists of performing an anastomosis, reproducing the surgical procedure in "vivo" as in RARP, between proventriculus and the proximal portion of the esophagus. A posterior fascial reconstruction simulating Rocco's stitch is performed between the tissues located under the posterior surface of the esophagus and the tissue represented by the serosa of the proventriculus. From 2014 to 2015, during 6 different full-immersion training courses, thirty-four surgeons performed the urethrovesical anastomosis using our model and the Sotelo's one. After the training period, each surgeon was asked to fill out a non-validated questionnaire to perform an evaluation of the differences between the two training models. Our model was judged the best model, in terms of similarity with urethral tissue and similarity with the anatomic unit urethra-pelvic wall. Our training model as reported by all trainees is easily reproducible and anatomically comparable with the urethrovesical anastomosis as performed during radical prostatectomy in humans. It is suitable for performing posterior fascial reconstruction reported by Rocco. In this context, our surgical training model could be routinely proposed in all robotic training courses to develop specific expertise in urethrovesical anastomosis with the reproducibility of the Rocco stitch.

  15. Advanced psychotherapy training: psychotherapy scholars' track, and the apprenticeship model. (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel


    Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and experience with empirically supported and traditional psychotherapies, the authors aimed to develop an advanced contemporary and pragmatic approach to psychotherapy training for eight residents (two per PGY year) enrolled in a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars' Track within an adult general-residency program. The authors developed core principles and clinical practices, and drafted year-by-year educational goals and objectives to teach the psychotherapy scholars. Based on experiential learning principles, we also developed an individualized form of psychotherapy training, which we call "The Apprenticeship Model." The Psychotherapy Scholars' Track, and "Apprenticeship Model" of training are now in their third year. To date, authors report that scholars are highly satisfied with the structure and curriculum in the track. Trainees appreciate the protected time for self-directed study, mentored scholarship, and psychotherapy rotations. Patients and the Psychotherapy Scholars experience the "Apprenticeship Model" of psychotherapy training as authentic and compatible with their needs and resources. The Psychotherapy Scholars' Track developed and piloted in our general psychiatry residency is based on common factors, empirically-supported treatments, and use of experiential learning principles. Whether the Psychotherapy Scholars' Track and "Apprenticeship Model" will ultimately increase residents' psychotherapy skills and positively affect their ability to sustain postgraduate psychotherapy practice in varied settings requires long-term evaluation. The developers welcome empirical testing of the comparative effectiveness of this psychotherapy teaching approach

  16. The French model of psychoanalytic training: Ethical conflicts. (United States)

    François-Poncet, Claire-Marine


    Research on psychoanalytical education within the IPA may be clarified by reflecting on the ethic behind each of the three main models (Eitingonian, French and Uruguayan). In fact, the ethic underpinning psychoanalytical education, whatever the model, is confronted by irreducible conflicts between transmitting psychoanalysis by means of analytical experience or by means of academic teaching. Transmission by experience is essentially based on the ethic of psychoanalytic practice, which is difficult to regulate through institutional standards, whereas the academic aspect can be evaluated by objective and public criteria. The importance of both aspects and their relative weight in the training process depend on the conception of psychoanalysis underlying each model. This paper will look primarily at the French training model, the essentially analytical aspects of which favour the transmission of the very ethical foundations of psychoanalytic practice itself: the application of the method both as a working tool and as a tool of evaluation. It presupposes expanding the observation and analysis of transference beyond the framework of treatment to that of supervision. From this analysis, the paper will attempt to demonstrate how the French model proposes dealing with the inevitable conflicts between transmission by means of analysis and training by means of apprenticeship.

  17. Common swine models of cardiovascular disease for research and training. (United States)

    Crisóstomo, Verónica; Sun, Fei; Maynar, Manuel; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Blanco, Virginia; Garcia-Lindo, Monica; Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel


    Cardiovascular diseases are a major health concern and therefore an important topic in biomedical research. Large animal models allow researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of new cardiovascular procedures in systems that resemble human anatomy; additionally, they can be used to emulate scenarios for training purposes. Among the many biomedical models that are described in published literature, it is important that researchers understand and select those that are best suited to achieve the aims of their research, that facilitate the humane care and management of their research animals and that best promote the high ethical standards required of animal research. In this resource the authors describe some common swine models that can be easily incorporated into regular practices of research and training at biomedical institutions. These models use both native and altered vascular anatomy of swine to carry out research protocols, such as testing biological reactions to implanted materials, surgically creating aneurysms using autologous tissue and inducing myocardial infarction through closed-chest procedures. Such models can also be used for training, where native and altered vascular anatomy allow medical professionals to learn and practice challenging techniques in anatomy that closely simulates human systems.

  18. Cadaver-based abscess model for medical training. (United States)

    Ellis, Michael Stanley; Nelson, Joseph T; Kartchner, Jeffrey Zane; Yousef, Karl Andrew; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Amini, Richard


    Ultrasound imaging is a rapid and noninvasive tool ideal for the imaging of soft tissue infections and is associated with a change of clinician management plans in 50% of cases. We developed a realistic skin abscess diagnostic and therapeutic training model using fresh frozen cadavers and common, affordable materials. Details for construction of the model and suggested variations are presented. This cadaver-based abscess model produces high-quality sonographic images with internal echogenicity similar to a true clinical abscess, and is ideal for teaching sonographic diagnostic skills in addition to the technical skills of incision and drainage or needle aspiration.

  19. Training Effectiveness at PT XYZ Using Kirkpatrick Model and Return on Investment of Training (ROI-Training)


    Jonny, Jonny


    The goal of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of Kirkpatrick model and Return on Investment of Training at PT XYZ. Observation was applied to this research. The result has shown several facts such as trainee’s feedback score was 4,62 above 4,10 as required by the company in terms of reaction, the average final exam score was 3,66 above 3,00 as required by the company in terms of learning, the trainees’ superiors’ feedback score was 3,53 above 3,00 as required by the company and R...

  20. Consensus-based training and assessment model for general surgery. (United States)

    Szasz, P; Louridas, M; de Montbrun, S; Harris, K A; Grantcharov, T P


    Surgical education is becoming competency-based with the implementation of in-training milestones. Training guidelines should reflect these changes and determine the specific procedures for such milestone assessments. This study aimed to develop a consensus view regarding operative procedures and tasks considered appropriate for junior and senior trainees, and the procedures that can be used as technical milestone assessments for trainee progression in general surgery. A Delphi process was followed where questionnaires were distributed to all 17 Canadian general surgery programme directors. Items were ranked on a 5-point Likert scale, with consensus defined as Cronbach's α of at least 0·70. Items rated 4 or above on the 5-point Likert scale by 80 per cent of the programme directors were included in the models. Two Delphi rounds were completed, with 14 programme directors taking part in round one and 11 in round two. The overall consensus was high (Cronbach's α = 0·98). The training model included 101 unique procedures and tasks, 24 specific to junior trainees, 68 specific to senior trainees, and nine appropriate to all. The assessment model included four procedures. A system of operative procedures and tasks for junior- and senior-level trainees has been developed along with an assessment model for trainee progression. These can be used as milestones in competency-based assessments. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The development of multi-model rehabilitation training system for lower limb sitting function (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Sun, Yue; Wu, Qun


    The multi-model rehabilitation training system was manufactured according to the demands of patients' practical training. Through the use of the patient's exercise physiology information, the ability of muscle force and movement efficiency of the patient were identified. Following with medical rehabilitation therapy, the training model, a combination of active and passive training, was proposed to enhance the training efficiency and rehabilitation effect. Furthermore, taking the sitting movement training as an example, the research theory was applied in knee rehabilitation training. The results of the research provid technical support and practical reference to the relevant training equipment designs and clinical applications.

  2. Percutaneous renal surgery: new model for learning and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earp Pedro P. de Sá


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aiming at promoting and facilitating learning and training in percutaneous renal surgery, we have created an easy to assemble, reproducible and cheap laboratory model. The model was built using pig kidney, foam layer, plastic catheter, linen or cotton holding sutures, and wide scotch tape. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The kidney with catheterized ureter is fixed and involved in a foam layer. It stays hidden, and is visible only through radioscopy. This model is positioned and fixed to a radiological table in such a way that it simulates the patient’s lumbar region. After that, contrast medium is injected through the ureter, and the urinary system is examined through radioscopy. All percutaneous maneuvers can be accomplished, from the puncture, tract dilation, insertion of Amplatz sheath, and introduction of nephroscope, allowing lithotripsy and endopielotomy, as well as other types of percutaneous surgeries. COMMENTS: The great advantage of this model is its easy construction, by using very cheap and widely available material. Foam can be several times washed and reused. After treatment, the model can be immediately open, and a critical analysis can be made, being then possible to verify if the place of renal puncture was well chosen, if dilation was correctly accomplished, and if the collecting system has been preserved. Therefore, this model can represent a great advance for the learning and training in percutaneous surgery.

  3. Music training and inhibitory control: a multidimensional model. (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Farzan, Faranak


    Training programs aimed to improve cognitive skills have either yielded mixed results or remain to be validated. The limited benefits of such regimens are largely attributable to weak understanding of (1) how (and which) interventions provide the most cognitive improvements; and (2) how brain networks and neural mechanisms that underlie specific cognitive abilities can be modified selectively. Studies indicate that music training leads to robust and long-lasting benefits to behavior. Importantly, behavioral advantages conferred by music extend beyond perceptual abilities to even nonauditory functions, such as inhibitory control (IC) and its neural correlates. Alternative forms of arts engagement or brain training do not appear to yield such enhancements, which suggests that music uniquely taps into brain networks subserving a variety of auditory as well as domain-general mechanisms such as IC. To account for such widespread benefits of music training, we propose a framework of transfer effects characterized by three dimensions: level of processing, nature of the transfer, and involvement of executive functions. We suggest that transfer of skills is mediated through modulation of general cognitive processes, in particular IC. We believe that this model offers a viable framework to test the extent and limitations of music-related changes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Animal model for endoscopic neurosurgical training: technical note. (United States)

    Fernandez-Miranda, J C; Barges-Coll, J; Prevedello, D M; Engh, J; Snyderman, C; Carrau, R; Gardner, P A; Kassam, A B


    The learning curve for endonasal endoscopic and neuroendoscopic port surgery is long and often associated with an increase in complication rates as surgeons gain experience. We present an animal model for laboratory training aiming to encourage the young generation of neurosurgeons to pursue proficiency in endoscopic neurosurgical techniques. 20 Wistar rats were used as models. The animals were introduced into a physical trainer with multiple ports to carry out fully endoscopic microsurgical procedures. The vertical and horizontal dimensions of the paired ports (simulated nostrils) were: 35×20 mm, 35×15 mm, 25×15 mm, and 25×10 mm. 2 additional single 11.5 mm endoscopic ports were added. Surgical depth varied as desired between 8 and 15 cm. The cervical and abdominal regions were the focus of the endoscopic microsurgical exercises. The different endoscopic neurosurgical techniques were effectively trained at the millimetric dimension. Levels of progressive surgical difficulty depending upon the endoneurosurgical skills set needed for a particular surgical exercise were distinguished. LEVEL 1 is soft-tissue microdissection (exposure of cervical muscular plane and retroperitoneal space); LEVEL 2 is soft-tissue-vascular and vascular-capsule microdissection (aorto-cava exposure, carotid sheath opening, external jugular vein isolation); LEVEL 3 is artery-nerve microdissection (carotid-vagal separation); LEVEL 4 is artery-vein microdissection (aorto-cava separation); LEVEL 5 is vascular repair and microsuturing (aortic rupture), which verified the lack of current proper instrumentation. The animal training model presented here has the potential to shorten the length of the learning curve in endonasal endoscopic and neuroendoscopic port surgery and reduce the incidence of training-related surgical complications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Model-Based Reasoning in Humans Becomes Automatic with Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Economides


    Full Text Available Model-based and model-free reinforcement learning (RL have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. Model-based RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led model-based RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that model-based reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load--a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair model-based reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of model-based reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy model-based reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders.

  6. Model-Based Reasoning in Humans Becomes Automatic with Training (United States)

    Lübbert, Annika; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J.


    Model-based and model-free reinforcement learning (RL) have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. Model-based RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led model-based RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that model-based reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load—a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair model-based reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of model-based reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy model-based reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26379239

  7. Andragogical Model in Language Training of Mining Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondareva Evgeniya


    Full Text Available Nowadays foreign language competence is one of the main professional skills of mining engineers. Modern competitive conditions require the ability for meeting production challenges in a foreign language from specialists and managers of mining enterprises. This is the reason of high demand on foreign language training/retraining courses. Language training of adult learners fundamentally differs from children and adolescent education. The article describes the features of andragogical learning model. The authors conclude that distance learning is the most productive education form having a number of obvious advantages over traditional (in-class one. Interactive learning method that involves active engagement of adult trainees appears to be of the greatest interest due to introduction of modern information and communication technologies for distance learning.

  8. Andragogical Model in Language Training of Mining Specialists (United States)

    Bondareva, Evgeniya; Chistyakova, Galina; Kleshevskyi, Yury; Sergeev, Sergey; Stepanov, Aleksey


    Nowadays foreign language competence is one of the main professional skills of mining engineers. Modern competitive conditions require the ability for meeting production challenges in a foreign language from specialists and managers of mining enterprises. This is the reason of high demand on foreign language training/retraining courses. Language training of adult learners fundamentally differs from children and adolescent education. The article describes the features of andragogical learning model. The authors conclude that distance learning is the most productive education form having a number of obvious advantages over traditional (in-class) one. Interactive learning method that involves active engagement of adult trainees appears to be of the greatest interest due to introduction of modern information and communication technologies for distance learning.

  9. Aesthetic Surgery Training during Residency in the United States: A Comparison of the Integrated, Combined, and Independent Training Models (United States)

    Momeni, Arash; Kim, Rebecca Y.; Wan, Derrick C.; Izadpanah, Ali; Lee, Gordon K.


    Background. Three educational models for plastic surgery training exist in the United States, the integrated, combined, and independent model. The present study is a comparative analysis of aesthetic surgery training, to assess whether one model is particularly suitable to provide for high-quality training in aesthetic surgery. Methods. An 18-item online survey was developed to assess residents' perceptions regarding the quality of training in aesthetic surgery in the US. The survey had three distinct sections: demographic information, current state of aesthetic surgery training, and residents' perception regarding the quality of aesthetic surgery training. Results. A total of 86 senior plastic surgery residents completed the survey. Twenty-three, 24, and 39 residents were in integrated, combined, and independent residency programs, respectively. No statistically significant differences were seen with respect to number of aesthetic surgery procedures performed, additional training received in minimal-invasive cosmetic procedures, median level of confidence with index cosmetic surgery procedures, or perceived quality of aesthetic surgery training. Facial aesthetic procedures were felt to be the most challenging procedures. Exposure to minimally invasive aesthetic procedures was limited. Conclusion. While the educational experience in aesthetic surgery appears to be similar, weaknesses still exist with respect to training in minimally invasive/nonsurgical aesthetic procedures. PMID:25225615

  10. Evaluation of a dental model for training veterinary students. (United States)

    Lumbis, Rachel H; Gregory, Susan P; Baillie, Sarah


    Periodontal disease has deleterious effects on an animal's health and potentially serious implications for its welfare. Consequently, veterinarians frequently perform routine periodontal treatment in small-animal practice. One would therefore assume that small-animal dentistry would constitute a core component of a veterinary curriculum. However, most practitioners received little or no formal training in dentistry during their veterinary degrees, and the amount of instruction students currently receive is variable, often with limited opportunities to practice. At the Royal Veterinary College, a prototype dental model was developed to address the lack of practical training; it was made using ceramic tiles, silicone sealant, and grout to emulate teeth, gingiva, and calculus, respectively. A study was conducted with third-year veterinary students to compare the outcomes of learning to perform a professional dental cleaning using a model (group A) or a video (group B). Performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination. Students in group A scored significantly better than those in group B (pdentistry-related skills. All students identified a model as a potentially valuable learning tool to supplement existing teaching methods and facilitate the acquisition of small-animal dentistry skills. The dental model has the potential to equip students with useful, practical skills in a safe and risk-free environment.

  11. Human-robot cross-training: Computational formulation, modeling and evaluation of a human team training strategy


    Nikolaidis, Stefanos; Shah, Julie A.


    We design and evaluate human-robot cross-training, a strategy widely used and validated for effective human team training. Cross-training is an interactive planning method in which a human and a robot iteratively switch roles to learn a shared plan for a collaborative task. We first present a computational formulation of the robot's interrole knowledge and show that it is quantitatively comparable to the human mental model. Based on this encoding, we formulate human-robot cross-training and e...

  12. Comprehensive Analysis of Chicken Vessels as Microvascular Anastomosis Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Kang


    Full Text Available BackgroundNonliving chickens are commonly used as a microvascular anastomosis training model. However, previous studies have investigated only a few types of vessel, and no study has compared the characteristics of the various vessels. The present study evaluated the anatomic characteristics of various chicken vessels as a training model.MethodsEight vessels—the brachial artery, basilic vein, radial artery, ulnar artery, ischiatic artery and vein, cranial tibial artery, and common dorsal metatarsal artery—were evaluated in 26 fresh chickens and 30 chicken feet for external diameter (ED and thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media. The dissection time from skin incision to application of vessel clamps was also measured.ResultsThe EDs of the vessels varied. The ischiatic vein had the largest ED of 2.69±0.33 mm, followed by the basilic vein (1.88±0.36 mm, ischiatic artery (1.68±0.24 mm, common dorsal metatarsal artery (1.23±0.23 mm, cranial tibial artery (1.18±0.19 mm, brachial artery (1.08±0.15 mm, ulnar artery (0.82±0.13 mm, and radial artery (0.56±0.12 mm, and the order of size was consistent across all subjects. Thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media were also diverse, ranging from 74.09±19.91 µm to 158.66±40.25 µm (adventitia and from 31.2±7.13 µm to 154.15±46.48 µm (media, respectively. Mean dissection time was <3 minutes for all vessels.ConclusionsOur results suggest that nonliving chickens can provide various vessels with different anatomic characteristics, which can allow trainees the choice of an appropriate microvascular anastomosis training model depending on their purpose and skillfulness.

  13. Efektivitas Model Pembelajaran Discerete Trial Training untuk Siswa Penyandang Autisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melan Puji Sulistiyaningsih


    Full Text Available Tujuan Penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis: Bagaimana perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan evaluasi pembelajaran bagi penyandang autisme pada mata pelajaran TIK kelas IV di SDLB Talitakum Semarang. Metode yang digunakan adalah kualitatif deskriptif. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan melakukan wawancara, observasi dan studidokumentasi terhadap implementasi model pembelajaran. Analisis hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahawa (1 Dalam perencanaan proses pembelajaran guru menggunakan kurikulum 2013 yang disesuaikan dengan kemampuan penyandang autisme. Pendekatan yang digunakan yaitu saintifk yang telah dimodifkasi, menggunakan model Happy Class, metode pembelajaran khusus yaitu Discrete Trial Training (DTT dalam proses pembelajaran, dan metode komunikasi khusus Metode Maternal Reflektif (MMR. (2 Pelaksanaan Model HC, Metode DTT, dan MMR dalam satu kelas terdiri dari 5 siswa dan 2 guru terbukti efektif dan membuat kelas kondusif. (3 Evaluasi pembelajaran menggunakan evaluasi Educational System Evaluation yang menekankan bahwa evaluasi dilakukan dalam setiap tahap dan proses pembelajaran setiap harinya melalui Buku Penghubung.

  14. Outage Analysis of Train-to-Train Communication Model over Nakagami-m Channel in High-Speed Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Liu


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the end-to-end outage performance of high-speed-railway train-to-train communication model in high-speed railway over independent identical and nonidentical Nakagami-m channels. The train-to-train communication is inter-train communication without an aid of infrastructure (for base station. Source train uses trains on other rail tracks as relays to transmit signals to destination train on the same track. The mechanism of such communication among trains can be divided into three cases based on occurrence of possible-occurrence relay trains. We first present a new closed form for the sum of squared independent Nakagami-m variates and then derive an expression for the outage probability of the identical and non-identical Nakagami-m channels in three cases. In particular, the problem is improved by the proposed formulation that statistic for sum of squared Nakagami-m variates with identical m tends to be infinite. Numerical analysis indicates that the derived analytic results are reasonable and the outage performance is better over Nakagami-m channel in high-speed railway scenarios.

  15. Modelling Withdrawal and Persistence for Initial Teacher Training: Revising Tinto's Longitudinal Model of Departure (United States)

    Roberts, Deborah


    This paper proposes a theoretical model to explain trainee withdrawal and persistence within higher education (HE) based initial teacher training (ITT). Within ITT, attrition and persistence are under-researched and under-theorised, thus providing the rationale for this study. Within HE more broadly, a number of models have been proposed, most…

  16. Reaction to the Major Contribution: Training for Skills Competency in Counseling Psychology--Integrating Models (United States)

    Nutt, Roberta L.


    The authors of the Major Contribution have developed a complex and elegant three-level training model on which they suggest advanced microskills may be built. Prior to the description of their model, they have built a case that current microskills training has proved foundationally important but insufficient to training needs. They then invite…

  17. Comparative performance of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy: Are all models effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant Mishra


    Full Text Available Objective: We performed a comparative study of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy (URS. Our objective was to determine whether high-fidelity non-virtual reality (VR models are as effective as the VR model in teaching flexible URS skills. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one trained urologists without clinical experience of flexible URS underwent dry lab simulation practice. After a warm-up period of 2 h, tasks were performed on a high-fidelity non-VR (Uro-scopic Trainer TM ; Endo-Urologie-Modell TM and a high-fidelity VR model (URO Mentor TM . The participants were divided equally into three batches with rotation on each of the three stations for 30 min. Performance of the trainees was evaluated by an expert ureteroscopist using pass rating and global rating score (GRS. The participants rated a face validity questionnaire at the end of each session. Results: The GRS improved statistically at evaluation performed after second rotation (P<0.001 for batches 1, 2 and 3. Pass ratings also improved significantly for all training models when the third and first rotations were compared (P<0.05. The batch that was trained on the VR-based model had more improvement on pass ratings on second rotation but could not achieve statistical significance. Most of the realistic domains were higher for a VR model as compared with the non-VR model, except the realism of the flexible endoscope. Conclusions: All the models used for training flexible URS were effective in increasing the GRS and pass ratings irrespective of the VR status.

  18. Designing a training tool for imaging mental models (United States)

    Dede, Christopher J.; Jayaram, Geetha


    The training process can be conceptualized as the student acquiring an evolutionary sequence of classification-problem solving mental models. For example a physician learns (1) classification systems for patient symptoms, diagnostic procedures, diseases, and therapeutic interventions and (2) interrelationships among these classifications (e.g., how to use diagnostic procedures to collect data about a patient's symptoms in order to identify the disease so that therapeutic measures can be taken. This project developed functional specifications for a computer-based tool, Mental Link, that allows the evaluative imaging of such mental models. The fundamental design approach underlying this representational medium is traversal of virtual cognition space. Typically intangible cognitive entities and links among them are visible as a three-dimensional web that represents a knowledge structure. The tool has a high degree of flexibility and customizability to allow extension to other types of uses, such a front-end to an intelligent tutoring system, knowledge base, hypermedia system, or semantic network.

  19. The Conceptual Model of Future Teachers Training to Dual Education in VET (Vocational Education & Training) (United States)

    Zholdasbekova, Saule; Nurzhanbayeva, Zhanat; Karatayev, Galymzhan; Akhmet, Laura Smatullaevna; Anarmetov, Bahitzhan


    In the article the author presents the theoretical understanding of research problems of training of the future teachers-organizers of the dual training system in vocational education & training (VET) in the conditions of the credit technology of education. The author's vision of way to solve the problem is discussed in the description of the…

  20. Transfer between training of part-tasks in complex skill training : Model development and supporting data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessingh, J.J.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Koenderink, J.J.


    One of the most common instruction-strategies for training complex skills is part-training. A complex task can often be divided into part-tasks. Part-training requires that certain part-tasks or combinations of part-tasks be practised in isolation in order to promote the transfer of skills

  1. Building Customer Relationships: A Model for Vocational Education and Training Delivery. (United States)

    Jarratt, Denise G.; Murphy, Tom; Lowry, Diannah


    Review of the theory of relational marketing and interviews with training providers identified a training delivery model that includes elements of trust and commitment, investment by relationship partners, and knowledge exchange, supporting relationship longevity. (SK)

  2. Development of a computer-based training (CBT) course for the FSUTMS comprehensive modeling workshop. (United States)


    FSUTMS training is a major activity of the Systems Planning Office of the Florida Department of : Transportation (FDOT). The training aims to establish and maintain quality assurance for consistent : statewide modeling standards and provide up-to-dat...

  3. Modeling the Responses to Resistance Training in an Animal Experiment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony G. Philippe


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R2=0.53; P<0.001. In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training.

  4. Enhanced Simulink Induction Motor Model for Education and Maintenance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pineda-Sanchez


    Full Text Available The training of technicians in maintenance requires the use of signals produced by faulty machines in different operating conditions, which are difficult to obtain either from the industry or through destructive testing. Some tasks in electricity and control courses can also be complemented by an interactive induction machine model having a wider internal parameter configuration. This paper presents a new analytical model of induction machine under fault, which is able to simulate induction machines with rotor asymmetries and eccentricity in different load conditions, both stationary and transient states and yielding magnitudes such as currents, speed and torque. This model is faster computationally than the traditional method of simulating induction machine faults based on the Finite Element Method and also than other analytical models due to the rapid calculation of the inductances. The model is presented in Simulink by Matlab for the comprehension and interactivity with the students or lecturers and also to allow the easy combination of the effect of the fault with external influences, studying their consequences on a determined load or control system. An associated diagnosis tool is also presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Polyakov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction force implementation (TFI by the motor of magnetic levitation train (MLT occurs in the process of electric-to-kinetic energy transformation at interaction of inductor and armature magnetic fields. Ac-cordingly, the aim of this study is to obtain a correct description of such energy transformation. Methodology. At the present stage, a mathematical and, in particular, computer simulation is the main and most universal tool for analysis and synthesis of processes and systems. At the same time, radical advantages of this tool make the precision of selection of a particular research methodology even more important. It is especially important for such a large and complex system as MLT. Therefore the special attention in the work is given to the rationale for choosing the research paradigm selective features. Findings. The analysis results of existing TFI process model versions indicate that each of them has both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, one of the main results of this study was the creation of a mathematical model for such process that would preserve the advantages of previous versions, but would be free from their disadvantages. The work provides rationale for application (for the purposes of research of train motor TFI of the integrative holistic paradigm, which assimilates the advantages of the theory of electric circuit and magnetic field. Originality. The priority of creation of such paradigm and corresponding version of FI model constitute the originality of the research. Practical value. The main manifestation of practical value of this research in the opportunity, in case of use of its results, for significant increase in efficiency of MLT dynamic studies, on the condition that their generalized costs will not rise.

  6. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou Dou


    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  7. Cadaver-based abscess model for medical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis MS


    Full Text Available Michael Stanley Ellis,1 Joseph T Nelson,2 Jeffrey Zane Kartchner,1 Karl Andrew Yousef,1 William J Adamas-Rappaport,3 Richard Amini4 1College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Ultrasound imaging is a rapid and noninvasive tool ideal for the imaging of soft tissue infections and is associated with a change of clinician management plans in 50% of cases. We developed a realistic skin abscess diagnostic and therapeutic training model using fresh frozen cadavers and common, affordable materials. Details for construction of the model and suggested variations are presented. This cadaver-based abscess model produces high-quality sonographic images with internal echogenicity similar to a true clinical abscess, and is ideal for teaching sonographic diagnostic skills in addition to the technical skills of incision and drainage or needle aspiration. Keywords: undergraduate medical education, abscess model, ultrasound, ultrasound education, ultrasound-guided needle aspiration

  8. Artery Soft-Tissue Modelling for Stent Implant Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio


    Full Text Available Virtual reality technology can be utilised to provide new systematic training methods for surgical procedures. Our aim is to build a simulator that allows medical students to practice the coronary stent implant procedure and avoids exposing patients to risks. The designed simulation system consists of a virtual environment and a haptic interface, in order to provide both the visualization of the coronary arteries and the tactile and force feedback generated during the interactions of the surgical instruments in the virtual environment. Since the arteries are soft tissues, their shape may change during an operation; for this reason physical modelling of the organs is necessary to render their behaviour under the influence of surgeon's instruments. The idea is to define a model that computes the displacement of the tissue versus time; from the displacement it is possible to calculate the response of the tissue to the surgical tool external stimuli. Information about tools displacements and tissue responses are also used to graphically model the artery wall and virtual surgical instrument deformations generated as a consequence of their coming into contact. In order to obtain a realistic simulation, the Finite Element Method has been used to model the soft tissues of the artery, using linear elasticity to reduce computational time and speed up interaction rates.

  9. How many doctors should we train for Sri Lanka? System dynamics modelling for training needs (United States)

    De Silva, D


    Over the years, Sri Lanka has achieved remarkable health gains for the money spent on health. Currently about 1450 doctors enter the health system annually. While some advocate opening up of new medical schools to address an apparent shortage of doctors in the country, others argue against it. To identify the number of doctors Sri Lanka need. System dynamics, an analytical modelling approach and a methodology for studying complex feedback systems was used. Two sub models of “need” and “supply” were developed and simulated for a period of 15 years from 2017 to 2032 At present the doctor to population ratio is 1:671 and 91% of the need has been met. This study shows that currently there is a shortage of doctors in the country. However, the supply will match the need by 2025/26. Increasing the number of doctors, will result in oversupply of doctors towards the latter part of the next decade. There is no acute necessity to open up new Medical Schools. However comprehensive health workforce analysis needs to be done once in 5 years and the number of doctors to be trained, decided accordingly.

  10. Urology residents training in laparoscopic surgery. Development of a virtual reality model. (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Baños, J L; Ballestero-Diego, R; Truan-Cacho, D; Aguilera-Tubet, C; Villanueva-Peña, A; Manuel-Palazuelos, J C


    The training and learning of residents in laparoscopic surgery has legal, financial and technological limitations. Simulation is an essential tool in the training of residents as a supplement to their training in laparoscopic surgery. The training should be structured in an appropriate environment, with previously established and clear objectives, taught by professionals with clinical and teaching experience in simulation. The training should be conducted with realistic models using animals and ex-vivo tissue from animals. It is essential to incorporate mechanisms to assess the objectives during the residents' training progress. We present the training model for laparoscopic surgery for urology residents at the University Hospital Valdecilla. The training is conducted at the Virtual Hospital Valdecilla, which is associated with the Center for Medical Simulation in Boston and is accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The model is designed in 3 blocks, basic for R1, intermediate for R2-3 and advanced for R4-5, with 9 training modules. The training is conducted in 4-hour sessions for 4 afternoons, for 3 weeks per year of residence. Residents therefore perform 240 hours of simulated laparoscopic training by the end of the course. For each module, we use structured objective assessments to measure each resident's training progress. Since 2003, 9 urology residents have been trained, in addition to the 5 who are currently in training. The model has undergone changes according to the needs expressed in the student feedback. The acquisition of skills in a virtual reality model has enabled the safe transfer of those skills to actual practice. A laparoscopic surgery training program designed in structured blocks and with progressive complexity provides appropriate training for transferring the skills acquired using this model to an actual scenario while maintaining patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypermedia for Training: A Software and Instructional Engineering Model. (United States)

    Cortinovis, Renato


    Presents an engineering environment oriented to the development of hypermedia applications for training. Training trends are described; requirements for a computer-based training (CBT) strategy are outlined; a hypermedia course structure is examined; microinstructional events (MIEs) are explained; and technology requirements and selection are…

  12. Training courses on integrated safety assessment modelling for waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, D.


    Near-surface or deep repositories of radioactive waste are being developed and evaluated all over the world. Also, existing repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste often need to be re-evaluated to extend their license or to obtain permission for final closure. The evaluation encompasses both a technical feasibility as well as a safety analysis. The long term safety is usually demonstrated by means of performance or safety assessment. For this purpose computer models are used that calculate the migration of radionuclides from the conditioned radioactive waste, through engineered barriers to the environment (groundwater, surface water, and biosphere). Integrated safety assessment modelling addresses all relevant radionuclide pathways from source to receptor (man), using in combination various computer codes in which the most relevant physical, chemical, mechanical, or even microbiological processes are mathematically described. SCK-CEN organizes training courses in Integrated safety assessment modelling that are intended for individuals who have either a controlling or supervising role within the national radwaste agencies or regulating authorities, or for technical experts that carry out the actual post-closure safety assessment for an existing or new repository. Courses are organised by the Department of Waste and Disposal

  13. Designing A Model of Vocational Training Programs for Disables through ODL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaista MAJID


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to designing a model of vocational training programs for disables. For this purpose desk review was carried out and the vocational training models/programs of Israel, U.K., Vietnam, Japan and Thailand were analyzed to form a conceptual frame work of the model. Keeping in view the local conditions/requirements a model of vocational training program was proposed. The proposed model involved the vocational training plan for the job of cashier for mild group, receptionist for moderate and computer operator for severe group. It specified the type of disability as well involved in the training plan. The model recommended the vocational training of three levels of disability; mild, moderate and severe irrespective to the type. The model consisted of details of structure, objectives, professional support involved, vocational training plan and syllabus/activities, evaluation and on job training etc. International practices regarding VT mixed with the national existing situations were critically analyzed during desk review and finally a plan of VT for disables was proposed. A survey was conducted via a questionnaire to get opinion of the heads and senior vocational instructors of Federal Government vocational training and rehabilitation centers for PWDs. The collected data was statistically analyzed to quantify the suggestions on proposed model. The major findings included that all stakeholders considered VT helpful in rehabilitation of PWDs. All heads and vocational instructors are willing to adopt this model, minimum or no extra funds are needed in its implementation, the vocational teacher employed in the centers can easily manage to adopt this model at their centers because no extra training is required for the staff and they all endorse the VT plan proposed in this model. A vocational training model is required to reduce socio-economic gap and to set professional standards by developing human resources trained in trades. The

  14. A Risk and Prevention Counselor Training Program Model: Theory and Practice (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.; Nakkula, Michael J.


    The need for training mental health counselors in risk and prevention is presented, and justification of the development of an innovative and integrative prevention training program is offered. Theoretical underpinnings that connect the counseling discipline to the field of prevention are described. A risk and prevention training model from…

  15. Development of a novel training model for dental infiltration anesthetic injections


    クドウ, マサル; シンヤ, ノボル; Masaru, KUDO; Noboru, SHINYA


    A new dental training model (M2004IA) for infiltration local anesthetic injection was developed. In this new training model silicon gingival mucosa was designed to expand upon insertion of a needle, his to be followed by introduction of a local anesthetic solution into the silicon gum and silicon gingival mucosa (SGM). This study measured the injection pressure during injection under the SGM. The model M2004IA-HP was designed for hard palate infiltration anesthetic injection training involvin...

  16. The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals (United States)

    Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan


    The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

  17. The Impact of Personality on Training-Related Aspects of Motivation: Test of a Longitudinal Model (United States)

    Rowold, Jens


    A model that proposed dispositional influences on training-related aspects of motivation was developed. More specifically, the model predicted influences of the Big Five personality variables on motivation to learn and transfer motivation, while controlling for general attitudes toward training. The model was tested empirically, drawing on a…

  18. TMOC: A Model for Lecturers' Training to Management of Online Courses in Higher-Education (United States)

    Ghilay, Yaron; Ghilay, Ruth


    The study examined a new model called TMOC: Training to Management of Online Courses. The model is designed to train lecturers in higher-education to successfully create, deliver and develop online courses. The research was based on a sample of lecturers, who studied in a course based on the new model at the Mofet Institute in Tel-Aviv (n = 20).…

  19. A nonlinear model for the characterization and optimization of athletic training and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner James D.


    Full Text Available Study aim: Mathematical models of the relationship between training and performance facilitate the design of training protocols to achieve performance goals. However, current linear models do not account for nonlinear physiological effects such as saturation and over-training. This severely limits their practical applicability, especially for optimizing training strategies. This study describes, analyzes, and applies a new nonlinear model to account for these physiological effects. Material and methods: This study considers the equilibria and step response of the nonlinear differential equation model to show its characteristics and trends, optimizes training protocols using genetic algorithms to maximize performance by applying the model under various realistic constraints, and presents a case study fitting the model to human performance data. Results: The nonlinear model captures the saturation and over-training effects; produces realistic training protocols with training progression, a high-intensity phase, and a taper; and closely fits the experimental performance data. Fitting the model parameters to subsets of the data identifies which parameters have the largest variability but reveals that the performance predictions are relatively consistent. Conclusions: These findings provide a new mathematical foundation for modeling and optimizing athletic training routines subject to an individual’s personal physiology, constraints, and performance goals.

  20. A Frequency Matching Method for Generation of a Priori Sample Models from Training Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine; Cordua, Knud Skou; Frydendall, Jan


    This paper presents a Frequency Matching Method (FMM) for generation of a priori sample models based on training images and illustrates its use by an example. In geostatistics, training images are used to represent a priori knowledge or expectations of models, and the FMM can be used to generate...... new images that share the same multi-point statistics as a given training image. The FMM proceeds by iteratively updating voxel values of an image until the frequency of patterns in the image matches the frequency of patterns in the training image; making the resulting image statistically...... indistinguishable from the training image....

  1. Off-the-job microsurgical training on dry models: Siberian experience. (United States)

    Belykh, Evgenii; Byvaltsev, Vadim


    Microsurgical training has become an obligatory part of many neurosurgical training programs. To assess the cost and effectiveness of acquiring and maintaining microneurosurgical skills by training on an off-the-job basis using dry models. A dry off-the-job microneurosurgical training module was set up. Training exercises involved microdissection in a deep operation field, suturing and tying on gauze, untying, pushing of thread end, and microanastomosis. The time to complete the task and success rate were evaluated. The total cost of all necessary equipment and expendables for the training module was US$910. Fifteen residents participated in the continuous off-the-job training. The average time taken to perform the anastomosis decreased after the month of training from 90 to 20 minutes. Authors revealed that at 2 months, the total time and time to complete anastomosis increased significantly for the participants who discontinued practice after the first month, compared with those who just practiced suturing on gauze after the first month (P job training showed to be readily available and can be helpful for microsurgical training in the low-income regions of the world. Our data suggest that microsurgical training should be continuous and repetitive. Simulation training may benefit from models for repetitive training of relevant technical part-skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital Gunnery: How Combat Vehicle Gunnery Training Creates a Model for Training the Mission Command System. (United States)


    been numerous improvements in modern artillery before 1913, the First World War provided a catalyst for militaries to train and employ teams are a possible solution to this limitation. Many of the Army’s digital systems found their first use during the Global War on Terror...than earlier examples. Training was crucial on earlier weapon systems, such as a Civil War cannon crew, but World War I era artillery crews massing

  3. Assessment of training effects on employability within the institutional Spanish training model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-del-Río, Antonio


    Full Text Available The association between quantity of training and employability was analysed through a non experimental research with two non equivalent groups. The operationalization of training quantity is considered to provide an indicator of training effort. Thus, training effort (number of courses was analysed as the independent variable and employability as dependent variable (occupation indicators, activity enhancement and job performance. The results show that training is related to activity enhancement, specially when workers belong to a small/medium enterprise (SME and/or to technical or qualified positions. A positive association between training and performance also appeared in the case of SMEs. Se analiza la asociación entre cantidad de formación y empleabilidad mediante una investigación no experimental con dos grupos no equivalentes. Se considera que la operativización de la cantidad de formación proporciona un indicador próximo al esfuerzo formativo realizado. Así, se estudió la variable independiente esfuerzo formativo (número de cursos y la dependiente, empleabilidad (indicadores de ocupación, enriquecimiento de actividad y desempeño. Los resultados muestran que la formación está asociada al enriquecimiento de la actividad, sobre todo si los trabajadores pertenecen a una PYME y/o a puestos técnicos o cualificados. También hay una asociación positiva entre formación y desempeño en PYMES.

  4. Different models of training and certification in plastic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fodor, L.; Ciuce, C.; Fodor, M.; Shrank, C.; Lapid, O.; Kon, M.; Ramon, Y.; Ullmann, Y.


    A varying period of training followed by examinations is the usual way to become a specialist in one of the many fields of Medicine. Plastic Surgery is one of the surgical fields that require good technical and cognitive skills. The best way to train and evaluate a candidate is hard to judge. The

  5. Automation of a dust sampling train | Akinola | Journal of Modeling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from this work show that the flue gas sampling process can be automated using microprocessor-based control system and a sampling train. Using the sampling train developed by the British Coal Utilization Research Association (BCURA) with both the internal and external flow-meter arrangements, the ...

  6. Simulation Models for Teacher Training: Perspectives and Prospects (United States)

    Sharma, Manisha


    It has always been a mind dwelling exercise for the trainers to meet the training needs of the future role players of any organization. May it be corporate offices, Government offices and charitable organizations; training is needed at various stages of job from executives to administrators, from teachers to principals, from line officer to JE and…

  7. Improving real-time train dispatching : Models, algorithms and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Ariano, A.


    Traffic controllers monitor railway traffic sequencing train movements and setting routes with the aim of ensuring smooth train behaviour and limiting as much as existing delays. Due to the strict time limit available for computing a new timetable during operations, which so far is rather infeasible

  8. Effective Employment-Based Training Models for Childcare Workers (United States)

    Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra


    Childcare workers play a significant role in the learning and development of children in their care. This has major implications for the training of workers. Under new reforms of the childcare industry, the Australian government now requires all workers to obtain qualifications from a vocational education and training provider (e.g. Technical and…

  9. Multivisceral transplantation in pigs: a model for research and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ibrahim David


    Full Text Available Objective: To present a model for research and training inmultivisceral transplantation in pigs. Methods: Eight LargeWhite pigs (four donors and four recipients were operated. Themultivisceral transplant with stomach, duodenum, pancreas,liver and intestine was performed similarly to transplantation inhumans with a few differences, described below. Anastomoseswere performed as follows: end-to-end from the supra-hepaticvena cava of the graft to the recipient juxta diaphragmatic venacava; end-to-end from the infra-hepatic vena cava of the graftto the inferior (suprarenal vena cava of the recipient; and endto-side patch of the aorta of the graft to the infrarenal aortaof the recipient plus digestive reconstruction. Results: Theperformance of the multivisceral transplantion was possible inall four animals. Reperfusions of the multivisceral graft led to asevere ischemia-reperfusion syndrome, despite flushing of thegraft. The animals presented with hypotension and the need forhigh doses of vasoactive drugs, and all of them were sacrificedafter discontinuing these drugs. Conclusion: Some alternativesto minimize the ischemia-reperfusion syndrome, such as the useof another vasoactive drug, use of a third pig merely for bloodtransfusion, presence of an anesthesia team in the operatingroom, and reduction of the graft, will be the next steps to enableexperimental studies.

