WorldWideScience

Sample records for model rule relate

  1. Parton model sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Hinchliffe, Ian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Kwiatkowski, Axel

    1996-01-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of various Parton Model sum rules. The basis of the sum rules in perturbative QCD is discussed. Their use in extracting the value of the strong coupling constant is evaluated and the failure of the naive version of some of these rules is assessed.

  2. Online Rule Generation Software Process Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sudeep Marwaha; Alka Aroa; Satma M C; Rajni Jain; R C Goyal

    2013-01-01

    .... The software process model for rule generation using decision tree classifier refers to the various steps required to be executed for the development of a web based software model for decision rule generation...

  3. Organisational Rules in Schools: Teachers' Opinions about Functions of Rules, Rule-Following and Breaking Behaviours in Relation to Their Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkasimoglu, Nihan; Aydin, Inayet; Erdogan, Cetin; Akin, Ugur

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine teachers' opinions about functions of school rules, reasons for rule-breaking and results of rule-breaking in relation to their locus of control, gender, age, seniority and branch. 350 public elementary school teachers in Ankara are included in the correlational survey model study. According to the…

  4. Rule-based Modelling and Tunable Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Harmer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of an extension of rule-based modelling for cellular signalling to create a structured space of model variants. This enables the incremental development of rule sets that start from simple mechanisms and which, by a gradual increase in agent and rule resolution, evolve into more detailed descriptions.

  5. Rule-based Modelling and Tunable Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Harmer, Russ

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of an extension of rule-based modelling for cellular signalling to create a structured space of model variants. This enables the incremental development of rule sets that start from simple mechanisms and which, by a gradual increase in agent and rule resolution, evolve into more detailed descriptions.

  6. Will Rule based BPM obliterate Process Models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, S.; Joosten, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Business rules can be used directly for controlling business processes, without reference to a business process model. In this paper we propose to use business rules to specify both business processes and the software that supports them. Business rules expressed in smart mathematical notations bring

  7. Rules-based object-relational databases ontology construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jia; Wu Yue

    2009-01-01

    To solve the problems of sharing and reusing information in the information system, a rules-based ontology constructing approach from object-relational databases is proposed. A 3-tuple ontology constructing model is proposed first. Then, four types of ontology constructing rules including class, property, property characteristics, and property restrictions axe formalized affording to the model. Experiment results described in Web ontology language prove that our proposed approach is feasible for applying in the semantic objects project of semantic computing laboratory in UC Irvine. Our approach reduces about twenty percent constructing time compared with the ontology construction from relational databases.

  8. Relation between (e, e') sum rules in {sup 6,7}Li and {sup 4}He nuclei: Experiment and cluster model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efros, V.D. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Timchenko, I.S.; Buki, A.Yu. [National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2016-09-15

    The sums over (e, e') spectra of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li nuclei which correspond to the longitudinal sum rule are studied. It is suggested that due to the cluster structure of the lithium isotopes these sums may approximately be expressed in terms of such a sum pertaining to the α-particle. Calculation of these sums is performed in the framework of cluster models with antisymmetrization done with respect to all the nucleons. At momentum transfers higher than 0.8 fm{sup -1} the relations expressing the A = 6 or 7 sum in terms of the A = 4 sum prove to be valid with rather high accuracy. In the region of momentum transfers around 1 fm{sup -1} the longitudinal correlation functions of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li nuclei are found to be close to that of the α-particle. Basing on this, the difference between the q values at which the high-q limit of the inelastic sum rule is reached in the {sup 6,7}Li cases and the {sup 4}He case is explained. The experimental longitudinal sums in the range between 0.450 and 1.625 fm{sup -1} are employed to perform comparison with the theoretical sum rule calculated in the framework of cluster models. Out of the experimental sums, those in the range between 0.750 and 1.000 fm{sup -1} in the {sup 6}Li case and between 0.750 and 1.125 fm{sup -1} in the {sup 7}Li case are obtained in the present work. In the {sup 6}Li case a complete agreement between experiment and the calculated sum rule is found while in the {sup 7}Li case an agreement only at a qualitative level is observed. (orig.)

  9. Online Rule Generation Software Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Marwaha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For production systems like expert systems, a rule generation software can facilitate the faster deployment. The software process model for rule generation using decision tree classifier refers to the various steps required to be executed for the development of a web based software model for decision rule generation. The Royce’s final waterfall model has been used in this paper to explain the software development process. The paper presents the specific output of various steps of modified waterfall model for decision rules generation.

  10. QCD Sum Rules and Models for Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2004-10-01

    I use QCD sum rule ideas to construct models for generalized parton distributions. To this end, the perturbative parts of QCD sum rules for the pion and nucleon electromagnetic form factors are interpreted in terms of GPDs and two models are discussed. One of them takes the double Borel transform at adjusted value of the Borel parameter as a model for nonforward parton densities, and another is based on the local duality relation. Possible ways of improving these Ansaetze are briefly discussed.

  11. Higher Education: New Models, New Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louis; Eaton, Judith S.; Smith, Burck

    2013-01-01

    The Internet enables new models. In the commercial world, for example, we have eBay, Amazon.com, and Netflix. These new models operate with a different set of rules than do traditional models. New models are emerging in higher education as well--for example, competency-based programs. In addition, courses that are being provided from outside the…

  12. Higher Education: New Models, New Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louis; Eaton, Judith S.; Smith, Burck

    2013-01-01

    The Internet enables new models. In the commercial world, for example, we have eBay, Amazon.com, and Netflix. These new models operate with a different set of rules than do traditional models. New models are emerging in higher education as well--for example, competency-based programs. In addition, courses that are being provided from outside the…

  13. Optimization of inhibitory decision rules relative to length and coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. In contrast with usual rules that have on the right-hand side a relation "attribute ≠ value", inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute = value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Official News relating to CERN Safety Rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Safety Rules listed below have been published on the HSE website (see here) and entered into force on the 9 June 2015:   Safety Regulation SR-M “Mechanical equipment”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M_ENv2.htm; this SR-M (version 2) cancels and replaces SR-M (version 1) and the corresponding provisions of General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 “Special Equipment” (version 1).   General Safety Instruction GSI-M-1 “Lifting equipment and accessories”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M-1_ENv2.htm; this GSI-M-1 (version 2) cancels and replaces GSI-M1 (version 1). Specific Safety Instruction SSI-M-1-1 “Slings and lifting chains”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SSI-M-1-1_EN.htm; Specific Safety Instruction SSI-M-1-2 “Cranes, bridge cranes, gantry cranes and power-driven hoists”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SSI-M-1-2_EN.htm; Specific Safety Instruction SSI-M-1-3 “Non-f...

  15. Simulation of large-scale rule-based models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Monnie, Michael I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colvin, Joshua [NON LANL; Faseder, James [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Interactions of molecules, such as signaling proteins, with multiple binding sites and/or multiple sites of post-translational covalent modification can be modeled using reaction rules. Rules comprehensively, but implicitly, define the individual chemical species and reactions that molecular interactions can potentially generate. Although rules can be automatically processed to define a biochemical reaction network, the network implied by a set of rules is often too large to generate completely or to simulate using conventional procedures. To address this problem, we present DYNSTOC, a general-purpose tool for simulating rule-based models. DYNSTOC implements a null-event algorithm for simulating chemical reactions in a homogenous reaction compartment. The simulation method does not require that a reaction network be specified explicitly in advance, but rather takes advantage of the availability of the reaction rules in a rule-based specification of a network to determine if a randomly selected set of molecular components participates in a reaction during a time step. DYNSTOC reads reaction rules written in the BioNetGen language which is useful for modeling protein-protein interactions involved in signal transduction. The method of DYNSTOC is closely related to that of STOCHSIM. DYNSTOC differs from STOCHSIM by allowing for model specification in terms of BNGL, which extends the range of protein complexes that can be considered in a model. DYNSTOC enables the simulation of rule-based models that cannot be simulated by conventional methods. We demonstrate the ability of DYNSTOC to simulate models accounting for multisite phosphorylation and multivalent binding processes that are characterized by large numbers of reactions. DYNSTOC is free for non-commercial use. The C source code, supporting documentation and example input files are available at .

  16. 76 FR 45168 - Rules Relating to Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... the following methods: Electronic: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting... to consumer financial products or services; the impact of proposed rules on depository institutions... Subjects in 12 CFR Part 1080 Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, Banking, Consumer protection...

  17. 77 FR 39101 - Rules Relating to Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... financial law. The Final Rule authorizes the Director, the Assistant Director of the Office of Enforcement... Director with a statement setting forth any factual and legal responses to a petition. The Bureau will not... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER...

  18. Official News relating to CERN Safety Rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Safety Rules listed below have been published on the official CERN Safety Rules website (see here).   Safety Regulation SR-WS Works and services: this SR-WS (version 1) will cancel and replace the corresponding provisions of Safety Instruction IS50 “Safety Coordination on CERN Worksites”. General Safety Instruction GSI-WS-1 Safety coordination for works and services: this GSI-WS-1 (version 1) will cancel and replace the corresponding provisions of Safety Instruction IS39 “Notice of Start of Works (AOC)” and of Safety Instruction IS50 “Safety Coordination on CERN Worksites” ​Specific Safety Instruction SSI-WS-1-1 Safety coordinator for category 1 operations: this SSI-WS-1-4 (version 1) will cancel and replace the corresponding provisions of Safety Instruction IS50 “Safety Coordination on CERN Worksites”.​ ​ In order to limit the impact on the end-of-year technical st...

  19. 78 FR 6273 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax Correction In proposed rule document 2012-29237, appearing on pages 72268- 72277 in the issue of...

  20. Analyzing Strategic Business Rules through Simulation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta, Elena; Ruiz, Mercedes; Toro, Miguel

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) holds promise for business agility since it allows business process to change to meet new customer demands or market needs without causing a cascade effect of changes in the underlying IT systems. Business rules are the instrument chosen to help business and IT to collaborate. In this paper, we propose the utilization of simulation models to model and simulate strategic business rules that are then disaggregated at different levels of an SOA architecture. Our proposal is aimed to help find a good configuration for strategic business objectives and IT parameters. The paper includes a case study where a simulation model is built to help business decision-making in a context where finding a good configuration for different business parameters and performance is too complex to analyze by trial and error.

  1. Optimization of Approximate Inhibitory Rules Relative to Number of Misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2013-10-04

    In this work, we consider so-called nonredundant inhibitory rules, containing an expression “attribute:F value” on the right- hand side, for which the number of misclassifications is at most a threshold γ. We study a dynamic programming approach for description of the considered set of rules. This approach allows also the optimization of nonredundant inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. The aim of this paper is to investigate an additional possibility of optimization relative to the number of misclassifications. The results of experiments with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository show this additional optimization achieves a fewer misclassifications. Thus, the proposed optimization procedure is promising.

  2. Relating Paleoclimate Data and Past Temperature Gradients: Some Suggestive Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, David

    1999-01-01

    Understanding tropical sensitivity is perhaps the major concern confronting researchers, for both past and future climate change issues. Tropical data has been beset by contradictions, and many techniques applicable to the extratropics are either unavailable or fraught with uncertainty when applied at low latitudes. Paleoclimate data, if interpreted within the context of the latitudinal temperature gradient data they imply, can be used to estimate what happened to tropical temperatures in the past, and provide a first guess for what might happen in the future. The approach is made possible by the modeling result that atmospheric dynamical changes, and the climate impacts they produce, respond primarily to temperature gradient changes. Here we review some "rules" obtained from GCM (General Circulation Model) experiments with different sea surface temperature gradients and different forcing, that can be used to relate paleoclimate reconstructions to the likely temperature gradient changes they suggest.

  3. Tutorial on Modeling VAT Rules Using OWL-DL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Ken Friis

    This paper reports on work in progress. We present a methodology for constructing an OWL-DL model of a subset of Danish VAT rules. It is our intention that domain experts without training in formal modeling or computer science should be able to create and maintain the model using our methodology....... In an ERP setting such a model could reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and increase the quality of the system. We have selected OWL-DL because we believe that description logic is suited for modeling VAT rules due to the decidability of important inference problems that are key to the way we plan...... to use the model and because OWL-DL is relatively intuitive to use....

  4. Optimization of approximate decision rules relative to number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2012-12-01

    In the paper, we study an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the number of misclassifications. We introduce an uncertainty measure J(T) which is a difference between the number of rows in a decision table T and the number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. The presented algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δγ(T). Based on this graph we can describe the whole set of so-called irredundant γ-decision rules. We can optimize rules from this set according to the number of misclassifications. Results of experiments with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository are presented. © 2012 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Recursion relations and branching rules for simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Lyakhovsky, V D

    1995-01-01

    The branching rules between simple Lie algebras and its regular (maximal) simple subalgebras are studied. Two types of recursion relations for anomalous relative multiplicities are obtained. One of them is proved to be the factorized version of the other. The factorization property is based on the existence of the set of weights \\Gamma specific for each injection. The structure of \\Gamma is easily deduced from the correspondence between the root systems of algebra and subalgebra. The recursion relations thus obtained give rise to simple and effective algorithm for branching rules. The details are exposed by performing the explicit decomposition procedure for A_{3} \\oplus u(1) \\rightarrow B_{4} injection.

  6. 78 FR 6272 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ..., December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72268). The proposed regulations are relating to Additional Hospital Insurance Tax... proposed rulemaking and notice of public hearing (REG-130074-11), that was the subject of FR Doc. 2012... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax;...

  7. Comparative analysis of business rules and business process modeling languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Rima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During developing an information system is important to create clear models and choose suitable modeling languages. The article analyzes the SRML, SBVR, PRR, SWRL, OCL rules specifying language and UML, DFD, CPN, EPC and IDEF3 BPMN business process modeling language. The article presents business rules and business process modeling languages theoretical comparison. The article according to selected modeling aspects of the comparison between different business process modeling languages ​​and business rules representation languages sets. Also, it is selected the best fit of language set for three layer framework for business rule based software modeling.

  8. The Applicability of the Density Rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer and the Rule Based on Linear Isopiestic Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉峰

    2001-01-01

    The applicability of the density rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer and the rule based on the linear isopiestic relation is studied by comparison with experimental density data in the literature. Predicted and measured values for 18 electrolyte mixtures are compared. The two rules are good for mixtures with and without common ions, including those containing associating ions. The deviations of the rule based on the linear isopiestic relation are slightly higher for the mixtures involving very strong ion complexes, but the predictions are still quite satisfactory.The density rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer is more accurate for these mixtures. However, it is not applicable for mixtures containing non-electrolytes. The rule based on the linear isopiestic relation is extended to mixtures involving non-electrolytes. The predictions for the mixtures containing both electrolytes and non-electrolytes and the non-electrolyte mixtures are accurate. All these results indicate that this rule is a widely avvlicable approach.

  9. The Applicability of the Density Rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer and the Rule Based on Linear Isopiestic Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The applicability of the density rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer and the rule based on the linear isopiestic relation is studied by comparison with experimental density data in the literature. Predicted and measured values for 18 electrolyte mixtures are compared. The two rules are good for mixtures with and without common ions, including those containing associating ions. The deviations of the rule based on the linear isopiestic relation are slightly higher for the mixtures involving very strong ion complexes, but the predictions are still quite satisfactory. The density rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer is more accurate for these mixtures. However, it is not applicable for mixtures containing non-electrolytes. The rule based on the linear isopiestic relation is extended to mixtures involving non-electrolytes. The predictions for the mixtures containing both electrolytes and non-electrolytes and the non-electrolyte mixtures are accurate. All these results indicate that this rule is a widely applicable approach.

  10. An Object Extraction Model Using Association Rules and Dependence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Extracting objects from legacy systems is a basic step insystem's obje ct-orientation to improve the maintainability and understandability of the syst e ms. A new object extraction model using association rules an d dependence analysis is proposed. In this model data are classified by associat ion rules and the corresponding operations are partitioned by dependence analysis.

  11. New QCD sum rules based on canonical commutation relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Tomoya

    2012-04-01

    New derivation of QCD sum rules by canonical commutators is developed. It is the simple and straightforward generalization of Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule on the basis of Kugo-Ojima operator formalism of a non-abelian gauge theory and a suitable subtraction of UV divergences. By applying the method to the vector and axial vector current in QCD, the exact Weinberg’s sum rules are examined. Vector current sum rules and new fractional power sum rules are also discussed.

  12. Mining multilevel spatial association rules with cloud models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bin; ZHU Zhong-ying

    2005-01-01

    The traditional generalization-based knowledge discovery method is introduced. A new kind of multilevel spatial association of the rules mining method based on the cloud model is presented. The cloud model integrates the vague and random use of linguistic terms in a unified way. With these models, spatial and nonspatial attribute values are well generalized at multiple levels, allowing discovery of strong spatial association rules.Combining the cloud model based method with Apriori algorithms for mining association rules from a spatial database shows benefits in being effective and flexible.

  13. Octet magnetic Moments and their sum rules in statistical model

    CERN Document Server

    Batra, M

    2013-01-01

    The statistical model is implemented to find the magnetic moments of all octet baryons. The well-known sum rules like GMO and CG sum rules has been checked in order to check the consistency of our approach. The small discrepancy between the results suggests the importance of breaking in SU(3) symmetry.

  14. Sharing Rule Identification for General Collective Consumption Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Lewbel, A.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We propose a method to identify bounds (i.e. set identification) on the sharing rule for a general collective household consumption model. Unlike the effects of distribution factors, it is well known that the level of the sharing rule cannot be uniquely identified without strong assumption

  15. Fast Algorithms of Mining Probability Functional Dependency Rules in Relational Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiaopeng; ZHOU Aoying; HU Yunfa

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a new kind of rule, probability functional dependency rule. The functional dependency degree can be depicted by this kind of rule. Five algorithms, from the simple to the complex, are presented to mine this kind of rule in different condition. The related theorems are proved to ensure the high efficiency and the correctness of the above algorithms.

  16. Universality Class in Abelian Sandpile Models with Stochastic Toppling Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We present a stochastic critical slope sandpile model, where the amount of grains that fall in an overturning event is stochastic variable. The model is local, conservative, and Abelian. We apply the moment analysis to evaluate critical exponents and finite size scaling method to consistently test the obtained results. Numerical results show that this model, Oslo model, and one-dimensional Abelian Manna model have the same critical behavior although the three models have different stochastic toppling rules, which provides evidences suggesting that Abelian sandpile models with different stochastic toppling rules are in the same universality class.

  17. Nonlocal Condensate Model for QCD Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Ron-Chou

    2009-01-01

    We include effects of nonlocal quark condensates into QCD sum rules (QSR) via the K$\\ddot{\\mathrm{a}}$ll$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$n-Lehmann representation for a dressed fermion propagator, in which a negative spectral density function manifests their nonperturbative nature. Applying our formalism to the pion form factor as an example, QSR results are in good agreement with data for momentum transfer squared up to $Q^2 \\approx 10 $ GeV$^2$. It is observed that the nonlocal quark-condensate contribution descends like $1/Q^4$, different from the exponential decrease in $Q^2$ obtained in the literature, and contrary to the linear rise in the local-condensate approximation.

  18. Kramers-Kronig relations and sum rules in nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Lucarini, Valerio; Saarinen, Jarkko J; Vartiainen, Erik

    2004-05-01

    The full potential of the Kramers-Kronig relations and sum rules for nonlinear susceptibilities has unfortunately drawn relatively little attention in nonlinear optical spectra analysis. In this feature article a simple treatment of an anharmonic oscillator model in description of the nonlinear susceptibility of media and holomorphic properties of the nonlinear susceptibility were utilized. Using such concepts, conventional Kramers-Kronig, multiply-subtractive Kramers-Kronig, and generalized Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations can be derived. We demonstrate how in practice the variety of different Kramers-Kronig relations mentioned above, as well as various sum rules, can be applied in nonlinear optical spectra analysis. As an example we treat the third-harmonic wave generation spectrum from a polymer.

  19. INSPECTING COMPLIANCE TO MANY RULES: AN AGENT-BASED MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Smojver

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing scope and complexity of regulations and other rules that govern human society emphasise importance of the inspection of compliance to those rules. Often-used approaches to the inspection of compliance suffer from drawbacks such as overly idealistic assumptions and narrowness of application. Specifically, inspection models are frequently limited to situations where inspected entity has to comply with only one rule. Furthermore, inspection strategies regularly overlook some useful and available information such as varying costs of compliance to different rules. This article presents an agent-based model for inspection of compliance to many rules, which addresses abovementioned drawbacks. In the article, crime economic, game-theoretic and agent-based modelling approaches to inspection are briefly described, as well as their impact on the model. The model is described and simulation of a simplified version of the model is presented. The obtained results demonstrate that inspection strategies which take into account rules’ compliance costs perform significantly better than random strategies and better than cycle-based strategies. Additionally, the results encourage further, wider testing and validation of the model.

  20. Rule-based spatial modeling with diffusing, geometrically constrained molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Lohel Maiko; Lenser Thorsten; Ibrahim Bashar; Gruenert Gerd; Hinze Thomas; Dittrich Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We suggest a new type of modeling approach for the coarse grained, particle-based spatial simulation of combinatorially complex chemical reaction systems. In our approach molecules possess a location in the reactor as well as an orientation and geometry, while the reactions are carried out according to a list of implicitly specified reaction rules. Because the reaction rules can contain patterns for molecules, a combinatorially complex or even infinitely sized reaction net...

  1. scoringRules - A software package for probabilistic model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Sebastian; Jordan, Alexander; Krüger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Models in the geosciences are generally surrounded by uncertainty, and being able to quantify this uncertainty is key to good decision making. Accordingly, probabilistic forecasts in the form of predictive distributions have become popular over the last decades. With the proliferation of probabilistic models arises the need for decision theoretically principled tools to evaluate the appropriateness of models and forecasts in a generalized way. Various scoring rules have been developed over the past decades to address this demand. Proper scoring rules are functions S(F,y) which evaluate the accuracy of a forecast distribution F , given that an outcome y was observed. As such, they allow to compare alternative models, a crucial ability given the variety of theories, data sources and statistical specifications that is available in many situations. This poster presents the software package scoringRules for the statistical programming language R, which contains functions to compute popular scoring rules such as the continuous ranked probability score for a variety of distributions F that come up in applied work. Two main classes are parametric distributions like normal, t, or gamma distributions, and distributions that are not known analytically, but are indirectly described through a sample of simulation draws. For example, Bayesian forecasts produced via Markov Chain Monte Carlo take this form. Thereby, the scoringRules package provides a framework for generalized model evaluation that both includes Bayesian as well as classical parametric models. The scoringRules package aims to be a convenient dictionary-like reference for computing scoring rules. We offer state of the art implementations of several known (but not routinely applied) formulas, and implement closed-form expressions that were previously unavailable. Whenever more than one implementation variant exists, we offer statistically principled default choices.

  2. Design Transformations for Rule-based Procedural Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Lienhard, Stefan

    2017-05-24

    We introduce design transformations for rule-based procedural models, e.g., for buildings and plants. Given two or more procedural designs, each specified by a grammar, a design transformation combines elements of the existing designs to generate new designs. We introduce two technical components to enable design transformations. First, we extend the concept of discrete rule switching to rule merging, leading to a very large shape space for combining procedural models. Second, we propose an algorithm to jointly derive two or more grammars, called grammar co-derivation. We demonstrate two applications of our work: we show that our framework leads to a larger variety of models than previous work, and we show fine-grained transformation sequences between two procedural models.

  3. A neural model of rule generation in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daniel; Eliasmith, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Inductive reasoning is a fundamental and complex aspect of human intelligence. In particular, how do subjects, given a set of particular examples, generate general descriptions of the rules governing that set? We present a biologically plausible method for accomplishing this task and implement it in a spiking neuron model. We demonstrate the success of this model by applying it to the problem domain of Raven's Progressive Matrices, a widely used tool in the field of intelligence testing. The model is able to generate the rules necessary to correctly solve Raven's items, as well as recreate many of the experimental effects observed in human subjects.

  4. QCD Sum Rules: Intercrossed Relations for Sigma^0 and Lambda Magnetic Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Özpineci, A; Zamiralov, V S

    2003-01-01

    New relations between QCD Borel sum rules for magnetic moments of Sigma^0 and Lambda hyperons are constructed. It is shown that starting from the sum rule for the Sigma^0 hyperon magnetic moment it is straightforward to obtain the corresponding sum rule for the Lambda hyperon magnetic moment et vice versa.

  5. QCD Sum Rules: Intercrossed Relations for the Sigma^0-Lambda Mass Splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Zamiralov, V S

    2003-01-01

    New relations between QCD Borel sum rules for masses of Sigma^0 and Lambda hyperons are constructed. It is shown that starting from the sum rule for the Sigma^0 hyperon mass it is straightforward to obtain the corresponding sum rule for the Lambda hyperon mass and vice versa.

  6. 75 FR 6570 - Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to Mail Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 965 Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to Mail Disputes AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document revises the rules of practice of the Postal Service's Office of the...

  7. Relative Stabilities of Organic Compounds Using Benson's Additivity Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Dale E.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the structure-energy principle can be presented in organic chemistry (without having to resort to quantum mechanics) by use of Benson's Additive Rules. Examples of the application to several major classes of organic compounds are given.

  8. Rule-based transformations for geometric modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bellet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The context of this paper is the use of formal methods for topology-based geometric modelling. Topology-based geometric modelling deals with objects of various dimensions and shapes. Usually, objects are defined by a graph-based topological data structure and by an embedding that associates each topological element (vertex, edge, face, etc. with relevant data as their geometric shape (position, curve, surface, etc. or application dedicated data (e.g. molecule concentration level in a biological context. We propose to define topology-based geometric objects as labelled graphs. The arc labelling defines the topological structure of the object whose topological consistency is then ensured by labelling constraints. Nodes have as many labels as there are different data kinds in the embedding. Labelling constraints ensure then that the embedding is consistent with the topological structure. Thus, topology-based geometric objects constitute a particular subclass of a category of labelled graphs in which nodes have multiple labels.

  9. Rule-based transformations for geometric modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Bellet, Thomas; Gall, Pascale Le; 10.4204/EPTCS.48.5

    2011-01-01

    The context of this paper is the use of formal methods for topology-based geometric modelling. Topology-based geometric modelling deals with objects of various dimensions and shapes. Usually, objects are defined by a graph-based topological data structure and by an embedding that associates each topological element (vertex, edge, face, etc.) with relevant data as their geometric shape (position, curve, surface, etc.) or application dedicated data (e.g. molecule concentration level in a biological context). We propose to define topology-based geometric objects as labelled graphs. The arc labelling defines the topological structure of the object whose topological consistency is then ensured by labelling constraints. Nodes have as many labels as there are different data kinds in the embedding. Labelling constraints ensure then that the embedding is consistent with the topological structure. Thus, topology-based geometric objects constitute a particular subclass of a category of labelled graphs in which nodes hav...

  10. GRAMMAR RULE BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL MODEL FOR BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nadana Ravishankar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Though Information Retrieval (IR in big data has been an active field of research for past few years; the popularity of the native languages presents a unique challenge in big data information retrieval systems. There is a need to retrieve information which is present in English and display it in the native language for users. This aim of cross language information retrieval is complicated by unique features of the native languages such as: morphology, compound word formations, word spelling variations, ambiguity, word synonym, other language influence and etc. To overcome some of these issues, the native language is modeled using a grammar rule based approach in this work. The advantage of this approach is that the native language is modeled and its unique features are encoded using a set of inference rules. This rule base coupled with the customized ontological system shows considerable potential and is found to show better precision and recall.

  11. Development and Validation of a Rule-Based Strength Scaling Method for Musculoskeletal Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oomen, Pieter; Annegarn, Janneke; Rasmussen, John

    2015-01-01

    Rule based strength scaling is an easy, cheap and relatively accurate technique to personalize musculoskeletal (MS) models. This paper presents a new strength scaling approach for MS models and validates it by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). A heterogeneous group of 63 healthy subjects...

  12. 45 CFR 146.145 - Special rules relating to group health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules relating to group health plans. 146.145 Section 146.145 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO....145 Special rules relating to group health plans. (a) Group health plan—(1) Definition. A group...

  13. Empirically derived neighbourhood rules for urban land-use modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    interaction between neighbouring land uses is an important component in urban cellular automata. Nevertheless, this component is often calibrated through trial-and-error estimation. The aim of this project has been to develop an empirically derived landscape metric supporting cellular-automata-based land......-use modelling. Through access to very detailed urban land-use data it has been possible to derive neighbourhood rules empirically, and test their sensitivity to the land-use classification applied, the regional variability of the rules, and their time variance. The developed methodology can be implemented...

  14. A Complete and Terminating Execution Model for Constraint Handling Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Hariolf; Frühwirth, Thom; 10.1017/S147106841000030X

    2010-01-01

    We observe that the various formulations of the operational semantics of Constraint Handling Rules proposed over the years fall into a spectrum ranging from the analytical to the pragmatic. While existing analytical formulations facilitate program analysis and formal proofs of program properties, they cannot be implemented as is. We propose a novel operational semantics, which has a strong analytical foundation, while featuring a terminating execution model. We prove its soundness and completeness with respect to existing analytical formulations and we provide an implementation in the form of a source-to-source transformation to CHR with rule priorities.

  15. A General Attribute and Rule Based Role-Based Access Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Growing numbers of users and many access control policies which involve many different resource attributes in service-oriented environments bring various problems in protecting resource. This paper analyzes the relationships of resource attributes to user attributes in all policies, and propose a general attribute and rule based role-based access control(GAR-RBAC) model to meet the security needs. The model can dynamically assign users to roles via rules to meet the need of growing numbers of users. These rules use different attribute expression and permission as a part of authorization constraints, and are defined by analyzing relations of resource attributes to user attributes in many access policies that are defined by the enterprise. The model is a general access control model, and can support many access control policies, and also can be used to wider application for service. The paper also describes how to use the GAR-RBAC model in Web service environments.

  16. Model-based inflation forecasts and monetary policy rules

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Raf; Dombrecht, Michel

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the interaction between inflation and monetary policy rules is analysed within the framework of a dynamic general equilibrium model derived from optimising behaviour and rational expectations. Using model simulations, it is illustrated that the control of monetary policy over the inflation process is strongly dependent on the role of forward looking expectations in the price and wage setting process and on the credibility of monetary policy in the expectation formation process ...

  17. ALC: automated reduction of rule-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Ernst

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combinatorial complexity is a challenging problem for the modeling of cellular signal transduction since the association of a few proteins can give rise to an enormous amount of feasible protein complexes. The layer-based approach is an approximative, but accurate method for the mathematical modeling of signaling systems with inherent combinatorial complexity. The number of variables in the simulation equations is highly reduced and the resulting dynamic models show a pronounced modularity. Layer-based modeling allows for the modeling of systems not accessible previously. Results ALC (Automated Layer Construction is a computer program that highly simplifies the building of reduced modular models, according to the layer-based approach. The model is defined using a simple but powerful rule-based syntax that supports the concepts of modularity and macrostates. ALC performs consistency checks on the model definition and provides the model output in different formats (C MEX, MATLAB, Mathematica and SBML as ready-to-run simulation files. ALC also provides additional documentation files that simplify the publication or presentation of the models. The tool can be used offline or via a form on the ALC website. Conclusion ALC allows for a simple rule-based generation of layer-based reduced models. The model files are given in different formats as ready-to-run simulation files.

  18. The Defects of WTO Antidumping Rules and Related Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yajun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Since Canada made the first anti-dumping code in 1904, United States, Australia and France made their domestic anti-dumping codes successively. In 1947, the contracting parties made antidumping rules part of GATT (Article VI). Due to the broad use of tariff and non-tariff trade barriers, few countries turned to anti-dumping measures in 1950s.Changshu Jiangnan Adhesive Tane Co., Ltd.

  19. The Defects of WTO Antidumping Rules and Related Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Yajun

    2005-01-01

      Since Canada made the first anti-dumping code in 1904, United States, Australia and France made their domestic anti-dumping codes successively. In 1947, the contracting parties made antidumping rules part of GATT (Article VI). Due to the broad use of tariff and non-tariff trade barriers, few countries turned to anti-dumping measures in 1950s.Changshu Jiangnan Adhesive Tane Co., Ltd.……

  20. 75 FR 3985 - Trade Regulation Rule Relating to Power Output Claims for Amplifiers Utilized in Home...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... receive information useful to their purchasing decision, or, at worst, could be deceived by certain power... CFR Part 432 Trade Regulation Rule Relating to Power Output Claims for Amplifiers Utilized in Home... Rule Relating to Power Output Claims for Amplifiers Utilized in Home Entertainment Products...

  1. 17 CFR 232.406T - Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files. 232.406T Section 232.406T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS Xbrl-Related Documents §...

  2. 77 FR 477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded... solicits comments on rules related to risk disclosure concerning exchange traded commodity options. DATES... introducing brokers: (1) To provide their customers with standard risk disclosure statements concerning the...

  3. The New Rules of PR and Marketing: A Teaching Unit for College Public Relations Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Candice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this lesson plan is to introduce the importance of social media and the Internet on public relations and marketing. The lesson describes the new rules for public relations versus the old rules. It is a more in depth look at how, and why, to use blogging, social media, and the Internet for promoting a company and appealing to buyers.…

  4. 77 FR 5778 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded... extension of the collection. The collection covers rules related to risk disclosure concerning exchange... INFORMATION: In the notice of Extension of an Existing Collection, FR Doc. 2011-33841, on page 477 in...

  5. INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK TO MODEL DATA WITH BUSINESS PROCESS AND BUSINESS RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kaula

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data modeling is an approach to model data by mapping operational tasks iteratively, while associated guidelines are either partly mapped in the data model or expressed through software applications. Since an organization is a collection of business processes, it is essential that data models utilize such processes to facilitate data modeling. Also, data models should incorporate guidelines for completing operational tasks through the concept of business rules. This paper outlines a unified framework on database modeling and design based on business process concepts that also incorporates business rules impacting business operations. The paper focuses on the relational database and its primary mode of conceptual modeling in the form of an entity relationship model. Concepts are illustrated through Oracle's database language PL/SQL and its Web variant PL/SQL Server Pages.

  6. Model Order Selection Rules for Covariance Structure Classification in Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Vincenzo; De Maio, Antonio; Orlando, Danilo; Stoica, Petre

    2017-10-01

    The adaptive classification of the interference covariance matrix structure for radar signal processing applications is addressed in this paper. This represents a key issue because many detection architectures are synthesized assuming a specific covariance structure which may not necessarily coincide with the actual one due to the joint action of the system and environment uncertainties. The considered classification problem is cast in terms of a multiple hypotheses test with some nested alternatives and the theory of Model Order Selection (MOS) is exploited to devise suitable decision rules. Several MOS techniques, such as the Akaike, Takeuchi, and Bayesian information criteria are adopted and the corresponding merits and drawbacks are discussed. At the analysis stage, illustrating examples for the probability of correct model selection are presented showing the effectiveness of the proposed rules.

  7. Communicating eating-related rules : Suggestions are more effective than restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F. Marijn; de Vet, Emely; de Wit, John B F; Renner, Britta; de Ridder, Denise T D

    Background: A common social influence technique for curbing unhealthy eating behavior is to communicate eating-related rules (e.g. 'you should not eat unhealthy food'). Previous research has shown that such restrictive rules sometimes backfire and actually increase unhealthy consumption. In the

  8. Communicating eating-related rules. Suggestions are more effective than restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Vet, de E.; Wit, J.B.F.; Renner, B.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A common social influence technique for curbing unhealthy eating behavior is to communicate eating-related rules (e.g. ‘you should not eat unhealthy food’). Previous research has shown that such restrictive rules sometimes backfire and actually increase unhealthy consumption. In the

  9. Communicating eating-related rules. Suggestions are more effective than restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Vet, de E.; Wit, J.B.F.; Renner, B.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A common social influence technique for curbing unhealthy eating behavior is to communicate eating-related rules (e.g. ‘you should not eat unhealthy food’). Previous research has shown that such restrictive rules sometimes backfire and actually increase unhealthy consumption. In the curr

  10. Communicating eating-related rules : Suggestions are more effective than restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F. Marijn; de Vet, Emely; de Wit, John B F; Renner, Britta; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Background: A common social influence technique for curbing unhealthy eating behavior is to communicate eating-related rules (e.g. 'you should not eat unhealthy food'). Previous research has shown that such restrictive rules sometimes backfire and actually increase unhealthy consumption. In the curr

  11. A fuzzy rule based framework for noise annoyance modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botteldooren, Dick; Verkeyn, Andy; Lercher, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Predicting the effect of noise on individual people and small groups is an extremely difficult task due to the influence of a multitude of factors that vary from person to person and from context to context. Moreover, noise annoyance is inherently a vague concept. That is why, in this paper, it is argued that noise annoyance models should identify a fuzzy set of possible effects rather than seek a very accurate crisp prediction. Fuzzy rule based models seem ideal candidates for this task. This paper provides the theoretical background for building these models. Existing empirical knowledge is used to extract a few typical rules that allow making the model more specific for small groups of individuals. The resulting model is tested on two large-scale social surveys augmented with exposure simulations. The testing demonstrates how this new way of thinking about noise effect modeling can be used in practice both in management support as a "noise annoyance adviser" and in social science for testing hypotheses such as the effect of noise sensitivity or the degree of urbanization.

  12. Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2007-11-01

    Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains.

  13. Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: An event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robbin A.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains. PMID:17855126

  14. Unitarity sum rules, three site moose model, and the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Tomohiro; Okawa, Shohei; Tanabashi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate $W'$ interpretations for the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies. The roles of the unitarity sum rules, which ensure the perturbativity of the longitudinal vector boson scattering amplitudes, are emphasized. We find the unitarity sum rules and the custodial symmetry relations are powerful enough to predict various nontrivial relations among $WWZ'$, $WZW'$, $WWh$, $WW'h$ and $ZZ'h$ coupling strengths in a model independent manner. We also perform surveys in the general parameter space of $W'$ models and find the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies may be interpreted as a $W'$ particle of the three site moose model, i.e., a Kaluza-Klein like particle in a deconstructed extra dimension model. It is also shown that the non SM-like Higgs boson is favored by the present data to interpret the ATLAS diboson anomalies as the consequences of the $W'$ and $Z'$ bosons.

  15. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-AQ66 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... amendment to the interim final rules (76 FR 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... rule with request for comments entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules...

  16. A Bigraph Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauquier, Maxime; Schürmann, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model based on relations for bigraphical reactive system [Milner09]. Its defining characteristics are that validity and reaction relations are captured as traces in a multi-set rewriting system. The relational model is derived from Milner's graphical definition...

  17. About the logical relations between cases and rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Bart; Francesconi, E; Sartor, E; Tiscornia, D

    2008-01-01

    The two main types of law are legislation and precedents. Both types have a corresponding reasoning pattern determining legal consequences: legislation can be applied and precedents followed. The separate modelling of these two reasoning patterns using logical techniques has recently seen considerab

  18. Rule-based model of vein graft remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minki Hwang

    Full Text Available When vein segments are implanted into the arterial system for use in arterial bypass grafting, adaptation to the higher pressure and flow of the arterial system is accomplished thorough wall thickening and expansion. These early remodeling events have been found to be closely coupled to the local hemodynamic forces, such as shear stress and wall tension, and are believed to be the foundation for later vein graft failure. To further our mechanistic understanding of the cellular and extracellular interactions that lead to global changes in tissue architecture, a rule-based modeling method is developed through the application of basic rules of behaviors for these molecular and cellular activities. In the current method, smooth muscle cell (SMC, extracellular matrix (ECM, and monocytes are selected as the three components that occupy the elements of a grid system that comprise the developing vein graft intima. The probabilities of the cellular behaviors are developed based on data extracted from in vivo experiments. At each time step, the various probabilities are computed and applied to the SMC and ECM elements to determine their next physical state and behavior. One- and two-dimensional models are developed to test and validate the computational approach. The importance of monocyte infiltration, and the associated effect in augmenting extracellular matrix deposition, was evaluated and found to be an important component in model development. Final model validation is performed using an independent set of experiments, where model predictions of intimal growth are evaluated against experimental data obtained from the complex geometry and shear stress patterns offered by a mid-graft focal stenosis, where simulation results show good agreements with the experimental data.

  19. Optimization of β-decision rules relative to number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Zielosko, Beata

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we present an algorithm for optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the number of misclassifications. The considered algorithm is based on extensions of dynamic programming and constructs a directed acyclic graph Δ β (T). Based on this graph we can describe the whole set of so-called irredundant β-decision rules. We can optimize rules from this set according to the number of misclassifications. Results of experiments with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository are presented. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Rule-based spatial modeling with diffusing, geometrically constrained molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohel Maiko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We suggest a new type of modeling approach for the coarse grained, particle-based spatial simulation of combinatorially complex chemical reaction systems. In our approach molecules possess a location in the reactor as well as an orientation and geometry, while the reactions are carried out according to a list of implicitly specified reaction rules. Because the reaction rules can contain patterns for molecules, a combinatorially complex or even infinitely sized reaction network can be defined. For our implementation (based on LAMMPS, we have chosen an already existing formalism (BioNetGen for the implicit specification of the reaction network. This compatibility allows to import existing models easily, i.e., only additional geometry data files have to be provided. Results Our simulations show that the obtained dynamics can be fundamentally different from those simulations that use classical reaction-diffusion approaches like Partial Differential Equations or Gillespie-type spatial stochastic simulation. We show, for example, that the combination of combinatorial complexity and geometric effects leads to the emergence of complex self-assemblies and transportation phenomena happening faster than diffusion (using a model of molecular walkers on microtubules. When the mentioned classical simulation approaches are applied, these aspects of modeled systems cannot be observed without very special treatment. Further more, we show that the geometric information can even change the organizational structure of the reaction system. That is, a set of chemical species that can in principle form a stationary state in a Differential Equation formalism, is potentially unstable when geometry is considered, and vice versa. Conclusions We conclude that our approach provides a new general framework filling a gap in between approaches with no or rigid spatial representation like Partial Differential Equations and specialized coarse-grained spatial

  1. Learning to use working memory: a reinforcement learning gating model of rule acquisition in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eLloyd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning to form appropriate, task-relevant working memory representations is a complex process central to cognition. Gating models frame working memory as a collection of past observations and use reinforcement learning to solve the problem of when to update these observations. Investigation of how gating models relate to brain and behavior remains, however, at an early stage. The current study sought to explore the ability of simple reinforcement learning gating models to replicate rule learning behavior in rats. Rats were trained in a maze-based spatial learning task that required animals to make trial-by-trial choices contingent upon their previous experience. Using an abstract version of this task, we tested the ability of two gating algorithms, one based on the Actor-Critic and the other on the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA algorithm, to generate behavior consistent with the rats’. Both models produced rule-acquisition behavior consistent with the experimental data, though only the SARSA gating model mirrored faster learning following rule reversal. We also found that both gating models learned multiple strategies in solving the initial task, a property which highlights the multi-agent nature of such models and which is of importance in considering the neural basis of individual differences in behavior.

