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Sample records for model results suggest

  1. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  2. Baryogenesis model suggesting antigalaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.P.

    1998-12-01

    A non-GUT baryogenesis model, according to which our Universe may contain clusters of antigalaxies is discussed. A mechanism of separation of vast quantities of matter from such of antimatter is described. The provided analysis showed that for a natural range of model parameters a sufficient separation between matter and antimatter regions, required from observational data, can be obtained. (author)

  3. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  4. Suggestion of Islamic Insurance Company Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Ibrahim Nazal

    2015-01-01

    This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Islamic Insurance Companies as solution. It explained its operations also comparing with Traditional Insurance Companies and theoretical Islamic insurance models. As result to this study Islamic Insurance companies are profit organization. It helps Islamic banks but it costs customer to face expect risk. Islamic Insurance companies have many ways to get profits and consider all customers installments grants. Its operation gap comes...

  5. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  6. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  8. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John

    2015-02-07

    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Educational Institutions: A Suggested Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a model of factors critical to establishing and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage for education-services enterprises in international markets. The model, which combines industrial economics, management theory, and services marketing, seeks to explain the strategic decision-making environment in which the education exporter…

  10. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  11. Suggestion of a Management Model: Total Entropy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goksel Alpan,; Ismail Efil

    2011-01-01

    “Entropy” can be defined as the measure of disorder, uncertainty and consumed energy in a system or in the Universe. In the study, entropy concept is used as metaphor and it is aimed to construct the conceptual basis of a new management model which can be utilized to manage all entropy sources effectively. The study is conveyed with a multidisciplinary and holistic approach and by the use of qualitative research techniques. In the study, it is examined the relations of the entropy concept wit...

  12. A Model Suggestion to Predict Leverage Ratio for Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tüz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature, construction is an industry with high uncertainty and risk. Construction industry carries high leverage ratios. Firms with low equities work in big projects through progress payment system, but in this case, even a small negative in the planned cash flows constitute a major risk for the company.The use of leverage, with a small investment to achieve profit targets large-scale, high-profit, but also brings a high risk with it. Investors may lose all or the portion of the money. In this study, monitoring and measuring of the leverage ratio because of the displacement in cash inflows of construction projects which uses high leverage and low cash to do business in the sector is targeted. Cash need because of drifting the cash inflows may be seen due to the model. Work should be done in the early stages of the project with little capital but in the later stages, rapidly growing capital need arises.The values obtained from the model may be used to supply the capital held in the right time by anticipating the risks because of the delay in cashflow of construction projects which uses high leverage ratio.

  13. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  14. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppel, C. [Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  15. Is the dissociative adult suggestible? A test of the trauma and fantasy models of dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluemper, Nicole S; Dalenberg, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Psychologists have long assumed a connection between traumatic experience and psychological dissociation. This hypothesis is referred to as the trauma model of dissociation. In the past decade, a series of papers have been published that question this traditional causal link, proposing an alternative fantasy model of dissociation. In the present research, the relationship among dissociation, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness was examined. Suggestibility was measured through the Gudjonsson Scale of Interrogative Suggestibility (GSS) as well as an autobiographically based version of this measure based on the events of September 11, 2001. Consistent with prior research and with the trauma model, dissociation correlated positively with trauma severity (r = .32, p suggestibility measure. Although some participants did become quite emotional during the procedure, the risk/benefit ratio was perceived by almost all participants to be positive, with more reactive individuals evaluating the procedure more positively. The results consistently support the trauma model of dissociation and fail to support the fantasy model of dissociation.

  16. Testing for variation in taxonomic extinction probabilities: a suggested methodology and some results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Several important questions in evolutionary biology and paleobiology involve sources of variation in extinction rates. In all cases of which we are aware, extinction rates have been estimated from data in which the probability that an observation (e.g., a fossil taxon) will occur is related both to extinction rates and to what we term encounter probabilities. Any statistical method for analyzing fossil data should at a minimum permit separate inferences on these two components. We develop a method for estimating taxonomic extinction rates from stratigraphic range data and for testing hypotheses about variability in these rates. We use this method to estimate extinction rates and to test the hypothesis of constant extinction rates for several sets of stratigraphic range data. The results of our tests support the hypothesis that extinction rates varied over the geologic time periods examined. We also present a test that can be used to identify periods of high or low extinction probabilities and provide an example using Phanerozoic invertebrate data. Extinction rates should be analyzed using stochastic models, in which it is recognized that stratigraphic samples are random varlates and that sampling is imperfect

  17. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Mohsen Ali; Mohaidin, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the 'persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model', the stimuli-response marketing model', the 'agency theory', the theory of planned behaviour,' and 'social power theory,' in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.

  18. Facultative methanotrophy: false leads, true results, and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jeremy D; DiSpirito, Alan A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Methanotrophs are a group of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms characterized by their ability to utilize methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Early studies suggested that growth on methane could be stimulated with the addition of some small organic acids, but initial efforts to find facultative methanotrophs, i.e., methanotrophs able to utilize compounds with carbon-carbon bonds as sole growth substrates were inconclusive. Recently, however, facultative methanotrophs in the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa, and Methylocystis have been reported that can grow on acetate, as well as on larger organic acids or ethanol for some species. All identified facultative methanotrophs group within the Alphaproteobacteria and utilize the serine cycle for carbon assimilation from formaldehyde. It is possible that facultative methanotrophs are able to convert acetate into intermediates of the serine cycle (e.g. malate and glyoxylate), because a variety of acetate assimilation pathways convert acetate into these compounds (e.g. the glyoxylate shunt of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, the citramalate cycle, and the methylaspartate cycle). In this review, we summarize the history of facultative methanotrophy, describe scenarios for the basis of facultative methanotrophy, and pose several topics for future research in this area. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidin, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research. PMID:28690701

  20. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murshid M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.