  10. Teacher training in South Africa: The integrated model as viable option

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article contributes to the debate regarding the preferred model for teacher education to provide for teacher shortages. The models commonly referred to are the consecutive model, the integrated model and the concurrent model for teacher training. The aim of this article is to determine if the integrated model for teacher ...

  11. A Context-Adaptive Teacher Training Model in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chiang, Feng Kuang; Jiang, Ya Na; Yu, Sheng Quan


    In view of the discrepancies in teacher training and teaching practice, this paper put forward a context-adaptive teacher training model in a ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment. The innovative model provides teachers of different subjects with adaptive and personalized learning content in a u-learning environment, implements intra- and…

  12. Study on Innovation of Teacher Training Model in Basic Education from the Perspective of "Blended Learning" (United States)

    Bu, Huabai; Bu, Shizhen


    Gradual integration of synergetic technology, P2P technology and online learning community furnishes a new research field for innovation of teacher training model in a knowledge economy era. This article proposes the innovative model of "whole of three lines" in teacher training in basic education from the perspective of "blended…

  13. A new beating-heart off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting training model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Wobbe; Kuijpers, Michiel; Bijleveld, Aanke; De Maat, Gijs E.; Koene, Bart M.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Natour, Ehsan; Mariani, Massimo A.

    OBJECTIVES: Training models are essential in mastering the skills required for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). We describe a new, high-fidelity, effective and reproducible beating-heart OPCAB training model in human cadavers. METHODS: Human cadavers were embalmed according to the

  14. Optimizing Intermodal Train Schedules with a Design Balanced Network Design Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    We present a modeling approach for optimizing intermodal trains schedules based on an infrastructure divided into time-dependent train paths. The formulation can be generalized to a capacitated multi commodity network design model with additional design balance constraints. We present a Tabu Search...

  15. Evaluating Vocational Educators' Training Programs: A Kirkpatrick-Inspired Evaluation Model (United States)

    Ravicchio, Fabrizio; Trentin, Guglielmo


    The aim of the article is to describe the assessment model adopted by the SCINTILLA Project, a project in Italy aimed at the online vocational training of young, seriously-disabled subjects and their subsequent work inclusion in smart-work mode. It will thus describe the model worked out for evaluation of the training program conceived for the…

  16. An Effective Procedure for Training Early Special Education Teams to Implement a Model Program. (United States)

    Rogers, Sally J.; And Others


    Training of early special education teams (serving 11 autistic and 10 developmentally-delayed children) to use the Playschool model resulted in: positive perception of the training's value; increases in knowledge about child development, infantile autism, and the model; increased use of Playschool techniques; and positive developmental changes in…

  17. A generic model for evaluation of the Federal Aviation Administration air traffic control specialist training programs. (United States)


    The Systems Analysis Research Unit at the Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) has developed a generic model for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy training program evaluation. The model will serve as a basis for integrating the total data b...

  18. Train flow chaos analysis based on an improved cellular automata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Xuelei; Xiang, Wanli; Jia, Limin; Xu, Jie


    To control the chaos in the railway traffic flow and offer valuable information for the dispatchers of the railway system, an improved cellular model is presented to detect and analyze the chaos in the traffic flow. We first introduce the working mechanism of moving block system, analyzing the train flow movement characteristics. Then we improve the cellular model on the evolution rules to adjust the train flow movement. We give the train operation steps from three cases: the trains running on a railway section, a train will arrive in a station and a train will departure from a station. We simulate 4 trains to run on a high speed section fixed with moving block system and record the distances between the neighbor trains and draw the Poincare section to analyze the chaos in the train operation. It is concluded that there is not only chaos but order in the train operation system with moving blocking system and they can interconvert to each other. The findings have the potential value in train dispatching system construction and offer supporting information for the daily dispatching work.

  19. Houston, We Have a Problem Solving Model for Training (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey; Slack, Kelley; Keeton, Kathryn; Barshi, Immanuel; Martin, Lynne; Mauro, Robert; O'Keefe, William; Baldwin, Evelyn; Huning, Therese


    In late 2006, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA began looking at ways to make training more efficient for the flight controllers who support the International Space Station. The average certification times for flight controllers spanned from 18 months to three years and the MOD, responsible for technical training, was eager to develop creative solutions that would reduce the time to 12 months. Additionally, previously trained flight controllers sometimes participated in more than 50 very costly, eight-hour integrated simulations before becoming certified. New trainees needed to gain proficiency with far fewer lessons and training simulations than their predecessors. This poster presentation reviews the approach and the process that is currently in development to accomplish this goal.

  20. CGAT: a model for immersive personalized training in computational genomics. (United States)

    Sims, David; Ponting, Chris P; Heger, Andreas


    How should the next generation of genomics scientists be trained while simultaneously pursuing high quality and diverse research? CGAT, the Computational Genomics Analysis and Training programme, was set up in 2010 by the UK Medical Research Council to complement its investment in next-generation sequencing capacity. CGAT was conceived around the twin goals of training future leaders in genome biology and medicine, and providing much needed capacity to UK science for analysing genome scale data sets. Here we outline the training programme employed by CGAT and describe how it dovetails with collaborative research projects to launch scientists on the road towards independent research careers in genomics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Cultural Adaptation of the Skills Training Model: Assertion Training with American Indians. (United States)

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.; Rowe, Wayne

    A skills training approach provides a conceptual framework from which human services can be provided for the personal and emotional needs of Indian people without the subtle, culturally erosive effect of traditional psychotherapy. Some 30 tribal groups and agencies participated in a cultural adaptation of an assertive coping-skills training…

  2. Training community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China: evaluation of the effect of a new training model. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Thornicroft, Graham; Yang, Hui; Chen, Wen; Huang, Yuanguang


    Increasing numbers of people with mental disorders receive services at primary care in China. The aims of this study are to evaluate impact of a new training course and supervision for community mental health staff to enhance their levels of mental health knowledge and to reduce their stigmatization toward people with mental illness. A total of 77 community mental health staff from eight regions in Guangzhou in China were recruited for the study.4 regions were randomly allocated to the new training model group, and 4 to the old training model group. Levels of mental health knowledge were measured by purpose-made assessment schedule and by the Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS). Stigma was evaluated by the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes Scale (MICA) and the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS). Evaluation questionnaires were given at the beginning of course, at the end, and at 6 month and at 12 month follow-up. After the training period, the 6-month, and the 12-month, knowledge scores of the intervention group were higher than the control group. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up, means scores of MAKS of the intervention group increased more than the control group (both p training, at 6-months, and at 12-months, mean scores of RIBS of the intervention group increased more than the control (p training course and supervision, the new course improved community mental health staff knowledge of mental disorders, improving their attitudes toward people with mental disorder, and increasing their willingness to have contact with people with mental disorder.

  3. A Model Train-The-Trainer Program for HACCP-Based Food Safety Training in the Retail/Food Service Industry: An Evaluation. (United States)

    Martin, Kenneth E.; Knabel, Steve; Mendenhall, Von


    A survey showed states are adopting higher training and certification requirements for food-service workers. A train-the-trainer model was developed to prepare extension agents, health officers, and food-service managers to train others in food-safety procedures. (SK)

  4. Laparoscopic surgical box model training for surgical trainees with no prior laparoscopic experience. (United States)

    Nagendran, Myura; Toon, Clare D; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan


    Surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a box model physical simulator - either a video box or a mirrored box - is an option to supplement standard training. However, the impact of this modality on trainees with no prior laparoscopic experience is unknown. To compare the benefits and harms of box model training versus no training, another box model, animal model, or cadaveric model training for surgical trainees with no prior laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to May 2013. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing box model trainers versus no training in surgical trainees with no prior laparoscopic experience. We also included trials comparing different methods of box model training. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager for analysis. For each outcome, we calculated the standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis whenever possible. Twenty-five trials contributed data to the quantitative synthesis in this review. All but one trial were at high risk of bias. Overall, 16 trials (464 participants) provided data for meta-analysis of box training (248 participants) versus no supplementary training (216 participants). All the 16 trials in this comparison used video trainers. Overall, 14 trials (382 participants) provided data for quantitative comparison of different methods of box training. There were no trials comparing box model training versus animal model or cadaveric model training. Box model training versus no training: The meta-analysis showed that the time

  5. [Evaluation of simulated mandibular models in skill training of implantology for dental undergraduates]. (United States)

    Xu, Feng-Wei; Shang, Jiang; Song, Jian; DU, Ping-Gong; Liu, Zhong-Hao


    To explore the effects of simulated mandibular models in skill training of implantology for dental undergraduate. Pre-clinical teaching of oral implantology was implemented on simulation models for 51 undergraduates of grade 2013. Each undergraduate inserted a dental implant and took an impression in the simulation model under the teacher's guidance. After the training course, the scores were evaluated both objectively and subjectively. An average score of 91.6 was obtained in the course of oral implantology on simulated mandibular models. All students appreciated the teaching methods. They believed that training on simulation models could improve their learning interest and arouse their learning motivation. Simulated mandibular models are good tools in training of oral implantology for dental undergraduates education, which is worthy of wide application.

  6. Integrating molecular diagnostics into histopathology training: the Belfast model. (United States)

    Flynn, C; James, J; Maxwell, P; McQuaid, S; Ervine, A; Catherwood, M; Loughrey, M B; McGibben, D; Somerville, J; McManus, D T; Gray, M; Herron, B; Salto-Tellez, M


    Molecular medicine is transforming modern clinical practice, from diagnostics to therapeutics. Discoveries in research are being incorporated into the clinical setting with increasing rapidity. This transformation is also deeply changing the way we practise pathology. The great advances in cell and molecular biology which have accelerated our understanding of the pathogenesis of solid tumours have been embraced with variable degrees of enthusiasm by diverse medical professional specialties. While histopathologists have not been prompt to adopt molecular diagnostics to date, the need to incorporate molecular pathology into the training of future histopathologists is imperative. Our goal is to create, within an existing 5-year histopathology training curriculum, the structure for formal substantial teaching of molecular diagnostics. This specialist training has two main goals: (1) to equip future practising histopathologists with basic knowledge of molecular diagnostics and (2) to create the option for those interested in a subspecialty experience in tissue molecular diagnostics to pursue this training. It is our belief that this training will help to maintain in future the role of the pathologist at the centre of patient care as the integrator of clinical, morphological and molecular information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  7. Professional growth of trainees: applying teacher training models to the training of GPs. (United States)

    Gavriel, George; Gavriel, Jennifer


    Study of professional growth is useful for reflective purposes at any time during a career. The concept of known knowns and unknowns with a training twist can be used to summarise the overall stages of any trainee. At the start of vocational training the trainee does not know what they do not know, they have not yet recognised how much they have to learn. This happens in the second stage (that could be equated to survival) when they begin to understand the vast array of skills they must develop to make it look easy. With time and practice they will reach the point where they know what they have to do--not always getting it right but then who does? Finally, and it is particularly important that trainers recognise this, an individual will reach the point where everything is so automatic they are no longer aware of the intricacies of the skills they have acquired. This is where most trainers, both for teachers and GPs, find themselves and this can be frustrating for both trainee and trainer as they find they are unable to communicate effectively. A good trainer will spend time dissecting and 'unlearning' their skills so they are able to teach their trainees successfully. Trainees, meanwhile, must realise that, one day, they will have their own unknown knowns, but they cannot expect it to happen overnight or without substantial effort. In moving forward from our training it is how we deal with repeated survival stages that determines if we can keep doing the job, it is how we deal with the plateau that determines if we will be any good at it--effective on-the-job training leads to lifelong on-the-job learning.

  8. Model of training of computer science teachers by means of distant education technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т А Соловьева


    Full Text Available Training of future computer science teachers in conditions of informatization of education is analyzed. Distant educational technologies (DET and traditional process of training, their advantages and disadvantages are considered, active functions of DET as the basis of the model of training by means of DET is stressed. It is shown that mixed education combining both distant ant traditional technologies takes place on the basis of the created model. Practical use of the model is shown on the example of the course «Recursion» for future computer science teachers.

  9. A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod


    Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in…

  10. Multicultural Grand Rounds: Competency-Based Training Model for Clinical Psychology Graduate Students (United States)

    Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L.


    Preparing students to enter the field of psychology as competent professionals requires that multicultural practices be infused into all areas of training. This article describes how the Grand Rounds model was adapted to a graduate clinical psychology training program to foster applied learning in multicultural competence. This extension of Grand…

  11. In-Service Training of Teachers in Multicultural Urban Schools: A Systematic Model. (United States)

    Nickolai-Mays, Susanne; Davis, Jerry L.


    Presents seven guidelines for developing effective teacher in-service training programs. Describes a training model for multicultural urban schools which addresses these topics: instructional methods; curriculum; interpersonal relations in the classroom; classroom management and discipline; parent-teacher-student involvement; and multicultural…

  12. A Conceptual Model for Employer Training to Manage Employee Counter-Productive Behaviors (United States)

    Rock, Naomi Spickard


    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for employer training to manage employees who possess counter-productive behaviors. With the increasing encouragement for employers to hire without discriminating, the number of individuals with disabilities in the workforce will rise. There is limited training in universities and businesses to…

  13. Application of the Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity to the Admission Process (United States)

    Loewy, Michael I.; Juntunen, Cindy L.; Duan, Changming


    This article addresses the responsibility of counseling psychology programs to communicate and implement the professional training values regarding diversity as articulated in the "Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity" (henceforth the "Values Statement") clearly and directly in the advertising and admission…

  14. Going beyond Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model: The Role of Workplace Factors in Distance Learning Transfer (United States)

    Aluko, F. R.; Shonubi, O. K.


    This article emanates from a longitudinal study of the impact of a distance education programme for teacher training on graduates' job performance, in which the authors built on the findings of a previous pilot study. After using Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model in a previous study, one of the authors found there to be a strong relationship…

  15. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance (United States)

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.


    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  16. Effectiveness of Training Model Capacity Building for Entrepreneurship Women Based Empowerment Community (United States)

    Idawati; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma


    The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a training model for capacity building of women entrepreneurship community-based. Research type approach Research and Development Model, which refers to the model of development research that developed by Romiszowki (1996) combined with a model of development Sugiono (2011) it was…

  17. How should we train consultant appraisers? Description and evaluation of a pilot training model developed in Scotland. (United States)

    Wakeling, Judy; Staples, Ian; Cameron, Niall


    This paper outlines a model developed by NHS Education for Scotland to pilot consultant appraiser training. The training was aimed at both new/inexperienced appraisers and experienced appraisers. A Course for New/Inexperienced Appraisers was held over 2 days and the Experienced Course over 1 day. Both are described, as is an initial tutor induction day designed to recruit consultant tutors who could contribute to delivering the courses. A thorough qualitative evaluation of the courses was undertaken and this is reported. The paper also discusses the desirability and implications of rolling out the pilot on a wider scale. A qualitative evaluation design using interviews to collect feedback from participants who had attended all three courses - the Induction event, the Inexperienced Appraiser Course and the Experienced Appraiser Course - was employed. Telephone interviews were transcribed and analysed using framework analysis and aided by NVivo 7. The response of those interviewed for this evaluation of the three courses was very positive. The content, organization, skills of the tutors and usefulness of the courses were commended. Suggested improvements were relatively minor and included: introducing more material on the requirements of revalidation, more small group discussions and making the course more secondary care-orientated. However, it was recognized that with the requirements for 'enhanced' appraisal and revalidation still uncertain, this created difficulties and the course would evolve to take account of further developments. The training piloted represents an effective way to train consultants in appraisal skills. Interviewees were supportive of the pilot being continued: either nationally or cascaded down locally. Exactly what model is achievable and desirable will depend on the number of appraisers to be trained and the availability of resources to support 'enhanced' appraisal in secondary care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Rape Counseling: A Model for Sensitizing and Training Helpers (United States)

    Silver, Steven M.; Stonestreet, Susan D.


    A woman who is raped needs factual information concerning hospital and legal procedures and an emotional support system to help her focus her feelings into productive channels. This article describes a training and outreach program combining rape simulation, film, lecture, and experiential discussion to stimulate thought, action, and increased…

  19. A complementary model for medical subspecialty training in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    training in SA is exceptionally long, which discourages trainees.[3-6]. Medical corporates have taken a limited initiative to fund education projects in collaboration with academic institutions. These projects have been unstructured, mostly ad hoc, and poorly co-ordinated. The private corporate medical sector has expressed a ...

  20. River scale model of an training dam using lightweight granulates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Boersema, M.P.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sieben, J.; Sloff, C.J.; Wal, van der M.F.


    Replacing existing river groynes with longitudinal training dams is considered as a promising flood mitigation measure in the main Dutch rivers, which can also serve to guarantee navigability during low flows and to create conditions favourable for ecological development. Whereas the bed response in

  1. Histopathology practice and training in Nigeria – a model | Sabageh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Contemporary histopathology practice and training in Nigeria have been plagued by the fundamental issue of inadequate exposure to surgical pathology material by both trainees and trainers. This paper critically examines the factors that affect the discipline and profers practical solutions to aid its advancement.

  2. Bayesian model ensembling using meta-trained recurrent neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrogioni, L.; Berezutskaya, Y.; Gü ç lü , U.; Borne, E.W.P. van den; Gü ç lü tü rk, Y.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Maris, E.G.G.


    In this paper we demonstrate that a recurrent neural network meta-trained on an ensemble of arbitrary classification tasks can be used as an approximation of the Bayes optimal classifier. This result is obtained by relying on the framework of e-free approximate Bayesian inference, where the Bayesian

  3. SABER: Airland Combat Training Model Credibility Assessment and Methodology (United States)


    month, and year, if available (e.g. 1 limitations or special markings in all capitals (e.g. Jan 88). Must cite at least the year. NOFORN, REL, at the UaiLversity of Connecticut. He graduated suma cum laude from ECSC with a B.A. in Mathematics and received his commission in May 1982. His

  4. Building Multicultural Residential Communities: A Model for Training Student Staff (United States)

    Petryk, Taryn; Thompson, Monita C.; Boynton, Trelawny


    The growing diversity and changing demographics within the United States increases the importance of students developing skills to engage across identity difference. The purpose of this chapter is to describe how a pre-employment course for student staff members is used as a multicultural intervention training to provide students with the…

  5. Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity (United States)

    Counseling Psychologist, 2009


    Respect for diversity and for values different from one's own is a central value of counseling psychology training programs. The valuing of diversity is also consistent with the profession of psychology as mandated by the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and as discussed in the Guidelines and…

  6. Determining training effectiveness: a model developed for use at Connecticut Yankee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligna, R.R.


    The purpose (or intent) of training, in the Nuclear Power Industry, is to provide an operating/support organization capable of safely and efficiently operating a nuclear power plant throughout its operating lifetime. (ANSI/ANS-3.1 - 1981). It stands, then, that the extent of fulfillment of this purpose, the extent of accomplishment of this desired result, needs to be determined. (The question How well, also needs to be answered). Evolve, the Determining Training Effectiveness Program. This paper presents an Effective Training Model and discusses the construct of the Determining Training Effectiveness Program at Connecticut Yankee

  7. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - a Set Partitioning Based Model and Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David

    The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Using data from the train driver schedule of the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the Train Driver Recovery Problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP...... is formulated as a set partitioning problem. The LP relaxation of the set partitioning formulation of the TDRP possesses strong integer properties. The proposed model is therefore solved via the LP relaxation and Branch & Price. Starting with a small set of drivers and train tasks assigned to the drivers within...

  8. Development and Validity of a Silicone Renal Tumor Model for Robotic Partial Nephrectomy Training. (United States)

    Monda, Steven M; Weese, Jonathan R; Anderson, Barrett G; Vetter, Joel M; Venkatesh, Ramakrishna; Du, Kefu; Andriole, Gerald L; Figenshau, Robert S


    Objectives To provide a training tool to address the technical challenges of robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, we created silicone renal tumor models using 3D printed molds of a patient's kidney with a mass. In this study, we assessed the face, content, and construct validity of these models. Materials and Methods Surgeons of different training levels completed four simulations on silicone renal tumor models. Participants were surveyed on the usefulness and realism of the model as a training tool. Performance was measured using operation specific metrics, self-reported operative demands (NASA TLX), and blinded expert assessment (GEARS). Results 24 participants included attending urologists, endourology fellows, urology residents, and medical students. Post-training surveys of expert participants yielded mean results of 79.2 on the realism of the model's overall feel and 90.2 on the model's overall usefulness for training. Renal artery clamp times and GEARS scores were significantly better in surgeons further in training (p≤0.005, p≤0.025). Renal artery clamp times, preserved renal parenchyma, positive margins, NASA TLX, and GEARS scores were all found to improve across trials (psilicone renal tumor model in a cohort of surgeons of different training levels. Expert participants deemed the model useful and realistic. Surgeons of higher training levels performed better than less experienced surgeons in various study metrics, and improvements within individuals were observed over sequential trials. Future studies should aim to assess model predictive validity, namely the association between model performance improvements and improvements in live surgery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.


    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs

  10. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.


    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.

  11. Cost Comparison Model: Blended eLearning versus traditional training of community health workers. (United States)

    Sissine, Mysha; Segan, Robert; Taylor, Mathew; Jefferson, Bobby; Borrelli, Alice; Koehler, Mohandas; Chelvayohan, Meena


    Another one million community healthcare workers are needed to address the growing global population and increasing demand of health care services. This paper describes a cost comparison between two training approaches to better understand costs implications of training community health workers (CHWs) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our team created a prospective model to forecast and compare the costs of two training methods as described in the Dalburge Report - (1) a traditional didactic training approach ("baseline") and (2) a blended eLearning training approach ("blended"). After running the model for training 100,000 CHWs, we compared the results and scaled up those results to one million CHWs. A substantial difference exists in total costs between the baseline and blended training programs. RESULTS indicate that using a blended eLearning approach for training community health care workers could provide a total cost savings of 42%. Scaling the model to one million CHWs, the blended eLearning training approach reduces total costs by 25%. The blended eLearning savings are a result of decreased classroom time, thereby reducing the costs associated with travel, trainers and classroom costs; and using a tablet with WiFi plus a feature phone rather than a smartphone with data plan. The results of this cost analysis indicate significant savings through using a blended eLearning approach in comparison to a traditional didactic method for CHW training by as much as 67%. These results correspond to the Dalberg publication which indicates that using a blended eLearning approach is an opportunity for closing the gap in training community health care workers.

  12. Modeling and simulation of high-speed passenger train movements in the rail line (United States)

    Cao, Cheng-Xuan; Xu, Yan; Li, Ke-Ping


    In this paper, we propose a new formula of the real-time minimum safety headway based on the relative velocity of consecutive trains and present a dynamic model of high-speed passenger train movements in the rail line based on the proposed formula of the minimum safety headway. Moreover, we provide the control strategies of the high-speed passenger train operations based on the proposed formula of the real-time minimum safety headway and the dynamic model of high-speed passenger train movements. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategies of the passenger train operations can greatly reduce the delay propagation in the high-speed rail line when a random delay occurs.

  13. Training Module on the Evaluation of Best Modeling Practices (United States)

    Building upon the fundamental concepts outlined in previous modules, the objectives of this module are to explore the topic of model evaluation and identify the 'best modeling practices' and strategies for the Evaluation Stage of the model life-cycle.

  14. [Expanded vaccination program. Training model for community medicine]. (United States)

    Gateff, C


    The expanded programme on immunization (E.P.I.) is a very concrete example of community health programme. In so far, it uses various methods which the medical personnel should be taught a better way: the epidemiological method, health planning, health management. The E.P.I. provides a great deal of actual conditions well-suited to the preparing of either tutorials or self-training modules within various fields such as epidemiological surveys with estimate or evaluation purposes, planning for a prevention strategy, supply management. Aiming at the enlargement to community health and with a much more participative pedagogical spirit, the author points out the importance of making the educators aware of unequalled capabilities of training provided by the E.P.I.

  15. Mission Driven Scene Understanding: Candidate Model Training and Validation (United States)


    CNN was able to determine the correct class labels for images taken from the 2,560 image training data set, the validation process did not appear to...set containing approximately 1.2 million images (Fig. 1). In Section 3, we show that the CNN achieved 79.7% validation accuracy for the top-5 their capability to incorporate different types of CNN architectures, their hardware usage (central processing unit [CPU] and graphical

  16. Gatekeeper Training for Suicide Prevention: A Theoretical Model and Review of the Empirical Literature (United States)


    among exposed teens . Of the exposed group, 2.5 percent reported having made a (first) suicide attempt during the 18 months of follow-up compared...Gatekeeper Training for Suicide Prevention A Theoretical Model and Review of the Empirical Literature Crystal Burnette, Rajeev Ramchand, Lynsay...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gatekeeper Training for Suicide Prevention: A Theoretical Model and

  17. A 21st Century Training Model for Flexible, Quick, and Life-Long Workforce Development (United States)


    TRAINING MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE, QUICK, AND LIFE-LONG WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT DESIGN SPRINT CONDUCTED 31 OCT – 4 NOV 16 Produced with members from...successful approaches is to assemble teams for a concentrated design sprint of, typically, five days or less. The goal of a design sprint is to develop...range of possible answers to the problem. For the 21st Century Training Model for Cyber Design Sprint , CyberWorx brought together 34 participants from

  18. Training surgical residents for a career in academic global surgery: a novel training model. (United States)

    Swain, JaBaris D; Matousek, Alexi C; Scott, John W; Cooper, Zara; Smink, Douglas S; Bolman, Ralph Morton; Finlayson, Samuel R G; Zinner, Michael J; Riviello, Robert


    Academic global surgery is a nascent field focused on improving surgical care in resource-poor settings through a broad-based scholarship agenda. Although there is increasing momentum to expand training opportunities in low-resource settings among academic surgical programs, most focus solely on establishing short-term elective rotations rather than fostering research or career development. Given the complex nature of surgical care delivery and programmatic capacity building in the resource-poor settings, many challenges remain before global surgery is accepted as an academic discipline and an established career path. Brigham and Women's Hospital has established a specialized global surgery track within the general surgery residency program to develop academic leaders in this growing area of need and opportunity. Here we describe our experience with the design and development of the program followed by practical applications and lessons learned from our early experiences. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An improved cellular automata model for train operation simulation with dynamic acceleration (United States)

    Li, Wen-Jun; Nie, Lei


    Urban rail transit plays an important role in the urban public traffic because of its advantages of fast speed, large transport capacity, high safety, reliability and low pollution. This study proposes an improved cellular automaton (CA) model by considering the dynamic characteristic of the train acceleration to analyze the energy consumption and train running time. Constructing an effective model for calculating energy consumption to aid train operation improvement is the basis for studying and analyzing energy-saving measures for urban rail transit system operation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The problems of development of innovative learning environment of continuous education and training of skilled personnel for high-tech industry are described. Aspects of organization of ICT based learning environment of vocational and technical school on the basis of cloud computing and outsourcing are revealed. The three-stage conceptual model for perspective education and training of workers for high-tech industries is proposed. The model of cloud-based solution for design of learning environment for vocational education and training of skilled workers is introduced.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Lavrukhin


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this research work is to develop an intelligent technology for determination of the optimal route of freight trains administration on the basis of the technical and technological parameters. This will allow receiving the operational informed decisions by the station duty officer regarding to the train operation execution within the railway station. Metodology. The main elements of the research are the technical and technological parameters of the train station during the train operation. The methods of neural networks in order to form the self-teaching automated system were put in the basis of the generated model of train operation execution. Findings. The presented model of train operation execution at the railway station is realized on the basis of artificial neural networks using learning algorithm with a «teacher» in Matlab environment. The Matlab is also used for the immediate implementation of the intelligent automated control system of the train operation designed for the integration into the automated workplace of the duty station officer. The developed system is also useful to integrate on workplace of the traffic controller. This proposal is viable in case of the availability of centralized traffic control on the separate section of railway track. Originality. The model of train station operation during the train operation execution with elements of artificial intelligence was formed. It allows providing informed decisions to the station duty officer concerning a choice of rational and a safe option of reception and non-stop run of the trains with the ability of self-learning and adaptation to changing conditions. This condition is achieved by the principles of the neural network functioning. Practical value. The model of the intelligent system management of the process control for determining the optimal route receptionfor different categories of trains was formed.In the operational mode it offers the possibility

  2. Wages, Training, and Job Turnover in a Search-Matching Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Nielsen, Michael Svarer


    In this paper we extend a job search-matching model with firm-specific investments in training developed by Mortensen (1998) to allow for different offer arrival rates in employment and unemployment. The model by Mortensen changes the original wage posting model (Burdett and Mortensen, 1998) in two...

  3. Modelling of optimal training load patterns during the 11 weeks preceding major competition in elite swimmers. (United States)

    Hellard, Philippe; Scordia, Charlotte; Avalos, Marta; Mujika, Inigo; Pyne, David B


    Periodization of swim training in the final training phases prior to competition and its effect on performance have been poorly described. We modeled the relationships between the final 11 weeks of training and competition performance in 138 elite sprint, middle-distance, and long-distance swimmers over 20 competitive seasons. Total training load (TTL), strength training (ST), and low- to medium-intensity and high-intensity training variables were monitored. Training loads were scaled as a percentage of the maximal volume measured at each intensity level. Four training periods (meso-cycles) were defined: the taper (weeks 1 to 2 before competition), short-term (weeks 3 to 5), medium-term (weeks 6 to 8), and long-term (weeks 9 to 11). Mixed-effects models were used to analyze the association between training loads in each training meso-cycle and end-of-season major competition performance. For sprinters, a 10% increase between ∼20% and 70% of the TTL in medium- and long-term meso-cycles was associated with 0.07 s and 0.20 s faster performance in the 50 m and 100 m events, respectively (p < 0.01). For middle-distance swimmers, a higher TTL in short-, medium-, and long-term training yielded faster competition performance (e.g., a 10% increase in TTL was associated with improvements of 0.1-1.0 s in 200 m events and 0.3-1.6 s in 400 m freestyle, p < 0.01). For sprinters, a 60%-70% maximal ST load 6-8 weeks before competition induced the largest positive effects on performance (p < 0.01). An increase in TTL during the medium- and long-term preparation (6-11 weeks to competition) was associated with improved performance. Periodization plans should be adapted to the specialty of swimmers.

  4. Mean-field thalamocortical modeling of longitudinal EEG acquired during intensive meditation training. (United States)

    Saggar, Manish; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D; Miikkulainen, Risto


    Meditation training has been shown to enhance attention and improve emotion regulation. However, the brain processes associated with such training are poorly understood and a computational modeling framework is lacking. Modeling approaches that can realistically simulate neurophysiological data while conforming to basic anatomical and physiological constraints can provide a unique opportunity to generate concrete and testable hypotheses about the mechanisms supporting complex cognitive tasks such as meditation. Here we applied the mean-field computational modeling approach using the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) collected at three assessment points from meditating participants during two separate 3-month-long shamatha meditation retreats. We modeled cortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic interactions to generate a simulation of EEG signals recorded across the scalp. We also present two novel extensions to the mean-field approach that allow for: (a) non-parametric analysis of changes in model parameter values across all channels and assessments; and (b) examination of variation in modeled thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) connectivity over the retreat period. After successfully fitting whole-brain EEG data across three assessment points within each retreat, two model parameters were found to replicably change across both meditation retreats. First, after training, we observed an increased temporal delay between modeled cortical and thalamic cells. This increase provides a putative neural mechanism for a previously observed reduction in individual alpha frequency in these same participants. Second, we found decreased inhibitory connection strength between the TRN and secondary relay nuclei (SRN) of the modeled thalamus after training. This reduction in inhibitory strength was found to be associated with increased dynamical stability of the model. Altogether, this paper presents the first computational approach, taking core aspects of physiology and

  5. Evaluation of simulation-based training for aircraft carrier marshalling with learning cubic and Kirkpatrick’s models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Tian


    Full Text Available Simulation-based training is a promising way to train a carrier flight deck crew because of the complex and dangerous working environment. Quantitative evaluation of simulation-based training quality is vital to make simulation-based training practical for aircraft carrier marshalling. This paper develops a personal computer-based aircraft carrier marshalling simulation system and a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE-based immersive environment. In order to compare the training effectiveness of simulation-based training and paper-based training, a learning cubic model is proposed and a contrast experiment is carried out as well. The experimental data is analyzed based on a simplified Kirkpatrick’s model. The results show that simulation-based training is better than paper-based training by 26.80% after three rounds of testing, which prove the effectiveness of simulation-based aircraft carrier marshalling training.

  6. Development of a Base Model for the New Fire PSA Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Kang, Daeil; Kim, Wee Kyong; Do, Kyu Sik


    US NRC/EPRI issued a new fire PSA method represented by NUREG/CR 6850, and have been training many operators and inspectors to widely spread the new method. However, there is a limitation in time and efficiency for many foreigners, who generally have communication problem, to participate in the EPRI/NRC training to learn the new method. Since it is about time to introduce the new fire PSA method as a regulatory requirement for the fire protection in Korea, a simple and easy-understandable base model for the fire PSA training is required, and KAERI-KINS is jointly preparing the base model for the new fire PSA training. This paper describes how the base model is developed. Using an imaginary simple NPP, a base model of fire PSA following the new fire PSA method was developed in two ways from the internal PSA model. Since we have the base model and know the process of making the fire PSA model, the training for the new fire PSA method can be in detail performed in Korea

  7. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder


    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program sp...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model.......As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...

  8. A biologically inspired neural model for visual and proprioceptive integration including sensory training. (United States)

    Saidi, Maryam; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Lari, Abdolaziz Azizi


    Humans perceive the surrounding world by integration of information through different sensory modalities. Earlier models of multisensory integration rely mainly on traditional Bayesian and causal Bayesian inferences for single causal (source) and two causal (for two senses such as visual and auditory systems), respectively. In this paper a new recurrent neural model is presented for integration of visual and proprioceptive information. This model is based on population coding which is able to mimic multisensory integration of neural centers in the human brain. The simulation results agree with those achieved by casual Bayesian inference. The model can also simulate the sensory training process of visual and proprioceptive information in human. Training process in multisensory integration is a point with less attention in the literature before. The effect of proprioceptive training on multisensory perception was investigated through a set of experiments in our previous study. The current study, evaluates the effect of both modalities, i.e., visual and proprioceptive training and compares them with each other through a set of new experiments. In these experiments, the subject was asked to move his/her hand in a circle and estimate its position. The experiments were performed on eight subjects with proprioception training and eight subjects with visual training. Results of the experiments show three important points: (1) visual learning rate is significantly more than that of proprioception; (2) means of visual and proprioceptive errors are decreased by training but statistical analysis shows that this decrement is significant for proprioceptive error and non-significant for visual error, and (3) visual errors in training phase even in the beginning of it, is much less than errors of the main test stage because in the main test, the subject has to focus on two senses. The results of the experiments in this paper is in agreement with the results of the neural model

  9. Integrating Soft Set Theory and Fuzzy Linguistic Model to Evaluate the Performance of Training Simulation Systems. (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Hu; Chang, Yung-Chia; Chain, Kai; Chung, Hsiang-Yu


    The advancement of high technologies and the arrival of the information age have caused changes to the modern warfare. The military forces of many countries have replaced partially real training drills with training simulation systems to achieve combat readiness. However, considerable types of training simulation systems are used in military settings. In addition, differences in system set up time, functions, the environment, and the competency of system operators, as well as incomplete information have made it difficult to evaluate the performance of training simulation systems. To address the aforementioned problems, this study integrated analytic hierarchy process, soft set theory, and the fuzzy linguistic representation model to evaluate the performance of various training simulation systems. Furthermore, importance-performance analysis was adopted to examine the influence of saving costs and training safety of training simulation systems. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate applying military training simulation systems, avoiding wasting of resources (e.g., low utility and idle time), and providing data for subsequent applications and analysis. To verify the method proposed in this study, the numerical examples of the performance evaluation of training simulation systems were adopted and compared with the numerical results of an AHP and a novel AHP-based ranking technique. The results verified that not only could expert-provided questionnaire information be fully considered to lower the repetition rate of performance ranking, but a two-dimensional graph could also be used to help administrators allocate limited resources, thereby enhancing the investment benefits and training effectiveness of a training simulation system.

  10. Immune responses to inflammation and trauma: a physical training model. (United States)

    Shephard, R J; Shek, P N


    Physical activity and training have some potential as tools for examining immune responses to inflammation and trauma. Contributors to the present symposium review various aspects of the inflammatory process, including issues of lymphocyte recirculation and endotoxemia. They examine also the extent and nature of the immune disturbances induced by acute and chronic exercise and consider parallels between such responses and cellular manifestations of clinical sepsis. Factors modulating immune responses during physical activity include changes in the circulating levels of various cytokines, alterations in nutritional status, an altered expression of adhesion molecules, and the possible intervention of reactive species. Factors that can exacerbate exercise-induced changes include exposure to adverse environments, particularly hot conditions, and disturbances of the normal sleep-wakefulness cycle. Current research in exercise immunology finds clinical application in attempts to regulate aging, acute viral infections, and neoplasia.

  11. Model characteristics of the structure physical training fighters qualifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryimakov O.O.


    Full Text Available Studied the structure of the relationship of physical fitness level fighters with physical disabilities and special performance. It is studied 147 athletes Ukraine qualifications in Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling, judo. Applied the methods of anthropometry kaliperometrii, teacher testing, testing of a special performance. It is shown that the qualification defines the relationship and the relationship of morphometric and speed-power performance, the level of special performance athletes. With the advanced training of fighters increased level of speed, force readiness, increase the size Spigot neck, hips, chest, shoulders, reduced the percentage of fat component, increases muscular component, the index increased muscle development. Morphometric parameters with the most skilled fighters and cross-linked Spigot size of the body of the speed and power - explosive power, strength and speed-strength endurance, speed.

  12. Functional and muscular adaptations in an experimental model for isometric strength training in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Krüger

    Full Text Available Exercise training induces muscular adaptations that are highly specific to the type of exercise. For a systematic study of the differentiated exercise adaptations on a molecular level mouse models have been used successfully. The aim of the current study was to develop a suitable mouse model of isometric strength exercise training characterized by specific adaptations known from strength training. C57BL/6 mice performed an isometric strength training (ST for 10 weeks 5 days/week. Additionally, either a sedentary control group (CT or a regular endurance training group (ET groups were used as controls. Performance capacity was determined by maximum holding time (MHT and treadmill spirometry, respectively. Furthermore, muscle fiber types and diameter, muscular concentration of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK, succinate dehydrogenase (SDHa, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 were determined. In a further approach, the effect of ST on glucose intolerance was tested in diabetic mice. In mice of the ST group we observed an increase of MHT in isometric strength tests, a type II fiber hypertrophy, and an increased GLUT4 protein content in the membrane fraction. In contrast, in mice of the ET group an increase of VO(2max, a shift to oxidative muscle fiber type and an increase of oxidative enzyme content was measured. Furthermore strength training was effective in reducing glucose intolerance in mice fed a high fat diet. An effective murine strength training model was developed and evaluated, which revealed marked differences in adaptations known from endurance training. This approach seems also suitable to test for therapeutical effects of strength training.

  13. Training Systems Modelers through the Development of a Multi-scale Chagas Disease Risk Model (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Stevens-Goodnight, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Bustamante, D.; Fytilis, N.; Goff, P.; Monroy, C.; Morrissey, L. A.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Dorn, P.; Lucero, D.; Rios, J.; Rizzo, D. M.


    The goal of our NSF-sponsored Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences grant is to create a multidisciplinary approach to develop spatially explicit models of vector-borne disease risk using Chagas disease as our model. Chagas disease is a parasitic disease endemic to Latin America that afflicts an estimated 10 million people. The causative agent (Trypanosoma cruzi) is most commonly transmitted to humans by blood feeding triatomine insect vectors. Our objectives are: (1) advance knowledge on the multiple interacting factors affecting the transmission of Chagas disease, and (2) provide next generation genomic and spatial analysis tools applicable to the study of other vector-borne diseases worldwide. This funding is a collaborative effort between the RSENR (UVM), the School of Engineering (UVM), the Department of Biology (UVM), the Department of Biological Sciences (Loyola (New Orleans)) and the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology (Universidad de San Carlos). Throughout this five-year study, multi-educational groups (i.e., high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral) will be trained in systems modeling. This systems approach challenges students to incorporate environmental, social, and economic as well as technical aspects and enables modelers to simulate and visualize topics that would either be too expensive, complex or difficult to study directly (Yasar and Landau 2003). We launch this research by developing a set of multi-scale, epidemiological models of Chagas disease risk using STELLA® software v.9.1.3 (isee systems, inc., Lebanon, NH). We use this particular system dynamics software as a starting point because of its simple graphical user interface (e.g., behavior-over-time graphs, stock/flow diagrams, and causal loops). To date, high school and undergraduate students have created a set of multi-scale (i.e., homestead, village, and regional) disease models. Modeling the system at multiple spatial scales forces recognition that


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Medennikov


    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-step initialization algorithm for training of acoustic models based on deep neural networks. The algorithm is focused on reducing the impact of the non-speech segments on the acoustic model training. The idea of the proposed algorithm is to reduce the percentage of non-speech examples in the training set. Effectiveness evaluation of the algorithm has been carried out on the example of English spontaneous telephone speech recognition (Switchboard. The application of the proposed algorithm has led to 3% relative word error rate reduction, compared with the training initialization by restricted Boltzmann machines. The results presented in the paper can be applied in the development of automatic speech recognition systems.

  15. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder


    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model....

  16. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - a Set Partitioning Based Model and Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David


    The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Based on data from the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the train driver recovery problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP is formulated as a set...... partitioning problem. We define a disruption neighbourhood by identifying a small set of drivers and train tasks directly affected by the disruption. Based on the disruption neighbourhood, the TDRP model is formed and solved. If the TDRP solution provides a feasible recovery for the drivers within...

  17. Applying Training System Estimation Models to Army Training. Volume 2. An Annotated Bibliography 1970-1990 (United States)


    associated with the Educational Technology Assessment Model ( ETAM ). It contains relevant background information and results of prior studies leading to...the finalized ETAM procedures and computerized routines. A comparison of the manual and automated approach is included, and data base structures and... ETAM program flow are described. The second volume (see PA, Vol 59:11358) contains the 344-page appendix. 039Duffy, L.R., Miller, R.B., & Staley, J.D


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Lady Saura


    Full Text Available The purposes of the research are: (1 To determine differences in learning outcomes of students with Inquiry Training models and Direct Instruction teaching models, (2 to determine differences in physics learning outcomes of students who have high critical thinking and low critical thinking, (3 to determine the interaction between learning models with the level of critical thinking in improving student Physics learning outcomes. The sample in this study conducted in a cluster random sampling of two classes, where the first class as a class experiment applied Inquiry Training models as a class and the second class of controls implemented Direct Instruction models. The instrument is used in this study is physics learning outcomes tests in narrative form as many as 7 questions and critical thinking test in narrative form as 7 questions that have been declared valid and reliable. The results were found: (1 there are differences in physical students learning outcomes are taught by Inquiry Training models and Direct Instruction teaching models. Learning outcomes of students who are taught by Inquiry Learning Model Training better than student learning outcomes are taught with Direct Instruction Model Learning. (2 There is a difference in student's learning outcomes that have high critical thinking and low critical thinking. Student learning outcomes that have a high critical thinking better than student learning outcomes that have a low critical thinking. (3 There is interaction between learning and mastery of material Model Physics prerequisite to student learning outcomes. Learning outcomes of students who are taught by the model is influenced also by the Inquiry Training critical thinking, while learning outcomes of students who are taught with Direct Instruction models are not affected by the students' critical thinking.