  2. Hierarchical graphs for better annotations of rule-based models of biochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hlavacek, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In the graph-based formalism of the BioNetGen language (BNGL), graphs are used to represent molecules, with a colored vertex representing a component of a molecule, a vertex label representing the internal state of a component, and an edge representing a bond between components. Components of a molecule share the same color. Furthermore, graph-rewriting rules are used to represent molecular interactions, with a rule that specifies addition (removal) of an edge representing a class of association (dissociation) reactions and with a rule that specifies a change of vertex label representing a class of reactions that affect the internal state of a molecular component. A set of rules comprises a mathematical/computational model that can be used to determine, through various means, the system-level dynamics of molecular interactions in a biochemical system. Here, for purposes of model annotation, we propose an extension of BNGL that involves the use of hierarchical graphs to represent (1) relationships among components and subcomponents of molecules and (2) relationships among classes of reactions defined by rules. We illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to naturally document the structural organization of the functional components and subcomponents of two proteins: the protein tyrosine kinase Lck and the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex. Likewise, we illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to document the similarity of two related rules for kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of a protein substrate. We also demonstrate how a hierarchical graph representing a protein can be encoded in an XML-based format.

  3. A Simple Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Molecular Modeling for the Octant Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinan; Kang, Fu-An

    2011-01-01

    The Moffitt-Woodward-Moscowitz-Klyne-Djerassi octant rule is one of the most successful empirical rules in organic chemistry. However, the lack of a simple effective modeling method for the octant rule in the past 50 years has posed constant difficulties for researchers, teachers, and students, particularly the young generations, to learn and…

  4. A Business Intelligence Model to Predict Bankruptcy using Financial Domain Ontology with Association Rule Mining Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A; Venkatesan, Dr V Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    Today in every organization financial analysis provides the basis for understanding and evaluating the results of business operations and delivering how well a business is doing. This means that the organizations can control the operational activities primarily related to corporate finance. One way that doing this is by analysis of bankruptcy prediction. This paper develops an ontological model from financial information of an organization by analyzing the Semantics of the financial statement of a business. One of the best bankruptcy prediction models is Altman Z-score model. Altman Z-score method uses financial rations to predict bankruptcy. From the financial ontological model the relation between financial data is discovered by using data mining algorithm. By combining financial domain ontological model with association rule mining algorithm and Zscore model a new business intelligence model is developed to predict the bankruptcy.

  5. Developing a Learning Progression for Number Sense Based on the Rule Space Model in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Yan, Yue; Xin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The current study focuses on developing the learning progression of number sense for primary school students, and it applies a cognitive diagnostic model, the rule space model, to data analysis. The rule space model analysis firstly extracted nine cognitive attributes and their hierarchy model from the analysis of previous research and the…

  6. Continental extension, magmatism and elevation; formal relations and rules of thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenbruch, A.H.; Morgan, P.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate simplified relations between elevation and the extensional, magmatic and thermal processes that influence lithosphere buoyancy, we assume that the lithosphere floats on an asthenosphere of uniform density and has no flexural strength. A simple graph relating elevation to lithosphere density and thickness provides an overview of expectable conditions around the earth and a simple test for consistancy of continental and oceanic lithosphere models. The mass-balance relations yield simple general rules for estimating elevation changes caused by various tectonic, magmatic and thermal processes without referring to detailed models. The rules are general because they depend principally on buoyancy, which under our assumptions is specified by elevation, a known quantity; they do not generally require a knowledge of lithosphere thickness and density. The elevation of an extended terrain contains important information on its tectonic and magmatic history. In the Great Basin where Cenozoic extension is estimated to be 100%, the present high mean elevation ( ~ 1.75 km) probably requires substantial low-density magmatic contributions to the extending lithosphere. The elevation cannot be reasonably explained solely as the buoyant residue of a very high initial terrane, or of a lithosphere that was initially very thick and subsequently delaminated and heated. Even models with a high initial elevation typically call for 10 km or so of accumulated magmatic material of near-crustal density. To understand the evolution of the Great Basin, it is important to determine whether such intruded material is present; some could replenish the stretching crust by underplating and crustal intrusion and some might reside in the upper mantle. The elevation maintained or approached by an intruded extending lithosphere depends on the ratio B of how fast magma is supplied from the asthenosphere ( b km/Ma) to how fast the lithosphere spreads the magma out by extension (?? Ma-1). For a

  7. How Can Students Generalize the Chain Rule? The Roles of Abduction in Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hyeong; Lee, Kyeong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a modeling task to facilitate students' inquiries into the chain rule in calculus and to analyze the results after implementation of the task. In this study, we take a modeling approach to the teaching and learning of the chain rule by facilitating the generalization of students' models and modeling…

  8. Non-chiral fusion rules, structure constants of $D_{m}$ minimal models

    CERN Document Server

    Rida, A

    1999-01-01

    We present a technique to construct, for $D_{m}$ unitary minimal models, the non-chiral fusion rules which determines the operator content of the operator product algebra. Using these rules we solve the bootstrap equations and therefore determine the structure constants of these models. Through this approach we emphasize the role played by some discrete symmetries in the classification of minimal models.

  9. Modeling size-dependent photosynthesis: light absorption and the allometric rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Z V; Irwin, A J

    2000-06-07

    Microalgal photosynthesis can be predicted using empirical allometric or mechanistic bio-optic models. These two descriptions are usually considered independently. We compare the size scaling of photosynthesis predicted by these two models. Size scaling exponents for phytoplankton often deviate from the allometric 3/4 rule. This may be because the allometric model does not account for the size dependence of light absorption and its effect on the size scaling of photosynthesis. In contrast to the allometric model and experimental data, the bio-optic model predicts photosynthesis should be independent of cell size when intracellular pigment concentrations are low or inversely related to cell diameter. A composite of the allometric and bio-optic models is described and compared to laboratory data of light-limited nutrient-saturated diatom photosynthesis. The allo-bio-optic model provides a mechanistic explanation for the anomalous size scaling found in laboratory and field studies of microalgal photosynthesis and growth.

  10. A prediction rule for shoulder pain related sick leave: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Heijden Geert JMG

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is common in primary care, and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. Information about predictors of shoulder pain related sick leave in workers is scarce and inconsistent. The objective was to develop a clinical prediction rule for calculating the risk of shoulder pain related sick leave for individual workers, during the 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Methods A prospective cohort study with 6 months follow-up was conducted among 350 workers with a new episode of shoulder pain. Potential predictors included the results of a physical examination, sociodemographic variables, disease characteristics (duration of symptoms, sick leave in the 2 months prior to consultation, pain intensity, disability, comorbidity, physical activity, physical work load, psychological factors, and the psychosocial work environment. The main outcome measure was sick leave during 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Results Response rate to the follow-up questionnaire at 6 months was 85%. During the 6 months after first consultation 30% (89/298 of the workers reported sick leave. 16% (47 reported 10 days sick leave or more. Sick leave during this period was predicted in a multivariable model by a longer duration of sick leave prior to consultation, more shoulder pain, a perceived cause of strain or overuse during regular activities, and co-existing psychological complaints. The discriminative ability of the prediction model was satisfactory with an area under the curve of 0.70 (95% CI 0.64–0.76. Conclusion Although 30% of all workers with shoulder pain reported sick leave during follow-up, the duration of sick leave was limited to a few days in most workers. We developed a prediction rule and a score chart that can be used by general practitioners and occupational health care providers to calculate the absolute risk of sick leave in individual workers with shoulder pain, which

  11. Association Rule-based Predictive Model for Machine Failure in Industrial Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hyok; Lee, Sol-Bee; Park, Jaehoon; Kim, Eui-Jik

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes an association rule-based predictive model for machine failure in industrial Internet of things (IIoT), which can accurately predict the machine failure in real manufacturing environment by investigating the relationship between the cause and type of machine failure. To develop the predictive model, we consider three major steps: 1) binarization, 2) rule creation, 3) visualization. The binarization step translates item values in a dataset into one or zero, then the rule creation step creates association rules as IF-THEN structures using the Lattice model and Apriori algorithm. Finally, the created rules are visualized in various ways for users’ understanding. An experimental implementation was conducted using R Studio version 3.3.2. The results show that the proposed predictive model realistically predicts machine failure based on association rules.

  12. 77 FR 74891 - Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... COMMISSION Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy December 12, 2012. I. Introduction Hurricane Sandy made landfall along the mid-Atlantic Coast on October 29... in the Vault at the time Hurricane Sandy made landfall, facilitating DTCC's ability to...

  13. Resolving relative time expressions in Dutch text with Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Camp, Matje; Christiansen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated how Constraint Handling Rules can be applied for resolution of indirect and relative time expressions in text as part of a shallow analysis, following a specialized tagging phase. A method is currently under development, optimized for a particular corpus of historical biographies...

  14. Sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications. Theses algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming approach. The results of experiments for decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository are discussed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  15. New Rule Use Drives the Relation between Working Memory Capacity and Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jennifer; Jarosz, Andrew F.; Cushen, Patrick J.; Colflesh, Gregory J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between individual differences in working memory capacity and performance on the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) is well documented yet poorly understood. The present work proposes a new explanation: that the need to use a new combination of rules on RAPM problems drives the relation between performance and working…

  16. 26 CFR 1.382-3 - Definitions and rules relating to a 5-percent shareholder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that, instead of an investment advisor recommending that clients purchase L stock, the trustee of... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions and rules relating to a 5-percent shareholder. 1.382-3 Section 1.382-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  17. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness they are no......Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness...... they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  18. Incorporating Linguistic Rules in Statistical Chinese Language Model for Pinyin-to-character Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An N-gram Chinese language model incorporating linguistic rules is presented. By constructing elements lattice, rules information is incorporated in statistical frame. To facilitate the hybrid modeling, novel methods such as MI-based rule evaluating, weighted rule quantification and element-based n-gram probability approximation are presented. Dynamic Viterbi algorithm is adopted to search the best path in lattice. To strengthen the model, transformation-based error-driven rules learning is adopted. Applying proposed model to Chinese Pinyin-to-character conversion, high performance has been achieved in accuracy, flexibility and robustness simultaneously. Tests show correct rate achieves 94.81% instead of 90.53% using bi-gram Markov model alone. Many long-distance dependency and recursion in language can be processed effectively.

  19. Rough Set Model for Discovering Hybrid Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Anjana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the mining of hybrid association rules with rough set approach is investigated as the algorithm RSHAR.The RSHAR algorithm is constituted of two steps mainly. At first, to join the participant tables into a general table to generate the rules which is expressing the relationship between two or more domains that belong to several different tables in a database. Then we apply the mapping code on selected dimension, which can be added directly into the information system as one certain attribute. To find the association rules, frequent itemsets are generated in second step where candidate itemsets are generated through equivalence classes and also transforming the mapping code in to real dimensions. The searching method for candidate itemset is similar to apriori algorithm. The analysis of the performance of algorithm has been carried out.

  20. States of the Business Concepts Model: Structural Assertions' Impact on Natural Language Business Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Björn; van Biert, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Organizations constantly need to adapt to the rapidly changing macro environment. Information systems, that hinder and restrain flexibility, may jeopardize the ability for organizations to survive. A new method for developing information systems called the Business Rules Approach has emerged with promises of business agility. The Business Rules Approach focuses on business rules which are reliant on a Business Concepts Model for their structure and vocabulary. This paper examines the rela...

  1. Medicare Part B income-related monthly adjustment amount. Final rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-27

    We are adding to our regulations a new subpart, Medicare Part B Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount, to contain the rules we will follow for Medicare Part B income-related monthly adjustment amount determinations. The monthly adjustment amount represents the amount of decrease in the Medicare Part B premium subsidy, i.e. the amount of the Federal Government's contribution to the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Trust Fund. This new subpart implements section 811 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (the Medicare Modernization Act or MMA) and contains the rules for determining when, based on income, a monthly adjustment amount will be added to a Medicare Part B beneficiary's standard monthly premium. These final rules describe: What the new subpart is about; what information we will use to determine whether you will pay an income-related monthly adjustment amount and the amount of the adjustment when applicable; when we will consider a major life-changing event that results in a significant reduction in your modified adjusted gross income; and how you can appeal our determination about your income-related monthly adjustment amount.

  2. Adolescents' conceptions of teachers' authority and their relations to rule violations in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J G; Bitz, B

    1996-06-01

    Conceptions of teachers' authority and reported misconduct regarding 20 moral, conventional, personal, contextually conventional, and prudential issues were assessed in 120 fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh graders (mean ages = 10.66, 12.88, 15.04, and 17.25 years, respectively). Adolescents viewed moral, conventional, and prudential issues as legitimately subject to teachers' authority and personal issues as under personal jurisdiction, but they were equivocal about contextually conventional issues. Fifth graders judged all acts as more legitimately subject to teachers' authority, all rule violations as more negative, and personal and prudential issues as personal more than did older students. Conventional misconduct was more frequent and moral misconduct was less frequent than other rule violations, but both were greater among boys than girls. Adolescents' negative rule evaluations, fewer rules, greater dislike for school, poorer grades, and living in single- or step-parent families predicted teacher- and self-reported misconduct. Relations to previous research on conceptions of adult authority, school misconduct, and autonomy development are discussed.

  3. 75 FR 54349 - Animal Models-Essential Elements To Address Efficacy Under the Animal Rule; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Guidance. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eris Mackey, Career Development and Directed Training Branch... challenges as addressed in the draft document entitled ``Guidance for ] Industry: Animal Models--Essential Elements to Address Efficacy Under the Animal Rule'' dated January 2009 (Draft Guidance), and as related to...

  4. 78 FR 12109 - Order Extending Temporary Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... seq. \\2\\ Order Granting Exemptions from Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy... Hurricane Sandy made landfall and whose settlement depends on the delivery of such physical certificates (or... COMMISSION Order Extending Temporary Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to...

  5. Fusion rules for the logarithmic $N=1$ superconformal minimal models I: the Neveu-Schwarz sector

    CERN Document Server

    Canagasabey, Michael; Ridout, David

    2015-01-01

    It is now well known that non-local observables in critical statistical lattice models, polymers and percolation for example, may be modelled in the continuum scaling limit by logarithmic conformal field theories. Fusion rules for such theories, sometimes referred to as logarithmic minimal models, have been intensively studied over the last ten years in order to explore the representation-theoretic structures relevant to non-local observables. Motivated by recent lattice conjectures, this work studies the fusion rules of the $N=1$ supersymmetric analogues of these logarithmic minimal models in the Neveu-Schwarz sector. Fusion rules involving Ramond representations will be addressed in a sequel.

  6. Medicare determinations and income-related monthly adjustment amounts to Medicare Part B premiums; conforming changes to regulations. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This final rule adopts, without change, the interim final rule with request for comments we published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2013. The interim final rule modified our rules regarding Medicare Part B income-related monthly adjustment amounts to conform to changes made to the Social Security Act (Act) and Internal Revenue Code by the Affordable Care Act. We also removed provisions that phased in income-related monthly adjustment amounts between 2007 and 2009 and updated a citation to reflect the transfer of authority for hearing appeals under title XVIII of the Act from the Social Security Administration to the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Mathematical modelling of contact of ruled surfaces: theory and practical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, K. L.; Niteyskiy, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    In the theory of ruled surfaces there are well known researches of contact of ruled surfaces along their common generator line (Klein image is often used [1]). In this paper we propose a study of contact of non developable ruled surfaces via the dual vector calculus. The advantages of this method have been demonstrated by E. Study, W. Blaschke and D. N. Zeiliger in differential geometry studies of ruled surfaces in space R3 over the algebra of dual numbers. A practical use of contact is demonstrated by the example modeling of the working surface of the progressive tool for tillage.

  8. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Lily A; Harris, Leonard A; Faeder, James R; Hlavacek, William S

    2015-07-16

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions.

  9. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Lily A.; Harris, Leonard A.; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.

    2015-07-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions.

  10. Typelets - a rule-based evaluation model for dynamic, statically typed user interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsman, Martin; Schack-Nielsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    -inference in MLFi, the features allow for type-level programming of user interfaces. The dynamic behavior of typelets are specified using declarative rules. The technique extends the flat spreadsheet programming model with higher-order rule composition techniques, extensive reuse, and type safety. A layout...

  11. Modelling collective foraging by means of individual behaviour rules in honey-bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H; Biesmeijer, JC

    1998-01-01

    An individual-oriented model is constructed which simulates the collective foraging behaviour of a colony of honey-bees, Apis mellifera. Each bee follows the same set of behavioural rules. Each rule consists of a set of conditions followed by the behavioural act to be performed if the conditions are

  12. Hedging Rules for Water Supply Reservoir Based on the Model of Simulation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a hedging rule model which is composed of a two-period reservior operation model considering the damage depth and hedging rule parameter optimization model. The former solves hedging rules based on a given poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target, while the latter optimization model is used to optimize the weighting factor and carryover storage target based on the hedging rules. The coupling model gives the optimal poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target to guide release. The conclusions achieved from this study as follows: (1 the water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target have a direct impact on the three elements of the hedging rule; (2 parameters can guide reservoirs to supply water reasonably after optimization of the simulation and optimization model; and (3 in order to verify the utility of the hedging rule, the Heiquan reservoir is used as a case study and particle swarm optimization algorithm with a simulation model is adopted for optimizing the parameter. The results show that the proposed hedging rule can improve the operation performances of the water supply reservoir.

  13. A knowledge representation meta-model for rule-based modelling of signalling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Basso-Blandin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of cellular signalling pathways and their deregulation in disease states, such as cancer, is a large and extremely complex task. Indeed, these systems involve many parts and processes but are studied piecewise and their literatures and data are consequently fragmented, distributed and sometimes—at least apparently—inconsistent. This makes it extremely difficult to build significant explanatory models with the result that effects in these systems that are brought about by many interacting factors are poorly understood. The rule-based approach to modelling has shown some promise for the representation of the highly combinatorial systems typically found in signalling where many of the proteins are composed of multiple binding domains, capable of simultaneous interactions, and/or peptide motifs controlled by post-translational modifications. However, the rule-based approach requires highly detailed information about the precise conditions for each and every interaction which is rarely available from any one single source. Rather, these conditions must be painstakingly inferred and curated, by hand, from information contained in many papers—each of which contains only part of the story. In this paper, we introduce a graph-based meta-model, attuned to the representation of cellular signalling networks, which aims to ease this massive cognitive burden on the rule-based curation process. This meta-model is a generalization of that used by Kappa and BNGL which allows for the flexible representation of knowledge at various levels of granularity. In particular, it allows us to deal with information which has either too little, or too much, detail with respect to the strict rule-based meta-model. Our approach provides a basis for the gradual aggregation of fragmented biological knowledge extracted from the literature into an instance of the meta-model from which we can define an automated translation into executable Kappa programs.

  14. New identities from quantum-mechanical sum rules of parity-related potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Ayorinde, O A; Belloni, M; Robinett, R W

    2010-01-01

    We apply quantum mechanical sum rules to pairs of one-dimensional systems defined by potential energy functions related by parity. Specifically, we consider symmetric potentials, $V(x) = V(-x)$, and their parity-restricted partners, ones with $V(x)$, but defined only on the positive half-line. We extend recent discussions of sum rules for the quantum bouncer by considering the parity-extended version of this problem, defined by the symmetric linear potential, $V(z) = F|z|$ and find new classes of constraints on the zeros of the Airy function, $Ai(z)$, and its derivative $Ai'(z)$. We also consider the parity-restricted version of the harmonic oscillator and find completely new classes of mathematical relations, unrleated to those of the ordinary oscillator problem. These two soluble quantum-mechanical systems defined by power-law potentials provide examples of how the form of the potential (both parity and continuity properties) affects the convergence of quantum-mechanical sum rules. We also discuss semi-clas...

  15. New identities from quantum-mechanical sum rules of parity-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayorinde, O A; Chisholm, K; Belloni, M [Physics Department, Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 (United States); Robinett, R W, E-mail: seayorinde@davidson.ed, E-mail: kechisholm@davidson.ed, E-mail: mabelloni@davidson.ed, E-mail: rick@phys.psu.ed [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    We apply quantum-mechanical sum rules to pairs of one-dimensional systems defined by potential energy functions related by parity. Specifically, we consider symmetric potentials, V(x) = V(- x), and their parity-restricted partners, ones with V(x) but defined only on the positive half-line. We extend recent discussions of sum rules for the quantum bouncer by considering the parity-extended version of this problem, defined by the symmetric linear potential, V(z) = F|z| and find new classes of constraints on the zeros of the Airy function, Ai({zeta}), and its derivative, Ai'({zeta}). We also consider the parity-restricted version of the harmonic oscillator and find completely new classes of mathematical relations, unrelated to those of the ordinary oscillator problem. These two soluble quantum-mechanical systems defined by power-law potentials provide examples of how the form of the potential (both parity and continuity properties) affects the convergence of quantum-mechanical sum rules. We also discuss semi-classical predictions for expectation values and the Stark effect for these systems.

  16. New identities from quantum-mechanical sum rules of parity-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, O. A.; Chisholm, K.; Belloni, M.; Robinett, R. W.

    2010-06-01

    We apply quantum-mechanical sum rules to pairs of one-dimensional systems defined by potential energy functions related by parity. Specifically, we consider symmetric potentials, V(x) = V(- x), and their parity-restricted partners, ones with V(x) but defined only on the positive half-line. We extend recent discussions of sum rules for the quantum bouncer by considering the parity-extended version of this problem, defined by the symmetric linear potential, V(z) = F|z| and find new classes of constraints on the zeros of the Airy function, Ai(ζ), and its derivative, Ai'(ζ). We also consider the parity-restricted version of the harmonic oscillator and find completely new classes of mathematical relations, unrelated to those of the ordinary oscillator problem. These two soluble quantum-mechanical systems defined by power-law potentials provide examples of how the form of the potential (both parity and continuity properties) affects the convergence of quantum-mechanical sum rules. We also discuss semi-classical predictions for expectation values and the Stark effect for these systems.

  17. Uraltsev Sum Rule in Bakamjian-Thomas Quark Models addendum

    CERN Document Server

    Le Yaouanc, A; Oliver, L; Pène, O; Raynal, J C

    2001-01-01

    In previous work it has been shown that, either from a sum rule for the subleading Isgur-Wise function $\\xi_3(1)$ or from a combination of Uraltsev and Bjorken SR, one infers for $P$-wave states $|\\tau_{1/2}(1)| \\ll |\\tau_{3/2}(1)|$. This implies, in the heavy quark limit of QCD, a hierarchy for the {\\it production} rates of $P$-states $\\Gamma(\\bar{B}_d \\to D ({1 \\over 2}) \\ell \

  18. THE DIGITALPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. LEGAL RULES AND ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Although the achievement of electronic public administration and digitalization is a tormented process with ups and downs, innovation policies have been able to start up a revolutionary process, silently and steadily, that slowly but inevitably will lead to the realization of the so-called e-government. Its components have mainly cultural, organizational and technological characteristics. The application of the rules that govern the establishment of digital public administration comes up agai...

  19. Assessment of Patentability of Inventions Relating to "Rules and Methods for Mental Activities"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Examination of whether an invention is a patentable subject matter or not is one of the main parts of the patent examination. In the recently revised Guidelines for Examination a relatively major change has been made of the benchmark for the examination of inventions relating to "rules and methods for mental activities", for example, limiting the scope of application of Article 25.1 (2) of the Patent Law. As a result, the hitherto non-patentable subject matters are still excluded from patentability. That...

  20. A Rule-Based Modeling for the Description of Flexible and Self-healing Business Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhebouze, Mohamed; Amghar, Youssef; Benharkat, Aïcha-Nabila; Maamar, Zakaria

    In this paper we discuss the importance of ensuring that business processes are label robust and agile at the same time robust and agile. To this end, we consider reviewing the way business processes are managed. For instance we consider offering a flexible way to model processes so that changes in regulations are handled through some self-healing mechanisms. These changes may raise exceptions at run-time if not properly reflected on these processes. To this end we propose a new rule based model that adopts the ECA rules and is built upon formal tools. The business logic of a process can be summarized with a set of rules that implement an organization’s policies. Each business rule is formalized using our ECAPE formalism (Event-Condition-Action-Post condition- post Event). This formalism allows translating a process into a graph of rules that is analyzed in terms of reliably and flexibility.

  1. Heuristic Algorithm with Simulation Model for Searching Optimal Reservoir Rule Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anongrit Kangrang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a heuristic algorithm to connect with simulation model for searching the optimal reservoir rule curves. The proposed model was applied to determine the optimal rule curves of the Ubolratana reservoir (the Chi River Basin, Thailand. The results showed that the pattern of the obtained rule curves similar to the existing rule curve. Then the obtained rule curves were used to simulate the Ubolratana reservoir system with the synthetic inflows. The results indicated that the frequency of water shortage and the average water shortage are reduced to 44.31 and 43.75% respectively, the frequency of excess release and the average excess release are reduced to 24.08% and 22.81%.

  2. Execution model for limited ambiguity rules and its application to derived data update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I.M.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Hull, R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McLeod, D. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A novel execution model for rule application in active databases is developed and applied to the problem of updating derived data in a database represented using a semantic, object-based database model. The execution model is based on the use of `limited ambiguity rules` (LARs), which permit disjunction in rule actions. The execution model essentially performs a breadth-first exploration of alternative extensions of a user-requested update. Given an object-based database scheme, both integrity constraints and specifications of derived classes and attributes are compiled into a family of limited ambiguity rules. A theoretical analysis shows that the approach is sound: the execution model returns all valid `completions` of a user-requested update, or terminates with an appropriate error notification. The complexity of the approach in connection with derived data update is considered. 42 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Synthesizing Service Composition Models on the Basis of Temporal Business Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Yu; Yan-Bo Han; Jun Han; Yan Jin; Paolo Falcarin; Maurizio Morisio

    2008-01-01

    Transformational approaches to generating design and implementation models from requirements can bring effectiveness and quality to software development. In this paper we present a framework and associated techniques to generate the process model of a service composition from a set of temporal business rules. Dedicated techniques including pathfinding, branching structure identification and parallel structure identification are used for semi-automatically synthesizing the process model from the semantics-equivalent Finite State Automata of the rules. These process models naturally satisfy the prescribed behavioral constraints of the rules. With the domain knowledge encoded in the temporal business rules,an executable service composition program, e.g., a BPEL program, can be further generated from the process models. A running example in the e-business domain is used for illustrating our approach throughout this paper.

  4. Feynman Rules in the Type III Natural Flavour-Conserving Two-Higgs Doublet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, C; Yang, Y W; Lin, Chilong; Lee, Chien-er; Yang, Yeou-Wei

    1994-01-01

    We consider a two Higgs-doublet model with $S_3$ symmetry, which implies a $\\pi \\over 2$ rather than 0 relative phase between the vacuum expectation values $$ and $$. The corresponding Feynman rules are derived accordingly and the transformation of the Higgs fields from the weak to the mass eigenstates includes not only an angle rotation but also a phase transformation. In this model, both doublets couple to the same type of fermions and the flavour-changing neutral currents are naturally suppressed. We also demonstrate that the Type III natural flavour-conserving model is valid at tree-level even when an explicit $S_3$ symmetry breaking perturbation is introduced to get a reasonable CKM matrix. In the special case $\\beta = \\alpha$, as the ratio $\\tan\\beta = {v_2 \\over v_1}$ runs from 0 to $\\infty$, the dominant Yukawa coupling will change from the first two generations to the third generation. In the Feynman rules, we also find that the charged Higgs currents are explicitly left-right asymmetric. The ratios ...

  5. Golden Rules of Financing Related to the Life Cycle of Czech Automotive Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konecny Zdenek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies go through their life cycle and it is only possible to moderate but not completely eliminate the switchover from one phase to another. Each phase is connected with different financial results as a consequence of financial conditions and financial decisions. The aim of this article is to find out whether the golden rules of financing are (or are not respected, dependent on financial strategy, in sub-phases of the corporate life cycle. It is caused by the fact that the golden rules are indicators of the rate of financial risk and some providers can consider their respecting by deciding to lend capital. However, golden rules of financing are not set strictly and therefore the comparison with market averages is necessary. The research is implemented by analyzing secondary data from financial statements and documents of the Ministry of Industryand Trade of the Czech Republic for years from 2007 to 2011. The sample consists of 43 companies limited by guarantee and joint-stock companies, regardless their size, acting in the Czech automotive industry. Phases of the corporate life cycle are identified according to the model by Dickinson (2010 based on combinations of cash flow values. The research showed that the golden rule of risk compensation is respected especially during maturity, whilst during introduction it is broken and on the market this rule is not respected either. Almost in all companies, regardless the phase, as well as on the whole market are long-term assets financed with long-term sources. During maturity, shake-out and decline the recommended liquidity of the second level is reached, but not the liquidity of the third level, whereas during the introduction and growth is not reached the recommended liquidity of any levels. The market is characterizedwith a sufficient liquidity of the second and insufficient liquidity of the third level. A surprising finding is that the golden ratio rule is, in most periods, respected on the

  6. Children's responses in argumentative discussions relating to parental rules and prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to investigate the types of responses by children aged between 3 and 7 years in argumentative discussions relating to parental rules and prescriptions. The data corpus is composed of 132 argumentative discussions selected from 30 video-recorded meals of 10 middle to upper-middle-class Swiss and Italian families. Data are presented through discursive excerpts of argumentative discussions and analysed by the pragma-dialectical ideal model of critical discussion. The findings show that when parents advance context-bound arguments such as the arguments of quality (e.g., very good, salty, or not good and quantity (e.g., too little, quite enough, or too much of food, the arguments advanced by children mirror the same types of arguments previously used by parents. On the other hand, when parents advance more complex, elaborated, and context-unbound arguments such as the appeal to consistency's argument, the argument from authority and the argument from analogy, the children typically did not advance any argument, but their response is an expression of further doubt or a mere opposition without providing any argument. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the types of children's responses are strictly connected to the type of argument previously advanced by their parents. This aspect is particularly relevant in terms of children's capacities to engage in argumentative exchanges and to react in rational ways during the confrontation with the parents. Further research in this direction is needed in order to better understand specific potentialities of language in the everyday process of socialization within the family context.

  7. 78 FR 10233 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Rule 204A-1 under the Advisers Act relating to codes of ethics. This Rule requires investment advisers to adopt a code of ethics that reflects the fiduciary nature of the relationship to clients as well... not receive all the payments to which it is entitled. By virtue of their senior position and...

  8. 76 FR 76464 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... the provisions of Rule 204A-1 under the Advisers Act relating to codes of ethics. This Rule requires investment advisers to adopt a code of ethics that reflects the fiduciary nature of the relationship to.... The Real Assets Portfolio's indirect holdings by virtue of investing in ETPs representing those asset...

  9. 76 FR 77699 - Special Procedural Rules Governing Periods When the National Labor Relations Board Lacks a Quorum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... BOARD 29 CFR Part 102 Special Procedural Rules Governing Periods When the National Labor Relations Board... preserving for the parties the right to ultimate review by the Board when a quorum is restored. In this... Administrative Law Judge for ruling, and administrative and procedural motions will be referred to the...

  10. Rule- and Norm- Related Behavior and the Individual Psychological Crisis in Competitive Situations: Theory and Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    1988-01-01

    Basketball experts (N=28) responded to "rule- and norm-related behavior" questionnaire, assessing crisis relevance of behaviors which were against rules of situation and were either fair or unfair, called or not called by officials. Results revealed that officials' calls and fairness of violations substantially influenced diagnostic…

  11. Rule- and Norm- Related Behavior and the Individual Psychological Crisis in Competitive Situations: Theory and Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    1988-01-01

    Basketball experts (N=28) responded to "rule- and norm-related behavior" questionnaire, assessing crisis relevance of behaviors which were against rules of situation and were either fair or unfair, called or not called by officials. Results revealed that officials' calls and fairness of violations substantially influenced diagnostic…

  12. 47 CFR 76.1905 - Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services within defined business models. 76.1905 Section 76.1905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Rules § 76.1905 Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models. (a) The encoding rules for defined business models in § 76.1904 reflect the conventional methods for...

  13. Nonzero Solubility Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉志武; 周蕊; 刘芸

    2002-01-01

    A solubility-related rule, nonzero solubility rule, is introduced in this paper. It is complementary to the existing rules such as the "like dissolves like" rule and can be understood on the basis of classical chemical thermodynamics.

  14. Integrated Web Recommendation Model with Improved Weighted Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.Sahaaya Arul Mary

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web plays a significant role in human life. It requires a technological improvement to satisfy the user needs. Web log data is essential for improving the performance of the web. It contains large,heterogeneous and diverse data. Analyzing g the web log data is a tedious process for Web developers, Web designers, technologists and end users. In this work, a new weighted association mining algorithm is developed to identify the best association rules that are useful for web site restructuring and recommendation that reduces false visit and improve users’ navigation behavior. The algorithm finds the frequent item set from a large uncertain database. Frequent scanning of database in each time is the problem with the existing algorithms which leads to complex output set and time consuming process. Theproposed algorithm scans the database only once at the beginning of the process and the generated frequent item sets, which are stored into the database. The evaluation parameters such as support, confidence, lift and number of rules are considered to analyze the performance of proposed algorithm and traditional association mining algorithm. The new algorithm produced best result that helps the developer to restructure their website in a way to meet the requirements of the end user within short time span.

  15. Experimental development based on mapping rule between requirements analysis model and web framework specific design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Hirotaka; Ogata, Shinpei; Matsuura, Saeko

    2013-12-01

    Model Driven Development is a promising approach to develop high quality software systems. We have proposed a method of model-driven requirements analysis using Unified Modeling Language (UML). The main feature of our method is to automatically generate a Web user interface prototype from UML requirements analysis model so that we can confirm validity of input/output data for each page and page transition on the system by directly operating the prototype. We proposes a mapping rule in which design information independent of each web application framework implementation is defined based on the requirements analysis model, so as to improve the traceability to the final product from the valid requirements analysis model. This paper discusses the result of applying our method to the development of a Group Work Support System that is currently running in our department.

  16. Quantum group approach to a soluble vertex model with generalized ice-rule

    CERN Document Server

    Cire, L S; Cire, L Sow

    1995-01-01

    Using the representation of the quantum group SL_q(2) by the Weyl ope\\-ra\\-tors of the canonical commutation relations in quantum mechanics, we construct and solve a new vertex model on a square lattice. Random variables on horizontal bonds are Ising variables, and those on the vertical bonds take half positive integer values. The vertices is subjected to a genera\\-li\\-zed form of the so-called ``ice-rule'', its property are studied in details and its free energy calculated with the method of quantum inverse scattering. Remarkably in analogy with the usual six-vertex model, there exists a ``Free-Fermion'' limit with a novel rich operator structure. The existing algebraic structure suggests a possible connection with a lattice neutral plasma of charges, via the Fermion-Boson correspondence.

  17. Unitarity sum rules, three-site moose model, and the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomohiro; Nagai, Ryo; Okawa, Shohei; Tanabashi, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    We investigate W' interpretations for the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies. The roles of the unitarity sum rules, which ensure the perturbativity of the longitudinal vector boson scattering amplitudes, are emphasized. We find the unitarity sum rules and the custodial symmetry are powerful enough to predict various nontrivial relations among W W Z', W Z W', W W h , W W'h and Z Z'h coupling strengths in a model independent manner. We also perform surveys in the general parameter space of W' models and find the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies may be interpreted as a W' particle of the three-site moose model, i.e., a Kaluza-Klein like particle in a deconstructed extra dimension model. It is also shown that the nonstandard-model-like Higgs boson is favored by the present data to interpret the ATLAS diboson anomalies as the consequences of the W' and Z' bosons.

  18. Usage of the Jess Engine, Rules and Ontology to Query a Relational Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jaroslaw; Jedrzejek, Czeslaw; Falkowski, Maciej

    We present a prototypical implementation of a library tool, the Semantic Data Library (SDL), which integrates the Jess (Java Expert System Shell) engine, rules and ontology to query a relational database. The tool extends functionalities of previous OWL2Jess with SWRL implementations and takes full advantage of the Jess engine, by separating forward and backward reasoning. The optimization of integration of all these technologies is an advancement over previous tools. We discuss the complexity of the query algorithm. As a demonstration of capability of the SDL library, we execute queries using crime ontology which is being developed in the Polish PPBW project.

  19. Testing game theory models: fighting ability and decision rules in chameleon contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2006-06-22

    Game theory models of animal contests make many non-mutually exclusive predictions, complicating empirical tests. These predictions regard the relationship between contest parameters and fighting ability, for which body size is usually used as a proxy. However, in many systems, body size may be a limited proxy since multiple traits and contextual factors such as experience influence fighting ability. Using contests between male Cape dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion pumilum, I test alternative game theory models of extended contests. I show how the most likely candidate model can be identified through a process of elimination, based on tests of key predictions. In addition, I present a measure of fighting ability based on multiple traits that allows ability to change as experience changes. In dwarf chameleons, persistence is based on loser thresholds rather than assessment of relative ability, ruling out the sequential assessment model. Winners and losers do not match behaviours in early parts of the contest, arguing against all types of war of attrition models. Although the cumulative assessment model remained as the most likely candidate model, not all specific predictions of this model were upheld.

  20. Response-time tests of logical-rule models of categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Daniel R; Nosofsky, Robert M; Denton, Stephen E

    2011-01-01

    A recent resurgence in logical-rule theories of categorization has motivated the development of a class of models that predict not only choice probabilities but also categorization response times (RTs; Fifić, Little, & Nosofsky, 2010). The new models combine mental-architecture and random-walk approaches within an integrated framework and predict detailed RT-distribution data at the level of individual participants and individual stimuli. To date, however, tests of the models have been limited to validation tests in which participants were provided with explicit instructions to adopt particular processing strategies for implementing the rules. In the present research, we test conditions in which categories are learned via induction over training exemplars and in which participants are free to adopt whatever classification strategy they choose. In addition, we explore how variations in stimulus formats, involving either spatially separated or overlapping dimensions, influence processing modes in rule-based classification tasks. In conditions involving spatially separated dimensions, strong evidence is obtained for application of logical-rule strategies operating in a serial-self-terminating processing mode. In conditions involving spatially overlapping dimensions, preliminary evidence is obtained that a mixture of serial and parallel processing underlies the application of rule-based classification strategies. The logical-rule models fare considerably better than major extant alternative models in accounting for the categorization RTs.

  1. 26 CFR 1.927(d)-2T - Temporary regulations; definitions and special rules relating to Foreign Sales Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... involving direct sales to F, each of X and Y is a related supplier of F. (b) Definition of related party... rules relating to Foreign Sales Corporation. 1.927(d)-2T Section 1.927(d)-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... relating to Foreign Sales Corporation. (a) Definition of related supplier. For purposes of sections...

  2. 77 FR 65920 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... relating to codes of ethics. This Rule requires investment advisers to adopt a code of ethics that reflects... Loan Marketing Association, the National Credit Union Administration and the Federal...

  3. Rule activity related to spatial and numerical magnitudes: comparison of prefrontal, premotor, and cingulate motor cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In everyday situations, quantitative rules, such as "greater than/less than," need to be applied to a multitude of magnitude comparisons, be they sensory, spatial, temporal, or numerical. We have previously shown that rules applied to different magnitudes are encoded in the lateral PFC. To investigate if and how other frontal lobe areas also contribute to the encoding of quantitative rules applied to multiple magnitudes, we trained monkeys to switch between "greater than/less than" rules applied to either line lengths (spatial magnitudes) or dot numerosities (discrete numerical magnitudes). We recorded single-cell activity from the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) and cingulate motor cortex (CMA) and compared it with PFC activity. We found the largest proportion of quantitative rule-selective cells in PFC (24% of randomly selected cells), whereas neurons in dPMC and CMA rarely encoded the rule (6% of the cells). In addition, rule selectivity of individual cells was highest in PFC neurons compared with dPMC and CMA neurons. Rule-selective neurons that simultaneously represented the "greater than/less than" rules applied to line lengths and numerosities ("rule generalists") were exclusively present in PFC. In dPMC and CMA, however, neurons primarily encoded rules applied to only one of the two magnitude types ("rule specialists"). Our data suggest a special involvement of PFC in representing quantitative rules at an abstract level, both in terms of the proportion of neurons engaged and the coding capacities.

  4. 47 CFR 76.1906 - Encoding rules for undefined business models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Encoding rules for undefined business models... for undefined business models. (a) Upon public notice and subject to requirements as set forth herein, a covered entity may launch a program service pursuant to an undefined business model. Subject to...

  5. 47 CFR 76.1904 - Encoding rules for defined business models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Encoding rules for defined business models. 76... defined business models. (a) Commercial audiovisual content delivered as unencrypted broadcast television... the Commission pursuant to a petition with respect to a defined business model other than unencrypted...

  6. Fusion Rules of the ${\\cal W}_{p,q}$ Triplet Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we determine the fusion rules of the logarithmic ${\\calW}_{p,q}$ triplet theory and construct the Grothendieck group with subgroups for which consistent product structures can be defined. The fusion rules are then used to determine projective covers. This allows us also to write down a candidate for a modular invariant partition function. Our results demonstrate that recent work on the ${\\cal W}_{2,3}$ model generalises naturally to arbitrary (p,q).

  7. 77 FR 53830 - Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to Administrative Offsets Initiated Against Former...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Employees of the Postal Service AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document... rules to reflect changes in the Postal ] Service's debt collection regulations and procedures. This... preamble, the Postal Service proposes to amend 39 CFR part 966 as set forth below: PART 966--RULES OF...

  8. 77 FR 65103 - Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to Administrative Offsets Initiated Against Former...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... Employees of the Postal Service AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document revises... initiated against former employees of the Postal Service. These revisions update the rules to reflect... and conform these rules to the existing practice of the Judicial Officer. The Postal Service published...

  9. Neural Correlates of Abstract Rule Learning: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Hoshi-Shiba, Reiko; Abla, Dilshat; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract rule learning is a fundamental aspect of human cognition, and is essential for language acquisition. However, despite its importance, the neural mechanisms underlying abstract rule learning are still largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of abstract rule learning by recording auditory event-related…

  10. Percolation Model of Insider Threats to Assess the Optimum Number of Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Kepner, Jeremy; Michaleas, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Rules, regulations, and policies are the basis of civilized society and are used to coordinate the activities of individuals who have a variety of goals and purposes. History has taught that over-regulation (too many rules) makes it difficult to compete and under-regulation (too few rules) can lead to crisis. This implies an optimal number of rules that avoids these two extremes. Rules create boundaries that define the latitude an individual has to perform their activities. This paper creates a Toy Model of a work environment and examines it with respect to the latitude provided to a normal individual and the latitude provided to an insider threat. Simulations with the Toy Model illustrate four regimes with respect to an insider threat: under-regulated, possibly optimal, tipping-point, and over-regulated. These regimes depend up the number of rules (N) and the minimum latitude (Lmin) required by a normal individual to carry out their activities. The Toy Model is then mapped onto the standard 1D Percolation Mo...