  1. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  2. Mathematical representation of bolted-joint stiffness: A new suggested model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, Nawras; Obeed, Salwan; Jawad, Mohamed [College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babel (Iraq)

    2011-11-15

    Joint member stiffness in a bolted connection directly influences the safety of a design in regard to both static and fatigue loading, as well as in the prevention of separation in the connection. This work provides a new simple model for computing the member stiffness in bolted connections for both fully and partially developed stress envelope fields. The new model is built using a stress distribution polynomial of third order. Finite element analysis (FEA) is performed for some joints geometries, and the results are used to estimate the best analytical envelope angle in the proposed analytical model that gives suitable convergence between the compared results. An experimental effort is exerted to validate the accuracy of a suggested model. When analytical results are compared with FEA results and experimental data, the maximum absolute percentage errors are found to be 2.69 and 14.69, respectively. Also, a good agreement is obtained when the analytical results are compared with other researchers' results.

  3. Model selection approach suggests causal association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zgaga

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, but causal relationship has not yet been confirmed. We investigate the direction of causation between vitamin D and CRC by extending the conventional approaches to allow pleiotropic relationships and by explicitly modelling unmeasured confounders.Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD, genetic variants associated with 25-OHD and CRC, and other relevant information was available for 2645 individuals (1057 CRC cases and 1588 controls and included in the model. We investigate whether 25-OHD is likely to be causally associated with CRC, or vice versa, by selecting the best modelling hypothesis according to Bayesian predictive scores. We examine consistency for a range of prior assumptions.Model comparison showed preference for the causal association between low 25-OHD and CRC over the reverse causal hypothesis. This was confirmed for posterior mean deviances obtained for both models (11.5 natural log units in favour of the causal model, and also for deviance information criteria (DIC computed for a range of prior distributions. Overall, models ignoring hidden confounding or pleiotropy had significantly poorer DIC scores.Results suggest causal association between 25-OHD and colorectal cancer, and support the need for randomised clinical trials for further confirmations.

  4. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakis, Emmanouil; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry

    2018-02-01

    High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of the ozone-temperature correlation for the summer of 2010 and to analyze its sensitivity to precursor emissions and meteorology by using the regional air quality model, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). The results show that the model significantly underestimates the observed high afternoon surface ozone mixing ratios (≥ 60 ppb) by 10-20 ppb and overestimates the lower ones (degradation of the model performance for the lower ozone mixing ratios. The model performance for ozone-temperature correlation is also better when NOx emissions are doubled. In the Benelux area, however, the third scenario (where both NOx and VOC emissions are increased) leads to a better model performance. Although increasing only the traffic NOx emissions by a factor of 4 gave very similar results to the doubling of all NOx emissions, the first scenario is more consistent with the uncertainties reported by other studies than the latter, suggesting that high uncertainties in NOx emissions might originate mainly from the road-transport sector rather than from other sectors. The impact of meteorology was examined with three sensitivity tests: (i) increased surface temperature by 4 °C, (ii) reduced wind speed by 50 % and (iii) doubled wind speed. The first two scenarios led to a consistent increase in all surface ozone mixing ratios, thus improving the model performance for the high ozone values but significantly degrading it for the low ozone values, while the third scenario had exactly the

  5. Authority Delegation in Boyerahmad Health Centers through Model to Combine Suggestions System and Delphi Method 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Momeninezhad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Authority delegation means to transmit part of organization`s manager and leader`s special authorities and executive duties, regardless its root to subordinates and heads of units and related offices to speed up implementing affairs and organizational purposes quickly and on time. The purpose of this study was to inspect authority delegation in health centers of Boyerahmad district through using model to combine suggestions (to identify process and Delphi method (expert`s opinions . Methods: This cross-sectional study was implemented in two stages at first stage, research community was authorities of Boyerahmad health centers (58 persons, their suggestions about requested processes to delegate were gathered by total count through open questionnaires and in second stage, which was Delphi, suggestions gathered from previous stage judged by 30 experts. Data of both stages analyzed by help of Chi-square, correlation coefficient tests. Results: Findings showed that 73.85% of suggestions were able to be delegated, based on expert`s opinion. 40% of suggestions were in domain of official, 36.92% financial and 23.08% hygienic. 88% less than 6 years management background. 20.69% had no academic studies and only 27% were general physicians. Conclusion: By participation of environmental management levels, several processes may be specified and identify cases which are possible to delegate them executively using Delphi (expert`s opinion and this model can be used as a trust worthy method to delegate authority for decentralization. Key words: Participation Management, Health centers, Authority delegation

  6. Modeling of glycerol-3-phosphate transporter suggests a potential 'tilt' mechanism involved in its function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigelny, Igor F; Greenberg, Jerry; Kouznetsova, Valentina; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2008-10-01