  19. Does rational selection of training and test sets improve the outcome of QSAR modeling? (United States)

    Martin, Todd M; Harten, Paul; Young, Douglas M; Muratov, Eugene N; Golbraikh, Alexander; Zhu, Hao; Tropsha, Alexander


    Prior to using a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model for external predictions, its predictive power should be established and validated. In the absence of a true external data set, the best way to validate the predictive ability of a model is to perform its statistical external validation. In statistical external validation, the overall data set is divided into training and test sets. Commonly, this splitting is performed using random division. Rational splitting methods can divide data sets into training and test sets in an intelligent fashion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rational division methods lead to more predictive models compared to random division. A special data splitting procedure was used to facilitate the comparison between random and rational division methods. For each toxicity end point, the overall data set was divided into a modeling set (80% of the overall set) and an external evaluation set (20% of the overall set) using random division. The modeling set was then subdivided into a training set (80% of the modeling set) and a test set (20% of the modeling set) using rational division methods and by using random division. The Kennard-Stone, minimal test set dissimilarity, and sphere exclusion algorithms were used as the rational division methods. The hierarchical clustering, random forest, and k-nearest neighbor (kNN) methods were used to develop QSAR models based on the training sets. For kNN QSAR, multiple training and test sets were generated, and multiple QSAR models were built. The results of this study indicate that models based on rational division methods generate better statistical results for the test sets than models based on random division, but the predictive power of both types of models are comparable.

  20. Hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy skills acquisition: augmented reality simulator versus human cadaver training models. (United States)

    Leblanc, Fabien; Senagore, Anthony J; Ellis, Clyde N; Champagne, Bradley J; Augestad, Knut M; Neary, Paul C; Delaney, Conor P


    The aim of this study was to compare a simulator with the human cadaver model for hand-assisted laparoscopic colorectal skills acquisition training. An observational prospective comparative study was conducted to compare the laparoscopic surgery training models. The study took place during the laparoscopic colectomy training course performed at the annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Thirty four practicing surgeons performed hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy on human cadavers (n = 7) and on an augmented reality simulator (n = 27). Prior laparoscopic colorectal experience was assessed. Trainers and trainees completed independently objective structured assessment forms. Training models were compared by trainees' technical skills scores, events scores, and satisfaction. Prior laparoscopic experience was similar in both surgeon groups. Generic and specific skills scores were similar on both training models. Generic events scores were significantly better on the cadaver model. The 2 most frequent generic events occurring on the simulator were poor hand-eye coordination and inefficient use of retraction. Specific events were scored better on the simulator and reached the significance limit (p = 0.051) for trainers. The specific events occurring on the cadaver were intestinal perforation and left ureter identification difficulties. Overall satisfaction was better for the cadaver than for the simulator model (p = 0.009). With regard to skills scores, the augmented reality simulator had adequate qualities for the hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy training. Nevertheless, events scores highlighted weaknesses of the anatomical replication on the simulator. Although improvements likely will be required to incorporate the simulator more routinely into the colorectal training, it may be useful in its current form for more junior trainees or those early on their learning curve. Copyright 2010 Association of Program

  1. A tissue phantom model for training residents in ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. (United States)

    Sekhar, Aarti; Sun, Maryellen R; Siewert, Bettina


    The apprenticeship model for training of percutaneous liver biopsy has limitations, and costs of commercially available simulation models can be prohibitive. We created an inexpensive tissue phantom for liver biopsy simulation and evaluated the utility of this model for training radiology residents. A bovine-porcine tissue phantom was devised as a simulation model and consisted of bovine liver with a porcine rib layer and inserted pimento olives simulating target lesions. Training sessions (a 20-minute didactic lecture and a 90-minute practice session) were offered to all residents in a diagnostic radiology residency. Effect of training was assessed by questionnaire before and after training. Level of knowledge of topics covered in the didactic session, confidence in technical skills, and anxiety level were evaluated on a five-point scale (1, poor to 5, excellent). Thirty-five of 38 residents received training on the models (~$40). Mean reported value score for training was 4.88/5. Improvement was greatest for knowledge of technique (2.3-4.1/5, P Technical confidence increased (2.4-3.8/5, P < .001) and anxiety related to performing liver biopsy improved (2.7-3.7/5, P < .001). Residents with no prior experience in liver biopsy (n = 21) had significantly greater increases in all categories than residents with prior experience (n = 14), except for knowledge about obtaining informed consent and anxiety levels. Utilization of an inexpensively created bovine/porcine liver biopsy simulation model was well perceived by radiology residents and can be used as an educational tool during residency. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Finite Element Model of Training in the superconducting quadrupole magnet SQ02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspi, Shlomo; Ferracin, Paolo


    This paper describes the use of 3D finite element models to study training in superconducting magnets. The simulations are used to examine coil displacements when the electromagnetic forces are cycled, and compute the frictional energy released during conductor motion with the resulting temperature rise. A computed training curve is then presented and discussed. The results from the numerical computations are compared with test results of the Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet SQ02.

  3. Aspects of intelligent electronic device based switchgear control training model application (United States)

    Bogdanov, Dimitar; Popov, Ivaylo


    The design of the protection and control equipment for electrical power sector application was object of extensive advance in the last several decades. The modern technologies offer a wide range of multifunctional flexible applications, making the protection and control of facilities more sophisticated. In the same time, the advance of technology imposes the necessity of simulators, training models and tutorial laboratory equipment to be used for adequate training of students and field specialists

  4. Outreach training model for accredited colorectal specialists in laparoscopic colorectal surgery: feasibility and evaluation of challenges. (United States)

    Hamdan, M F; Day, A; Millar, J; Carter, F J C; Coleman, M G; Francis, N K


    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and safety of an outreach model of laparoscopic colorectal training of accredited specialists in advanced laparoscopic techniques and to explore the challenges of this model from the perspective of a National Training Programme (NTP) trainer. Prospective data were collected for unselected laparoscopic colorectal training procedures performed by five laparoscopic colorectal NTP trainees supervised by a single NTP trainer with an outreach model between 2009 and 2012. The operative and postoperative outcomes were compared with standard laparoscopic colorectal training procedures performed by six senior colorectal trainees under the supervision of the same NTP trainer within the same study period. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare continuous variables and the Chi squared or Fisher's exact tests were applied for the analysis of categorical variables. The level of statistical significance was set at P groups. Seventy-eight per cent of the patients operated on by the NTP trainees had had no previous abdominal surgery, compared with 50% in the supervised trainees' group (P = 0.0005). There were no significant differences in 30-day mortality or the operative and postoperative outcome between both groups. There were, however, difficulties in training an already established consultant in his or her own hospital and these were overcome by certain adjustments to the programme. Outreach laparoscopic training of colorectal surgeons is a feasible and safe model of training accredited specialists and does not compromise patient care. The challenges encountered can be overcome with optimum training and preparation. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Train Headway Models and Carrying Capacity of Super-Speed Maglev System (United States)

    He, Shiwei; Song, Rui; Eastham, Tony

    Train headway models are established by analyzing the operation of the Transrapid Super-speed Maglev System (TSMS). The variation in the minimum allowable headway for trains of different speeds and consists is studied under various operational constraints. A potential Beijing-Shanghai Maglev line is used as an illustration to undertake capacity analyses with the model and methods. The example shows that the headway models for analyzing the carrying capacity of Maglev systems are very useful for the configurational design of this new transport system.

  6. A manpower training requirements model for new weapons systems, with applications to the infantry fighting vehicle


    Kenehan, Douglas J.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis documents the methodology and parameters used in designing a manpower training requirements model for new weapons systems. This model provides manpower planners with the capability of testing alternative fielding policies and adjusting model parameters to improve the use of limited personnel resources. Use of the model is illustrated in a detailed analysis of the planned introduction of the Infantry Fighting Vehicle into t...

  7. A Hardware-Friendly Algorithm for Scalable Training and Deployment of Dimensionality Reduction Models on FPGA


    Nazemi, Mahdi; Eshratifar, Amir Erfan; Pedram, Massoud


    With ever-increasing application of machine learning models in various domains such as image classification, speech recognition and synthesis, and health care, designing efficient hardware for these models has gained a lot of popularity. While the majority of researches in this area focus on efficient deployment of machine learning models (a.k.a inference), this work concentrates on challenges of training these models in hardware. In particular, this paper presents a high-performance, scalabl...

  8. Teaching through Entry Test & Summarization - An Effective Classroom Teaching Model in Higher Education Training


    Aithal P. S.


    Systematic teaching through long-time tested model will certainly improve the effectiveness of teaching-learning process in higher education. Teaching through Entry Test & Summarization is an effective model named 'Aithal model of effective classroom teaching' in Higher Education Training developed by Prof. Aithal combines both positive and negative motivation and integrated into a best practice. According to this model each class of one hour duration starts with silent prayer for one minute ...

  9. [Design and validation of a training model on paediatric and neonatal surgery]. (United States)

    Pérez-Duarte, F J; Díaz-Güemes, I; Sánchez-Hurtado, M A; Cano Novillo, I; Berchi García, F J; García Vázquez, A; Sánchez-Margallo, F M


    We present our experience in the design and development of a training program in paediatric and neonatal laparoscopic surgery, and the determination of face validity by the attendants. Data included in the present study was obtained from five consecutive editions of our Neonatal and Paediatric Laparoscopic Surgery Course. Our training model, with a total duration of 21 hours, begins with acquisition of knowledge in ergonomics and instrument concepts, after which the attendants develop basic laparoscopic dexterity through the performance of hands-on physical simulator tasks. During the second and third days of the course, surgeons undertook various surgical techniques hands-on animal model. At the end of the training program, a subjective evaluation questionnaire was handed out to the attendants, in which different didactic and organizational aspects were considered. We obtained a highly positive score on all questions concerning the different topics and techniques included in the training program (> or = 9 points over 10). 78,5% of the 54 attendants was in accordance with the course total duration, whilst 21,5% considered that it should be of longer duration. Regarding abilities' self assessment, 79,1% considered themselves capacitated to perform trained procedures on live patients. The presented training model has obtained a very positive valuation score, leading to an increase in the attendants' self confidence in the application of learned techniques to their clinical practice.

  10. Towards a product independent ERP training model: An Insight from a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Motahar


    Full Text Available ERP can be called as one of the most significant contributions of computer science and particularly information systems for the business environment which can support all complicated business process of an organisation including sale, purchase, warehouse and manufacturing into a single database. For such complex system like ERP, implementation involves much collaboration which raises the concern of the success of the project. Among most significant success and failure factors of ERP implementation cited in the literature are training and consultation. For many years the majority of ERP vendors promote their product specific training models as long-term and expensive allowing the organisation to gain knowledge of the ERP system and the way it handles the business process. However, recent studies showed that ERP training can be conducted in the short term and with minimum investment and yet to be effective. Findings triggered a signal and opened a new door for research to investigate vendor-independent training models that require limited investment in training and consultancy. This paper aims to provide an overview of the literature; highlighting the research methods and theories used by authors towards building ERP training models and methods.

  11. Task decomposition: a framework for comparing diverse training models in human brain plasticity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. J. Coffey


    Full Text Available Training studies, in which the structural or functional neurophysiology is compared before and after expertise is acquired, are increasingly being used as models for understanding the human brain’s potential for reorganization. It is proving difficult to use these results to answer basic and important questions like how task training leads to both specific and general changes in behaviour and how these changes correspond with modifications in the brain. The main culprit is the diversity of paradigms used as complex task models. An assortment of activities ranging from juggling to deciphering Morse code has been reported. Even when working in the same general domain, few researchers use similar training models. New ways to meaningfully compare complex tasks are needed. We propose a method for characterizing and deconstructing the task requirements of complex training paradigms, which is suitable for application to both structural and functional neuroimaging studies. We believe this approach will aid brain plasticity research by making it easier to compare training paradigms, identify ‘missing puzzle pieces’, and encourage researchers to design training protocols to bridge these gaps.

  12. Training Needs Assessment for Leaders in Nursing Based on Comparison of Competency Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvas Andreja


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The main purpose behind the formation of leadership competency models must be the improvement of leadership. A competency model should serve as one of the tools for selecting the most suitable leaders, appraising their work, assessing training needs and preparing programmes of functional and formal education. The objective of this research is to assess the training needs of leaders in health care. A comparison of leadership competency models between different professional groups should serve as one of the tools with which to assess the training needs of various levels of leaders. Design/Methodology/Approach: A descriptive study using a survey design was conducted on 141 nurse leaders in Slovenia. Respondents indicated to what extent each of 95 different behaviours was characteristic of a person at their leadership level. Results: The most important competence dimensions (groups of behaviours for leaders in health care are (1 at the first - top leadership level: strategic thinking, openness to change and responsibility; (2 for leaders at the second - middle leadership level: relations with co-workers, animation, resistance to stress; and (3 for leaders at the third leadership level: realisation skills, execution of procedures, communication. Training needs assessments were done for three leadership levels in nursing care. Conclusions: The greatest need for training of nurse leaders can be observed at the third leadership level. Special training programmes should be organised in the competency areas of realisation skills, execution of procedures, communication, education and ethics

  13. Cardiovascular Surgery Residency Program: Training Coronary Anastomosis Using the Arroyo Simulator and UNIFESP Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Maluf


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Engage the UNIFESP Cardiovascular Surgery residents in coronary anastomosis, assess their skills and certify results, using the Arroyo Anastomosis Simulator and UNIFESP surgical models. METHODS: First to 6th year residents attended a weekly program of technical training in coronary anastomosis, using 4 simulation models: 1. Arroyo simulator; 2. Dummy with a plastic heart; 3. Dummy with a bovine heart; and 4. Dummy with a beating pig heart. The assessment test was comprised of 10 items, using a scale from 1 to 5 points in each of them, creating a global score of 50 points maximum. RESULTS: The technical performance of the candidate showed improvement in all items, especially manual skill and technical progress, critical sense of the work performed, confidence in the procedure and reduction of the time needed to perform the anastomosis after 12 weeks practice. In response to the multiplicity of factors that currently influence the cardiovascular surgeon training, there have been combined efforts to reform the practices of surgical medical training. CONCLUSION: 1 - The four models of simulators offer a considerable contribution to the field of cardiovascular surgery, improving the skill and dexterity of the surgeon in training. 2 - Residents have shown interest in training and cooperate in the development of innovative procedures for surgical medical training in the art.

  14. A Study of a Three-Dimensional Action Research Training Model for School Library Programs (United States)

    Gordon, Carol


    This is a detailed review of an in-depth action research training model and an investigation of how that model, supported through virtual and personal guidance from an academic researcher, served to impact the instructional practice of a small sample of school library media specialists (SLMSs). The researcher operates in the third dimension,…

  15. A Teacher Training Model for Improving Social Facilitation in the Inclusive Program (United States)

    Robinson, Suzanne; Myck-Wayne, Janice


    The twofold purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of fostering social competence within inclusive preschool programs and to describe a model for training teachers in research-based social facilitation strategies so as to promote social interaction between children with and without disabilities. This model was developed to address…

  16. Teaching Quality Management Model for the Training of Innovation Ability and the Multilevel Decomposition Indicators (United States)

    Lu, Xingjiang; Yao, Chen; Zheng, Jianmin


    This paper focuses on the training of undergraduate students' innovation ability. On top of the theoretical framework of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD), we propose a teaching quality management model. Based on this model, we establish a multilevel decomposition indicator system, which integrates innovation ability characterized by four…

  17. Making of a Corporate University Model: Transition from Traditional Training to Learning Management System (United States)

    Ilyas, Mohammed


    Today organizations have adopted a corporate university model to meet their training requirements, a model that adds value to the business in terms of revenue and profit, improvement in customer retention, improved employee productivity, cost reduction and retention of talented employees. This paper highlights the radical change and an evolution…

  18. The development of fully dynamic rotating machine models for nuclear training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsa, J.J.


    Prior to beginning the development of an enhanced set of electrical plant models for several nuclear training simulators, an extensive literature search was conducted to evaluate and select rotating machine models for use on these simulators. These models include the main generator, diesel generators, in-plant electric power distribution and off-side power. Form the results of this search, various models were investigated and several were selected for further evaluation. Several computer studies were performed on the selected models in order to determine their suitability for use in a training simulator environment. One surprising result of this study was that a number of established, classical models could not be made to reproduce actual plant steady-state data over the range necessary for a training simulator. This evaluation process and its results are presented in this paper. Various historical, as well as contemporary, electrical models of rotating machines are discussed. Specific criteria for selection of rotating machine models for training simulator use are presented

  19. Object recognition via MINACE filter trained on synthetic 3D model (United States)

    Shaulskiy, Dmitry V.; Konstantinov, Maxim V.; Starikov, Rostislav S.


    Paper presents study results of MINACE filter implementation to recognition problem of object subjected to out-of-plane rotation distortion and captured as raster image. Filter training conducted by images acquired from synthetic 3D object model. Dependence of recognition results from 3D model illumination type is shown.

  20. A general scheme for training and optimization of the Grenander deformable template model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune; Schultz, Nette; Duta, N.


    parameters, a very fast general initialization algorithm and an adaptive likelihood model based on local means. The model parameters are trained by a combination of a 2D shape learning algorithm and a maximum likelihood based criteria. The fast initialization algorithm is based on a search approach using...

  1. Training Self-Regulated Learning Skills with Video Modeling Examples: Do Task-Selection Skills Transfer? (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Steven F.; Baars, Martine; Schaap, Lydia; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; van Gog, Tamara


    Self-assessment and task-selection skills are crucial in self-regulated learning situations in which students can choose their own tasks. Prior research suggested that training with video modeling examples, in which another person (the model) demonstrates and explains the cyclical process of problem-solving task performance, self-assessment, and…

  2. Spreadsheet Decision Support Model for Training Exercise Material Requirements Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tringali, Arthur


    This thesis focuses on developing a spreadsheet decision support model that can be used by combat engineer platoon and company commanders in determining the material requirements and estimated costs...

  3. Modelling of the Quality Management of the Human Resource Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucur Amelia


    Full Text Available It is known that for the scientific substantiation of quality management have been applied models that pertain to mathematical statistics, the probability theory, the information theory, fuzzy systems, graphic methods, time series, and algebraic and numerical methods.

  4. Seeking the best training model for difficult conversations in neonatology. (United States)

    Lechner, Beatrice E; Shields, Robin; Tucker, Richard; Bender, G Jesse


    We hypothesize that a formal simulation curriculum prepares neonatology fellows for difficult conversations better than traditional didactics. Single-center neonatology fellowship graduates from 1999 to 2013 were sent a retrospective web-based survey. Some had been exposed to a Difficult Conversations curriculum (simulation group), others had not (no simulation group). The simulation group participated in one workshop annually, consisting of lecture, simulation, and debriefing. Scenarios were customized to year of training. Epoch comparisons were made between the simulation and no simulation groups. Self-rated baseline effectiveness at discussing difficult topics was not different. The simulation group reported more supervised family meetings and feedback after fellow-led meetings. Simulations were rated very positively. The simulation group reported increased comfort levels. Strategic pause and body positioning were specific communication skills more frequently acquired in the simulation group. In both groups, the highest ranked contributors to learning were mentor observation and clinical practice. In the simulation group, simulation and debriefing outranked didactics or other experiences. Simulation-based workshops improve communication skills in high stakes conversations. However, they do not substitute for mentor observation and experience. Establishing a structured simulation-based difficult conversations curriculum refines vital communication skills necessary for the high stakes conversations neonatologists direct in clinical practice.

  5. Nuclear power plant training simulator modeling organization and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliston, W.H.


    A description is given of a training simulator for the full-scope real-time dynamic operation of a nuclear power plant which utilizes apparatus that includes control consoles having manual and automatic devices corresponding to simulated plant components and indicating devices for monitoring physical values in the simulated plants. A digital computer configuration is connected to the control consoles to calculate the dynamic real-time simulated operation of the plant in accordance with the simulated plant components to provide output data including data for operating the control console indicating devices. The plant simulation is modularized into various plant components or component systems. Simulated plant components or component systems are described by a mathematical equation embodied in a computer program which accepts data from other simulated plant components or systems, calculates output values including values which are used as inputs for simulator calculators by other simulated plant components or systems, and responds in a manner similar to that of its corresponding physical entity in both transient and steady states

  6. Features that contribute to the usefulness of low-fidelity models for surgical skills training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebaek, Rikke; Berendt, Mette; Tanggaard, Lene


    of the usefulness of the models in applying the trained skills to live animal surgery. One hundred and forty-six veterinary fourth-year students evaluated the models on a four-point Likert scale. Of these, 26 additionally participated in individual semistructured interviews. The survey results showed that 75 per......For practical, ethical and economic reasons, veterinary surgical education is becoming increasingly dependent on models for training. The limited availability and high cost of commercially produced surgical models has increased the need for useful, low-cost alternatives. For this reason, a number...... of models were developed to be used in a basic surgical skills course for veterinary students. The models were low fidelity, having limited resemblance to real animals. The aim of the present study was to describe the students' learning experience with the models and to report their perception...

  7. Inservice trainings for Shiraz University of Medical Sciences employees: effectiveness assessment by using the CIPP model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, the employees` inservice training has become one of the core components in survival and success of any organization. Unfortunately, despite the importance of training evaluation, a small portion of resources are allocated to this matter. Among many evaluation models, the CIPP model or Context, Input, Process, Product model is a very useful approach to educational evaluation. So far, the evaluation of the training courses mostly provided information for learners but this investigation aims at evaluating the effectiveness of the experts’ training programs and identifying its pros and cons based on the 4 stages of the CIPP model. Method: In this descriptive analytical study, done in 2013, 250 employees of Shiraz University Medical Sciences (SUMS participated in inservice training courses were randomly selected. The evaluated variables were designed using CIPP model and a researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection; the questionnaire was validated using expert opinion and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha (0.89. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 14 and statistical tests was done as needed. Results: In the context phase, the mean score was highest in solving work problems (4.07±0.88 and lowest in focusing on learners’ learning style training courses (2.68±0.91. There is a statistically significant difference between the employees` education level and the product phase evaluation (p0.001, in contrast with the process and product phase which showed a significant deference (p<0.001. Conclusion: Considering our results, although the inservice trainings given to sums employees has been effective in many ways, it has some weaknesses as well. Therefore improving these weaknesses and reinforcing strong points within the identified fields in this study should be taken into account by decision makers and administrators.

  8. The effectiveness of agrobusiness technical training and education model for the field agricultural extension officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiyo Sumarwono


    Full Text Available The study was to: (1 find the most effective agrobusiness technical training and education model for the Field Agricultural Extension Officers to be implemented; and (2 to identify the knowledge level, the highest agrobusiness skills and the strongest self-confidence that might be achieved by the participants through the implemented training and education patterns. The study was conducted by means of experiment method with the regular pattern of training and education program as the control and the mentoring pattern of training and education program as the treatment. The three patterns of training and education programs served as the independent variables while the knowledge, the skills and the self-confidence served as the dependent variables. The study was conducted in three locations namely: the Institution of Agricultural Human Resources Development in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region (Balai Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Pertanian Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta – BPSMP DIY; the Institution of Agricultural Human Resources Empowerment (Balai Pemberdayaan Sumber Daya Manusia Pertanian – BPSDMTAN Soropadan Temanggung Provinsi Jawa Tengah in Soropadan, Temanggung, the Province of Central Java; and the Institution of Training and Education in Semarang, the Province of Central Java (Badan Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Semarang Provinsi Jawa Tengah. The study was conducted to all of the participants who attended the agrobusiness technical training and education program and, therefore, all of the participants became the subjects of the study. The study was conducted from October 2013 until March 2014. The results of the study showed that: (1 there had not been any significant difference on the knowledge and the skills of the participants who attended the regular pattern in training and education programs and those who attended the mentoring pattern in training and education programs; (2 the regular pattern in training and education programs

  9. Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models. (United States)

    García-Pallarés, Jesús; García-Fernández, Miguel; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; Izquierdo, Mikel


    This study was undertaken to compare training-induced changes in selected physiological, body composition and performance variables following two training periodization models: traditional (TP) versus block periodization (BP). Ten world-class kayakers were assessed four times during a training cycle over two consecutive seasons. On each occasion, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion on the kayak ergometer to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), VO(2) at second ventilatory threshold (VO(2) VT2), peak blood lactate, paddling speed at VO(2peak) (PS(peak)) and VT2 (PS( VT2)), power output at VO(2peak) (Pw(peak)) and VT2 (Pw( VT2)), stroke rate at VO(2peak) (SR(peak)) and VT2 (SR( VT2)) as well as heart rate at VO(2peak) and VT2. Volume and exercise intensity were quantified for each endurance training session. Both TP and BP cycles resulted in similar gains in VO(2peak) (11 and 8.1%) and VO(2) VT2 (9.8 and 9.4%), even though the TP cycle was 10 weeks and 120 training hours longer than the BP cycle. Following BP paddlers experienced larger gains in PS(peak), Pw(peak) and SR(peak) than those observed with TP. These findings suggest that BP may be more effective than TP for improving the performance of highly trained top-level kayakers. Although both models allowed significant improvements of selected physiological and kayaking performance variables, the BP program achieved similar results with half the endurance training volume used in the TP model. A BP design could be a more useful strategy than TP to maintain the residual training effects as well as to achieve greater improvements in certain variables related to kayaking performance.

  10. Developing a scalable training model in global mental health: pilot study of a video-assisted training Program for Generalist Clinicians in Rural Nepal. (United States)

    Acharya, B; Tenpa, J; Basnet, M; Hirachan, S; Rimal, P; Choudhury, N; Thapa, P; Citrin, D; Halliday, S; Swar, S B; van Dyke, C; Gauchan, B; Sharma, B; Hung, E; Ekstrand, M


    In low- and middle-income countries, mental health training often includes sending few generalist clinicians to specialist-led programs for several weeks. Our objective is to develop and test a video-assisted training model addressing the shortcomings of traditional programs that affect scalability: failing to train all clinicians, disrupting clinical services, and depending on specialists. We implemented the program -video lectures and on-site skills training- for all clinicians at a rural Nepali hospital. We used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to evaluate pre- and post-test change in knowledge (diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and appropriate treatment). We used a series of 'Yes' or 'No' questions to assess attitudes about mental illness, and utilized exact McNemar's test to analyze the proportions of participants who held a specific belief before and after the training. We assessed acceptability and feasibility through key informant interviews and structured feedback. For each topic except depression, there was a statistically significant increase (Δ) in median scores on knowledge questionnaires: Acute Stress Reaction (Δ = 20, p = 0.03), Depression (Δ = 11, p = 0.12), Grief (Δ = 40, p training received high ratings; key informants shared examples and views about the training's positive impact and complementary nature of the program's components. Video lectures and on-site skills training can address the limitations of a conventional training model while being acceptable, feasible, and impactful toward improving knowledge and attitudes of the participants.

  11. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney


    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  12. Developing cognitive behaviour therapy training in India: Using the Kolb learning cycle to address challenges in applying transcultural models of mental health and mental health training. (United States)

    Beck, Andrew; Virudhagirinathan, B S; Santosham, Sangita; Begum, Faiz Jahan


    Although mental health workers in India across all major professional groups have identified an unmet need for training in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), the uncritical export of models of mental health, therapy provision and training to low- and middle-income countries is a problematic process. This paper describes the context for the first stand-alone CBT training programme in India, based in Chennai. This paper includes an evaluation of the first phase of the training and information from trainees regarding the quality and applicability of the training to their working context. The paper provides an overview of some of the critiques that are pertinent to this process and considers the way that the Kolb learning cycle can be used as a framework within training to go some way to addressing these difficulties.

  13. Model of future officers' availability to the management physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkhovy O.M.


    Full Text Available A purpose of work is creation of model of readiness of graduating student to implementation of official questions of guidance, organization and leadthrough of physical preparation in the process of military-professional activity. An analysis is conducted more than 40 sources and questionnaire questioning of a 21 expert. For introduction of model to the system of physical preparation of students the list of its basic constituents is certain: theoretical methodical readiness; functionally-physical readiness; organizationally-administrative readiness. It is certain that readiness of future officers to military-professional activity foresees determination of level of forming of motive capabilities, development of general physical qualities.

  14. From Training to Organizational Behavior: A Mediation Model through Absorptive and Innovative Capacities. (United States)

    Yáñez-Araque, Benito; Hernández-Perlines, Felipe; Moreno-Garcia, Juan


    The training of human resources improves business performance: myth or reality? While the literature has extensively addressed this issue, the transfer that occurs from training to performance still remains unresolved. The present study suggests an empirical solution to this gap, through a multiple mediation model of dynamic capabilities. Accordingly, the study makes a major contribution to the effectiveness of an organizational-level training: the "true" relationship between training and performance is mediated by absorptive and innovative capacities. It is difficult from training to directly affect the results: it must be done through a chain of intermediate variables. Training can be argued to be indirectly related to performance, through absorptive capacity in the first place, and innovative capacity in the second, sequentially in this order (three-path mediated effect). Of all immediate relationships received by performance, its explained variance is achieved partly via absorptive capacity and partly via innovation. The direct relationship through training is not significant and only explains a small percentage of the variance in performance. These results have been corroborated by combining two methods of analysis: PLS-SEM and fsQCA, using data from an online survey. This dual methodology in the study of the same phenomenon allows overcoming the limitations of each method, which would not have been possible with a single methodological approach, and confirming the findings obtained by any of them.

  15. From Training to Organizational Behavior: A Mediation Model through Absorptive and Innovative Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Yáñez-Araque


    Full Text Available The training of human resources improves business performance: myth or reality? While the literature has extensively addressed this issue, the transfer that occurs from training to performance still remains unresolved. The present study suggests an empirical solution to this gap, through a multiple mediation model of dynamic capabilities. Accordingly, the study makes a major contribution to the effectiveness of an organizational-level training: the “true” relationship between training and performance is mediated by absorptive and innovative capacities. It is difficult from training to directly affect the results: it must be done through a chain of intermediate variables. Training can be argued to be indirectly related to performance, through absorptive capacity in the first place, and innovative capacity in the second, sequentially in this order (three-path mediated effect. Of all immediate relationships received by performance, its explained variance is achieved partly via absorptive capacity and partly via innovation. The direct relationship through training is not significant and only explains a small percentage of the variance in performance. These results have been corroborated by combining two methods of analysis: PLS-SEM and fsQCA, using data from an online survey. This dual methodology in the study of the same phenomenon allows overcoming the limitations of each method, which would not have been possible with a single methodological approach, and confirming the findings obtained by any of them.

  16. A new model of short acceleration-based training improves exercise performance in old mice. (United States)

    Niel, R; Ayachi, M; Mille-Hamard, L; Le Moyec, L; Savarin, P; Clement, M-J; Besse, S; Launay, T; Billat, V L; Momken, I


    In order to identify a more appealing exercise strategy for the elderly, we studied a mouse model to determine whether a less time-consuming training program would improve exercise performance, enzyme activities, mitochondrial respiration, and metabolomic parameters. We compared the effects of short-session (acceleration-based) training with those of long-session endurance training in 23-month-old mice. The short-session training consisted of five acceleration-based treadmill running sessions over 2 weeks (the acceleration group), whereas the endurance training consisted of five-one-hour treadmill sessions per week for 4 weeks (the endurance group). A control group of mice was also studied. In the acceleration group, the post-training maximum running speed and time to exhaustion were significantly improved, relative to pretraining values (+8% for speed, Pspeed was higher in the acceleration group than in the endurance group (by 23%; Pendurance group. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiratory activity in the gastrocnemius was higher in the acceleration group than in the control group. A metabolomic urine analysis revealed a higher mean taurine concentration and a lower mean branched amino acid concentration in the acceleration group. In old mice, acceleration-based training appears to be an efficient way of increasing performance by improving both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, and possibly by enhancing antioxidant defenses and maintaining muscle protein balance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A multistate model of cognitive dynamics in relation to resistance training: the contribution of baseline function. (United States)

    Fallah, Nader; Hsu, Chun L; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Davis, Jennifer; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa


    We investigated: (1) the effect of different targeted exercise training on an individual's overall probability for cognitive improvement, maintenance, or decline; and (2) the simultaneous effect of targeted exercise training and baseline function on the dynamics of executive functions when a multistate transition model is used. Analyses are based on a 12-month randomized clinical trial including 155 community-dwelling women 65-75 years of age who were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training (1x RT; n = 54), twice-weekly resistance training (2x RT; n = 52), or twice-weekly balance and tone training (BAT; n = 49). The primary outcome measure was performance on the Stroop test, an executive cognitive test of selective attention and conflict resolution. Secondary outcomes of executive functions were set shifting and working memory. Individuals in the 1x RT or 2x RT group demonstrated a significantly greater probability for improved performance on the Stroop Test (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.57) compared with those in the BAT group (0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.40). Resistance training had significant effects on transitions in selective attention and conflict resolution. Resistance training is efficacious in improving a measure of selective attention and conflict resolution in older women, probably more so among those with greater baseline cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Teacher training by means of a school-based model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    members of school managements involved were positive regarding the SBTM, and that the advantages of the model outweighed the ... There is a teacher shortage in South Africa (SA), particularly in rural areas (Department of Education (DoE),. Republic of South Africa, ..... College Teaching, 21(3):95-108. Boeve-de Pauw J ...

  19. Empowering Education: A New Model for In-service Training of Nursing Staff. (United States)

    Chaghari, Mahmud; Saffari, Mohsen; Ebadi, Abbas; Ameryoun, Ahmad


    In-service training of nurses plays an indispensable role in improving the quality of inpatient care. Need to enhance the effectiveness of in-service training of nurses is an inevitable requirement. This study attempted to design a new optimal model for in-service training of nurses. This qualitative study was conducted in two stages during 2015-2016. In the first stage, the Grounded Theory was adopted to explore the process of training 35 participating nurses. The sampling was initially purposeful and then theoretically based on emerging concept. Data were collected through interview, observation and field notes. Moreover, the data were analyzed through Corbin-Strauss method and the data were coded through MAXQDA-10. In the second stage, the findings were employed through 'Walker and Avants strategy for theory construction so as to design an optimal model for in-service training of nursing staff. In the first stage, there were five major themes including unsuccessful mandatory education, empowering education, organizational challenges of education, poor educational management, and educational-occupational resiliency. Empowering education was the core variable derived from the research, based on which a grounded theory was proposed. The new empowering education model was composed of self-directed learning and practical learning. There are several strategies to achieve empowering education, including the fostering of searching skills, clinical performance monitoring, motivational factors, participation in the design and implementation, and problem-solving approach. Empowering education is a new model for in-service training of nurses, which matches the training programs with andragogical needs and desirability of learning among the staff. Owing to its practical nature, the empowering education can facilitate occupational tasks and achieving greater mastery of professional skills among the nurses.

  20. Empowering education: A new model for in-service training of nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: In-service training of nurses plays an indispensable role in improving the quality of inpatient care. Need to enhance the effectiveness of in-service training of nurses is an inevitable requirement. This study attempted to design a new optimal model for in-service training of nurses. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in two stages during 2015-2016. In the first stage, the Grounded Theory was adopted to explore the process of training 35 participating nurses. The sampling was initially purposeful and then theoretically based on emerging concept. Data were collected through interview, observation and field notes. Moreover, the data were analyzed through Corbin-Strauss method and the data were coded through MAXQDA-10. In the second stage, the findings were employed through Walker and Avant’s strategy for theory construction so as to design an optimal model for in-service training of nursing staff. Results: In the first stage, there were five major themes including unsuccessful mandatory education, empowering education, organizational challenges of education, poor educational management, and educational-occupational resiliency. Empowering education was the core variable derived from the research, based on which a grounded theory was proposed. The new empowering education model was composed of self-directed learning and practical learning. There are several strategies to achieve empowering education, including the fostering of searching skills, clinical performance monitoring, motivational factors, participation in the design and implementation, and problem-solving approach. Conclusion: Empowering education is a new model for in-service training of nurses, which matches the training programs with andragogical needs and desirability of learning among the staff. Owing to its practical nature, the empowering education can facilitate occupational tasks and achieving greater mastery of professional skills among the nurses.

  1. Off-the-job training for VATS employing anatomically correct lung models. (United States)

    Obuchi, Toshiro; Imakiire, Takayuki; Miyahara, Sou; Nakashima, Hiroyasu; Hamanaka, Wakako; Yanagisawa, Jun; Hamatake, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Moriyama, Shigeharu; Iwasaki, Akinori


    We evaluated our simulated major lung resection employing anatomically correct lung models as "off-the-job training" for video-assisted thoracic surgery trainees. A total of 76 surgeons voluntarily participated in our study. They performed video-assisted thoracic surgical lobectomy employing anatomically correct lung models, which are made of sponges so that vessels and bronchi can be cut using usual surgical techniques with typical forceps. After the simulation surgery, participants answered questionnaires on a visual analogue scale, in terms of their level of interest and the reality of our training method as off-the-job training for trainees. We considered that the closer a score was to 10, the more useful our method would be for training new surgeons. Regarding the appeal or level of interest in this simulation surgery, the mean score was 8.3 of 10, and regarding reality, it was 7.0. The participants could feel some of the real sensations of the surgery and seemed to be satisfied to perform the simulation lobectomy. Our training method is considered to be suitable as an appropriate type of surgical off-the-job training.

  2. Source modelling of train noise - Literature review and some initial measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xuetao; Jonasson, Hans; Holmberg, Kjell


    A literature review of source modelling of railway noise is reported. Measurements on a special test rig at Surahammar and on the new railway line between Arlanda and Stockholm City are reported and analyzed. In the analysis the train is modelled as a number of point sources with or without directivity and each source is combined with analytical sound propagation theory to predict the sound propagation pattern best fitting the measured data. Wheel/rail rolling noise is considered to be the most important noise source. The rolling noise can be modelled as an array of moving point sources, which have a dipole-like horizontal directivity and some kind of vertical directivity. In general it is necessary to distribute the point sources on several heights. Based on our model analysis the source heights for the rolling noise should be below the wheel axles and the most important height is about a quarter of wheel diameter above the railheads. When train speeds are greater than 250 km/h aerodynamic noise will become important and even dominant. It may be important for low frequency components only if the train speed is less than 220 km/h. Little data are available for these cases. It is believed that aerodynamic noise has dipole-like directivity. Its spectrum depends on many factors: speed, railway system, type of train, bogies, wheels, pantograph, presence of barriers and even weather conditions. Other sources such as fans, engine, transmission and carriage bodies are at most second order noise sources, but for trains with a diesel locomotive engine the engine noise will be dominant if train speeds are less than about 100 km/h. The Nord 2000 comprehensive model for sound propagation outdoors, together with the source model that is based on the understandings above, can suitably handle the problems of railway noise propagation in one-third octave bands although there are still problems left to be solved.

  3. Model-based verification method for solving the parameter uncertainty in the train control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ruijun; Zhou, Jin; Chen, Dewang; Song, Yongduan


    This paper presents a parameter analysis method to solve the parameter uncertainty problem for hybrid system and explore the correlation of key parameters for distributed control system. For improving the reusability of control model, the proposed approach provides the support for obtaining the constraint sets of all uncertain parameters in the abstract linear hybrid automata (LHA) model when satisfying the safety requirements of the train control system. Then, in order to solve the state space explosion problem, the online verification method is proposed to monitor the operating status of high-speed trains online because of the real-time property of the train control system. Furthermore, we construct the LHA formal models of train tracking model and movement authority (MA) generation process as cases to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. In the first case, we obtain the constraint sets of uncertain parameters to avoid collision between trains. In the second case, the correlation of position report cycle and MA generation cycle is analyzed under both the normal and the abnormal condition influenced by packet-loss factor. Finally, considering stochastic characterization of time distributions and real-time feature of moving block control system, the transient probabilities of wireless communication process are obtained by stochastic time petri nets. - Highlights: • We solve the parameters uncertainty problem by using model-based method. • We acquire the parameter constraint sets by verifying linear hybrid automata models. • Online verification algorithms are designed to monitor the high-speed trains. • We analyze the correlation of key parameters and uncritical parameters. • The transient probabilities are obtained by using reliability analysis.

  4. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention: testing a model in the Italian printing industry. (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio


    This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.

  5. End-to-End Delay Model for Train Messaging over Public Land Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mazzenga


    Full Text Available Modern train control systems rely on a dedicated radio network for train to ground communications. A number of possible alternatives have been analysed to adopt the European Rail Traffic Management System/European Train Control System (ERTMS/ETCS control system on local/regional lines to improve transport capacity. Among them, a communication system based on public networks (cellular&satellite provides an interesting, effective and alternative solution to proprietary and expensive radio networks. To analyse performance of this solution, it is necessary to model the end-to-end delay and message loss to fully characterize the message transfer process from train to ground and vice versa. Starting from the results of a railway test campaign over a 300 km railway line for a cumulative 12,000 traveled km in 21 days, in this paper, we derive a statistical model for the end-to-end delay required for delivering messages. In particular, we propose a two states model allowing for reproducing the main behavioral characteristics of the end-to-end delay as observed experimentally. Model formulation has been derived after deep analysis of the recorded experimental data. When it is applied to model a realistic scenario, it allows for explicitly accounting for radio coverage characteristics, the received power level, the handover points along the line and for the serving radio technology. As an example, the proposed model is used to generate the end-to-end delay profile in a realistic scenario.

  6. Forecasting of currency exchange rates using an adaptive ARMA model with differential evolution based training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minakhi Rout


    Full Text Available To alleviate the limitations of statistical based methods of forecasting of exchange rates, soft and evolutionary computing based techniques have been introduced in the literature. To further the research in this direction this paper proposes a simple but promising hybrid prediction model by suitably combining an adaptive autoregressive moving average (ARMA architecture and differential evolution (DE based training of its feed-forward and feed-back parameters. Simple statistical features are extracted for each exchange rate using a sliding window of past data and are employed as input to the prediction model for training its internal coefficients using DE optimization strategy. The prediction efficiency is validated using past exchange rates not used for training purpose. Simulation results using real life data are presented for three different exchange rates for one–fifteen months’ ahead predictions. The results of the developed model are compared with other four competitive methods such as ARMA-particle swarm optimization (PSO, ARMA-cat swarm optimization (CSO, ARMA-bacterial foraging optimization (BFO and ARMA-forward backward least mean square (FBLMS. The derivative based ARMA-FBLMS forecasting model exhibits worst prediction performance of the exchange rates. Comparisons of different performance measures including the training time of the all three evolutionary computing based models demonstrate that the proposed ARMA-DE exchange rate prediction model possesses superior short and long range prediction potentiality compared to others.