  11. Fuzzy rule-based macroinvertebrate habitat suitability models for running waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, Van E.; Adriaenssens, V.; Baets, De B.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    A fuzzy rule-based approach was applied to a macroinvertebrate habitat suitability modelling problem. The model design was based on a knowledge base summarising the preferences and tolerances of 86 macroinvertebrate species for four variables describing river sites in springs up to small rivers in t

  12. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Rule-Toxic Equivalency Factors 4... or Before November 30, 1999 Pt. 60, Subpt. DDDD, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60—Model Rule—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated...

  13. Generalization-based discovery of spatial association rules with linguistic cloud models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 田永青; 朱仲英

    2004-01-01

    Extraction of interesting and general spatial association rules from large spatial databases is an important task in the development of spatial database systems. In this paper, we investigate the generalization-based knowledge discovery mechanism that integrates attribute-oriented induction on nonspatial data and spatial merging and generalization on spatial data. Furthermore, we present linguistic cloud models for knowledge representation and uncertainty handling to enhance current generalization-based method. With these models, spatial and nonspatial attribute values are well generalized at higher-concept levels, allowing discovery of strong spatial association rules. Combining the cloud model based generalization method with Apriori algorithm for mining association rules from a spatial database shows the benefits in effectiveness and flexibility.

  14. Psychological rules of communication with relatives of a potential organ donor--the Polish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska-Winecka, A

    1998-01-01

    Increase of number of organs for transplantation depends on the positive attitude of the general public toward cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. This attitude is shaped as the result of education performed by mass media and as a result of individual experience of various people with the health-care service. Whenever a decision on post-mortem donation of a deceased is unknown, there are his close relations who might express his will. The aim of this article is to draw attention to several problems of psychological nature, which refer to proceeding with relatives of organ donors. A course and result of talks with relatives of a potential organ donor depend on a number of factors, which are pointed out below. Within the frames of this interaction, basic rules of effective communication are presented, including message on death of a close person in case of brain stem death diagnosis. Furthermore, examples are presented of the most frequent errors of those who talk with relatives, scope of appearing difficulties and several methods to avoid and/or overcome occurring problems.

  15. Enforcement of Mask Rule Compliance in Model-Based OPC'ed Layouts during Data Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dirk H.; Vuletic, Radovan; Seidl, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    Currently available commercial model-based OPC tools do not always generate layouts which are mask rule compliant. Additional processing is required to remove mask rule violations, which are often too numerous for manual patching. Although physical verification tools can be used to remove simple mask rule violations, the results are often unsatisfactory for more complicated geometrical configurations. The subject of this paper is the development and application of a geometrical processing engine that automatically enforces mask rule compliance of the OPC'ed layout. It is designed as an add-on to a physical verification tool. The engine constructs patches, which remove mask rule violations such as notches or width violations. By employing a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization method, the edges of each patch are placed in a way that avoids secondary violations while modifying the OPC'ed layout as little as possible. A sequence of enforcement steps is applied to the layout to remove all types of mask rule violations. This approach of locally confined minimal layout modifications retains OPC corrections to a maximum amount. This method has been used successfully in production on a variety of DRAM designs for the non-array regions.

  16. Exact duality and Bjorken sum rule in heavy quark models à la Bakamjian-Thomas

    CERN Document Server

    Le Yaouanc, A; Pène, O; Raynal, J C

    1996-01-01

    The heavy mass limit of quark models based on the Bakamjian-Thomas cons\\-truction reveals remarkable features. In addition to previously demonstrated properties of covariance and Isgur-Wise scaling, exact duality, leading to the Bjorken-Isgur-Wise sum rule, is proven, for the first time to our knowledge in relativistic quark models. Inelastic as well as elastic contributions to the sum rule are then discussed in terms of ground state averages of a few number of operators corresponding to the nonrelativistic dipole operator and various relativistic corrections.

  17. LanHEP - a package for automatic generation of Feynman rules in gauge models

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, A Yu

    1996-01-01

    We consider the general problem of derivation of the Feynman rules for the matrix elements in momentum representation from the given Lagrangian in coordinate space invariant under the transformation of some gauge group. LanHEP package presented in this paper allows to define in a convenient way the gauge model Lagrangian in canonical form and then to generate automatically the Feynman rules that can be used in the following calculation of the physical processes by means of CompHEP package. The detailed description of LanHEP commands is given and several examples of LanHEP applications (QED, QCD, Standard Model in the t'Hooft-Feynman gauge) are presented.

  18. Knowledge representation and rule-based solution system for dynamic programming model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祥培; 王旭茵

    2003-01-01

    A knowledge representation has been proposed using the state-space theory of Artificial Intelligencefor Dynamic Programming Model, in which a model can be defined as a six-tuple M = (I,G,O,T,D,S). Abuilding block modeling method uses the modules of a six-tuple to form a rule-based solution model. Moreover,a rule-based system has been designed and set up to solve the Dynamic Programming Model. This knowledge-based representation can be easily used to express symbolical knowledge and dynamic characteristics for Dynam-ic Programming Model, and the inference based on the knowledge in the process of solving Dynamic Program-ming Model can also be conveniently realized in computer.

  19. Applying the Rule Space Model to Develop a Learning Progression for Thermochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Zhang, Shanshan; Guo, Yanfang; Xin, Tao

    2016-11-01

    We used the Rule Space Model, a cognitive diagnostic model, to measure the learning progression for thermochemistry for senior high school students. We extracted five attributes and proposed their hierarchical relationships to model the construct of thermochemistry at four levels using a hypothesized learning progression. For this study, we developed 24 test items addressing the attributes of exothermic and endothermic reactions, chemical bonds and heat quantity change, reaction heat and enthalpy, thermochemical equations, and Hess's law. The test was administered to a sample base of 694 senior high school students taught in 3 schools across 2 cities. Results based on the Rule Space Model analysis indicated that (1) the test items developed by the Rule Space Model were of high psychometric quality for good analysis of difficulties, discriminations, reliabilities, and validities; (2) the Rule Space Model analysis classified the students into seven different attribute mastery patterns; and (3) the initial hypothesized learning progression was modified by the attribute mastery patterns and the learning paths to be more precise and detailed.

  20. Impact of the New Optimal Rules for Arbitration of Disputers Relating to Space Debris Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Melissa K.

    2013-09-01

    The mechanisms and procedures for settlement of disputes arising from space debris collision damage, such as that suffered by the Russian Cosmos and US Iridium satellites in 2009, are highly political, nonbinding and unpredictable - all of which contributes to the uncertainty that increases the costs of financing and insuring those endeavors that take place in near-Earth space, especially in Low Earth Orbit. Dispute settlement mechanisms can be found in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, which provides for consultations in cases involving potentially harmful interference with activities of States parties, and in the 1972 Liability Convention which permits but does not require States - not non-governmental entities - to pursue claims in a resolution process that is nonbinding (unless otherwise agreed.) There are soft- law mechanisms to control the growth of space debris, such as the voluntary 2008 United Nations Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, and international law and the principles of equity and justice generally provide reparation to restore a person, State or organization to the condition which would have existed if damage had not occurred, but only if all agree to a specific tribunal or international court; even then, parties may be bound by the result only if agreed and enforcement of the award internationally remains uncertain. In all, the dispute resolution process for damage resulting from inevitable future damage from space debris collisions is highly unsatisfactory. However, the Administrative Council of the Permanent Court of Arbitration's recently adopted Optional Rules for the Arbitration of Disputes Relating to Outer Space Activities are, as of yet, untested, and this article will provide an overview of the process, explore the ways in which they fill in gaps in the previous patchwork of systems and analyze the benefits and shortcomings of the new Outer Space Optional Rules.

  1. Bibliographic Relationships in MARC and Consistent with FRBR Model According to RDA Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Fardehoseiny

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the bibliographic relationships in the MARC and it’s consistency with the FRBR model. With establishing the necessary relations between bibliographic records, users will retrieve their necessary information faster and more easily. It is important to make a good communication in existing bibliographic records to help users to find what they need. This study’s purpose was to define the relationships between bibliographic records in the National Library's OPAC database and the study’s method was descriptive content analysis approach. In this study, the online catalog (OPAC National Library of Iran has been used to collect information. All records with the mentioned criteria listed in the final report of the IFLA bibliographic relations about the first group entities in FRBR model and RDA rules has been implemented and analyzed. According to this study, if software has been developed in which the data transferring was based on the conceptual model and the MARC’s data that already exists in the National Library's bibliographic database, these relationships will not be transferable. Withal, in this study the relationships on consistent FRBR and MARC concluded with an intelligent mind and the machine is unable to detect them. The results of this study showed that the relations which conveyed from MARC to FRBR, was about 47/70 percent of the MARC fields, in other hand by FRBR to MARC with the use of all intelligent efforts, and diagnosis of MARC relationships, only 31/38 percent of the relations can be covered through the MARC. But based on real data and usable fields in Boostan-e-Saadi with MARC pattern, records on the National Library of Iran showed that the results reduced to 16/95 percent..

  2. One Law to Rule Them All: The Radial Acceleration Relation of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.; Pawlowski, Marcel S.

    2017-02-01

    We study the link between baryons and dark matter (DM) in 240 galaxies with spatially resolved kinematic data. Our sample spans 9 dex in stellar mass and includes all morphological types. We consider (1) 153 late-type galaxies (LTGs; spirals and irregulars) with gas rotation curves from the SPARC database, (2) 25 early-type galaxies (ETGs; ellipticals and lenticulars) with stellar and H i data from ATLAS{}3{{D}} or X-ray data from Chandra, and (3) 62 dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) with individual-star spectroscopy. We find that LTGs, ETGs, and “classical” dSphs follow the same radial acceleration relation: the observed acceleration ({g}{obs}) correlates with that expected from the distribution of baryons ({g}{bar}) over 4 dex. The relation coincides with the 1:1 line (no DM) at high accelerations but systematically deviates from unity below a critical scale of ∼10‑10 m s‑2. The observed scatter is remarkably small (≲ 0.13 dex) and largely driven by observational uncertainties. The residuals do not correlate with any global or local galaxy property (e.g., baryonic mass, gas fraction, and radius). The radial acceleration relation is tantamount to a natural law: when the baryonic contribution is measured, the rotation curve follows, and vice versa. Including ultrafaint dSphs, the relation may extend by another 2 dex and possibly flatten at {g}{bar}≲ {10}-12 m s‑2, but these data are significantly more uncertain. The radial acceleration relation subsumes and generalizes several well-known dynamical properties of galaxies, like the Tully–Fisher and Faber–Jackson relations, the “baryon-halo” conspiracies, and Renzo’s rule.

  3. Fermi’s golden rule: its derivation and breakdown by an ideal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. M.; Liu, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Fermi’s golden rule is of great importance in quantum dynamics. However, in many textbooks on quantum mechanics, its contents and limitations are obscured by the approximations and arguments in the derivation, which are inevitable because of the generic setting considered. Here we propose to introduce it by an ideal model, in which the quasi-continuum band consists of equaldistant levels extending from -∞ to +∞ , and each of them couples to the discrete level with the same strength. For this model, the transition probability in the first order perturbation approximation can be calculated analytically by invoking the Poisson summation formula. It turns out to be a piecewise linear function of time, demonstrating on the one hand the key features of Fermi’s golden rule, and on the other hand that the rule breaks down beyond the Heisenberg time, even when the first order perturbation approximation itself is still valid.

  4. Nonlinear adaptive synchronization rule for identification of a large amount of parameters in dynamical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Huanfei [Center for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [School of Computer Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin Wei, E-mail: wlin@fudan.edu.c [Center for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [School of Mathematical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mathematics for Nonlinear Sciences (Fudan University), Ministry of Education (China)] [CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2009-12-28

    The existing adaptive synchronization technique based on the stability theory and invariance principle of dynamical systems, though theoretically proved to be valid for parameters identification in specific models, is always showing slow convergence rate and even failed in practice when the number of parameters becomes large. Here, for parameters update, a novel nonlinear adaptive rule is proposed to accelerate the rate. Its feasibility is validated by analytical arguments as well as by specific parameters identification in the Lotka-Volterra model with multiple species. Two adjustable factors in this rule influence the identification accuracy, which means that a proper choice of these factors leads to an optimal performance of this rule. In addition, a feasible method for avoiding the occurrence of the approximate linear dependence among terms with parameters on the synchronized manifold is also proposed.

  5. Reverse Engineering Boolean Networks: From Bernoulli Mixture Models to Rule Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mehreen; Ijaz, Maliha; Javed, Kashif; Babri, Haroon Atique

    2012-01-01

    A Boolean network is a graphical model for representing and analyzing the behavior of gene regulatory networks (GRN). In this context, the accurate and efficient reconstruction of a Boolean network is essential for understanding the gene regulation mechanism and the complex relations that exist therein. In this paper we introduce an elegant and efficient algorithm for the reverse engineering of Boolean networks from a time series of multivariate binary data corresponding to gene expression data. We call our method ReBMM, i.e., reverse engineering based on Bernoulli mixture models. The time complexity of most of the existing reverse engineering techniques is quite high and depends upon the indegree of a node in the network. Due to the high complexity of these methods, they can only be applied to sparsely connected networks of small sizes. ReBMM has a time complexity factor, which is independent of the indegree of a node and is quadratic in the number of nodes in the network, a big improvement over other techniques and yet there is little or no compromise in accuracy. We have tested ReBMM on a number of artificial datasets along with simulated data derived from a plant signaling network. We also used this method to reconstruct a network from real experimental observations of microarray data of the yeast cell cycle. Our method provides a natural framework for generating rules from a probabilistic model. It is simple, intuitive and illustrates excellent empirical results. PMID:23284654

  6. Models and Rules of Evaluation in International Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Feleaga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting procedures cannot be analyzed without a previous evaluation. Value is in general a very subjective issue, usually the result of a monetary evaluation made to a specific asset, group of assets or entities, or to some rendered services. Within the economic sciences, value comes from its very own deep history. In accounting, the concept of value had a late and fragile start. The term of value must not be misinterpreted as being the same thing with cost, even though value is frequently measured through costs. At the origin of the international accounting standards lays the framework for preparing, presenting and disclosing the financial statements. The framework stays as a reference matrix, as a standard of standards, as a constitution of financial accounting. According to the international framework, the financial statements use different evaluation basis: the hystorical cost, the current cost, the realisable (settlement value, the present value (the present value of cash flows. Choosing the evaluation basis and the capital maintenance concept will eventually determine the accounting evaluation model used in preparing the financial statements of a company. The multitude of accounting evaluation models differentiate themselves one from another through various relevance and reliable degrees of accounting information and therefore, accountants (the prepares of financial statements must try to equilibrate these two main qualitative characteristics of financial information.

  7. Models and Rules of Evaluation in International Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The accounting procedures cannot be analyzed without a previous evaluation. Value is in general a very subjective issue, usually the result of a monetary evaluation made to a specific asset, group of assets or entities, or to some rendered services. Within the economic sciences, value comes from its very own deep history. In accounting, the concept of value had a late and fragile start. The term of value must not be misinterpreted as being the same thing with cost, even though value is frequently measured through costs. At the origin of the international accounting standards lays the framework for preparing, presenting and disclosing the financial statements. The framework stays as a reference matrix, as a standard of standards, as a constitution of financial accounting. According to the international framework, the financial statements use different evaluation basis: the hystorical cost, the current cost, the realisable (settlement value, the present value (the present value of cash flows. Choosing the evaluation basis and the capital maintenance concept will eventually determine the accounting evaluation model used in preparing the financial statements of a company. The multitude of accounting evaluation models differentiate themselves one from another through various relevance and reliable degrees of accounting information and therefore, accountants (the prepares of financial statements must try to equilibrate these two main qualitative characteristics of financial information.

  8. Discovery of Transition Rules for Cellular Automata Using Artificial Bee Colony and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms in Urban Growth Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoun Naghibi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced method in urban growth modeling to discover transition rules of cellular automata (CA using the artificial bee colony (ABC optimization algorithm. Also, comparisons between the simulation results of CA models optimized by the ABC algorithm and the particle swarm optimization algorithms (PSO as intelligent approaches were performed to evaluate the potential of the proposed methods. According to previous studies, swarm intelligence algorithms for solving optimization problems such as discovering transition rules of CA in land use change/urban growth modeling can produce reasonable results. Modeling of urban growth as a dynamic process is not straightforward because of the existence of nonlinearity and heterogeneity among effective involved variables which can cause a number of challenges for traditional CA. ABC algorithm, the new powerful swarm based optimization algorithms, can be used to capture optimized transition rules of CA. This paper has proposed a methodology based on remote sensing data for modeling urban growth with CA calibrated by the ABC algorithm. The performance of ABC-CA, PSO-CA, and CA-logistic models in land use change detection is tested for the city of Urmia, Iran, between 2004 and 2014. Validations of the models based on statistical measures such as overall accuracy, figure of merit, and total operating characteristic were made. We showed that the overall accuracy of the ABC-CA model was 89%, which was 1.5% and 6.2% higher than those of the PSO-CA and CA-logistic model, respectively. Moreover, the allocation disagreement (simulation error of the simulation results for the ABC-CA, PSO-CA, and CA-logistic models are 11%, 12.5%, and 17.2%, respectively. Finally, for all evaluation indices including running time, convergence capability, flexibility, statistical measurements, and the produced spatial patterns, the ABC-CA model performance showed relative improvement and therefore its superiority was

  9. On the effects of adaptive reservoir operating rules in hydrological physically-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Federico; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have seen a significant increase of the human influence on the natural systems both at the global and local scale. Accurately modeling the human component and its interaction with the natural environment is key to characterize the real system dynamics and anticipate future potential changes to the hydrological regimes. Modern distributed, physically-based hydrological models are able to describe hydrological processes with high level of detail and high spatiotemporal resolution. Yet, they lack in sophistication for the behavior component and human decisions are usually described by very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the catchment dynamics. In the case of water reservoir operators, these simplistic rules usually consist of target-level rule curves, which represent the average historical level trajectory. Whilst these rules can reasonably reproduce the average seasonal water volume shifts due to the reservoirs' operation, they cannot properly represent peculiar conditions, which influence the actual reservoirs' operation, e.g., variations in energy price or water demand, dry or wet meteorological conditions. Moreover, target-level rule curves are not suitable to explore the water system response to climate and socio economic changing contexts, because they assume a business-as-usual operation. In this work, we quantitatively assess how the inclusion of adaptive reservoirs' operating rules into physically-based hydrological models contribute to the proper representation of the hydrological regime at the catchment scale. In particular, we contrast target-level rule curves and detailed optimization-based behavioral models. We, first, perform the comparison on past observational records, showing that target-level rule curves underperform in representing the hydrological regime over multiple time scales (e.g., weekly, seasonal, inter-annual). Then, we compare how future hydrological changes are affected by the two modeling

  10. Specific features of modelling rules of monetary policy on the basis of hybrid regression models with a neural component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukianenko Iryna H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers possibilities and specific features of modelling economic phenomena with the help of the category of models that unite elements of econometric regressions and artificial neural networks. This category of models contains auto-regression neural networks (AR-NN, regressions of smooth transition (STR/STAR, multi-mode regressions of smooth transition (MRSTR/MRSTAR and smooth transition regressions with neural coefficients (NCSTR/NCSTAR. Availability of the neural network component allows models of this category achievement of a high empirical authenticity, including reproduction of complex non-linear interrelations. On the other hand, the regression mechanism expands possibilities of interpretation of the obtained results. An example of multi-mode monetary rule is used to show one of the cases of specification and interpretation of this model. In particular, the article models and interprets principles of management of the UAH exchange rate that come into force when economy passes from a relatively stable into a crisis state.

  11. 75 FR 34537 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan Under the Patient Protection...-AB68 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim...

  12. 78 FR 76867 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... as the administrator, custodian, transfer agent and fund accounting agent for the Funds. \\5\\ The... related personnel will be subject to the provisions of Rule 204A-1 under the Advisers Act relating to..., including extreme volatility or trading halts in the equities markets or the financial markets...

  13. Analysis 320 coal mine accidents using structural equation modeling with unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations as exogenous variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingyu; Shao, Wei; Zhang, Mengjia; Li, Hejun; Yin, Shijiu; Xu, Yingjun

    2016-07-01

    Mining has been historically considered as a naturally high-risk industry worldwide. Deaths caused by coal mine accidents are more than the sum of all other accidents in China. Statistics of 320 coal mine accidents in Shandong province show that all accidents contain indicators of "unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations" with a frequency of 1590, accounting for 74.3% of the total frequency of 2140. "Unsafe behaviors of the operator" is another important contributory factor, which mainly includes "operator error" and "venturing into dangerous places." A systems analysis approach was applied by using structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the interactions between the contributory factors of coal mine accidents. The analysis of results leads to three conclusions. (i) "Unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations," affect the "unsafe behaviors of the operator," "unsafe conditions of the equipment," and "unsafe conditions of the environment." (ii) The three influencing factors of coal mine accidents (with the frequency of effect relation in descending order) are "lack of safety education and training," "rules and regulations of safety production responsibility," and "rules and regulations of supervision and inspection." (iii) The three influenced factors (with the frequency in descending order) of coal mine accidents are "venturing into dangerous places," "poor workplace environment," and "operator error."

  14. Cluster-based composition rule for Laves phase-related BCC solid solution hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing; CHEN Feng; WU Jiang; QIANG Jianbing; DONG Chuang; ZHANG Yao; XU Fen; SUN Lixian

    2006-01-01

    A new cluster line approach for the composition rule of Laves phase-related BCC solid solution hydrogen-storage alloys was presented. The cluster line in a ternary phase diagram refers to a straight composition line linking a specific binary cluster to the third element. In the Laves phase-related BCC solid solution alloy system such as Ti-Cr-V, Ti-Cr tends to form binary Cr2Ti Laves phase while Ti-V and Cr-V to form solid solutions. This Laves phase is characterized by a close-packing icosahedral cluster Cr7Ti6. A cluster line Cr7Ti6-V is then constructed in this system. Alloy rods with a diameter of 3 mm of compositions along this line were prepared by copper-mould suction method. The alloy structure is found to vary with the V contents. Furthermore, the P-C-T measurements indicate that the cluster-line (Cr7Ti6)1-xVx alloys have large hydrogen storage capacities.

  15. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis. We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture fine scale rules of interaction, which are primarily mediated by physical contact. Conversely, the Markovian self-propelled particle model captures the fine scale rules of interaction but fails to reproduce global dynamics. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  16. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Richard P; Perna, Andrea; Strömbom, Daniel; Garnett, Roman; Herbert-Read, James E; Sumpter, David J T; Ward, Ashley J W

    2012-01-01

    Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis). We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture fine scale rules of interaction, which are primarily mediated by physical contact. Conversely, the Markovian self-propelled particle model captures the fine scale rules of interaction but fails to reproduce global dynamics. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  17. On the origin of superselection rules and different solutions of Thirring model

    CERN Document Server

    Korenblit, S E

    2012-01-01

    The normal forms of different one- and two- parametric solutions of Thirring model are connected with each other by making use of generalized conformal shift transformations. A new alternative sources of superselection rules are shown and the ways of spontaneous symmetry breaking are discussed.

  18. The Fubini-Furlan-Rosetti sum rule and related aspects in light of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, V; Meißner, Ulf G; Kubis, Bastian; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the Fubini-Furlan-Rosetti sum rule in the framework of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory to leading one-loop accuracy and including next-to-leading order polynomial contributions. We discuss the relation between the subtraction constants in the invariant amplitudes and certain low-energy constants employed in earlier chiral perturbation theory studies of threshold neutral pion photoproduction off nucleons. In particular, we consider the corrections to the sum rule due to the finite pion mass and show that below the threshold they agree well with determinations based on fixed-t dispersion relations. We also discuss the energy dependence of the electric dipole amplitude E_{0+}.

  19. Relative survival multistate Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszti, Ella; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Alioum, Ahmadou; Binquet, Christine; Quantin, Catherine

    2012-02-10

    Prognostic studies often have to deal with two important challenges: (i) separating effects of predictions on different 'competing' events and (ii) uncertainty about cause of death. Multistate Markov models permit multivariable analyses of competing risks of, for example, mortality versus disease recurrence. On the other hand, relative survival methods help estimate disease-specific mortality risks even in the absence of data on causes of death. In this paper, we propose a new Markov relative survival (MRS) model that attempts to combine these two methodologies. Our MRS model extends the existing multistate Markov piecewise constant intensities model to relative survival modeling. The intensity of transitions leading to death in the MRS model is modeled as the sum of an estimable excess hazard of mortality from the disease of interest and an 'offset' defined as the expected hazard of all-cause 'natural' mortality obtained from relevant life-tables. We evaluate the new MRS model through simulations, with a design based on registry-based prognostic studies of colon cancer. Simulation results show almost unbiased estimates of prognostic factor effects for the MRS model. We also applied the new MRS model to reassess the role of prognostic factors for mortality in a study of colorectal cancer. The MRS model considerably reduces the bias observed with the conventional Markov model that does not permit accounting for unknown causes of death, especially if the 'true' effects of a prognostic factor on the two types of mortality differ substantially.

  20. Hyperactivity, perseveration and increased responding during attentional rule acquisition in the Fragile X mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramvis, Ioannis; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Loos, Maarten; Meredith, Rhiannon

    2013-01-01

    Attentional deficits and executive function impairments are common to many neurodevelopmental disorders of intellectual disability and autism, including Fragile X syndrome (FXS). In the knockout mouse model for FXS, significant changes in synaptic plasticity and connectivity are found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-a prominent region for attentional processing and executive control. Given these alterations in PFC synaptic function, we tested whether adult Fragile X knockout mice exhibited corresponding impairments in inhibitory control, perseveration, and sustained attention. Furthermore, we investigated individual performance during attentional rule acquisition. Using the 5-choice serial reaction time task, our results show no impairments in inhibitory control and sustained attention. Fragile X knockout mice exhibited enhanced levels of correct and incorrect responding, as well as perseveration of responding during initial phases of rule acquisition, that normalized with training. For both knockout and wild type mice, pharmacological attenuation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling did not affect response accuracy but reduced impulsive responses and increased omission errors. Upon rule reversal, Fragile X knockout mice made more correct and incorrect responses, similar to the initial phases of rule acquisition. Analogous to heightened activity upon novel rule acquisition, Fragile X knockout mice were transiently hyperactive in both a novel open field (OF) arena and novel home cage. Hyperactivity ceased with familiarization to the environment. Our findings demonstrate normal inhibitory control and sustained attention but heightened perseveration, responding, and hyperactivity during novel rule acquisition and during exposure to novel environments in Fragile X knockout mice. We therefore provide evidence for subtle but significant differences in the processing of novel stimuli in the mouse model for the FXS.

  1. QEFSM model and Markov Algorithm for translating Quran reciting rules into Braille code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M. Abualkishik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Quran is the central religious verbal text of Islam. Muslims are expected to read, understand, and apply the teachings of the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran was translated to Braille code as a normal Arabic text without having its reciting rules included. It is obvious that the users of this transliteration will not be able to recite the Quran the right way. Through this work, Quran Braille Translator (QBT presents a specific translator to translate Quran verses and their reciting rules into the Braille code. Quran Extended Finite State Machine (QEFSM model is proposed through this study as it is able to detect the Quran reciting rules (QRR from the Quran text. Basis path testing was used to evaluate the inner work for the model by checking all the test cases for the model. Markov Algorithm (MA was used for translating the detected QRR and Quran text into the matched Braille code. The data entries for QBT are Arabic letters and diacritics. The outputs of this study are seen in the double lines of Braille symbols; the first line is the proposed Quran reciting rules and the second line is for the Quran scripts.

  2. Connections between the Sznajd Model with General Confidence Rules and graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Timpanaro, André M

    2012-01-01

    The Sznajd model is a sociophysics model, that is used to model opinion propagation and consensus formation in societies. Its main feature is that its rules favour bigger groups of agreeing people. In a previous work, we generalized the bounded confidence rule in order to model biases and prejudices in discrete opinion models. In that work, we applied this modification to the Sznajd model and presented some preliminary results. The present work extends what we did in that paper. We present results linking many of the properties of the mean-field fixed points, with only a few qualitative aspects of the confidence rule (the biases and prejudices modelled), finding an interesting connection with graph theory problems. More precisely, we link the existence of fixed points with the notion of strongly connected graphs and the stability of fixed points with the problem of finding the maximal independent sets of a graph. We present some graph theory concepts, together with examples, and comparisons between the mean-f...

  3. Integrable anyon chains: From fusion rules to face models to effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, Peter E.; Flohr, Michael; Frahm, Holger

    2014-12-15

    Starting from the fusion rules for the algebra SO(5){sub 2} we construct one-dimensional lattice models of interacting anyons with commuting transfer matrices of ‘interactions round the face’ (IRF) type. The conserved topological charges of the anyon chain are recovered from the transfer matrices in the limit of large spectral parameter. The properties of the models in the thermodynamic limit and the low energy excitations are studied using Bethe ansatz methods. Two of the anyon models are critical at zero temperature. From the analysis of the finite size spectrum we find that they are effectively described by rational conformal field theories invariant under extensions of the Virasoro algebra, namely WB{sub 2} and WD{sub 5}, respectively. The latter contains primaries with half and quarter spin. The modular partition function and fusion rules are derived and found to be consistent with the results for the lattice model.

  4. Integrable anyon chains: From fusion rules to face models to effective field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Peter E.; Flohr, Michael; Frahm, Holger

    2014-12-01

    Starting from the fusion rules for the algebra SO (5)2 we construct one-dimensional lattice models of interacting anyons with commuting transfer matrices of 'interactions round the face' (IRF) type. The conserved topological charges of the anyon chain are recovered from the transfer matrices in the limit of large spectral parameter. The properties of the models in the thermodynamic limit and the low energy excitations are studied using Bethe ansatz methods. Two of the anyon models are critical at zero temperature. From the analysis of the finite size spectrum we find that they are effectively described by rational conformal field theories invariant under extensions of the Virasoro algebra, namely WB2 and WD5, respectively. The latter contains primaries with half and quarter spin. The modular partition function and fusion rules are derived and found to be consistent with the results for the lattice model.

  5. Exact hybrid particle/population simulation of rule-based models of biochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Hogg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Detailed modeling and simulation of biochemical systems is complicated by the problem of combinatorial complexity, an explosion in the number of species and reactions due to myriad protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Rule-based modeling overcomes this problem by representing molecules as structured objects and encoding their interactions as pattern-based rules. This greatly simplifies the process of model specification, avoiding the tedious and error prone task of manually enumerating all species and reactions that can potentially exist in a system. From a simulation perspective, rule-based models can be expanded algorithmically into fully-enumerated reaction networks and simulated using a variety of network-based simulation methods, such as ordinary differential equations or Gillespie's algorithm, provided that the network is not exceedingly large. Alternatively, rule-based models can be simulated directly using particle-based kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This "network-free" approach produces exact stochastic trajectories with a computational cost that is independent of network size. However, memory and run time costs increase with the number of particles, limiting the size of system that can be feasibly simulated. Here, we present a hybrid particle/population simulation method that combines the best attributes of both the network-based and network-free approaches. The method takes as input a rule-based model and a user-specified subset of species to treat as population variables rather than as particles. The model is then transformed by a process of "partial network expansion" into a dynamically equivalent form that can be simulated using a population-adapted network-free simulator. The transformation method has been implemented within the open-source rule-based modeling platform BioNetGen, and resulting hybrid models can be simulated using the particle-based simulator NFsim. Performance tests show that

  6. The Defects of WTO Anti-Dumping Rules and Related Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Wenhong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since Canada made the first anti-dumping code in 1904, United States, Australia and France made their domestic anti-dumping codes successively.In 1947,the contracting parties made anti-dumping rules part of GATT (Article VI).

  7. Feynman rules in the Lorentz violating extension of the standard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Binandeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  We consider the Lorentz violating extension of the standard model introduced by D. Colladay and V. A. Kostelecky. In this framework, we obtain all Feynman rules for the electroweak part of the standard model extension (SME, for the first time. Among the new obtained interactions one finds new vertices for the Higgs boson that is interesting in the phenomenology of the Higgs particle.

  8. Cellular Automaton Rule 184++C A Simple Model for the Complex Dynamics of Various Particles Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Awazu, A

    1999-01-01

    A cellular automaton named Rule 184++C is proposed as a meta-model to investigate the flow of various complex particles. In this model, unlike the granular pipe flow and the traffic flow, not only the free-jam phase transition but also the free-intermediate, the intermediate-jam, and the dilute-dense phase transitions appear. Moreover, the freezing phenomena appear if the system contains two types of different particles.

  9. Spatial Rule-Based Modeling: A Method and Its Application to the Human Mitotic Kinetochore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Huwald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in the analysis of biological systems is the combinatorial explosion that emerges from the complexity of multi-protein assemblies. Conventional formalisms, like differential equations, Boolean networks and Bayesian networks, are unsuitable for dealing with the combinatorial explosion, because they are designed for a restricted state space with fixed dimensionality. To overcome this problem, the rule-based modeling language, BioNetGen, and the spatial extension, SRSim, have been developed. Here, we describe how to apply rule-based modeling to integrate experimental data from different sources into a single spatial simulation model and how to analyze the output of that model. The starting point for this approach can be a combination of molecular interaction data, reaction network data, proximities, binding and diffusion kinetics and molecular geometries at different levels of detail. We describe the technique and then use it to construct a model of the human mitotic inner and outer kinetochore, including the spindle assembly checkpoint signaling pathway. This allows us to demonstrate the utility of the procedure, show how a novel perspective for understanding such complex systems becomes accessible and elaborate on challenges that arise in the formulation, simulation and analysis of spatial rule-based models.

  10. The semiotics of control and modeling relations in complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslyn, C

    2001-01-01

    We provide a conceptual analysis of ideas and principles from the systems theory discourse which underlie Pattee's semantic or semiotic closure, which is itself foundational for a school of theoretical biology derived from systems theory and cybernetics, and is now being related to biological semiotics and explicated in the relational biological school of Rashevsky and Rosen. Atomic control systems and models are described as the canonical forms of semiotic organization, sharing measurement relations, but differing topologically in that control systems are circularly and models linearly related to their environments. Computation in control systems is introduced, motivating hierarchical decomposition, hybrid modeling and control systems, and anticipatory or model-based control. The semiotic relations in complex control systems are described in terms of relational constraints, and rules and laws are distinguished as contingent and necessary functional entailments, respectively. Finally, selection as a meta-level of constraint is introduced as the necessary condition for semantic relations in control systems and models.

  11. Object-relational mapping model

    OpenAIRE

    Žukauskas, Arūnas

    2007-01-01

    This work is analyzing problems, arising because of sematical gap between relational and object-oriented approaches and discusses how to utilize object-relational mapping for solving this problem. After analysis of object-relational mapping framework (further – ORM) principles and features of existing ORM frameworks a model is suggested, that allows to implement ORM by utilizing MVP principles in a way that retains major portion of both approach pros and is perfect for transitioning existing ...

  12. 75 FR 43329 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and External... CFR Part 147 RIN 0991-AB70 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers... Administration, Department of Labor; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health...

  13. 77 FR 20079 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Advisers Act relating to codes of ethics. This Rule requires investment advisers to adopt a code of ethics..., production, processing, refining, transportation, storage, and marketing of mineral or natural resources.\\11... businesses, including the marketing of the products and logistical services. Propane MLP services include...

  14. Optimization of approximate decision rules relative to number of misclassifications: Comparison of greedy and dynamic programming approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we present a comparison of dynamic programming and greedy approaches for construction and optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the number of misclassifications. We use an uncertainty measure that is a difference between the number of rows in a decision table T and the number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. Experimental results with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository are also presented. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Use of Ontology Structure and Bayesian Models to Aid the Crowdsourcing of ICD-11 Sanctioning Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun; Tu, Samson W; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Chalmers, Robert J G; Musen, Mark A

    2017-02-10

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the de facto standard international classification for mortality reporting and for many epidemiological, clinical, and financial use cases. The next version of ICD, ICD-11, will be submitted for approval by the World Health Assembly in 2018. Unlike previous versions of ICD, where coders mostly select single codes from pre-enumerated disease and disorder codes, ICD-11 coding will allow extensive use of multiple codes to give more detailed disease descriptions. For example, "severe malignant neoplasms of left breast" may be coded using the combination of a "stem code" (e.g., code for malignant neoplasms of breast) with a variety of "extension codes" (e.g., codes for laterality and severity). The use of multiple codes (a process called post-coordination), while avoiding the pitfall of having to pre-enumerate vast number of possible disease and qualifier combinations, risks the creation of meaningless expressions that combine stem codes with inappropriate qualifiers. To prevent that from happening, "sanctioning rules" that define legal combinations are necessary. In this work, we developed a crowdsourcing method for obtaining sanctioning rules for the post-coordination of concepts in ICD-11. Our method utilized the hierarchical structures in the domain to improve the accuracy of the sanctioning rules and to lower the crowdsourcing cost. We used Bayesian networks to model crowd workers' skills, the accuracy of their responses, and our confidence in the acquired sanctioning rules. We applied reinforcement learning to develop an agent that constantly adjusted the confidence cutoffs during the crowdsourcing process to maximize the overall quality of sanctioning rules under a fixed budget. Finally, we performed formative evaluations using a skin-disease branch of the draft ICD-11 and demonstrated that the crowd-sourced sanctioning rules replicated those defined by an expert dermatologist with high precision and recall

  16. Solution of the Unanimity Rule on exponential, uniform and scalefree networks: A simple model for biodiversity collapse in foodwebs

    CERN Document Server

    Hanel, Rudolf

    2007-01-01

    We solve the Unanimity Rule on networks with exponential, uniform and scalefree degree distributions. In particular we arrive at equations relating the asymptotic number of nodes in one of two states to the initial fraction of nodes in this state. The solutions for exponential and uniform networks are exact, the approximation for the scalefree case is in perfect agreement with simulation results. We use these solutions to provide a theoretical understanding for experimental data on biodiversity loss in foodwebs, which is available for the three network types discussed. The model allows in principle to estimate the critical value of species that have to be removed from the system to induce its complete collapse.

  17. Inflexibility and independence: Phase transitions in the majority-rule model

    CERN Document Server

    Crokidakis, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study opinion formation in a population participating of a public debate with two distinct choices. We considered three distinct mechanisms of social interactions and individuals' behavior: conformity, non-conformity and inflexibility. The conformity is ruled by the majority-rule dynamics, whereas the non-conformity is introduced in the population as an independent behavior, implying the failure to attempted group influence. Finally, the inflexible agents are introduced in the population with a given density. These individuals present a singular behavior, in a way that their stubbornness makes them reluctant to change their opinions. We consider these effects separately and all together, with the aim to analyze the critical behavior of the system. We performed numerical simulations for distinct population sizes, and our results suggest that the different formulations of the model undergo order-disorder phase transitions in the same universality class of the Ising model. Some of our results are...

  18. Inflexibility and independence: Phase transitions in the majority-rule model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crokidakis, Nuno; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro

    2015-12-01

    In this work we study opinion formation in a population participating in a public debate with two distinct choices. We consider three distinct mechanisms of social interactions and individuals' behavior: conformity, nonconformity, and inflexibility. The conformity is ruled by the majority-rule dynamics, whereas the nonconformity is introduced in the population as an independent behavior, implying the failure of attempted group influence. Finally, the inflexible agents are introduced in the population with a given density. These individuals present a singular behavior, in a way that their stubbornness makes them reluctant to change their opinions. We consider these effects separately and all together, with the aim to analyze the critical behavior of the system. We perform numerical simulations in some lattice structures and for distinct population sizes. Our results suggest that the different formulations of the model undergo order-disorder phase transitions in the same universality class as the Ising model. Some of our results are complemented by analytical calculations.

  19. Update rules and interevent time distributions: Slow ordering vs. no ordering in the Voter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Miguel, M San

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a general methodology of update rules accounting for arbitrary interevent time distributions in simulations of interacting agents. In particular we consider update rules that depend on the state of the agent, so that the update becomes part of the dynamical model. As an illustration we consider the voter model in fully-connected, random and scale free networks with an update probability inversely proportional to the persistence, that is, the time since the last event. We find that in the thermodynamic limit, at variance with standard updates, the system orders slowly. The approach to the absorbing state is characterized by a power law decay of the density of interfaces, observing that the mean time to reach the absorbing state might be not well defined.

  20. Fuzzy rule-based models for decision support in ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Veronique; De Baets, Bernard; Goethals, Peter L M; De Pauw, Niels

    2004-02-05

    To facilitate decision support in the ecosystem management, ecological expertise and site-specific data need to be integrated. Fuzzy logic can deal with highly variable, linguistic, vague and uncertain data or knowledge and, therefore, has the ability to allow for a logical, reliable and transparent information stream from data collection down to data usage in decision-making. Several environmental applications already implicate the use of fuzzy logic. Most of these applications have been set up by trial and error and are mainly limited to the domain of environmental assessment. In this article, applications of fuzzy logic for decision support in ecosystem management are reviewed and assessed, with an emphasis on rule-based models. In particular, the identification, optimisation, validation, the interpretability and uncertainty aspects of fuzzy rule-based models for decision support in ecosystem management are discussed.

  1. Fusion rules for the logarithmic $N=1$ superconformal minimal models II: including the Ramond sector

    CERN Document Server

    Canagasabey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Virasoro logarithmic minimal models were intensively studied by several groups over the last ten years with much attention paid to the fusion rules and the structures of the indecomposable representations that fusion generates. The analogous study of the fusion rules of the $N=1$ superconformal logarithmic minimal models was initiated in arXiv:1504.03155 as a continuum counterpart to the lattice explorations of arXiv:1312.6763. These works restricted fusion considerations to Neveu-Schwarz representations. Here, this is extended to include the Ramond sector. Technical advances that make this possible include a fermionic Verlinde formula applicable to logarithmic conformal field theories and a twisted version of the fusion algorithm of Nahm and Gaberdiel-Kausch. The results include the first construction and detailed analysis of logarithmic structures in the Ramond sector.

  2. A rule based fuzzy model for the prediction of petrophysical rock parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finol, J.; Jing, X.D. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, SW7 2BP London (United Kingdom); Ke Guo, Y. [Fujitsu Parallel Computing Centre, Department of Computing, Imperial College, SW7 2BZ London (United Kingdom)

    2001-04-01

    A new approach for the prediction of petrophysical rock parameters based on a rule-based fuzzy model is presented. The rule-based fuzzy model corresponds to the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang method of fuzzy reasoning proposed by Sugeno and his co-authors. This fuzzy model is defined by a set of fuzzy implications with linear consequent parts, each of which establishes a local linear input-output relationship between the variables of the model. In this approach, a fuzzy clustering algorithm is combined with the least-square approximation method to identify the structure and parameters of the fuzzy model from sets of numerical data. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy modeling method, two examples are developed using core and electrical log data from three oil wells in Ceuta Field, Lake Maracaibo Basin. The numerical results of the fuzzy modelling method are compared with the results of a conventional linear regression model. It is shown that the fuzzy modeling approach is not only more accurate than the conventional regression approach but also provides some qualitative information about the underlying complexities of the porous system.