    Many major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters have similar 12-transmembrane alpha-helical topologies with two six-helix halves connected by a long loop. In humans, these transporters participate in key physiological processes and are also, as in the case of members of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family, of pharmaceutical interest. Recently, crystal structures of two bacterial representatives of the MFS family--the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter (GlpT) and lac-permease (LacY)--have been solved and, because of assumptions regarding the high structural conservation of this family, there is hope that the results can be applied to mammalian transporters as well. Based on crystallography, it has been suggested that a major conformational "switching" mechanism accounts for ligand transport by MFS proteins. This conformational switch would then allow periodic changes in the overall transporter configuration, resulting in its cyclic opening to the periplasm or cytoplasm. Following this lead, we have modeled a possible "switch" mechanism in GlpT, using the concept of rotation of protein domains as in the DynDom program17 and membranephilic constraints predicted by the MAPAS program.(23) We found that the minima of energies of intersubunit interactions support two alternate positions consistent with their transport properties. Thus, for GlpT, a "tilt" of 9 degrees -10 degrees rotation had the most favorable energetics of electrostatic interaction between the two halves of the transporter; moreover, this confirmation was sufficient to suggest transport of the ligand across the membrane. We conducted steered molecular dynamics simulations of the GlpT-ligand system to explore how glycerol-3-phosphate would be handled by the "tilted" structure, and obtained results generally consistent with experimental mutagenesis data. While biochemical data remain most consistent with a single-site alternating access model, our results raise the possibility that, while the

  7. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oikonomakis

    2018-02-01

    (where both NOx and VOC emissions are increased leads to a better model performance. Although increasing only the traffic NOx emissions by a factor of 4 gave very similar results to the doubling of all NOx emissions, the first scenario is more consistent with the uncertainties reported by other studies than the latter, suggesting that high uncertainties in NOx emissions might originate mainly from the road-transport sector rather than from other sectors. The impact of meteorology was examined with three sensitivity tests: (i increased surface temperature by 4 °C, (ii reduced wind speed by 50 % and (iii doubled wind speed. The first two scenarios led to a consistent increase in all surface ozone mixing ratios, thus improving the model performance for the high ozone values but significantly degrading it for the low ozone values, while the third scenario had exactly the opposite effects. Overall, the modeled ozone is predicted to be more sensitive to its precursor emissions (especially traffic NOx and therefore their uncertainties, which seem to be responsible for the model underestimation of the observed high ozone mixing ratios and ozone production.

  8. Microarray and bioinformatic analyses suggest models for carbon metabolism in the autotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Appia-ayme; R. Quatrini; Y. Denis; F. Denizot; S. Silver; F. Roberto; F. Veloso; J. Valdes; J. P. Cardenas; M. Esparza; O. Orellana; E. Jedlicki; V. Bonnefoy; D. Holmes

    2006-09-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that uses iron or sulfur as an energy and electron source. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify putative genes and potential metabolic pathways involved in CO2 fixation, 2P-glycolate detoxification, carboxysome formation and glycogen utilization in At. ferrooxidans. Microarray transcript profiling was carried out to compare the relative expression of the predicted genes of these pathways when the microorganism was grown in the presence of iron versus sulfur. Several gene expression patterns were confirmed by real-time PCR. Genes for each of the above predicted pathways were found to be organized into discrete clusters. Clusters exhibited differential gene expression depending on the presence of iron or sulfur in the medium. Concordance of gene expression within each cluster, suggested that they are operons Most notably, clusters of genes predicted to be involved in CO2 fixation, carboxysome formation, 2P-glycolate detoxification and glycogen biosynthesis were up-regulated in sulfur medium, whereas genes involved in glycogen utilization were preferentially expressed in iron medium. These results can be explained in terms of models of gene regulation that suggest how A. ferrooxidans can adjust its central carbon management to respond to changing environmental conditions.

  9. Mathematical modeling of sustainable synaptogenesis by repetitive stimuli suggests signaling mechanisms in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Takizawa

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of long-term synaptic maintenance are a key component to understanding the mechanism of long-term memory. From biological experiments, a hypothesis arose that repetitive stimuli with appropriate intervals are essential to maintain new synapses for periods of longer than a few days. We successfully reproduce the time-course of relative numbers of synapses with our mathematical model in the same conditions as biological experiments, which used Adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp-isomer (Sp-cAMPS as external stimuli. We also reproduce synaptic maintenance responsiveness to intervals of Sp-cAMPS treatment accompanied by PKA activation. The model suggests a possible mechanism of sustainable synaptogenesis which consists of two steps. First, the signal transduction from an external stimulus triggers the synthesis of a new signaling protein. Second, the new signaling protein is required for the next signal transduction with the same stimuli. As a result, the network component is modified from the first network, and a different signal is transferred which triggers the synthesis of another new signaling molecule. We refer to this hypothetical mechanism as network succession. We build our model on the basis of two hypotheses: (1 a multi-step network succession induces downregulation of SSH and COFILIN gene expression, which triggers the production of stable F-actin; (2 the formation of a complex of stable F-actin with Drebrin at PSD is the critical mechanism to achieve long-term synaptic maintenance. Our simulation shows that a three-step network succession is sufficient to reproduce sustainable synapses for a period longer than 14 days. When we change the network structure to a single step network, the model fails to follow the exact condition of repetitive signals to reproduce a sufficient number of synapses. Another advantage of the three-step network succession is that this system indicates a greater tolerance of parameter

  10. Repertoire Analysis of Antibody CDR-H3 Loops Suggests Affinity Maturation Does Not Typically Result in Rigidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliazko R. Jeliazkov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody’s antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop for thousands of recent homology models of the human peripheral blood cell antibody repertoire using rigidity theory. We found no clear delineation in the flexibility of naïve and antigen-experienced antibodies. To account for possible sources of error, we additionally analyzed hundreds of human and mouse antibodies in the Protein Data Bank through both rigidity theory and B-factor analysis. By both metrics, we observed only a slight decrease in the CDR-H3 loop flexibility when comparing affinity matured antibodies to naïve antibodies, and the decrease was not as drastic as previously reported. Further analysis, incorporating molecular dynamics simulations, revealed a spectrum of changes in flexibility. Our results suggest that rigidification may be just one of many biophysical mechanisms for increasing affinity.