  7. The Madrid Train Bombings: A Decision-Making Model Analysis (United States)


    4 Since 9/11 virtually all elements of national power have been used to strategically react to terrorism. 2 This study will analyze a terrorist...election.4 While this caused much controversy within Spain, it also makes an analysis using the Organizational Process Model virtually impossible...Cuerpo Nacional de Polic´ıa or CNP and the Guardia Civil), its counterterrorist agency (Spanish security forces--Fuerzas y Cuerpos de Seguridad del

  8. Craving to Quit: psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions


    Brewer, Judson A.; Elwafi, Hani M.; Davis, Jake H.


    Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained sub-optimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. Interestingly, these early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive proc...

  9. A graphical interface based model for wind turbine drive train dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, J.F.; McGowan, J.G.; Abdulwahid, U.; Rogers, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)


    This paper presents a summary of a wind turbine drive train dynamics code that has been under development at the University of Massachusetts, under National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) support. The code is intended to be used to assist in the proper design and selection of drive train components. This work summarizes the development of the equations of motion for the model, and discusses the method of solution. In addition, a number of comparisons with analytical solutions and experimental field data are given. The summary includes conclusions and suggestions for future work on the model. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Multiple-point statistical simulation for hydrogeological models: 3-D training image development and conditioning strategies (United States)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Vignoli, Giulio; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Thanh Vu, Le; Keefer, Donald A.; Jørgensen, Flemming


    Most studies on the application of geostatistical simulations based on multiple-point statistics (MPS) to hydrogeological modelling focus on relatively fine-scale models and concentrate on the estimation of facies-level structural uncertainty. Much less attention is paid to the use of input data and optimal construction of training images. For instance, even though the training image should capture a set of spatial geological characteristics to guide the simulations, the majority of the research still relies on 2-D or quasi-3-D training images. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel strategy for 3-D MPS modelling characterized by (i) realistic 3-D training images and (ii) an effective workflow for incorporating a diverse group of geological and geophysical data sets. The study covers an area of 2810 km2 in the southern part of Denmark. MPS simulations are performed on a subset of the geological succession (the lower to middle Miocene sediments) which is characterized by relatively uniform structures and dominated by sand and clay. The simulated domain is large and each of the geostatistical realizations contains approximately 45 million voxels with size 100 m × 100 m × 5 m. Data used for the modelling include water well logs, high-resolution seismic data, and a previously published 3-D geological model. We apply a series of different strategies for the simulations based on data quality, and develop a novel method to effectively create observed spatial trends. The training image is constructed as a relatively small 3-D voxel model covering an area of 90 km2. We use an iterative training image development strategy and find that even slight modifications in the training image create significant changes in simulations. Thus, this study shows how to include both the geological environment and the type and quality of input information in order to achieve optimal results from MPS modelling. We present a practical workflow to build the training image and

  11. Application of rapid prototyping techniques for modelling of anatomical structures in medical training and education. (United States)

    Torres, K; Staśkiewicz, G; Śnieżyński, M; Drop, A; Maciejewski, R


    Rapid prototyping has become an innovative method of fast and cost-effective production of three-dimensional models for manufacturing. Wide access to advanced medical imaging methods allows application of this technique for medical training purposes. This paper presents the feasibility of rapid prototyping technologies: stereolithography, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling, and three-dimensional printing for medical education. Rapid prototyping techniques are a promising method for improvement of anatomical education in medical students but also a valuable source of training tools for medical specialists.

  12. Dust Plume Modeling at Fort Bliss: Move-Out Operations, Combat Training and Wind Erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Newsom, Rob K.; Allwine, K Jerry


    The potential for air-quality impacts from heavy mechanized vehicles operating in the training ranges and on the unpaved main supply routes at Fort Bliss was investigated. This report details efforts by the staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Fort Bliss Directorate of Environment in this investigation. Dust emission and dispersion from typical activities, including move outs and combat training, occurring on the installation were simulated using the atmospheric modeling system DUSTRAN. Major assumptions associated with designing specific modeling scenarios are summarized, and results from the simulations are presented.

  13. Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation to exercise training in a novel model of physiological cardiac hypertrophy. (United States)

    Al-Asoom, L I; Al-Shaikh, B A; Bamosa, A O; El-Bahai, M N


    Exercise training is employed as supplementary therapy to patients with heart failure due to its multiple beneficial cardiac effects including physiological remodeling of the heart. However, precautions might be taken for the concomitant high oxidant release. Nigella sativa (NS) has been found to induce cardiac hypertrophy and enhance cardiac function. Combination of NS supplementation and exercise training might induce a safer model of cardiac hypertrophy. Our aim was to study biomarkers associated with cardiac hypertrophy induced by NS supplementation of exercise-trained rats. Forty-five adult male Wistar rats (body weight 150-220 g) were divided equally into three groups: control, exercise-trained (ET) and NS-treated-exercise-trained (NSET) groups. Daily 800 mg/kg NS was administered orally to NSET group for 8 weeks. Rats of the ET and NSET groups were subjected to treadmill running sessions for 2 h/day for 8 weeks. By the end of the experiment, the following were recorded: body, heart and left ventricular weights (BW, HW, LVW), cardiomyocyte diameter, serum growth hormone, insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroid hormones, catecholamines, total nitrate, ICAM and antioxidant capacity. A homogenous cardiac hypertrophy was evidenced by increased HW/BW, LVW/BW ratios and cardiomyocyte diameter in the two groups of exercise-trained compared with control rats. Rats of ET group had higher growth hormone. Those of NSET group developed higher IGF-I and total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower serum thyroxin level. Simultaneous NS supplementation to an exercise training program preserves and augments exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy with step-forward adaptive signs of increased IGF-I and reduced thyroxin level, and with an added advantage of elevation of total serum antioxidant capacity. Thus, the novel model of NSET-induced cardiac hypertrophy might be introduced as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of heart failure with superior

  14. An evaluation of a two-site pilot model for dental foundation training. (United States)

    Ali, K; Khan, S; Briggs, P; Jones, E


    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility, strengths, weaknesses, and challenges of a two-site model of dental foundation training.Methods A mixed methods approach was used to evaluate the two-site pilot. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were employed to gain an in-depth understanding of the expectations, experiences and concerns of the stakeholders. Additionally, purposefully designed questionnaires were used to rate different elements of the training.Results Participants included 12 foundation dentists, 15 educational supervisors and seven assistant educational supervisors. An increased breadth of clinical experience, a more variable case-mix, feedback from two teams of supervisors, and the experience of working within two different practices with two different teams and cultures were perceived to be the main strengths. The key challenges reported by the trainers were increased workload, a perceived disruption to the continuity of patient-care and perceived difficulties in establishing professional relationships.Conclusions This paper reports on the evaluation of a new model of dental foundation training in London. It highlights potential advantages and drawbacks of providing dental foundation training in two dental practices. Given the limitations of the of evaluation reported in this paper, additional work is required to establish the feasibility and effectiveness of the two-site training model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kushnir


    Full Text Available In connection with the adoption of a new version of the state standard of primary education and the introduction of a primary school subject "Steps to a informatics" is particularly important problem of training of primary school teachers for training in accordance with the requirements of the standard. The model of training of primary school teachers in learning the basics of information and communication technologies was based on the analysis of the scientific literature and the results of international research on the training of future teachers and the formation of their information and communications expertise, practical experience in high school,. The model provides for the implementation of competence, personal and activity approaches, taking into account psychological and educational characteristics and the educational expectations of today's students, especially in terms of selection methods, forms and means of education. Organizational and pedagogical conditions of formation of readiness of primary school teachers in learning the basics of information and communication technologies were defined. Particular attention is given to the selection of the content of training students to use digital technologies in the educational process in primary school. Criteria and indicators by which the level of readiness assessment was conducted of primary school teachers in learning the basics of information and communication technologies are shown. The model was probed on the faculty of pre-school and primary education at the Kherson State University.

  16. Guiding research and practice: a conceptual model for aerobic exercise training in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Fang Yu


    Alzheimer's disease is a global, epidemic problem affecting mainly older adults with tremendous social and financial burdens. Older adults with Alzheimer's disease showed reduced physical activity and cognitive changes that are probably amenable to aerobic exercise training. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model to guide future aerobic exercise research and practice by synthesizing the current state of the science on aerobic exercise training in older adults with AD. The literature review found 12 qualified studies that met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review and revealed six constructs (aerobic exercise training, physical fitness, physical performance, activities of daily living limitations, cognition, and psychological and behavioral symptoms), which composed the Functional Impact of aerobic exercise Training in Alzheimer's disease (FIT-AD) model. The state of science on each construct in older adults with Alzheimer's disease is reviewed and summarized. The emerging evidence suggests that aerobic exercise training might positively impacts all five other constructs. The implications of the FIT-AD model for future research and practice are discussed highlighted.

  17. A murine model of muscle training by neuromuscular electrical stimulation. (United States)

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Ferrari, Ricardo; Distefano, Giovanna; Carvell, George


    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a common clinical modality that is widely used to restore (1), maintain (2) or enhance (3-5) muscle functional capacity. Transcutaneous surface stimulation of skeletal muscle involves a current flow between a cathode and an anode, thereby inducing excitement of the motor unit and the surrounding muscle fibers. NMES is an attractive modality to evaluate skeletal muscle adaptive responses for several reasons. First, it provides a reproducible experimental model in which physiological adaptations, such as myofiber hypertophy and muscle strengthening (6), angiogenesis (7-9), growth factor secretion (9-11), and muscle precursor cell activation (12) are well documented. Such physiological responses may be carefully titrated using different parameters of stimulation (for Cochrane review, see (13)). In addition, NMES recruits motor units non-selectively, and in a spatially fixed and temporally synchronous manner (14), offering the advantage of exerting a treatment effect on all fibers, regardless of fiber type. Although there are specified contraindications to NMES in clinical populations, including peripheral venous disorders or malignancy, for example, NMES is safe and feasible, even for those who are ill and/or bedridden and for populations in which rigorous exercise may be challenging. Here, we demonstrate the protocol for adapting commercially available electrodes and performing a NMES protocol using a murine model. This animal model has the advantage of utilizing a clinically available device and providing instant feedback regarding positioning of the electrode to elicit the desired muscle contractile effect. For the purpose of this manuscript, we will describe the protocol for muscle stimulation of the anterior compartment muscles of a mouse hindlimb.

  18. Maintenance training for laparoscopic suturing: the quest for the perfect timing and training model: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P.; Miserez, Marc


    Although excellent training programs exist for acquiring the challenging skill required in laparoscopic suturing, without subsequent reinforcement, performance is prone to decay. Therefore, maintenance training is proposed to ensure better skill retention. This study aimed to elucidate the ideal

  19. A model for training and evaluation of myringotomy and tube placement skills. (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Sonya; Hanna, Glenn; Wilson, Brette; Pehlivanova, Marieta; Milmoe, Gregory


    Simulation is emerging as a mandatory component of surgical training and a means of demonstrating surgical competency. We designed a cost-effective, low-fidelity model to further acquisition of technical skills related to myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion (M&T). The purpose of the study was to examine the skills trainer as a method of assessment to evaluate competency, timeliness, and procedure confidence in junior residents. Prospective, randomized. A simplistic M&T skills box was developed. General surgery interns (n = 20) with no prior procedure training were randomized to receive either didactic instruction or skills training using the model. One hour of lecture or technical skills training was provided to each group. A blinded examiner evaluated the subjects in both groups before and after training. Performance was measured using a global rating scale, task-specific checklist, and time-to-completion. Pre- and postsession questionnaires assessed procedure confidence. Analysis revealed a trend toward improvement in global rating scores between groups. There was a statistically significant difference in time improvement between groups (P = .0211). The skills lab group felt they could perform the procedure faster and with improved abilities, as compared to the didactic group (P = .0069 and 0.0007, respectively). Junior surgical residents performed an M&T procedure using a novel, low-cost model. This study demonstrated the skills lab's positive effect on training as measured by global rating scale, time-to-completion, and overall resident confidence. We anticipate its application to be valuable not only in training residents but also in assessing competency. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. FLS and FES: comprehensive models of training and assessment. (United States)

    Vassiliou, Melina C; Dunkin, Brian J; Marks, Jeffrey M; Fried, Gerald M


    The Fundamentals of Laparoscopic surgery (FLS) is a validated program for the teaching and evaluation of the basic knowledge and skills required to perform laparoscopic surgery. The educational component includes didactic, Web-based material and a simple, affordable physical simulator with specific tasks and a recommended curriculum. FLS certification requires passing a written multiple-choice examination and a proctored manual skills examination in the FLS simulator. The metrics for the FLS program have been rigorously validated to meet the highest educational standards, and certification is now a requirement for the American Board of Surgery. This article summarizes the validation process and the FLS-related research that has been done to date. The Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery is a program modeled after FLS with a similar mission for flexible endoscopy. It is currently in the final stages of development and will be launched in April 2010. The program also includes learning and assessment components, and is undergoing the same meticulous validation process as FLS. These programs serve as models for the creation of simulation-based tools to teach skills and assess competence with the intention of optimizing patient safety and the quality of surgical education. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Forecasting of ozone level in time series using MLP model with a novel hybrid training algorithm (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    As far as the impact of tropospheric ozone (O 3) on human heath and plant life are concerned, forecasting its daily maximum level is of great importance in Hong Kong as well as other metropolises in the world. This paper proposed a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) model with a novel hybrid training method to perform the forecasting task. The training method synergistically couples a stochastic particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and a deterministic Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm, which aims at exploiting the advantage of both. The performance of such a hybrid model is further compared with ones obtained by the MLP model trained individually by these two training methods mentioned above. Based on original data collected from two typical monitoring sites with different O 3 formation and transportation mechanism, the simulation results show that the hybrid model is more robust and efficient than the other two models by not only producing good results during non-episodes but also providing better consistency with the original data during episodes.

  2. Cost-efficiency assessment of 3 different pediatric first-aid training models for caregivers and teachers in Shanghai. (United States)

    Li, Feng; Jiang, Fan; Jin, Xing-Ming; Shen, Xiao-Ming


    The object of this study was to assess, in cost-effective measures, 3 different models for pediatric first-aid training among caregivers and teachers. Quasi-experimental design was used. A stratified random sampling method was used to obtain 1282 teachers working at nurseries and kindergartens in Shanghai that consists of 18 districts and 1 county. One thousand two hundred eighty-two teachers were allocated randomly to the 3 models of training: 441 to interactive training model (group A), 441 to lecture-based training model (group B), and 400 to video instruction training model (group C). The first-aid knowledge in the 3 models was evaluated before and after the training. There was a statistical significance in the results of postassessment among the 3 training models. In group A, 329 (87.3%) trainees passed the course; in group B, 294 (81.7%) passed; and in group C, 262 (79.4%) passed. The total cost of group A was ¥2361 per edition, the total cost of group B was ¥1955 per edition, and the total cost of group C was ¥1064 per edition (P training model may slightly increase the rate of trainees who passed the course, the cost-effectiveness of video instruction training model is clearly superior.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Demchenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the priorities of station sorting complex functioning improvement is the breaking-up process energy consumptions reduction, namely: fuel consumption for train pushing and electric energy consumption for cut braking. In this regard, an effective solution of the problem of energy consumption reduction at breaking-up subsystem requires a comprehensive handling of train pushing and cut rolling down processes. At the same time, the analysis showed that the current task of pushing process improvement and cut rolling down effectiveness increase are solved separately. To solve this problem it is necessary to develop the complex simulation model of train breaking up process at humps. Methodology. Pushing process simulation was done based on adapted under the shunting conditions traction calculations. In addition, the features of shunting locomotives work at the humps were taken into account. In order to realize the current pushing mode the special algorithm of hump locomotive controlling, which along with the safety shunting operation requirements takes into account behavioral factors associated with engineer control actions was applied. This algorithm provides train smooth acceleration and further movement with speed, which is close to the set speed. Hump locomotive fuel consumptions were determined based on the amount of mechanical work performed by locomotive traction. Findings. The simulation model of train pushing process was developed and combined with existing cut rolling down model. Cut initial velocity is determined during simulation process. The obtained initial velocity is used for further cut rolling process modeling. In addition, the modeling resulted in sufficiently accurate determination of the fuel rates consumed for train breaking-up. Originality. The simulation model of train breaking-up process at the humps, which in contrast to the existing models allows reproducing complexly all the elements of this process in detail

  4. Teacher-made models: the answer for medical skills training in developing countries? (United States)

    Tran, Trung Q; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Dalen, Jan; Wright, Pamela E


    The advantages of using simulators in skills training are generally recognized, but simulators are often too expensive for medical schools in developing countries. Cheaper locally-made models (or part-task trainers) could be the answer, especially when teachers are involved in design and production (teacher-made models, TM). We evaluated the effectiveness of a TM in training and assessing intravenous injection skills in comparison to an available commercial model (CM) in a randomized, blind, pretest-posttest study with 144 undergraduate nursing students. All students were assessed on both the TM and the CM in the pre-test and post-test. After the post-test the students were also assessed while performing the skill on real patients. Differences in the mean scores pre- and post-test were marked in all groups. Training with TM or CM improved student scores substantially but there was no significant difference in mean scores whether students had practiced on TM or CM. Students who practiced on TM performed better on communication with the patient than did students who practiced on CM. Decreasing the ratio of students per TM model helped to increase practice opportunities but did not improve student's mean scores. The result of the assessment on both the TM and the CM had a low correlation with the results of the assessment on real persons. The TM appears to be an effective alternative to CM for training students on basic IV skills, as students showed similar increases in performance scores after training on models that cost considerably less than commercially available models. These models could be produced using locally available materials in most countries, including those with limited resources to invest in medical education and skills laboratories.

  5. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling


    Yamamura, Shigeo; Takehira, Rieko


    Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and mu...

  6. Using 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing) to Produce Low-Cost Simulation Models for Medical Training. (United States)

    Lichtenberger, John P; Tatum, Peter S; Gada, Satyen; Wyn, Mark; Ho, Vincent B; Liacouras, Peter


    This work describes customized, task-specific simulation models derived from 3D printing in clinical settings and medical professional training programs. Simulation models/task trainers have an array of purposes and desired achievements for the trainee, defining that these are the first step in the production process. After this purpose is defined, computer-aided design and 3D printing (additive manufacturing) are used to create a customized anatomical model. Simulation models then undergo initial in-house testing by medical specialists followed by a larger scale beta testing. Feedback is acquired, via surveys, to validate effectiveness and to guide or determine if any future modifications and/or improvements are necessary. Numerous custom simulation models have been successfully completed with resulting task trainers designed for procedures, including removal of ocular foreign bodies, ultrasound-guided joint injections, nerve block injections, and various suturing and reconstruction procedures. These task trainers have been frequently utilized in the delivery of simulation-based training with increasing demand. 3D printing has been integral to the production of limited-quantity, low-cost simulation models across a variety of medical specialties. In general, production cost is a small fraction of a commercial, generic simulation model, if available. These simulation and training models are customized to the educational need and serve an integral role in the education of our military health professionals.

  7. Model technical and tactical training karate «game» manner of conducting a duel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: optimization of technical and tactical training karate «gaming» the manner of conducting a duel. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches for shock combat sports, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: the model of technical and tactical training karate «game» manner of conducting a duel. Selection was done complexes jobs matching techniques to improve athletes 'game' in the manner of conducting a duel «Kyokushin» karate. Conclusion: the model of technical and tactical training fighters "game" manner of conducting a duel, which reveals the particular combination technique karate style «Kyokushin». Selection was done complexes jobs matching techniques to improve athletes 'game' in the manner of conducting a duel «Kyokushin» karate, aimed at improving the combinations with the action on the response of the enemy.

  8. Comparison of self-efficacy and its improvement after artificial simulator or live animal model emergency procedure training. (United States)

    Hall, Andrew B; Riojas, Ramon; Sharon, Danny


    The objective of this study is to compare post-training self-efficacy between artificial simulators and live animal training for the performance of emergency medical procedures. Volunteer airmen of the 81st Medical Group, without prior medical procedure training, were randomly assigned to two experimental arms consisting of identical lectures and training of diagnostic peritoneal lavage, thoracostomy (chest tube), and cricothyroidotomy on either the TraumaMan (Simulab Corp., Seattle, Washington) artificial simulator or a live pig (Sus scrofa domestica) model. Volunteers were given a postlecture and postskills training assessment of self-efficacy. Twenty-seven volunteers that initially performed artificial simulator training subsequently underwent live animal training and provided assessments comparing both modalities. The results were first, postskills training self-efficacy scores were significantly higher than postlecture scores for either training mode and for all procedures (p self-efficacy scores were not statistically different between live animal and artificial simulator training for diagnostic peritoneal lavage (p = 0.555), chest tube (p = 0.486), and cricothyroidotomy (p = 0.329). Finally, volunteers undergoing both training modalities indicated preference for live animal training (p self-efficacy after initial training, but there is a preference in using a live animal model to achieve those skills. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Validation of a model of intensive training in digestive laparoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Enciso, Silvia; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Usón, Jesús; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel


    Our objective was to assess a laparoscopic training model for general surgery residents. Twelve general surgery residents carried out a training program, consisting of a theoretical session (one hour) and a hands-on session on simulator (7 h) and on animal model (13 h). For the first and last repetitions of simulator tasks and the Nissen fundoplication technique, time and scores from the global rating scale objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) were registered. Before and after the course, participants performed 4 tasks on the virtual reality simulator LAPMentor™: 1) hand-eye coordination, 2) hand-hand coordination, 3) transference of objects and 4) cholecystectomy task, registering time and movement metrics. Moreover, the residents completed a questionnaire related to the training components on a 5-point rating scale. The last repetition of the tasks and the Nissen fundoplication technique were performed faster and with a higher OSATS score. After the course, the participants performed all LAPMentor™ tasks faster, increasing the speed of movements in all tasks. Number of movements decreased in tasks 2, 3 and 4; as well as path length in tasks 2 and 4. Training components were positively rated by residents, being the suture task the aspect best rated (4.90 ± 0.32). This training model in digestive laparoscopic surgery has demonstrated to be valid for the improvement of basic and advanced skills of general surgery residents. Intracorporeal suturing and the animal model were the best rated training elements. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Dwell Time Modelling and Optimized Simulations for Crowded Rail Transit Lines Based on Train Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Jiang


    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of rail transit dwell time has potential benefits for both the users and the operators. Crowded passenger trains cause longer dwell times and may prevent some passengers from boarding the first available train that arrives. Actual dwell time and the process of passenger alighting and boarding are interdependent through the sequence of train stops and propagated delays. A comprehensive and feasible dwell time simulation model was developed and optimized to address the problems associated with scheduled timetables. The paper introduces the factors that affect dwell time in urban rail transit systems, including train headway, the process and number of passengers alighting and boarding the train, and the inability of train doors to properly close the first time because of overcrowded vehicles. Finally, based on a time-driven micro-simulation system, Shanghai rail transit Line 8 is used as an example to quantify the feasibility of scheduled dwell times for different stations, directions of travel and time periods, and a proposed dwell time during peak hours in several crowded stations is presented according to the simulation results.

  11. A Two-Channel Training Algorithm for Hidden Markov Model and Its Application to Lip Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foo Say Wei


    Full Text Available Hidden Markov model (HMM has been a popular mathematical approach for sequence classification such as speech recognition since 1980s. In this paper, a novel two-channel training strategy is proposed for discriminative training of HMM. For the proposed training strategy, a novel separable-distance function that measures the difference between a pair of training samples is adopted as the criterion function. The symbol emission matrix of an HMM is split into two channels: a static channel to maintain the validity of the HMM and a dynamic channel that is modified to maximize the separable distance. The parameters of the two-channel HMM are estimated by iterative application of expectation-maximization (EM operations. As an example of the application of the novel approach, a hierarchical speaker-dependent visual speech recognition system is trained using the two-channel HMMs. Results of experiments on identifying a group of confusable visemes indicate that the proposed approach is able to increase the recognition accuracy by an average of 20% compared with the conventional HMMs that are trained with the Baum-Welch estimation.

  12. An instructional model for training competence in solving clinical problems. (United States)

    Ramaekers, Stephan P J; van Beukelen, Peter; Kremer, Wim D J; van Keulen, Hanno; Pilot, Albert


    We examined the design of a course that aims to ease the transition from pre-clinical learning into clinical work. This course is based on the premise that many of the difficulties with which students are confronted in this transition result from a lack of experience in applying knowledge in real practice situations. It is focused on the development of competence in solving clinical problems; uses an instructional model with alternating clinical practicals, demonstrations, and tutorials; and extends throughout the last pre-clinical year. We used a "proof-of-concept" approach to establish whether the core principles of the course design are feasible with regard to achieving the intended results. With the learning functions and processes as a frame of reference, retrospective analysis of the course's design features shows that this design matches the conditions from theories of the development of competence in solving clinical problems and instructional design. Three areas of uncertainty in the design are identified: the quality of the cases (information, openness), effective teaching (student and teacher roles), and adjustment to the development of competence (progress, coherence).

  13. Online Video-Based Training in the Use of Hydrologic Models: A Case Example Using SWAT (United States)

    Frankenberger, J.


    Hydrologic models are increasingly important tools in public decision-making. For example, watershed models are used to develop Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plans, quantify pollutant loads, and estimate the effects of watershed restoration efforts funded by the public. One widely-used tool is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which has been applied by state and federal agencies, consultants, and university researchers to assess sources of nonpoint source pollution and the effects of potential solutions, and used in testimony in at least one lawsuit. The SWAT model has the capability to evaluate the relative effects of different management scenarios on water quality, sediment, and agricultural chemical yield at the watershed scale. As with all models, the model user and the decisions that s/he makes in the modeling process are important determinants of model performance. The SWAT model has an open structure, leaving most decisions up to the model user, which was especially appropriate when the model was primarily used in research by highly-experienced modelers. However, as the model has become more widely applied in planning and assessment, by people who may have limited hydrology background and modeling knowledge, the possibility that users may be using the model inconsistently or even incorrectly becomes a concern. Consistent training can lead to a minimum standard of knowledge that model users are expected to have, and therefore to higher use of best practices in modeling efforts. In addition, widespread availability of training can lead to better decisions about when and where using the model is appropriate, and what level of data needs to be available for confidence in predictions. Currently, most training in model use takes place in occasional face-to-face workshops, courses offered at a few universities, and a short tutorial available in the manual. Many new users simply acquire the model and learn from the manual, other users, trial and error

  14. "Just-In-Time" Simulation Training Using 3-D Printed Cardiac Models After Congenital Cardiac Surgery. (United States)

    Olivieri, Laura J; Su, Lillian; Hynes, Conor F; Krieger, Axel; Alfares, Fahad A; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Zurakowski, David; Marshall, M Blair; Kim, Peter C W; Jonas, Richard A; Nath, Dilip S


    High-fidelity simulation using patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) models may be effective in facilitating pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) provider training for clinical management of congenital cardiac surgery patients. The 3D-printed heart models were rendered from preoperative cross-sectional cardiac imaging for 10 patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. Immediately following surgical repair, a congenital cardiac surgeon and an intensive care physician conducted a simulation training session regarding postoperative care utilizing the patient-specific 3D model for the PCICU team. After the simulation, Likert-type 0 to 10 scale questionnaire assessed participant perception of impact of the training session. Seventy clinicians participated in training sessions, including 22 physicians, 38 nurses, and 10 ancillary care providers. Average response to whether 3D models were more helpful than standard hand off was 8.4 of 10. Questions regarding enhancement of understanding and clinical ability received average responses of 9.0 or greater, and 90% of participants scored 8 of 10 or higher. Nurses scored significantly higher than other clinicians on self-reported familiarity with the surgery (7.1 vs. 5.8; P = .04), clinical management ability (8.6 vs. 7.7; P = .02), and ability enhancement (9.5 vs. 8.7; P = .02). Compared to physicians, nurses and ancillary providers were more likely to consider 3D models more helpful than standard hand off (8.7 vs. 7.7; P = .05). Higher case complexity predicted greater enhancement of understanding of surgery (P = .04). The 3D heart models can be used to enhance congenital cardiac critical care via simulation training of multidisciplinary intensive care teams. Benefit may be dependent on provider type and case complexity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Clinical value of a self-designed training model for pinpointing and puncturing trigeminal ganglion. (United States)

    He, Yu-Quan; He, Shu; Shen, Yun-Xia; Qian, Cheng


    OBJECTIVES. A training model was designed for learners and young physicians to polish their skills in clinical practices of pinpointing and puncturing trigeminal ganglion. METHODS. A head model, on both cheeks of which the deep soft tissue was replaced by stuffed organosilicone and sponge while the superficial soft tissue, skin and the trigeminal ganglion were made of organic silicon rubber for an appearance of real human being, was made from a dried skull specimen and epoxy resin. Two physicians who had experiences in puncturing foramen ovale and trigeminal ganglion were selected to test the model, mainly for its appearance, X-ray permeability, handling of the puncture, and closure of the puncture sites. Four inexperienced physicians were selected afterwards to be trained combining Hartel's anterior facial approach with the new method of real-time observation on foramen ovale studied by us. RESULTS. Both appearance and texture of the model were extremely close to those of a real human. The fact that the skin, superficial soft tissue, deep muscles of the cheeks, and the trigeminal ganglion made of organic silicon rubber all had great elasticity resulted in quick closure and sealing of the puncture sites. The head model made of epoxy resin had similar X-ray permeability to a human skull specimen under fluoroscopy. The soft tissue was made of radiolucent material so that the training can be conducted with X-ray guidance. After repeated training, all the four young physicians were able to smoothly and successfully accomplish the puncture. CONCLUSION. This self-made model can substitute for cadaver specimen in training learners and young physicians on foramen ovale and trigeminal ganglion puncture. It is very helpful for fast learning and mastering this interventional operation skill, and the puncture accuracy can be improved significantly with our new method of real-time observation on foramen ovale.

  16. Validation of a live animal model for training in endoscopic hemostasis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding ulcers. (United States)

    Camus, M; Marteau, P; Pocard, M; Bal Dit Sollier, C; Lavergne-Slove, A; Thibault, A; Lecleire, S; Vienne, A; Coffin, B; Drouet, L; Dray, X


    The management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding requires training of the endoscopist. We aimed to validate a live animal model of bleeding ulcers for training in endoscopic hemostasis. Bleeding ulcers were created by repeated grasp-and-snare gastric mucosectomies in pigs rendered "bleeders" by preadministration of clopidogrel, aspirin, and unfractionated heparin. The feasibility and reproducibility of the model (proportion of bleeding ulcers, number of ulcers per animal, and time needed to produce a bleeding ulcer) were prospectively evaluated in six animals. Ten endoscopic experts assessed the similarity of this pig model to human bleeding ulcers (four-point Likert scale). The training capabilities of the model for hemostatic techniques (needle injection, bipolar electrocoagulation, and hemoclipping) were evaluated in 46 fellows (four-point Likert scale). A total of 53 gastric ulcers were created in 6 animals (8.8 ± 1.5 ulcers/animal). Successful active ulcer bleeding (Forrest Ib) was achieved in 96.2 % of cases. Bleeding was moderate to abundant in 79 % of cases. Ulcerations consistently reached the submucosal layer. The mean (± SD) time taken to create a bleeding ulcer was 3.8 ± 0.6 minutes. Endoscopic experts assessed the realism of the ulcers and bleeding at 3.2 ± 0.7 and 3.6 ± 0.7 respectively on a four-point Likert scale. The training significantly improved the endoscopic skills of the 46 fellows (P < 0.0001) in all hemostatic techniques. The live porcine model of bleeding ulcers was demonstrated to be realistic, reproducible, feasible, time efficient, and easy to perform. It was favorably assessed as an excellent model for training in endoscopic treatment of bleeding ulcers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Building interdisciplinary leadership skills among health practitioners in the 21st century: an innovative training model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti eNegandhi


    Full Text Available Transformational learning is the focus of 21st century global educational reforms. In India there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners, and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing and public health institutions partnered in this endeavour. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in inter-professional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were: self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team-building, innovation and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised of a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.

  18. Microvascular anastomosis simulation using a chicken thigh model: Interval versus massed training. (United States)

    Schoeff, Stephen; Hernandez, Brian; Robinson, Derek J; Jameson, Mark J; Shonka, David C


    To compare the effectiveness of massed versus interval training when teaching otolaryngology residents microvascular suturing on a validated microsurgical model. Otolaryngology residents were placed into interval (n = 7) or massed (n = 7) training groups. The interval group performed three separate 30-minute practice sessions separated by at least 1 week, and the massed group performed a single 90-minute practice session. Both groups viewed a video demonstration and recorded a pretest prior to the first training session. A post-test was administered following the last practice session. At an academic medical center, 14 otolaryngology residents were assigned using stratified randomization to interval or massed training. Blinded evaluators graded performance using a validated microvascular Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill tool. The tool is comprised of two major components: task-specific score (TSS) and global rating scale (GRS). Participants also received pre- and poststudy surveys to compare subjective confidence in multiple aspects of microvascular skill acquisition. Overall, all residents showed increased TSS and GRS on post- versus pretest. After completion of training, the interval group had a statistically significant increase in both TSS and GRS, whereas the massed group's increase was not significant. Residents in both groups reported significantly increased levels of confidence after completion of the study. Self-directed learning using a chicken thigh artery model may benefit microsurgical skills, competence, and confidence for resident surgeons. Interval training results in significant improvement in early development of microvascular anastomosis skills, whereas massed training does not. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2490-2494, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Mentor Teacher Training: A Hybrid Model to Promote Partnering in Candidate Development (United States)

    Childre, Amy L.; Van Rie, Ginny L.


    In order to promote high quality clinical experiences for teacher candidates, one of the recent changes to educator preparation accreditation standards specifically targeted clinical faculty qualifications. Qualified mentor teachers are critical clinical faculty because they serve as the model for training practices for teacher candidates, the…

  20. Training Public School Special Educators to Implement Two Functional Analysis Models (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Neely, Leslie; Healy, Olive; Gregori, Emily


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of a training package to teach public school special educators to conduct functional analyses of challenging behavior. Six public school educators were divided into two cohorts of three and were taught two models of functional analysis of challenging behavior: traditional and…

  1. Computational Model of a Positive BDNF Feedback Loop in Hippocampal Neurons Following Inhibitory Avoidance Training (United States)

    Zhang, Yili; Smolen, Paul; Alberini, Cristina M.; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.


    Inhibitory avoidance (IA) training in rodents initiates a molecular cascade within hippocampal neurons. This cascade contributes to the transition of short- to long-term memory (i.e., consolidation). Here, a differential equation-based model was developed to describe a positive feedback loop within this molecular cascade. The feedback loop begins…

  2. Modelling Beginning Teachers' Assessment Literacy: The Contribution of Training, Self-Efficacy, and Conceptions of Assessment (United States)

    Levy-Vered, Adi; Alhija, Fadia Nasser-Abu


    Teachers devote a substantial amount of their time to assessment-related activities. This study aimed to describe beginning teachers' assessment literacy and to examine a structural model that binds assessment literacy with assessment training, self-efficacy, and conceptions of assessment. Data were collected from 327 Israeli inductee teachers and…

  3. A Field-Based Deaf Education Teacher Training Model: Does It Make a Difference? (United States)

    Hadadian, Azar; Koch, Kourtland; Merbler, John


    This article provides professional perspective of a teacher-training model which relies heavily on an intensive, culturally immersive field experience for the teacher of the Deaf and hard of hearing. Survey results were based upon 21 past participants concerning their perceptions during their one-year internship experience at Indiana School for…

  4. Learn by Doing: A Collaborative Model for Training Teacher-Candidate Students in Autism (United States)

    Ruef, Michael B.; Nefdt, Nicolette; Openden, Daniel; Elmensdorp, Sharon; Harris, Kathleen C.; Robinson, Suzanne


    With the large number of students with autism entering the educational system, the need for empirically supported treatment (EST) in the classroom and special education teachers with training in autism and ESTs is necessary now more than ever. This paper describes a collaborative model between 2 universities aimed at providing teacher-candidate…

  5. Problems of training chemical engineers of the European model under Bologna process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rakhmadiyeva


    Full Text Available Article deals with problems of training for chemical and petrochemical industries in the western three-stage model of the Bologna process and curriculum development of educational programs in chemical engineering in the framework of the EU Tempus.

  6. Foreign Experience in Training Future Engineering Educators for Modeling Technological Processes (United States)

    Bokhonko, Yevhen


    The article deals with the study of foreign experience in training engineering educators for modeling technological processes. It has been stated that engineering education is a field that is being dramatically developed taking into account the occurring changes in educational paradigms, global higher education space, national higher education…

  7. Accountability in Training Transfer: Adapting Schlenker's Model of Responsibility to a Persistent but Solvable Problem (United States)

    Burke, Lisa A.; Saks, Alan M.


    Decades have been spent studying training transfer in organizational environments in recognition of a transfer problem in organizations. Theoretical models of various antecedents, empirical studies of transfer interventions, and studies of best practices have all been advanced to address this continued problem. Yet a solution may not be so…

  8. Training Inference Making Skills Using a Situation Model Approach Improves Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne eBos


    Full Text Available This study aimed to enhance third and fourth graders’ text comprehension at the situation model level. Therefore, we tested a reading strategy training developed to target inference making skills, which are widely considered to be pivotal to situation model construction. The training was grounded in contemporary literature on situation model-based inference making and addressed the source (text-based versus knowledge-based, type (necessary versus unnecessary for (re-establishing coherence, and depth of an inference (making single lexical inferences versus combining multiple lexical inferences, as well as the type of searching strategy (forward versus backward. Results indicated that, compared to a control group (n = 51, children who followed the experimental training (n = 67 improved their inference making skills supportive to situation model construction. Importantly, our training also resulted in increased levels of general reading comprehension and motivation. In sum, this study showed that a ‘level of text representation’-approach can provide a useful framework to teach inference making skills to third and fourth graders.

  9. Improving Robustness of Deep Neural Network Acoustic Models via Speech Separation and Joint Adaptive Training. (United States)

    Narayanan, Arun; Wang, DeLiang


    Although deep neural network (DNN) acoustic models are known to be inherently noise robust, especially with matched training and testing data, the use of speech separation as a frontend and for deriving alternative feature representations has been shown to improve performance in challenging environments. We first present a supervised speech separation system that significantly improves automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance in realistic noise conditions. The system performs separation via ratio time-frequency masking; the ideal ratio mask (IRM) is estimated using DNNs. We then propose a framework that unifies separation and acoustic modeling via joint adaptive training. Since the modules for acoustic modeling and speech separation are implemented using DNNs, unification is done by introducing additional hidden layers with fixed weights and appropriate network architecture. On the CHiME-2 medium-large vocabulary ASR task, and with log mel spectral features as input to the acoustic model, an independently trained ratio masking frontend improves word error rates by 10.9% (relative) compared to the noisy baseline. In comparison, the jointly trained system improves performance by 14.4%. We also experiment with alternative feature representations to augment the standard log mel features, like the noise and speech estimates obtained from the separation module, and the standard feature set used for IRM estimation. Our best system obtains a word error rate of 15.4% (absolute), an improvement of 4.6 percentage points over the next best result on this corpus.

  10. Multiobjective training of artificial neural networks for rainfall-runoff modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, N.J.; Rientjes, T.H.M.


    This paper presents results on the application of various optimization algorithms for the training of artificial neural network rainfall-runoff models. Multilayered feed-forward networks for forecasting discharge from two mesoscale catchments in different climatic regions have been developed for

  11. Video Modeling to Train Staff to Implement Discrete-Trial Instruction (United States)

    Catania, Cynthia N.; Almeida, Daniel; Liu-Constant, Brian; Reed, Florence D. DiGennaro


    Three new direct-service staff participated in a program that used a video model to train target skills needed to conduct a discrete-trial session. Percentage accuracy in completing a discrete-trial teaching session was evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. During baseline, performances ranged from a mean of 12% to 63%…

  12. Facing up to 'challenging behaviour': a model for training in staff-client interaction. (United States)

    Farrell, Gerald A; Shafiei, Touran; Salmon, Peter


    This paper draws on theory and evidence to develop a conceptual staff training model for the management of 'challenging behaviour'. Staff working with clients who are experienced as challenging commonly report negative feelings such as anxiety, anger, guilt, fear, self-blame and powerlessness, as well as dissatisfaction with their jobs. Current training programmes in challenging behaviour offer a 'smorgasbord' of content, without a clearly defined conceptual framework. Medline and PsychInfo were searched for papers in English from 1998 to 2008, linking 'nurs*' to 'challenging behavio*' and its related terms. Additional hand-searching identified informative papers from disciplines outside nursing older than the search period. We developed an applied model for training educators in respect of challenging behaviours. The model directs educators to consider: the influence of the nurse, including their values, emotional processes and behavioural skills; features of the client; and features of the situation in which the behaviour occurs, including its culture and working practices and physical environment. The most striking implication of the model is that it explicitly recognizes the importance of domains of learning other than skill. This enables educators to find educationally appropriate responses to resource limitations that inevitably constrain training. Challenging behaviour should be considered as a product of several intertwined factors: the actors involved - nurses, clients and others - and the situation in which the behaviour occurs, including its culture and working practices and physical environment.

  13. A Structural Equation Modelling Approach for Massive Blended Synchronous Teacher Training (United States)

    Kannan, Kalpana; Narayanan, Krishnan


    This paper presents a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach for blended synchronous teacher training workshop. It examines the relationship among various factors that influence the Satisfaction (SAT) of participating teachers. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire from about 500 engineering college teachers. These teachers…

  14. Experience of Hungarian model project: 'Strengthening training for operational safety at Paks NPP'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.


    Training of Operational Safety at Paks NPP is described including all the features of the project including namely: description of Paks NPP, its properties and performances; reasons for establishing Hungarian Model Project, its main goals, mentioning Hungarian and IAEA experts involved in the Project, its organization, operation, budget, current status together with its short term and long term impact

  15. Design of Training Systems. Computerization of the Educational Technology Assessment Model. Volume 1. (United States)

    Duffy, Larry B.; And Others

    The Educational Technology Assessment Model (ETAM) is a set of comprehensive procedures and variables for the analysis, synthesis, and decision making, in regard to the benefits, costs, and risks associated with introducing technical innovations in education and training. This final report summarizes the analysis, design, and development…

  16. Design of Training Systems, Phase II-A Report. An Educational Technology Assessment Model. Final Report. (United States)

    Miller, Robert B.; Duffy, Larry R.