  3. Extending radiative transfer models by use of Bayes rule. [in atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure that extends some existing radiative transfer modeling techniques to problems in atmospheric science where curvature and layering of the medium and dynamic range and angular resolution of the signal are important. Example problems include twilight and limb scan simulations. Techniques that are extended include successive orders of scattering, matrix operator, doubling, Gauss-Seidel iteration, discrete ordinates and spherical harmonics. The procedure for extending them is based on Bayes' rule from probability theory.

  4. A rule-based approach to model checking of UML state machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał; Stefanowicz, Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    In the paper a new approach to formal verification of control process specification expressed by means of UML state machines in version 2.x is proposed. In contrast to other approaches from the literature, we use the abstract and universal rule-based logical model suitable both for model checking (using the nuXmv model checker), but also for logical synthesis in form of rapid prototyping. Hence, a prototype implementation in hardware description language VHDL can be obtained that fully reflects the primary, already formally verified specification in form of UML state machines. Presented approach allows to increase the assurance that implemented system meets the user-defined requirements.

  5. Majority rule has transition ratio 4 on Yule trees under a 2-state symmetric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossel, Elchanan; Steel, Mike

    2014-11-01

    Inferring the ancestral state at the root of a phylogenetic tree from states observed at the leaves is a problem arising in evolutionary biology. The simplest technique - majority rule - estimates the root state by the most frequently occurring state at the leaves. Alternative methods - such as maximum parsimony - explicitly take the tree structure into account. Since either method can outperform the other on particular trees, it is useful to consider the accuracy of the methods on trees generated under some evolutionary null model, such as a Yule pure-birth model. In this short note, we answer a recently posed question concerning the performance of majority rule on Yule trees under a symmetric 2-state Markovian substitution model of character state change. We show that majority rule is accurate precisely when the ratio of the birth (speciation) rate of the Yule process to the substitution rate exceeds the value 4. By contrast, maximum parsimony has been shown to be accurate only when this ratio is at least 6. Our proof relies on a second moment calculation, coupling, and a novel application of a reflection principle.

  6. Load redistribution rules for progressive failure in shallow landslides: Threshold mechanical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Linfeng; Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are often preceded by progressive failures that culminate in abrupt mass release. Local failure progression is captured by a landslide hydro-mechanical triggering model that represents the soil mantle as interacting columns linked by tensile and compressive mechanical "bonds." Mechanical bonds may fail at a prescribed threshold leaving a modeling challenge of how to redistribute their load to neighboring intact soil columns. We employed an elastic spring-block model to analytically derive redistribution rules defined by the stiffness ratio of compressive to tensile bonds. These linear-elastic rules were generalized to real soil using measurable Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. Results indicate that "local" failure characteristics of ductile-like soils (e.g., clay) are reproduced by low stiffness ratios, whereas "global" failure of brittle sandy soils corresponds to large stiffness ratios. Systematic analyses yield guidelines for selecting load redistribution rules for failure of geological materials and mass-movement phenomena represented by discrete threshold-mechanics.

  7. Generalized Deterministic Traffic Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Fuks, H; Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino

    1997-01-01

    We study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parametrized by the speed limit $m$ and another parameter $k$ that represents a ``degree of aggressiveness'' in driving, strictly related to the distance between two consecutive cars. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: ``conservative'' driving with high speed limit and ``aggressive'' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered.

  8. 76 FR 17071 - Amendment of the Commission's Rules Related to Retransmission Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Communications Commission (FCC) seeks comment on a series of proposals to streamline and clarify the Commission's... Rulemaking (NPRM), we seek comment on a series of proposals to streamline and clarify our rules concerning or... order denying ATC Broadband LLC and Dixie Cable TV, Inc.'s retransmission consent complaint alleging...

  9. Comments received on proposed rule on radiological criteria for decommissioning and related documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, G.; Caplin, J.; Smith, D. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting an enhanced participatory rulemaking to establish radiological criteria for the decommissioning of NRC-licensed facilities. As a part of this action, the Commission published in the Federal Register (59 FR 43200), on August 22, 1994, a proposed rule on radiological criteria for decommissioning, soliciting comments both on the rule as proposed and on certain specific items as identified in its supplementary statement of considerations. A draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) in support of the rule, also published in August 1994 as NUREG-1496, along with its Appendix A (NUREG-1501), were also made available for comment. A staff working draft on regulatory guidance (NUREG-1500)was also made available. This report summarizes the 1,309 comments on the proposed rule and supplementary items and the 311 comments on the GEIS as excerpted from 101 docketed letters received associated in the Federal/Register notice. Comments from two NRC/Agreement-States meetings are also summarized.

  10. Adler sum rule

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    The Adler sum rule states that the integral over energy of a difference of neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon structure functions is a constant, independent of the four-momentum transfer squared. This constancy is a consequence of the local commutation relations of the time components of the hadronic weak current, which follow from the underlying quark structure of the standard model.

  11. A Model for International Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the new international environment has required a new model of relationship between major countries. The basis of the new relations is to safeguard one's own national interests while respecting the national interests of the other country. The process of establishing such rela-

  12. Assessment of Matrix Multiplication Learning with a Rule-Based Analytical Model--"A Bayesian Network Representation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    This study explored an alternative assessment procedure to examine learning trajectories of matrix multiplication. It took rule-based analytical and cognitive task analysis methods specifically to break down operation rules for a given matrix multiplication. Based on the analysis results, a hierarchical Bayesian network, an assessment model,…

  13. Effect of violating the traffic light rule in the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Jun; Jiang, Rui; Li, Ming; Li, Qi-Lang; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-09-01

    This paper studies the effect of violating the traffic light rule in the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) traffic flow model. It is assumed that there are two kinds of drivers: normal drivers obey the traffic light rule and violators disobey it. Simulation results show that although the existence of violators increases the average velocity in the free-flowing phase, it decreases the threshold from free-flowing phase to jam. With the presence of violators, a new kind of configuration with stripe slopes -2 and -1/2 has been found in the free-flowing phase. We have developed an analytical investigation which successfully predicts the average velocity in the free-flowing phase. A phase separation phenomenon, where jams and freely flowing traffic coexist, has been found in the intermediate car density range. The mechanism of the phase separation has been illustrated.

  14. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bloch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  15. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossant, Florence; Bloch, Isabelle

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR) in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  16. Electromagnetic Selection Rules for \\varvec{^{12}}C in a 3 \\varvec{α } Cluster Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, L.; Stellin, G.; Vitturi, A.

    2017-01-01

    The recent successful application of the Algebraic Cluster Model to the energy spectrum of ^{12}C has brought a new impetus on spectroscopy of this and other α -conjugate nuclei. In fact, known spectral properties have been reexamined on the basis of vibrations and rotations of three α particles at the vertexes of an equilateral triangle and new excited states have been measured that fit into this scheme. The analysis of this system entails the application of molecular models for rotational-vibrational spectra to the nuclear context and requires deep knowledge of the underlying group-theoretical properties, based on the D_{3h} symmetry, similarly to what is done in quantum chemistry. We have recently analyzed the symmetries of the model and the quantum numbers in great depth, reproducing the all-important results of Wheeler and we have derived electromagnetic selection rules for the system of three α particles, finding, for instance, that electric dipole E1 and magnetic dipole M1 excitations are excluded from the model. The lowest active modes are therefore E2, E3,\\cdots and M2, M3, \\cdots although there are further restrictions between certain types of bands. The selection rules summarized in the text provide a criterion for assigning of observed lines to the alpha cluster model or not and they might help to further unravel the electromagnetic properties of ^{12}C. With the perspective of new facilities (such as ELI) where photo-excitation and photo-dissociation experiments will play a major role, a complete understanding of e.m. selection rules as a tool to confirm or disprove nuclear structure models, is mandatory.

  17. Orthogonal search-based rule extraction for modelling the decision to transfuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, T A; Harrison, M J

    2006-04-01

    Data from an audit relating to transfusion decisions during intermediate or major surgery were analysed to determine the strengths of certain factors in the decision making process. The analysis, using orthogonal search-based rule extraction (OSRE) from a trained neural network, demonstrated that the risk of tissue hypoxia (ROTH) assessed using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, the haemoglobin value (Hb) and the presence or absence of on-going haemorrhage (OGH) were able to reproduce the transfusion decisions with a joint specificity of 0.96 and sensitivity of 0.93 and a positive predictive value of 0.9. The rules indicating transfusion were: 1. ROTH > 32 mm and Hb 13 mm and Hb 38 mm, Hb < 102 g x l(-1) and OGH; 4. Hb < 78 g x l(-1).

  18. Rule-Driven Object Tracking in Clutter and Partial Occlusion with Model-Based Snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapantzikos Konstantinos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years it has been made clear to the research community that further improvements in classic approaches for solving low-level computer vision and image/video understanding tasks are difficult to obtain. New approaches started evolving, employing knowledge-based processing, though transforming a priori knowledge to low-level models and rules are far from being straightforward. In this paper, we examine one of the most popular active contour models, snakes, and propose a snake model, modifying terms and introducing a model-based one that eliminates basic problems through the usage of prior shape knowledge in the model. A probabilistic rule-driven utilization of the proposed model follows, being able to handle (or cope with objects of different shapes, contour complexities and motions; different environments, indoor and outdoor; cluttered sequences; and cases where background is complex (not smooth and when moving objects get partially occluded. The proposed method has been tested in a variety of sequences and the experimental results verify its efficiency.

  19. A quantitative quantum chemical model of the Dewar-Knott color rule for cationic diarylmethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Seth

    2012-04-01

    We document the quantitative manifestation of the Dewar-Knott color rule in a four-electron, three-orbital state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) model of a series of bridge-substituted cationic diarylmethanes. We show that the lowest excitation energies calculated using multireference perturbation theory based on the model are linearly correlated with the development of hole density in an orbital localized on the bridge, and the depletion of pair density in the same orbital. We quantitatively express the correlation in the form of a generalized Hammett equation.

  20. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-21 - Rules relating to the use of an electronic medium to provide applicable notices and to make...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Introduction—(1) In general—(i) Permission to use an electronic medium. This section provides rules relating to... section reflect the provisions of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, Public... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rules relating to the use of an electronic...

  1. An actor-focused model of justice rule adherence and violation: the role of managerial motives and discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brent A; Colquitt, Jason A; Paddock, E Layne

    2009-05-01

    Research on organizational justice has focused primarily on the receivers of just and unjust treatment. Little is known about why managers adhere to or violate rules of justice in the first place. The authors introduce a model for understanding justice rule adherence and violation. They identify both cognitive motives and affective motives that explain why managers adhere to and violate justice rules. They also draw distinctions among the justice rules by specifying which rules offer managers more or less discretion in their execution. They then describe how motives and discretion interact to influence justice-relevant actions. Finally, the authors incorporate managers' emotional reactions to consider how their actions may change over time. Implications of the model for theory, research, and practice are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. World Trade Center Health Program; amendments to list of WTC-related health conditions; cancer; revision. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    On September 12, 2012, the Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) published a final rule in the Federal Register adding certain types of cancer to the List of World Trade Center (WTC)-Related Health Conditions (List) in the WTC Health Program regulations; an additional final rule was published on September 19, 2013 adding prostate cancer to the List. Through the process of implementing the addition of cancers to the List and integrating cancer coverage into the WTC Health Program, the Administrator has identified the need to amend the rule to remove the ICD codes and specific cancer sub-sites, clarify the definition of ``childhood cancers,'' revise the definition of ``rare cancers,'' and notify stakeholders that the Administrator is revising WTC Health Program policy related to coverage of cancers of the brain and the pancreas. No types of cancer covered by the WTC Health Program will be removed by this action; four types of cancer--malignant neoplasms of the brain, the cervix uteri, the pancreas, and the testis--are newly eligible for certification as WTC-related health conditions as a result of this action.

  3. A Rule-Based Model for Bankruptcy Prediction Based on an Improved Genetic Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a hybrid system to predict corporate bankruptcy. The whole procedure consists of the following four stages: first, sequential forward selection was used to extract the most important features; second, a rule-based model was chosen to fit the given dataset since it can present physical meaning; third, a genetic ant colony algorithm (GACA was introduced; the fitness scaling strategy and the chaotic operator were incorporated with GACA, forming a new algorithm—fitness-scaling chaotic GACA (FSCGACA, which was used to seek the optimal parameters of the rule-based model; and finally, the stratified K-fold cross-validation technique was used to enhance the generalization of the model. Simulation experiments of 1000 corporations’ data collected from 2006 to 2009 demonstrated that the proposed model was effective. It selected the 5 most important factors as “net income to stock broker’s equality,” “quick ratio,” “retained earnings to total assets,” “stockholders’ equity to total assets,” and “financial expenses to sales.” The total misclassification error of the proposed FSCGACA was only 7.9%, exceeding the results of genetic algorithm (GA, ant colony algorithm (ACA, and GACA. The average computation time of the model is 2.02 s.

  4. O (θ ) Feynman rules for quadrilinear gauge boson couplings in the noncommutative standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Seyed Shams; Boroun, G. R.

    2017-02-01

    We examine the electroweak gauge sector of the noncommutative standard model and, in particular, obtain the O (θ ) Feynman rules for all quadrilinear gauge boson couplings. Surprisingly, an electroweak-chromodynamics mixing appears in the gauge sector of the noncommutative standard model, where the photon as well as the neutral weak boson is coupled directly to three gluons. The phenomenological perspectives of the model in W-W+→Z Z scattering are studied and it is shown that there is a characteristic oscillatory behavior in azimuthal distribution of scattering cross sections that can be interpreted as a direct signal of the noncommutative standard model. Assuming the integrated luminosity 100 fb-1, the number of W-W+→Z Z subprocesses are estimated for some values of noncommutative scale ΛNC at different center of mass energies and the results are compared with predictions of the standard model.

  5. The speed of learning instructed stimulus-response association rules in human: experimental data and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmann, Guido; Goslin, Jeremy; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2013-11-01

    Humans can learn associations between visual stimuli and motor responses from just a single instruction. This is known to be a fast process, but how fast is it? To answer this question, we asked participants to learn a briefly presented (200ms) stimulus-response rule, which they then had to rapidly apply after a variable delay of between 50 and 1300ms. Participants showed a longer response time with increased variability for short delays. The error rate was low and did not vary with the delay, showing that participants were able to encode the rule correctly in less than 250ms. This time is close to the fastest synaptic learning speed deemed possible by diffusive influx of AMPA receptors. Learning continued at a slower pace in the delay period and was fully completed in average 900ms after rule presentation onset, when response latencies dropped to levels consistent with basic reaction times. A neural model was proposed that explains the reduction of response times and of their variability with the delay by (i) a random synaptic learning process that generates weights of average values increasing with the learning time, followed by (ii) random crossing of the firing threshold by a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron model, and (iii) assuming that the behavioural response is initiated when all neurons in a pool of m neurons have fired their first spike after input onset. Values of m=2 or 3 were consistent with the experimental data. The proposed model is the simplest solution consistent with neurophysiological knowledge. Additional experiments are suggested to test the hypothesis underlying the model and also to explore forgetting effects for which there were indications for the longer delay conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neural Coding 2012.

  6. Performance-friendly rule extraction in large water data-sets with AOC posets and relational concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolques, Xavier; Le Ber, Florence; Huchard, Marianne; Grac, Corinne

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we consider data analysis methods for knowledge extraction from large water data-sets. More specifically, we try to connect physico-chemical parameters and the characteristics of taxons living in sample sites. Among these data analysis methods, we consider formal concept analysis (FCA), which is a recognized tool for classification and rule discovery on object-attribute data. Relational concept analysis (RCA) relies on FCA and deals with sets of object-attribute data provided with relations. RCA produces more informative results but at the expense of an increase in complexity. Besides, in numerous applications of FCA, the partially ordered set of concepts introducing attributes or objects (AOC poset, for Attribute-Object-Concept poset) is used rather than the concept lattice in order to reduce combinatorial problems. AOC posets are much smaller and easier to compute than concept lattices and still contain the information needed to rebuild the initial data. This paper introduces a variant of the RCA process based on AOC posets rather than concept lattices. This approach is compared with RCA based on iceberg lattices. Experiments are performed with various scaling operators, and a specific operator is introduced to deal with noisy data. We show that using AOC poset on water data-sets provides a reasonable concept number and allows us to extract meaningful implication rules (association rules whose confidence is 1), whose semantics depends on the chosen scaling operator.

  7. POPEYE: A production rule-based model of multitask supervisory control (POPCORN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, James T.; Kadlec, Helena; Kantowitz, Barry H.

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies of relationships between subjective ratings of mental workload, performance, and human operator and task characteristics have indicated that these relationships are quite complex. In order to study the various relationships and place subjective mental workload within a theoretical framework, we developed a production system model for the performance component of the complex supervisory task called POPCORN. The production system model is represented by a hierarchial structure of goals and subgoals, and the information flow is controlled by a set of condition-action rules. The implementation of this production system, called POPEYE, generates computer simulated data under different task difficulty conditions which are comparable to those of human operators performing the task. This model is the performance aspect of an overall dynamic psychological model which we are developing to examine and quantify relationships between performance and psychological aspects in a complex environment.

  8. The long and the short of it: rule-based relative length discrimination in carrion crows, Corvus corone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Felix W; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Birds and other nonhuman animals can choose the larger of two discrete or continuous quantities. However, whether birds possess the conceptual grasp and cognitive control to flexibly switch between relative more-or-less-than judgments remains elusive. We therefore tested carrion crows in a rule-based line-length discrimination task to flexibly select lines presented on a touchscreen according to their relative length. In the first experiment, the crows needed to discriminate a shorter from a longer line, and vice versa. In the second experiment, the crows were required to choose a medium long line among three lines of different length (intermediate-size task). The crows switched effortlessly between "longer than/shorter than" rules, showing no signs of trial history affecting switching performance. They reliably chose the relatively longer and shorter line length, thus demonstrating a concept of greater than/less than with a continuous magnitude. However, both crows failed to discriminate a line of 'medium' length embedded in longer and shorter lines. These results indicate that relational discrimination exhibits different cognitive demands. While a greater than/less than concept requires only one relational comparison (with the respectively greater or smaller magnitude), the discrimination of a 'medium' magnitude demands to relate two or more comparisons, which might overburden crows and maybe animals in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Do electoral rules matter? Electoral list models and their effects on party competition and institutional performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marenco dos Santos

    Full Text Available This study is intended to analyze the effects of different electoral list models, classified in two basic groups: electoral rules for proportional representation which either (1 reserve the parties the monopoly of electoral ranking or (2 provide for intra-partisan competition according to preferential votes as the procedure for defining the final make-up of the party's membership in the Legislature. The article examines 51 national cases, seeking to evaluate the consequences of different types of lists on both the party systems' dynamics and institutional performance. The results show that after controlling for other variables, electoral lists are insufficient to explain the observed differences between the respective democracies.

  10. On Noether approach in the cosmological model with scalar and gauge fields: symmetries and the selection rule

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, based on the works of Capozziello et al., we have studied the Noether symmetry approach in the cosmological model with scalar and gauge fields proposed recently by Soda et al. The correct Noether symmetries and related Lie algebra are given according to the minisuperspace quantum cosmological model. The Wheeler-De Witt (WDW) equation is presented after quantization and the classical trajectories are then obtained in the semi-classical limit. The oscillating features of the wave function in the cosmic evolution recover the so-called Hartle criterion, and the selection rule in minisuperspace quantum cosmology is strengthened. Then we have realized now the proposition that Noether symmetries select classical universes.

  11. Supporting the Constructive Use of Existing Hydrological Models in Participatory Settings: a Set of "Rules of the Game"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter W. G. Bots

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available When hydrological models are used in support of water management decisions, stakeholders often contest these models because they perceive certain aspects to be inadequately addressed. A strongly contested model may be abandoned completely, even when stakeholders could potentially agree on the validity of part of the information it can produce. The development of a new model is costly, and the results may be contested again. We consider how existing hydrological models can be used in a policy process so as to benefit from both hydrological knowledge and the perspectives and local knowledge of stakeholders. We define a code of conduct as a set of "rules of the game" that we base on a case study of developing a water management plan for a Natura 2000 site in the Netherlands. We propose general rules for agenda management and information sharing, and more specific rules for model use and option development. These rules structure the interactions among actors, help them to explicitly acknowledge uncertainties, and prevent expertise from being neglected or overlooked. We designed the rules to favor openness, protection of core stakeholder values, the use of relevant substantive knowledge, and the momentum of the process. We expect that these rules, although developed on the basis of a water-management issue, can also be applied to support the use of existing computer models in other policy domains. As rules will shape actions only when they are constantly affirmed by actors, we expect that the rules will become less useful in an "unruly" social environment where stakeholders constantly challenge the proceedings.

  12. Decision tree modeling with relational views

    CERN Document Server

    Bentayeb, Fadila

    2002-01-01

    Data mining is a useful decision support technique that can be used to discover production rules in warehouses or corporate data. Data mining research has made much effort to apply various mining algorithms efficiently on large databases. However, a serious problem in their practical application is the long processing time of such algorithms. Nowadays, one of the key challenges is to integrate data mining methods within the framework of traditional database systems. Indeed, such implementations can take advantage of the efficiency provided by SQL engines. In this paper, we propose an integrating approach for decision trees within a classical database system. In other words, we try to discover knowledge from relational databases, in the form of production rules, via a procedure embedding SQL queries. The obtained decision tree is defined by successive, related relational views. Each view corresponds to a given population in the underlying decision tree. We selected the classical Induction Decision Tree (ID3) a...

  13. Fuzzy-Rule-Based Approach for Modeling Sensory Acceptabitity of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Folorunso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of product acceptability is often an additive effect of individual fuzzy impressions developed by a consumer on certain underlying attributes characteristic of the product. In this paper, we present the development of a data-driven fuzzy-rule-based approach for predicting the overall sensory acceptability of food products, in this case composite cassava-wheat bread. The model was formulated using the Takagi-Sugeno and Kang (TSK fuzzy modeling approach. Experiments with the model derived from sampled data were simulated on Windows 2000XP running on Intel 2Gh environment. The fuzzy membership function for the sensory scores is implemented in MATLAB 6.0 using the fuzzy logic toolkit, and weights of each linguistic attribute were obtained using a Correlation Coefficient formula. The results obtained are compared to those of human judgments. Overall assessments suggest that, if implemented, this approach will facilitate a better acceptability of cassava bread as well as nutritionally improved food.

  14. Implementing surface parameter aggregation rules in the CCM3 global climate model: regional responses at the land surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Arain

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The land-surface parameters required as input to a GCM grid box (typically a few degrees are often set to be those of the dominant vegetation type within the grid box. This paper discusses the use and effect of aggregation rules for specifying effective values of these land cover parameters by taking into account the relative proportion of each land-cover type within each individual grid box. Global land-cover classification data at 1 km resolution were used to define Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS specific aggregate (using aggregation rules land-cover parameters. Comparison of the values of the aggregate parameters and those defined using the single dominant vegetation type (default parameters shows significant differences in some regions, particularly in the semi-desert and in forested regions, e.g. the Sahara Desert and the tropical forest of South America. These two different sets of parameters were used as input data for two 10-year simulations of the NCAR CCM3 model coupled to the BATS land-surface scheme. Statistical analyses comparing the results of the two model runs showed that the resulting effects on the land-surface diagnostics are significant only in specific regions. For example, the sensible heat flux in the Sahara Desert calculated for the aggregate parameter run increased due to the marked increase in the minimum stomatal resistance and the decrease in fractional vegetation cover in the aggregate parameters over the default parameters. The modelled global precipitation and surface air temperature fields were compared to observations: there is a general improvement in the performance of the aggregate parameter run over the default parameter run in areas where the differences between the aggregate and default parameter run are significant. However, most of the difference between the modelled and observed fields is attributable to other model deficiencies. It can be concluded that the use of aggregation rules to derive

  15. Evolutionary Network Control also holds for nonlinear networks: Ruling the Lotka-Volterra model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The proof of our understanding of ecological and biological systems is measured by our skill to rule them, i.e. to channelize them towards a desired state. Control is a cardinal issue in most complex systems, but because a general theory to apply it in a quantitative manner has been absent so far, little was known about how we can rule weighted, directed networks that represent the most common configuration of real systems. To this purpose, Evolutionary Network Control (ENC has been developed as a theoretical and methodological framework aimed to the control of ecological and biological networks by coupling network dynamics and evolutionary modelling. ENC is a tools to address controllability for arbitrary network topologies and sizes. ENC has proven to cover several topics of network control, e.g. a the global control from inside and b from outside, c the local (step-by-step control, and the computation of: d control success, e feasibility, and f degree of uncertainty. Taken together, these results indicate that many aspects of controllability can be explored exactly and analytically for arbitrary networks, opening new avenues to deepening our understanding of complex systems. As yet, I have applied ENC only to linear ecological and biological networks. In this work, I show that ENC also holds for any kind of nonlinear networks, and provide an applicative example based on the nonlinear, widely-used, Lotka-Volterra model.

  16. Update rules and interevent time distributions: slow ordering versus no ordering in the voter model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gracia, J; Eguíluz, V M; San Miguel, M

    2011-07-01

    We introduce a general methodology of update rules accounting for arbitrary interevent time (IET) distributions in simulations of interacting agents. We consider in particular update rules that depend on the state of the agent, so that the update becomes part of the dynamical model. As an illustration we consider the voter model in fully connected, random, and scale-free networks with an activation probability inversely proportional to the time since the last action, where an action can be an update attempt (an exogenous update) or a change of state (an endogenous update). We find that in the thermodynamic limit, at variance with standard updates and the exogenous update, the system orders slowly for the endogenous update. The approach to the absorbing state is characterized by a power-law decay of the density of interfaces, observing that the mean time to reach the absorbing state might be not well defined. The IET distributions resulting from both update schemes show power-law tails.

  17. Update rules and interevent time distributions: Slow ordering versus no ordering in the voter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gracia, J.; Eguíluz, V. M.; San Miguel, M.

    2011-07-01

    We introduce a general methodology of update rules accounting for arbitrary interevent time (IET) distributions in simulations of interacting agents. We consider in particular update rules that depend on the state of the agent, so that the update becomes part of the dynamical model. As an illustration we consider the voter model in fully connected, random, and scale-free networks with an activation probability inversely proportional to the time since the last action, where an action can be an update attempt (an exogenous update) or a change of state (an endogenous update). We find that in the thermodynamic limit, at variance with standard updates and the exogenous update, the system orders slowly for the endogenous update. The approach to the absorbing state is characterized by a power-law decay of the density of interfaces, observing that the mean time to reach the absorbing state might be not well defined. The IET distributions resulting from both update schemes show power-law tails.

  18. 一种新的关联规则挖掘的模型%A New Model of Mining Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏毅娟; 严小卫

    2001-01-01

    A new algorithm for mining positive and negative association rules is presented. A new confi-dence is constructed to measure the uncertainty of an association rule based on the probability theory and Piatetsky-Shapiro′s model.

  19. Using rules to adapt applications for business models with high evolutionary rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fuente, A. A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, business models are in permanent evolution since the requirements belongs to a rapidly evolving world. In a context where communications all around the world travel so fast the business models need to be adapted permanently to the information the managers receive. In such world, traditional software development, needed for adapting software to changes, do not work properly since business changes need to be in exploitation in shorter times. In that situation, it is needed to go quicker from the business idea to the exploitation environment. This issue can be solved accelerating the development speed: from the expert to the customer, with no –or few, technical intervention. This paper proposes an approach to empower domain experts in developing adaptability solutions by using automated sets of production rules in a friendly way. Furthermore, a use case that implements this kind of development was used in a real problem prototype.

  20. Model Development to Establish Integrated Operational Rule Curves for Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs - Montana, 1996 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.

  1. Video Self-Modeling to Teach Classroom Rules to Two Students with Asperger's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Shogren, Karrie A.; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; O'Reilly, Mark; Baker, Sonia; Regester, April

    2009-01-01

    Classroom rules are an integral part of classroom management. Children with Asperger's may require systematic instruction to learn classroom rules, but may be placed in classrooms in which the rules are not explicitly taught. A multiple baseline design across students with probes for maintenance after the intervention ceased was used to evaluate…

  2. Multi-agent-based modeling for extracting relevant association rules using a multi-criteria analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addi Ait-Mlouk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, association rule mining plays a vital role in knowledge discovery in database. In fact, in most cases, the real datasets lead to a very large number of rules, which do not allow users to make their own selection of the most relevant. The difficult task is mining useful and non-redundant rules. Several approaches have been proposed, such as rule clustering, informative cover method and quality measurements. Another way to selecting relevant association rules, we believe that it is necessary to integrate a decisional approach within the knowledge discovery process. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an approach to discover a category of relevant association rules based on multi-criteria analysis. In other side, the general process of association rules extraction becomes more and more complex, to solve such problem, we also proposed a multi-agent system for modeling the different process of our proposed approach. Therefore, we conclude our work by an empirical study applied to a set of banking data to illustrate the performance of our approach.

  3. A growth model for primary cancer (II). New rules, progress curves and morphology transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr, S. C. Ferreira; Martins, M. L.; Vilela, M. J.

    1999-10-01

    In the present paper we extend the analysis of another model recently proposed to simulate the growth of carcinoma “in situ”, which includes cell proliferation, motility and death, as well as chemotactic interactions among cells. The tumour patterns generated by two distinct growth rules are characterised by its gyration radius, surface roughness, total number of cancer cells, and number of cells on tumour periphery. Our results indicate that very distinct morphological patterns follow Gompertz growth curves and their gyration radii increase linearly in time and scale, in the asymptotic limit, as a square root of the total number of tumour cells. In contrast, these distinct tumour patterns exhibit different scaling laws for their surfaces. Thus, some biological features of malignant behaviour seem to influence particularly the structure of the tumour border, while its gyration radius and progress curve are described by more robust functions. Finally, for both rules used, morphology transitions as well as a transient behaviour up to the onset of the phase of rapid growth in the Gompertz curves are observed.

  4. Heavy-light diquark masses from QCD sum rules and constituent diquark models of tetraquarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiv, R. T.; Steele, T. G.; Zhang, Ailin; Blokland, Ian

    2013-06-01

    Diquarks with JP=0±, 1± containing a heavy (charm or bottom) quark and a light quark are investigated using QCD Laplace sum rules. Masses are determined using appropriately constructed gauge invariant correlation functions, including for the first time next-to-leading order perturbative contributions. The JP=0+ and 1+ charm-light diquark masses are, respectively, found to be 1.86±0.05 and 1.87±0.10GeV, while those of the 0+ and 1+ bottom-light diquarks are both determined to be 5.08±0.04GeV. The sum rules derived for heavy-light diquarks with negative parity are poorly behaved and do not permit unambiguous mass predictions, in agreement with previous results for negative parity light diquarks. The scalar and axial vector heavy-light diquark masses are degenerate within uncertainty, as expected by heavy quark symmetry considerations. Furthermore, these mass predictions are in good agreement with masses extracted in constituent diquark models of the tetraquark candidates X(3872) and Yb(10890). Thus these results provide QCD support for the interpretation of the X(3872) and Yb(10890) as JPC=1++ tetraquark states composed of diquark clusters. Further implications for tetraquarks among the heavy quarkoniumlike XYZ states are discussed.

  5. Spatio-temporal correlations in models of collective motion ruled by different dynamical laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Conti, Daniele; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S.; Melillo, Stefania; Viale, Massimiliano

    2016-12-01

    Information transfer is an essential factor in determining the robustness of biological systems with distributed control. The most direct way to study the mechanisms ruling information transfer is to experimentally observe the propagation across the system of a signal triggered by some perturbation. However, this method may be inefficient for experiments in the field, as the possibilities to perturb the system are limited and empirical observations must rely on natural events. An alternative approach is to use spatio-temporal correlations to probe the information transfer mechanism directly from the spontaneous fluctuations of the system, without the need to have an actual propagating signal on record. Here we test this method on models of collective behaviour in their deeply ordered phase by using ground truth data provided by numerical simulations in three dimensions. We compare two models characterized by very different dynamical equations and information transfer mechanisms: the classic Vicsek model, describing an overdamped noninertial dynamics and the inertial spin model, characterized by an underdamped inertial dynamics. By using dynamic finite-size scaling, we show that spatio-temporal correlations are able to distinguish unambiguously the diffusive information transfer mechanism of the Vicsek model from the linear mechanism of the inertial spin model.

  6. Differential virial theorem in relation to a sum rule for the exchange-correlation force in density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holas, A; March, N H; Rubio, Angel

    2005-11-15

    Holas and March [Phys. Rev. A. 51, 2040 (1995)] gave a formally exact theory for the exchange-correlation (xc) force F(xc)(r)= -inverted Deltaupsilon(xc)(r) associated with the xc potential upsilon(xc)(r) of the density-functional theory in terms of low-order density matrices. This is shown in the present study to lead, rather directly, to the determination of a sum rule nF(xc)=0 relating the xc force with the ground-state density n(r). Some connection is also made with an earlier result relating to the external potential by Levy and Perdew [Phys. Rev. A. 32, 2010 (1985)] and with the quite recent study of Joubert [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1916 (2003)] relating to the separation of the exchange and correlation contributions.

  7. Using rule-based shot dose assignment in model-based MPC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Wang, Lin; Müller, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Shrinking feature sizes and the need for tighter CD (Critical Dimension) control require the introduction of new technologies in mask making processes. One of those methods is the dose assignment of individual shots on VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) mask writers to compensate CD non-linearity effects and improve dose edge slope. Using increased dose levels only for most critical features, generally only for the smallest CDs on a mask, the change in mask write time is minimal while the increase in image quality can be significant. This paper describes a method combining rule-based shot dose assignment with model-based shot size correction. This combination proves to be very efficient in correcting mask linearity errors while also improving dose edge slope of small features. Shot dose assignment is based on tables assigning certain dose levels to a range of feature sizes. The dose to feature size assignment is derived from mask measurements in such a way that shape corrections are kept to a minimum. For example, if a 50nm drawn line on mask results in a 45nm chrome line using nominal dose, a dose level is chosen which is closest to getting the line back on target. Since CD non-linearity is different for lines, line-ends and contacts, different tables are generated for the different shape categories. The actual dose assignment is done via DRC rules in a pre-processing step before executing the shape correction in the MPC engine. Dose assignment to line ends can be restricted to critical line/space dimensions since it might not be required for all line ends. In addition, adding dose assignment to a wide range of line ends might increase shot count which is undesirable. The dose assignment algorithm is very flexible and can be adjusted based on the type of layer and the best balance between accuracy and shot count. These methods can be optimized for the number of dose levels available for specific mask writers. The MPC engine now needs to be able to handle different dose

  8. UML-based Domain Rule Modeling Method%基于UML的领域规则建模方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智学; 蒋鑫; 董庆超; 付丰科

    2012-01-01

    为了实现领域约束规则的可视化表示,检验需求模型与领域知识之间的一致性,该文提出一种领域规则建模及需求模型验证方法.在借鉴本体定义元模型和语义网规则语言(SWRL)基础上,定义了一种领域规则定义元模型.用该元模型扩展统一建模语言,使其可用于领域规则建模.给出了领域规则模型到SWRL描述的转换方法,使需求模型验证可通过形式化推理引擎自动完成.通过模型验证案例分析,说明了该方法的可用性.%To visually represent domain constraint rules and check the consistency between requirement models and domain knowledge, a method of domain rule modeling and requirement model validation is presented. A domain rule definition meta-model (RDM) is defined based on the ontology definition meta-model and the semantic Web rule language (SWRL). The unified modeling language is extended by the RDM and can be used to model domain constraint rules. A transformation framework is provided to transform the domain rule model into formal specifications in SWRL so that the requirement model can be verified automatically with a formal reasoner. The availability and applicability of the method is demonstrated through a case study.

  9. Low-tube-voltage selection for triple-rule-out CTA: relation to patient size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takx, Richard A.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Krissak, Radko [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Hufeland Klinikum GmbH, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bad Langensalza (Germany); Fink, Christian [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); General Hospital Celle, Department of Radiology, Celle (Germany); Bachmann, Valentin; Henzler, Thomas; Meyer, Mathias; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Nance, John W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Apfaltrer, Paul [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the relationship between image quality and patient size at 100 kilovoltage (kV) compared to 120 kV ECG-gated Triple-Rule-Out CT angiography (TRO-CTA). We retrospectively included 73 patients (age 64 ± 14 years) who underwent retrospective ECG-gated chest CTA. 40 patients were scanned with 100 kV while 33 patients with 120 kV. Body mass index (BMI), patients' chest circumference (PC) and thoracic surface area (TSA) were recorded. Quantitative image quality was assessed as vascular attenuation in the ascending aorta (AA), pulmonary trunk (PA) and left coronary artery (LCA) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the AA. There was no significant difference in BMI (26.0 ± 4.6 vs. 28.0 ± 6.7 kg/m{sup 2}), PC (103 ± 7 vs. 104 ± 10 cm{sup 2}) and TSA (92 ± 15 vs. 91 ± 19 cm{sup 2}) between 100 kV and 120 kV group. Mean vascular attenuation was significantly higher in the 100 kV compared to the 120 kV group (AA 438 vs. 354 HU, PA 460 vs. 349 HU, LCA 370 vs. 299 HU all p < 0.001). SNR was not significantly different, even after adjusting for patient size. Radiation dose was significantly lower in the 100 kV group (10.7 ± 4.1 vs. 20.7 ± 10.7 mSv; p < 0.001). 100 kV TRO-CTA is feasible in normal-to-overweight patients while maintaining image quality and achieving substantial dose reduction. (orig.)

  10. Interrelationships Between Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics Display, Binomial, Logit, and Bayes' Rule Probability of Detection Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Unknown risks are introduced into failure critical systems when probability of detection (POD) capabilities are accepted without a complete understanding of the statistical method applied and the interpretation of the statistical results. The presence of this risk in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community is revealed in common statements about POD. These statements are often interpreted in a variety of ways and therefore, the very existence of the statements identifies the need for a more comprehensive understanding of POD methodologies. Statistical methodologies have data requirements to be met, procedures to be followed, and requirements for validation or demonstration of adequacy of the POD estimates. Risks are further enhanced due to the wide range of statistical methodologies used for determining the POD capability. Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics (ROC) Display, simple binomial, logistic regression, and Bayes' rule POD methodologies are widely used in determining POD capability. This work focuses on Hit-Miss data to reveal the framework of the interrelationships between Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics Display, simple binomial, logistic regression, and Bayes' Rule methodologies as they are applied to POD. Knowledge of these interrelationships leads to an intuitive and global understanding of the statistical data, procedural and validation requirements for establishing credible POD estimates.

  11. ML-Space: Hybrid Spatial Gillespie and Particle Simulation of Multi-level Rule-based Models in Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittig, Arne; Uhrmacher, Adelinde

    2016-08-03

    Spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular processes can be simulated at different levels of detail, from (deterministic) partial differential equations via the spatial Stochastic Simulation algorithm to tracking Brownian trajectories of individual particles. We present a spatial simulation approach for multi-level rule-based models, which includes dynamically hierarchically nested cellular compartments and entities. Our approach ML-Space combines discrete compartmental dynamics, stochastic spatial approaches in discrete space, and particles moving in continuous space. The rule-based specification language of ML-Space supports concise and compact descriptions of models and to adapt the spatial resolution of models easily.

  12. Electromagnetic selection rules in the triangular α-cluster model of 12C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellin, G.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-08-01

    After recapitulating the procedure to find the bands and the states occurring in the {{ D }}3h alpha-cluster model of 12C in which the clusters are placed at the vertexes of an equilateral triangle, we obtain the selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. While the alpha-cluster structure leads to the cancellation of E1 transitions, the approximations carried out in deriving the rotational-vibrational Hamiltonian lead to the disappearance of M1 transitions. Furthermore, although in general the lowest active modes are E2, E3, ... and M2, M3, ..., the cancellation of M2, M3 and M5 transitions between certain bands also occur as a result of the application of group theoretical techniques drawn from molecular physics. These implications can be very relevant for the spectroscopic analysis of γ-ray spectra of 12C.

  13. Electromagnetic selection rules in the triangular alpha-cluster model of 12C

    CERN Document Server

    Stellin, G; Vitturi, A

    2015-01-01

    After recapitulating the procedure to find the bands and the states occurring in the $\\mathcal{D}_{3h}$ alpha-cluster model of $^{12}$C in which the clusters are placed at the vertexes of an equilateral triangle, we obtain the selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. While the alpha cluster structure leads to the cancellation of E1 transitions, the approximations carried out in deriving the roto-vibrational hamiltonian lead to the disappearance of M1 transitions. Furthermore, although in general the lowest active modes are E2, E3, $\\cdots$ and M2, M3, $\\cdots$, the cancellation of M2, M3 and M5 transitions between certain bands also occurs, as a result of the application of group theoretical techniques drawn from molecular physics. These implications can be very relevant for the spectroscopic analysis of $\\gamma$-ray spectra of $^{12}$C.

  14. Regulations regarding income-related monthly adjustment amounts to Medicare beneficiaries' prescription drug coverage premiums. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    We are adding a new subpart to our regulations, which contains the rules we will apply to determine the income-related monthly adjustment amount for Medicare prescription drug coverage premiums. This new subpart implements changes made to the Social Security Act (Act) by the Affordable Care Act. These rules parallel the rules in subpart B of this part, which describes the rules we apply when we determine the income-related monthly adjustment amount for certain Medicare Part B (medical insurance) beneficiaries. These rules describe the new subpart; what information we will use to determine whether you will pay an income-related monthly adjustment amount and the amount of the adjustment when applicable; when we will consider a major life-changing event that results in a significant reduction in your modified adjusted gross income; and how you can appeal our determination about your income-related monthly adjustment amount. These rules will allow us to implement the provisions of the Affordable Care Act on time that relate to the income-related monthly adjustment amount for Medicare prescription drug coverage premiums, when they go into effect on January 1, 2011.