  11. Mentoring for junior medical faculty: Existing models and suggestions for low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vikas; Muraleedharan, Aparna; Bhat, Ballambhattu Vishnu

    2016-02-01

    Globally, there is increasing recognition about the positive benefits and impact of mentoring on faculty retention rates, career satisfaction and scholarly output. However, emphasis on research and practice of mentoring is comparatively meagre in low and middle income countries. In this commentary, we critically examine two existing models of mentorship for medical faculty and offer few suggestions for an integrated hybrid model that can be adapted for use in low resource settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolomics analysis and modeling suggest a lysophosphocholines-PAF receptor interaction in fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Caboni

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain, and difficult to diagnose and treat. We analyzed the plasma metabolic profile of patients with FMS by using a metabolomics approach combining Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time Of Flight/Mass Spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS with multivariate statistical analysis, aiming to discriminate patients and controls. LC-Q-TOF/MS analysis of plasma (FMS patients: n = 22 and controls: n = 21 identified many lipid compounds, mainly lysophosphocholines (lysoPCs, phosphocholines and ceramides. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to identify the discriminating metabolites. A protein docking and molecular dynamic (MD study was then performed, using the most discriminating lysoPCs, to validate the binding to Platelet Activating Factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, PAF Receptor (PAFr. Discriminating metabolites between FMS patients and controls were identified as 1-tetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [PC(14:0/0:0] and 1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [PC(16:0/0:0]. MD and docking indicate that the ligands investigated have similar potentialities to activate the PAFr receptor. The application of a metabolomic approach discriminated FMS patients from controls, with an over-representation of PC(14:0/0:0 and PC(16:0/0:0 compounds in the metabolic profiles. These results and the modeling of metabolite-PAFr interaction, allowed us to hypothesize that lipids oxidative fragmentation might generate lysoPCs in abundance, that in turn will act as PAF-like bioactivators. Overall results suggest disease biomarkers and potential therapeutical targets for FMS.

  13. A trophic model of fringing coral reefs in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan suggests overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Jan, Rong-Quen; Fan, Tung-Yung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Chen, Jen-Ping; Chen, Chung-Chi; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2009-09-01

    Several coral reefs of Nanwan Bay, Taiwan have recently undergone shifts to macroalgal or sea anemone dominance. Thus, a mass-balance trophic model was constructed to analyze the structure and functioning of the food web. The fringing reef model was comprised of 18 compartments, with the highest trophic level of 3.45 for piscivorous fish. Comparative analyses with other reef models demonstrated that Nanwan Bay was similar to reefs with high fishery catches. While coral biomass was not lower, fish biomass was lower than those of reefs with high catches. Consequently, the sums of consumption and respiratory flows and total system throughput were also decreased. The Nanwan Bay model potentially suggests an overfished status in which the mean trophic level of the catch, matter cycling, and trophic transfer efficiency are extremely reduced.

  14. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  15. A computational model of the LGI1 protein suggests a common binding site for ADAM proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Leonardi

    Full Text Available Mutations of human leucine-rich glioma inactivated (LGI1 gene encoding the epitempin protein cause autosomal dominant temporal lateral epilepsy (ADTLE, a rare familial partial epileptic syndrome. The LGI1 gene seems to have a role on the transmission of neuronal messages but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. In contrast to other genes involved in epileptic disorders, epitempin shows no homology with known ion channel genes but contains two domains, composed of repeated structural units, known to mediate protein-protein interactions.A three dimensional in silico model of the two epitempin domains was built to predict the structure-function relationship and propose a functional model integrating previous experimental findings. Conserved and electrostatic charged regions of the model surface suggest a possible arrangement between the two domains and identifies a possible ADAM protein binding site in the β-propeller domain and another protein binding site in the leucine-rich repeat domain. The functional model indicates that epitempin could mediate the interaction between proteins localized to different synaptic sides in a static way, by forming a dimer, or in a dynamic way, by binding proteins at different times.The model was also used to predict effects of known disease-causing missense mutations. Most of the variants are predicted to alter protein folding while several other map to functional surface regions. In agreement with experimental evidence, this suggests that non-secreted LGI1 mutants could be retained within the cell by quality control mechanisms or by altering interactions required for the secretion process.

  16. Coalescent Modelling Suggests Recent Secondary-Contact of Cryptic Penguin Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Stefanie; Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analyses present powerful tools for elucidating demographic and biogeographic histories of taxa. Here we present genetic evidence showing a dynamic history for two cryptic lineages within Eudyptula, the world's smallest penguin. Specifically, we use a suite of genetic markers to reveal that two congeneric taxa ('Australia' and 'New Zealand') co-occur in southern New Zealand, with only low levels of hybridization. Coalescent modelling suggests that the Australian little penguin only recently expanded into southern New Zealand. Analyses conducted under time-dependent molecular evolutionary rates lend support to the hypothesis of recent anthropogenic turnover, consistent with shifts detected in several other New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa. This apparent turnover event highlights the dynamic nature of the region's coastal ecosystem.