    Study results and design for an Educational Technology Assessment Model (ETAM) are outlined, and conclusions and recommendations of the study are summarized. An eight-task procedure is provided to guide the assessor of a training innovation through the required data collection and analysis steps leading to a decision to accept, reject, or continue…

  17. A Statewide Train-the-Trainer Model for Effective Entrepreneurship and Workforce Readiness Programming (United States)

    Fields, Nia Imani; Brown, Mananmi; Piechocinski, Alganesh; Wells, Kendra


    A statewide youth and adult train-the-trainer model that integrates workforce readiness and entrepreneurship can have a profound effect on young people's academic performance, interest in college, and overall youth development. Participants in workforce and entrepreneurship programs develop personal resources that have value in school, in the…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nasution


    Full Text Available Low ability of formal thinking students caused the learning outcomes they get too low. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the inquiry learning model training in improving students' ability to think formal. The design was used quasi-experimental "non-equivalent groups pretest-posttest design". Implementation  experimental class learning with inquiry learning model training, control class learning with direct instruction. Data obtained through a formal thinking ability test thinking ability. Learning model efectivity in improving formal thinking ability is determined based on the gain score average which normalized by average difference test of statistic, namely t test. The results of the reasearch found that the inquiry training learning model is more effective in improving students formal thinking ability compared with the direct instruction learning model. The N-gain percentage of formal thinking ability of students in the experiment class in the indicators of hypothetical deductive thinking, combination thinking and reflection thinking are in the medium category, just proportional thinking is the high category. N-gain average percentage of control class for the hypothesis deductive thinking is just in the low category, while the proportional thinking, combination thinking and reflection thinking are in the medium category.Rendahnya kemampuan berpikir formal siswa menyebabkan hasil belajar yang mereka peroleh juga rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas  model pembelajaran inquiry training dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir formal  siswa. Disain yang digunakan adalah kuasi eksperimen “non-equivalent groups pretest-posttest design”. Implementasi pembelajaran kelas eksperimen dibelajarkan dengan model pembelajaran inquiry training, kelas kontrol dengan model pembelajaran direct instruction.  Data kemampuan berpikir formal diperoleh melalui tes kemampuan berpikir formal. Efektivitas  model

  19. The Bilevel Design Problem for Communication Networks on Trains: Model, Algorithm, and Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Tian


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method to solve the problem of train communication network design. Firstly, we put forward a general description of such problem. Then, taking advantage of the bilevel programming theory, we created the cost-reliability-delay model (CRD model that consisted of two parts: the physical topology part aimed at obtaining the networks with the maximum reliability under constrained cost, while the logical topology part focused on the communication paths yielding minimum delay based on the physical topology delivered from upper level. We also suggested a method to solve the CRD model, which combined the genetic algorithm and the Floyd-Warshall algorithm. Finally, we used a practical example to verify the accuracy and the effectiveness of the CRD model and further applied the novel method on a train with six carriages.

  20. Preventing and De-Escalating Ethical Conflict: A Communication-Training Mediation Model. (United States)

    Levin, Tomer T; Parker, Patricia A


    While ethical conflicts in the provision of healthcare are common, the current third-party mediator model is limited by a lack of expert ethical mediators, who are often not on site when conflict escalates. In order to improve clinical outcomes in situations such as conflicts at the end of life, we suggest that clinicians-physicians, nurses and social workers-be trained to prevent and de-escalate emerging conflicts. This can be achieved using a mediation model framed by a communication-training approach. A case example is presented and the model is discussed. The implication of this preventative/early intervention model for improving clinical outcomes, in particular end-of life conflict, is considered. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction


    Lezin Seba MINSILI; He XIA; Robert Medjo EKO


    The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking...

  2. Validation of a realistic, simple, and inexpensive EUS-FNA training model using isolated porcine stomach. (United States)

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Imbe, Koh


    Trainees are required to learn EUS-FNA using a model before working with a patient. The aim of the current study was to validate a new training model developed for EUS-FNA. Several fresh chicken tenderloins were embedded as target lesions in the submucosal layer of an isolated porcine stomach. The stomach was fixed to a plate with nails, and was placed in a tub filled with water. The primary endpoint was feasibility of the newly developed model for EUS-FNA training, evaluated as follows: 1) visualization of the target lesion with blinding for lesion location; 2) penetrability of the needle; 3) sampling rate of macroscopic specimen; and 4) ROSE capability. Secondary endpoints were its durability and utility for multiple EUS-FNA procedures during EUS-FNA training, and the ease and cost of preparing the model. Six endoscopists (1 expert, 5 trainees) attempted EUS-FNA procedures using this model. The target lesion could be identified clearly, and EUS-FNA could be performed with realistic resistance felt. In addition, rapid on-site evaluation could be easily achieved. Based on 10 needlings by each endoscopist, adequate specimens for histology could be macroscopically taken with an average 85 % success rate. Visibility and maneuverability were maintained throughout all needlings. Preparation time for this model was less than 30 minutes with a total cost of $ 22. An easy-to-use and inexpensive training model with a realistic feel of needling was created. This model can potentially enable beginners to practice safe and effective EUS-FNA procedures.

  3. Model-Trained Neural Networks and Electronic Holography Demonstrated to Detect Damage in Blades (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Fite, E. Brian; Mehmed, Oral; Thorp, Scott A.


    Detect Damage in Blades Electronic holography can show damaged regions in fan blades at 30 frames/sec. The electronic holograms are transformed by finite-element-model-trained artificial neural networks to visualize the damage. The trained neural networks are linked with video and graphics to visualize the bending-induced strain distribution, which is very sensitive to damage. By contrast, it is very difficult to detect damage by viewing the raw, speckled, characteristic fringe patterns. For neural-network visualization of damage, 2 frames or 2 fields are used, rather than the 12 frames normally used to compute the displacement distribution from electronic holograms. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, finite element models are used to compute displacement and strain distributions for the vibration modes of undamaged and cracked blades. A model of electronic time-averaged holography is used to transform the displacement distributions into finite-element-resolution characteristic fringe patterns. Then, a feedforward neural network is trained with the fringe-pattern/strain-pattern pairs, and the neural network, electronic holography, and video are implemented on a workstation. Now that the neural networks have been tested successfully at 30 frames/sec on undamaged and cracked cantilevers, the electronic holography and neural-network processing are being adapted for onsite damage inspection of twisted fan blades and rotormounted blades. Our conclusion is that model-trained neural nets are effective when they are trained with good models whose application is well understood. This work supports the aeromechanical testing portion of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Project.

  4. Development of an Integrated Education/Training based Nuclear Outreach Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyongwon; Nam, Youngmi; Hwang, Ina; Lee, Jisuk; Ko, Hansuk; Lee, Taejoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Korean nuclear community also recognizes the importance of outreach from its experience with rad waste and nuclear power programs. Accordingly, nationwide programs dealing with public information, support for local community development, and HRD are implemented continuously involving a number of organizations concerned. The Nuclear Training and Education Center (NTC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), with its unique function and capability as a national research organization, has needs for the enhancement of public acceptance for KAERI programs, a better contribution to the national effort, and addressing the emerging needs for international education/training on nuclear outreach. This paper presents an integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model with a set of reference program, which is developed for NTC. An integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model for NTC is developed addressing the increasing needs for public acceptance on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in terms of supporting KAERI activities, contributing to the national nuclear outreach efforts, and promoting international education and training on nuclear outreach. The model, harmonized with the national nuclear outreach system, consists of objectives, target audiences, a set of reference program supported by infrastructure and networking, and an evaluation system. The program is further specified into sub-programs with detailed design for the respective audiences. The developed model with a reference program is characterized by its integrity in terms of encompassing the whole outreach process cycle, and setting up of a target audience based total program structure with existing and new sub-programs. Also, it intends to be sustainable by addressing future generations' needs as well as innovative in the program delivery. The model will be continuously upgraded and applied addressing respective needs of the audiences.

  5. Physical Training Outcome Predictions With Biomechanics, Part I: Army Physical Fitness Test Modeling. (United States)

    Sih, Bryant L; Negus, Charles H


    The U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT) is the first step in preparing soldier trainees for the physical demands of the military. Unfortunately, a substantial number of trainees fail BCT due to failure on the final Army Physical Fitness Test (also known as the "end of cycle" APFT). Current epidemiological studies have used statistics to identify several risk factors for poor APFT performance, but these studies have had limited utility for guiding regimen design to maximize APFT outcome. This is because such studies focus on intrinsic risks to APFT failure and do not utilize detailed BCT activity data to build models which offer guidance for optimizing the training regimen to improve graduation rates. In this study, a phenomenological run performance model that accounts for physiological changes in fitness and fatigue due to training was applied to recruits undergoing U.S. Army BCT using high resolution (minute-by-minute) activity data. The phenomenological model was better at predicting both the final as well as intermediate APFTs (R(2) range = 0.55-0.59) compared to linear regression models (LRMs) that used the same intrinsic input variables (R(2) range = 0.36-0.50). Unlike a statistical approach, a phenomenological model accounts for physiological changes and, therefore, has the potential to not only identify trainees at risk of failing BCT on novel training regimens, but offer guidance to regimen planners on how to change the regimen for maximizing physical performance. This paper is Part I of a 2-part series on physical training outcome predictions. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Development of an Integrated Education/Training based Nuclear Outreach Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyongwon; Nam, Youngmi; Hwang, Ina; Lee, Jisuk; Ko, Hansuk; Lee, Taejoon


    The Korean nuclear community also recognizes the importance of outreach from its experience with rad waste and nuclear power programs. Accordingly, nationwide programs dealing with public information, support for local community development, and HRD are implemented continuously involving a number of organizations concerned. The Nuclear Training and Education Center (NTC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), with its unique function and capability as a national research organization, has needs for the enhancement of public acceptance for KAERI programs, a better contribution to the national effort, and addressing the emerging needs for international education/training on nuclear outreach. This paper presents an integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model with a set of reference program, which is developed for NTC. An integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model for NTC is developed addressing the increasing needs for public acceptance on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in terms of supporting KAERI activities, contributing to the national nuclear outreach efforts, and promoting international education and training on nuclear outreach. The model, harmonized with the national nuclear outreach system, consists of objectives, target audiences, a set of reference program supported by infrastructure and networking, and an evaluation system. The program is further specified into sub-programs with detailed design for the respective audiences. The developed model with a reference program is characterized by its integrity in terms of encompassing the whole outreach process cycle, and setting up of a target audience based total program structure with existing and new sub-programs. Also, it intends to be sustainable by addressing future generations' needs as well as innovative in the program delivery. The model will be continuously upgraded and applied addressing respective needs of the audiences


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ja N. Jel’jash


    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is a verification of new model necessity of vocational training within the graduates of technical branches of study in high schools. Expert’s activity unlike educational activity is not structured-indetail. Knowledge from the diversified areas and based on it skills to find out appropriate, uncommon decisions of current problems and arising problems are required for effective work on present-day production with constantly improved and becoming complicated technologies. The traditional reproductive training focused on presentation of a set of information and given algorithms for completing different activities presented by the teacher does not allow forming properly creative research way of thinking, abilities to master professional innovations and readiness for regular self-education of trainees. The author notes that it is necessary to work out and introduce essentially alternate methods of preparation that would provide systematic integrity of the systematised theoretical knowledge with acquirable practical skills and its application. The author considers the contextual model of training as one of the most appropriate and reasoned. Methods. The core theory of contextual training is the statute of sensemaking influence of professional work context on educational activity of the student. Theoretically training is to be carried out in the closest field and in forms to real activity; as a peculiar kind of immersion to the future professional sphere. The proposed model of contextual training is installed on the basis of activity approach. The activity approach in contrast to traditional system preparation isn’t broken up to two stages (firstly, overlearning, then its practical application, but is posed to be indivisible: mastery to theoretical readiness and required practical skills acquisition refer a concurrent process under the performance of any tutorial activity or task at the training subject. Results. The

  8. Basic Plastic Surgery Skills Training Program on Inanimate Bench Models during Medical Graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Denadai


    Full Text Available Due to ethical and medical-legal drawbacks, high costs, and difficulties of accessibility that are inherent to the practice of basic surgical skills on living patients, fresh human cadaver, and live animals, the search for alternative forms of training is needed. In this study, the teaching and learning process of basic surgical skills pertinent to plastic surgery during medical education on different inanimate bench models as a form of alternative and complementary training to the teaching programs already established is proposed.

  9. Why a Train Set Helps Participants Co-Construct Meaning in Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuthel, Maria Rosa; Buur, Jacob

    In this position paper we show how participants in an innovation workshop employ tangible material – a toy train set – to co-construct understandings of a new business model. In multidisciplinary teams the process of developing new terms and concepts together is crucial for work to progress. Every...... to understand how they construct a concept. We observe that the final result of the workshop is indeed innovative and is co-constructed by all group members. We discuss why the toy train works: It keeps both hands and mind busy, it allows silent participation, and it expands the vocabulary of the discussion....

  10. Shape model training for concurrent localization of the left and right knee (United States)

    Ruppertshofen, Heike; Lorenz, Cristian; Schmidt, Sarah; Beyerlein, Peter; Salah, Zein; Rose, Georg; Schramm, Hauke


    An automatic algorithm for training of suitable models for the Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) is presented. The applied iterative approach learns the shape of the target object directly from training images and incorporates variability in pose and scale of the target object exhibited in the images. To make the model more robust and representative for the target object, an individual weight is estimated for each model point using a discriminative approach. These weights will be employed in the voting procedure of the GHT, increasing the impact of important points on the localization result. The proposed procedure is extended here with a new error measure and a revised point weight training to enable the generation of models representing several target objects. Common parts of the target objects will thereby obtain larger weights, while the model might also contain object specific model points, if necessary, to be representative for all targets. The method is applied here to the localization of knee joints in long-leg radiographs. A quantitative comparison of the new approach with the separate localization of right and left knee showed improved results concerning localization precision and performance.

  11. Last-Train Timetabling under Transfer Demand Uncertainty: Mean-Variance Model and Heuristic Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yang


    Full Text Available Traditional models of timetable generation for last trains do not account for the fact that decision-maker (DM often incorporates transfer demand variability within his/her decision-making process. This study aims to develop such a model with particular consideration of the decision-makers’ risk preferences in subway systems under uncertainty. First, we formulate an optimization model for last-train timetabling based on mean-variance (MV theory that explicitly considers two significant factors including the number of successful transfer passengers and the running time of last trains. Then, we add the mean-variance risk measure into the model to generate timetables by adjusting the last trains’ departure times and running times for each line. Furthermore, we normalize two heterogeneous terms of the risk measure to provide assistance in getting reasonable results. Due to the complexity of MV model, we design a tabu search (TS algorithm with specifically designed operators to solve the proposed timetabling problem. Through computational experiments involving the Beijing subway system, we demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed MV model and the heuristic approach.

  12. Towards Subject-Specific Strength Training Design through Predictive Use of Musculoskeletal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plüss


    Full Text Available Lower extremity dysfunction is often associated with hip muscle strength deficiencies. Detailed knowledge of the muscle forces generated in the hip under specific external loading conditions enables specific structures to be trained. The aim of this study was to find the most effective movement type and loading direction to enable the training of specific parts of the hip muscles using a standing posture and a pulley system. In a novel approach to release the predictive power of musculoskeletal modelling techniques based on inverse dynamics, flexion/extension and ab-/adduction movements were virtually created. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, three hip orientations and an external loading force that was systematically rotated around the body were simulated using a state-of-the art OpenSim model in order to establish ideal designs for training of the anterior and posterior parts of the M. gluteus medius (GM. The external force direction as well as the hip orientation greatly influenced the muscle forces in the different parts of the GM. No setting was found for simultaneous training of the anterior and posterior parts with a muscle force higher than 50% of the maximum. Importantly, this study has demonstrated the use of musculoskeletal models as an approach to predict muscle force variations for different strength and rehabilitation exercise variations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Envilwan Harefa


    Full Text Available The aims of research were to analize: (1 Student’s skill proccess science by using inquiry training learning model better than direct intruction learning model; (2 Student’s skill process science who had under average better than above average category in scientific knowledge; and (3 the interaction between learning model and the level of scientific knowledge in fluencing student’s skill process science. The research was quasi-experimental research. The population of this research is all of thenth grade students of SMAN 3 Gunungsitoli. The sample of this researchconsist of grade with was taken by cluster random sampling were X2 and X3 class.The research instrument consisted of skill process science essay test and criticalthinking skills test data be analysed by using Two–way ANAVA. Result of theresearch showed that kill of the student science process (1 between inquiry training and direct intruction, where inquiry training better than direct intruction, (2 between group of student in the group of the students scientific knowledgeupon and under of mean, where scientific knowledge upon of mean better then scientific knowledge under of mean, (3 no interaction between inquiry training and scientific knowledge increased skill of student science process.

  14. 1.8K conditioning (non-quench training) of a model SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.V.


    The accepted hypothesis is that training quenches are caused by heat generation when conductors move under Lorentz force. Afterwards no conductor motion will occur until a higher field and greater Lorentz force acts. If superior heat transfer and/or greater temperature margin is provided by operating at lower bath temperature, one might expect that the heat generated by conductor motion will not cause a runaway temperature increase, or quench. To test this hypothesis, the central dipole field in SSC model magnets was ramped at 1.8 K to 7.1 tesla without the magnets' quenching. The bath was then raised to 4.4 K and the magnets quenched at their short sample limits of 6.6 tesla or higher. Comparison with similar magnets trained in He I at 4.4 K is made and the significance of the non-quench training on system operation is discussed

  15. Spike train statistics for consonant and dissonant musical accords in a simple auditory sensory model (United States)

    Ushakov, Yuriy V.; Dubkov, Alexander A.; Spagnolo, Bernardo


    The phenomena of dissonance and consonance in a simple auditory sensory model composed of three neurons are considered. Two of them, here so-called sensory neurons, are driven by noise and subthreshold periodic signals with different ratio of frequencies, and its outputs plus noise are applied synaptically to a third neuron, so-called interneuron. We present a theoretical analysis with a probabilistic approach to investigate the interspike intervals statistics of the spike train generated by the interneuron. We find that tones with frequency ratios that are considered consonant by musicians produce at the third neuron inter-firing intervals statistics densities that are very distinctive from densities obtained using tones with ratios that are known to be dissonant. In other words, at the output of the interneuron, inharmonious signals give rise to blurry spike trains, while the harmonious signals produce more regular, less noisy, spike trains. Theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations.

  16. Speech sound discrimination training improves auditory cortex responses in a rat model of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal T Engineer


    Full Text Available Children with autism often have language impairments and degraded cortical responses to speech. Extensive behavioral interventions can improve language outcomes and cortical responses. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA increases the risk for autism and language impairment. Prenatal exposure to VPA also causes weaker and delayed auditory cortex responses in rats. In this study, we document speech sound discrimination ability in VPA exposed rats and document the effect of extensive speech training on auditory cortex responses. VPA exposed rats were significantly impaired at consonant, but not vowel, discrimination. Extensive speech training resulted in both stronger and faster anterior auditory field responses compared to untrained VPA exposed rats, and restored responses to control levels. This neural response improvement generalized to non-trained sounds. The rodent VPA model of autism may be used to improve the understanding of speech processing in autism and contribute to improving language outcomes.

  17. A model for training parents and teachers of children with special needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sanches-Ferreira


    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated training model designed to promote networked community-based interventions for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The article begins with discussion of a multimodal approach to the care process and a description of some important theoretical assumptions. This is followed by a description of the training program, its structure, distinctive features and methodology. Finally, preliminary results are reported and discussed in three areas: the training model’s effectiveness for promoting an integrated view of children’s behaviors; improvements in parents’ and teachers’ management of challenging behaviors; and experience with the WHAAM application used.

  18. Structural-functional model of medical students’ professional-applied physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Petryshyn


    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and experimentally prove model of professional-applied physical training of medical higher educational establishments’ students. Material: in the research 80 students participated. In questioning physical education instructors of medical higher education establishments (n=20 participated. Results: influence of students’ professionally important characteristics on general physical fitness indicators and functional state has been shown. Directions of students’ physical fitness parameters’ individual diagnostic and control over physical education effectiveness have been offered. Volumes of physical exercises in the structure of training have been found: special training (15-20% and competition exercises (20-30%. Conclusions: the need in raising the level of professionally important for students’ abilities has been noted: speed power, static power endurance, power endurance, coordination of arms’ movements, static balance.

  19. 1. 8K conditioning (non-quench training) of a model SSC dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.V.


    The accepted hypothesis is that training quenches are caused by heat generation when conductors move under Lorentz force. Afterwards no conductor motion will occur until a higher field and greater Lorentz force acts. If superior heat transfer and/or greater temperature margin is provided by operating at lower bath temperature, one might expect that the heat generated by conductor motion will not cause a runaway temperature increase, or quench. To test this hypothesis, the central dipole field in SSC model magnets was ramped at 1.8 K to 7.1 tesla without the magnets' quenching. The bath was then raised to 4.4 K and the magnets quenched at their short sample limits of 6.6 tesla or higher. Comparison with similar magnets trained in He I at 4.4 K is made and the significance of the non-quench training on system operation is discussed.

  20. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Sasaki Imakuma


    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. Materials and Methods and Results: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. Conclusion: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy.

  1. The Use of an Eight-Step Instructional Model to Train School Staff in Partner-Augmented Input (United States)

    Senner, Jill E.; Baud, Matthew R.


    An eight-step instruction model was used to train a self-contained classroom teacher, speech-language pathologist, and two instructional assistants in partner-augmented input, a modeling strategy for teaching augmentative and alternative communication use. With the exception of a 2-hr training session, instruction primarily was conducted during…

  2. The Development of Web-Based Collaborative Training Model for Enhancing Human Performances on ICT for Students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute (United States)

    Pumipuntu, Natawut; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Chetakarn, Somchock


    This research aimed to develop the model of Web-based Collaborative (WBC) Training model for enhancing human performances on ICT for students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute. The research is divided into three phases: 1) investigating students and teachers' training needs on ICT web-based contents and performance, 2) developing a web-based…

  3. Psychological first aid: a consensus-derived, empirically supported, competency-based training model. (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Everly, George S; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Abd Hamid, Nor Hashidah; Tallchief, Vicki L; Links, Jonathan M


    Surges in demand for professional mental health services occasioned by disasters represent a major public health challenge. To build response capacity, numerous psychological first aid (PFA) training models for professional and lay audiences have been developed that, although often concurring on broad intervention aims, have not systematically addressed pedagogical elements necessary for optimal learning or teaching. We describe a competency-based model of PFA training developed under the auspices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Schools of Public Health. We explain the approach used for developing and refining the competency set and summarize the observable knowledge, skills, and attitudes underlying the 6 core competency domains. We discuss the strategies for model dissemination, validation, and adoption in professional and lay communities.

  4. Reliability analysis of laser ultrasonics for train axle diagnostics based on model assisted POD curves (United States)

    Malik, M. S.; Cavuto, A.; Martarelli, M.; Pandarese, G.; Revel, G. M.


    High speed train axles are integrated for a lifetime and it is time and resource consuming to conduct in service inspection with high accuracy. Laser ultrasonics is a proposed solution as a subset of non-contact measuring methods effective also for hard to reach areas and even recently proved to be effective using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) or air-coupled probes in reception. A reliability analysis of laser ultrasonics for this specific application is here performed. The research is mainly based on numerical study of the effect of high energy laser pulses on the surface of a steel axle and of the behavior of the ultrasonic waves in detecting possible defects. Probability of Detection (POD) concept is used as an estimated reliability of the inspection method. In particular Model Assisted Probability of Detection (MAPOD), a modified form of POD where models are used to infer results for making a decisive statistical approach of POD curve, is here adopted. This paper implements this approach by taking the inputs from limited experiments conducted on a high speed train axle using laser ultrasonics (source pulsed Nd:Yag, reception by high-frequency LDV) to calibrate a multiphysics FE model and by using the calibrated model to generate data samples statistically representative of damaged train axles. The simulated flaws are in accordance with the real defects present on the axle. A set of flaws of different depth has been modeled in order to assess the laser ultrasonics POD for this specific application.

  5. Modeling and Simulation to Muscle Strength Training of Lower Limbs Rehabilitation Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Yi Wang


    Full Text Available Considering the issues of lower limb rehabilitation robots with single control strategies and poor training types, a training method for improving muscle strength was put forward in this paper. Patients’ muscle strength could be achieved by targeted exercises at the end of rehabilitation. This approach could be realized through programming wires’ force. On the one hand, each wires force was measured by tension sensor and force closed loop control was established to control the value of wires’ force which was acted on trainees. On the other hand, the direction of output force was changed by detecting the trainees’ state of motion and the way of putting load to patient was achieved. Finally, the target of enhancing patients’ muscle strength was realized. Dynamic model was built by means of mechanism and training types of robots. Force closed loop control strategy was established based on training pattern. In view of the characteristics of the redundance and economy of wire control, the process for simple wire's load changes was discussed. In order to confirm the characteristics of robot control system, the controller was simulated in Matlab/Simulink. It was verified that command signal could be traced by control system availably and the load during muscle training would be provided effectively.

  6. Software engineering and Ada (Trademark) training: An implementation model for NASA (United States)

    Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn


    The choice of Ada for software engineering for projects such as the Space Station has resulted in government and industrial groups considering training programs that help workers become familiar with both a software culture and the intricacies of a new computer language. The questions of how much time it takes to learn software engineering with Ada, how much an organization should invest in such training, and how the training should be structured are considered. Software engineering is an emerging, dynamic discipline. It is defined by the author as the establishment and application of sound engineering environments, tools, methods, models, principles, and concepts combined with appropriate standards, guidelines, and practices to support computing which is correct, modifiable, reliable and safe, efficient, and understandable throughout the life cycle of the application. Neither the training programs needed, nor the content of such programs, have been well established. This study addresses the requirements for training for NASA personnel and recommends an implementation plan. A curriculum and a means of delivery are recommended. It is further suggested that a knowledgeable programmer may be able to learn Ada in 5 days, but that it takes 6 to 9 months to evolve into a software engineer who uses the language correctly and effectively. The curriculum and implementation plan can be adapted for each NASA Center according to the needs dictated by each project.

  7. Modeling of the process of gear shifting in planetary gear trains of motor vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar R. Grkić


    Full Text Available Gear boxes, i. e. the realization of their functions, especially gear shift, have a big impact on vehicle operation quality through their effects on the performance of vehicles and their comfort. This paper shows a method of modeling the transition process during gear shifting in planetary gear trains. The simulation model is developed with in order to provide virtual research of planetary gear trains, which would positively decrease the number of real prototypes, thus considerably saving time and contributing to the quality improvement of the final product (planetary gear train and vehicles in general. Introduction Modeling of gear shift processes has been carried out on the planetary gear type Ravigneaux used in planetary gear trains of motor vehicles. The model was developed modularly, so that more simulation models can be added to the whole. At the same time each subsystem is a model for itself and can be used independently from the main model. Simplified engine model Bearing in mind that, for the simulation of the planetary gear which is the subject of this paper, the necessary input parameters are in the form of engine torque Mm, angular velocity and motor ωm moment of inertia of rotating engine components reduced to the input shaft gear, a simplified model of an internal combustion engine has been formed. Model of external load External load resistance is in the form of the torque Mt occurring on the drive wheel of the vehicle. On the other hand, this load is defined by the moment of inertia of rotating elements from the planetary gear to the drive wheel, reduced to the output shaft. Model of friction transmission simulation Transmission power control in planetary gears is achieved through friction components. The output size of this subsystem is the moment of carrying the friction assembly. Simulation model of the planetary gear train The model simulation of the planetary gear type Ravigneaux was formed in accordance with the kinematic

  8. Creating an Optimal 3D Printed Model for Temporal Bone Dissection Training. (United States)

    Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Morita, Yuka; Ohshima, Shinsuke; Izumi, Shuji; Kubota, Yamato; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Takahashi, Sugata; Horii, Arata


    Making a 3-dimensional (3D) temporal bone model is simple using a plaster powder bed and an inkjet printer. However, it is difficult to reproduce air-containing spaces and precise middle ear structures. The objective of this study was to overcome these problems and create a temporal bone model that would be useful both as a training tool and for preoperative simulation. Drainage holes were made to remove excess materials from air-containing spaces, ossicle ligaments were manually changed to bony structures, and small and/or soft tissue structures were colored differently while designing the 3D models. The outcomes were evaluated by 3 procedures: macroscopic and endoscopic inspection of the model, comparison of computed tomography (CT) images of the model to the original CT, and assessment of tactile sensation and reproducibility by 20 surgeons performing surgery on the model. Macroscopic and endoscopic inspection, CT images, and assessment by surgeons were in agreement in terms of reproducibility of model structures. Most structures could be reproduced, but the stapes, tympanic sinus, and mastoid air cells were unsatisfactory. Perioperative tactile sensation of the model was excellent. Although this model still does not embody perfect reproducibility, it proved sufficiently practical for use in surgical training.

  9. A community needs responsive management training model: Re-envisioning management training for pastors of the International Assemblies of God Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malesela J. Masenya


    the formal preparation of pastors; an aspect which has previously been sorely neglected. A training model is suggested to achieve this objective.Keywords: community;�training; pastors


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana A. Vakaliuk


    Full Text Available The article summarizes the essence of the category "model". There are presented the main types of models used in educational research: structural, functional, structural and functional model as well as basic requirements for building these types of models. The national experience in building models and designing cloud-based learning environment of educational institutions (both higher and secondary is analyzed. It is presented structural and functional model of cloud-based learning environment for Bachelor of Informatics. Also we describe each component of cloud-based learning environment model for bachelors of informatics training: target, managerial, organizational, content and methodical, communication, technological and productive. It is summarized, that COLE should solve all major tasks that relate to higher education institutions.

  11. Predicting tissue outcome from acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: improving model performance by optimal sampling of training data. (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr; Østergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim


    It has been hypothesized that algorithms predicting the final outcome in acute ischemic stroke may provide future tools for identifying salvageable tissue and hence guide individualized therapy. We developed means of quantifying predictive model performance to identify model training strategies that optimize performance and reduce bias in predicted lesion volumes. We optimized predictive performance based on the area under the receiver operating curve for logistic regression and used simulated data to illustrate the effect of an unbalanced (unequal number of infarcting and surviving voxels) training set on predicted infarct risk. We then tested the performance and optimality of models based on perfusion-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and structural MRI modalities by changing the proportion of mismatch voxels in balanced training material. Predictive performance (area under the receiver operating curve) based on all brain voxels is excessively optimistic and lacks sensitivity in performance in mismatch tissue. The ratio of infarcting and noninfarcting voxels used for training predictive algorithms significantly biases tissue infarct risk estimates. Optimal training strategy is obtained using a balanced training set. We show that 60% of noninfarcted voxels consists of mismatch voxels in an optimal balanced training set for the patient data presented. An equal number of infarcting and noninfarcting voxels should be used when training predictive models. The choice of test and training sets critically affects predictive model performance and should be closely evaluated before comparisons across patient cohorts.

  12. Application of Early Childhood Education to the Training of Developmentally Disabled Persons (A Model for Training Trainers). (United States)

    Mitchell, Sidney T.

    An Arkansas project is providing on site competency based training to undergraduate and graduate level personnel of day service centers serving mentally handicapped and otherwise developmentally disabled persons. The program has included five training components: (1) academic courses in early childhood education, (2) an exchange of ideas between…

  13. Implications of the Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity for Education and Training in Professional Psychology (United States)

    Grus, Catherine L.


    Quality education and training is a commitment made to future generations of psychologists by those assuming the role of a faculty member or supervisor. One widely recognized hallmark of quality in professional psychology education and training is accreditation of doctoral programs by the American Psychological Association's Commission on…

  14. The Initial Training of Geography Teachers at the University of Porto: Model and Training, Practices and Representations (United States)

    Martins, Felisbela


    Since 2008, the initial training of Geography teachers in Portugal was combined with the initial training of History teachers. This forced union has led to implications in the practices and teaching of geography. This paper intends to explore the thoughts and actions of the student teachers at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of…

  15. Osteopathic postdoctoral training institutions: a decentralized model for facilitating accreditation and program quality. (United States)

    Peska, Don N; Opipari, Michael I; Watson, D Keith


    Osteopathic medicine has experienced significant growth in the number of accredited colleges and graduates over the past decade. Anticipating that growth and recognizing a responsibility to provide sufficient opportunities for quality postdoctoral training, the American Osteopathic Association created a national network of educational consortia to meet the needs of those graduates. These osteopathic postdoctoral training institutions (OPTIs) were to provide enhanced capability for the development and accreditation of new programs, quality oversight, and access to academic resources for their members. The plan reached full implementation in 1999 when all graduate training programs were required to become members of one of these consortia. Although several contributing factors can be considered, an increase in the rate at which training programs have obtained approval by the American Osteopathic Association has occurred under the OPTI model. Quality indicators are more elusive. Each OPTI provides peer-driven oversight to curriculum and faculty development and closely monitors outcomes such as in-service examination scores, certification board passage rates, and resident evaluations of programs.The strategy has enabled a much-sought-after transformation in osteopathic graduate medical education that has provided both strength and accountability to the preexisting infrastructure. As a decentralized accreditation model, OPTI is still evolving and warrants continued application and study.

  16. The use of high fidelity CAD models as the basis for training on complex systems (United States)

    Miller, Kellie; Tanner, Steve


    During the design phases of large and complex systems such as NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF), there are few, if any physical prototypes built. This is often due to their expense and the realization that the design is likely to change. This poses a problem for training, maintainability, and operations groups who are tasked to lay the foundation of plans for using these systems. The Virtual Reality and Visualization Laboratory at the Boeing Advanced Computing Group's Huntsville facility is supporting the use of high fidelity, detailed design models that are generated during the initial design phases, for use in training, maintainability and operations exercises. This capability was used in its non-immersive form to great effect at the SSF Critical Design Review (CDR) during February, 1993. Allowing the user to move about within a CAD design supports many efforts, including training and scenario study. We will demonstrate via a video of the Maintainability SSF CDR how this type of approach can be used and why it is so effective in conveying large amounts of information quickly and concisely. We will also demonstrate why high fidelity models are so important for this type of training system and how it's immersive aspects may be exploited as well.

  17. Step training in a rat model for complex aneurysmal vascular microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Microsurgery training is a key step for the young neurosurgeons. Both in vascular and peripheral nerve pathology, microsurgical techniques are useful tools for the proper treatment. Many training models have been described, including ex vivo (chicken wings and in vivo (rat, rabbit ones. Complex microsurgery training include termino-terminal vessel anastomosis and nerve repair. The aim of this study was to describe a reproducible complex microsurgery training model in rats. Materials and methods: The experimental animals were Brown Norway male rats between 10-16 weeks (average 13 and weighing between 250-400g (average 320g. We performed n=10 rat hind limb replantations. The surgical steps and preoperative management are carefully described. We evaluated the vascular patency by clinical assessment-color, temperature, capillary refill. The rats were daily inspected for any signs of infections. The nerve regeneration was assessed by foot print method. Results: There were no case of vascular compromise or autophagia. All rats had long term survival (>90 days. The nerve regeneration was clinically completed at 6 months postoperative. The mean operative time was 183 minutes, and ischemia time was 25 minutes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Rybakina


    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the problem of finding models of implementation of continuing education.Aim. The article deals with the competence and context-based model of learning and education in a comprehensive school as a part of lifelong education. The structural components of the competence-context model are described. The author also presents results of the model testing.Methodology and research methods. The competence-based approach is a methodological base of the presented research. The article carries out theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature concerning with the research problem. The author also applies such methods as: modeling of teaching objects, pedagogical experiment, quantitative and qualitative analysis.Results. The author suggests an educational model of competence formation and development in the framework of the theory of context-based education, which supports continuing personal development in the system of lifelong education. The paper describes the essence of the components of the competence-context model of training and upbringing.Scientific novelty. The research justifies the need to distinguish an invariant result of the continuing education. It is shown that competence as a combination of cognitive, social and reflective experience can act as an invariant.Practical significance. The proposed results of testing of the competencecontext model of training and education in comprehensive schools of the Samara region can be in-demand among school teachers for their educational work.

  19. Realistic Modeling of Fast MHD Wave Trains in Coronal Active Regions (United States)

    Ofman, Leon; Sun, Xudong


    Motivated by recent SDO/AIA observations we have developed realistic modeling of quasi-periodic, fast-mode propagating MHD wave trains (QFPs) using 3D MHD model initiated with potential magnetic field extrapolated from the solar coronal boundary. Localized quasi-periodic pulsations associated with C-class flares that drive the waves (as deduced from observations) are modeled with transverse periodic displacement of magnetic field at the lower coronal boundary. The modeled propagating speed and the form of the wave expansions matches the observed fast MHD waves speed >1000 km/s and topology. We study the parametric dependence of the amplitude, propagation, and damping of the waves for a range of key model parameters, such as the background temperature, density, and the location of the flaring site within the active region. We investigate the interaction of multiple QFP wave trains excited by adjacent flaring sources. We use the model results to synthesize EUV intensities in multiple AIA channels and obtain the model parameters that best reproduce the properties of observed QFPs, such as the recent DEM analysis. We discuss the implications of our modeling results for the seismological application of QFPs for the diagnostic of the active region field, flare pulsations, end estimate the energy flux carried by the waves.

  20. Random vibration analysis of train-bridge under track irregularities and traveling seismic waves using train-slab track-bridge interaction model (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Wen-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Ling-Kun; Lou, Ping


    The frequent use of bridges in high-speed railway lines greatly increases the probability that trains are running on bridges when earthquakes occur. This paper investigates the random vibrations of a high-speed train traversing a slab track on a continuous girder bridge subjected to track irregularities and traveling seismic waves by the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). To derive the equations of motion of the train-slab track-bridge interaction system, the multibody dynamics and finite element method models are used for the train and the track and bridge, respectively. By assuming track irregularities to be fully coherent random excitations with time lags between different wheels and seismic accelerations to be uniformly modulated, non-stationary random excitations with time lags between different foundations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudo-excitations based on PEM and the wheel-rail contact relationship. A computer code is developed to obtain the time-dependent random responses of the entire system. As a case study, the random vibration characteristics of an ICE-3 high-speed train traversing a seven-span continuous girder bridge simultaneously excited by track irregularities and traveling seismic waves are analyzed. The influence of train speed and seismic wave propagation velocity on the random vibration characteristics of the bridge and train are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Samal


    Full Text Available The algorithm of preparation and sampling for training of the multiclass qualifier of support vector machines (SVM is provided. The described approach based on the modeling of possible changes of the face features of recognized person. Additional features like perspectives of shooting, conditions of lighting, tilt angles were introduced to get improved identification results. These synthetic generated changes have some impact on the classifier learning expanding the range of possible variations of the initial image. The classifier learned with such extended example is ready to recognize unknown objects better. The age, emotional looks, turns of the head, various conditions of lighting, noise, and also some combinations of the listed parameters are chosen as the key considered parameters for modeling. The third-party software ‘FaceGen’ allowing to model up to 150 parameters and available in a demoversion for free downloading is used for 3D-modeling.The SVM classifier was chosen to test the impact of the introduced modifications of training sample. The preparation and preliminary processing of images contains the following constituents like detection and localization of area of the person on the image, assessment of an angle of rotation and an inclination, extension of the range of brightness of pixels and an equalization of the histogram to smooth the brightness and contrast characteristics of the processed images, scaling of the localized and processed area of the person, creation of a vector of features of the scaled and processed image of the person by a Principal component analysis (algorithm NIPALS, training of the multiclass SVM-classifier.The provided algorithm of expansion of the training selection is oriented to be used in practice and allows to expand using 3D-models the processed range of 2D – photographs of persons that positively affects results of identification in system of face recognition. This approach allows to compensate

  2. TEMPO: a contemporary model for police education and training about mental illness. (United States)

    Coleman, Terry; Cotton, Dorothy


    Given the increasing number of interactions between police and people with mental illnesses (PMI), there has been widespread interest in the development of education for police about how best to interact with PMI. This paper reflects the review of current practice in a variety of jurisdictions across Canada as well as in the United States (U.S.), the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Australia; it proposes a comprehensive model of learning based on the literature that addresses not only the content in the narrow sense but also the importance of broader contextual knowledge and understanding in developing effective education and training. Embedded in the principles articulated in the Mental Health Strategy for Canada, the TEMPO (Training and Education about Mental illness for Police Organizations) model is a multilevel learning strategy for Canadian police personnel. Learning objectives and key principles are articulated in order to ensure the model is applicable to a wide range of police agencies and individual jurisdictional needs. In addition to providing a firm basis of factual knowledge for police personnel, the resultant model embraces a human rights/anti-stigma philosophy, provides for a range of education appropriate to diverse police audiences, emphasizes a systems approach to police/mental health liaison activities and addresses issues related to the delivery and implementation of police education and training. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Development and validation of a septoplasty training model using 3-dimensional printing technology. (United States)

    AlReefi, Mahmoud A; Nguyen, Lily H P; Mongeau, Luc G; Haq, Bassam Ul; Boyanapalli, Siddharth; Hafeez, Nauman; Cegarra-Escolano, Francois; Tewfik, Marc A


    Providing alternative training modalities may improve trainees' ability to perform septoplasty. Three-dimensional printing has been shown to be a powerful tool in surgical training. The objectives of this study were to explain the development of our 3-dimensional (3D) printed septoplasty training model, to assess its face and content validity, and to present evidence supporting its ability to distinguish between levels of surgical proficiency. Imaging data of a patient with a nasal septal deviation was selected for printing. Printing materials reproducing the mechanical properties of human tissues were selected based on literature review and prototype testing. Eight expert rhinologists, 6 senior residents, and 6 junior residents performed endoscopic septoplasties on the model and completed a postsimulation survey. Performance metrics in quality (final product analysis), efficiency (time), and safety (eg, perforation length, nares damage) were recorded and analyzed in a study-blind manner. The model was judged to be anatomically correct and the steps performed realistic, with scores of 4.05 ± 0.82 and 4.2 ± 1, respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale. Ninety-two percent of residents desired the simulator to be integrated into their teaching curriculum. There was a significant difference (p materials mixed into the 3 relevant consistencies necessary to simulate septoplasty. Our findings provide evidence supporting the validity of the model. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  4. One-Class FMRI-Inspired EEG Model for Self-Regulation Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehudit Meir-Hasson

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that learned self-regulation of localized brain activity in deep limbic areas such as the amygdala, may alleviate symptoms of affective disturbances. Thus far self-regulation of amygdala activity could be obtained only via fMRI guided neurofeedback, an expensive and immobile procedure. EEG on the other hand is relatively inexpensive and can be easily implemented in any location. However the clinical utility of EEG neurofeedback for affective disturbances remains limited due to low spatial resolution, which hampers the targeting of deep limbic areas such as the amygdala. We introduce an EEG prediction model of amygdala activity from a single electrode. The gold standard used for training is the fMRI-BOLD signal in the amygdala during simultaneous EEG/fMRI recording. The suggested model is based on a time/frequency representation of the EEG data with varying time-delay. Previous work has shown a strong inhomogeneity among subjects as is reflected by the models created to predict the amygdala BOLD response from EEG data. In that work, different models were constructed for different subjects. In this work, we carefully analyzed the inhomogeneity among subjects and were able to construct a single model for the majority of the subjects. We introduce a method for inhomogeneity assessment. This enables us to demonstrate a choice of subjects for which a single model could be derived. We further demonstrate the ability to modulate brain-activity in a neurofeedback setting using feedback generated by the model. We tested the effect of the neurofeedback training by showing that new subjects can learn to down-regulate the signal amplitude compared to a sham group, which received a feedback obtained by a different participant. This EEG based model can overcome substantial limitations of fMRI-NF. It can enable investigation of NF training using multiple sessions and large samples in various locations.