  15. Rule-based models of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in childhood allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bornelöv

    Full Text Available Both genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of allergic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of how such factors act together is lacking. To elucidate the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in allergic diseases, we used a novel bioinformatics approach that combines feature selection and machine learning. In two materials, PARSIFAL (a European cross-sectional study of 3113 children and BAMSE (a Swedish birth-cohort including 2033 children, genetic variants as well as environmental and lifestyle factors were evaluated for their contribution to allergic phenotypes. Monte Carlo feature selection and rule based models were used to identify and rank rules describing how combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the risk of allergic diseases. Novel interactions between genes were suggested and replicated, such as between ORMDL3 and RORA, where certain genotype combinations gave odds ratios for current asthma of 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.6 and 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.0 in the BAMSE and PARSIFAL children, respectively. Several combinations of environmental factors appeared to be important for the development of allergic disease in children. For example, use of baby formula and antibiotics early in life was associated with an odds ratio of 7.4 (95% CI 4.5-12.0 of developing asthma. Furthermore, genetic variants together with environmental factors seemed to play a role for allergic diseases, such as the use of antibiotics early in life and COL29A1 variants for asthma, and farm living and NPSR1 variants for allergic eczema. Overall, combinations of environmental and life style factors appeared more frequently in the models than combinations solely involving genes. In conclusion, a new bioinformatics approach is described for analyzing complex data, including extensive genetic and environmental information. Interactions identified with this approach could provide useful hints for further in-depth studies

  16. A simple rule based model for scheduling farm management operations in SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürz, Christoph; Mehdi, Bano; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    For many interdisciplinary questions at the watershed scale, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT; Arnold et al., 1998) has become an accepted and widely used tool. Despite its flexibility, the model is highly demanding when it comes to input data. At SWAT's core the water balance and the modeled nutrient cycles are plant growth driven (implemented with the EPIC crop growth model). Therefore, land use and crop data with high spatial and thematic resolution, as well as detailed information on cultivation and farm management practices are required. For many applications of the model however, these data are unavailable. In order to meet these requirements, SWAT offers the option to trigger scheduled farm management operations by applying the Potential Heat Unit (PHU) concept. The PHU concept solely takes into account the accumulation of daily mean temperature for management scheduling. Hence, it contradicts several farming strategies that take place in reality; such as: i) Planting and harvesting dates are set much too early or too late, as the PHU concept is strongly sensitivity to inter-annual temperature fluctuations; ii) The timing of fertilizer application, in SWAT this often occurs simultaneously on the same date in in each field; iii) and can also coincide with precipitation events. Particularly, the latter two can lead to strong peaks in modeled nutrient loads. To cope with these shortcomings we propose a simple rule based model (RBM) to schedule management operations according to realistic farmer management practices in SWAT. The RBM involves simple strategies requiring only data that are input into the SWAT model initially, such as temperature and precipitation data. The user provides boundaries of time periods for operation schedules to take place for all crops in the model. These data are readily available from the literature or from crop variety trials. The RBM applies the dates by complying with the following rules: i) Operations scheduled in the

  17. Notable minimum value of relative risk recognized by Japanese epidemiologists and rule of proof in civil trial: questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, M; Watanabe, S; Kanamori, M; Izuno, T

    1993-09-01

    Members of The Japanese Society of Cancer Epidemiology were questioned about relative risk in cancer epidemiology. The notable minimum value of relative risk recognized by the epidemiologists distributed from 1.1 to 5.0, and the mean and the standard deviation of the notable minimum value were 1.92 and 0.760. In civil litigation of United States a plaintiff must prove one's case by a "preponderance of evidence," which means that a causal relationship between risk factors and a health disturbance to a plaintiff is proved when relative risk is 2.0 or more. The mean value 1.92 of the notable minimum value of relative risk nearly corresponded to the relative risk 2.0, which indicates that opinion of Japanese epidemiologists did not disagree with the rule of the proof in civil litigation of United States. It is mentioned that the standard of the proof should be "high probability" based on "a high level of conviction in the judge's own mind" in Japanese civil trials, and that the "high probability" means that relative risk is 5.0 or more if we dare to quantify the vagueness. This value corresponded to the maximum value of the notable minimum relative risk in the questionnaire to the Japanese epidemiologists. In civil litigation of Japan, the standard of the proof based on epidemiological results may be more conservative than the opinion of Japanese epidemiologists.

  18. Prefrontal cell activities related to monkeys' success and failure in adapting to rule changes in a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Farshad A; Matsumoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Keiji

    2006-03-08

    The cognitive flexibility to select appropriate rules in a changing environment is essential for survival and is assumed to depend on the integrity of prefrontal cortex (PFC). To explore the contribution of the dorsolateral PFC to flexible rule-based behavior, we recorded the activity of cells in this region of monkeys performing a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) analog. The monkey had to match a sample to one of three test items by either color or shape. Liquid reward and a discrete visual signal (error signal) were given as feedback to correct and incorrect target selections, respectively. The relevant rule and its frequent changes were not cued, and the monkeys could find it only by interpreting the feedback. In one-third of cells, cellular activity was modulated by the relevant rule, both throughout the trial and between trials. The magnitude of the modulation correlated with the number of errors that the monkeys committed after each rule change in the course of reestablishing high performance. Activity of other cells differed between correct and error trials independently from the rule-related modulation. This difference appeared during actual responses and before the monkeys faced the problems. Many PFC cells responded to the error-signal presentation, and, in some of them, the magnitude of response depended on the relevant rule. These results suggest that the dorsolateral PFC contributes to WCST performance by maintaining the relevant rule across trials, assessing behavioral outcomes, and monitoring the processes that could lead to success and failure in individual trials.

  19. Coset construction of logarithmic minimal models: branching rules and branching functions

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Working in the Virasoro picture, it is argued that the logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p')=LM(p,p';1) can be extended to an infinite hierarchy of logarithmic conformal field theories LM(p,p';n) at higher fusion levels n=1,2,3,.... From the lattice, these theories are constructed by fusing together n x n elementary faces of the appropriate LM(p,p') models. It is further argued that all of these logarithmic theories are realized as diagonal cosets (A_1^{(1)})_k \\oplus (A_1^{(1)})_n / (A_1^{(1)})_{k+n} where n is the integer fusion level and k=np/(p'-p)-2 is a fractional level. These cosets mirror the cosets of the higher fusion level minimal models of the form M(m,m';n), but are associated with certain reducible representations. We present explicit branching rules for characters in the form of multiplication formulas arising in the logarithmic limit of the usual Goddard-Kent-Olive coset construction of the non-unitary minimal models M(m,m';n). The limiting branching functions play the role of Kac characters for...

  20. Toward (Finally!) Ruling Out Z and Higgs Mediated Dark Matter Models

    CERN Document Server

    Escudero, Miguel; Hooper, Dan; Lin, Meng-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, direct detection, indirect detection, and collider experiments have placed increasingly stringent constraints on particle dark matter, exploring much of the parameter space associated with the WIMP paradigm. In this paper, we focus on the subset of WIMP models in which the dark matter annihilates in the early universe through couplings to either the Standard Model $Z$ or the Standard Model Higgs boson. Considering fermionic, scalar, and vector dark matter candidates within a model-independent context, we find that the overwhelming majority of these dark matter candidates are already ruled out by existing experiments. In the case of $Z$ mediated dark matter, the only scenario that is not already experimentally excluded is that of a fermionic dark matter candidate with an axial coupling and with a mass within a few GeV of the $Z$ resonance ($m_{\\rm DM} \\simeq m_Z/2$). Several Higgs mediated scenarios are currently viable if the mass of the dark matter is near the Higgs pole ($m_{\\rm DM} \\simeq ...

  1. Automatic extraction of semantic relations between medical entities: a rule based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Abacha Asma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information extraction is a complex task which is necessary to develop high-precision information retrieval tools. In this paper, we present the platform MeTAE (Medical Texts Annotation and Exploration. MeTAE allows (i to extract and annotate medical entities and relationships from medical texts and (ii to explore semantically the produced RDF annotations. Results Our annotation approach relies on linguistic patterns and domain knowledge and consists in two steps: (i recognition of medical entities and (ii identification of the correct semantic relation between each pair of entities. The first step is achieved by an enhanced use of MetaMap which improves the precision obtained by MetaMap by 19.59% in our evaluation. The second step relies on linguistic patterns which are built semi-automatically from a corpus selected according to semantic criteria. We evaluate our system’s ability to identify medical entities of 16 types. We also evaluate the extraction of treatment relations between a treatment (e.g. medication and a problem (e.g. disease: we obtain 75.72% precision and 60.46% recall. Conclusions According to our experiments, using an external sentence segmenter and noun phrase chunker may improve the precision of MetaMap-based medical entity recognition. Our pattern-based relation extraction method obtains good precision and recall w.r.t related works. A more precise comparison with related approaches remains difficult however given the differences in corpora and in the exact nature of the extracted relations. The selection of MEDLINE articles through queries related to known drug-disease pairs enabled us to obtain a more focused corpus of relevant examples of treatment relations than a more general MEDLINE query.

  2. Automatic extraction of semantic relations between medical entities: a rule based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abacha, Asma; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2011-10-06

    Information extraction is a complex task which is necessary to develop high-precision information retrieval tools. In this paper, we present the platform MeTAE (Medical Texts Annotation and Exploration). MeTAE allows (i) to extract and annotate medical entities and relationships from medical texts and (ii) to explore semantically the produced RDF annotations. Our annotation approach relies on linguistic patterns and domain knowledge and consists in two steps: (i) recognition of medical entities and (ii) identification of the correct semantic relation between each pair of entities. The first step is achieved by an enhanced use of MetaMap which improves the precision obtained by MetaMap by 19.59% in our evaluation. The second step relies on linguistic patterns which are built semi-automatically from a corpus selected according to semantic criteria. We evaluate our system's ability to identify medical entities of 16 types. We also evaluate the extraction of treatment relations between a treatment (e.g. medication) and a problem (e.g. disease): we obtain 75.72% precision and 60.46% recall. According to our experiments, using an external sentence segmenter and noun phrase chunker may improve the precision of MetaMap-based medical entity recognition. Our pattern-based relation extraction method obtains good precision and recall w.r.t related works. A more precise comparison with related approaches remains difficult however given the differences in corpora and in the exact nature of the extracted relations. The selection of MEDLINE articles through queries related to known drug-disease pairs enabled us to obtain a more focused corpus of relevant examples of treatment relations than a more general MEDLINE query.

  3. When the rules of the game are broken: what proportion of high school sports-related injuries are related to illegal activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C L; Fields, S K; Comstock, R D

    2008-02-01

    To compare sport and gender differences in injury rates and proportions of injuries related to illegal activity and to describe the epidemiology of injuries related to illegal activity. Descriptive epidemiology study. 100 US high schools. Athletes participating in nine sports: boys' football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, and baseball plus girls' soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball. Illegal activity-related injuries were analyzed using data from the 2005-06 and 2006-07 National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. Nationally, an estimated 98 066 injuries were directly related to an action that was ruled illegal activity by a referee/official or disciplinary committee, giving an injury rate of 0.24 injuries per 1000 athletic competition-exposures. Boys' and girls' soccer had the highest rates of injuries related to illegal activity, and girls' volleyball, girls' softball, and boys' baseball had the lowest. Overall, 6.4% of all high school sports-related injuries were related to illegal activity, with the highest proportion in girls' basketball (14.0%), girls' soccer (11.9%), and boys' soccer (11.4%). A greater proportion of injuries related to illegal activity were to the head/face (32.3%) and were concussions (25.4%) than injuries not related to illegal activity (13.8% (injury proportion ratio 2.35; 95% CI 1.82 to 3.04; preferees/officials may reduce sports-related injuries.

  4. Scalable rule-based modelling of allosteric proteins and biochemical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien F Ollivier

    Full Text Available Much of the complexity of biochemical networks comes from the information-processing abilities of allosteric proteins, be they receptors, ion-channels, signalling molecules or transcription factors. An allosteric protein can be uniquely regulated by each combination of input molecules that it binds. This "regulatory complexity" causes a combinatorial increase in the number of parameters required to fit experimental data as the number of protein interactions increases. It therefore challenges the creation, updating, and re-use of biochemical models. Here, we propose a rule-based modelling framework that exploits the intrinsic modularity of protein structure to address regulatory complexity. Rather than treating proteins as "black boxes", we model their hierarchical structure and, as conformational changes, internal dynamics. By modelling the regulation of allosteric proteins through these conformational changes, we often decrease the number of parameters required to fit data, and so reduce over-fitting and improve the predictive power of a model. Our method is thermodynamically grounded, imposes detailed balance, and also includes molecular cross-talk and the background activity of enzymes. We use our Allosteric Network Compiler to examine how allostery can facilitate macromolecular assembly and how competitive ligands can change the observed cooperativity of an allosteric protein. We also develop a parsimonious model of G protein-coupled receptors that explains functional selectivity and can predict the rank order of potency of agonists acting through a receptor. Our methodology should provide a basis for scalable, modular and executable modelling of biochemical networks in systems and synthetic biology.

  5. How the brain predicts people's behavior in relation to rules and desires. Evidence of a medio-prefrontal dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Turri, Francesco; Kaufmann, Laurence; Clément, Fabrice; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Forming and updating impressions about others is critical in everyday life and engages portions of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the amygdala. Some of these activations are attributed to "mentalizing" functions necessary to represent people's mental states, such as beliefs or desires. Evolutionary psychology and developmental studies, however, suggest that interpersonal inferences can also be obtained through the aid of deontic heuristics, which dictate what must (or must not) be done in given circumstances. We used fMRI and asked 18 participants to predict whether unknown characters would follow their desires or obey external rules. Participants had no means, at the beginning, to make accurate predictions, but slowly learned (throughout the experiment) each character's behavioral profile. We isolated brain regions whose activity changed during the experiment, as a neural signature of impression updating: whereas dMPFC was progressively more involved in predicting characters' behavior in relation to their desires, the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala were progressively more recruited in predicting rule-based behavior. Our data provide evidence of a neural dissociation between deontic inference and theory-of-mind (ToM), and support a differentiation of orbital and dorsal prefrontal cortex in terms of low- and high-level social cognition.

  6. Rule-based conversion of closely-related languages: a Dutch-to-Afrikaans convertor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, GB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For fast-tracking the development of resources for resource-scarce languages, one could transfer existing technologies from one language to another well-sourced, closely-related language. In this contribution, the authors describe the development...

  7. Resolving relative time expressions in Dutch text with Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Camp, Matje; Christiansen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    related to the development of the Dutch social movement between 1870 and 1940. It appears that CHR provides a modular language which is well-suited for tailoring a method optimized for the different linguistic constructs and the textual conventions applied in a specific corpus. We explain the principles...

  8. One Law To Rule Them All: The Radial Acceleration Relation of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lelli, Federico; Schombert, James M; Pawlowski, Marcel S

    2016-01-01

    We study the link between baryons and dark matter (DM) in 240 galaxies with spatially resolved kinematic data. Our sample spans 9 dex in stellar mass and includes all morphological types. We consider (i) 153 late-type galaxies (LTGs; spirals and irregulars) with gas rotation curves from the SPARC database; (ii) 25 early-type galaxies (ETGs; ellipticals and lenticulars) with stellar and HI data from ATLAS^3D or X-ray data from Chandra; and (iii) 62 dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) with individual-star spectroscopy. We find that LTGs, ETGs, and "classical" dSphs follow the same radial acceleration relation: the observed acceleration g_obs correlates with that expected from the distribution of baryons over 4 dex. Ultrafaint dSphs extend the relation by a further 2 dex and seem to trace a flattening at g_obs~10^-11 m/s^2. The radial acceleration relation exists for any plausible choice of the stellar mass-to-light ratio. For our fiducial values, the relation coincides with the 1:1 line (no DM) at high accelerations but ...

  9. Toward (finally!) ruling out Z and Higgs mediated dark matter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Miguel; Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Lin, Meng-Xiang

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, direct detection, indirect detection, and collider experiments have placed increasingly stringent constraints on particle dark matter, exploring much of the parameter space associated with the WIMP paradigm. In this paper, we focus on the subset of WIMP models in which the dark matter annihilates in the early universe through couplings to either the Standard Model Z or the Standard Model Higgs boson. Considering fermionic, scalar, and vector dark matter candidates within a model-independent context, we find that the overwhelming majority of these dark matter candidates are already ruled out by existing experiments. In the case of Z mediated dark matter, the only scenarios that are not currently excluded are those in which the dark matter is a fermion with an axial coupling and with a mass either within a few GeV of the Z resonance (mDM simeq mZ/2) or greater than 200 GeV, or with a vector coupling and with mDM > 6 TeV . Several Higgs mediated scenarios are currently viable if the mass of the dark matter is near the Higgs pole (mDM simeq mH/2). Otherwise, the only scenarios that are not excluded are those in which the dark matter is a scalar (vector) heavier than 400 GeV (1160 GeV) with a Higgs portal coupling, or a fermion with a pseudoscalar (CP violating) coupling to the Standard Model Higgs boson. With the exception of dark matter with a purely pseudoscalar coupling to the Higgs, it is anticipated that planned direct detection experiments will probe nearly the entire range of models considered in this study.

  10. Toward (Finally!) Ruling Out Z and Higgs Mediated Dark Matter Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero, Miguel [Valencia U., IFIC; Berlin, Asher [Chicago U.; Hooper, Dan [Chicago U., KICP; Lin, Meng-Xiang [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2016-09-28

    In recent years, direct detection, indirect detection, and collider experiments have placed increasingly stringent constraints on particle dark matter, exploring much of the parameter space associated with the WIMP paradigm. In this paper, we focus on the subset of WIMP models in which the dark matter annihilates in the early universe through couplings to either the Standard Model $Z$ or the Standard Model Higgs boson. Considering fermionic, scalar, and vector dark matter candidates within a model-independent context, we find that the overwhelming majority of these dark matter candidates are already ruled out by existing experiments. In the case of $Z$ mediated dark matter, the only scenario that is not already experimentally excluded is that of a fermionic dark matter candidate with an axial coupling and with a mass within a few GeV of the $Z$ resonance ($m_{\\rm DM} \\simeq m_Z/2$). Several Higgs mediated scenarios are currently viable if the mass of the dark matter is near the Higgs pole ($m_{\\rm DM} \\simeq m_H/2$). Otherwise, the only scenarios that are not excluded are those in which the dark matter is a scalar (vector) heavier than 400 GeV (1160 GeV) with a Higgs portal coupling, or a fermion with a pseudoscalar (CP violating) coupling to the Standard Model Higgs boson. With the exception of dark matter with a purely pseudoscalar coupling to the Higgs, it is anticipated that planned direct detection experiments will probe the entire range of models considered in this study.

  11. Validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation in liquids: simple rules from the excess entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasturel, A; Jakse, N

    2016-12-07

    It is becoming common practice to consider that the Stokes-Einstein relation D/T~ η (-1) usually works for liquids above their melting temperatures although there is also experimental evidence for its failure. Here we investigate numerically this commonly-invoked assumption for simple liquid metals as well as for their liquid alloys. Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations we show how entropy scaling relationships developed by Rosenfeld can be used to predict the conditions for the validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation in the liquid phase. Specifically, we demonstrate the Stokes-Einstein relation may break down in the liquid phase of some liquid alloys mainly due to the presence of local structural ordering as evidenced in their partial two-body excess entropies. Our findings shed new light on the understanding of transport properties of liquid materials and will trigger more experimental and theoretical studies since excess entropy and its two-body approximation are readily obtainable from standard experiments and simulations.

  12. Relating underrepresented genomic DNA patterns and tiRNAs: the rule behind the observation and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varnai Peter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the central problems of post-genomic biology is the understanding of regulatory network of genes. Traditionally the problem is approached from the protein-DNA interaction perspective. In recent years various types of noncoding RNAs appeared on the scene as new potent players of the game. The exact role of these molecules in gene expression control is mostly unknown at present, while their importance is generally recognized. Results The Human and Mouse genomes have been screened with a statistical model for sequence patterns underrepresented in these genomes, and a subset of motifs, named spanions, has been identified. The common portion of the motif lists of the two species is 75% indicating evolutionary conservation of this feature. These motifs are arranged in clusters at close proximity of distinct genetic landmarks: 5' ends of genes, exon side of the exon/intron junctions and 5' ends of 3' UTRs. The length of the clusters is typically in the 20 to 25 bases range. The findings are in agreement with the known C/G bias of promoter regions while access much more sequential information than the simple composition based model. In the Human genome the recently reported transcription initiation RNAs (tiRNAs are typically transcribed from these spanion clusters according to the presented results. The spanion clusters account for 70% of the published tiRNAs. Apparently, the model access the common statistical feature of this new and mostly uncharacterized non-coding RNA class and, in this way, supports the experimental observations with theoretical background. Conclusions The presented results seem to support the emerging model of the RNA-driven eukaryotic gene expression control. Beyond that, the model detects spanion clusters at genetic positions where no tiRNA counterpart was considered and reported. The GO-term analysis of genes with high concentration of spanion clusters in their promoter proximal region indicates

  13. Validity of the Cauchy-Born rule applied to discrete cellular-scale models of biological tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.

    2013-04-30

    The development of new models of biological tissues that consider cells in a discrete manner is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to continuum methods based on partial differential equations, although formal relationships between the discrete and continuum frameworks remain to be established. For crystal mechanics, the discrete-to-continuum bridge is often made by assuming that local atom displacements can be mapped homogeneously from the mesoscale deformation gradient, an assumption known as the Cauchy-Born rule (CBR). Although the CBR does not hold exactly for noncrystalline materials, it may still be used as a first-order approximation for analytic calculations of effective stresses or strain energies. In this work, our goal is to investigate numerically the applicability of the CBR to two-dimensional cellular-scale models by assessing the mechanical behavior of model biological tissues, including crystalline (honeycomb) and noncrystalline reference states. The numerical procedure involves applying an affine deformation to the boundary cells and computing the quasistatic position of internal cells. The position of internal cells is then compared with the prediction of the CBR and an average deviation is calculated in the strain domain. For center-based cell models, we show that the CBR holds exactly when the deformation gradient is relatively small and the reference stress-free configuration is defined by a honeycomb lattice. We show further that the CBR may be used approximately when the reference state is perturbed from the honeycomb configuration. By contrast, for vertex-based cell models, a similar analysis reveals that the CBR does not provide a good representation of the tissue mechanics, even when the reference configuration is defined by a honeycomb lattice. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results for concurrent discrete and continuous modeling, adaptation of atom-to-continuum techniques to biological

  14. Reappraisal of a model for deformed special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Gubitosi, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    We revisit one of the earliest proposals for deformed dispersion relations in the light of recent results on dynamical dimensional reduction and production of cosmological fluctuations. Depending on the specification of the measure of integration and addition rule in momentum space the model may be completed so as to merely deform Lorentz invariance, or so as to introduce a preferred frame. Models which violate Lorentz invariance have a negative UV asymptotic dimension and a very red spectrum of quantum vacuum fluctuations. Instead, models which preserve frame independence can exhibit running to a UV dimension of 2, and a scale-invariant spectrum of fluctuations. The bispectrum of the fluctuations is another point of divergence between the two casings proposed here for the original model.

  15. Analysis of familial aggregation in total, against-the-rule, with-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism by conditional and marginal models in the Tehran eye study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Rakhshani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to determine the familial aggregation of the total, against-the-rule (ATR, with-the-rule (WTR, and oblique astigmatism by conditional and marginal models in the Tehran Eye Study. Materials and Methods: Total, ATR, WTR, and oblique astigmatism were studied in 3806 participants older than 5 years from August 2002 to December 2002 in the Tehran Eye Study. Astigmatism was defined as a cylinder worse than or equal to −0.5 D. WTR astigmatism was defined as 0 ± 19°, ATR astigmatism was defined as 90 ± 19°, and oblique when the axes were 20-70° and 110-160°. The familial aggregation was investigated with a conditional model (quadratic exponential and marginal model (alternating logistic regression after controlling for confounders. Results: Using the conditional model, the conditional familial aggregation odds ratios (OR (95% confidence interval for the total, WTR, ATRs, and oblique astigmatism were 1.49 (1.43-1.72, 1.91 (1.65-2.20, 2.00 (1.70-2.30, and 1.86 (1.37-2.54, respectively. In the marginal model, the marginal OR of the parent-offspring and sib-sib in the total astigmatism were 1.35 (1.13-1.63 and 1.54 (1.13-2.11, respectively; WTR 1.53 (1.06-2.20 and 1.94 (1.21-3.13 and; ATR 2.13 (1.01-4.50 and 2.23 (1.52-3.30. The model was statistically significant in sib-sib relationship only for oblique astigmatism with OR of 3.00 (1.25-7.20. Conclusion: The results indicate familial aggregation of astigmatism in the population in Tehran adjusted for age, gender, cataract, duration of education, and body mass index, so that the addition of a new family member affected with astigmatism, as well as having a sibling or parents with astigmatism, significantly increases the odds of exposure to the disease for all four phenotypes. This aggregation can be due to genetic and/or environmental factors. Dividing astigmatism into three phenotypes increased the odds ratios.

  16. Nature and Function of Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Barry A.

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed Year 1 and 2 teachers in Australia about their classroom rules. Found that teachers have about six rules for their classes relating to pupil-pupil relations, completing academic tasks, movement around the classroom, property, safety, and other. Most rules concerned pupil-pupil interactions, and all rules can be seen as a way of…

  17. DESCARTES' RULE OF SIGNS AND THE IDENTIFIABILITY OF POPULATION DEMOGRAPHIC MODELS FROM GENOMIC VARIATION DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Song, Yun S

    2014-01-01

    The sample frequency spectrum (SFS) is a widely-used summary statistic of genomic variation in a sample of homologous DNA sequences. It provides a highly efficient dimensional reduction of large-scale population genomic data and its mathematical dependence on the underlying population demography is well understood, thus enabling the development of efficient inference algorithms. However, it has been recently shown that very different population demographies can actually generate the same SFS for arbitrarily large sample sizes. Although in principle this nonidentifiability issue poses a thorny challenge to statistical inference, the population size functions involved in the counterexamples are arguably not so biologically realistic. Here, we revisit this problem and examine the identifiability of demographic models under the restriction that the population sizes are piecewise-defined where each piece belongs to some family of biologically-motivated functions. Under this assumption, we prove that the expected SFS of a sample uniquely determines the underlying demographic model, provided that the sample is sufficiently large. We obtain a general bound on the sample size sufficient for identifiability; the bound depends on the number of pieces in the demographic model and also on the type of population size function in each piece. In the cases of piecewise-constant, piecewise-exponential and piecewise-generalized-exponential models, which are often assumed in population genomic inferences, we provide explicit formulas for the bounds as simple functions of the number of pieces. Lastly, we obtain analogous results for the "folded" SFS, which is often used when there is ambiguity as to which allelic type is ancestral. Our results are proved using a generalization of Descartes' rule of signs for polynomials to the Laplace transform of piecewise continuous functions.

  18. Cosmological models in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Paul

    2003-12-01

    LRS Bianchi type-I space-time filled with perfect fluid is considered here with deceleration parameter as variable. The metric potentials and are functions of as well as . Assuming '/=(), where prime denotes differentiation with respect to , it was found that =('/) and =(), where =() and is the scale factor which is a function of only. The value of Hubble’s constant 0 was found to be less than half for non-flat model and is equal to 1.3 for a flat model.

  19. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment...—Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) For the following continuous...

  20. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Programs; Medicaid Managed Care, CHIP Delivered in Managed Care, and Revisions Related to Third Party Liability. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This final rule modernizes the Medicaid managed care regulations to reflect changes in the usage of managed care delivery systems. The final rule aligns, where feasible, many of the rules governing Medicaid managed care with those of other major sources of coverage, including coverage through Qualified Health Plans and Medicare Advantage plans; implements statutory provisions; strengthens actuarial soundness payment provisions to promote the accountability of Medicaid managed care program rates; and promotes the quality of care and strengthens efforts to reform delivery systems that serve Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries. It also ensures appropriate beneficiary protections and enhances policies related to program integrity. This final rule also implements provisions of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) and addresses third party liability for trauma codes.

  1. Bilinearity, rules, and prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans can be instructed verbally to perform computationally complex cognitive tasks; their performance then improves relatively slowly over the course of practice. Many skills underlie these abilities; in this paper, we focus on the particular question of a uniform architecture for the instantiation of habitual performance and the storage, recall, and execution of simple rules. Our account builds on models of gated working memory, and involves a bilinear architecture for representing conditional input-output maps and for matching rules to the state of the input and working memory. We demonstrate the performance of our model on two paradigmatic tasks used to investigate prefrontal and basal ganglia function.

  2. Rule-based regulatory and metabolic model for Quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Nadine S; Steinbach, Anke; Hartmann, Rolf W; Helms, Volkhard

    2013-08-21

    In the pathogen P. aeruginosa, the formation of virulence factors is regulated via Quorum sensing signaling pathways. Due to the increasing number of strains that are resistant to antibiotics, there is a high interest to develop novel antiinfectives. In the combat of resistant bacteria, selective blockade of the bacterial cell-to-cell communication (Quorum sensing) has gained special interest as anti-virulence strategy. Here, we modeled the las, rhl, and pqs Quorum sensing systems by a multi-level logical approach to analyze how enzyme inhibitors and receptor antagonists effect the formation of autoinducers and virulence factors. Our rule-based simulations fulfill the behavior expected from literature considering the external level of autoinducers. In the presence of PqsBCD inhibitors, the external HHQ and PQS levels are indeed clearly reduced. The magnitude of this effect strongly depends on the inhibition level. However, it seems that the pyocyanin pathway is incomplete. To match experimental observations we suggest a modified network topology in which PqsE and PqsR acts as receptors and an autoinducer as ligand that up-regulate pyocyanin in a concerted manner. While the PQS biosynthesis is more appropriate as target to inhibit the HHQ and PQS formation, blocking the receptor PqsR that regulates the biosynthesis reduces the pyocyanin level stronger.

  3. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  4. Dodgson's Rule Approximations and Absurdity

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe-Dansted, John C

    2010-01-01

    With the Dodgson rule, cloning the electorate can change the winner, which Young (1977) considers an "absurdity". Removing this absurdity results in a new rule (Fishburn, 1977) for which we can compute the winner in polynomial time (Rothe et al., 2003), unlike the traditional Dodgson rule. We call this rule DC and introduce two new related rules (DR and D&). Dodgson did not explicitly propose the "Dodgson rule" (Tideman, 1987); we argue that DC and DR are better realizations of the principle behind the Dodgson rule than the traditional Dodgson rule. These rules, especially D&, are also effective approximations to the traditional Dodgson's rule. We show that, unlike the rules we have considered previously, the DC, DR and D& scores differ from the Dodgson score by no more than a fixed amount given a fixed number of alternatives, and thus these new rules converge to Dodgson under any reasonable assumption on voter behaviour, including the Impartial Anonymous Culture assumption.

  5. Clustering Association Rules with Fuzzy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Matthias; Kruse, Rudolf

    Association rules constitute a widely accepted technique to identify frequent patterns inside huge volumes of data. Practitioners prefer the straightforward interpretability of rules, however, depending on the nature of the underlying data the number of induced rules can be intractable large. Even reasonably sized result sets may contain a large amount of rules that are uninteresting to the user because they are too general, are already known or do not match other user-related intuitive criteria. We allow the user to model his conception of interestingness by means of linguistic expressions on rule evaluation measures and compound propositions of higher order (i.e., temporal changes of rule properties). Multiple such linguistic concepts can be considered a set of fuzzy patterns (Fuzzy Sets and Systems 28(3):313-331, 1988) and allow for the partition of the initial rule set into fuzzy fragments that contain rules of similar membership to a user’s concept (Höppner et al., Fuzzy Clustering, Wiley, Chichester, 1999; Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 51(1):192-214, 2006; Advances in Fuzzy Clustering and Its Applications, chap. 1, pp. 3-30, Wiley, New York, 2007). With appropriate visualization methods that extent previous rule set visualizations (Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Soft Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4529, pp. 295-303, Springer, Berlin, 2007) we allow the user to instantly assess the matching of his concepts against the rule set.

  6. A Modified Mixing Rule for PSRK Model and Application for the Prediction of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Polymer Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 王利生; J.Gmehling

    2004-01-01

    To extend the PSRK (predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state) model to vapor-liquid equilibria of polymer solutions, a new EOS-gE mixing rule is applied in which the term ∑xiln(b/bi) in the PSRK mixing rule for the parameter a, and the combinatorial part in the original universal functional activity coefficient (UNIFAC) model are cancelled. To take into account the free volume contribution to the excess Gibbs energy in polymer solution, a quadratic mixing rule for the cross co-volume bij with an exponent equals to 1/2 is applied [bij1/2=1/2(bi1/2+bj1/2)]. The literature reported Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state (SRK EOS) parameters of i3 - 2- pure polymer are employed. The PSRK model with the modified mixing rule is used to predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of 37 solvent-polymer systems over a large range of temperature and pressure with satisfactory results.

  7. World Trade Center Health Program requirements for the addition of new WTC-related health conditions. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    Title I of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 amended the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) to establish the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program. Sections 3311, 3312, and 3321 of Title XXXIII of the PHS Act require that the WTC Program Administrator develop regulations to implement portions of the WTC Health Program established within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The WTC Health Program, which is administered by the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provides medical monitoring and treatment to eligible firefighters and related personnel, law enforcement officers, and rescue, recovery and cleanup workers who responded to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, Shanksville, PA, and at the Pentagon, and to eligible survivors of the New York City attacks. This final rule establishes the processes by which the WTC Program Administrator may add a new condition to the list of WTC-related health conditions through rulemaking, including a process for considering petitions by interested parties to add a new condition.

  8. A trap-limited-current-based model of Meyer-Neldel rule and its connection to persistent photocurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lianjun; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Guangfu

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical model is established to describe the emergence of the Meyer-Neldel rule (MNR) based on trap-limited current (TLC) theory. The model produces both MNR and anti-MNR behavior, and is available to various trap distributions. Moreover, TLC-based MNR is connected to persistent photocurrent (PPC) phenomenon. The information from MNR and PPC as well as their connection can be used to probe the distribution of the traps in materials.

  9. The Relationship between Respiration-Related Membrane Potential Slow Oscillations and Discharge Patterns in Mitral/Tufted Cells: What Are the Rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briffaud, Virginie; Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Buonviso, Nathalie; Amat, Corine

    2012-01-01

    Background A slow respiration-related rhythm strongly shapes the activity of the olfactory bulb. This rhythm appears as a slow oscillation that is detectable in the membrane potential, the respiration-related spike discharge of the mitral/tufted cells and the bulbar local field potential. Here, we investigated the rules that govern the manifestation of membrane potential slow oscillations (MPSOs) and respiration-related discharge activities under various afferent input conditions and cellular excitability states. Methodology and Principal Findings We recorded the intracellular membrane potential signals in the mitral/tufted cells of freely breathing anesthetized rats. We first demonstrated the existence of multiple types of MPSOs, which were influenced by odor stimulation and discharge activity patterns. Complementary studies using changes in the intracellular excitability state and a computational model of the mitral cell demonstrated that slow oscillations in the mitral/tufted cell membrane potential were also modulated by the intracellular excitability state, whereas the respiration-related spike activity primarily reflected the afferent input. Based on our data regarding MPSOs and spike patterns, we found that cells exhibiting an unsynchronized discharge pattern never exhibited an MPSO. In contrast, cells with a respiration-synchronized discharge pattern always exhibited an MPSO. In addition, we demonstrated that the association between spike patterns and MPSO types appeared complex. Conclusion We propose that both the intracellular excitability state and input strength underlie specific MPSOs, which, in turn, constrain the types of spike patterns exhibited. PMID:22952828

  10. Prefrontal and parietal activity is modulated by the rule complexity of inductive reasoning and can be predicted by a cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuqin; Liang, Peipeng; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng; Li, Kuncheng

    2015-01-01

    In neuroimaging studies, increased task complexity can lead to increased activation in task-specific regions or to activation of additional regions. How the brain adapts to increased rule complexity during inductive reasoning remains unclear. In the current study, three types of problems were created: simple rule induction (i.e., SI, with rule complexity of 1), complex rule induction (i.e., CI, with rule complexity of 2), and perceptual control. Our findings revealed that increased activations accompany increased rule complexity in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and medial posterior parietal cortex (precuneus). A cognitive model predicted both the behavioral and brain imaging results. The current findings suggest that neural activity in frontal and parietal regions is modulated by rule complexity, which may shed light on the neural mechanisms of inductive reasoning.

  11. The drift diffusion model as the choice rule in reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mads Lund; Frank, Michael J; Biele, Guido

    2016-12-13

    Current reinforcement-learning models often assume simplified decision processes that do not fully reflect the dynamic complexities of choice processes. Conversely, sequential-sampling models of decision making account for both choice accuracy and response time, but assume that decisions are based on static decision values. To combine these two computational models of decision making and learning, we implemented reinforcement-learning models in which the drift diffusion model describes the choice process, thereby capturing both within- and across-trial dynamics. To exemplify the utility of this approach, we quantitatively fit data from a common reinforcement-learning paradigm using hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation, and compared model variants to determine whether they could capture the effects of stimulant medication in adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The model with the best relative fit provided a good description of the learning process, choices, and response times. A parameter recovery experiment showed that the hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach enabled accurate estimation of the model parameters. The model approach described here, using simultaneous estimation of reinforcement-learning and drift diffusion model parameters, shows promise for revealing new insights into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of learning and decision making, as well as the alteration of such processes in clinical groups.

  12. Exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multi-scale quantum integrable model

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Zoltan; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multi-scale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents which satisfy a generalization of the $\\Theta$ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  13. A Comparison of Computational Cognitive Models: Agent-Based Systems Versus Rule-Based Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    called Rational Choice Theory (Zsambok, 1997). The decision maker generates a list of several possible actions, and then chooses the best action...from the list. The transition from the descriptive rational choice theory model to a computational model is relatively straightforward. The problem...given goal state. While rational choice theory may be applicable in many environments, recent studies of experienced decision makers in more complex

  14. Capillary filling rules and displacement mechanisms for spontaneous imbibition of CO2 for carbon storage and EOR using micro-model experiments and pore scale simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, E.; Yang, J.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E. S.

    2012-04-01

    In the 1980s, Lenormand et al. carried out their pioneering work on displacement mechanisms of fluids in etched networks [1]. Here we further examine displacement mechanisms in relation to capillary filling rules for spontaneous imbibition. Understanding the role of spontaneous imbibition in fluid displacement is essential for refining pore network models. Generally, pore network models use simple capillary filling rules and here we examine the validity of these rules for spontaneous imbibition. Improvement of pore network models is vital for the process of 'up-scaling' to the field scale for both enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon sequestration. In this work, we present our experimental microfluidic research into the displacement of both supercritical CO2/deionised water (DI) systems and analogous n-decane/air - where supercritical CO2 and n-decane are the respective wetting fluids - controlled by imbibition at the pore scale. We conducted our experiments in etched PMMA and silicon/glass micro-fluidic hydrophobic chips. We first investigate displacement in single etched pore junctions, followed by displacement in complex network designs representing actual rock thin sections, i.e. Berea sandstone and Sucrosic dolomite. The n-decane/air experiments were conducted under ambient conditions, whereas the supercritical CO2/DI water experiments were conducted under high temperature and pressure in order to replicate reservoir conditions. Fluid displacement in all experiments was captured via a high speed video microscope. The direction and type of displacement the imbibing fluid takes when it enters a junction is dependent on the number of possible channels in which the wetting fluid can imbibe, i.e. I1, I2 and I3 [1]. Depending on the experiment conducted, the micro-models were initially filled with either DI water or air before the wetting fluid was injected. We found that the imbibition of the wetting fluid through a single pore is primarily controlled by the

  15. Relative risk regression models with inverse polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yang; Woodward, Mark

    2013-08-30

    The proportional hazards model assumes that the log hazard ratio is a linear function of parameters. In the current paper, we model the log relative risk as an inverse polynomial, which is particularly suitable for modeling bounded and asymmetric functions. The parameters estimated by maximizing the partial likelihood are consistent and asymptotically normal. The advantages of the inverse polynomial model over the ordinary polynomial model and the fractional polynomial model for fitting various asymmetric log relative risk functions are shown by simulation. The utility of the method is further supported by analyzing two real data sets, addressing the specific question of the location of the minimum risk threshold.

  16. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  17. Lifted Inference for Relational Continuous Models

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Jaesik; Hill, David J

    2012-01-01

    Relational Continuous Models (RCMs) represent joint probability densities over attributes of objects, when the attributes have continuous domains. With relational representations, they can model joint probability distributions over large numbers of variables compactly in a natural way. This paper presents a new exact lifted inference algorithm for RCMs, thus it scales up to large models of real world applications. The algorithm applies to Relational Pairwise Models which are (relational) products of potentials of arity 2. Our algorithm is unique in two ways. First, it substantially improves the efficiency of lifted inference with variables of continuous domains. When a relational model has Gaussian potentials, it takes only linear-time compared to cubic time of previous methods. Second, it is the first exact inference algorithm which handles RCMs in a lifted way. The algorithm is illustrated over an example from econometrics. Experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms both a groundlevel inferenc...

  18. A Model of Egoistical Relative Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Faye

    1976-01-01

    Examines the theory of relative deprivation. This theory states, basically, that objective and subjective well-being are not isomorphically related, so that sometimes the better-off one is, the worse-off one feels subjectively. After a brief review of work in the area of relative deprivation, a formal model is developed. (Editor/RK)

  19. Modelling a network where the opinion of each unit varies according to a majority ruling of its neighbouring units

    OpenAIRE

    Kusmartsev, V. F.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of human behaviour can lead to very unpredictable patterns in social activity and structure. Here we demonstrate the instability of a community network controlled by majority ruling, where an element adopts the most popular opinion of their peers. We modelled a community as a square lattice, and performed sequential time step numerical calculations upon each cell in parallel. Depending on the initial ratio of two opinions, the community can segregate either into separate gangs ...

  20. Implementation of virtual medical record object model for a standards-based clinical decision support rule engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christine; Noirot, Laura A; Heard, Kevin M; Reichley, Richard M; Dunagan, Wm Claiborne; Bailey, Thomas C

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Medical Record (vMR) is a structured data model for representing individual patient informations. Our implementation of vMR is based on HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) v2.13 from which a minimum set of objects and attributes are selected to meet the requirement of a clinical decision support (CDS) rule engine. Our success of mapping local patient data to the vMR model and building a vMR adaptor middle layer demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of implementing a vMR in a portable CDS solution.

  1. Decomposition of fractional quantum Hall model states: product rule symmetries and approximations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomale, R.; Estienne, B.; Regnault, N.; Bernevig, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of a product rule structure of the monomial (Slater) expansion coefficients of bosonic (fermionic) fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states derived recently, which we now extend to spin-singlet states. We show that the Haldane-Rezayi spin-singlet state can be obtained

  2. Methods of modelling relative growth rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne Pommerening; Anders Muszta

    2015-01-01

    Background:Analysing and modelling plant growth is an important interdisciplinary field of plant science. The use of relative growth rates, involving the analysis of plant growth relative to plant size, has more or less independently emerged in different research groups and at different times and has provided powerful tools for assessing the growth performance and growth efficiency of plants and plant populations. In this paper, we explore how these isolated methods can be combined to form a consistent methodology for modelling relative growth rates. Methods:We review and combine existing methods of analysing and modelling relative growth rates and apply a combination of methods to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) stem-analysis data from North Wales (UK) and British Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi (Mirb.) Franco) yield table data. Results:The results indicate that, by combining the approaches of different plant-growth analysis laboratories and using them simultaneously, we can advance and standardise the concept of relative plant growth. Particularly the growth multiplier plays an important role in modelling relative growth rates. Another useful technique has been the recent introduction of size-standardised relative growth rates. Conclusions:Modelling relative growth rates mainly serves two purposes, 1) an improved analysis of growth performance and efficiency and 2) the prediction of future or past growth rates. This makes the concept of relative growth ideally suited to growth reconstruction as required in dendrochronology, climate change and forest decline research and for interdisciplinary research projects beyond the realm of plant science.