  17. A cervid vocal fold model suggests greater glottal efficiency in calling at high frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo R Titze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni produce loud and high fundamental frequency bugles during the mating season, in contrast to the male European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus who produces loud and low fundamental frequency roaring calls. A critical step in understanding vocal communication is to relate sound complexity to anatomy and physiology in a causal manner. Experimentation at the sound source, often difficult in vivo in mammals, is simulated here by a finite element model of the larynx and a wave propagation model of the vocal tract, both based on the morphology and biomechanics of the elk. The model can produce a wide range of fundamental frequencies. Low fundamental frequencies require low vocal fold strain, but large lung pressure and large glottal flow if sound intensity level is to exceed 70 dB at 10 m distance. A high-frequency bugle requires both large muscular effort (to strain the vocal ligament and high lung pressure (to overcome phonation threshold pressure, but at least 10 dB more intensity level can be achieved. Glottal efficiency, the ration of radiated sound power to aerodynamic power at the glottis, is higher in elk, suggesting an advantage of high-pitched signaling. This advantage is based on two aspects; first, the lower airflow required for aerodynamic power and, second, an acoustic radiation advantage at higher frequencies. Both signal types are used by the respective males during the mating season and probably serve as honest signals. The two signal types relate differently to physical qualities of the sender. The low-frequency sound (Red Deer call relates to overall body size via a strong relationship between acoustic parameters and the size of vocal organs and body size. The high-frequency bugle may signal muscular strength and endurance, via a 'vocalizing at the edge' mechanism, for which efficiency is critical.

  18. Comparing Satellite Rainfall Estimates with Rain-Gauge Data: Optimal Strategies Suggested by a Spectral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Validation of satellite remote-sensing methods for estimating rainfall against rain-gauge data is attractive because of the direct nature of the rain-gauge measurements. Comparisons of satellite estimates to rain-gauge data are difficult, however, because of the extreme variability of rain and the fact that satellites view large areas over a short time while rain gauges monitor small areas continuously. In this paper, a statistical model of rainfall variability developed for studies of sampling error in averages of satellite data is used to examine the impact of spatial and temporal averaging of satellite and gauge data on intercomparison results. The model parameters were derived from radar observations of rain, but the model appears to capture many of the characteristics of rain-gauge data as well. The model predicts that many months of data from areas containing a few gauges are required to validate satellite estimates over the areas, and that the areas should be of the order of several hundred km in diameter. Over gauge arrays of sufficiently high density, the optimal areas and averaging times are reduced. The possibility of using time-weighted averages of gauge data is explored.

  19. A dynamical stabilizer in the climate system: a mechanism suggested by a simple model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. R.

    1999-05-01

    A simple zonally averaged hemispheric model of the climate system is constructed, based on energy equations for two ocean basins separated at 30° latitude with the surface fluxes calculated explicitly. A combination of empirical input and theoretical calculation is used to determine an annual mean equilibrium climate for the model and to study its stability with respect to small perturbations. The insolation, the mean albedos and the equilibrium temperatures for the two model zones are prescribed from observation. The principal agent of interaction between the zones is the vertically integrated poleward transport of atmospheric angular momentum across their common boundary. This is parameterized using an empirical formula derived from a multiyear atmospheric data set. The surface winds are derived from the angular momentum transport assuming the atmosphere to be in a state of dynamic balance on the climatic timescales of interest. A further assumption that the air sea temperature difference and low level relative humidity remain fixed at their mean observed values then allows the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat to be calculated. Results from a radiative model, which show a positive lower tropospheric water vapour/infrared radiative feedback on SST perturbations in both zones, are used to calculate the net upward infrared radiative fluxes at the surface. In the model's equilibrium climate, the principal processes balancing the solar radiation absorbed at the surface are evaporation in the tropical zone and net infrared radiation in the extratropical zone. The stability of small perturbations about the equilibrium is studied using a linearized form of the ocean energy equations. Ice-albedo and cloud feedbacks are omitted and attention is focussed on the competing effects of the water vapour/infrared radiative feedback and the turbulent surface flux and oceanic heat transport feedbacks associated with the angular momentum cycle. The perturbation equations

  20. The Nature of Scatter at the DARHT Facility and Suggestions for Improved Modeling of DARHT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morneau, Rachel Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klasky, Marc Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program [1] is designed to sustain and evaluate the nuclear weapons stockpile while foregoing underground nuclear tests. The maintenance of a smaller, aging U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing requires complex computer calculations [14]. These calculations in turn need to be verified and benchmarked [14]. A wide range of research facilities have been used to test and evaluate nuclear weapons while respecting the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) [2]. Some of these facilities include the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories, and the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research will focus largely on DARHT (although some information from Cygnus and the Los Alamos Microtron may be used in this research) by modeling it and comparing to experimental data. DARHT is an electron accelerator that employs high-energy flash x-ray sources for imaging hydro-tests. This research proposes to address some of the issues crucial to understanding DARHT Axis II and the analysis of the radiographic images produced. Primarily, the nature of scatter at DARHT will be modeled and verified with experimental data. It will then be shown that certain design decisions can be made to optimize the scatter field for hydrotest experiments. Spectral effects will be briefly explored to determine if there is any considerable effect on the density reconstruction caused by changes in the energy spectrum caused by target changes. Finally, a generalized scatter model will be made using results from MCNP that can be convolved with the direct transmission of an object to simulate the scatter of that object at the detector plane. The region in which with this scatter model is appropriate will be explored.