  5. Training model for laparoscopic Heller and Dor fundoplication: a tool for laparoscopic skills training and assessment-construct validity using the GOALS score. (United States)

    Bellorin, Omar; Kundel, Anna; Sharma, Saurabh; Ramirez-Valderrama, Alexander; Lee, Paul


    Laparoscopic training demands practice. The transfer of laparoscopic skills from training models to real surgical procedures has been proven. The global operative assessment of laparoscopic skills (GOALS) score is a 5-item global rating scale developed to evaluate laparoscopic skills by direct observation. This scale has been used to demonstrate construct validity of several laparoscopic training models. Here, we present a low-cost model of laparoscopic Heller-Dor for advanced laparoscopic training. The aim of this study was to determine the capability of a training model for laparoscopic Heller-Dor to discriminate between different levels of laparoscopic expertise. The performance of two groups with different levels of expertise, novices (300 laparoscopic procedures PGY4-5) was assessed. All participants were instructed to perform two tasks (esophageal myotomy and fundoplication). All the performances were recorded in a digital format. A laparoscopic expert who was blinded to subject's identity evaluated the recordings using the GOALS score. Autonomy, one of the five items of GOALS, was removed since the evaluator and the trainee did not have interaction. The time required to finish each task was also recorded. Performance was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test (p GOALS score. The mean total GOALS score for novices was 7.5 points (SD: 1.64) and 13.9 points (SD: 1.66) for experts (p GOALS score compared to novices: depth perception (mean: 3.3 vs 2 p model has construct validity. The model may be used as a tool for training of the surgical resident.

  6. Detailed Pseudo-Static Drive Train Modelling with Generator Short Circuit (United States)

    Warnock, Christopher; Infield, David


    Drivetrain failures contribute significantly to wind turbine downtime. Although the root causes of these failures are not yet fully understood, transient events are regarded as an important contributory factor. Despite extensive drive train modelling, limited work has been carried out to assess the impact of a generator short circuit on the drivetrain. In most cases, a generator short circuit is classed as a failure in itself with minimal focus on the subsequent effects on the gearbox and other drivetrain components. This paper will look to analyse the loading on the drivetrain for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) short circuit event with turbine ride through using a combination of Simulink, Garrad Hassan's Bladed and RomaxWind drive train modelling software.

  7. LAI inversion from optical reflectance using a neural network trained with a multiple scattering model (United States)

    Smith, James A.


    The inversion of the leaf area index (LAI) canopy parameter from optical spectral reflectance measurements is obtained using a backpropagation artificial neural network trained using input-output pairs generated by a multiple scattering reflectance model. The problem of LAI estimation over sparse canopies (LAI 1000 percent for low LAI. Minimization methods applied to merit functions constructed from differences between measured reflectances and predicted reflectances using multiple-scattering models are unacceptably sensitive to a good initial guess for the desired parameter. In contrast, the neural network reported generally yields absolute percentage errors of <30 percent when weighting coefficients trained on one soil type were applied to predicted canopy reflectance at a different soil background.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrul Wahdi Ginting


    Full Text Available The Purpose of The study: science process skills and logical thinking ability of students who use inquiry learning model training using PhET media; science process skills and logical thinking ability of students who use conventional learning model; and the difference science process skills and logical thinking ability of students to use learning model Inquiry Training using PhET media and conventional learning models. This research is a quasi experimental. Sample selection is done by cluster random sampling are two classes of classes VIII-E and class VIII-B, where the class VIII-E is taught by inquiry training model using media PhET and VIII-B with conventional learning model. The instrument used consisted of tests science process skills such as essay tests and tests of the ability to think logically in the form of multiple-choice tests. The data were analyzed using t test. The results showed that physics science process skills use Inquiry Training models using PhET media is different and showed better results compared with conventional learning model, and logical thinking skills students use Inquiry Training model using PhET media is different and show better results compared with conventional learning, and there is a difference between the ability to think logically and science process skills of students who use Inquiry Training model using PhET media and conventional learning models.

  9. [Renaissance of training in general surgery in Cambodia: a unique experience or reproducible model]. (United States)

    Dumurgier, C; Baulieux, J


    Is the new surgical training program at the University of Phom-Penh, Cambodia a unique experience or can it serve as a model for developing countries? This report describes the encouraging first results of this didactic and hands-on surgical program. Based on their findings the authors recommend not only continuing the program in Phom-Penh but also proposing slightly modified versions to new medical universities not currently offering specialization in surgery.

  10. Identifying Efficiencies in the Supply Chain for Training Ammunition: Methods, Models, and Recommendations (United States)


    Research Report Identifying Efficiencies in the Supply Chain for Training Ammunition Methods , Models, and Recommendations Dwayne M. Butler...RAND’s publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax- deductible charitable...reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial use. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit

  11. Web-Based Training on Reviewing Dose Modeling Aspects of NRC Decommissioning and License Termination Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LePoire, D.; Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Arnish, J.; Richmond, P.; Chen, S.Y.; Barr, C.; McKenney, C.


    NRC licensees at decommissioning nuclear facilities submit License Termination Plans (LTP) or Decommissioning Plans (DP) to NRC for review and approval. To facilitate a uniform and consistent review of these plans, the NRC developed training for its staff. A live classroom course was first developed in 2005, which targeted specific aspects of the LTP and DP review process related to dose-based compliance demonstrations or modeling. A web-based training (WBT) course was developed in 2006 and 2007 to replace the classroom-based course. The advantage of the WBT is that it will allow for staff training or refreshers at any time, while the advantage of a classroom-based course is that it provides a forum for lively discussion and the sharing of experience of classroom participants. The objective of this course is to train NRC headquarters and regional office staff on how to review sections of a licensee's DP or LTP that pertain to dose modeling. The DP generally refers to the decommissioning of non-reactor facilities, while the LTP refers specifically to the decommissioning of reactors. This review is part of the NRC's licensing process, in which the NRC determines if a licensee has provided a suitable technical basis to support derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs)1 or dose modeling analyses performed to demonstrate compliance with dose-based license termination rule criteria. This type of training is one component of an organizational management system. These systems 'use a range of practices to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning'. This is especially important in an organization undergoing rapid change or staff turnover to retain organizational information and processes. NRC is committed to maintaining a dynamic program of training, development, and knowledge transfer to ensure that the NRC acquires and maintains the competencies needed to accomplish its mission. This paper discusses one specific project

  12. Microsurgical skills training with a new tympanoplasty model: learning curve and motivational impact. (United States)

    Neudert, Marcus; Kluge, Anne; Beleites, Thomas; Kemper, Max; Zahnert, Thomas


    To evaluate the microsurgical skills training on a tympanoplasty model with regard to the learning curve and the participants' motivation for a surgical specialty. Randomized controlled prospective study. Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical Campus Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. Thirty randomly chosen fifth-year medical students divided into 2 groups. Group 2 (n = 16) had to perform an ossicular and tympanic membrane reconstruction on a tympanoplasty model on Days 1, 7, 14, and 21 and Group 1 (n = 14) on Days 1 and 21, while observing the procedure at Days 7 and 14. Six otosurgeons served as gold standard. Attempts and time of prosthesis placement and time for tympanic membrane reconstruction were recorded. Tremor frequency and amplitude were obtained at the same time points. An adjusted study interest questionnaire was used to assess students' motivation. Students in Group 2 showed a significant improvement in all reconstruction parameters over the study period compared with both, baseline measurement on first day and Group 1. However, the obtained learning curve did not reach the experts level. Tremor indices and students' motivation showed no correlation with the reconstruction parameters, whereas the training itself had a positive impact on students' interest in the surgical specialty. Training with the tympanoplasty model is suitable to acquire first microsurgical motor skills in otolaryngology and to arouse students' interest in the surgical field and otorhinolaryngology.

  13. Modeling of physical fitness of young karatyst on the pre basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Galimskyi


    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop a program of physical fitness for the correction of the pre basic training on the basis of model performance. Material: 57 young karate sportsmen of 9-11 years old took part in the research. Results : the level of general and special physical preparedness of young karate 9-11 years old was determined. Classes in the control group occurred in the existing program for yous sports school Muay Thai (Thailand boxing. For the experimental group has developed a program of selective development of general and special physical qualities of model-based training sessions. Special program contains 6 direction: 1. Development of static and dynamic balance; 2. Development of vestibular stability (precision movements after rotation; 3. Development rate movements; 4. The development of the capacity for rapid restructuring movements; 5. Development capabilities to differentiate power and spatial parameters of movement; 6. Development of the ability to perform jumping movements of rotation. Development of special physical qualities continued to work to improve engineering complex shock motions on the place and with movement. Conclusions : the use of selective development of special physical qualities based models of training sessions has a significant performance advantage over the control group.

  14. Feasibility and benefits of the ewe as a model for vaginal surgery training. (United States)

    Kerbage, Yohan; Giraudet, Géraldine; Rubod, Chrystèle; Garabedian, Charles; Rivaux, Géraldine; Cosson, Michel


    The objective was to evaluate the ewe as an animal model for teaching and training in vaginal surgery. Twenty-nine postgraduate surgeons attended a training course on vaginal prolapse surgery. After a review of human and sheep anatomy, the participants performed transvaginal meshes, vaginal hysterectomy, SSLF (Richter), and OAS repair in ewes and human cadavers. Participants completed questionnaires on the whole course. Questionnaires showed the significant superiority of ewes over human cadavers for all items evaluated regarding surgical dissections. Only identification of the sacrospinous ligament and the spine were judged to be similar in ewes and human cadavers. Participants noticed that ewe model is appropriate for vaginal prolapse surgery training for resident and for postgraduate surgeons. Two vaginal hysterectomies were also performed. Operating time, surgery, and anatomy were nearly identical to that of humans. The same conclusions were made while performing sacrospinous ligament fixation (Richter) and obstetric anal sphincter injury repair. This series indicates that the ewe is a useful animal model for teaching vaginal surgery.

  15. Training of Students’ Critical Thinking Skills through the implementation of a Modified Free Inquiry Model (United States)

    Hadi, S. A.; Susantini, E.; Agustini, R.


    This research aimed at training students’ critical thinking skills through the implementation of a modified free inquiry learning model. The subjects of this research were 21 students of Mathematics Semester II. Using One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design, the data were analyzed descriptively using N-gain indicator. The results indicate that the modified free inquiry learning model was effective to train students’ critical thinking skills. The increase in the students’ critical thinking skills viewed from the value of N-Gain has a range of values with the categories of medium and high with a score between 0,25-0,95. Overall, the change in N-Gain score of each student and each indicator of critical thinking skills is as increasing with a moderate category. The increase of N-Gain value is resulted from the fact that the students were directly involved in organizing their learning process. These criteria indicate that the modified free inquiry learning model can be used to train students’ critical thinking skills on photosynthesis and cellular respiration materials. The results of this research are expected to be nationally implemented to familiarize students with andragogy learning style which places the students as the subjects of learning.

  16. Detection of bursts in extracellular spike trains using hidden semi-Markov point process models. (United States)

    Tokdar, Surya; Xi, Peiyi; Kelly, Ryan C; Kass, Robert E


    Neurons in vitro and in vivo have epochs of bursting or "up state" activity during which firing rates are dramatically elevated. Various methods of detecting bursts in extracellular spike trains have appeared in the literature, the most widely used apparently being Poisson Surprise (PS). A natural description of the phenomenon assumes (1) there are two hidden states, which we label "burst" and "non-burst," (2) the neuron evolves stochastically, switching at random between these two states, and (3) within each state the spike train follows a time-homogeneous point process. If in (2) the transitions from non-burst to burst and burst to non-burst states are memoryless, this becomes a hidden Markov model (HMM). For HMMs, the state transitions follow exponential distributions, and are highly irregular. Because observed bursting may in some cases be fairly regular-exhibiting inter-burst intervals with small variation-we relaxed this assumption. When more general probability distributions are used to describe the state transitions the two-state point process model becomes a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM). We developed an efficient Bayesian computational scheme to fit HSMMs to spike train data. Numerical simulations indicate the method can perform well, sometimes yielding very different results than those based on PS.

  17. Three-dimensional brain arteriovenous malformation models for clinical use and resident training. (United States)

    Dong, Mengqi; Chen, Guangzhong; Li, Jianyi; Qin, Kun; Ding, Xiaowen; Peng, Chao; Zhou, Dong; Lin, Xiaofeng


    To fabricate three-dimensional (3D) models of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) and report our experience with customized 3D printed models of patients with bAVM as an educational and clinical tool for patients, doctors, and surgical residents. Using computerized tomography angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images, the rapid prototyping process was completed with specialized software and "in-house" 3D printing service. Intraoperative validation of model fidelity was performed by comparing to DSA images of the same patient during the endovascular treatment process. 3D bAVM models were used for preoperative patient education and consultation, surgical planning, and resident training. 3D printed bAVM models were successful made. By neurosurgeons' evaluation, the printed models precisely replicated the actual bAVM structure of the same patients (n = 7, 97% concordance, range 95%-99% with average of 3D models was associated shorter time for preoperative patient education and consultation, higher acceptable of the procedure for patients and relatives, shorter time between obtaining intraoperative DSA data and the start of endovascular treatment. Thirty surgical residents from residency programs tested the bAVM models and provided feedback on their resemblance to real bAVM structures and the usefulness of printed solid model as an educational tool. Patient-specific 3D printed models of bAVM can be constructed with high fidelity. 3D printed bAVM models were proven to be helpful in preoperative patient consultation, surgical planning, and resident training. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Fedorov


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this article is to understand the current issues of pedagogical training situation of a potential employee an experienced professional when using the internal resources of micro-enterprises. The relevance of the research problem dues to the needs of the labour market, terms of developing economy situation of micro-entrepreneurship and the demands of the subject of labour activity to vocational training without discontinuing work.Methodology and research methods. A leading approach to the study of this problem is a system-activity one, which allows us to represent the process of professional training in terms of the micro-enterprise as a system activity of subjects for the development of professional competence of the employee. The following research methods are used to solve the set tasks: theoretical study and analysis of psychological, pedagogical, sociological, scientific-methodical and special literature on the problem under study; a systematic approach to the disclosure of the nature of the problem and the formation of conceptual-terminological apparatus of the research; study and analysis of legislative and normative-legal acts; empirical – pedagogical observation, generalization and study of teaching experience, pedagogical design, questionnaire, interview, interviews, analysis of results, method of expert evaluations and their generalization.Results. The results of the research showed that the process of training and professional interaction of the micro-enterprise employees will be effective if training and professional interaction of the micro-enterprise employees to be considered as a productive mutual agreed actions of subjects of labour, aimed at solving the educational and professional problems in the process of joint labour activity. Developed structural-functional model of training and professional interaction of employees of micro-enterprises allows us to introduce the process of professional training as a

  19. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba MINSILI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  20. Education and training for records management in the electronic environment - the (research for an appropriate model. Professional development, Training, Education, Models, Records management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeod J.


    Full Text Available Managing records in the e-environment constitutes a complex and challenging strategic issue for all organizations because IT systems shape business operations and the nature and management of the records they generate. IT personnel, administrators, archivists, records creators and users, as well as records managers, must work in partnership to ensure the authenticity, reliability, integrity, and ongoing usability of records. Education and training provision must evolve to fulfil the needs of all of these players in this complex environment. Everyone needs a macro-level understanding, combined with micro-level knowledge and practical skills, determined by their role, responsibility and level of systems interface. This matrix of horizontal and vertical mappings defines a pathway tailored to the individual's recordkeeping role. The requirement is holistic not atomistic, because it is integrated with the business processes. This study critically evaluates existing initiatives and initial results of a doctoral study searching for a best practice model.

  1. The Model-Driven openETCS Paradigm for Secure, Safe and Certifiable Train Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peleska, Jan; Feuser, Johannes; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth


    A novel approach to managing development, verification, and validation artifacts for the European Train Control System as open, publicly available items is analyzed and discussed with respect to its implications on system safety, security, and certifiability. After introducing this so-called model......-driven openETCS approach, a threat analysis is performed, identifying both safety and security hazards that may be common to all model-based development paradigms for safety-critical railway control systems, or specific to the openETCS approach. In the subsequent sections state-of-the-art methods suitable...... of security hazards....

  2. Training pharmacists in the stage-of-change model of smoking cessation and motivational interviewing: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Caponnetto


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of training pharmacists in the stage-of-change model for smoking cessation and motivational interviewing on smoking cessation outcomes. A training based on the stage-of-change model for smoking cessation and motivational interviewing was introduced to pharmacists. Pharmacists were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The control group attended a 3-hour training session, whereas the intervention group also attended a further 6-hour training session. At week 24, 12.2 percent of the smokers quit smoking in the intervention group, whereas 1.6 percent of the smokers quit smoking in the control group. The findings of this study showed that training pharmacists, in the stage-of-change model for smoking cessation and motivational interviewing, improves smoking reduction and cessation rates.

  3. Analysis of methodology for designing education and training model for professional development in the field of radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kon Wuk; Lee, Jae Hun; Park, Tai Jin; Song, Myung Jae [Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The domestic Radiation Technology is integrated into and utilized in various areas and is closely related to the industrial growth in Korea. The domestic use of radiation and RI (Radioisotope) increases in quantity every year, however the level of technology is poor when compared to other developed countries. Manpower training is essential for the development of Radiation Technology. Therefore, this study aimed to propose a methodology for designing systemic education and training model in the field of measurement and analysis of radiation. A survey was conducted to design education and training model and the training program for measurement and analysis of radiation was developed based on the survey results. The education and training program designed in this study will be utilized as a model for evaluating the professional development and effective recruitment of the professional workforce, and can be further applied to other radiation-related fields.

  4. Analysis of methodology for designing education and training model for professional development in the field of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kon Wuk; Lee, Jae Hun; Park, Tai Jin; Song, Myung Jae


    The domestic Radiation Technology is integrated into and utilized in various areas and is closely related to the industrial growth in Korea. The domestic use of radiation and RI (Radioisotope) increases in quantity every year, however the level of technology is poor when compared to other developed countries. Manpower training is essential for the development of Radiation Technology. Therefore, this study aimed to propose a methodology for designing systemic education and training model in the field of measurement and analysis of radiation. A survey was conducted to design education and training model and the training program for measurement and analysis of radiation was developed based on the survey results. The education and training program designed in this study will be utilized as a model for evaluating the professional development and effective recruitment of the professional workforce, and can be further applied to other radiation-related fields

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Model-Supported Scientific Inquiry Training Program for Elementary Teachers in Indonesia (United States)

    Ertikanto, Chandra; Herpratiwi; Yunarti, Tina; Saputra, Andrian


    A teacher training program, named Model-Supported Scientific Inquiry Training Program (MSSITP) has been successfully developed to improve the inquiry skills of Indonesian elementary teachers. The skills enhanced by MSSITP are defining problems, formulating hypotheses, planning and doing investigations, drawing conclusions, and communicating the…

  6. Establishment and verification of three-dimensional dynamic model for heavy-haul train-track coupled system (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zhai, Wanming; Wang, Kaiyun


    For the long heavy-haul train, the basic principles of the inter-vehicle interaction and train-track dynamic interaction are analysed firstly. Based on the theories of train longitudinal dynamics and vehicle-track coupled dynamics, a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic model of the heavy-haul train-track coupled system is established through a modularised method. Specifically, this model includes the subsystems such as the train control, the vehicle, the wheel-rail relation and the line geometries. And for the calculation of the wheel-rail interaction force under the driving or braking conditions, the large creep phenomenon that may occur within the wheel-rail contact patch is considered. For the coupler and draft gear system, the coupler forces in three directions and the coupler lateral tilt angles in curves are calculated. Then, according to the characteristics of the long heavy-haul train, an efficient solving method is developed to improve the computational efficiency for such a large system. Some basic principles which should be followed in order to meet the requirement of calculation accuracy are determined. Finally, the 3-D train-track coupled model is verified by comparing the calculated results with the running test results. It is indicated that the proposed dynamic model could simulate the dynamic performance of the heavy-haul train well.

  7. Effect of cyclic training model on terminal structure of rabbit Achilles tendon: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-lin HUANG


    group at the early stage, but there was an increase at the late stage of the training (6 weeks later, however the score values were lower than those in the jumping group and running group. These changes in score were originated mainly from pathological changes in the paratenon and tidemark. Conclusions  Jumping training could lead to severe injury to the fiber tissue and fibrocartilage, while running training might result in severe injury to Achilles tendon insertion structure and lighter injury to the fibrocartilage part. Cyclic training model provides suffcient time for repair and reconstruction of Achilles tendon insertion structure, and decrease the severity of the injury to Achilles tendon insertion region. Therefore, use of cyclic training could not only effectively prevent training-based enthesiopathy, but also accelerate the remodeling of the tissue in the insertion region, thus strengthen the repair ability of Achilles tendon against injury.

  8. a Mathematical Model for Training Impulse and Lactate Influx and Outflux during Exercise (United States)

    Moxnes, John F.; Hausken, Kjell

    This paper provides a mathematical description based on the theory of differential equations, for the dynamics of lactate production and removal. Analytical and numerical results for training/exercise of endurance of athletes are presented based on the common concept of training impulse (Trimp). The relationships between activity, production rate, and removal strategies of lactate are studied. Parameters are estimated from published data. A model for optimum removal of lactate after exercise is developed. The model provides realistic predictions when compared with experimental results. We show some specific examples for the usefulness of the mathematical model by studying some recent problems discussed in the literature. (a) Is interval exercise more beneficial than steady-state exercise? (b) What is the optimum aerobic power during recovery? We discuss whether steady-state exercise gives higher Trimp than interval exercise, when imposing an upper boundary for the lactate concentration as a constraint. The model allows for testing all imaginable kinds of steady-state and interval exercises in search of the optimal exercise regime for individuals with various kinds of characteristics. In general, the dynamic model constitute a powerful tool describing the processes by which the concentration of lactate can be studied and controlled to decrease fatigue and increase endurance.

  9. A generative spike train model with time-structured higher order correlations. (United States)

    Trousdale, James; Hu, Yu; Shea-Brown, Eric; Josić, Krešimir


    Emerging technologies are revealing the spiking activity in ever larger neural ensembles. Frequently, this spiking is far from independent, with correlations in the spike times of different cells. Understanding how such correlations impact the dynamics and function of neural ensembles remains an important open problem. Here we describe a new, generative model for correlated spike trains that can exhibit many of the features observed in data. Extending prior work in mathematical finance, this generalized thinning and shift (GTaS) model creates marginally Poisson spike trains with diverse temporal correlation structures. We give several examples which highlight the model's flexibility and utility. For instance, we use it to examine how a neural network responds to highly structured patterns of inputs. We then show that the GTaS model is analytically tractable, and derive cumulant densities of all orders in terms of model parameters. The GTaS framework can therefore be an important tool in the experimental and theoretical exploration of neural dynamics.

  10. Intensive Class Training Model for Developing Lecturers’English Competence at IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmayenti Darmayenti


    Full Text Available Research and Development (R&D project was used to develop lecturers’ English competence particularly on speaking and writing at State Institute of Islamic Studies of Imam Bonjol Padang.  The lecturers need to develop their competence in English in order to prepare themselves to add new information of lecturing materials and writing papers. Borg and Gall’s steps were used to develop the model. Twenty active lecturers who had s2 and s3 program, who were randomly selected, participated on this research. During the process of the research, observation, questionnaire, and TOEFL test, speaking and writing tests were used to collect the data. The experimental research type and one group pre test- post test design were used to conduct the research. The result of the research showed that 74% of respondents need intensive class training model to develop their English competence. The implementation of intensive class training model gave a significant effect toward lecturers’ English competence. It is concluded that this model is more effective to improve lecturers’ on English competences. Therefore, it is recommended that this model can be implemented at IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang in order to develop lecturers’ English competences and to enhance the quality of lecturers.

  11. TADALURING Microteaching Learning Model (TMLM: Preparing Professional Teacher by Pre-Service Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available As a certified professional, teacher forms indispensable roles in achieving the learning objectives. The complexity of teacher’s profession decidedly requires the teacher to master a number of competencies and skills. One of them is to master the basic teaching skills. Realizing the complexities of the teacher’s profession and the requirement of teacher’s profession, LPTK –Faculty of Teacher Training and Education– which produces professional teacher, requires enhancing the teacher’s quality and creativity through pre-service teaching and training. Microteaching is one of the efforts to prepare the candidate for a professional teacher in higher education. The growth of a number of students being served with the availability of micro teaching laboratories is, however, disproportionate. Consequently, the problems faced are the time management, the laboratory utilization, the availability of sufficient microteaching infrastructures as well as the implementation of micro teaching itself. One of the ways to solve the problems is to develop a microteaching model adapting the force driving sophisticated ICT named TADALURING Microteaching Learning Model (TMLM. The Instructional Systems Design (ISD made use of developing the model is Borg and Gall procedures. The cyclical phases of conducting the research were preliminary research, development, field-testing, and dissemination. The research finding indicates that the trial-tested model is stated valid, practical, and effective. The TADALURING Microteaching Learning Model (TMLM is essentially accentuated on a face-to-face classroom, online and offline practices.

  12. Use of a vegetable model as a training tool for PCNL puncture. (United States)

    Sinha, Maneesh; Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh


    Training residents to perform a PCNL puncture is hampered by the non-availability of a good inanimate model that can be used for demonstration and practice. The ethics of surgical training during actual surgeries is being questioned and the role of simulation is increasingly important. Virtual reality trainers, however, are prohibitively expensive and the use of animal models is fraught with regulatory and ethical concerns. We have devised a model that can be used to teach the concept of depth perception during a PCNL puncture. A bottle gourd was used to mimic the posterior abdominal wall. Cotton pledgets dipped in intravenous contrast were fitted into 4 mm holes made at staggered levels in the bottle gourd which was strapped onto the operating table with the cotton pledgets facing away from the surgeon. Surgeons with varying degrees of experience made fluoroscopy-guided punctures onto the cotton pledgets. We recorded the time taken for puncture in seconds and the distance of the needle exit site from the center of the cotton ball. Speed was measured by recording the fluoroscopy time in seconds on the C-arm. Accuracy was documented by using a Vernier caliper to measure the distance from the edge of the target to the actual puncture. One second of fluoroscopy time and 0.1 mm distance were each given one point. The total points accumulated over a set of 10 punctures was added to give a total score. Longer fluoroscopy times and inaccurate punctures resulted in higher scores. A surgeon with more than 1000 PCNLs to his credit had a score of 99. The average score of five residents was 555. The bottle gourd model provides an ethically acceptable, inexpensive, easy to replicate model that can be used to train residents in the PCNL puncture.

  13. Science Writing and Rhetorical Training: A New Model for Developing Graduate Science Writers (United States)

    Karraker, N. E.; Lofgren, I.; Druschke, C. G.; McWilliams, S. R.; Morton-Aiken, J.; Reynolds, N.


    Graduate programs in the sciences generally offer minimal support for writing and communication, yet there is an increasing need for scientists to engage with the public and policymakers on technological, environmental, and health issues. The traditional focus on gaining particular discipline-related technical skills, coupled with the relegation of writing largely to the end of a student's academic tenure, falls short in equipping them to tackle these challenges. To address this problem, we launched a cross-disciplinary, National Science Foundation-funded training program in rhetoric and writing for science graduate students and faculty at the University of Rhode Island. This innovative program bases curricular and pedagogical support on three central practices, habitual writing, multiple genres, and frequent review, to offer a flexible model of writing training for science graduate students and pedagogical training for faculty that could be adopted in other institutional contexts. Key to the program, called SciWrite@URI, is a unique emphasis on rhetoric, which, we argue, is an essential—but currently lacking—component of science communication education. This new model has the potential to transform graduate education in the sciences by producing graduates who are as adept at the fundamentals of their science as they are at communicating that science to diverse audiences.

  14. Simulation-based Education for Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy: A Comparison Between Virtual and Physical Training Models. (United States)

    Breimer, Gerben E; Haji, Faizal A; Bodani, Vivek; Cunningham, Melissa S; Lopez-Rios, Adriana-Lucia; Okrainec, Allan; Drake, James M


    The relative educational benefits of virtual reality (VR) and physical simulation models for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) have not been evaluated "head to head." To compare and identify the relative utility of a physical and VR ETV simulation model for use in neurosurgical training. Twenty-three neurosurgical residents and 3 fellows performed an ETV on both a physical and VR simulation model. Trainees rated the models using 5-point Likert scales evaluating the domains of anatomy, instrument handling, procedural content, and the overall fidelity of the simulation. Paired t tests were performed for each domain's mean overall score and individual items. The VR model has relative benefits compared with the physical model with respect to realistic representation of intraventricular anatomy at the foramen of Monro (4.5, standard deviation [SD] = 0.7 vs 4.1, SD = 0.6; P = .04) and the third ventricle floor (4.4, SD = 0.6 vs 4.0, SD = 0.9; P = .03), although the overall anatomy score was similar (4.2, SD = 0.6 vs 4.0, SD = 0.6; P = .11). For overall instrument handling and procedural content, the physical simulator outperformed the VR model (3.7, SD = 0.8 vs 4.5; SD = 0.5, P educational objectives. Training focused on learning anatomy or decision-making for anatomic cues may be aided with the VR simulation model. A focus on developing manual dexterity and technical skills using endoscopic equipment in the operating room may be better learned on the physical simulation model. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  15. Using 3D Printing to Create Personalized Brain Models for Neurosurgical Training and Preoperative Planning. (United States)

    Ploch, Caitlin C; Mansi, Chris S S A; Jayamohan, Jayaratnam; Kuhl, Ellen


    Three-dimensional (3D) printing holds promise for a wide variety of biomedical applications, from surgical planning, practicing, and teaching to creating implantable devices. The growth of this cheap and easy additive manufacturing technology in orthopedic, plastic, and vascular surgery has been explosive; however, its potential in the field of neurosurgery remains underexplored. A major limitation is that current technologies are unable to directly print ultrasoft materials like human brain tissue. In this technical note, the authors present a new technology to create deformable, personalized models of the human brain. The method combines 3D printing, molding, and casting to create a physiologically, anatomically, and tactilely realistic model based on magnetic resonance images. Created from soft gelatin, the model is easy to produce, cost-efficient, durable, and orders of magnitude softer than conventionally printed 3D models. The personalized brain model cost $50, and its fabrication took 24 hours. In mechanical tests, the model stiffness (E = 25.29 ± 2.68 kPa) was 5 orders of magnitude softer than common 3D printed materials, and less than an order of magnitude stiffer than mammalian brain tissue (E = 2.64 ± 0.40 kPa). In a multicenter surgical survey, model size (100.00%), visual appearance (83.33%), and surgical anatomy (81.25%) were perceived as very realistic. The model was perceived as very useful for patient illustration (85.00%), teaching (94.44%), learning (100.00%), surgical training (95.00%), and preoperative planning (95.00%). With minor refinements, personalized, deformable brain models created via 3D printing will improve surgical training and preoperative planning with the ultimate goal to provide accurate, customized, high-precision treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SAHM:VisTrails (Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling for VisTrails): training course (United States)

    Holcombe, Tracy


    VisTrails is an open-source management and scientific workflow system designed to integrate the best of both scientific workflow and scientific visualization systems. Developers can extend the functionality of the VisTrails system by creating custom modules for bundled VisTrails packages. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the U.S. Department of the Interior’s North Central Climate Science Center have teamed up to develop and implement such a module—the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM). SAHM expedites habitat modeling and helps maintain a record of the various input data, the steps before and after processing, and the modeling options incorporated in the construction of an ecological response model. There are four main advantages to using the SAHM:VisTrails combined package for species distribution modeling: (1) formalization and tractable recording of the entire modeling process; (2) easier collaboration through a common modeling framework; (3) a user-friendly graphical interface to manage file input, model runs, and output; and (4) extensibility to incorporate future and additional modeling routines and tools. In order to meet increased interest in the SAHM:VisTrails package, the FORT offers a training course twice a year. The course includes a combination of lecture, hands-on work, and discussion. Please join us and other ecological modelers to learn the capabilities of the SAHM:VisTrails package.

  17. Teaching project: a low-cost swine model for chest tube insertion training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Campelo Spencer Netto

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe and evaluate the acceptance of a low-cost chest tube insertion porcine model in a medical education project in the southwest of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: we developed a low-cost and low technology porcine model for teaching chest tube insertion and used it in a teaching project. Medical trainees - students and residents - received theoretical instructions about the procedure and performed thoracic drainage in this porcine model. After performing the procedure, the participants filled a feedback questionnaire about the proposed experimental model. This study presents the model and analyzes the questionnaire responses. Results: seventy-nine medical trainees used and evaluated the model. The anatomical correlation between the porcine model and human anatomy was considered high and averaged 8.1±1.0 among trainees. All study participants approved the low-cost porcine model for chest tube insertion. Conclusion: the presented low-cost porcine model for chest tube insertion training was feasible and had good acceptability among trainees. This model has potential use as a teaching tool in medical education.

  18. Multistakeholder Perspectives on the Transition to a Graduate-Level Athletic Training Educational Model. (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Bowman, Thomas G; Pitney, William A


    The decision has been made to move away from the traditional bachelor's degree professional program to a master's degree professional program. Little is known about the perceptions about this transition from those involved with education. To examine multiple stakeholders' perspectives within athletic training education on the effect that a change to graduate-level education could have on the profession and the educational and professional development of the athletic trainer. Qualitative study. Web-based survey. A total of 18 athletic training students (6 men, 12 women; age = 24 ± 5 years), 17 athletic training faculty (6 men, 9 women, 2 unspecified; 7 program directors, 5 faculty members, 3 clinical coordinators, 2 unidentified; age = 45 ± 8 years), and 15 preceptors (7 men, 7 women, 1 unspecified; age = 34 ± 7 years) completed the study. Participants completed a structured Web-based questionnaire. Each cohort responded to questions matching their roles within an athletic training program. Data were analyzed following a general inductive process. Member checks, multiple-analyst triangulation, and peer review established credibility. Thirty-one (62%) participants supported the transition, 14 (28%) were opposed, and 5 (10%) were neutral or undecided. Advantages of and support for transitioning and disadvantages of and against transitioning emerged. The first higher-order theme, advantages, revealed 4 benefits: (1) alignment of athletic training with other health care professions, (2) advanced coursework and curriculum delivery, (3) improved student and professional retention, and (4) student maturity. The second higher-order theme, disadvantages, was defined by 3 factors: (1) limited time for autonomous practice, (2) financial concerns, and (3) lack of evidence for the transition. Athletic training students, faculty, and preceptors demonstrated moderate support for a transition to the graduate-level model. Factors supporting the move were comparable with those

  19. A Bayesian supervised dual-dimensionality reduction model for simultaneous decoding of LFP and spike train signals. (United States)

    Holbrook, Andrew; Vandenberg-Rodes, Alexander; Fortin, Norbert; Shahbaba, Babak


    Neuroscientists are increasingly collecting multimodal data during experiments and observational studies. Different data modalities-such as EEG, fMRI, LFP, and spike trains-offer different views of the complex systems contributing to neural phenomena. Here, we focus on joint modeling of LFP and spike train data, and present a novel Bayesian method for neural decoding to infer behavioral and experimental conditions. This model performs supervised dual-dimensionality reduction: it learns low-dimensional representations of two different sources of information that not only explain variation in the input data itself, but also predict extra-neuronal outcomes. Despite being one probabilistic unit, the model consists of multiple modules: exponential PCA and wavelet PCA are used for dimensionality reduction in the spike train and LFP modules, respectively; these modules simultaneously interface with a Bayesian binary regression module. We demonstrate how this model may be used for prediction, parametric inference, and identification of influential predictors. In prediction, the hierarchical model outperforms other models trained on LFP alone, spike train alone, and combined LFP and spike train data. We compare two methods for modeling the loading matrix and find them to perform similarly. Finally, model parameters and their posterior distributions yield scientific insights.

  20. Educational and training aspects of new surgical techniques: experience with the endoscopic–laparoscopic interdisciplinary training entity (ELITE) model in training for a natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to appendectomy. (United States)

    Gillen, Sonja; Gröne, Jörn; Knödgen, Fritz; Wolf, Petra; Meyer, Michael; Friess, Helmut; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Ritz, Jörg-Peter; Feussner, Hubertus; Lehmann, Kai S


    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a new surgical concept that requires training before it is introduced into clinical practice. The endoscopic–laparoscopic interdisciplinary training entity (ELITE) is a training model for NOTES interventions. The latest research has concentrated on new materials for organs with realistic optical and haptic characteristics and the possibility of high-frequency dissection. This study aimed to assess both the ELITE model in a surgical training course and the construct validity of a newly developed NOTES appendectomy scenario. The 70 attendees of the 2010 Practical Course for Visceral Surgery (Warnemuende, Germany) took part in the study and performed a NOTES appendectomy via a transsigmoidal access. The primary end point was the total time required for the appendectomy, including retrieval of the appendix. Subjective evaluation of the model was performed using a questionnaire. Subgroups were analyzed according to laparoscopic and endoscopic experience. The participants with endoscopic or laparoscopic experience completed the task significantly faster than the inexperienced participants (p = 0.009 and 0.019, respectively). Endoscopic experience was the strongest influencing factor, whereas laparoscopic experience had limited impact on the participants with previous endoscopic experience. As shown by the findings, 87.3% of the participants stated that the ELITE model was suitable for the NOTES training scenario, and 88.7% found the newly developed model anatomically realistic. This study was able to establish face and construct validity for the ELITE model with a large group of surgeons. The ELITE model seems to be well suited for the training of NOTES as a new surgical technique in an established gastrointestinal surgery skills course.

  1. Developing a comprehensive and articulated nuclear training curriculum - the Westinghouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholand, G.W.


    The training of nuclear power plant personnel to a level that meets the needs of public safety and plant efficiency has become an important issue. Following an evaluation of its training program, Westinghouse have, after considerable research and development, upgraded their program. This process is described. The steps covered include conducting the task analysis, identifying the appropriate educational domains and taxonomies, writing behavioural objectives, sequencing the objectives, selecting the proper mode of instructional delivery the unit of instruction and evaluating the actual effectiveness of the curriculum product. As these tasks are conducted on a microscopic scale for discrete units of information, a macroscopic analysis is also being conducted to organize and sequence global topic areas, thus producing a comprehensive and articulated curriculum model. (U.K.)

  2. Unscented Kalman Filter-Trained Neural Networks for Slip Model Prediction (United States)

    Li, Zhencai; Wang, Yang; Liu, Zhen


    The purpose of this work is to investigate the accurate trajectory tracking control of a wheeled mobile robot (WMR) based on the slip model prediction. Generally, a nonholonomic WMR may increase the slippage risk, when traveling on outdoor unstructured terrain (such as longitudinal and lateral slippage of wheels). In order to control a WMR stably and accurately under the effect of slippage, an unscented Kalman filter and neural networks (NNs) are applied to estimate the slip model in real time. This method exploits the model approximating capabilities of nonlinear state–space NN, and the unscented Kalman filter is used to train NN’s weights online. The slip parameters can be estimated and used to predict the time series of deviation velocity, which can be used to compensate control inputs of a WMR. The results of numerical simulation show that the desired trajectory tracking control can be performed by predicting the nonlinear slip model. PMID:27467703

  3. Unscented Kalman Filter-Trained Neural Networks for Slip Model Prediction. (United States)

    Li, Zhencai; Wang, Yang; Liu, Zhen


    The purpose of this work is to investigate the accurate trajectory tracking control of a wheeled mobile robot (WMR) based on the slip model prediction. Generally, a nonholonomic WMR may increase the slippage risk, when traveling on outdoor unstructured terrain (such as longitudinal and lateral slippage of wheels). In order to control a WMR stably and accurately under the effect of slippage, an unscented Kalman filter and neural networks (NNs) are applied to estimate the slip model in real time. This method exploits the model approximating capabilities of nonlinear state-space NN, and the unscented Kalman filter is used to train NN's weights online. The slip parameters can be estimated and used to predict the time series of deviation velocity, which can be used to compensate control inputs of a WMR. The results of numerical simulation show that the desired trajectory tracking control can be performed by predicting the nonlinear slip model.

  4. Applying the community health worker model in dermatology: a curriculum for skin cancer prevention education training. (United States)

    Jacobsen, Audrey A; Maisonet, Jezabel; Kirsner, Robert S; Strasswimmer, John


    Incidence of skin cancer is rising in Hispanic populations and minorities often have more advanced disease and experience higher mortality rates. Community health worker (CHW) programs to promote primary and secondary prevention show promise for many diseases, but an adequate training program in skin cancer prevention is not documented. We present a model for CHW specialty certification in skin cancer prevention for underserved, Hispanic communities. We designed a culturally appropriate CHW training program according to an empowerment model of education for skin cancer prevention and detection in underserved Hispanic communities. We partnered with a large nonprofit clinic in South Florida. Nineteen CHWs completed the 2-h training course. After the course, 82.4% (n = 14) strongly agreed with the statement "I feel confident I can educate others on the warning signs of melanoma." Eighty-eight percent (88.2%, n = 15) strongly agreed that they felt confident that they could educate others on the importance of sun safety. One hundred percent (n = 19) answered each question about how the sun affects the skin correctly while 84.2% (n = 16) were able to identify the "ABCDEs" of melanoma. Nearly 90% strongly agreed with "I plan to change my personal sun safety behaviors based on what I learned today". Our results indicate successful transfer of information and empowerment to CHWs with high levels of confidence. Disease specific "specialty certifications" are a component of effective CHW policies. An appropriate training tool for skin cancer education is an important addition to a growing list of CHW specialty certifications. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Ex-vivo training model for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommu Sashi


    Full Text Available Background: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS has recently been applied successfully in the performance of a host of surgical procedures. Preliminary consensus from the experts is that this mode of surgery is technically challenging and requires expertise. The transition from trainee to practicing surgeon, especially in complex procedures with challenging learning curves, takes time and mentor-guided nurturing. However, the trainee needs to use platforms of training to gain the skills that are deemed necessary for undertaking the live human case. Objective: This article aims to demonstrate a step-by-step means of how to acquire the necessary instrumentation and build a training model for practicing steeplechase exercises in LESS for urological surgeons and trainees. The tool built as a result of this could set the platform for performance of basic and advanced skills uptake using conventional, bent and articulated instruments. A preliminary construct validity of the platform was conducted. Materials and Methods: A box model was fitted with an R-Port™ and camera. Articulated and conventional instruments were used to demonstrate basic exercises (e.g. glove pattern cutting, loop stacking and suturing and advanced exercises (e.g. pyeloplasty. The validation included medical students (M, final year laparoscopic fellows (F and experienced consultant laparoscopic surgeons (C with at least 50 LESS cases experience in total, were tested on eight basic skill tasks (S including manipulation of the flexible cystoscope (S1, hand eye coordination (S2, cutting with flexible scissors (S3, grasping with flexible needle holders (S4, two-handed maneuvers (S5, object translocation (S6, cross hand suturing with flexible instruments (S7 and conduction of an ex-vivo pyeloplasty. Results: The successful application of the box model was demonstrated by trainee based exercises. The cost of the kit with circulated materials was less than £150 (Pounds Sterling

  6. Learning to Recognize Actions From Limited Training Examples Using a Recurrent Spiking Neural Model (United States)

    Panda, Priyadarshini; Srinivasa, Narayan


    A fundamental challenge in machine learning today is to build a model that can learn from few examples. Here, we describe a reservoir based spiking neural model for learning to recognize actions with a limited number of labeled videos. First, we propose a novel encoding, inspired by how microsaccades influence visual perception, to extract spike information from raw video data while preserving the temporal correlation across different frames. Using this encoding, we show that the reservoir generalizes its rich dynamical activity toward signature action/movements enabling it to learn from few training examples. We evaluate our approach on the UCF-101 dataset. Our experiments demonstrate that our proposed reservoir achieves 81.3/87% Top-1/Top-5 accuracy, respectively, on the 101-class data while requiring just 8 video examples per class for training. Our results establish a new benchmark for action recognition from limited video examples for spiking neural models while yielding competitive accuracy with respect to state-of-the-art non-spiking neural models. PMID:29551962

  7. Perception of nursing students to two models of preceptorship in clinical training. (United States)

    Omer, Tagwa Y; Suliman, Wafika A; Thomas, Laisamma; Joseph, Jayashanthimani


    This descriptive survey aimed at exploring nursing students' perception of two models of preceptorship: Model A requires intensive mentorship while Model B requires increasing students' independence and self directed learning. Convenience sample of 110 nursing students were recruited for this study. Fifty seven who were in courses of adult I and adult II were engaged in Preceptorship Model A, while 53 who were in courses of maternity and pediatric nursing were engaged in Preceptorship model B. Moore's (2009) reliable "Preceptorship Evaluation Survey" was used for data collection. It consists of three dimensions: preceptor's performance, preceptorship support at the practice site, and preceptee satisfaction with the clinical training experience. t-test, independent samples, was used for data analysis. The findings showed that participants' mean scores on each dimension: preceptee satisfaction, program support, as well as preceptor's performance domains (teacher, facilitator, role model, provider of feedback, adept with adult learning, advocate, and socializer) were significantly (p Model A. Participants perceived the preceptorship model which incorporates intensive mentoring as more satisfactory than the preceptorship model where increasing students' independence and self directed learning is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring the creation of learner-centered e-training environments among retail workers: a model development perspective. (United States)

    Byun, Sookeun; Mills, Juline E


    Current business leaders continue to adopt e-learning technology despite concerns regarding its value. Positing that the effectiveness of e-training depends on how its environment is managed, we argue that a learner-centric approach is necessary in order to achieve workplace training goals. We subsequently develop a theoretical model that is aimed at identifying the key components of learner-centered e-training environments, which serve the function of providing a benchmarked approach for evaluating e-training success. The model was empirically tested using data from an Internet survey of retail industry employees and partial least squares techniques were used for analysis. Based on the findings, this study clarifies what is needed for successful e-training in terms of instructional design, system design, and organizational support.