  3. Methods of modelling relative growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Pommerening

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Analysing and modelling plant growth is an important interdisciplinary field of plant science. The use of relative growth rates, involving the analysis of plant growth relative to plant size, has more or less independently emerged in different research groups and at different times and has provided powerful tools for assessing the growth performance and growth efficiency of plants and plant populations. In this paper, we explore how these isolated methods can be combined to form a consistent methodology for modelling relative growth rates. Methods We review and combine existing methods of analysing and modelling relative growth rates and apply a combination of methods to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. stem-analysis data from North Wales (UK and British Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco yield table data. Results The results indicate that, by combining the approaches of different plant-growth analysis laboratories and using them simultaneously, we can advance and standardise the concept of relative plant growth. Particularly the growth multiplier plays an important role in modelling relative growth rates. Another useful technique has been the recent introduction of size-standardised relative growth rates. Conclusions Modelling relative growth rates mainly serves two purposes, 1 an improved analysis of growth performance and efficiency and 2 the prediction of future or past growth rates. This makes the concept of relative growth ideally suited to growth reconstruction as required in dendrochronology, climate change and forest decline research and for interdisciplinary research projects beyond the realm of plant science.

  4. Optimization of mask manufacturing rule check constraint for model based assist feature generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Seongbo; Kim, Young-chang; Chun, Yong-jin; Lee, Seong-Woo; Lee, Suk-joo; Choi, Seong-woon; Han, Woo-sung; Chang, Seong-hoon; Yoon, Seok-chan; Kim, Hee-bom; Ki, Won-tai; Woo, Sang-gyun; Cho, Han-gu

    2008-11-01

    SRAF (sub-resolution assist feature) generation technology has been a popular resolution enhancement technique in photo-lithography past sub-65nm node. It helps to increase the process window, and these are some times called ILT(inverse lithography technology). Also, many studies have been presented on how to determine the best positions of SRAFs, and optimize its size. According to these reports, the generation of SRAF can be formulated as a constrained optimization problem. The constraints are the side lobe suppression and allowable minimum feature size or MRC (mask manufacturing rule check). As we know, bigger SRAF gives better contribution to main feature but susceptible to SRAF side lobe issue. Thus, we finally have no choice but to trade-off the advantages of the ideally optimized mask that contains very complicated SRAF patterns to the layout that has been MRC imposed applied to it. The above dilemma can be resolved by simultaneously using lower dose (high threshold) and cleaning up by smaller MRC. This solution makes the room between threshold (side lobe limitation) and MRC constraint (minimum feature limitation) wider. In order to use smaller MRC restriction without considering the mask writing and inspection issue, it is also appropriate to identify the exact mask writing limitation and find the smart mask constraints that well reflect the mask manufacturability and the e-beam lithography characteristics. In this article, we discuss two main topics on mask optimizations with SRAF. The first topic is on the experimental work to find what behavior of the mask writing ability is in term of several MRC parameters, and we propose more effective MRC constraint for aggressive generation of SRAF. The next topic is on finding the optimum MRC condition in practical case, 3X nm node DRAM contact layer. In fact, it is not easy to encompass the mask writing capability for very complicate real SRAF pattern by using the current MRC constraint based on the only width and

  5. Age-related white matter degradation rule of normal human brain: the evidence from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiang; Li Baoqing; Shan Baoci

    2014-01-01

    Background Diffusion tensor imaging can evaluate white matter function in human brain.Fractional anisotropy is the most important parameter.This study aimed to find regional reduction of fractional anisotropy (FA) with aging in the whole brain and the changing rules of anisotropy with aging.Methods Fifty volunteers from 20 to 75 years old were divided into five consecutive age groups; a young group and four senior groups.FA values were calculated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studio software.The difference of FA between the young group and the four senior groups were analyzed by analysis of voxel-level height threshold in Statistic Parametric Mapping (SPM),and the regions with decreased FA were obtained.The FA values of these regions were then extracted using an in-house developed program,and a multiple linear regression model was built to assess the influence of age and sex on the FA values of these regions.Results Eight regions,including frontal lobe,postcentral gyrus,optic radiation,hippocampus,cerebella hemisphere,corona radiate,corpus callosum and internal capsule,were found to have decreased FA.There was a strong negative correlation between age and the FA in the frontal lobe,postcentral gyrus,optic radiation,hippocampus,and cerebella hemisphere,while a weaker negative correlation in the corona radiate,corpus callosum,and internal capsule was found.The FA reduction in the frontal lobe,postcentral gyrus,optic radiation,hippocampus and cerebella hemisphere were found earlier than in the corona radiate,corpus callosum and internal capsule.There was no correlation between sex and FA in these regions.Conclusions The FA in the subcortical white matter area reduces earlier than that in deep white matter.The areas with decreased FA continuously enlarge with aqing.The FAs in these regions have a strong negative correlation with age.

  6. Business rules formalisation for information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with relation business rules and business applications and describes a number of structures for support of information systems implementation and customization. Particular formats of structure are different according to different type of business rules. We arise from model of enterprise architecture that is a significant document of all what happens in business and serves for blueprint and facilitates of managers decisions. Most complicated part of enterprise architecture is business rule. When we gain its accurate formulation and when we achieve to formalize and to store business rule in special repository we can manage it actualize it and use it for many reasons. The article emphasizes formats of business rule formalization and its reference to business applications implementation.

  7. Bias Modeling for Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distant supervision (DS automatically annotates free text with relation mentions from existing knowledge bases (KBs, providing a way to alleviate the problem of insufficient training data for relation extraction in natural language processing (NLP. However, the heuristic annotation process does not guarantee the correctness of the generated labels, promoting a hot research issue on how to efficiently make use of the noisy training data. In this paper, we model two types of biases to reduce noise: (1 bias-dist to model the relative distance between points (instances and classes (relation centers; (2 bias-reward to model the possibility of each heuristically generated label being incorrect. Based on the biases, we propose three noise tolerant models: MIML-dist, MIML-dist-classify, and MIML-reward, building on top of a state-of-the-art distantly supervised learning algorithm. Experimental evaluations compared with three landmark methods on the KBP dataset validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  8. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems,

  9. Ruling out minimal anomaly free $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ extensions of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstedt, Andreas; Ingelman, Gunnar; Löfgren, Johan; Mandal, Tanumoy

    2016-01-01

    We consider minimal anomaly free $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ extensions of the Standard Model with three generations of right-handed neutrinos and a complex scalar. Assuming all fields are charged under the new $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ group, we find that in a wide class of such models the only free parameter in the gauge sector is $M_{Z'}$, the mass of the new gauge boson $Z'$. Interestingly, we find that the production cross section of $Z'$ is independent of the $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ gauge coupling $g_z$. Assuming the right-handed neutrinos are Majorana fermions, we arrive at a peculiar relation where $g_z$ becomes a function of $M_{Z'}$. Using perturbativity requirements and the 13 TeV LHC dijet and dilepton data, we show that minimal anomaly free $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ models are strongly disfavored, with the exception of $B-L$ models. We discuss different aspects of these models and indicate possible extensions that can alleviate some restrictions and bypass the constraints.

  10. Utilization of the sum rule for construction of advanced dispersion model of crystalline silicon containing interstitial oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, Daniel, E-mail: franta@physics.muni.cz [Department of Physical Electronic, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University Kamenice 5, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Nečas, David; Zajíčková, Lenka [Department of Physical Electronic, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University Kamenice 5, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Ohlídal, Ivan [Department of Physical Electronic, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-28

    The distribution of the total transition strength, i.e. the right hand side of the integral form of Thomas–Reiche–Kuhn sum rule, into individual absorption processes is described for crystalline silicon containing interstitial oxygen. Utilization of the sum rule allows the construction of a dispersion model covering all elementary excitations from phonon absorption to core electron excitations. The dependence of transition strength of individual electronic and phonon contributions on temperature and oxygen content is described. - Highlights: • Distribution of transition strength for c-Si containing interstitial oxygen • Temperature dependence of transition strength of individual contributions • Dependence of transition strength on concentration of interstitial oxygen • Consideration of interband electronic transitions, free carriers, and phonons.

  11. Stable canonical rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iemhoff, R.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Bezhanishvili, Guram

    2016-01-01

    We introduce stable canonical rules and prove that each normal modal multi-conclusion consequence relation is axiomatizable by stable canonical rules. We apply these results to construct finite refutation patterns for modal formulas, and prove that each normal modal logic is axiomatizable by stable

  12. Specimen-based modeling, stopping rules, and the extinction of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Chao, Anne; Colwell, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    stopping rules for terminating the search for missing or allegedly extinct species. These stopping rules are based on survey data for counts of co-occurring species that are encountered in the search for a target species. We illustrate both these methods with a case study of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker......Assessing species survival status is an essential component of conservation programs. We devised a new statistical method for estimating the probability of species persistence from the temporal sequence of collection dates of museum specimens. To complement this approach, we developed quantitative...... (Campephilus principalis), long assumed to have become extinct in the United States in the 1950s, but reportedly rediscovered in 2004. We analyzed the temporal pattern of the collection dates of 239 geo-referenced museum specimens collected throughout the southeastern United States from 1853 to 1932...

  13. Design of Intrusion Detection Model Based on FP-Growth and Dynamic Rule Generation with Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Somani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. If we think of the current scenario then several new intrusion that cannot be prevented by the previous algorithm, IDS is introduced to detect possible violations of a security policy by monitoring system activities and response in all times for betterment. If we detect the attack type in a particular communication environment, a response can be initiated to prevent or minimize the damage to the system. So it is a crucial concern. In our framework we present an efficient framework for intrusion detection which is based on Association Rule Mining (ARM and K-Means Clustering. K- Means clustering is use for separation of similar elements and after that association rule mining is used for better detection. Detection Rate (DR, False Positive Rate (FPR and False Negative Rate (FNR are used to measure performance and analysis experimental results.

  14. Design of Intrusion Detection Model Based on FP-Growth and Dynamic Rule Generation with Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Somani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ntrusion Detection is the process used to identifyintrusions. If we think of the current scenario thenseveralnew intrusion that cannot be prevented bythe previous algorithm, IDS is introduced to detectpossible violations of a security policy by monitoringsystem activities and response in all times forbetterment. If we detect the attack type in aparticular communication environment, a responsecan be initiated to prevent or minimize the damageto the system. So it is a crucial concern. In ourframework we present an efficient framework forintrusion detection which is based on AssociationRule Mining (ARM and K-Means Clustering. K-Means clustering is use for separation of similarelements and after that association rule mining isused for better detection. Detection Rate (DR, FalsePositive Rate (FPR and False Negative Rate (FNRare used to measure performance and analysisexperimental results

  15. From Ethical Exceptionalism to Ethical Exceptions: The Rule and exception Model and the Changing Meaning of Ethics In German Bioregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathrin

    2016-02-12

    Germany is an interesting case with respect to the governance of reprogenetics. It has a strong profile in the technosciences and high aims regarding the global bioeconomy, yet her regulation of human genetics, reproductive medicine and embryo research has for a long time been rather restrictive. German biopolitical exceptionalism has often been explained by reference to Catholicism and the legacy of the Nazi past. The Germans, so goes the common story, have learnt the lessons of history and translated them into unconditional respect for human dignity, which in turn translates into unconditional protection of human life, including the human embryo, and the firm repudiation of any eugenic distinction between 'life worth to live' and 'life not worth to live'. This, however, is not the whole story. Alongside deontological strictness we find another strand of governing body politics and reprogenetics in Germany, the rule-and-exception model, running from the mid-1970s abortion law via the 2002 Stem Cell Act to the 2011 regulation of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. In contrast to the former, that strongly draws on Kant and his concept of human dignity, the latter bears resemblances to Carl Schmitt's concept of state of exception. The article will show that the rule-and-exception model builds the exception into the rule and transforms the meaning and mandate of ethics, namely from safeguarding ethical standards to deciding about the exception. Given that the exception has now tended to become the rule, the question is whether the lessons of history will govern German reprogenetics for much longer.

  16. Regimes cambiais: um modelo alternativo para o Brasil Exchange rate rules: an alternative model for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Carlos de Castro Pires

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, many frameworks of exchange rate have been proposed. The aim of this paper is to propose an alternative rule of exchange rate and evaluate the case for Brazil. The analysis of the Brazilian case made necessary the evaluation of auxiliary instruments for its implementation. The paper proposes the use of capital controls or scape clauses.

  17. Relating business modelling and enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Lucas Onno

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a methodology for creating business models, evaluating them, and relating them to enterprise architecture. The methodology consists of several steps, leading from an organization’s current situation to a target situation, via business models and enterprise architecture. Current

  18. Models and relations in economics and econometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1999-01-01

    Based on a money market analysis using the cointegrated VAR model the paper demonstrates some possible pitfalls in macroeconomic inference as a direct consequence of inadequate stochastic model formulation. A number of questions related to concepts such as empirical and theoretical steady-states,...

  19. Relating business modelling and enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Lucas Onno

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a methodology for creating business models, evaluating them, and relating them to enterprise architecture. The methodology consists of several steps, leading from an organization’s current situation to a target situation, via business models and enterprise architecture.

  20. The generic model of General Relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsamparlis, Michael, E-mail: mtsampa@phys.uoa.g [Department of Physics, Section Astrophysics Astronomy Mechanics, University of Athens, University of Athens, Zografos 15783, Athens (Greece)

    2009-10-01

    We develop a generic spacetime model in General Relativity from which all existing model results are produced under specific assumptions, depending on the case. We classify each type of possible assumption, especially the role of observers and that of symmetries, and discuss their role in the development of a model. We apply the results in a step by step approach to the case of a Bianchi I spacetime and a string fluid.

  1. 75 FR 11216 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Information (``SAI''), the Fund's Shareholder Reports, and its Form N- CSR and Form N-SAR, filed twice a year... documents and the Form N-CSR and Form N-SAR may be viewed on-screen or downloaded from the Commission's Web... that the proposed rule change will facilitate the listing and trading of additional types of...

  2. 75 FR 81692 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Information (``SAI''), the ETF's Shareholder Reports, and its Form N- CSR and Form N-SAR, filed twice a year... documents and the Form N-CSR and Form N-SAR may be viewed on-screen or downloaded from the Commission's Web... that the proposed rule change will facilitate the listing and trading of additional types of...

  3. 75 FR 34571 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ50 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules... respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan... temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers...

  4. 76 FR 76205 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... exposure to multiple asset classes in a variety of domestic and foreign markets. The Adviser's allocation... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'' ] or ``Exchange Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is...

  5. 76 FR 75932 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... currencies that are issued by ``supranational issuers,'' such as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Finance Corporation, as well as development agencies supported... Arca Equities Rule 8.600, which applies to Managed Fund Shares based on an international or...

  6. 77 FR 72247 - Rules of Practice and Procedure: Enterprise and Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... the record and in accordance with the Administrative Procedures Act (APA). This section also governs... specific rules of practice and procedure for hearings on the record and hearings in accordance with the APA.... The authority citation for part 1209 is revised to read as follows: Authority: 5 U.S.C. 554, 556,...

  7. 75 FR 70319 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... eligibility for exclusion from the definition of the term ``commodity pool operator'' in accordance with Rule... Additional Information (``SAI''), the Fund's Shareholder Reports, and its Form N- CSR and Form N-SAR, filed..., and those documents and the Form N-CSR and Form N-SAR may be viewed on-screen or downloaded from...

  8. 78 FR 32487 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Rule 4.5 of the CEA. The Trust has filed a notice of eligibility for exclusion from the definition of...''), the Fund's Shareholder Reports, and the Trust's Form N-CSR and Form N-SAR, filed twice a year. The... documents and the Form N-CSR and Form N-SAR may be viewed on- screen or downloaded from the Commission's...

  9. Military Strategists are from Mars, Rule of Law Theorists are from Venus: Why Imposition of the Rule of Law Requires a Goldwater-Nichols Modeled Interagency Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    ground for terrorists unless conditions are improved. 14 JAMES DOBBINS ET AL., THE BEGINNERS GUIDE TO NATION-BUILDING vi (2007) ("Western governments...principles and profits. What will it take for Russia to move beyond the Wild West capitalism to more orderly market economics? Developing the rule of

  10. Discovery of Association Rules from University Admission System Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fattah Mashat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Association rules discovery is one of the vital data mining techniques. Currently there is an increasing interest in data mining and educational systems, making educational data mining (EDM as a new growing research community. In this paper, we present a model for association rules discovery from King Abdulaziz University (KAU admission system data. The main objective is to extract the rules and relations between admission system attributes for better analysis. The model utilizes an apriori algorithm for association rule mining. Detailed analysis and interpretation of the experimental results is presented with respect to admission office perspective.

  11. 77 FR 12528 - Amendments to Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure-Subparts E and L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ..., Unfair or Deceptive Ocean Transportation Practices Related to the Movement of Household Goods or Personal... decision on default upon consideration of the record.'' The default rule is modeled on that of other... the consideration of those issues. Rule 69--Motions Proposed Rule 69 reorders the subparts...

  12. 货币政策规则:世代交叠模型中的前瞻规则和后顾规则%Monetary policy rules: Forward-looking and backward-looking in an overlapping generations model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家清; 刘次华

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of an overlapping generations model, forward-looking monetary policy rules and backward-looking monetary policy rules were investigated. It is shown that the monetary steady state is more likely to be indeterminate under an active forwardlooking rule than under the corresponding backward-looking rule. It is also shown that backward-looking rules can render the monetary steady state unstable.

  13. Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basilevsky, M. V.; Mitina, E. A. [Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, Novatorov ul., Moscow (Russian Federation); Odinokov, A. V. [Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, Novatorov ul., Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” 31, Kashirskoye shosse, Moscow (Russian Federation); Titov, S. V. [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, 3-1/12, Building 6, Obuha pereulok, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-21

    The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ξ{sub 0}=ℏω{sub 0}/k{sub B}T where ω{sub 0} is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (ξ{sub 0} < 1 − 3) and for low (ξ{sub 0}≫ 1) temperature ranges. For the first (quasi-classical) kinetic regime, the Redfield approximation to the solution of the relaxation equation proved to be sufficient and efficient in practical applications. The study of the essentially quantum-mechanical low-temperature kinetic regime in its asymptotic limit requires the implementation of the exact relaxation equation. The coherent mechanism providing a non-vanishing reaction rate has been revealed when T→ 0. An accurate computational methodology for the cross-over kinetic regime needs a further elaboration. The original model of the hopping mechanism for electronic conduction in photosensitive organic materials is considered, based on the above techniques. The electron transfer (ET) in active centers of such systems proceeds via local intra- and intermolecular modes. The active modes, as a rule, operate beyond the

  14. Finite frequency f-sum rule for assessment of number density of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and Kramers-Kronig relation for refractive index of colloidal gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontturi, Ville; Silfsten, Pertti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2011-07-01

    Absorption spectra from colloids containing different concentrations of spherical gold nanoparticles in water were measured with a spectrophotometer. The absorption spectra were used to calculate the number density of nanoparticles (NPs) with the aid of an unconventional finite spectral band f-sum rule applied for gold colloid. Good correlation between the number density of dispersion electrons, obtained from the f-sum rule, and the number density of nanoparticles was found. The effective absolute refractive index of the gold colloid was obtained with the aid of a singly subtractive Kramers-Kronig relation, and in addition the refractive index change due to the nanoparticles was obtained with the aid of a conventional Kramers-Kronig relation. Such optical properties are valuable in studies of light interaction with nanoparticles.

  15. PSOLA: A Heuristic Land-Use Allocation Model Using Patch-Level Operations and Knowledge-Informed Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolin; Peng, Jinjin; Jiao, Limin; Liu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing land-use allocation is important to regional sustainable development, as it promotes the social equality of public services, increases the economic benefits of land-use activities, and reduces the ecological risk of land-use planning. Most land-use optimization models allocate land-use using cell-level operations that fragment land-use patches. These models do not cooperate well with land-use planning knowledge, leading to irrational land-use patterns. This study focuses on building a heuristic land-use allocation model (PSOLA) using particle swarm optimization. The model allocates land-use with patch-level operations to avoid fragmentation. The patch-level operations include a patch-edge operator, a patch-size operator, and a patch-compactness operator that constrain the size and shape of land-use patches. The model is also integrated with knowledge-informed rules to provide auxiliary knowledge of land-use planning during optimization. The knowledge-informed rules consist of suitability, accessibility, land use policy, and stakeholders’ preference. To validate the PSOLA model, a case study was performed in Gaoqiao Town in Zhejiang Province, China. The results demonstrate that the PSOLA model outperforms a basic PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) in the terms of the social, economic, ecological, and overall benefits by 3.60%, 7.10%, 1.53% and 4.06%, respectively, which confirms the effectiveness of our improvements. Furthermore, the model has an open architecture, enabling its extension as a generic tool to support decision making in land-use planning. PMID:27322619

  16. Modelling anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01

    We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic anisotropic fluid sphere, (spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully modelled by suitable linear combinations of quite ordinary classical matter: an isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field, and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model that is used to mimic the anisotropic fluid sphere. Consequently, we can build physically reasonable matter models for almost any spherically symmetric spacetime.

  17. Modeling Relational Data via Latent Factor Blockmodel

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Sheng; Gallinari, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of modeling relational data, which appear in many applications such as social network analysis, recommender systems and bioinformatics. Previous studies either consider latent feature based models but disregarding local structure in the network, or focus exclusively on capturing local structure of objects based on latent blockmodels without coupling with latent characteristics of objects. To combine the benefits of the previous work, we propose a novel model that can simultaneously incorporate the effect of latent features and covariates if any, as well as the effect of latent structure that may exist in the data. To achieve this, we model the relation graph as a function of both latent feature factors and latent cluster memberships of objects to collectively discover globally predictive intrinsic properties of objects and capture latent block structure in the network to improve prediction performance. We also develop an optimization transfer algorithm based on the general...

  18. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the ...

  19. Bias Modeling for Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xiang; Yaoyun Zhang; Xiaolong Wang; Yang Qin; Wenying Han

    2015-01-01

    Distant supervision (DS) automatically annotates free text with relation mentions from existing knowledge bases (KBs), providing a way to alleviate the problem of insufficient training data for relation extraction in natural language processing (NLP). However, the heuristic annotation process does not guarantee the correctness of the generated labels, promoting a hot research issue on how to efficiently make use of the noisy training data. In this paper, we model two types of biases to reduce...

  20. Neutrino mass sum rules and symmetries of the mass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrlein, Julia [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Spinrath, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China)

    2017-05-15

    Neutrino mass sum rules have recently gained again more attention as a powerful tool to discriminate and test various flavour models in the near future. A related question which has not yet been discussed fully satisfactorily was the origin of these sum rules and if they are related to any residual or accidental symmetry. We will address this open issue here systematically and find previous statements confirmed. Namely, the sum rules are not related to any enhanced symmetry of the Lagrangian after family symmetry breaking but they are simply the result of a reduction of free parameters due to skillful model building. (orig.)

  1. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. M.

    2003-01-09

    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  2. Multi-scale Rule-of-Mixtures Model of Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Roddick, Jaret C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    A unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy lamina in which the carbon fibers are coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes is modeled with a multi-scale method, the atomistically informed rule-of-mixtures. This multi-scale model is designed to include the effect of the carbon nanotubes on the constitutive properties of the lamina. It included concepts from the molecular dynamics/equivalent continuum methods, micromechanics, and the strength of materials. Within the model both the nanotube volume fraction and nanotube distribution were varied. It was found that for a lamina with 60% carbon fiber volume fraction, the Young's modulus in the fiber direction varied with changes in the nanotube distribution, from 138.8 to 140 GPa with nanotube volume fractions ranging from 0.0001 to 0.0125. The presence of nanotube near the surface of the carbon fiber is therefore expected to have a small, but positive, effect on the constitutive properties of the lamina.

  3. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems, on t

  4. Regole di Basilea e modelli di vigilanza: quale convergenza? (Basel rules and supervisory models: What convergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Montanaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation process that has interested the banking sector in the last decades was significantly fostered by the three founding pillars of the Basel framework: the home country control based on consolidated supervision, risk-sensitive prudential requirements, and the core principles for effective banking supervision. The present paper analyses whether the principle of the home country control is coherent with the large discretion with which national supervisors have implemented Basel’s prudential regulation. The complexity of global banks, too big to be supervised and resolved, inevitably generates regulatory coordination failures. The increasing mistrust of host countries in the ability and willingness of the home countries authorities to protect their national interests represents a serious threat to the sustainability of bank globalisation. An effective and binding convergence on the mechanisms and processes for managing and resolving the crises of cross-border banks seems destined to remain the unsolved problem of the Basel rules.

  5. A simple rule for quadrupedal gait generation determined by leg loading feedback: a modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Habu, Yasushi; Fukui, Takahiro

    2015-02-01

    We discovered a specific rule for generating typical quadrupedal gaits (the order of the movement of four legs) through a simulated quadrupedal locomotion, in which unprogrammed gaits (diagonal/lateral sequence walks, left/right-lead canters, and left/right-lead transverse gallops) spontaneously emerged because of leg loading feedbacks to the CPGs hard-wired to produce a default trot. Additionally, all gaits transitioned according to speed, as seen in animals. We have therefore hypothesized that various gaits derive from a trot because of posture control through leg loading feedback. The body tilt on the two support legs of each diagonal pair during trotting was classified into three types (level, tilted up, or tilted down) according to speed. The load difference between the two legs led to the phase difference between their CPGs via the loading feedbacks, resulting in nine gaits (32: three tilts to the power of two diagonal pairs) including the aforementioned.

  6. Plasmon-controlled light-harvesting: design rules for biohybrid devices via multiscale modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreussi, Oliviero; Biancardi, Alessandro; Corni, Stefano; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2013-09-11

    Photosynthesis is triggered by the absorption of light by light-harvesting (LH) pigment-protein complexes followed by excitation energy transfer to the reaction center(s). A promising strategy to achieve control on and to improve light harvesting is to complement the LH complexes with plasmonic particles. Here a recently developed QM/MM/continuum approach is used to investigate the LH process of the peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP) complex on a silver island film. The simulations not only reproduce and interpret the experiments but they also suggest general rules to design novel biohybrid devices; hot-spot configurations in which the LH complex is sandwiched between couples of metal aggregates are found to produce the largest amplifications. Indications about the best distances and orientations are also reported together with illumination and emission geometries of the PCP-NP system necessary to achieve the maximum enhancement.

  7. Research on spatial association rules mining in two-direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Li-xia; WANG Zuo-cheng

    2007-01-01

    In data mining from transaction DB, the relationships between the attributes have been focused, but the relationships between the tuples have not been taken into account. In spatial database, there are relationships between the attributes and the tuples, and most of the associations occur between the tuples, such as adjacent, intersection, overlap and other topological relationships. So the tasks of spatial data association rules mining include mining the relationships between attributes of spatial objects, which are called as vertical direction DM, and the relationships between the tuples, which are called as horizontal direction DM. This paper analyzes the storage models of spatial data, uses for reference the technologies of data mining in transaction DB, defines the spatial data association rule, including vertical direction association rule, horizontal direction association rule and two-direction association rule, discusses the measurement of spatial association rule interestingness, and puts forward the work flows of spatial association rule data mining. During two-direction spatial association rules mining, an algorithm is proposed to get non-spatial itemsets. By virtue of spatial analysis, the spatial relations were transferred into non-spatial associations and the non-spatial itemsets were gotten. Based on the non-spatial itemsets, the Apriori algorithm or other algorithms could be used to get the frequent itemsets and then the spatial association rules come into being. Using spatial DB, the spatial association rules were gotten to validate the algorithm, and the test results show that this algorithm is efficient and can mine the interesting spatial rules.

  8. Mapping Relational Operations onto Hypergraph Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    ="false" Priority="31" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Reference"/>

    The relational model is the most commonly used data model for storing large datasets, perhaps due to the simplicity of the tabular format which had revolutionized database management systems. However, many real world objects are recursive and associative in nature which makes storage in the relational model difficult. The hypergraph model is a generalization of a graph model, where each hypernode can be made up of other nodes or graphs and each hyperedge can be made up of one or more edges. It may address the recursive and associative limitations of relational model

  9. Animal models of age related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Mark E; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J

    2012-08-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations.

  10. Logical-Rule Models of Classification Response Times: A Synthesis of Mental-Architecture, Random-Walk, and Decision-Bound Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fific, Mario; Little, Daniel R.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We formalize and provide tests of a set of logical-rule models for predicting perceptual classification response times (RTs) and choice probabilities. The models are developed by synthesizing mental-architecture, random-walk, and decision-bound approaches. According to the models, people make independent decisions about the locations of stimuli…

  11. Medicare Program; Revisions to Payment Policies Under the Physician Fee Schedule and Other Revisions to Part B for CY 2017; Medicare Advantage Bid Pricing Data Release; Medicare Advantage and Part D Medical Loss Ratio Data Release; Medicare Advantage Provider Network Requirements; Expansion of Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program Model; Medicare Shared Savings Program Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This major final rule addresses changes to the physician fee schedule and other Medicare Part B payment policies, such as changes to the Value Modifier, to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. This final rule also includes changes related to the Medicare Shared Savings Program, requirements for Medicare Advantage Provider Networks, and provides for the release of certain pricing data from Medicare Advantage bids and of data from medical loss ratio reports submitted by Medicare health and drug plans. In addition, this final rule expands the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program model.

  12. Modelling a network where the opinion of each unit varies according to a majority ruling of its neighbouring units

    CERN Document Server

    Kusmartsev, V F

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of human behaviour can lead to very unpredictable patterns in social activity and structure. Here we demonstrate the instability of a community network controlled by majority ruling, where an element adopts the most popular opinion of their peers. We modelled a community as a square lattice, and performed sequential time step numerical calculations upon each cell in parallel. Depending on the initial ratio of two opinions, the community can segregate either into separate gangs and cliques, or get dominated by a single opinion. We also note that gangs are separated by neutral or confused groups of individuals, buffering the transition. The behaviors shown by this model can be comfortably applied to many other real life situations, such as neural or ecological networks. The results of this paper have been preliminary published in the Ref. [34].

  13. Modeling Ignition of a Heptane Isomer: Improved Thermodynamics, Reaction Pathways, Kinetic, and Rate Rule Optimizations for 2-Methylhexane

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Samah

    2016-03-21

    Accurate chemical kinetic combustion models of lightly branched alkanes (e.g., 2-methylalkanes) are important to investigate the combustion behavior of real fuels. Improving the fidelity of existing kinetic models is a necessity, as new experiments and advanced theories show inaccuracies in certain portions of the models. This study focuses on updating thermodynamic data and the kinetic reaction mechanism for a gasoline surrogate component, 2-methylhexane, based on recently published thermodynamic group values and rate rules derived from quantum calculations and experiments. Alternative pathways for the isomerization of peroxy-alkylhydroperoxide (OOQOOH) radicals are also investigated. The effects of these updates are compared against new high-pressure shock tube and rapid compression machine ignition delay measurements. It is shown that rate constant modifications are required to improve agreement between kinetic modeling simulations and experimental data. We further demonstrate the ability to optimize the kinetic model using both manual and automated techniques for rate parameter tunings to improve agreement with the measured ignition delay time data. Finally, additional low temperature chain branching reaction pathways are shown to improve the model’s performance. The present approach to model development provides better performance across extended operating conditions while also strengthening the fundamental basis of the model.

  14. Estimation of Tree Cover in an Agricultural Parkland of Senegal Using Rule-Based Regression Tree Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Herrmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field trees are an integral part of the farmed parkland landscape in West Africa and provide multiple benefits to the local environment and livelihoods. While field trees have received increasing interest in the context of strengthening resilience to climate variability and change, the actual extent of farmed parkland and spatial patterns of tree cover are largely unknown. We used the rule-based predictive modeling tool Cubist® to estimate field tree cover in the west-central agricultural region of Senegal. A collection of rules and associated multiple linear regression models was constructed from (1 a reference dataset of percent tree cover derived from very high spatial resolution data (2 m Orbview as the dependent variable, and (2 ten years of 10-day 250 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI composites and derived phenological metrics as independent variables. Correlation coefficients between modeled and reference percent tree cover of 0.88 and 0.77 were achieved for training and validation data respectively, with absolute mean errors of 1.07 and 1.03 percent tree cover. The resulting map shows a west-east gradient from high tree cover in the peri-urban areas of horticulture and arboriculture to low tree cover in the more sparsely populated eastern part of the study area. A comparison of current (2000s tree cover along this gradient with historic cover as seen on Corona images reveals dynamics of change but also areas of remarkable stability of field tree cover since 1968. The proposed modeling approach can help to identify locations of high and low tree cover in dryland environments and guide ground studies and management interventions aimed at promoting the integration of field trees in agricultural systems.

  15. Effect of overpasses in the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic flow model with random and parallel update rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Jun; Jiang, Rui; Gao, Zi-You; Wang, Bing-Hong; Long, Jiancheng

    2013-08-01

    The effect of overpasses in the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic flow model with random and parallel update rules has been studied. An overpass is a site that can be occupied simultaneously by an eastbound car and a northbound one. Under periodic boundary conditions, both self-organized and random patterns are observed in the free-flowing phase of the parallel update model, while only the random pattern is observed in the random update model. We have developed mean-field analysis for the moving phase of the random update model, which agrees with the simulation results well. An intermediate phase is observed in which some cars could pass through the jamming cluster due to the existence of free paths in the random update model. Two intermediate states are observed in the parallel update model, which have been ignored in previous studies. The intermediate phases in which the jamming skeleton is only oriented along the diagonal line in both models have been analyzed, with the analyses agreeing well with the simulation results. With the increase of overpass ratio, the jamming phase and the intermediate phases disappear in succession for both models. Under open boundary conditions, the system exhibits only two phases when the ratio of overpasses is below a threshold in the random update model. When the ratio of the overpass is close to 1, three phases could be observed, similar to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process model. The dependence of the average velocity, the density, and the flow rate on the injection probability in the moving phase has also been obtained through mean-field analysis. The results of the parallel model under open boundary conditions are similar to that of the random update model.

  16. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  17. Model Servqual Rule Base Asean University Network untuk Penilaian Kualitas Program Studi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Wijayanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As well known that AUN (Asean University Network.AUN and ABET (Accreditation Boardb for Enginnering and Technology are non-profit organitatinon which have. AUN (Asean University Network were using variable with refer to AUN’s criteria’s there consist of fifteen which are: Expected Learning Outcomes, Programme Specification, Programme Structure and Content, Teaching and Learning Strategy, Student Assessment, Academic Staff Quality, Support Staff Quality, Student Quality, Student Advice and Support, Facilities and Infrastructure, Quality Assurance of Teaching/Learning Process, Staff Development Activities, Stakeholders Feedback, Output, Stakeholders Satisfaction,and adopted score's scale 7. In there here, we discuss the fifteen AUN’s of AUN in the criterias. There servqual of as can be into five dimensions, assurance, empathy, responsive, reliability and facilty in order to make the assessment's process easier. This research outcome indicated that this proposed method can be used to evaluate an education program. The validation result by using AUN's data and the analysis of servqual rule base Asean University Network almost have the same pattern with correlation value is 0,985 and this is can be accepted because its validity have reach 97%.

  18. Regole di Basilea e modelli di vigilanza: quale convergenza? (Basel rules and supervisory models: What convergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Montanaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation process that has interested the banking sector in the last decades was significantly fostered by the three founding pillars of the Basel framework: the home country control based on consolidated supervision, risk-sensitive prudential requirements, and the core principles for effective banking supervision. The present paper analyses whether the principle of the home country control is coherent with the large discretion with which national supervisors have implemented Basel’s prudential regulation. The complexity of global banks, too big to be supervised and resolved, inevitably generates regulatory coordination failures. The increasing mistrust of host countries in the ability and willingness of the home countries authorities to protect their national interests represents a serious threat to the sustainability of bank globalisation. An effective and binding convergence on the mechanisms and processes for managing and resolving the crises of cross-border banks seems destined to remain the unsolved problem of the Basel rules.  JEL Codes: G28, G01, G18, F33Keywords: Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, home country control, Basel capital standards, cross-border banking crises

  19. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  20. Integrating Platform Selection Rules in the Model-Driven Architecture Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Bilir, S.; Abatlevi, C.; Assmann, U.; Aksit, M.; Rensink, A.

    2005-01-01

    A key issue in the MDA approach is the transformation of platform independent models to platform specific models. Before transforming to a platform specific model, however, it is necessary to select the appropriate platform. Various platforms exist with different properties and the selection of the

  1. Lattice Boltzmann Model for Numerical Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ilseven, E

    2015-01-01

    In the Bona-Masso formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for Numerical Relativity. Our model is validated with well-established tests, showing good agreement with analytical solutions. Furthermore, we show that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improves. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach a linear scaling law for parallelisation with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  2. Measuring interesting rules in Characteristic rule

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Finding interesting rule in the sixth strategy step about threshold control on generalized relations in attribute oriented induction, there is possibility to select candidate attribute for further generalization and merging of identical tuples until the number of tuples is no greater than the threshold value, as implemented in basic attribute oriented induction algorithm. At this strategy step there is possibility the number of tuples in final generalization result still greater than threshold value. In order to get the final generalization result which only small number of tuples and can be easy to transfer into simple logical formula, the seventh strategy step about rule transformation is evolved where there will be simplification by unioning or grouping the identical attribute. Our approach to measure interesting rule is opposite with heuristic measurement approach by Fudger and Hamilton where the more complex concept hierarchies, more interesting results are likely to be found, but our approach the simple...

  3. Generative models: Human embryonic stem cells and multiple modeling relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Melinda Bonnie

    2016-04-01

    Model organisms are at once scientific models and concrete living things. It is widely assumed by philosophers of science that (1) model organisms function much like other kinds of models, and (2) that insofar as their scientific role is distinctive, it is in virtue of representing a wide range of biological species and providing a basis for generalizations about those targets. This paper uses the case of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to challenge both assumptions. I first argue that hESC can be considered model organisms, analogous to classic examples such as Escherichia coli and Drosophila melanogaster. I then discuss four contrasts between the epistemic role of hESC in practice, and the assumptions about model organisms noted above. These contrasts motivate an alternative view of model organisms as a network of systems related constructively and developmentally to one another. I conclude by relating this result to other accounts of model organisms in recent philosophy of science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rules rule! Brain activity dissociates the representations of stimulus contingencies with varying levels of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chun-Yu; Low, Kathy A; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2012-09-01

    The significance of stimuli is linked not only to their nature but also to the sequential structure in which they are embedded, which gives rise to contingency rules. Humans have an extraordinary ability to extract and exploit these rules, as exemplified by the role of grammar and syntax in language. To study the brain representations of contingency rules, we recorded ERPs and event-related optical signal (EROS; which uses near-infrared light to measure the optical changes associated with neuronal responses). We used sequences of high- and low-frequency tones varying according to three contingency rules, which were orthogonally manipulated and differed in processing requirements: A Single Repetition rule required only template matching, a Local Probability rule required relating a stimulus to its context, and a Global Probability rule could be derived through template matching or with reference to the global sequence context. ERP activity at 200-300 msec was related to the Single Repetition and Global Probability rules (reflecting access to representations based on template matching), whereas longer-latency activity (300-450 msec) was related to the Local Probability and Global Probability rules (reflecting access to representations incorporating contextual information). EROS responses with corresponding latencies indicated that the earlier activity involved the superior temporal gyrus, whereas later responses involved a fronto-parietal network. This suggests that the brain can simultaneously hold different models of stimulus contingencies at different levels of the information processing system according to their processing requirements, as indicated by the latency and location of the corresponding brain activity.

  5. Salinosporamides A and B Inhibit Proteasome Activity and Delay the Degradation of N-end Rule Model Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seungkyun; Bang, Daein; Choi, Wonhoon; Lee, Minjae [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seonghwan; Oh, Dongchan [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The proteasome, which is highly evolutionarily conserved, is responsible for the degradation of most short-lived proteins in cells. Small-molecule inhibitors targeting the proteasome's degradative activity have been extensively developed as lead compounds for various human diseases. An exemplified molecule is bortezomib, which was approved by FDA in 2003 for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Here, using transiently and stably expressed N-end rule model substrates in mammalian cells, we evaluated and identified that salinosporamide A and salinosporamide B effectively inhibited the proteasomal degradation. Considering that a variety of proteasome substrates are implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, they have the potential to be clinically applicable as therapeutic agents.

  6. Analysis of the (1)/(2){sup ±} pentaquark states in the diquark model with QCD sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang [North China Electric Power University, Department of Physics, Baoding (China); Huang, Tao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)

    2016-01-15

    In this article, we present the scalar-diquark-scalar-diquark-antiquark type and scalar-diquark-axialvector-diquark-antiquark type pentaquark configurations in the diquark model, and study the masses and pole residues of the J{sup P} = (1)/(2){sup ±} hidden-charm pentaquark states in detail with the QCD sum rules by extending our previous work on the J{sup P} = (3)/(2){sup -} and (5)/(2){sup +} hidden-charm pentaquark states. We calculate the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension-10 in the operator product expansion by constructing both the scalar-diquark-scalar-diquark-antiquark type and the scalar-diquark-axialvector-diquark-antiquark type interpolating currents. The present predictions of the masses can be confronted to the LHCb experimental data in the future. (orig.)

  7. Rule-Based Mamdani-Type Fuzzy Modeling of Perceived Stress, And Cortisol Responses to Awakening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Senthil Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Two Mamdani type fuzzy models (four inputs–one output and two inputs–one output were developed to test the hypothesis that high job demands and low job control (job strain are associated with elevated free cortisol levels early in the working day and with reduced variability across the day and to evaluate the contribution of anger expression to this pattern. The models were derived from multiple data sources including One hundred five school teachers (41 men and 64 women classified 12 months earlier as high (N = 48 or low (N = 57 in job strain according to the demand/control model sampled saliva at 2-hour intervals from 8:00 to 8:30 hours to 22:00 to 22:30 hours on a working day. The quality of the model was determined by comparing predicted and actual fuzzy classification and defuzzification of the predicted outputs to get crisp values for correlating estimates with published values. A modified form of the Hamming distance measure is proposed to compare predicted and actual fuzzy classification. An entropy measure is used to describe the ambiguity associated with the predicted fuzzy outputs. The four input model predicted over 70% of the test data within one-half of a fuzzy class of the published data. The two input model predicted over 40% of the test data within one-half of a fuzzy class of the published data. Comparison of the models show that the four input model exhibited less entropy than the two input model.