  1. Rate control management of atrial fibrillation: may a mathematical model suggest an ideal heart rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Anselmino

    Full Text Available Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF, clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation.The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively.Left ventricular pressure increased by 57%, from 33.92±37.56 mmHg to 53.15±47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27%, from 82.66±14.04 mmHg to 105.3±7.6 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45±8.50 to 39.09±8.08 mL, ejection fraction (from 61.10±4.40 to 39.32±5.42% and stroke work (SW, from 0.88±0.04 to 0.58±0.09 J decreased by 50, 36 and 34%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen consumption indexes (rate pressure product - RPP, tension time index per minute - TTI/min, and pressure volume area per minute - PVA/min increased from the 50 to the 130 bpm simulation, respectively, by 186% (from 5598±1939 to 15995±3219 mmHg/min, 56% (from 2094±265 to 3257±301 mmHg s/min and 102% (from 57.99±17.90 to 117.4±26.0 J/min. In fact, left ventricular efficiency (SW/PVA decreased from 80.91±2.91% at 50 bpm to 66.43±3.72% at the 130 bpm HR simulation.Awaiting compulsory direct clinical evidences, the present mathematical model suggests that lower HRs during permanent AF relates to improved hemodynamic parameters, cardiac efficiency, and lower oxygen consumption.

  2. Rate control management of atrial fibrillation: may a mathematical model suggest an ideal heart rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Camporeale, Carlo; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR) to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation. The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively. Left ventricular pressure increased by 57%, from 33.92±37.56 mmHg to 53.15±47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27%, from 82.66±14.04 mmHg to 105.3±7.6 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45±8.50 to 39.09±8.08 mL), ejection fraction (from 61.10±4.40 to 39.32±5.42%) and stroke work (SW, from 0.88±0.04 to 0.58±0.09 J) decreased by 50, 36 and 34%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen consumption indexes (rate pressure product - RPP, tension time index per minute - TTI/min, and pressure volume area per minute - PVA/min) increased from the 50 to the 130 bpm simulation, respectively, by 186% (from 5598±1939 to 15995±3219 mmHg/min), 56% (from 2094±265 to 3257±301 mmHg s/min) and 102% (from 57.99±17.90 to 117.4±26.0 J/min). In fact, left ventricular efficiency (SW/PVA) decreased from 80.91±2.91% at 50 bpm to 66.43±3.72% at the 130 bpm HR simulation. Awaiting compulsory direct clinical evidences, the present mathematical model suggests that lower HRs during permanent AF relates to improved hemodynamic parameters, cardiac efficiency, and lower oxygen consumption.

  3. The Danish national passenger modelModel specification and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Hansen, Christian Overgaard

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of the new Danish National Passenger model and provides on this basis a general discussion of large-scale model design, cost-damping and model validation. The paper aims at providing three main contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, at the general level......, the paper provides a description of a large-scale forecast model with a discussion of the linkage between population synthesis, demand and assignment. Secondly, the paper gives specific attention to model specification and in particular choice of functional form and cost-damping. Specifically we suggest...... a family of logarithmic spline functions and illustrate how it is applied in the model. Thirdly and finally, we evaluate model sensitivity and performance by evaluating the distance distribution and elasticities. In the paper we present results where the spline-function is compared with more traditional...

  4. Hypothalamus transcriptome profile suggests an anorexia-cachexia syndrome in the anx/anx mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Josep Maria; Lozano, Juan José; Sumoy, Lauro; Dierssen, Mara; Visa, Joana; Gratacòs, Mònica; Estivill, Xavier

    2008-11-12

    The anx/anx mouse displays poor appetite and lean appearance and is considered a good model for the study of anorexia nervosa. To identify new genes involved in feeding behavior and body weight regulation we performed an expression profiling in the hypothalamus of the anx/anx mice. Using commercial microarrays we detected 156 differentially expressed genes and validated 92 of those using TaqMan low-density arrays. The expression of a set of 87 candidate genes selected based on literature evidences was also quantified by TaqMan low-density arrays. Our results showed enrichment in deregulated genes involved in cell death, cell morphology, and cancer, as well as an alteration of several signaling circuits involved in energy balance including neuropeptide Y and melanocortin signaling. The expression profile along with the phenotype led us to conclude that anx/anx mice resemble the anorexia-cachexia syndrome typically observed in cancer, infection with human immunodeficiency virus or chronic diseases, rather than starvation, and that anx/anx mice could be considered a good model for the treatment and investigation of this condition.