  9. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs (United States)

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie


    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  10. Measuring return on investment and risk in training – A business training evaluation model for managers and leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashandra C. Jasson


    Practical and managerial implications: Training and line managers must note that although the evaluation of trainee’s satisfaction, learning, application, impact and financial return is imperative and must be measured, ignoring the measurement of risk factors such as learning barriers and challenges may jeopardise the ability of leaders and managers to predict how investments in human capital development will impact business results.

  11. An Online Approach for Training International Climate Scientists to Use Computer Models (United States)

    Yarker, M. B.; Mesquita, M. D.; Veldore, V.


    With the mounting evidence by the work of IPCC (2007), climate change has been acknowledged as a significant challenge to Sustainable Development by the international community. It is important that scientists in developing countries have access to knowledge and tools so that well-informed decisions can be made about the mitigation and adaptation of climate change. However, training researchers to use climate modeling techniques and data analysis has become a challenge, because current capacity building approaches train researchers to use climate models through short-term workshops, which requires a large amount of funding. It has also been observed that many participants who recently completed capacity building courses still view climate and weather models as a metaphorical 'black box', where data goes in and results comes out; and there is evidence that these participants lack a basic understanding of the climate system. Both of these issues limit the ability of some scientists to go beyond running a model based on rote memorization of the process. As a result, they are unable to solve problems regarding run-time errors, thus cannot determine whether or not their model simulation is reasonable. Current research in the field of science education indicates that there are effective strategies to teach learners about science models. They involve having the learner work with, experiment with, modify, and apply models in a way that is significant and informative to the learner. It has also been noted that in the case of computational models, the installation and set up process alone can be time consuming and confusing for new users, which can hinder their ability to concentrate on using, experimenting with, and applying the model to real-world scenarios. Therefore, developing an online version of capacity building is an alternative approach to the workshop training programs, which makes use of new technologies and it allows for a long-term educational process in a way

  12. Development and validation of a laparoscopic hysterectomy cuff closure simulation model for surgical training. (United States)

    Tunitsky-Bitton, Elena; Propst, Katie; Muffly, Tyler


    The number of robotically assisted hysterectomies is increasing, and therefore, the opportunities for trainees to become competent in performing traditional laparoscopic hysterectomy are decreasing. Simulation-based training is ideal for filling this gap in training. The objective of the study was to design a surgical model for training in laparoscopic vaginal cuff closure and to present evidence of its validity and reliability as an assessment and training tool. Participants included gynecology staff and trainees at 2 tertiary care centers. Experienced surgeons were also recruited at the combined International Urogynecologic Association and American Urogynecologic Society scientific meeting. Participants included 19 experts and 21 trainees. All participants were recorded using the laparoscopic hysterectomy cuff closure simulation model. The model was constructed using the an advanced uterine manipulation system with a sacrocolopexy tip/vaginal stent, a vaginal cuff constructed from neoprene material and lined with a swimsuit material (nylon and spandex) secured to the vaginal stent with a plastic cable tie. The uterine manipulation system was attached to the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery laparoscopic training box trainer using a metal bracket. Performance was evaluated using the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale. In addition, needle handling, knot tying, and incorporation of epithelial edge were also evaluated. The Student t test was used to compare the scores and the operating times between the groups. Intrarater reliability between the scores by the 2 masked experts was measured using the interclass correlation coefficient. Total and annual experience with laparoscopic suturing and specifically vaginal cuff closure varied greatly among the participants. For the construct validity, the participants in the expert group received significantly higher scores in each of the domains of the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills

  13. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Yamamura


    Full Text Available Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training, 5th (before practical training at clinical sites, and 6th (after all practical training years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. Results A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation, and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of ‘self-determination’ in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen’s d= 0.43. Conclusion Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on ‘self-determination’ among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.

  14. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling. (United States)

    Yamamura, Shigeo; Takehira, Rieko


    To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students' learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation), and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of 'self-determination' in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen's d = 0.43). Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on 'self-determination' among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.

  15. Training Future Dentists for an Academic Career: A Three-Tiered Model. (United States)

    Horvath, Zsuzsa; Albani, Sarah E; Wankiiri-Hale, Christine


    The anticipated shortage of dental faculty presents a challenge for dental education as it will greatly impact the training of the next generation of practicing dentists. One way to alleviate shortages is to identify students who are interested in an academic career at the predoctoral level and provide them with training in teaching, research, and leadership. Based on available evidence, formal programs offer the best way to introduce students to academia as a viable career path. A well-designed program can also equip interested students with the necessary skills and basic knowledge to facilitate starting an academic career. The University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine has developed a three-tiered model for providing its dental students with exposure to and training in academic dentistry. The three tiers reflect differing levels of commitment: 1) a two-year academic career track program, 2) academic career track elective courses, and 3) extracurricular activities. The aim of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the program's overall effectiveness. Data were collected using student and faculty surveys and student applications for the two-year academic career track program. The data gathered included characteristics of, and feedback from, students taking the elective courses, as well as student and faculty feedback about student teacher effectiveness. The study found overall positive responses to the three-tiered program from faculty, students, and student teachers at this initial stage. Whether these students ultimately become faculty members (the ultimate goal of the program) will be assessed in the future.

  16. Otolaryngology-specific emergency room as a model for resident training. (United States)

    Sethi, Rosh K V; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Lee, Daniel J; Gliklich, Richard E; Shrime, Mark G; Gray, Stacey T


    There is a paucity of data on junior resident training in common otolaryngology procedures such as ear debridement, nasal and laryngeal endoscopy, epistaxis management, and peritonsillar abscess drainage. These common procedures represent a critical aspect of training and are necessary skills in general otolaryngology practice. We sought to determine how a dedicated otolaryngology emergency room (ER) staffed by junior residents and a supervising attending provides exposure to common otolaryngologic procedures. Retrospective review. Diagnostic and procedural data for all patients examined in the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary ER between January 2011 and September 2013 were evaluated. A total of 12,234 patients were evaluated. A total of 5,673 patients (46.4%) underwent a procedure. Each second-year resident performed over 450 procedures, with the majority seen Monday through Friday (75%). The most common procedures in our study included diagnostic nasolaryngoscopy (52.0%), ear debridement (34.4%), and epistaxis control (7.0%) An otolaryngology-specific ER provides junior residents with significant diagnostic and procedural volume in a concentrated period of time. This study demonstrates utility of a unique surgical education model and provides insight into new avenues of investigation for otolaryngology training. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Community Building Services Training Program: A Model Training Program to Provide Technical Training for Minority Adults in Construction, Building Maintenance,and Property Management. Final Report. (United States)

    Community Building Maintenance Corp., Chicago, IL.

    A demonstration program, administered by a community based building maintenance, management, and construction corporation, was developed to provide technical training for minority adults in construction, building maintenance, and property management in the Chicago area. The program was concerned with seeking solutions to the lack of housing, job…

  18. A New Design for Airway Management Training with Mixed Reality and High Fidelity Modeling. (United States)

    Shen, Yunhe; Hananel, David; Zhao, Zichen; Burke, Daniel; Ballas, Crist; Norfleet, Jack; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert


    Restoring airway function is a vital task in many medical scenarios. Although various simulation tools have been available for learning such skills, recent research indicated that fidelity in simulating airway management deserves further improvements. In this study, we designed and implemented a new prototype for practicing relevant tasks including laryngoscopy, intubation and cricothyrotomy. A large amount of anatomical details or landmarks were meticulously selected and reconstructed from medical scans, and 3D-printed or molded to the airway intervention model. This training model was augmented by virtually and physically presented interactive modules, which are interoperable with motion tracking and sensor data feedback. Implementation results showed that this design is a feasible approach to develop higher fidelity airway models that can be integrated with mixed reality interfaces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Sri Lengkanawati


    Full Text Available The Ministerial Regulation Number 16 of the year 2007 on academic qualification standards and teacher competencies requires teachers to demonstrate four competencies: personality, social, pedagogical, and  professional. However, there are two competencies (pedagogical and professional which become the stumbling obstacles for teachers of English in their professional involvement. Therefore, this study was designed to aim at: (1 creating a conceptual framework for enhancing teachers’ capabilities in developing and implementing teaching materials; (2 designing a model of IHT to improve the ability of teachers to develop and implement the use of teaching materials; and (3 piloting and implementing the IHT model in teacher training programs. The method used in the data analysis adopted a qualitative design with reference especially to the theory of the development of teaching materials (Crowford: 2002 and the design of IHT (Wallace: 1993. The results showed that most respondents tended to resort to the textbook as the primary source for students’ learning activities, with some enrichment materials obtained from the Internet and other sources. Nevertheless most of the teachers were still found to encounter quite a few obstacles in developing their teaching-learning materials, appropriate to the topics as indicated in the syllabus and to the student characteristics. To alleviate this hurdle, the IHT model to be incorporated in a teacher training program could be an effective alternative to improve the ability of the teachers in developing their English teaching-learning materials.

  20. Integration of soft tissue model and open haptic device for medical training simulator (United States)

    Akasum, G. F.; Ramdhania, L. N.; Suprijanto; Widyotriatmo, A.


    Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) has been widely used to perform any surgical procedures nowadays. Currently, MIS has been applied in some cases in Indonesia. Needle insertion is one of simple MIS procedure that can be used for some purposes. Before the needle insertion technique used in the real situation, it essential to train this type of medical student skills. The research has developed an open platform of needle insertion simulator with haptic feedback that providing the medical student a realistic feel encountered during the actual procedures. There are three main steps in build the training simulator, which are configure hardware system, develop a program to create soft tissue model and the integration of hardware and software. For evaluating its performance, haptic simulator was tested by 24 volunteers on a scenario of soft tissue model. Each volunteer must insert the needle on simulator until rearch the target point with visual feedback that visualized on the monitor. From the result it can concluded that the soft tissue model can bring the sensation of touch through the perceived force feedback on haptic actuator by looking at the different force in accordance with different stiffness in each layer.

  1. Models and Methods for Adaptive Management of Individual and Team-Based Training Using a Simulator (United States)

    Lisitsyna, L. S.; Smetyuh, N. P.; Golikov, S. P.


    Research of adaptive individual and team-based training has been analyzed and helped find out that both in Russia and abroad, individual and team-based training and retraining of AASTM operators usually includes: production training, training of general computer and office equipment skills, simulator training including virtual simulators which use computers to simulate real-world manufacturing situation, and, as a rule, the evaluation of AASTM operators’ knowledge determined by completeness and adequacy of their actions under the simulated conditions. Such approach to training and re-training of AASTM operators stipulates only technical training of operators and testing their knowledge based on assessing their actions in a simulated environment.

  2. New experimental model for training in videosurgery Novo modelo experimental para treinamento em videocirurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Malta Batista


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a new experimental model of lower cost for training in videosurgery. METHODS: This project was performed at the Nucleus of Experimental Surgery of the Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, based on previous models described in the literature and under the supervision of the full professor of Operative Technique and Experimental Surgery II. It was made a model cube-shaped, made of wood, with holes distributed in various locations, rubber stoppers for the holes and lined externally with carpet, and internally with laminate. RESULTS: The new experimental model is of low cost and reproduces quite faithfully several videosurgical procedures. CONCLUSION: Medical schools interested in the subject may adopt the new model for training in videosurgery without the need of high costs for making and using these models.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um novo modelo experimental de baixo custo para treinamento em videocirurgia MÉTODOS: Este projeto foi conduzido no Núcleo de Cirurgia Experimental da Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, baseado em modelos prévios descritos na literatura e sob a supervisão do professor titular de Técnica Operatória e Cirurgia Experimental II. Foi feito um modelo em formato de cubo, de madeira, com furos distribuídos em vários locais, tampas de borracha para os orifícios e forrado externamente com carpete e internamente com laminado. RESULTADOS: O novo modelo experimental desenvolvido é de baixo custo e reproduz de forma bastante fiel diversos procedimentos videocirúrgicos. CONCLUSÃO: Faculdades médicas interessadas no tema poderão adotar o novo modelo para o treinamento em videocirurgia sem que sejam necessários gastos elevados para a confecção e o uso desses modelos.

  3. Continuous Flow Perfused Cadaver Model for Endovascular Training, Research, and Development. (United States)

    Sarkar, Amrita; Kalsi, Richa; Ayers, Joseph D; Drucker, Charles B; Kaushal, Vaidehi; Sutton, William; Crawford, Robert S


    Endovascular simulation employing computer, animal, and static models are common and useful adjuncts for teaching endovascular procedures and developing novel, complex endovascular techniques. Unfortunately, these models lack realistic haptic feedback and thus do not faithfully replicate many of the technical challenges associated with clinical endovascular procedures (e.g., arterial calcification, rigidity, and stenosis). We sought to develop a realistic and reproducible perfused cadaver model for endovascular training, device development, and research. Fresh frozen, elderly (age 50-80 years) male cadavers were thawed and prepared for open dissection. The entire arterial tree (ascending aorta to femoral arteries) was dissected free and major branch vessels exposed. Sheaths were placed to allow outflow from selected vessels. A Dacron conduit was sewn to the ascending aorta to generate arterial inflow, which was provided by a centrifugal pump. Aortic aneurysms were created in the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta. Digital subtraction arteriography and various endovascular interventions were performed, including stent grafts and EndoAnchors deployment. Continuous antegrade flow was achieved in the thoracic, abdominal, iliac, and femoral segments. Open and percutaneous access at the femoral region was obtained with realistic back-bleeding and tactile feedback. Adequate, fluoroscopically documented flow was observed in both cannulated major and noncannulated smaller branches. We performed angiography with standard techniques via a pigtail catheter and contrast injector throughout the arterial system. Abdominal and thoracic endografts were deployed with appropriate angiographic guidance and realistic haptic feedback for both guidewire and stent grafts. Additional applications, including selective cannulation, aorto-iliac occlusive disease interventions, and anchor placement, were also successfully simulated. Finally, the model was used as a platform to test

  4. Future primary teacher‟s professional training to organizations of healthfocuses educational environment: theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Slyvka


    Full Text Available On the basis of the analysis of psycological and pedagogical literature the essence of thenotions “healthfocuses environment”, “primary teachers’ training to carry out healthfocusesenvironment”, “primary teachers’ readiness to carry out healthfocuses environment” isspecified. The model of preperation of the students of speciality “Primary Education” tohealthfocuses environment is offered. The totality of knowledge necessary for solvingprofessionally important tasks and realization healthpreserving activity is presented, skills andabilities which are the basis for realization of healthpreserving activity of future teachers insecondary educational establishments are stressed.Key words: health, healthy way of life, younger school-children, future primaryteachers’, healthfocuses environment.

  5. Respect for the complexity of human learning: a proposal for a new model of teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori R. Muskat


    Full Text Available "Inclusion" is hard to implement worldwide. In the U.S.A. and Canada, one obstacle is the division between "general" and "special" education. To facilitate inclusion of exceptional students, a new model of teacher training is needed. This piece introduces the System for Understanding Individual Learning Performance (S.U.I.L.P.. Derived from neuropsychology, cross-cultural psychology, education, and sociology, the S.U.I.L.P. provides a holistic framework and common vocabulary for understanding learning performance in all learners--across development and different contexts. It also establishes avenues for collaboration and eventual merging of general and special education.

  6. A prediction model for determining over ground walking speed after locomotor training in persons with motor incomplete spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Winchester, Patricia; Smith, Patricia; Foreman, Nathan; Mosby, James M; Pacheco, Fides; Querry, Ross; Tansey, Keith


    To develop and test a clinically relevant model for predicting the recovery of over ground walking speed after 36 sessions of progressive body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). A retrospective review and stepwise regression analysis of a SCI clinical outcomes data set. Outpatient SCI laboratory. Thirty individuals with a motor incomplete SCI who had participated in locomotor training with BWSTT. Eight individuals with similar diagnoses were used to prospectively test the prediction model. Over ground walking speed was assessed using the 10-m walking test. The locomotor training program consisted of 36 sessions of sequential comprehensive training comprised of robotic assisted BWSTT, followed by manual assisted BWSTT, and over ground walking. The dose of locomotor training was standardized throughout the protocol. Clinical characteristics with predictive value for walking speed were time from injury onset, the presence or absence of voluntary bowel and bladder voiding, a functional spasticity assessment, and over ground walking speed before locomotor training. The model identified that these characteristics accounted for 78.3% of the variability in the actual final over ground walking speed after 36 sessions of locomotor training. The model was successful in prospectively predicting over ground walking speed in the 8 test participants within 4.15 +/- 2.22 cm/s in their recovered walking speed. This prediction model can identify individuals who are most likely to experience success using locomotor training by determining an expected magnitude of training effect, thereby allowing individualized decisions regarding the use of this intensive approach to rehabilitation.

  7. Computer Simulation Model to Train Medical Personnel on Glucose Clamp Procedures. (United States)

    Maghoul, Pooya; Boulet, Benoit; Tardif, Annie; Haidar, Ahmad


    A glucose clamp procedure is the most reliable way to quantify insulin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but skilled and trained research personnel are required to frequently adjust the glucose infusion rate. A computer environment that simulates glucose clamp experiments can be used for efficient personnel training and development and testing of algorithms for automated glucose clamps. We built 17 virtual healthy subjects (mean age, 25±6 years; mean body mass index, 22.2±3 kg/m 2 ), each comprising a mathematical model of glucose regulation and a unique set of parameters. Each virtual subject simulates plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in response to intravenous insulin and glucose infusions. Each virtual subject provides a unique response, and its parameters were estimated from combined intravenous glucose tolerance test-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp data using the Bayesian approach. The virtual subjects were validated by comparing their simulated predictions against data from 12 healthy individuals who underwent a hyperglycemic glucose clamp procedure. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were predicted by the virtual subjects in response to glucose infusions determined by a trained research staff performing a simulated hyperglycemic clamp experiment. The total amount of glucose infusion was indifferent between the simulated and the real subjects (85±18 g vs. 83±23 g; p=NS) as well as plasma insulin levels (63±20 mU/L vs. 58±16 mU/L; p=NS). The virtual subjects can reliably predict glucose needs and plasma insulin profiles during hyperglycemic glucose clamp conditions. These virtual subjects can be used to train personnel to make glucose infusion adjustments during clamp experiments. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinematics effectively delineate accomplished users of endovascular robotics with a physical training model. (United States)

    Duran, Cassidy; Estrada, Sean; O'Malley, Marcia; Lumsden, Alan B; Bismuth, Jean


    Endovascular robotics systems, now approved for clinical use in the United States and Europe, are seeing rapid growth in interest. Determining who has sufficient expertise for safe and effective clinical use remains elusive. Our aim was to analyze performance on a robotic platform to determine what defines an expert user. During three sessions, 21 subjects with a range of endovascular expertise and endovascular robotic experience (novices 20 hours) performed four tasks on a training model. All participants completed a 2-hour training session on the robot by a certified instructor. Completion times, global rating scores, and motion metrics were collected to assess performance. Electromagnetic tracking was used to capture and to analyze catheter tip motion. Motion analysis was based on derivations of speed and position including spectral arc length and total number of submovements (inversely proportional to proficiency of motion) and duration of submovements (directly proportional to proficiency). Ninety-eight percent of competent subjects successfully completed the tasks within the given time, whereas 91% of noncompetent subjects were successful. There was no significant difference in completion times between competent and noncompetent users except for the posterior branch (151 s:105 s; P = .01). The competent users had more efficient motion as evidenced by statistically significant differences in the metrics of motion analysis. Users with >20 hours of experience performed significantly better than those newer to the system, independent of prior endovascular experience. This study demonstrates that motion-based metrics can differentiate novice from trained users of flexible robotics systems for basic endovascular tasks. Efficiency of catheter movement, consistency of performance, and learning curves may help identify users who are sufficiently trained for safe clinical use of the system. This work will help identify the learning curve and specific movements that

  9. Comparison of Computational-Model and Experimental-Example Trained Neural Networks for Processing Speckled Fringe Patterns (United States)

    Decker, A. J.; Fite, E. B.; Thorp, S. A.; Mehmed, O.


    The responses of artificial neural networks to experimental and model-generated inputs are compared for detection of damage in twisted fan blades using electronic holography. The training-set inputs, for this work, are experimentally generated characteristic patterns of the vibrating blades. The outputs are damage-flag indicators or second derivatives of the sensitivity-vector-projected displacement vectors from a finite element model. Artificial neural networks have been trained in the past with computational-model-generated training sets. This approach avoids the difficult inverse calculations traditionally used to compare interference fringes with the models. But the high modeling standards are hard to achieve, even with fan-blade finite-element models.

  10. A novel mechanical lung model of pulmonary diseases to assist with teaching and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Geoffrey M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A design concept of low-cost, simple, fully mechanical model of a mechanically ventilated, passively breathing lung is developed. An example model is built to simulate a patient under mechanical ventilation with accurate volumes and compliances, while connected directly to a ventilator. Methods The lung is modelled with multiple units, represented by rubber bellows, with adjustable weights placed on bellows to simulate compartments of different superimposed pressure and compliance, as well as different levels of lung disease, such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. The model was directly connected to a ventilator and the resulting pressure volume curves recorded. Results The model effectively captures the fundamental lung dynamics for a variety of conditions, and showed the effects of different ventilator settings. It was particularly effective at showing the impact of Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP therapy on lung recruitment to improve oxygenation, a particulary difficult dynamic to capture. Conclusion Application of PEEP therapy is difficult to teach and demonstrate clearly. Therefore, the model provide opportunity to train, teach, and aid further understanding of lung mechanics and the treatment of lung diseases in critical care, such as ARDS and asthma. Finally, the model's pure mechanical nature and accurate lung volumes mean that all results are both clearly visible and thus intuitively simple to grasp.

  11. Review-Research on the physical training model of human body based on HQ. (United States)

    Junjie, Liu


    Health quotient (HQ) is the newest health culture and concept in the 21st century, and the analysis of the human body sports model is not enough mature at present, what's more, the purpose of this paper is to study the integration of the two subjects the health quotient and the sport model. This paper draws the conclusion that physical training and education in colleges and universities can improve the health quotient, and it will make students possess a more healthy body and mind. Then through a new rigid body model of sports to simulate the human physical exercise. After that this paper has an in-depth study on the dynamic model of the human body movement on the basis of establishing the matrix and equation. The simulation results of the human body bicycle riding and pole throwing show that the human body joint movement simulation can be realized and it has a certain operability as well. By means of such simulated calculation, we can come to a conclusion that the movement of the ankle joint, knee joint and hip joint's motion law and real motion are basically the same. So it further verify the accuracy of the motion model, which lay the foundation of other research movement model, also, the study of the movement model is an important method in the study of human health in the future.

  12. Modeling wave trains in coastal regions; Modelagem de trens de ondas em regioes costeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Ana M.S.; Nachbin, A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IMPA)


    Our goal is to present a model that captures how the sea bottom topography or submarine structures can influence the evolution of water wave trains over a varying topography at intermediate depth. To obtain such a model, we consider Euler equations for inviscid fluids and we perform the asymptotic simplification of the nonlinear potential theory equations together with the method of multiple scales to get a reduced model. Such a model is called reduced because it simplifies nonlinear potential theory from two spatial dimensions to one dimension along the free boundary. We consider a varying topography at the bottom and/or the presence of submarine structures together with a free boundary at the surface of the sea. For modeling such a geometry we transform our Cartesian system into curvilinear coordinates through a conformal mapping that maps the original physical domain into a simpler domain (a strip). This modeling strategy allows us to capture and understand the dynamics of water waves in regions where offshore exploration activity already exists or not. Through an efficient model we can get important information regarding the dynamics of waves in coastal regions and also questions on the viability of oil and gas recovery in these regions. (author)

  13. Does box model training improve surgical dexterity and economy of movement during virtual reality laparoscopy? A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clevin, L.; Grantcharov, T.P.


    . Performance before and after the training was assessed in a virtual reality laparoscopic trainer (LapSim and was based on objective parameters, registered by the computer system (time, error, and economy of motion scores). Group A showed significantly greater improvement in all performance parameters compared......OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic box model trainers have been used in training curricula for a long time, however data on their impact on skills acquisition is still limited. Our aim was to validate a low cost box model trainer as a tool for the training of skills relevant to laparoscopic surgery. DESIGN......: Randomised, controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). SETTING: University Hospital. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen gynaecologic residents with limited laparoscopic experience were randomised to a group that received a structured box model training curriculum, and a control group...

  14. Utility of multimaterial 3D printers in creating models with pathological entities to enhance the training experience of neurosurgeons. (United States)

    Waran, Vicknes; Narayanan, Vairavan; Karuppiah, Ravindran; Owen, Sarah L F; Aziz, Tipu


    The advent of multimaterial 3D printers allows the creation of neurosurgical models of a more realistic nature, mimicking real tissues. The authors used the latest generation of 3D printer to create a model, with an inbuilt pathological entity, of varying consistency and density. Using this model the authors were able to take trainees through the basic steps, from navigation and planning of skin flap to performing initial steps in a craniotomy and simple tumor excision. As the technology advances, models of this nature may be able to supplement the training of neurosurgeons in a simulated operating theater environment, thus improving the training experience.

  15. Designing Excellence and Quality Model for Training Centers of Primary Health Care: A Delphi Method Study. (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar-Sadegh; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Shahgoli, Javad; Rahbar, Mohammad Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Ahadi, Hamid-Reza; Azami-Aghdash, Saber


    Excellence and quality models are comprehensive methods for improving the quality of healthcare. The aim of this study was to design excellence and quality model for training centers of primary health care using Delphi method. In this study, Delphi method was used. First, comprehensive information were collected using literature review. In extracted references, 39 models were identified from 34 countries and related sub-criteria and standards were extracted from 34 models (from primary 39 models). Then primary pattern including 8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards was developed as a Delphi questionnaire and evaluated in four stages by 9 specialists of health care system in Tabriz and 50 specialists from all around the country. Designed primary model (8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards) were concluded with 8 criteria, 45 sub-criteria, and 192 standards after 4 stages of evaluations by specialists. Major criteria of the model are leadership, strategic and operational planning, resource management, information analysis, human resources management, process management, costumer results, and functional results, where the top score was assigned as 1000 by specialists. Functional results had the maximum score of 195 whereas planning had the minimum score of 60. Furthermore the most and the least sub-criteria was for leadership with 10 sub-criteria and strategic planning with 3 sub-criteria, respectively. The model that introduced in this research has been designed following 34 reference models of the world. This model could provide a proper frame for managers of health system in improving quality.

  16. The Models of Relationship between Training and Psyche development in Cultural-historical and Activity Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogozhina I.N.,


    Full Text Available The possibility of referring of the psychological theories studying interrelation of training and mental development processes to this or that stage of scientific knowledge formation on the basis of studied objects types and corresponded determination systems as a basic criterion distinguishing the ideals of scientific rationality is justified. General characteristics of classical, non-classical and post-non-classical models, determination of the mechanisms of dissipative systems, requirements for learning and development model building in the context of post-non-classic science paradigm on the criterion of the system features of the object of cognition are described. Domestic psychological school models are compared with associanism, behaviorism, gestalt psychology and Piaget determination models on the number of options allocated to these determinants, types of causal chains and types of links between causal chains. It is shown that cultural-historical approach is situated intermediately between post-non-classical and non-classical models, while activity approach corresponds to post-non-classical understanding of the object of study as complicated self-developing "man-size" system. Determination relationships models developed by L.V.Vygotskii, S.L. Rubinstein, A.N. Leont’ev continue to play the heuristic role at the present stage of scientific development.

  17. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Web-Based Training in Malaysia: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model (United States)

    Hashim, Junaidah


    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261…

  18. Social Support at the Workplace, Motivation to Transfer and Training Transfer: A Multilevel Indirect Effects Model (United States)

    Massenberg, Ann-Christine; Spurk, Daniel; Kauffeld, Simone


    Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors of training transfer. Transfer motivation is thought to mediate the support-training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e. whole-team training), individual perception of these…

  19. A model of professional training in the peaceful uses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez V, V. Z.


    It proposes a training model based on the development of professional skills, on the humanist and socially responsible, which besides being functional to the professional area would also be for the society which it serves. Professional competence is according to M. T. Kane, . . the degree to which an individual is able to use knowledge, aptitudes, attitudes and wisdom associated with their profession, to solve complex problems that are presented in their area of professional activity . The model based on the staff of execution . . continuing attempts to bring as much as possible the world of professional practice and education, while striving to maintain a standardized measurement and evaluation . It should also serve as the pedagogic concepts of the significant learning in which knowledge must be structured and conceptualized information to facilitate their use. The areas in which happens training should be complementary and include the cognitive (knowledge), the psychomotor (skills) and social affective (attitudes). Assessments should also include a written, oral and practical examination. (Author)

  20. Development of body weight support gait training system using antagonistic bi-articular muscle model. (United States)

    Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Shingo; Nobutomo, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh


    The purpose of this study is to develop a body weight support gait training system for stroke and spinal cord injury. This system consists of a powered orthosis, treadmill and equipment of body weight support. Attachment of the powered orthosis is able to fit subject who has difference of body size. This powered orthosis is driven by pneumatic McKibben actuator. Actuators are arranged as pair of antagonistic bi-articular muscle model and two pairs of antagonistic mono-articular muscle model like human musculoskeletal system. Part of the equipment of body weight support suspend subject by wire harness, and body weight of subject is supported continuously by counter weight. The powered orthosis is attached equipment of body weight support by parallel linkage, and movement of the powered orthosis is limited at sagittal plane. Weight of the powered orthosis is compensated by parallel linkage with gas-spring. In this study, we developed system that has orthosis powered by pneumatic McKibben actuators and equipment of body weight support. We report detail of our developed body weight support gait training system.

  1. Natural model training, an alternative way to enhance learning in pediatric dentistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Sahebalam


    Full Text Available Educational teaching of the diagnosis of resorbed root for pulpectomy in deciduous teeth radiography has always been a big challenge in pediatric dentistry. The purpose of the study was to propose a new practical methodology to improve the quality of learning in students of dentistry.Extracted deciduous teeth were molded in the transparent epoxy resin as their real position in the jawbone. Then, their own pre-extraction radiographs were attached to them. Forty dental students were randomly allocated to the control group of conventional teaching and experimental group of natural model training. All participants were attended in a validated exam and the data were analyzed. A questionnaire was designed with an answer choice in Lickert scale to measure the students' attitude towards the new method and finally the data were reported with descriptive statistics.The mean of the learning degree in the experimental group was graded 9.2± 3.2 and was significantly higher than 5.8± 1.1 which belongs to the participants of the conventional method as control (p= 0.04 <0.05.Considering the limitation of this study, using natural models in radiography training will improve the diagnostic competency and the student's educational satisfaction in pediatric dentistry.

  2. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions (United States)

    Hamilton, Katherine L.


    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  3. [Improvement of emergency physician education through simulator training. Consideration on the basis of the model project "NASimSaar25"]. (United States)

    Armbruster, W; Kubulus, D; Schlechtriemen, T; Adler, J; Höhn, M; Schmidt, D; Duchêne, S; Steiner, P; Volk, T; Wrobel, M


    Prehospital emergency medicine is a challenge for trainee emergency physicians. Rare injuries and diseases as well as patients in extreme age groups can unexpectedly face emergency physicians. In the regulations on medical education the German Medical Association requires participation in 50 emergency missions under the supervision of an experienced emergency physician. This needs to be improved because on-the-job training does not generally represent the whole spectrum of emergency medicine and a good and structured training under on call conditions is nearly impossible. The subject of the model project described was whether practical training for emergency physicians can be achieved by participation in simulation training instead of real emergency situations. After modification of the Saarland regulations on medical education it was possible to replace up to 25 participations in emergency missions by simulation training. The concept of the course NASimSaar25 requires participants to complete 25 simulator cases in 3 days in small training groups. Emergency situations from all medical disciplines need to be treated. A special focus is on the treatment of life-threatening and rare diseases and injuries. Modern simulators and actors are used. The debriefings are conducted by experienced tutors based on approved principles. Medical contents, learning targets from the field of crew resource management (CRM) and soft skills are discussed in these debriefings. Education in the field of emergency medicine can be improved by simulator-based learning and training. However, practical work under a tutor in real and clinical experience cannot be completely replaced by simulation. Simulator training can only be successful if theoretical knowledge has already been acquired. A simulator-based course concept can result in an improvement of emergency medical education. The model project NASimSaar25 was well received by the target audience and mostly very well evaluated in terms of

  4. Model training across multiple breeding cycles significantly improves genomic prediction accuracy in rye (Secale cereale L.). (United States)

    Auinger, Hans-Jürgen; Schönleben, Manfred; Lehermeier, Christina; Schmidt, Malthe; Korzun, Viktor; Geiger, Hartwig H; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Gordillo, Andres; Wilde, Peer; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin


    Genomic prediction accuracy can be significantly increased by model calibration across multiple breeding cycles as long as selection cycles are connected by common ancestors. In hybrid rye breeding, application of genome-based prediction is expected to increase selection gain because of long selection cycles in population improvement and development of hybrid components. Essentially two prediction scenarios arise: (1) prediction of the genetic value of lines from the same breeding cycle in which model training is performed and (2) prediction of lines from subsequent cycles. It is the latter from which a reduction in cycle length and consequently the strongest impact on selection gain is expected. We empirically investigated genome-based prediction of grain yield, plant height and thousand kernel weight within and across four selection cycles of a hybrid rye breeding program. Prediction performance was assessed using genomic and pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP and PBLUP). A total of 1040 S 2 lines were genotyped with 16 k SNPs and each year testcrosses of 260 S 2 lines were phenotyped in seven or eight locations. The performance gap between GBLUP and PBLUP increased significantly for all traits when model calibration was performed on aggregated data from several cycles. Prediction accuracies obtained from cross-validation were in the order of 0.70 for all traits when data from all cycles (N CS  = 832) were used for model training and exceeded within-cycle accuracies in all cases. As long as selection cycles are connected by a sufficient number of common ancestors and prediction accuracy has not reached a plateau when increasing sample size, aggregating data from several preceding cycles is recommended for predicting genetic values in subsequent cycles despite decreasing relatedness over time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenj Bo


    Full Text Available One of the main fields of training future music teachers in Ukrainian system of higher education is instrumental music one, such as skills of performing and interpretive activities. The aim of the article is to design a model of the future music teachers’ readiness to performing and interpretive activities in musical and instrumental training. The process of modelling is based on several interrelated scientific approaches, including systemic, personality-centered, reflective, competence, active and creative ones. While designing a model of music future teachers’ readinesses to musical interpretive activities, its philosophical, informative, interactive, hedonistic, creative functions are taken into account. Important theoretical and methodological factors are thought to be principles of musical and pedagogical education: culture correspondence and reflection; unity of emotional and conscious, artistic and technical items in musical education; purposeful interrelations and art and pedagogical communication between teachers and students; intensification of music and creative activity. Above-mentioned pedagogical phenomenon is subdivided into four components: motivation-oriented, cognitive-evaluating, performance-independent, creative and productive. For each component relevant criteria and indicators are identified. The stages of future music teachers’ readiness to performing interpretative activity are highlighted: information searching one, which contributes to the implementation of complex diagnostic methods (surveys, questionnaires, testing; regulative and performing one, which is characterized by future music teachers’ immersion into music performing and interpretative activities; operational and reflective stage, which involves activation of mechanisms of future music teachers’ self-knowledge, self-realization, formation of skills of independent artistic and expressive various music genres and styles interpretation; projective and

  6. Interactivity and Trust as Antecedents of E-Training Use Intention in Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach (United States)

    Abu Mansor, Nur Naha


    Background: The last few decades saw an intense development in information technology (IT) and it has affected the ways organisations achieve their goals. Training, in every organisation is an ongoing process that aims to update employees’ knowledge and skills towards goals attainment. Through adequate deployment of IT, organisations can effectively meet their training needs. However, for successful IT integration in training, the employees who will use the system should be positively disposed towards it. This study predicts employees’ intention to use the e-training system by extending the technology acceptance model (TAM) using interactivity and trust. Methods: Two hundred and fourteen employees participated in the study and structural equation modelling was used in the analysis. Results: The findings of the structural equation modelling reveal that interactivity, trust, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have direct and positive effects on employees’ intention to use e-training. It was also shown that perceived ease of use had no effects on perceived usefulness, while trust has the strongest indirect effects on employees’ intention. In addition, the results of Importance-Performance Map Analysis (IPMA), which compares the contributions of each construct to the importance and performance of the model, indicate that to predict intention to use e-training, priorities should be accorded to trust and perceived usefulness. PMID:28718837

  7. Interactivity and Trust as Antecedents of E-Training Use Intention in Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Alkali


    Full Text Available Background: The last few decades saw an intense development in information technology (IT and it has affected the ways organisations achieve their goals. Training, in every organisation is an ongoing process that aims to update employees’ knowledge and skills towards goals attainment. Through adequate deployment of IT, organisations can effectively meet their training needs. However, for successful IT integration in training, the employees who will use the system should be positively disposed towards it. This study predicts employees’ intention to use the e-training system by extending the technology acceptance model (TAM using interactivity and trust. Methods: Two hundred and fourteen employees participated in the study and structural equation modelling was used in the analysis. Results: The findings of the structural equation modelling reveal that interactivity, trust, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have direct and positive effects on employees’ intention to use e-training. It was also shown that perceived ease of use had no effects on perceived usefulness, while trust has the strongest indirect effects on employees’ intention. In addition, the results of Importance-Performance Map Analysis (IPMA, which compares the contributions of each construct to the importance and performance of the model, indicate that to predict intention to use e-training, priorities should be accorded to trust and perceived usefulness.

  8. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model. (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv


    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.

  9. The MEDIA model: An innovative method for digitizing and training community members to facilitate an HIV prevention intervention. (United States)

    Renfro, Tiffaney; Johnson, Erin; Lambert, Danielle N; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph J


    As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect African American women, practitioners remain committed to developing innovative strategies to reduce HIV prevalence. These strategies include training community organizations, such as churches, and utilizing digital media to make intervention dissemination more sustainable. This article describes one such effort to train lay community members within predominantly Black churches in Atlanta, GA, to implement an HIV prevention intervention. Lay educators were trained by translating a face-to-face Training of Facilitators (TOF) to a digital platform using the MEDIA (Motivate-Engage-Digitize-Implement-Assess) model. Formative evaluations, consultation with experts in the digital platform of choice, and the experience of two P4 for Women Master Trainers informed our translation. The model guided the translation process as our research team worked alongside topical experts and a production company to develop storyboards for core curriculum activities, which were later scripted and filmed with mock participants. A user guide, toolkit, and program website were also developed as supplemental materials to accompany the video training. Lessons learned from this study indicate future attempts at digitizing TOFs should keep in mind that digitization can be a time-consuming process, pilot testing in the new format is necessary even for a previously tested intervention, and the structure provided by facilitators in face-to-face training must be embedded into the format of digitized trainings.

  10. Methodology for Training Small Domain-specific Language Models and Its Application in Service Robot Speech Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONDAS Stanislav


    Full Text Available The proposed paper introduces the novel methodology for training small domain-specific language models only from domain vocabulary. Proposed methodology is intended for situations, when no training data are available and preparing of appropriate deterministic grammar is not trivial task. Methodology consists of two phases. In the first phase the “random” deterministic grammar, which enables to generate all possible combination of unigrams and bigrams is constructed from vocabulary. Then, prepared random grammar serves for generating the training corpus. The “random” n-gram model is trained from generated corpus, which can be adapted in second phase. Evaluation of proposed approach has shown usability of the methodology for small domains. Results of methodology assessment favor designed method instead of constructing the appropriate deterministic grammar.

  11. Evaluating Corporate Sales Training Programs. (United States)

    Hawes, Jon M.; And Others


    Sales training programs require continual evaluation. The authors present a conceptual model of the interrelationships of planning, training, evaluation, and modification (IPTEM) in corporate sales training programs. (CT)

  12. Evaluation of cloud resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-Train observations (United States)

    Muehlbauer, A. D.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.


    This paper evaluates cloud resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) A-train satellites. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in GCMs and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating the microphysical, macrophysical and radiative properties of cirrus remains challenging. Comparing model simulations with observations from multiple instruments and observational platforms is important for revealing model deficiencies and for providing rigorous benchmarks. However, there still is considerable

  13. Investigating a model for lecturer training that enables lecturers to plan and carry out meaningful e-learning activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Christopher; Hansen, Pernille Stenkil; Christensen, Inger-Marie F.