  8. Improved model reduction and tuning of fractional-order PI(λ)D(μ) controllers for analytical rule extraction with genetic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava

    2012-03-01

    Genetic algorithm (GA) has been used in this study for a new approach of suboptimal model reduction in the Nyquist plane and optimal time domain tuning of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fractional-order (FO) PI(λ)D(μ) controllers. Simulation studies show that the new Nyquist-based model reduction technique outperforms the conventional H(2)-norm-based reduced parameter modeling technique. With the tuned controller parameters and reduced-order model parameter dataset, optimum tuning rules have been developed with a test-bench of higher-order processes via genetic programming (GP). The GP performs a symbolic regression on the reduced process parameters to evolve a tuning rule which provides the best analytical expression to map the data. The tuning rules are developed for a minimum time domain integral performance index described by a weighted sum of error index and controller effort. From the reported Pareto optimal front of the GP-based optimal rule extraction technique, a trade-off can be made between the complexity of the tuning formulae and the control performance. The efficacy of the single-gene and multi-gene GP-based tuning rules has been compared with the original GA-based control performance for the PID and PI(λ)D(μ) controllers, handling four different classes of representative higher-order processes. These rules are very useful for process control engineers, as they inherit the power of the GA-based tuning methodology, but can be easily calculated without the requirement for running the computationally intensive GA every time. Three-dimensional plots of the required variation in PID/fractional-order PID (FOPID) controller parameters with reduced process parameters have been shown as a guideline for the operator. Parametric robustness of the reported GP-based tuning rules has also been shown with credible simulation examples.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M

    2016-02-01

    In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  10. A Hebbian learning rule gives rise to mirror neurons and links them to control theoretic inverse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuschkin, A; Ganguli, S; Hahnloser, R H R

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are neurons whose responses to the observation of a motor act resemble responses measured during production of that act. Computationally, mirror neurons have been viewed as evidence for the existence of internal inverse models. Such models, rooted within control theory, map-desired sensory targets onto the motor commands required to generate those targets. To jointly explore both the formation of mirrored responses and their functional contribution to inverse models, we develop a correlation-based theory of interactions between a sensory and a motor area. We show that a simple eligibility-weighted Hebbian learning rule, operating within a sensorimotor loop during motor explorations and stabilized by heterosynaptic competition, naturally gives rise to mirror neurons as well as control theoretic inverse models encoded in the synaptic weights from sensory to motor neurons. Crucially, we find that the correlational structure or stereotypy of the neural code underlying motor explorations determines the nature of the learned inverse model: random motor codes lead to causal inverses that map sensory activity patterns to their motor causes; such inverses are maximally useful, by allowing the imitation of arbitrary sensory target sequences. By contrast, stereotyped motor codes lead to less useful predictive inverses that map sensory activity to future motor actions. Our theory generalizes previous work on inverse models by showing that such models can be learned in a simple Hebbian framework without the need for error signals or backpropagation, and it makes new conceptual connections between the causal nature of inverse models, the statistical structure of motor variability, and the time-lag between sensory and motor responses of mirror neurons. Applied to bird song learning, our theory can account for puzzling aspects of the song system, including necessity of sensorimotor gating and selectivity of auditory responses to bird's own song (BOS) stimuli.

  11. A Hebbian learning rule gives rise to mirror neurons and links them to control theoretic inverse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eHanuschkin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mirror neurons are neurons whose responses to the observation of a motor act resemble responses measured during production of that act. Computationally, mirror neurons have been viewed as evidence for the existence of internal inverse models. Such models, rooted within control theory, map desired sensory targets onto the motor commands required to generate those targets. To jointly explore both the formation of mirrored responses and their functional contribution to inverse models, we develop a correlation-based theory of interactions between a sensory and a motor area. We show that a simple eligibility-weighted Hebbian learning rule, operating within a sensorimotor loop during motor explorations and stabilized by heterosynaptic competition, naturally gives rise to mirror neurons as well as control theoretic inverse models encoded in the synaptic weights from sensory to motor neurons. Crucially, we find that the correlational structure or stereotypy of the neural code underlying motor explorations determines the nature of the learned inverse model: Random motor codes lead to causal inverses that map sensory activity patterns to their motor causes; such inverses are maximally useful, they allow for imitating arbitrary sensory target sequences. By contrast, stereotyped motor codes lead to less useful predictive inverses that map sensory activity to future motor actions.Our theory generalizes previous work on inverse models by showing that such models can be learned in a simple Hebbian framework without the need for error signals or backpropagation, and it makes new conceptual connections between the causal nature of inverse models, the statistical structure of motor variability, and the time-lag between sensory and motor responses of mirror neurons. Applied to bird song learning, our theory can account for puzzling aspects of the song system, including necessity of sensorimotor gating and selectivity of auditory responses to bird’s own song

  12. Rules relative to:; Regles relatives au dispositif de responsable d'equilibre, au mecanisme d'ajustement et a la programmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    The operation of the power transmission network consists in ensuring a balance between electricity consumption and generation in real time. Several types of incidents may disrupt this balance (generation unit outage, damaged transmission line, consumption imbalance). If they occur, RTE, the French manager of the power grid, may have to call upon the producers and consumers directly connected to the power transmission grid so that they quickly modify their operating conditions. RTE therefore has to constantly know what solutions are available, as well as the technical and economic conditions of their implementation, so as restore the balance of the transmission network, to determine the best solutions equitably. This is the aim of the 'balancing mechanism' that RTE had set up in April 2003, after the approval of its project by the Energy Regulation Commission (CRE). In order to equitably determine the best solutions to be implemented in such a case, RTE is setting up a 'balancing mechanism'. The balancing mechanism: a market tool that works according to market rules, intended to contribute to the safety of the power system and to provide a reference price for the settlement of imbalances. The Act of 10 February 2000 has effectively created the conditions for the setting up by RTE of such a balancing mechanism. Playing its part in guaranteeing power system safety. It enables RTE to: - mobilize reserves to ensure the generation-consumption balance in real time, - contribute to solving network congestion, - produce a legitimate reference price which can be used for the settlement of imbalances of Balance Responsible Entities. Through a bidding system (offering either higher or lower prices), the players of the market communicate the technical and financial conditions on the basis of which RTE can modify their generation or consumption programmes. RTE makes up for any imbalances by selecting offers, after having ranked them according to a merit order

  13. Agent based modelling helps in understanding the rules by which fibroblasts support keratinocyte colony formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autologous keratincoytes are routinely expanded using irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine serum for clinical use. With growing concerns about the safety of these xenobiotic materials, it is desirable to culture keratinocytes in media without animal derived products. An improved understanding of epithelial/mesenchymal interactions could assist in this. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A keratincyte/fibroblast o-culture model was developed by extending an agent-based keratinocyte colony formation model to include the response of keratinocytes to both fibroblasts and serum. The model was validated by comparison of the in virtuo and in vitro multicellular behaviour of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in single and co-culture in Greens medium. To test the robustness of the model, several properties of the fibroblasts were changed to investigate their influence on the multicellular morphogenesis of keratinocyes and fibroblasts. The model was then used to generate hypotheses to explore the interactions of both proliferative and growth arrested fibroblasts with keratinocytes. The key predictions arising from the model which were confirmed by in vitro experiments were that 1 the ratio of fibroblasts to keratinocytes would critically influence keratinocyte colony expansion, 2 this ratio needed to be optimum at the beginning of the co-culture, 3 proliferative fibroblasts would be more effective than irradiated cells in expanding keratinocytes and 4 in the presence of an adequate number of fibroblasts, keratinocyte expansion would be independent of serum. CONCLUSIONS: A closely associated computational and biological approach is a powerful tool for understanding complex biological systems such as the interactions between keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The key outcome of this study is the finding that the early addition of a critical ratio of proliferative fibroblasts can give rapid keratinocyte expansion without the use of irradiated mouse

  14. An Integrated Model for Optimization Oriented Decision Aiding and Rule Based Decision Making in Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousefli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy decision aid system is developed base on new concepts that presented in the field of fuzzy decision making in fuzzy environment (FDMFE. This framework aids decision makers to understand different circumstances of an uncertain problem that may occur in the future. Also, to keep decision maker from the optimization problem complexities, a decision support system, which can be replaced by optimization problem, is presented to make optimum or near optimum decisions without solving optimization problem directly. An application of the developed decision aid model and the decision support system is presented in the field of inventory models.

  15. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2016 Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update; Home Health Value-Based Purchasing Model; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This final rule will update Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor under the Medicare prospective payment system for home health agencies (HHAs), effective for episodes ending on or after January 1, 2016. As required by the Affordable Care Act, this rule implements the 3rd year of the 4-year phase-in of the rebasing adjustments to the HH PPS payment rates. This rule updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking and provides a clarification regarding the use of the "initial encounter'' seventh character applicable to certain ICD-10-CM code categories. This final rule will also finalize reductions to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rate in CY 2016, CY 2017, and CY 2018 of 0.97 percent in each year to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (nominal case-mix growth) between CY 2012 and CY 2014. In addition, this rule implements a HH value-based purchasing (HHVBP) model, beginning January 1, 2016, in which all Medicare-certified HHAs in selected states will be required to participate. Finally, this rule finalizes minor changes to the home health quality reporting program and minor technical regulations text changes.

  16. Communicable Diseases and the Enrolled Student: A Model Policy and Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    A model school policy provides guidelines for Iowa school systems with regard to students with AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), herpes simplex, and cytomegalovirus. The AIDS guidelines include the following: (1) Routine screening students for AIDS associated virus is not recommended. (2) Children infected with the AIDS associated virus,…

  17. Young Children's Selective Learning of Rule Games from Reliable and Unreliable Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We investigated preschoolers' selective learning from models that had previously appeared to be reliable or unreliable. Replicating previous research, children from 4 years selectively learned novel words from reliable over unreliable speakers. Extending previous research, children also selectively learned other kinds of acts--novel games--from…

  18. Effects of Dynamically Weighting Autonomous Rules in an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Flocking Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    model is based around Ft Benning, GA using MATLAB ®, Simulink ®, and CMEX to simulate flock behavior in a dense urban environment. The flocks are...23 Point ISR Flock Applicability .................................................................................................... 25 MATLAB ...38 Figure 5. MATLAB ® Screenshot of States 1 through 3

  19. Models of Change: "What night-rule now about this haunted grove?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Ezra

    1986-01-01

    Points out that change in English departments will have the best chance if it comes through explicit analytic and goal- and strategy-mapping efforts; through open and sympathetic acknowledgment of anxieties, fears, and objections; and through the greatest possible clarification of misperceptions. Describes several models of change. (EL)

  20. Comparison of model-based and expert-rule based electrocardiographic identification of the culprit artery in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Vivian P; Wagner, Galen S; Pahlm, Olle; Man, Sumche; Olson, Charles W; Bacharova, Ljuba; Swenne, Cees A

    2015-01-01

    Culprit coronary artery assessment in the triage ECG of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is relevant a priori knowledge preceding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared a model-based automated method (Olson method) with an expert-rule based method for the culprit artery assessment. In each of the 53 patients who were admitted with the working diagnosis of suspected ACS, scheduled for emergent angiography with a view on revascularization as initial treatment and subsequently found to have an angiographically documented completely occluded culprit artery, culprit artery location was assessed in the preceding ECG by both the model-based Olson method and the expert-rule based method that considered either visual or computer-measured J-point amplitudes. ECG culprit artery estimations were compared with the angiographic culprit lesion locations. Proportions of correct classifications were compared by a Z test at the 5% significance level. The Olson method performed slightly, but not significantly, better, when the expert-rule based method used visual assessment of J-point amplitudes (88.7% versus 81.1% correct; P=0.28). However, the Olson method performed significantly better when the expert-rule based method used computer-measured J-point amplitudes (88.7% versus 71.7% correct; P<0.05). The automated model-based Olson method performed at least at the level of expert cardiologists using a manual rule-based method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. VAN DER WAALS MIXING RULES FOR THE REDLICH-KWONG EQUATION OF STATE. APPLICATION FOR SUPERCRITICAL SOLUBILITY MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2012-01-01

    A solid-supercritical fluid system is highly asymmetric in terms of the size and energy differences of the components. The key point in extending a cubic equation of state to such system is on the choice of proper mixing rules. New mixing rules for the Redlich-Kwong equation of state are developed. The developement is based on the statistical-mechanical theory of the van der Waals mixing rules. The Redlich Kwong equation of state with the proposed mixing rules along with the original o...

  2. The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules as probes of constraints from analyticity and chiral symmetry in dynamical models for pion-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyuk, S; Myhrer, F; Scholten, O

    2004-01-01

    The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules are calculated within a relativistic, unitary and crossing symmetric dynamical model for pion-nucleon scattering using two different methods: 1) by evaluating of the scattering amplitude at the corresponding low-energy kinematics and 2) by evaluating the sum-rule integrals with the calculated total cross section. The discrepancy between the results of the two methods provides a measure of the breaking of analyticity and chiral symmetry in the model. The contribution of the $\\Delta$ resonance, including its dressing with meson loops, is discussed in some detail and found to be small.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICITY MODEL USING NON ASSOCIATED FLOW RULE FOR HCP MATERIALS INCLUDING ZIRCONIUM FOR NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff; Jeong-Whan Yoon

    2013-08-01

    In this report (prepared in collaboration with Prof. Jeong Whan Yoon, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia) a research effort was made to develop a non associated flow rule for zirconium. Since Zr is a hexagonally close packed (hcp) material, it is impossible to describe its plastic response under arbitrary loading conditions with any associated flow rule (e.g. von Mises). As a result of strong tension compression asymmetry of the yield stress and anisotropy, zirconium displays plastic behavior that requires a more sophisticated approach. Consequently, a new general asymmetric yield function has been developed which accommodates mathematically the four directional anisotropies along 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and biaxial, under tension and compression. Stress anisotropy has been completely decoupled from the r value by using non associated flow plasticity, where yield function and plastic potential have been treated separately to take care of stress and r value directionalities, respectively. This theoretical development has been verified using Zr alloys at room temperature as an example as these materials have very strong SD (Strength Differential) effect. The proposed yield function reasonably well models the evolution of yield surfaces for a zirconium clock rolled plate during in plane and through thickness compression. It has been found that this function can predict both tension and compression asymmetry mathematically without any numerical tolerance and shows the significant improvement compared to any reported functions. Finally, in the end of the report, a program of further research is outlined aimed at constructing tensorial relationships for the temperature and fluence dependent creep surfaces for Zr, Zircaloy 2, and Zircaloy 4.

  4. Spatio-temporal correlations in models of collective motion ruled by different dynamical laws

    CERN Document Server

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S; Melillo, Stefania; Viale, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Information transfer is an essential factor in determining the robustness of collective behaviour in biological systems with distributed control. The most direct way to study the information transfer mechanisms is to experimentally detect the propagation across the system of a signal triggered by some perturbation. However, for field experiments this method is inefficient, as the possibilities of the observer to perturb the group are limited and empirical observations must rely on rare natural perturbations. An alternative way is to use spatio-temporal correlations to assess the information transfer mechanism directly from the spontaneous fluctuations of the system, without the need to have an actual propagating signal on record. We test the approach on ground truth data provided by numerical simulations in three dimensions of two models of collective behaviour characterized by very different dynamical equations and information transfer mechanisms: the classic Vicsek model, describing an overdamped noninertia...

  5. On the mass-coupling relation of multi-scale quantum integrable models

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Zoltan; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Toth, Gabor Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    We determine exactly the mass-coupling relation for the simplest multi-scale quantum integrable model, the homogenous sine-Gordon model with two independent mass-scales. We first reformulate its perturbed coset CFT description in terms of the perturbation of a projected product of minimal models. This representation enables us to identify conserved tensor currents on the UV side. These UV operators are then mapped via form factor perturbation theory to operators on the IR side, which are characterized by their form factors. The relation between the UV and IR operators is given in terms of the sought-for mass-coupling relation. By generalizing the $\\Theta$ sum rule Ward identity we are able to derive differential equations for the mass-coupling relation, which we solve in terms of hypergeometric functions. We check these results against the data obtained by numerically solving the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations, and find a complete agreement.

  6. Rule-based Model Automatic Conversion Method%基于规则的模型自动转换方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹤标; 石云

    2011-01-01

    为实现任务模型(TM)到抽象用户界面(AUI)模型的自动转换,提出一个基于规则的模型转换方法.构建并发任务树的TM元模型和AUI元模型,采用基于对象约束语言的规则表示方法定义TM到AUI的映射规则,使用可扩展标记语言(XML)描述TM和映射规则,得到AUI的XML文件.通过一个虚拟工作压力调查实例验证该方法的可行性和易用性.%In order to realize the automatic conversion of Task Model(TM) to Abstract User Interface(AUI), this paper presents a rule-based model automatic conversion method. The TM meta model of concur task tree and AUI meta model are constructed. The rule representation based on Object Constraint Language(OCL) is used to define the mapping rules from task model to abstract user interface. The extensible Markup Language(XML) is used to describe the task model and mapping rules. An XML file of abstract user interface is derived. An example of virtual research on job stress is given to demonstrate the feasibility and accessibility of this method.

  7. Single Field Inflation models allowed and ruled out by the three years WMAP data

    CERN Document Server

    De Vega, H J

    2006-01-01

    We study the single field slow-roll inflation models that better fit the available CMB and LSS data including the three years WMAP data: new inflation and hybrid inflation. We study them as effective field theories in the Ginsburg-Landau context: a trinomial potential turns out to be a simple and well motivated model. The compute the spectral index n_s of the adiabatic fluctuations, the ratio r of tensor to scalar fluctuations and the running index d n_s/dln k, derive explicit formulae and provide relevant plots. In new inflation, and for the three years WMAP central value n_s = 0.95, we predict 0.031. Hybrid inflation for mu_0^2>Lambda_0 M_{Pl}^2/192 can fullfill all the present CMB+LSS data. Even if chaotic inflation predicts n_s values compatible with the data, chaotic inflation is disfavoured since it predicts a too high value for the ratio r=0.27. The model which best fits the current data and which best prepares the way to the expected data r < 0.1, is the trinomial potential with negative mass term:...

  8. MIG version 0.0 model interface guidelines: Rules to accelerate installation of numerical models into any compliant parent code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A set of model interface guidelines, called MIG, is presented as a means by which any compliant numerical material model can be rapidly installed into any parent code without having to modify the model subroutines. Here, {open_quotes}model{close_quotes} usually means a material model such as one that computes stress as a function of strain, though the term may be extended to any numerical operation. {open_quotes}Parent code{close_quotes} means a hydrocode, finite element code, etc. which uses the model and enforces, say, the fundamental laws of motion and thermodynamics. MIG requires the model developer (who creates the model package) to specify model needs in a standardized but flexible way. MIG includes a dictionary of technical terms that allows developers and parent code architects to share a common vocabulary when specifying field variables. For portability, database management is the responsibility of the parent code. Input/output occurs via structured calling arguments. As much model information as possible (such as the lists of required inputs, as well as lists of precharacterized material data and special needs) is supplied by the model developer in an ASCII text file. Every MIG-compliant model also has three required subroutines to check data, to request extra field variables, and to perform model physics. To date, the MIG scheme has proven flexible in beta installations of a simple yield model, plus a more complicated viscodamage yield model, three electromechanical models, and a complicated anisotropic microcrack constitutive model. The MIG yield model has been successfully installed using identical subroutines in three vectorized parent codes and one parallel C++ code, all predicting comparable results. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort, thereby reducing the cost of installing and sharing models in diverse new codes.

  9. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  10. 75 FR 27121 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under the... and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under the Patient... implementing the requirements for group health plans and health insurance issuers in the group and individual...

  11. Analysis of New Model of "Rule by Three Committees" and Discussion on Construction of Villagers’ Self-governing Organizations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the operation model of "rule by three committees", including the members of "three committees", functional constitution of "three committees", and relationship between restriction and coordination of "three committees". By referring to the villagers’ self-governing system in China, and the relevant provisions in Constitution and Village Committee Organization Law, we take into account the legitimacy of "rule by three committees". In terms of the details of system design, we perfect the new model of "rule by three committees" as follows: make the conditions of holding office stringent and ensure the quality requirements of members of "three committees"; standardize the procedures of election, and guarantee the equitable election of members of "three committees"; perfect dismissal procedure, and strengthen the supervision on members of "three committees".

  12. World Trade Center Health Program; addition of certain types of cancer to the list of WTC-related health conditions. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    Title I of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 amended the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) to establish the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program. The WTC Health Program, which is administered by the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provides medical monitoring and treatment to eligible firefighters and related personnel, law enforcement officers, and rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers who responded to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, at the Pentagon, and in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, and to eligible survivors of the New York City attacks. In accordance with WTC Health Program regulations, which establish procedures for adding a new condition to the list of covered health conditions, this final rule adds to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions the types of cancer proposed for inclusion by the notice of proposed rulemaking.

  13. VAN DER WAALS MIXING RULES FOR THE REDLICH-KWONG EQUATION OF STATE. APPLICATION FOR SUPERCRITICAL SOLUBILITY MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A solid-supercritical fluid system is highly asymmetric in terms of the size and energy differences of the components. The key point in extending a cubic equation of state to such system is on the choice of proper mixing rules. New mixing rules for the Redlich-Kwong equation of state are developed. The developement is based on the statistical-mechanical theory of the van der Waals mixing rules. The Redlich Kwong equation of state with the proposed mixing rules along with the original ones is used to predict solubilities of solids in supercritical fluid. The prediction is done with kij equal zero, as well as with optimized kij.  The results show superiority of the proposed mixing rules over the original ones. For most of the systems considered, the proposed mixing rules with the kij equal zero are closer to the experimental data than the original ones do. For 28 systems with 521 data points taken from various sources, the original and the proposed mixing rules give the overall AAD of 13.4%, while the original mixing rules give 45.9%.

  14. Pertanggungjawaban Sosial Universitas: Implementasi Model Cycle Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sinatra Wijaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The competition among Higher Education is getting tougher. They need to do their best in order to maintain their existence and getting more students coming to their institutions. One way to achieve that goal is through carrying out Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR programs or University Social Responsibility (USR for university. This study tries to investigate the implementation of ‘Cycle Relations’ model in CSR to increase the intake of Higher Education. This study involved seven Higher Educations and nineteen High schools in Central Java. In collecting the data, it used a depth-interview method with all the related parties in this study. The result showed that most of the Higher Education institutions have implemented Corporate Social Responsibility program in various ways. Their target audience included the high schools, society, and parents.  From the model implementation, it showed that the CSR program did have an impact towards the intake in their institution. However, one important thing to consider is that the role of the teachers at schools was quite significant in influencing the students to choose which university to go.  This reflects that although the Higher Education institution have planned and carried out CSR programs according to what the target audiences’ need, it does not guarantee that it will have direct impact towards their intake because the influence of teacher is quite significant. It may have a bigger impact in long term as the target audiences know the quality and contribution of the Higher Education institutions.

  15. Pertanggungjawaban Sosial Universitas: Implementasi Model Cycle Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sinatra Wijaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The competition among Higher Education is getting tougher. They need to do their best in order to maintain their existence and getting more students coming to their institutions. One way to achieve that goal is through carrying out Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR programs or University Social Responsibility (USR for university. This study tries to investigate the implementation of ‘Cycle Relations’ model in CSR to increase the intake of Higher Education. This study involved seven Higher Educations and nineteen High schools in Central Java. In collecting the data, it used a depth-interview method with all the related parties in this study. The result showed that most of the Higher Education institutions have implemented Corporate Social Responsibility program in various ways. Their target audience included the high schools, society, and parents. From the model implementation, it showed that the CSR program did have an impact towards the intake in their institution. However, one important thing to consider is that the role of the teachers at schools was quite significant in influencing the students to choose which university to go. This reflects that although the Higher Education institution have planned and carried out CSR programs according to what the target audiences’ need, it does not guarantee that it will have direct impact towards their intake because the influence of teacher is quite significant. It may have a bigger impact in long term as the target audiences know the quality and contribution of the Higher Education institutions.

  16. Rule-based Mamdani-type fuzzy modelling of thermal performance of fintube evaporator under frost conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozen Dilek Nur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frost formation brings about insulating effects over the surface of a heat exchanger and thereby deteriorating total heat transfer of the heat exchanger. In this study, a fin-tube evaporator is modeled by making use of Rule-based Mamdani-Type Fuzzy (RBMTF logic where total heat transfer, air inlet temperature of 2 °C to 7 °C and four different fluid speed groups (ua1=1; 1.44; 1.88 m s-1, ua2=2.32; 2.76 m s-1, ua3=3.2; 3.64 m s-1, ua4=4.08; 4.52; 4.96 m s-1 for the evaporator were taken into consideration. In the developed RBMTF system, outlet parameter UA was determined using inlet parameters Ta and ua. The RBMTF was trained and tested by using MATLAB® fuzzy logic toolbox. R2 (% for the training data and test data were found to be 99.91%. With this study, it has been shown that RBMTF model can be reliably used in determination of a total heat transfer of a fin-tube evaporator.

  17. RuMBa: a rule-model OPC for low MEEF 130-nm KrF lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen; Shi, Xuelong; Hsu, Chungwei Michael; Corcoran, Noel P.; Chen, J. Fung; Desai, Sunil; Sherrill, Micheal J.; Tseng, Y. C.; Chang, H. A.; Kao, J. F.; Tseng, Alex; Liu, WeiJyh; Chen, Anseime; Lin, Arthur; Kujten, Jan P.; Jacobs, Eric; Verhappen, Arjan

    2001-09-01

    For cost effective 130nm node manufacturing, it is prefer to use KrF binary chrome mask. To realize a production worth process for making random logic device, we need to effectively control mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) through pitch. In low k1 lithography, process parameters such as focus, lens aberration, linewidth, and line pitch, style of proximity correction (OPC), and resist process conditions, etc., all impact MEEF. We show a powerful RuMBa OPC method that can reduce MEEF to an acceptable level (close to 1(using KrF resist process. We believe that RuMBa OPC method can be further extended for sub 100nm ArF process. In wafer printing experiment, we have designed a new style of LineSweeper reticles for our lithography process optimization. Both simulated and printed wafer CD data were used to calculate the overlapped process window along with respective MEEF. These are the metric we used to assess the 130nm process performance. Using RuMBa OPC, we are able to achieve overlapped process window that is sufficient for 130nm gate mask process. The CD through pitch calibration is critical for an accurate model-based correct at location where OPC rule cannot cover. A high accuracy CD through pitch calibration methodology is developed for model calibration. In this paper, we have compared the 130nm performance using KrF binary mask, KrF 6% attenuated PSM, and ArF binary mask.

  18. Similarity and rules United: similarity- and rule-based processing in a single neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguts, Tom; Fias, Wim

    2009-03-01

    A central controversy in cognitive science concerns the roles of rules versus similarity. To gain some leverage on this problem, we propose that rule- versus similarity-based processes can be characterized as extremes in a multidimensional space that is composed of at least two dimensions: the number of features (Pothos, 2005) and the physical presence of features. The transition of similarity- to rule-based processing is conceptualized as a transition in this space. To illustrate this, we show how a neural network model uses input features (and in this sense produces similarity-based responses) when it has a low learning rate or in the early phases of training, but it switches to using self-generated, more abstract features (and in this sense produces rule-based responses) when it has a higher learning rate or is in the later phases of training. Relations with categorization and the psychology of learning are pointed out.

  19. AN ABSTRACT RELATIONAL MODEL AND NATURAL JOIN FUNCTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Akihiko

    1983-01-01

    A meta-model for database models called an abstract relational model which is obtained by a categorical abstraction of a relational model is proposed. This meta-model represents various database models, e.g. relational, network, hierarchical models as special cases. It is proved that a natural join is the right adjoint of a decomposition in the relational model. On the other hand, in our abstract relational model a natural join is defined as the right adjoint of a decomposition. A sufficient ...

  20. Synaptic learning rules and sparse coding in a model sensory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca A Finelli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits exploit numerous strategies for encoding information. Although the functional significance of individual coding mechanisms has been investigated, ways in which multiple mechanisms interact and integrate are not well understood. The locust olfactory system, in which dense, transiently synchronized spike trains across ensembles of antenna lobe (AL neurons are transformed into a sparse representation in the mushroom body (MB; a region associated with memory, provides a well-studied preparation for investigating the interaction of multiple coding mechanisms. Recordings made in vivo from the insect MB demonstrated highly specific responses to odors in Kenyon cells (KCs. Typically, only a few KCs from the recorded population of neurons responded reliably when a specific odor was presented. Different odors induced responses in different KCs. Here, we explored with a biologically plausible model the possibility that a form of plasticity may control and tune synaptic weights of inputs to the mushroom body to ensure the specificity of KCs' responses to familiar or meaningful odors. We found that plasticity at the synapses between the AL and the MB efficiently regulated the delicate tuning necessary to selectively filter the intense AL oscillatory output and condense it to a sparse representation in the MB. Activity-dependent plasticity drove the observed specificity, reliability, and expected persistence of odor representations, suggesting a role for plasticity in information processing and making a testable prediction about synaptic plasticity at AL-MB synapses.

  1. Modeling the hyperpolarizability dispersion with the Thomas-Kuhn sum rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mey, Kurt; Perez-Moreno, Javier; Clays, Koen

    2011-10-01

    The continued interest in molecules that possess large quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) properties has motivated considerable interplay between molecular synthesis and theory. The screening of viable candidates for NLO applications has been a tedious work, much helped by the advent of the hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) technique. The downside of this technique is the low efficiency, which usually means that measurements have to be performed at wavelengths that are close to the molecular resonances, in the visible area. This means generally that one has to extrapolate the results from HRS characterization to the longer wavelengths that are useful for applications. Such extrapolation is far from trivial and the classic 2-level model can only be used for the most straightforward single charge-transfer chromophores. An alternative is the TKSSOS technique, which uses a few input-hyperpolarizabilities and UV-Vis absorption data to calculate the entire hyperpolarizability spectrum. We have applied this TKS-SOS technique on a set of porphyrines to calculate the hyperpolarizability dispersion. We have also built a tunable HRS set up, capable of determining hyperpolarizabilities in the near infrared (up to 1600 nm). This has allowed us to directly confirm the results predicted in the application region. Due to the very sharp transitions in the hyperpolarizability dispersion, the calculation is subjected to a very precise calibration with respect to the input-hyperpolarizabilities, resulting in very accurate predictions for long wavelength hyperpolarizabilities. Our results not only underscribe the aforementioned technique, but also confirm the use of porphyrines as powerful moieties in NLO applications.

  2. Establishing equivalence for microbial-growth-inhibitory effects ("iso-hurdle rules") by analyzing disparate listeria monocytogenes data with a gamma-type predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Laure; Kan-King-Yu, Denis; Le Marc, Yvan; Johnston, Moira D; Rama-Heuzard, Florence; Guillou, Sandrine; McClure, Peter; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2012-02-01

    Preservative factors act as hurdles against microorganisms by inhibiting their growth; these are essential control measures for particular food-borne pathogens. Different combinations of hurdles can be quantified and compared to each other in terms of their inhibitory effect ("iso-hurdle"). We present here a methodology for establishing microbial iso-hurdle rules in three steps: (i) developing a predictive model based on existing but disparate data sets, (ii) building an experimental design focused on the iso-hurdles using the model output, and (iii) validating the model and the iso-hurdle rules with new data. The methodology is illustrated with Listeria monocytogenes. Existing data from industry, a public database, and the literature were collected and analyzed, after which a total of 650 growth rates were retained. A gamma-type model was developed for the factors temperature, pH, a(w), and acetic, lactic, and sorbic acids. Three iso-hurdle rules were assessed (40 logcount curves generated): salt replacement by addition of organic acids, sorbic acid replacement by addition of acetic and lactic acid, and sorbic acid replacement by addition of lactic/acetic acid and salt. For the three rules, the growth rates were equivalent in the whole experimental domain (γ from 0.1 to 0.5). The lag times were also equivalent in the case of mild inhibitory conditions (γ ≥ 0.2), while they were longer in the presence of salt than acids under stress conditions (γ microbial safety and stability.

  3. Does central bank communication really lead to better forecasts of policy decisions? New evidence based on a Taylor rule model for the ECB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert; De Haan, Jakob

    Nowadays, it is widely believed that greater disclosure and clarity over policy may lead to greater predictability of central bank actions. We examine whether communication by the European Central Bank (ECB) adds information compared to the information provided by a Taylor rule model in which

  4. The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules as probes of constraints from analyticity and chiral symmetry in dynamical models for pion-nucleon scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondratyuk, S; Kubodera, K; Myhrer, F; Scholten, O

    2004-01-01

    The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules are calculated within a relativistic, unitary and crossing symmetric dynamical model for pion-nucleon scattering using two different methods: (1) by evaluating the scattering amplitude at the corresponding low-energy kinematics and (2) by

  5. 78 FR 49308 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating To Which Complex...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Orders Can Initiate a Complex Order Live Auction; Correction June 21, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... Change Relating to Which Complex Orders Can Initiate a Complex Order Live Auction. The document was dated incorrectly. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Charles Sommers, Division of Trading and Markets, Securities...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3302(d)-1 - Definitions and special rules relating to limit on total credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue... of tax deemed to be 3 percent. In applying the provisions of section 3302(c) relating to...

  7. 75 FR 14237 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Oil-Related Investments at the market price; (iii) may not experience a perfect correlation between... partnerships on the American Stock Exchange LLC (``Amex'') (now known as NYSE Amex LLC),\\5\\ trading of such... crude oil market in a cost-effective manner. The Units are also expected to provide additional means for...

  8. Relating the dynamics of road traffic in a stochastic cellular automaton to a macroscopic first-order model

    CERN Document Server

    Maerivoet, S; Immers, B; De Moor, B; Maerivoet, Sven; Logghe, Steven; Immers, Ben; Moor, Bart De

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a relation between a microscopic traffic cellular automaton (TCA) model (i.e., the stochastic TCA model of Nagel and Schreckenberg) and the macroscopic first-order hydrodynamic model of Lighthill, Whitham, and Richards (LWR). The innovative aspect of our approach, is that we explicitly derive the LWR's fundamental diagram directly from the STCA's rule set, by assuming a stationarity condition that converts the STCA's rules into a set of linear inequalities. In turn, these constraints define the shape of the fundamental diagram, which is then specified to the LWR model. Application of our methodology to a simulation case study, allows us to compare the tempo-spatial behavior of both models. Our results indicate that, in the presence of noise, the capacity flows in the derived fundamental diagram are overestimations of those of the STCA model. Directly specifying the STCA's capacity flows to the LWR fundamental diagram, effectively remedies most of the mismatches between both approach...

  9. Rule, Britannia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2011-01-01

    Thomas Arne’s The Masque of Alfred (1740) with a libretto by James Thomson and David Mallet was written and performed in the historical context of George II’s reign where a kind of constitutional monarchy based on the Bill of Rights from 1689 was granting civil rights to the early bourgeoisie...... of the Proms, and this article considers it as a global real-time media event. “Rule, Britannia!” is placed in the contexts of political history, cultural history and experience economy....

  10. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  11. Handbook of latent variable and related models

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    This Handbook covers latent variable models, which are a flexible class of models for modeling multivariate data to explore relationships among observed and latent variables.- Covers a wide class of important models- Models and statistical methods described provide tools for analyzing a wide spectrum of complicated data- Includes illustrative examples with real data sets from business, education, medicine, public health and sociology.- Demonstrates the use of a wide variety of statistical, computational, and mathematical techniques.

  12. Psychosocial Predictors of Compliance with Speed Limits and Alcohol Limits by Spanish Drivers: Modeling Compliance of Traffic Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Bautista

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To prevent dangerous driving behaviors, the Spanish government has implemented public policies focused primarily on increasing the harshness of sanctions for violations of traffic laws. However, empirical evidence has demonstrated that other factors, such as social norms and one’s own value system, have an impact on people’s motivation to obey the law. A telephone survey was administered to a random sample of 570 Spanish drivers in order to determine the role played by each of these factors in compliance with two of the most flouted traffic rules. Logistic regression of the data allowed for the construction of models and arrive at the following conclusions: (1 social influence exerted by the reference group is a determining factor in compliance with both traffic laws; (2 legitimacy factors play an important role in complying with alcohol limits; and (3 variables from the deterrence approach only influenced compliance with speed limits, and then only moderately. The results of the present study suggest a need for a review of current public policy approaches for the prevention of dangerous driving behaviors.

  13. Object Boundary Detection Using Active Contour Model via Multiswarm PSO with Fuzzy-Rule Based Adaptation of Inertia Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Khunteta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active contour models, colloquially known as snakes, are quite popular for several applications such as object boundary detection, image segmentation, object tracking, and classification via energy minimization. While energy minimization may be accomplished using traditional optimization methods, approaches based on nature-inspired evolutionary algorithms have been developed in recent years. One such evolutionary algorithm that has been used extensively in active contours is the particle swarm optimization (PSO. However, conventional PSO converges slowly and gets trapped in local minimum easily which results in inaccurate detection of concavities in the object boundary. This is taken care of by using proposed multiswarm PSO in which a swarm is set for every control point in the snake and then all the swarms search for their best points simultaneously through information sharing among them. The performance of the multiswarm PSO-based search process is further enhanced by using dynamic adaptation of the inertia factor. In this paper, we propose using a set of fuzzy rules to adjust the inertia weight on the basis of the current normalized snake energy and the current value of inertia. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to conventional approaches.

  14. Random field Ising model with conserved kinetics: Super-universality violation, logarithmic growth law and the generalized Tomita sum rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    We perform comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to study ordering dynamics in the random field Ising model with conserved order parameter (C-RFIM) in d=2,3 . The observations from this study are: a) For a fixed value of the disorder Δ, the correlation function C(r,t;Δ) exhibits dynamical scaling. b) The scaling function is not robust with respect to Δ, i.e., super-universality (SU) is violated by C(r,t;Δ) . c) At early times, the domains follow the algebraic growth with a disorder-dependent exponent: L(t,Δ)∼ t1/\\bar{z(Δ)} . At late times, there is a crossover to logarithmic growth: L(t,Δ) ∼ (\\ln t)1/\\varphi , where φ is a disorder-independent exponent. d) The small-r behavior of the correlation function exhibits a cusp singularity: 1-C(r) ∼ rα(Δ) , where α is the cusp exponent signifying rough fractal interfaces. e) The corresponding structure factor exhibits a non-Porod tail: S(k,t;Δ)∼ k-(d+α) , and obeys a generalized Tomita sum rule \\int_0^∞ {d}p p1-α≤ft[pd+αf(p)-C\\right]=0 , where f(p) is the appropriate scaling function, and C is a constant.

  15. Application of a rule-based model to estimate mercury exchange for three background biomes in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jelena S; Weisberg, Peter J; Pillai, Rekha; Ericksen, Jody A; Kuiken, Todd; Lindberg, Steve E; Zhang, Hong; Rytuba, James J; Gustin, Mae S

    2009-07-01

    Ecosystems that have low mercury (Hg) concentrations (i.e., not enriched or impacted by geologic or anthropogenic processes) cover most of the terrestrial surface area of the earth yet their role as a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg is uncertain. Here we use empirical data to develop a rule-based model implemented within a geographic information system framework to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of Hg flux for semiarid deserts, grasslands, and deciduous forests representing 45% of the continental United States. This exercise provides an indication of whether these ecosystems are a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg as well as a basis for recommendation of data to collect in future field sampling campaigns. Results indicated that soil alone was a small net source of atmospheric Hg and that emitted Hg could be accounted for based on Hg input by wet deposition. When foliar assimilation and wet deposition are added to the area estimate of soil Hg flux these biomes are a sink for atmospheric Hg.

  16. Medicare determinations and income-related monthly adjustment amounts to Medicare Part B premiums; conforming changes to regulations. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    We are modifying our regulations regarding Medicare Part B income-related monthly adjustment amounts (IRMAA) in order to conform to changes made to the Social Security Act (Act) by the Affordable Care Act. This rule freezes the modified adjusted gross income threshold and ranges from 2011 through 2019 and removes the requirement that beneficiaries consent to our release of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) information to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for the purpose of adjudicating any appeal of an IRMAA to the Part B premium subsidy. We are also removing provisions that phased in IRMAA between 2007 and 2009 and updating a citation to reflect the transfer of authority for hearing appeals under Title XVIII of the Act from the Social Security Administration to HHS.

  17. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  18. Fermi’s golden rule, the origin and breakdown of Markovian master equations, and the relationship between oscillator baths and the random matrix model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Siddhartha; Cruikshank, Benjamin; Balu, Radhakrishnan; Jacobs, Kurt

    2017-10-01

    Fermi’s golden rule applies to a situation in which a single quantum state \\vert \\psi> is coupled to a near-continuum. This ‘quasi-continuum coupling’ structure results in a rate equation for the population of \\vert \\psi> . Here we show that the coupling of a quantum system to the standard model of a thermal environment, a bath of harmonic oscillators, can be decomposed into a ‘cascade’ made up of the quasi-continuum coupling structures of Fermi’s golden rule. This clarifies the connection between the physics of the golden rule and that of a thermal bath, and provides a non-rigorous but physically intuitive derivation of the Markovian master equation directly from the former. The exact solution to the Hamiltonian of the golden rule, known as the Bixon–Jortner model, generalized for an asymmetric spectrum, provides a window on how the evolution induced by the bath deviates from the master equation as one moves outside the Markovian regime. Our analysis also reveals the relationship between the oscillator bath and the ‘random matrix model’ (RMT) of a thermal bath. We show that the cascade structure is the one essential difference between the two models, and the lack of it prevents the RMT from generating transition rates that are independent of the initial state of the system. We suggest that the cascade structure is one of the generic elements of thermalizing many-body systems.

  19. The thermodynamics of protein folding: a critique of widely used quasi-thermodynamic interpretations and a restatement based on the Gibbs-Duhem relation and consistent with the Phase Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethica, Brian A

    2010-07-21

    Interpretations of data in the extensive literature on the unfolding of proteins in aqueous solution follow a variety of methods involving assumptions leading to estimates of thermodynamic quantities associated with the unfolding transition. Inconsistencies and thermodynamic errors in these methods are identified. Estimates of standard molar free energies and enthalpies of unfolding using incompletely defined equilibrium constants and the van't Hoff relation are unsound, and typically contradict model-free interpretation of the data. A widely used routine for estimating the change in heat capacity associated with unfolding based on changes in the unfolding temperature and enthalpy co-induced by addition of denaturant or protective additives is thermodynamically incorrect by neglect of the Phase Rule. Many models and simulations predicting thermodynamic measures of unfolding are presently making comparisons with insecure quantities derived by incorrect thermodynamic analyses of experimental data. Analysis of unfolding via the Gibbs-Duhem equation with the correct Phase Rule constraints avoids the assumptions associated with incomplete equilibrium constants and misuse of the van't Hoff relation, and applies equally to positive, negative, sitewise or diffuse solute binding to the protein. The method gives the necessary relations between the thermodynamic parameters for thermal and isothermal unfolding and is developed for the case of two-state unfolding. The differences in binding of denaturants or stabilizers to the folded and unfolded forms of the protein are identified as major determinants of the unfolding process. The Phase Rule requires the temperature and enthalpy of unfolding to depend generally on the protein concentration. The available evidence bears out this expectation for thermal unfolding, indicating that protein-protein interactions influence folding. A parallel dependence of the denaturant concentrations for isothermal unfolding on the protein

  20. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  1. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  2. 基于规则的分层负载平衡调度模型%A Hierarchical Load Balancing Scheduling Model Based on Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 施海虎; 顾毓清

    2003-01-01

    On a massively parallel and distributed system and a network of workstations system, it is a critical problem to increase the utilization efficiency of resources and the answer speed of tasks by using effective load balancing scheduling strategy. This paper analyzes the scheduling strategy of dynamic load balancing and static load balancing,and then proposes a hierarchical load balancing scheduling model based on rules. Finally,making somecomparisons with Other scheduling models.