  5. Engineering model cryocooler test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skimko, M.A.; Stacy, W.D.; McCormick, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent testing of diaphragm-defined, Stirling-cycle machines and components has demonstrated cooling performance potential, validated the design code, and confirmed several critical operating characteristics. A breadboard cryocooler was rebuilt and tested from cryogenic to near-ambient cold end temperatures. There was a significant increase in capacity at cryogenic temperatures and the performance results compared will with code predictions at all temperatures. Further testing on a breadboard diaphragm compressor validated the calculated requirement for a minimum axial clearance between diaphragms and mating heads

  6. Evaluation of the white finger risk prediction model in ISO 5349 suggests need for prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemne, G; Lundström, R

    1996-05-01

    The risk prediction model for white fingers in Annex A of ISO 5349 is not likely to offer protection from all tools and all work processes. It is also probable that some work place changes it has initiated are either redundant or lack the intended effect. The main reasons for these shortcomings are the following. The often demonstrated disagreement between predicted and observed white fingers occurrence may be related to the fact that the model is based on latency data. This leads to an overestimation, to an unknown extent, of true group risks. A possible healthy worker effect, resulting in underestimation, has not been considered, and uncertainty because of recall bias is connected with using latency as effect variable in a slowly developing disorder like white fingers. The diagnostic criteria for white fingers have varied over the years, causing a possible inclusion of circulatory disturbances other than those induced by vibration. Among insufficiently clarified matters unrelated to vibration are variations in individual susceptibility and other host factors that modify vibration effects, uncertainty concerning daily or total effective exposure, and the fact that variation in work methods and processes as well as ergonomic factors other than vibration tend to make different groups incomparable form the viewpoint of risk of injury. Lack of sufficient data on vibration measurements and employment durations add to the uncertainty, as do variations in tool conditions (grinder wheels, etc) and inherent difficulties in measurement. Finally, the ISO 5349 frequency-weighting curve only relates to acute sensory effects rather than chronic effects on vascular functions like white fingers, and directional difference in sensitivity has not been incorporated in the curve. Data on exposure-response relationships are needed from prospective studies that monitor the dose of exposure to special vibration types and all relevant environmental agents, employ diagnostics with good

  7. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Sockolow, Paulina

    2016-02-24

    Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one's choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other disciplines.

  8. Experimental data suggesting that inflammation mediated rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction results from secondary hypoxia rather than from direct effects of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid eWeidinger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response (SIR comprises direct effects of inflammatory mediators (IM and indirect effects, such as secondary circulatory failure which results in tissue hypoxia (HOX. These two key components, SIR and HOX, cause multiple organ failure (MOF. Since HOX and IM occur and interact simultaneously in vivo, it is difficult to clarify their individual pathological impact. To eliminate this interaction, precision cut liver slices (PCLS were used in this study aiming to dissect the effects of HOX and IM on mitochondrial function, integrity of cellular membrane and the expression of genes associated with inflammation. HOX was induced by incubating PCLS or rat liver mitochondria at pO2<1% followed by reoxygenation (HOX/ROX model. Inflammatory injury was stimulated by incubating PCLS with IM (IM model. We found upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression only in the IM model, while heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression was upregulated only in the HOX/ROX model. Elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6 was found in both models reflecting converging pathways regulating the expression of this gene. Both models caused damage to hepatocytes resulting in the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed only during the hypoxic phase in the HOX/ROX model. The reoxygenation phase of HOX, but not IM, drastically impaired mitochondrial electron supply via complex I and II. Additional experiments performed with isolated mitochondria showed that free iron, released during HOX, is likely a key prerequisite of mitochondrial dysfunction induced during the reoxygenation phase. Our data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, previously observed in in vivo SIR-models is the result of secondary circulatory failure inducing HOX rather than the result of a direct interaction of IM with liver cells.

  9. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  10. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent: retrospective results from a tertiary clinic suggesting an association with facial dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D; Thyssen, J P

    2016-10-01

    Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. Patch test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (P trend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis, age >40 years and facial dermatitis in adjusted binary logistic regression analysis. Current clinical relevance of contact allergy to thiuram mix was 59.3%. Patients with contact allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole had a concomitant reaction to thiuram mix in 35.2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Organizational suggestion system in the era of holding by developing an innovative model : the case of bonyade ta avon holding in Iran(an applied model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the popular ways of taking advantage of personnel creativity is through suggestionsystems. Our main question is how to implement suggestion system in holding with conglomeratestructure. The paper presents an innovative model that were named ITFSK Model with accordanceof Bonayade Taavone (a holding that has many companies and institutions with conglomeratestructure. ITFSK is a model that explains how participation management and suggestion system isimplemented effectively in huge Enterprises (holding and this approach brings continuousimprovement (kaizen and it impacts the productivity of these enterprises.The paper is based on field research and the research in Bonyade Tavan that has 22 companies and2 institutions that activity fields of the subholdings is very varied.Our model consists of five main parts such as ideas bank, think-tank, feedback, sharing ofknowledge and kaizen that was named ITFSK.Implementation of “Suggestion system” rules has immediate and significant effects on theproductivity of activities in the jobs, thus influencing the performance of processes in the analyzedorganization. Suggestion system can result in kaizen and innovation in environment oforganization.The model was used to implement and evaluate a suggestion system of holding with conglomeratedstructure. The application of the model to evaluate the suggestion system provided some goodinsights and highlighted some areas of improvement.