    This paper reports on the effect of a lecturer training model in the shape of an e-learning project based on research on adult and work-based learning. A survey was conducted to explore participants’ learning experiences. Findings show high overall satisfaction, motivation and engagement. Suggest....... Suggestions for improvement include better integration of the e-learning project with other lecturer training components, supporting participants in formulating the e-learning project and providing additional opportunities for reflection and feedback....

  14. Reasons to Use Virtual Reality in Education and Training Courses and a Model to Determine When to Use Virtual Reality


    Veronica S. Pantelidis


    Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. Thisarticle lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed.Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions onwhen to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be used to determine whento use virtual reality in an education or training course is presented.

  15. Exercise training reverses skeletal muscle atrophy in an experimental model of VCP disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of exercise resistance and endurance training in the alleviation of muscle hypertrophy/atrophy should be considered in the management of patients with advanced neuromuscular diseases. Patients with progressive neuromuscular diseases often experience muscle weakness, which negatively impact independence and quality of life levels. Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene lead to Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD and more recently affect 2% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-diagnosed cases.The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of uphill and downhill exercise training on muscle histopathology and the autophagy cascade in an experimental VCP mouse model carrying the R155H mutation. Progressive uphill exercise in VCP(R155H/+ mice revealed significant improvement in muscle strength and performance by grip strength and Rotarod analyses when compared to the sedentary mice. In contrast, mice exercised to run downhill did not show any significant improvement. Histologically, the uphill exercised VCP(R155H/+ mice displayed an improvement in muscle atrophy, and decreased expression levels of ubiquitin, P62/SQSTM1, LC3I/II, and TDP-43 autophagy markers, suggesting an alleviation of disease-induced myopathy phenotypes. There was also an improvement in the Paget-like phenotype.Collectively, our data highlights that uphill exercise training in VCP(R155H/+ mice did not have any detrimental value to the function of muscle, and may offer effective therapeutic options for patients with VCP-associated diseases.

  16. Neural Spike-Train Analyses of the Speech-Based Envelope Power Spectrum Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha H. Rallapalli


    Full Text Available Diagnosing and treating hearing impairment is challenging because people with similar degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL often have different speech-recognition abilities. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM has demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRENV from a modulation filter bank provides a robust speech-intelligibility measure across a wider range of degraded conditions than many long-standing models. In the sEPSM, noise (N is assumed to: (a reduce S + N envelope power by filling in dips within clean speech (S and (b introduce an envelope noise floor from intrinsic fluctuations in the noise itself. While the promise of SNRENV has been demonstrated for normal-hearing listeners, it has not been thoroughly extended to hearing-impaired listeners because of limited physiological knowledge of how SNHL affects speech-in-noise envelope coding relative to noise alone. Here, envelope coding to speech-in-noise stimuli was quantified from auditory-nerve model spike trains using shuffled correlograms, which were analyzed in the modulation-frequency domain to compute modulation-band estimates of neural SNRENV. Preliminary spike-train analyses show strong similarities to the sEPSM, demonstrating feasibility of neural SNRENV computations. Results suggest that individual differences can occur based on differential degrees of outer- and inner-hair-cell dysfunction in listeners currently diagnosed into the single audiological SNHL category. The predicted acoustic-SNR dependence in individual differences suggests that the SNR-dependent rate of susceptibility could be an important metric in diagnosing individual differences. Future measurements of the neural SNRENV in animal studies with various forms of SNHL will provide valuable insight for understanding individual differences in speech-in-noise intelligibility.

  17. Development Mechanism of an Integrated Model for Training of a Specialist and Conceptual-Theoretical Activity of a Teacher (United States)

    Marasulov, Akhmat; Saipov, Amangeldi; ?rymbayeva, Kulimkhan; Zhiyentayeva, Begaim; Demeuov, Akhan; Konakbaeva, Ulzhamal; Bekbolatova, Akbota


    The aim of the study is to examine the methodological-theoretical construction bases for development mechanism of an integrated model for a specialist's training and teacher's conceptual-theoretical activity. Using the methods of generalization of teaching experience, pedagogical modeling and forecasting, the authors determine the urgent problems…

  18. The Effect of Inquiry Training Learning Model Based on Just in Time Teaching for Problem Solving Skill (United States)

    Turnip, Betty; Wahyuni, Ida; Tanjung, Yul Ifda


    One of the factors that can support successful learning activity is the use of learning models according to the objectives to be achieved. This study aimed to analyze the differences in problem-solving ability Physics student learning model Inquiry Training based on Just In Time Teaching [JITT] and conventional learning taught by cooperative model…

  19. A person-task-context model for designing curriculum and in-training assessment in postgraduate education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Anne Marie; Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke; Henriksen, Ann-Helen


    The aim of this study was to trial a person-task-context model in designing a curriculum and in-training assessment programme that embraces trainee level of professional development and the work-based context of postgraduate medical education. The model was applied to the design of a programme...

  20. 2004-2005 Academic Training Programme: Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 December LECTURE SERIES 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 December from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 6, 7, 8, 10 December, TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 3-006 on 9 December Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model R. BARBIERI / CERN-PH-TH There is a natural splitting in four sectors of the theory of the ElectroWeak (EW) Interactions, at pretty different levels of development /test. Accordingly, the 5 lectures are organized as follows, with an eye to the future: Lecture 1: The basic structure of the theory; Lecture 2: The gauge sector; Lecture 3: The flavor sector; Lecture 4: The neutrino sector; Lecture 5: The EW symmetry breaking sector. Transparencies available at: ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can ...

  1. 2004-2005 Academic Training Programme: Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 December LECTURE SERIES 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 December from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 6, 7, 8, 10 December, TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 3-006 on 9 December Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model R. BARBIERI / CERN-PH-TH There is a natural splitting in four sectors of the theory of the ElectroWeak (EW) Interactions, at pretty different levels of development /test. Accordingly, the 5 lectures are organized as follows, with an eye to the future: Lecture 1: The basic structure of the theory; Lecture 2: The gauge sector; Lecture 3: The flavor sector; Lecture 4: The neutrino sector; Lecture 5: The EW symmetry breaking sector. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez &ag...

  2. High-intensity interval training in patients with coronary heart disease: Prescription models and perspectives. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A B; Boidin, Maxime; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Gayda, Mathieu


    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as an alternative and/or complementary exercise modality to continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET) in CHD patients. However, the literature contains descriptions of many HIIT protocols with different stage durations, nature of recovery and intensities. In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of validated HIIT protocols in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and how to prescribe and use them during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. We also compare the superior and/or equivalent short- and long-term effects of HIIT versus CAET on aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, and quality of life; their efficiency, safety, and tolerance; and exercise adherence. Short interval HIIT was found beneficial for CHD patients with lower aerobic fitness and would ideally be used in initiation and improvement stages. Medium and/or long interval HIIT protocols may be beneficial for CHD patients with higher aerobic fitness, and would be ideally used in the improvement and maintenance stages because of their high physiological stimulus. Finally, we propose progressive individualized models of HIIT programs (phase II to III) for patients with CHD and how to ideally use them according to the clinical status of patients and phase of the cardiac rehabilitation program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The Multidisciplinary Translational Team (MTT) Model for Training and Development of Translational Research Investigators. (United States)

    Ameredes, Bill T; Hellmich, Mark R; Cestone, Christina M; Wooten, Kevin C; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Anderson, Karl E; Brasier, Allan R


    Multiinstitutional research collaborations now form the most rapid and productive project execution structures in the health sciences. Effective adoption of a multidisciplinary team research approach is widely accepted as one mechanism enabling rapid translation of new discoveries into interventions in human health. Although the impact of successful team-based approaches facilitating innovation has been well-documented, its utility for training a new generation of scientists has not been thoroughly investigated. We describe the characteristics of how multidisciplinary translational teams (MTTs) promote career development of translational research scholars through competency building, interprofessional integration, and team-based mentoring approaches. Exploratory longitudinal and outcome assessments from our experience show that MTT membership had a positive effect on the development of translational research competencies, as determined by a self-report survey of 32 scholars. We also observed that all trainees produced a large number of collaborative publications that appeared to be associated with their CTSA association and participation with MTTs. We conclude that the MTT model provides a unique training environment for translational and team-based learning activities, for investigators at early stages of career development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Catalyzing Interdisciplinary Research and Training: Initial Outcomes and Evolution of the Affinity Research Collaboratives Model. (United States)

    Ravid, Katya; Seta, Francesca; Center, David; Waters, Gloria; Coleman, David


    Team science has been recognized as critical to solving increasingly complex biomedical problems and advancing discoveries in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease. In 2009, the Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research (ECIBR) was established in the Department of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine as a new organizational paradigm to promote interdisciplinary team science. The ECIBR is made up of affinity research collaboratives (ARCs), consisting of investigators from different departments and disciplines who come together to study biomedical problems that are relevant to human disease and not under interdisciplinary investigation at the university. Importantly, research areas are identified by investigators according to their shared interests. ARC proposals are evaluated by a peer review process, and collaboratives are funded annually for up to three years.Initial outcomes of the first 12 ARCs show the value of this model in fostering successful biomedical collaborations that lead to publications, extramural grants, research networking, and training. The most successful ARCs have been developed into more sustainable organizational entities, including centers, research cores, translational research projects, and training programs.To further expand team science at Boston University, the Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Office was established in 2015 to more fully engage the entire university, not just the medical campus, in interdisciplinary research using the ARC mechanism. This approach to promoting team science may be useful to other academic organizations seeking to expand interdisciplinary research at their institutions.

  5. Investigating the impact of mindfulness meditation training on working memory: a mathematical modeling approach. (United States)

    van Vugt, Marieke K; Jha, Amishi P


    We investigated whether mindfulness training (MT) influences information processing in a working memory task with complex visual stimuli. Participants were tested before (T1) and after (T2) participation in an intensive one-month MT retreat, and their performance was compared with that of an age- and education-matched control group. Accuracy did not differ across groups at either time point. Response times were faster and significantly less variable in the MT versus the control group at T2. Since these results could be due to changes in mnemonic processes, speed-accuracy trade-off, or nondecisional factors (e.g., motor execution), we used a mathematical modeling approach to disentangle these factors. The EZ-diffusion model (Wagenmakers, van der Maas, & Grasman, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 14:(1), 3-22, 2007) suggested that MT leads to improved information quality and reduced response conservativeness, with no changes in nondecisional factors. The noisy exemplar model further suggested that the increase in information quality reflected a decrease in encoding noise and not an increase in forgetting. Thus, mathematical modeling may help clarify the mechanisms by which MT produces salutary effects on performance.

  6. Rehabilitative training promotes rapid motor recovery but delayed motor map reorganization in a rat cortical ischemic infarct model. (United States)

    Nishibe, Mariko; Urban, Edward T R; Barbay, Scott; Nudo, Randolph J


    In preclinical stroke models, improvement in motor performance is associated with reorganization of cortical motor maps. However, the temporal relationship between performance gains and map plasticity is not clear. This study was designed to assess the effects of rehabilitative training on the temporal dynamics of behavioral and neurophysiological endpoints in a rat model of focal cortical infarct. Eight days after an ischemic infarct in primary motor cortex, adult rats received either rehabilitative training or were allowed to recover spontaneously. Motor performance and movement quality of the paretic forelimb was assessed on a skilled reach task. Intracortical microstimulation mapping procedures were conducted to assess the topography of spared forelimb representations either at the end of training (post-lesion day 18) or at the end of a 3-week follow-up period (post-lesion day 38). Rats receiving rehabilitative training demonstrated more rapid improvement in motor performance and movement quality during the training period that persisted through the follow-up period. Motor maps in both groups were unusually small on post-lesion day 18. On post-lesion day 38, forelimb motor maps in the rehabilitative training group were significantly enlarged compared with the no-rehab group, and within the range of normal maps. Postinfarct rehabilitative training rapidly improves motor performance and movement quality after an ischemic infarct in motor cortex. However, training-induced motor improvements are not reflected in spared motor maps until substantially later, suggesting that early motor training after stroke can help shape the evolving poststroke neural network. © The Author(s) 2014.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ye. Naumenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of high-speed railway traffic requires the updating of requirements for the design of passenger rolling stock and revision of safety standards on emergency situation of trains with an obstacle. To the construction crews of the new generation demands by equipping them with passive crash systems, ensuring the safety of passengers and personnel in an emergency situation. In order to refine test scenarios train collision with an obstacle and evaluation indicators of energy absorption of the collision of the passive protection devices which are used in computer modeling. The first step in the research of dynamic processes in the train when excessive shock effects, is to assess the maximum values of the compressive forces generated in intercar compound trains, locomotive and cars which are equipped with passive safety systems.Methodology. Based on the concept of passive protection of passenger rolling stock for track with width of 1520 mm on emergency situation the conceptual passive safety system for passenger trains with locomotive traction are formed from the crews of the new generation was proposed. The passive safety system is recommended to be equipped both the locomotive and cars. For a preliminary assessment of compliance for the passive safety system of a passenger train on emergency situation, as a rule, the simplified discrete-mass model is used, in which the train is considered as one-dimensional chain of rigid bodies connected by nonlinear deformable elements. Findings. The algorithm for computing efforts in the inter-connections of the train locomotive traction of the permanent formation is developed, taking into account the specifics of work of coupling devices, devices, energy absorption and elastic-plastic properties of the body structure of crews at emergency situation. Originality. The proposed algorithm allows taking into account the peculiarities of train locomotives of the new generation and the work of

  8. A-Train Based Observational Metrics for Model Evaluation in Extratropical Cyclones (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Booth, James F.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Posselt, Derek J.


    Extratropical cyclones contribute most of the precipitation in the midlatitudes, i.e. up to 70 during winter in the northern hemisphere, and can generate flooding, extreme winds, blizzards and have large socio-economic impacts. As such, it is important that general circulation models (GCMs) accurately represent these systems so their evolution in a warming climate can be understood. However, there are still uncertainties on whether warming will increase their frequency of occurrence, their intensity and how much rain or snow they bring. Part of the issue is that models have trouble representing their strength, but models also have biases in the amount of clouds and precipitation they produce. This is caused by potential issues in various aspects of the models: convection, boundary layer, and cloud scheme to only mention a few. In order to pinpoint which aspects of the models need improvement for a better representation of extratropical cyclone precipitation and cloudiness, we will present A-train based observational metrics: cyclone-centered, warm and cold frontal composites of cloud amount and type, precipitation rate and frequency of occurrence. Using the same method to extract similar fields from the model, we will present an evaluation of the GISS-ModelE2 and the IPSL-LMDZ-5B models, based on their AR5 and more recent versions. The AR5 version of the GISS model underestimates cloud cover in extratropical cyclones while the IPSL AR5 version overestimates it. In addition, we will show how the observed CloudSat-CALIPSO cloud vertical distribution across cold fronts changes with moisture amount and cyclone strength, and test if the two models successfully represent these changes. We will also show how CloudSat-CALIPSO derived cloud type (i.e. convective vs. stratiform) evolves across warm fronts as cyclones age, and again how this is represented in the models. Our third process-based analysis concerns cumulus clouds in the post-cold frontal region and how their

  9. Predictions of psychophysical measurements for sinusoidal amplitude modulated (SAM) pulse-train stimuli from a stochastic model. (United States)

    Xu, Yifang; Collins, Leslie M


    Two approaches have been proposed to reduce the synchrony of the neural response to electrical stimuli in cochlear implants. One approach involves adding noise to the pulse-train stimulus, and the other is based on using a high-rate pulse-train carrier. Hypotheses regarding the efficacy of the two approaches can be tested using computational models of neural responsiveness prior to time-intensive psychophysical studies. In our previous work, we have used such models to examine the effects of noise on several psychophysical measures important to speech recognition. However, to date there has been no parallel analytic solution investigating the neural response to the high-rate pulse-train stimuli and their effect on psychophysical measures. This work investigates the properties of the neural response to high-rate pulse-train stimuli with amplitude modulated envelopes using a stochastic auditory nerve model. The statistics governing the neural response to each pulse are derived using a recursive method. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and model simulations is demonstrated for sinusoidal amplitude modulated (SAM) high rate pulse-train stimuli. With our approach, predicting the neural response in modern implant devices becomes tractable. Psychophysical measurements are also predicted using the stochastic auditory nerve model for SAM high-rate pulse-train stimuli. Changes in dynamic range (DR) and intensity discrimination are compared with that observed for noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli. Modulation frequency discrimination is also studied as a function of stimulus level and pulse rate. Results suggest that high rate carriers may positively impact such psychophysical measures.

  10. Social constructivism and community building: a model for the integrated training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Bianco


    Full Text Available Presentation of the project "Integrated Methods Training Network" which offers an example of integrated training path based on continuous dialogue, extreme flexibility 'and the direct involvement of a community'.

  11. Estimation of Release History of Pollutant Source and Dispersion Coefficient of Aquifer Using Trained ANN Model (United States)

    Srivastava, R.; Ayaz, M.; Jain, A.


    Knowledge of the release history of a groundwater pollutant source is critical in the prediction of the future trend of the pollutant movement and in choosing an effective remediation strategy. Moreover, for source sites which have undergone an ownership change, the estimated release history can be utilized for appropriate allocation of the costs of remediation among different parties who may be responsible for the contamination. Estimation of the release history with the help of concentration data is an inverse problem that becomes ill-posed because of the irreversible nature of the dispersion process. Breakthrough curves represent the temporal variation of pollutant concentration at a particular location, and contain significant information about the source and the release history. Several methodologies have been developed to solve the inverse problem of estimating the source and/or porous medium properties using the breakthrough curves as a known input. A common problem in the use of the breakthrough curves for this purpose is that, in most field situations, we have little or no information about the time of measurement of the breakthrough curve with respect to the time when the pollutant source becomes active. We develop an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to estimate the release history of a groundwater pollutant source through the use of breakthrough curves. It is assumed that the source location is known but the time dependent contaminant source strength is unknown. This temporal variation of the strength of the pollutant source is the output of the ANN model that is trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm utilizing synthetically generated breakthrough curves as inputs. A single hidden layer was used in the neural network and, to utilize just sufficient information and reduce the required sampling duration, only the upper half of the curve is used as the input pattern. The second objective of this work was to identify the aquifer parameters. An


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Addis, R; Matt Parker, M


    The Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies following the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for nine fatalities, and caused injuries to more than five hundred others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing two days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Emergency Operations Center (EOC), Department of Energy Headquarters, and hazmat teams dispatched from the SRS. Although model-generated forecast winds used in consequence assessments conducted during the incident were provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response, a high-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) simulation was later performed to examine potential influences of local topography on plume migration. The detailed RAMS simulation was used to determine meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 meters. Results from the two simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time; consequently, local topography did not significantly affect wind in the area. Use of a dense gas dispersion model to simulate localized plume behavior using the higher resolution

  13. Evolving models for medical physics education and training: a global perspective. (United States)

    Sprawls, P


    There is a significant need for high-quality medical physics education and training in all countries to support effective and safe use of modern medical technology for both diagnostic and treatment purposes. This is, and will continue to be, achieved using appropriate technology to increase both the effectiveness and efficiency of educational activities everywhere in the world. While the applications of technology to education and training are relatively new, the successful applications are based on theories and principles of the learning process developed by two pioneers in the field, Robert Gagne and Edgar Dale.The work of Gagne defines the different levels of learning that can occur and is used to show the types and levels of learning that are required for the application of physics and engineering principles to achieve appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic results from modern technology. The learning outcomes are determined by the effectiveness of the learning activity or experience. The extensive work of Dale as formulated in his Cone of Experience relates the effectiveness to the efficiency of educational activities. A major challenge in education is the development and conduction of learning activities (classroom discussions, laboratory and applied experiences, individual study, etc) that provide an optimum balance between effectiveness and efficiency. New and evolving models of the educational process use technology as the infrastructure to support education that is both more effective and efficient.The goal is to use technology to enhance human performance for both learners (students) and learning facilitators (teachers). A major contribution to global education is the trend in the development of shared educational resources. Two models of programs to support this effort with open and free shared resources are Physical Principles of Medical Imaging Online ( and AAPM Continuing Education Courses (

  14. Excimer Laser Assisted Non-occlusive Anastomosis (ELANA). Our experience with a training model in vivo. (United States)

    Russo, G; Rotondo, M; Punzo, A; Di Napoli, D


    In this study the ELANA Technique has been reproduced in our experimental laboratory in order to verify its feasibility and reproducibility, the percentage of patent anastomosis in acute at different steps along the learning curve of the surgical team, specific problems related to the surgical technique. In 20 rabbits New Zealand 4kg body weight the training model in vivo proposed by Tulleken and coworkers has been reproduced, realizing 40 ELANA anastomosis. The model consists in the realization of two different end-to-side anastomosis on the abdominal aorta of each experimental animal, assisted by a special designed suction/excimer laser catheter, then connected by an end-to-end suture. After a few hours the animals are sacrificed and the by-pass site withdrawn and examined in order to verify the percentage of patency in acute. In the first 5 animals (group A), the anastomosis were realized using a jugular vein graft and the procedure results successful in only 3 cases out of ten (30%). For the following experiments - groups B, C and D where an aorta artery graft was used, the percentage of arterial flap retrieval was respectively 50%, 60% and 80%. ELANA is a feasible fascinating microsurgical technique for the realization of high flow, non-occlusive anastomosis. The rate of success results progressively higher along the learning curve of the surgical team. In our opinion, before the application of the ELANA technique on humans, a period of propaedeutic training in vivo on laboratory animals is essential for the dedicated team.

  15. Experiences in disaster-related mental health relief work: An exploratory model for the interprofessional training of psychological relief workers. (United States)

    Ren, ZhengJia; Wang, HongTao; Zhang, Wei


    The purpose of this study was to begin to generate an exploratory model of the disaster-related mental health education process associated with the training experiences of psychological relief workers active during the Sichuan earthquake in China. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 20 psychological relief workers from four different professions (social workers, psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, and counsellors) regarding their experiences in training and ideas for improvement. The model explains the need to use a people-centred community interprofessional education approach, which focuses on role-modelling of the trainer, caring for relief workers, paying attention to the needs of the trainee, and building systematic interprofessional education strategies. The proposed model identifies areas for the comprehensive training of relief workers and aims to address the importance of people-centred mental health service provisions, ensure intentional and strategic training of relief workers using interprofessional concepts and strategies, and use culturally attuned and community-informed strategies in mental health training practices.

  16. "Good Enough" Psychiatric Residency Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: Challenges, Choice Points, and a Model Generalist Curriculum. (United States)

    Unruh, Brandon T; Gunderson, John G


    While the public health burden posed by borderline personality disorder (BPD) rivals that associated with other major mental illnesses, the prevailing disposition of psychiatrists toward the disorder remains characterized by misinformation, stigma, aversive attitudes, and insufficient familiarity with effective generalist treatments that can be delivered in nonspecialized health care settings. Residency training programs are well positioned to better equip the next generation of psychiatrists to address these issues, but no consensus or guidelines currently exist for what and how residents should be taught about managing BPD. Instead, disproportionately limited curricular time, teaching of non-evidence-based approaches, and modeling of conceptually confused combinations of techniques drawn from specialty BPD treatments are offered. In this article, we (1) explain why training in a generalist model is sensible and why alternative approaches are not appropriate for residents, (2) propose a plan for giving residents adequate training via a generalist model, highlighting minimal didactic and clinical-training objectives (dubbed "core competencies" and "milestones") and a model curriculum developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital/McLean Hospital residency program, and (3) describe obstacles to implementation of effective generalist training posed by infrastructural, faculty-centered, and resident-centered variables.

  17. Girls Entering Technology, Science, Math and Research Training (get Smart): a Model for Preparing Girls in Science and Engineering Disciplines (United States)

    Mawasha, P. Ruby; Lam, Paul C.; Vesalo, John; Leitch, Ronda; Rice, Stacey

    In this article, it is postulated that the development of a successful training program for women in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) disciplines is dependent upon a combination of several factors, including (a) career orientation: commitment to SMET as a career, reasons for pursuing SMET as a career, and opportunity to pursue a SMET career; (b) knowledge of SMET: SMET courses completed, SMET achievement, and hands-on SMET activities; (c) academic and social support: diversity initiatives, role models, cooperative learning, and peer counseling; and (d) self-concept: program emphasis on competence and peer competition. The proposed model is based on the GET SMART (Girls Entering Technology, Science, Math and Research Training) workshop program to prepare and develop female high school students as competitive future SMET professionals. The proposed model is not intended to serve as an elaborate theory, but as a general guide in training females entering SMET disciplines.

  18. A Study of Best Practices in Training Transfer and Proposed Model of Transfer (United States)

    Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly M.


    Data were gathered from a sample of training professionals of an American Society of Training and Development (ASTD) chapter in the southern United States regarding best practices for supporting training transfer. Content analysis techniques, based on a rigorous methodology proposed by Insch, Moore, & Murphy (1997), were used to analyze the…

  19. Evaluation of Training in Organisations: A Proposal for an Integrated Model (United States)

    Pineda, Pilar


    Purpose: Training is a key strategy for human resources development and in achieving organisational objectives. Organisations and public authorities invest large amounts of resources in training, but rarely have the data to show the results of that investment. Only a few organisations evaluate training in depth due to the difficulty involved and…

  20. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (United States)

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla


    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  1. Modeling a Conventional Electroporation Pulse Train: Decreased Pore Number, Cumulative Calcium Transport and an Example of Electrosensitization. (United States)

    Son, Reuben S; Gowrishankar, Thiruvallur R; Smith, Kyle C; Weaver, James C


    Pulse trains are widely used in electroporation (EP) for both general biomedical research and clinical applications such as nonthermal tumor ablation. Here we use a computational method based on a meshed transport network to investigate a cell system model's response to a train of identical, evenly spaced electric field pulses. We obtain an unexpected result: the number of membrane pores decreases during the application of twenty 1.0 kV/cm, 100 μs pulses, delivered at 1 Hz. This pulse train initially creates 13,000 membrane pores, but pore number decreases by a factor of 15 to about 830 pores throughout subsequent pulses. We conclude that pore number can greatly diminish during a train of identical pulses, with direct consequences for the transport of solutes across an electroporated membrane. Although application of additional pulses is generally intended to increase the effects of EP, we show that these pulses do not significantly enhance calcium delivery into the cell. Instead, calcium delivery can be significantly increased by varying inter-pulse intervals. We show that inserting a 300-s interruption midway in a widely used eight-pulse train (a protocol for electrosensitization) yields a ∼ twofold delivery increase. Overall, our modeling shows support for electrosensitization, in which multiple pulse protocols that maximize pore number over time can yield significant increase of transport of calcium compared to standard pulse trains.

  2. Comparison of Grammar-Based and Statistical Language Models Trained on the Same Data (United States)

    Hockey, Beth Ann; Rfayner, Manny


    This paper presents a methodologically sound comparison of the performance of grammar-based (GLM) and statistical-based (SLM) recognizer architectures using data from the Clarissa procedure navigator domain. The Regulus open source packages make this possible with a method for constructing a grammar-based language model by training on a corpus. We construct grammar-based and statistical language models from the same corpus for comparison, and find that the grammar-based language models provide better performance in this domain. The best SLM version has a semantic error rate of 9.6%, while the best GLM version has an error rate of 6.0%. Part of this advantage is accounted for by the superior WER and Sentence Error Rate (SER) of the GLM (WER 7.42% versus 6.27%, and SER 12.41% versus 9.79%). The rest is most likely accounted for by the fact that the GLM architecture is able to use logical-form-based features, which permit tighter integration of recognition and semantic interpretation.

  3. Comparison of different modelling approaches of drive train temperature for the purposes of wind turbine failure detection (United States)

    Tautz-Weinert, J.; Watson, S. J.


    Effective condition monitoring techniques for wind turbines are needed to improve maintenance processes and reduce operational costs. Normal behaviour modelling of temperatures with information from other sensors can help to detect wear processes in drive trains. In a case study, modelling of bearing and generator temperatures is investigated with operational data from the SCADA systems of more than 100 turbines. The focus is here on automated training and testing on a farm level to enable an on-line system, which will detect failures without human interpretation. Modelling based on linear combinations, artificial neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, support vector machines and Gaussian process regression is compared. The selection of suitable modelling inputs is discussed with cross-correlation analyses and a sensitivity study, which reveals that the investigated modelling techniques react in different ways to an increased number of inputs. The case study highlights advantages of modelling with linear combinations and artificial neural networks in a feedforward configuration.

  4. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training - IPET - intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike


    BACKGROUND: Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty.Methods/design: The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol...... indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees...... with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body...

  5. Three-dimensional modeling and virtual TRIGA reconfigure for specialized training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata M, A. C.; Morales S, J. B.; Flores, M.


    The news products that have been realized for the training virtual room which is developing in the Engineering Faculty of National Autonomous University of Mexico are presented. These improvements are mainly in modeling of virtual reality of the reactor building, as well as internal parts of reactor. It was modified the dynamic modeling of control rods of reaction in chain and included new elements to reactor. which exist not necessarily in all the TRIGA, but that, for educational purposes are highly useful. Such is the case of addition of valves, pumps, tanks, injection lines of light or borated water, as well as a heat exchanger, with it can recycle only pool water from side to other, or to extract energy toward a secondary controller from the operator console. The models of heat decay were included, of subcooled and nucleated boiling of coolant-moderator in the core, the dynamics of xenon and samarium. These last with independent multipliers of simulation time to allow variations very fast that real time. All these additions modify the coolant-moderator characteristics and consequently the answer of simulator. The controls are separated in: an operator console (student) very similar to the real systems, another of instructor that has additional access to parameters not directly measurement in the facilities but that allow to modify the system to illustrate another not easily possible effects in the real system. The traveling crane is also modeled and is controlled in a third console from where can to replacement to reactor as well as to add or to replacement: intakes and discharges of coolant circulators, measuring instruments, reflectors and neutron sources. The dynamic models have been tested in SCILAB and SCICOS. At present is working in the integration of the dynamic simulator and the virtual reality mainly with the design requirement of allowing functions of increased reality. (Author)

  6. Computational modeling of blast exposure associated with recoilless weapons combat training (United States)

    Wiri, S.; Ritter, A. C.; Bailie, J. M.; Needham, C.; Duckworth, J. L.


    Military personnel are exposed to blast as part of routine combat training with shoulder-fired recoilless rifles. These weapons fire large-caliber ammunitions capable of disabling structures and uparmored vehicles (e.g., tanks). Scientific, medical, and military leaders are beginning to recognize the blast overpressure from these shoulder-fired weapons may result in acute and even long-term physiological effects to military personnel. However, the back blast generated from the Carl Gustav and Shoulder-launched Multipurpose Assault Weapon (SMAW) shoulder-fired weapons on the weapon operator has not been quantified. By quantifying and modeling the full-body blast exposure from these weapons, better injury correlations can be constructed. Blast exposure data from the Carl Gustav and SMAW were used to calibrate a propellant burn source term for computational simulations of blast exposure on operators of these shoulder-mounted weapon systems. A propellant burn model provided the source term for each weapon to capture blast effects. Blast data from personnel-mounted gauges during weapon firing were used to create initial, high-fidelity 3D computational fluid dynamic simulations using SHAMRC (Second-order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code). These models were then improved upon using data collected from static blast sensors positioned around the military personnel while weapons were utilized in actual combat training. The final simulation models for both the Carl Gustav and SMAW were in good agreement with the data collected from the personnel-mounted and static pressure gauges. Using the final simulation results, contour maps were created for peak overpressure and peak overpressure impulse experienced by military personnel firing the weapon as well as those assisting with firing of those weapons. Reconstruction of the full-body blast loading enables a more accurate assessment of the cause of potential mechanisms of injury due to air blast even for subjects not

  7. Train-Network Interactions and Stability Evaluation in High-Speed Railways--Part I: Phenomena and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Haitao; Tao, Haidong; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This paper presents an impedance-based model to systematically investigate the interaction performance of multiple trains and traction network interaction system, aiming to evaluate the serious phenomena, including low-frequency oscillation (LFO), harmonic resonance and resonance instability....... The train-network interaction mechanism is therefore studied and one presents a detailed coupling model for investigating the three interactive phenomena and their characteristics, influential factors, analysis methods and possible mitigation schemes. In the Part I of the two-part paper, the measured...

  8. In Vitro experimental model of trained innate immunity in human primary monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkering, S.; Blok, B. A.; Joosten, Leo A B


    three stimuli induced a switch to glycolysis (the Warburg effect). These effects were most pronounced when the training interval was 24 h and the resting time interval was 6 days. Training with BCG and oxLDL also led to the increased production of reactive oxygen species, whereas training with β...... training period with β-glucan, BCG, or oxLDL, followed by washing and resting of the cells and, thereafter, restimulation with secondary bacterial stimuli. The training and resting time intervals were varied to identify the optimal setting for the long-term induction of trained immunity. Trained immunity...... was assessed in terms of the secondary cytokine response, the production of reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and induction of glycolysis. Monocytes primed with β-glucan, BCG, and oxLDL showed increased pro-and antiinflammatory cytokine responses upon restimulation with nonrelated stimuli. Also, all...

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Models of Bachelors of Arts' Professional Training in Applied Linguistics at the Universities of Ukraine and the USA (United States)

    Korniienko, Vita


    The analysis of scientists' researches from different countries dealing with different aspects of training in the educational systems of developed countries was carried out. The models of Bachelors of Arts in Applied Linguistics professional training in Ukraine were considered. It was analyzed a professional training of Bachelor of Arts in Applied…

  10. Effects of Resistance Training on Ventricular Function and Hypertrophy in a Rat Model (United States)

    Barauna, Valério Garrone; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to follow the ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in rats undergoing a resistance-training program for a period of 3 months. Design: Forty animals were divided into two major groups: control (n=16) and resistance trained (n=24). From the resistance-trained group, 12 animals were resistance trained for 1 month and another 12 for 3 months. The resistance-training protocol was performed with 4 sets of 12 repetitions using 65% to 75% of one repetition maximum (maximum lifted weight with the exercise apparatus). Methods: Echocardiographic analysis was performed at the beginning of the resistance-training period and at the end of each month. The repetition maximum was measured every 2 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy was determined by echocardiography, by the absolute weight of the cardiac chambers and by histology of the left ventricle. Results: Before resistance training, both groups had similar repetition maximums, ranging from 1.8-fold to 2-fold the body weight; however, at the end of the resistance-training period, the repetition maximum of the resistance-trained group was 6-fold greater than the body weight. The left ventricular mass as assessed by echocardiography was 8%, 12% and 16% larger in the resistance-trained group than in the control group in the first, second and third months, respectively. This hypertrophy showed a similar increase in the interventricular septum and in the free posterior wall mass. There was no reduction in the end-diastolic left ventricular internal diameter during the 3-month resistance-training period. Systolic function did not differ between the groups throughout the resistance-training period. Conclusion: Resistance training induces the development of concentric cardiac hypertrophy without ventricular dysfunction or cavity reduction. Although diastolic function was not completely investigated, we cannot exclude the possibility that resistance training results in diastolic dysfunction. PMID

  11. Implementation of a comprehensive competency-based transoral robotic surgery training curriculum with ex vivo dissection models. (United States)

    Sobel, Ryan H; Blanco, Ray; Ha, Patrick K; Califano, Joseph A; Kumar, Rajesh; Richmon, Jeremy D


    Despite its increasingly widespread adoption of transoral robotic surgery (TORS), there is still no uniform training curriculum. The purpose of this study was to describe the results of our novel TORS curriculum training program in which we introduce ex vivo dissection models for radical tonsillectomy and base of tongue (BOT) resections. Prospective blinded data collection and objective assessment of a novel training curriculum. Trainee performance was evaluated on objective structured assessments of technical skills (OSATS) metrics, measured resection time, and margin analysis. Additionally, 4 expert TORS surgeons completed the ex vivo dissections. Trainees achieved OSATS scores similar to those of experts in both the BOT resection and radical tonsillectomy models. Peripheral and deep surgical margin measurements in the BOT model were significantly improved after training and were comparable to experts. This graduated curriculum provides a realistic training experience to develop competency with oropharyngeal resections before transition to the operating room. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: First-1563, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Design and Implementation of a Holistic Training Model for Language Teacher Education in a Cyber Face-to-Face Learning Environment (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Chen, Nian-Shing; Levy, Mike


    This study reports a qualitative investigation that examines the design and implementation of a holistic teacher training model in a cyber face-to-face language learning context. To this end, this study first proposes an e-training model called the Practice, Reflection and Collaboration (PRC) model, and discusses the rationale and theoretical…

  13. Parent Management Training-Oregon Model: Adapting Intervention with Rigorous Research. (United States)

    Forgatch, Marion S; Kjøbli, John


    Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO(®) ) is a set of theory-based parenting programs with status as evidence-based treatments. PMTO has been rigorously tested in efficacy and effectiveness trials in different contexts, cultures, and formats. Parents, the presumed agents of change, learn core parenting practices, specifically skill encouragement, limit setting, monitoring/supervision, interpersonal problem solving, and positive involvement. The intervention effectively prevents and ameliorates children's behavior problems by replacing coercive interactions with positive parenting practices. Delivery format includes sessions with individual families in agencies or families' homes, parent groups, and web-based and telehealth communication. Mediational models have tested parenting practices as mechanisms of change for children's behavior and found support for the theory underlying PMTO programs. Moderating effects include children's age, maternal depression, and social disadvantage. The Norwegian PMTO implementation is presented as an example of how PMTO has been tailored to reach diverse populations as delivered by multiple systems of care throughout the nation. An implementation and research center in Oslo provides infrastructure and promotes collaboration between practitioners and researchers to conduct rigorous intervention research. Although evidence-based and tested within a wide array of contexts and populations, PMTO must continue to adapt to an ever-changing world. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  14. Electromagnetic Field Analysis and Modeling of a Relative Position Detection Sensor for High Speed Maglev Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue


    Full Text Available The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT and the New Equivalent Source (NES method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor.

  15. Creating comprehensive Mandarin training model for Taiwanese industry: An anticipation of Taiwan ‘Southbound policy (United States)

    Ying, Y.; Mursitama, T. N.; Sofi; Anggreani, L.


    The study discusses the effort of preparing human resources in mastering Mandarin for Taiwan industry as the anticipation of Southbound policy created by Taiwan government. In this point, the Southbound policy represents Taiwan’s government strategy in 2016-2020 which encourages multilateral and bilateral cooperation with ASEAN and South Asian countries. One of the most important elements in the program centers as the Internship Scholarship Program in Taiwan. Utilizing qualitative research methods, researchers collected secondary data from various available official resources. The publications, documents, books, and websites contain the policy and mechanism of the internship scholarship program. On the other hand, this study conducted interviews with senior high school and vocational high school stakeholders to create synergy in the program. This study offers a model of cooperation between junior high school/vocational school and the candidates of the employer in the Taiwan industry. The contribution of this research is to create a comprehensive cooperative model that includes preparing human resources before leaving for Taiwan, providing teachers and supplying training materials that are relevant to the needs of industry players in Taiwan eventually.

  16. Electromagnetic Field Analysis and Modeling of a Relative Position Detection Sensor for High Speed Maglev Trains (United States)

    Xue, Song; He, Ning; Long, Zhiqiang


    The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP) is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT) and the New Equivalent Source (NES) method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor. PMID:22778652


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim BARABANOV


    Full Text Available In order to overcome the drawbacks in artificial horizon indicator (HI of inside-in type (a view from an aircraft (A/C, where pilots produce mistakes in maintenance of attitude orientation most of all, the authors offer a novel training method. The method is based on the hypothesis that the manipulative ability of a human visual system can be trained. A mathematical model for the data accumulation during the corresponding training procedure has been proposed. Construction, design and results of the model evaluation are presented in the article. The experimental results revealed the increase of the probability of faultless operation by the test group of up to 0,892, whereas the faultless operation probability of a control group was 0,726. Thus, the trainee-students have statistically increased the reliability for the maintenance of attitude orientation thanks to the proposed method, and the hypothesis was confirmed.

  18. Operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.


    The traditional operator job is changing, which among other things has generated a need for better job training. Surprisingly increased process automation has lead to increased operator qualifications, i.e. basic job training but also up-date and rehearsal training within certain fixed intervals. There are several, similar models for instructional system development available in the literature. One model which is of special interest integrates Operator Training development and Man-Machine Interfaces development. The extent to which Systematic Operator Training has been implemented varies with branches and companies. The nuclear power branch is given as an example in the report. This branch probably represents something better than the average among the process industries.(author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Mahla


    Full Text Available An integral dynamic model of the metropolitan train type transport system is presented. The interactions between the trajectories of the trains in use and the passenger exchange between the cars and the platforms in the stations along the tracks are described. In contrast with the current traffic engineering models based on passenger flow, this model allows the simulation of passenger accumulation that occurs on the platforms when the train cannot transport the total number of passengers waiting for it. The dynamics of the metropolitan train is modeled with a hybrid system in which the platforms and the trains are considered as continuous modes and train arrival at the stations as discrete events.En este artículo se describe un modelo dinámico integral del sistema de transporte tipo tren metropolitano. En él se describen las interacciones entre las trayectorias de los trenes en circulación y el intercambio de pasajeros entre los coches y los andenes en las estaciones a lo largo de la vía. A diferencia de los actuales modelos de ingeniería de tráfico, basados en flujos de pasajeros, este modelo permite simular las acumulaciones que se producen en los andenes cuando el tren no logra transportar la cantidad total de pasajeros esperando en el andén. La dinámica del tren metropolitano es modelada como un sistema híbrido en el cual los andenes y los trenes son considerados modos continuos y los arribos de los trenes a las estaciones como eventos discretos.

  20. Effects of sildenafil on the gastrocnemius and cardiac muscles of rats in a model of prolonged moderate exercise training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rinaldi

    Full Text Available Moderate exercise training improves energetic metabolism, tissue perfusion and induces cardiac and skeletal muscle remodeling. Sildenafil, a potent phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction, reduces infarct size and increases tissue oxygenation in experimental models of cardiovascular disease. We have evaluated the effects of prolonged moderate exercise training and a repeat administration of sildenafil on the rat gastrocnemius and cardiac muscles. Animals were divided into two groups: sedentary and trained. Each group was subdivided into animals treated with vehicle or with two doses of sildenafil (10 or 15 mg/kg/day during the last week of training. Physical exercise did not induce cardiac hypertrophy, whereas it increased mRNA levels of the PGC-1α, HIF-1α and VEGF genes, which are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced mRNA levels of FoxO3a, MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1. Sildenafil dose-dependently promoted both angiogenesis, as shown by increased capillary density, and muscle atrophy, as shown by muscle fibre size. These effects were more pronounced in trained animals. Our data confirm the beneficial effects of a moderate and prolonged training on cardiovascular and skeletal systems and document the positive and negative effects of sildenafil on these tissues at doses higher than those used in clinical practice. This report may impact on the use of sildenafil as a substance able to influence sports performance.