  3. Task Analysis of the UH-60 Mission and Decision Rules for Developing a UH-60 Workload Prediction Model. Volume 1. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    as a baseline for all proposed model changes or other proposed multistage improvement program ( MSIP ). A computer model of this analysis was used to...support in the coordination of activities with F Company. The authors wish to thank Ms . Cassandra Hocutt, Anacapa Sciences, Inc., for her assistance in...develop smooth-flowing function and segment decision rules. Her assistance is greatly appreciated. The authors also wish to thank Ms . Nadine McCollim

  4. Boundary Relations, Unitary Colligations, and Functional Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Recently a new notion, the so-called boundary relation, has been introduced involving an analytic object, the so-called Weyl family. Weyl families and boundary relations establish a link between the class of Nevanlinna families and unitary relations acting from one Krein in space, a basic (state) sp

  5. Patient protection and Affordable Care Act; data collection to support standards related to essential health benefits; recognition of entities for the accreditation of qualified health plans. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    This final rule establishes data collection standards necessary to implement aspects of section 1302 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), which directs the Secretary of Health and Human Services to define essential health benefits. This final rule outlines the data on applicable plans to be collected from certain issuers to support the definition of essential health benefits. This final rule also establishes a process for the recognition of accrediting entities for purposes of certification of qualified health plans.

  6. Nuclear effects in deuteron and the Gottfried sum rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epele, L.N.; Sassot, R. (Lab. de Fisica Teorica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)); Fanchiotti, H. (Theory Div., CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Carcia Canal, C.A. (Lab. de Fisica Teorica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina) Theory Div., CERN, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1992-01-23

    Recent NMC data on the ratio of the deep inelastic structure functions F{sub 2} per nucleon for deuterium relative to hydrogen are analysed in the context of the Gottfried sum rule. It is shown that the discrepancy between the Gottfried sum rule prediction and NMC data analysis may be interpreted as a nuclear effect in deuterium as it is suggested by several models. This fact, applied to nuclear-deuterium measured ratios, modifies the standard picture of nuclear effects. (orig.).

  7. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Eligibility Notices, Fair Hearing and Appeal Processes for Medicaid and Other Provisions Related to Eligibility and Enrollment for Medicaid and CHIP. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    This final rule implements provisions of the Affordable Care Act that expand access to health coverage through improvements in Medicaid and coordination between Medicaid, CHIP, and Exchanges. This rule finalizes most of the remaining provisions from the "Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative Benefit Plans, Eligibility Notices, Fair Hearing and Appeal Processes for Medicaid and Exchange Eligibility Appeals and Other Provisions Related to Eligibility and Enrollment for Exchanges, Medicaid and CHIP, and Medicaid Premiums and Cost Sharing; Proposed Rule" that we published in the January 22, 2013, Federal Register. This final rule continues our efforts to assist states in implementing Medicaid and CHIP eligibility, appeals, and enrollment changes required by the Affordable Care Act.

  8. Active suspension control of a one-wheel car model using single input rule modules fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOSHIMURA Toshio; TERAMURA Itaru

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the construction of an active suspension control of a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model to be treated here can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is designed as the fuzzy control inferred by using single input rule modules fuzzy reasoning, and the active control force is released by actuating a pneumatic actuator. The excitation from the road profile is estimated by using a disturbance observer, and the estimate is denoted as one of the variables in the precondition part of the fuzzy control rules. A compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension system improves much the vibration suppression of the car model.

  9. The performance of model-based versus rule-based phase I clinical trials in oncology : A quantitative comparison of the performance of model-based versus rule-based phase I trials with molecularly targeted anticancer drugs over the last 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brummelen, E M J; Huitema, A D R; van Werkhoven, E; Beijnen, J H; Schellens, J H M

    2016-01-01

    Phase I studies with anticancer drugs are used to evaluate safety and tolerability and to choose a recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Traditionally, phase I trial designs are rule-based, but for several years there is a trend towards model-based designs. Simulations have shown that model-based design

  10. Conceptual Model Formalization in a Semantic Interoperability Service Framework: Transforming Relational Database Schemas to OWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Carlos; Suarez, Carlos; González, Carolina; López, Diego; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare information is distributed through multiple heterogeneous and autonomous systems. Access to, and sharing of, distributed information sources are a challenging task. To contribute to meeting this challenge, this paper presents a formal, complete and semi-automatic transformation service from Relational Databases to Web Ontology Language. The proposed service makes use of an algorithm that allows to transform several data models of different domains by deploying mainly inheritance rules. The paper emphasizes the relevance of integrating the proposed approach into an ontology-based interoperability service to achieve semantic interoperability.

  11. Statistical inference of static analysis rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Dawson Richards (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Various apparatus and methods are disclosed for identifying errors in program code. Respective numbers of observances of at least one correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the at least one correctness rule are counted in the program code. Each code instance has an associated counted number of observances of the correctness rule by the code instance. Also counted are respective numbers of violations of the correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the correctness rule. Each code instance has an associated counted number of violations of the correctness rule by the code instance. A respective likelihood of the validity is determined for each code instance as a function of the counted number of observances and counted number of violations. The likelihood of validity indicates a relative likelihood that a related code instance is required to observe the correctness rule. The violations may be output in order of the likelihood of validity of a violated correctness rule.

  12. Modeling behavioral considerations related to information security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Moyano, I. J.; Conrad, S. H.; Andersen, D. F. (Decision and Information Sciences); (SNL); (Univ. at Albany)

    2011-01-01

    The authors present experimental and simulation results of an outcome-based learning model for the identification of threats to security systems. This model integrates judgment, decision-making, and learning theories to provide a unified framework for the behavioral study of upcoming threats.

  13. A Relational Scaffolding Model of Hybrid Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Jens O.; Tuckermann, Harald

    Two fundamental trends with important implications for today's management of organizations build the impetus for this paper. The first is the ubiquity of computer-mediated communication (CMC). The second is the revived interest for social relations and social networks at the workplace and its focus on relational processes in organizations.

  14. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  15. The social relations model for family data : A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, TAB; Kenny, DA

    1999-01-01

    Multilevel models are proposed to study relational or dyadic data from multiple persons in families or other groups. The variable under study is assumed to refer to a dyadic relation between individuals in the groups. The proposed models are elaborations of the Social Relations Model. The different

  16. Age Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  17. Milgrom Relation Models for Spiral Galaxies from Two-Dimensional Velocity Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, E I; Sellwood, J A; Barnes, Eric I.; Kosowsky, Arthur; Sellwood, Jerry A.

    2007-01-01

    Using two-dimensional velocity maps and I-band photometry, we have created mass models of 40 spiral galaxies using the Milgrom relation (the basis of modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND) to complement previous work. A Bayesian technique is employed to compare several different dark matter halo models to Milgrom and Newtonian models. Pseudo-isothermal dark matter halos provide the best statistical fits to the data in a majority of cases, while the Milgrom relation generally provides good fits as well. We also find that Milgrom models give mass-to-light ratios that roughly correlate with galaxy color, as predicted by stellar population models. A subsample of galaxies in the Hydra cluster follow a tight relation between mass-to-light and color, but one that is significantly different from relations found in previous studies. Ruling out the Milgrom relation with rotational kinematics is difficult due to systematic uncertainties in the observations as well as underlying model assumptions. We discuss in detail two...

  18. Verifying Interlevel Relations within Organizational Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.; Yolum, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the formal theoretical basis used for transformation of a non-executable external behavioral specification for an organizational model into an executable format, required for enabling verification techniques, is explained in detail.

  19. Verifying Interlevel Relations within Organizational Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.; Yolum, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the formal theoretical basis used for transformation of a non-executable external behavioral specification for an organizational model into an executable format, required for enabling verification techniques, is explained in detail.

  20. Health claims and other health-related statements in the labeling and advertising of alcohol beverages (99R-199P). Final rule, Treasury decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-03

    TTB is amending the regulations to prohibit the appearance on labels or in advertisements of any health-related statement, including a specific health claim, that is untrue in any particular or tends to create a misleading impression. A specific health claim on a label or in an advertisement is considered misleading unless the claim is truthful and adequately substantiated by scientific evidence; properly detailed and qualified with respect to the categories of individuals to whom the claim applies; adequately discloses the health risks associated with both moderate and heavier levels of alcohol consumption; and outlines the categories of individuals for whom any levels of alcohol consumption may cause health risks. In addition, TTB will consult with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as needed, on the use of specific health claims on labels. If FDA determines that a specific health claim is a drug claim that is not in compliance with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, TTB will not approve the use of such statement on a label. Health-related statements that are not specific health claims or health-related directional statements will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if they tend to mislead consumers. The final rule provides that health-related directional statements (statements that direct or refer consumers to a third party or other source for information regarding the effects on health of alcohol consumption) will be presumed misleading unless those statements include a brief disclaimer advising consumers that the statement should not encourage consumption of alcohol for health reasons, or some other appropriate disclaimer to avoid misleading consumers. TTB believes that the final regulations will ensure that labels and advertisements do not contain statements or claims that would tend to mislead the consumer about the significant health consequences of alcohol consumption.

  1. Compton Scattering and Photo-absorption Sum Rules on Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2012-03-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new ``constituent quark model'' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition we extract the J=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high energy proton data we find that the J=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman. We discuss phenomenological implications of this new result.

  2. Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, B M; Manohar, A V; Merlo, L

    2016-01-01

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT). The relation between $\\Lambda$ and $f$ is generalized to $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis $4\\pi$ counting is related to $\\hbar$ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to $\\chi$PT, to Standard Model EFT and to the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT, which combines the $\\Lambda$ and chiral counting rules within a single theory.

  3. Renewable energy and the function of law : a comparative study of legal rules related to the planning, location and installation of windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Maria

    2008-11-15

    Swedish energy policy relies heavily on the promotion of renewable energy, in particular wind power. Notwithstanding a substantial political and economic support for this development, the installed capacity of wind power in Sweden remains fairly small both in relation to the corresponding development in other countries and in absolute numbers. The starting point for this study is that the implementation of a planning policy, such as the Swedish development goal for wind power, is partly dependent on the requirements of the law. In other words, in the face of supposedly strong economic incentives to promote wind power, barriers to the implementation might be found embedded in the institutional system. The purpose of this study is thus, primarily, to describe and analyse the function of Swedish law with reference to the implementation of renewable energy policy objectives, with focus on the development of wind power. This involves legal rules related to planning, location and operation of windmills. The legal system is evaluated in respect of its capacity to facilitate or impede the development of wind power. Secondly, the study includes a comparative analysis of the corresponding legal functions in Denmark, Norway and England. The result of the analysis of Swedish law indicates that the legal system governing the implementation process encompasses barriers to the development of wind power. The main obstacles are found in the system for physical planning and the concession system, although quite a few hindering individual provisions have also been disclosed. The lack of sufficient control functions together with an extensive municipal power creates an unpredictable and ineffective planning system that basically lacks confidence for an efficient implementation of wind power. The installation of windmills may further require as many as five different types of permits, which risks to seriously hamper the development due to lengthy processes and appeals. Among the

  4. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-05

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program.

  5. The Outcomes of an Alcohol Prevention Program on Parents’ Rule Setting and Self-efficacy: A Bi-directional Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.M.; Glatz, T.

    2016-01-01

    Most adolescents have their first encounter with alcohol in early or middle adolescence. Parents’ rule setting about alcohol has been shown to be important to delay the onset and reduce the frequency of adolescents’ alcohol drinking, but less is known about the potential role of parents’ beliefs abo

  6. Visual Modeling of Combat Entities Behavior Model Rules Based on Finite State Machine%基于有限状态机的作战实体模型行为规则可视化建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 谭玉玺; 汤磊

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the simulation model development efficiency and reduce the maintenance cost of simulation model, according to requirements of the formalized modeling of model rules,the visual expression model of entity behavior rule model based on the finite state machine is put forward. And then this paper designs the visual modeling tool framework of rules based on the finite state machine and conducts a theoretical exploration on the realization of visualization model rules for engineering.%为提升仿真模型开发效率,降低仿真模型的维护成本,从模型规则可视化建模需求入手,提出了基于有限状态机的实体模型行为规则形式化表达模型,并对基于有限状态机的模型规则可视化建模工具框架进行了设计,对模型规则可视化建模的工程实现进行了理论上的探索。

  7. 基于规则的快速三维建模技术研究%Research on Rapid 3 D Modeling Technology Based on Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢年; 向煜; 徐艇伟

    2013-01-01

    The traditional modeling methods by hand to establish fine 3D model,effect is good,but the long construc-tion period,high cost.This paper introduces the Esri CityEngine platform ,rule based modeling method ,focuses on build-ing and road modeling ideas ,use of the existing GIS data ,based on rules for fast automatic modeling ,improves the model-ing efficiency ,for three-dimensional modeling provides a new means .%传统的三维建模方式多通过手工建立精细的三维模型,效果好,但建设周期长,成本高。本文介绍了在Esri CityEngine平台下,基于规则进行三维建模的方法,重点介绍了建筑物和道路的建模思路,利用现有GIS数据,基于规则进行快速自动的建模,提高了三维建模效率,为三维建模提供了一种全新的手段。

  8. Relative Motion Modeling and Autonomous Navigation Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Model Expansion; Earth Gravitational Perturbation; Goddard Mission Analysis Tool; GMAT ; Hamiltonian Methods; LEO Orbits; Lunar-solar Perturbations...54  4.1.3  Numerical Verification using GMAT and a Graphical User Interface (GUI) ......... 58  4.2  Non-Earth Gravitational...and short period ... 52  Figure 3. Difference between the Kaula and GMAT with 20x20 gravity field without J22 secular and short period terms

  9. Real Rules of Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Robert Nozick’s acceptance rule [Noz81], Acc(h) iff Prob(K I h) > = I- e and Prob(K I -h) <= e and Prob(h) > Prob(K I -h), for small e: and I.J. Good and...Solving," IJCAI 1983. [Noz8ll Nozick , R. Philosophical Explanations, Harvard, 1981. (Nut84] Nute, D. "Logical Relations," Philosophical Studies 46, 1984

  10. Generalisation of the Ostwald's rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. P.; Petrova-Bogdanova, O. O.

    2013-05-01

    More than century ago, Ostwald (1897) [1] manifested a rule, which, according his assumption, was a general principle for any process in nature. The rule was formulated by Ostwald and named as a rule of stages with is giving a formation sequence of different phases. Schmelzer et al. [2] generalized this rule of stages for nucleation. In the present research the dynamics of phase transformations is considered using the recent idea (Anisimov et al. [3]) for a semiempirical design of the nucleation rate surfaces. The current generalization of the Ostwald's rule for the formation sequences of phases is proved on the basis of common results on nucleation studies. It is very natural to think that any new phase formation (not prohibited by thermodynamic constrains) can be realized for each channel of phase transformation even the probability of some kind of the new phases is low. The relative efficiency of each channel can be dramatically changed when parameters of process are varied.

  11. Numerical models for stationary superfluid neutron stars in general relativity with realistic equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Sourie, Aurélien; Novak, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical model for uniformly rotating superfluid neutron stars, for the first time with realistic microphysics including entrainment, in a fully general relativistic framework. We compute stationary and axisymmetric configurations of neutron stars composed of two fluids, namely superfluid neutrons and charged particles (protons and electrons), rotating with different rates around a common axis. Both fluids are coupled by entrainment, a non-dissipative interaction which in case of a non-vanishing relative velocity between the fluids, causes the fluid momenta being not aligned with the respective fluid velocities. We extend the formalism by Comer and Joynt (2003) in order to calculate the equation of state (EoS) and entrainment parameters for an arbitrary relative velocity. The resulting entrainment matrix fulfills all necessary sum rules and in the limit of small relative velocity our results agree with Fermi liquid theory ones, derived to lowest order in the velocity. This formalism is applied t...

  12. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  13. Formal Semantics of Dynamic Rules in ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, Herman; Halpin, Terry; Meersman, R; Tari, Z; Herrero, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides formal semantics for an extension of the Object-Role Modeling approach that supports declaration of dynamic rules. Dynamic rules differ from static rules by pertaining to properties of state transitions, rather than to the states themselves. In this paper we restrict application

  14. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use

  15. 31 CFR 103.85 - Issuing rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing rulings. 103.85 Section 103.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.85 Issuing rulings. The...

  16. Research of Data Cleaning Model Based on Rule and Data Learning%基于规则和数据学习的清洗模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石少敏

    2011-01-01

    Data quality is quite significant for management information systems.However,various data quality problems emerge due to the user spelling,recording and system upgrades.The purpose of data cleaning is to effectively detect the dirty data and repair them.And on account of the limited extensibility and flexibility of current data cleaning tools,this paper proposes a universal data cleaning modeling based on rule learning and data learning.It implements the key technologies of the modeling,such as dynamic rule learning and dynamic data learning in detail.By the learning process of rule matching and rule feedback,the model realizes the optimal cleaning rule selection.By the learning process of field and metatable,the model achieves initializing of dynamic data information.Experiments show that the application of the model ensures the quality of dynamic data,and improves the flexibility and expansibility of the cleaning tools.%数据质量在信息管理系统中具有重要意义。然而,由于用户拼写、录入、系统升级等原因导致各种数据质量问题的出现。数据清洗的目的就是检测出脏数据并修复它们。而当前的清洗工具缺乏灵活性和扩展性,基于此,本文提出了一个基于规则和数据学习的通用清洗模型。模型实现了动态规则学习和动态数据学习等关键技术。通过规则匹配和反馈学习过程实现了动态清洗规则最佳选择;通过字段学习和元表学习过程实现了动态数据的初始化。实验证明,应用该模型保证了动态数据的质量,提高了当前清洗工具的灵活性和扩展性。

  17. Modeling patterns in count data using loglinear and related models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the use of loglinear and logit models, for analyzing Poisson and binomial counts in the presence of explanatory variables. The explanatory variables may be unordered categorical variables or numerical variables, or both. The report shows how to construct models to fit data, and how to test whether a model is too simple or too complex. The appropriateness of the methods with small data sets is discussed. Several example analyses, using the SAS computer package, illustrate the methods.

  18. Relating masses and mixing angles. A model-independent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Saldana-Salazar, Ulises Jesus [CINVESTAV (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    In general, mixing angles and fermion masses are seen to be independent parameters of the Standard Model. However, exploiting the observed hierarchy in the masses, it is viable to construct the mixing matrices for both quarks and leptons in terms of the corresponding mass ratios only. A closer view on the symmetry properties leads to potential realizations of that approach in extensions of the Standard Model. We discuss the application in the context of flavored multi-Higgs models.

  19. A Fuzzy Rule-Base Model for Classification of Spirometric FVC Graphs in Chronical Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of distinguishing COPD group diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma ) by using fuzzy theory and to put into practice a “fuzzy rule-base...FVC Plots”. Keywords - asthma , chronic bronchitis, COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), emphysema , expert systems, FVC (forced vital...the group of chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma because of these reasons [4-7]. Additionally, similar symptoms may cause fuzziness in

  20. Basic relations for the period variation models of variable stars

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulášek, Zdeněk; Gráf, Tomáš; Zejda, Miloslav; Zhu, Liying; Qian, Shen-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Models of period variations are basic tools for period analyzes of variable stars. We introduce phase function and instant period and formulate basic relations and equations among them. Some simple period models are also presented.

  1. The script model in relation to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillingsgaard, A

    1999-03-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate autistic children's scripts for social routines. Scripts specify familiar events in terms of who does what, when, to whom, and why. Scripts are verbalizations of mental event representations, containing and organizing generalized knowledge of how the world works. Scripts are presumed to be of vital importance for the development of shared meaning, communication, and social behaviour. In this study, children with autism were asked to explain well-known social routines, such as how you shop in a supermarket, make a cake or celebrate a birthday. The scripts of the 12 children with non-retarded autism were compared to scripts of matched normal control children. Despite the fact that all of the participating children with autism had an IQ above 90 and a mental age between 8 and 14, a significant difference in autistic and normal control children's ability to generate scripts for familiar social routines was found. The results are discussed in relation to the same children's ability to pass theory-of-mind tests and their verbal intelligence.

  2. Modelling Knowledge Systems using Relation Nets and Hypernets

    OpenAIRE

    Rooyen, Hendrik O. van; Geldenhuys, Aletta E.; Stetter, Franz

    2004-01-01

    In the book "Knowledge Representation and Relation Nets" we introduced a structural model called a Relation Net and a special relation net called a Concept Relationship Knowledge Structure (CRKS). In this work we broaden the notion of a relation net to produce a new but associated structural model, a Hypernet. We show that the general theory of hypernets has applications in the acquisition/learning, representation, retrieval, accommodation and assimilation, management and communication/teachi...

  3. Incorporating concern for relative wealth into economic models

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    This article develops a simple model that captures a concern for relative standing, or status. This concern is instrumental, in the sense that individuals do not get utility directly from their relative standing, but, rather, the concern is induced because their relative standing affects their consumption of standard commodities. The article investigates the consequences of a concern for relative wealth in models in which individuals are making labor/leisure decisions. The analysis shows how ...

  4. The information content of rules and rule sets and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Dan; LI HongXing; YU XianChuan

    2008-01-01

    The information content of rules is categorized into inner mutual information content and outer impartation information content. Actually, the conventional objective interestingness measures based on information theory are all inner mutual informarion, which represent the confidence of rules and the mutual information between the antecedent and consequent. Moreover, almost all of these measures lose sight of the outer impartation information, which is conveyed to the user and help the user to make decisions. We put forward the viewpoint that the outer impartation information content of rules and rule sets can be represented by the relations from input universe to output universe. By binary relations, the interaction of rules in a rule set can be easily represented by operators: union and intersection. Based on the entropy of relations, the outer impartation information content of rules and rule sets are well measured. Then, the conditional information content of rules and rule sets, the independence of rules and rule sets and the inconsistent knowledge of rule sets are defined and measured. The properties of these new measures are discussed and some interesting results are proven, such as the information content of a rule set may be bigger than the sum of the information content of rules in the rule set, and the conditional information content of rules may be negative. At last, the applications of these new measures are discussed. The new method for the appraisement of .rule mining algorithm, and two rule pruning algorithms, λ-choice and RPCIC, are put forward. These new methods and algorithms havepredominance in satisfying the need of more efficient decision information.

  5. Research on evaluations of several grey relational models adapt to grey relational axioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Naiming; Liu Sifeng

    2009-01-01

    Grey relational analysis is an important part of the grey systems theory, and it is the basis of the grey clustering analysis, grey decision-making and grey controlling. To research whether grey relational models satisfy the four grey relational theorems, several kinds of grey relational models are commented. Some problems including the properties of normality, pair symmetry and wholeness are discussed. The phenomenon that the lower value of almost each grey relational model is not equal to zero is proved. The contradiction problems between the properties of wholeness and pair symmetry are verified. Finally, several propositions are constructed to explain the above problems.

  6. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  7. A criterion for lattice supersymmetry: cyclic Leibniz rule

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Mitsuhiro; So, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    It is old folklore that the violation of Leibniz rule on a lattice is an obstruction for constructing a lattice supersymmetric model. While it is still true for full supersymmetry, we show that a slightly modified form of the Leibniz rule, which we call cyclic Leibniz rule (CLR), is actually a criterion for the existence of partial lattice supersymmetry. In one dimension, we find sets of lattice difference operator and field multiplication smeared over lattice which satisfy the CLR under some natural assumptions such as translational invariance and locality. Thereby we construct a model of supersymmetric lattice quantum mechanics without spoiling locality. The CLR relation is coincident with the condition that the vanishing of the so-called surface term in the construction by lattice Nicolai map. We can construct superfield formalism with arbitrary superpotential. This also enables us to apply safely a localization technique to our model, because the kinetic term and the interaction terms of our model are ind...

  8. Two-phase relative permeability models in reservoir engineering calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, S.; Hicks, P.J.; Ertekin, T.

    1999-01-15

    A comparison of ten two-phase relative permeability models is conducted using experimental, semianalytical and numerical approaches. Model predicted relative permeabilities are compared with data from 12 steady-state experiments on Berea and Brown sandstones using combinations of three white mineral oils and 2% CaCl1 brine. The model results are compared against the experimental data using three different criteria. The models are found to predict the relative permeability to oil, relative permeability to water and fractional flow of water with varying degrees of success. Relative permeability data from four of the experimental runs are used to predict the displacement performance under Buckley-Leverett conditions and the results are compared against those predicted by the models. Finally, waterflooding performances predicted by the models are analyzed at three different viscosity ratios using a two-dimensional, two-phase numerical reservoir simulator. (author)

  9. Parametric Rough Sets with Application to Granular Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular association rules reveal patterns hidden in many-to-many relationships which are common in relational databases. In recommender systems, these rules are appropriate for cold-start recommendation, where a customer or a product has just entered the system. An example of such rules might be “40% men like at least 30% kinds of alcohol; 45% customers are men and 6% products are alcohol.” Mining such rules is a challenging problem due to pattern explosion. In this paper, we build a new type of parametric rough sets on two universes and propose an efficient rule mining algorithm based on the new model. Specifically, the model is deliberately defined such that the parameter corresponds to one threshold of rules. The algorithm benefits from the lower approximation operator in the new model. Experiments on two real-world data sets show that the new algorithm is significantly faster than an existing algorithm, and the performance of recommender systems is stable.

  10. Variable Relation Parametric Model on Graphics Modelon for Collaboration Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-de; ZHAO Han; LI Yan-feng

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to variable relation parametric model for collaboration design based on the graphic modelon has been put forward. The paper gives a parametric description model of graphic modelon, and relating method for different graphic modelon based on variable constraint. At the same time, with the aim of engineering application in the collaboration design, the autonmous constraint in modelon and relative constraint between two modelons are given. Finally, with the tool of variable and relation dbase, the solving method of variable relating and variable-driven among different graphic modelon in a part, and doubleacting variable relating parametric method among different parts for collaboration are given.

  11. Rules relating to one-fifth levy on the interest about the trades settled at the simple interest and removal of paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrouz Mahmoudian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One-fifth on one's property is considered a fiscal obligatory duty in which all Islamic schools are unanimous to its principle of obligatoriness but the diversity of opinions relates to the various adjunctions of it therein. Verifications about the aforesaid issue which has been taken root in the very credence of the rational, political life and fiscal obligations of the Shiites is very overriding during the era of occultation as a financial standard respectively. In the following jurisprudential thesis we remove the paradoxes about it e.g. what has been discussed in Qur'an and traditions which has no documentation and Shiite jurists believe that the payment is recommended but it is not compulsory, thereafter, the documentations are not in accordance with the verses of the Holy Qur'an but we invoke to various indications e.g. the word “whomsoever he will” which is seen in the one-fifth levy verse or the rule of “subjective consideration by the extension utterance but not by the occurrence”, connotation of the word “booty” and its derivations in which it has been uttered from the era of the life of Imam Sadiq up to the well-guided leader therein. The Almighty has canonized the aforesaid word in the era of the life of Messenger, thenceforth, the manifest Imams have proclaimed it amongst the people, so that, the proclamation has been canonized from the era of life of the Messenger, delineated from the epistles written by the Messenger which says that any interest belongs to the one-fifth of the levy and its owner is the position of Imamate therein. There are divergence of opinions among Shiite jurisprudents about one-fifth of the levy of the gain about the trades but the dominant theory says that there are consensus of opinions among the Shiites to practice the levy, bonding to Psalm, Wont and common accord respectively.

  12. Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2011-12-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new “constituent quark model” sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.

  13. Structure Function Sum rules for Systems with Large Scattering Lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberger, Walter D

    2010-01-01

    We use a dispersion relation in conjunction with the operator product expansion (OPE) to derive model independent sum rules for the dynamic structure functions of systems with large scattering lengths. We present an explicit sum rule for the structure functions that control the density and spin response of the many-body ground state. Our methods are general, and apply to either fermions or bosons which interact through two-body contact interactions with large scattering lengths. By employing a Borel transform of the OPE, the relevant integrals are weighted towards infrared frequencies, thus allowing for greater overlap low energy data. Similar sum rules can be derived for other response functions. The sum rules can be used to extract the contact parameter introduced by Tan, including universality violating corrections at finite scattering lengths.

  14. Probability Theory without Bayes' Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriques, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Kolmogorov theory of probability, Bayes' rule allows one to perform statistical inference by relating conditional probabilities to unconditional probabilities. As we show here, however, there is a continuous set of alternative inference rules that yield the same results, and that may have computational or practical advantages for certain problems. We formulate generalized axioms for probability theory, according to which the reverse conditional probability distribution P(B|A) is no...

  15. Spatiotemporal Relations and Modeling Motion Classes by Combined Topological and Directional Relations Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Salamat; El-hadi Zahzah

    2012-01-01

    Defining spatiotemporal relations and modeling motion events are emerging issues of current research. Motion events are the subclasses of spatiotemporal relations, where stable and unstable spatio-temporal topological relations and temporal order of occurrence of a primitive event play an important role. In this paper, we proposed a theory of spatio-temporal relations based on topological and orientation perspective. This theory characterized the spatiotemporal relations into different classe...

  16. On grey relation projection model based on projection pursuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuo; Yang Shanlin; Ma Xijun

    2008-01-01

    Multidimensional grey relation projection value can be synthesized as one-dimensional projection value by u-sing projection pursuit model.The larger the projection value is,the better the model.Thus,according to the projection value,the best one can be chosen from the model aggregation.Because projection pursuit modeling based on accelera-ting genetic algorithm can simplify the implementation procedure of the projection pursuit technique and overcome its complex calculation as well as the difficulty in implementing its program,a new method can be obtained for choosing the best grey relation projection model based on the projection pursuit technique.

  17. Stochastic magnetic measurement model for relative position and orientation estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.M.; Veltink, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a stochastic magnetic measurement model that can be used to estimate relative position and orientation. The model predicts the magnetic field generated by a single source coil at the location of the sensor. The model was used in a fusion filter that predicts the change of positio

  18. Stochastic magnetic measurement model for relative position and orientation estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a stochastic magnetic measurement model that can be used to estimate relative position and orientation. The model predicts the magnetic field generated by a single source coil at the location of the sensor. The model was used in a fusion filter that predicts the change of positio

  19. Comparing Structural Brain Connectivity by the Infinite Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Herlau, Tue; Dyrby, Tim;

    2013-01-01

    The growing focus in neuroimaging on analyzing brain connectivity calls for powerful and reliable statistical modeling tools. We examine the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) as a tool to identify and compare structure in brain connectivity graphs by contrasting its performance on graphs from...... modeling tool for the identification of structure and quantification of similarity in graphs of brain connectivity in general....

  20. A Knowledge Mining Model for Ranking Institutions using Rough Computing with Ordering Rules and Formal Concept Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Acharjya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Emergences of computers and information technological revolution made tremendous changes in the real world and provides a different dimension for the intelligent data analysis. Well formed fact, the information at right time and at right place deploy a better knowledge. However, the challenge arises when larger volume of inconsistent data is given for decision making and knowledge extraction. To handle such imprecise data certain mathematical tools of greater importance has developed by researches in recent past namely fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, rough Set, formal concept analysis and ordering rules. It is also observed that many information system contains numerical attribute values and therefore they are almost similar instead of exact similar. To handle such type of information system, in this paper we use two processes such as pre process and post process. In pre process we use rough set on intuitionistic fuzzy approximation space with ordering rules for finding the knowledge whereas in post process we use formal concept analysis to explore better knowledge and vital factors affecting decisions.

  1. Describing baseball pitch movement with right-hand rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahill, A Terry; Baldwin, David G

    2007-07-01

    The right-hand rules show the direction of the spin-induced deflection of baseball pitches: thus, they explain the movement of the fastball, curveball, slider and screwball. The direction of deflection is described by a pair of right-hand rules commonly used in science and engineering. Our new model for the magnitude of the lateral spin-induced deflection of the ball considers the orientation of the axis of rotation of the ball relative to the direction in which the ball is moving. This paper also describes how models based on somatic metaphors might provide variability in a pitcher's repertoire.

  2. Analytical investigation of the boundary-triggered phase transition dynamics in a cellular automata model with a slow-to-start rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Ning; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that there are three different jam phases in the cellular automata automaton model with a slow-to-start rule under open boundaries.In the present paper,the dynamics of each free-flow-jam phase transition is studied.By analysing the microscopic behaviour of the traffic flow,we obtain analytical results on the phase transition dynamics.Our results can describe the detailed time evolution of the system during phase transition,while they provide good approximation for the numerical simulation data.These findings can perfectly explain the microscopic mechanism and details of the boundary-triggered phase transition dynamics.

  3. Metagenomic systems biology and metabolic modeling of the human microbiome: from species composition to community assembly rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roie; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2014-01-01

    The human microbiome is a key contributor to health and development. Yet little is known about the ecological forces that are at play in defining the composition of such host-associated communities. Metagenomics-based studies have uncovered clear patterns of community structure but are often incapable of distinguishing alternative structuring paradigms. In a recent study, we integrated metagenomic analysis with a systems biology approach, using a reverse ecology framework to model numerous human microbiota species and to infer metabolic interactions between species. Comparing predicted interactions with species composition data revealed that the assembly of the human microbiome is dominated at the community level by habitat filtering. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this habitat filtering cannot be accounted for by known host phenotypes or by the metabolic versatility of the various species. Here we provide a summary of our findings and offer a brief perspective on related studies and on future approaches utilizing this metagenomic systems biology framework.

  4. Rules of the New York State Board of Regents Relating to Definitions of Unprofessional Conduct, with Amendments Adopted through November 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Rules concerning unprofessional conduct are offered by the New York State Board of Regents. Attention is directed to: general provisions for all professions, health professions, and design professions (e.g., architecture and engineering), as well as special provisions for: the medical profession, the dentistry and dental hygiene professions, the…

  5. Alcohol-specific parenting and adolescents' alcohol-related problems: The interacting role of alcohol availability at home and parental rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Mheen, H. van de; Vet, R.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The first aim of this study was to gain more insight into the bi-directionality between alcohol-specific parental factors (i.e., parents' alcohol use, alcohol availability at home, parental rule setting, and frequency and quality of communication about alcohol) and adolescents' alcohol

  6. Alcohol-specific parenting and adolescents' alcohol-related problems: The interacting role of alcohol availability at home and parental rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Mheen, H. van de; Vet, R.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The first aim of this study was to gain more insight into the bi-directionality between alcohol-specific parental factors (i.e., parents' alcohol use, alcohol availability at home, parental rule setting, and frequency and quality of communication about alcohol) and adolescents' alcohol in

  7. Mixing Rules Formulation for a Kinetic Model of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood Semipredictive Type Applied to the Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Multicomponent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wilman Rodriguez-Acosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing rules coupled to a semipredictive kinetic model of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type were proposed to determine the behavior of the heterogeneous solar photodegradation with TiO2-P25 of multicomponent mixtures at pilot scale. The kinetic expressions were expressed in terms of the effective concentration of total organic carbon (xTOC. An expression was obtained in a generalized form which is a function of the mixing rules as a product of a global contribution of the reaction rate constant k′ and a mixing function fC. Kinetic parameters of the model were obtained using the Nelder and Mead (N-M algorithm. The kinetic model was validated with experimental data obtained from the degradation of binary mixtures of chlorinated compounds (DCA: dichloroacetic acid and 4-CP: 4-chlorophenol at different initial global concentration, using a CPC reactor at pilot scale. A simplex-lattice {2,3} design experiment was adopted to perform the runs.

  8. The Feynman rules for neutrinos and new neutralinos in BLMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Wang, Fang; Feng, Tai-Fu

    2016-01-01

    In a supersymmetric extension of the standard model where baryon and lepton numbers are local gauge symmetries(BLMSSM), we deduce the Feynman rules for neutrinos and new neutralinos. We briey introduce the mass matrices for the particles and the related couplings in this work, which are very useful to research the neutrinos and new neutralinos.

  9. Selecting the Model of Teaching Methods Based on The Application Type of Tax Mining Association Rules%基于关联规则挖掘的应用型税法教学方法选择模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纯林; 孙睿潇

    2016-01-01

    针对目前税法教学方法无法达到实践应用技术型人才的培养目标,并且独立院校对应用型税法教学方法的选择上也无法满足应用技术型人才培养的需求,本文提出了一种基于模糊集优化关联规则挖掘的应用型税法教学方法选择模型,它是建立在关联规则挖掘算法的原则之上,运用模糊集提升了它准确性,再将专题法、案例法、讲授法、归纳比较法、“讲、读、练”法分别对五个不同的班级进行应用型税法教学,最后采用基于模糊集优化关联规则挖掘的应用型税法教学方法选择模型对其进行分析,并将得到的关联规则的强弱替代教学方法的优劣性。算法仿真结果证明了本文提出的优化模型比原算法更加准确。%Based on the fact that current teaching methods of revenue can not achieve the training objectives of cultivating practical and technical personnel, and independent institutions to choose the tax applied on teaching methods can not meet the needs of training practical and technical personnel, this paper presents a new teaching method applied tax rules mining selection model based on a fuzzy set optimization association. It is built on association rule mining algorithm, and its accuracy is improved based on fuzzy sets. What is more, teaching law, special law, case law, comparative law induction,"speaking, reading practicing"law have been conducted on tax applied teaching in five different classes. Finally, choose the model to analyze them using teaching methods of applied tax based on related optimization rule mining of fuzzy sets, and replace pros and cons of teaching method with resulting substitute teaching association rules. Algorithm simulation results show that the improved model have more accuracy compared to the original one.

  10. 基于规则的Open Street Map数据模型转换%Model Transformation of OpenStreetMap Based on Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江瑜; 周晓光; 李志盛; 赵肄江

    2016-01-01

    周边区域地理信息的获取是我国地缘环境研究中的一个难题,志愿者地理信息( volunteered geographic in-formation, VGI)的兴起为解决该难题提供了一个可行的方法。在目前一系列的 VGI 项目中, OpenStreetMap ( OSM)是比较领先的应用,但OSM数据模型不同于我国周边应用的专业矢量数据模型,因此,利用OSM数据时首先需要对其进行模型转换。有鉴于此,本文提出了一种基于规则的OSM数据到专业应用矢量数据模型转换方法。该方法首先利用OSM定义的几何类型与地物属性作为分类依据,建立了模型转换基本规则库;对于志愿者根据自己的理解自行标注未包含在基本规则库中的目标采用人机交互方式进行模型转换,并在此过程中不断完善规则库,利用越南与巴基斯坦数据进行实验,最终形成了包括2344条转换规则的模型转换规则库,为OSM数据模型到专业应用矢量数据模型的转换提供了一条可行途径。%Spatial data acquisition is a bottleneck for borderland researching.In recent years, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has been proven to be a very successful means of acquiring timely and detailed global spatial data.OpenStreetMap (OSM) has been known as the most successful VGI resource.But OSM data model is far different from the traditional geographic information mod-el.Thus the OSM data needs to be converted to the scientist customized data model at first.Therefore, a rule_based transformation method is presented after analysing OSM data characteristics in this paper.In this method, a basic transformation rule base is estab-lished using geometry type and thematic attribute defined by OSM Features firstly.Then, the left unusual objects tagged by the volun-teers according to their understanding are converted by human-computer interaction and the responding transformation rules are re-membered into the rule base

  11. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  12. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  13. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Analysis of X(5568) as Scalar Tetraquark State in Diquark-Antidiquark Model with QCD Sum Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we take the X(5568) as the diquark-antidiquark type tetraquark state with the spin-parity JP = 0+, construct the scalar-diquark-scalar-antidiquark type current, carry out the operator product expansion up to the vacuum condensates of dimension-10, and study the mass and pole residue in details with the QCD sum rules. We obtain the value MX = (5.57±0.12) GeV, which is consistent with the experimental data. The present prediction favors assigning the X(5568) to be the scalar tetraquark state. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 11375063, and Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province under Grant No. A2014502017

  15. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  16. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  17. Extending the Relational Model to Deal with Probabilistic Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zongmin; ZHANG W. J; MA W. Y.

    2000-01-01

    According to the soundness and completeness of information in databases, the expressive form and the semantics of incomplete information are discussed in this paper. On the basis of the discussion, the current studies on incomplete data in relational databases are reviewed. In order to represent stochastic uncertainty in most general sense in the real world, probabilistic data are introduced into relational databases. An extended relational data model is presented to express and manipulate probabilistic data and the operations in relational algebra based on the extended model are defined in this paper.

  18. A Comparative Study of Relational and Non-Relational Database Models in a Web- Based Application

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Gyorödi; Robert Gyorödi; Roxana Sotoc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative study between relational and non-relational database models in a web-based application, by executing various operations on both relational and on non-relational databases thus highlighting the results obtained during performance comparison tests. The study was based on the implementation of a web-based application for population records. For the non-relational database, we used MongoDB and for the relational database, we used MSSQL 2014. W...

  19. Research on Modeling and Simulation Method of Grating Ruling Engine%光栅刻划机的建模与仿真方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘栋材; 李端发; 练国富; 申远; 竺长安

    2012-01-01

    用于制作母光栅的光栅刻划机的性能指标直接决定最终生产的光栅质量.为此,采用基于虚拟样机的联合仿真策略,代替传统的物理样机开发.利用动力学分析软件Pro/Engineer和控制仿真软件Simulink分别建立光栅刻划机机械动力学模型及控制系统模型,实现机电一体化仿真分析.根据仿真结果确定控制系统参效,实验结果表明,使用该方法可降低开发成本,提高研发效率.%Grating ruling engine, which is used to manufacture the master grating, directly determines the final quality of the production of grating. In this paper, co-simulation based on virtual prototype replaces the traditional physical prototype development. Mechanical dynamic analysis software Pro/Engineer and control simulation software are used to build a grating ruling engine of mechanical dynamic model and controller model respectively. The mechatronics simulation is achieved and from the simulation result, the control parameter is determined. Using this method, cost is reduced and the efficiency of research is improved.

  20. Relative importance of secondary settling tank models in WWTP simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Results obtained in a study using the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 (BSM1) show that a one-dimensional secondary settling tank (1-D SST) model structure and its parameters are among the most significant sources of uncertainty in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) simulations [Ramin et al., 2011......]. The sensitivity results consistently indicate that the prediction of sludge production is most sensitive to the variation of the settling parameters. In the present study, we use the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2), a plant-wide benchmark, that combines the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1......) with the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). We use BSM2 as a vehicle to compare two different 1-D SST models, and to assess the relative significance of their performance on WWTP simulation model outputs. The two 1-D SST models assessed include the firstorder model by Takács et al. [1991] and the second...