  12. A multi-scale energy demand model suggests sharing market risks with intelligent energy cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for

  13. Predictor Relationships between Values Held by Married Individuals, Resilience and Conflict Resolution Styles: A Model Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Fatma; Dilmac, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to reveal the predictor relationships between the values held by married individuals, resilience and conflict resolution styles. The research adopts a relational screening model that is a sub-type of the general screening model. The sample of the research consists of 375 married individuals, of which 173 are…

  14. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  15. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C; Shinneman, Douglas J; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2018-03-14

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  16. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.; Paterson, A.; Edgar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  17. A Latent Growth Model Suggests that Empathy of Medical Students Does Not Decline over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrício; Magalhães, Eunice; Costa, Manuel João

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is a relevant attribute in the context of patient care. However, a decline in empathy throughout medical education has been reported in North-American medical schools, particularly, in the transition to clinical training. The present study aims to longitudinally model empathy during medical school at three time points: at the entrance,…

  18. A suggested model for physical examination and conservative treatment of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Stern, Ben; Reiman, Michael P; Tarara, Dan; Wright, Alexis A

    2013-02-01

    Athletic pubalgia (AP) is a chronic debilitating syndrome that affects many athletes. As a syndrome, AP is difficult to diagnose both with clinical examination and imaging. AP is also a challenge for conservative intervention with randomized controlled trials showing mixed success rates. In other syndromes where clinical diagnosis and conservative treatment have been less than clear, a paradigm has been suggested as a framework for clinical decision making. To propose a new clinical diagnostic and treatment paradigm for the conservative management of AP. Relevant studies were viewed with regard to diagnosis and intervention and where a gap in evidence existed, clinical expertise was used to fill that gap and duly noted. A new paradigm is proposed to assist with clinical diagnosis and non-surgical intervention in patients suffering with AP. The level of evidence supporting this paradigm, according to the SORT taxonomy, is primarily level 2B. Further testing is warranted but following the suggested paradigm should lead to a clearer diagnosis of AP and allow more meaningful research into homogeneous patient populations within the AP diagnostic cluster. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): 2B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A normalization model suggests that attention changes the weighting of inputs between visual areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Douglas A; Cohen, Marlene R

    2017-05-16

    Models of divisive normalization can explain the trial-averaged responses of neurons in sensory, association, and motor areas under a wide range of conditions, including how visual attention changes the gains of neurons in visual cortex. Attention, like other modulatory processes, is also associated with changes in the extent to which pairs of neurons share trial-to-trial variability. We showed recently that in addition to decreasing correlations between similarly tuned neurons within the same visual area, attention increases correlations between neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) and the middle temporal area (MT) and that an extension of a classic normalization model can account for this correlation increase. One of the benefits of having a descriptive model that can account for many physiological observations is that it can be used to probe the mechanisms underlying processes such as attention. Here, we use electrical microstimulation in V1 paired with recording in MT to provide causal evidence that the relationship between V1 and MT activity is nonlinear and is well described by divisive normalization. We then use the normalization model and recording and microstimulation experiments to show that the attention dependence of V1-MT correlations is better explained by a mechanism in which attention changes the weights of connections between V1 and MT than by a mechanism that modulates responses in either area. Our study shows that normalization can explain interactions between neurons in different areas and provides a framework for using multiarea recording and stimulation to probe the neural mechanisms underlying neuronal computations.

  20. Spectroscopic imaging of the pilocarpine model of human epilepsy suggests that early NAA reduction predicts epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, W A; Lado, F A; de Lanerolle, N C; Takahashi, K; Pan, C; Hetherington, H P

    2007-08-01

    Reduced hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) is commonly observed in patients with advanced, chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). It is unclear, however, whether an NAA deficit is also present during the clinically quiescent latent period that characterizes early TLE. This question has important implications for the use of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the early identification of patients at risk for TLE. To determine whether NAA is diminished during the latent period, we obtained high-resolution (1)H spectroscopic imaging during the latent period of the rat pilocarpine model of human TLE. We used actively detuneable surface reception and volume transmission coils to enhance sensitivity and a semiautomated voxel shifting method to accurately position voxels within the hippocampi. During the latent period, 2 and 7 d following pilocarpine treatment, hippocampal NAA was significantly reduced by 27.5 +/- 6.9% (P NAA deficit is not due to neuron loss and therefore likely represents metabolic impairment of hippocampal neurons during the latent phase. Therefore, spectroscopic imaging provides an early marker for metabolic dysfunction in this model of TLE.

  1. Active tension network model suggests an exotic mechanical state realized in epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Nicholas; Mani, Madhav; Heemskerk, Idse; Streichan, Sebastian J.; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical interactions play a crucial role in epithelial morphogenesis, yet understanding the complex mechanisms through which stress and deformation affect cell behaviour remains an open problem. Here we formulate and analyse the active tension network (ATN) model, which assumes that the mechanical balance of cells within a tissue is dominated by cortical tension and introduces tension-dependent active remodelling of the cortex. We find that ATNs exhibit unusual mechanical properties. Specifically, an ATN behaves as a fluid at short times, but at long times supports external tension like a solid. Furthermore, an ATN has an extensively degenerate equilibrium mechanical state associated with a discrete conformal--`isogonal'--deformation of cells. The ATN model predicts a constraint on equilibrium cell geometries, which we demonstrate to approximately hold in certain epithelial tissues. We further show that isogonal modes are observed in the fruit fly embryo, accounting for the striking variability of apical areas of ventral cells and helping understand the early phase of gastrulation. Living matter realizes new and exotic mechanical states, the study of which helps to understand biological phenomena.

  2. Modeling of Glycerol-3-Phosphate Transporter Suggests a Potential ‘Tilt’ Mechanism involved in its Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigelny, Igor F.; Greenberg, Jerry; Kouznetsova, Valentina; Nigam, Sanjay K.

    2009-01-01

    Many major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters have similar 12-transmembrane α-helical topologies with two six-helix halves connected by a long loop. In humans, these transporters participate in key physiological processes and are also, as in the case of members of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family, of pharmaceutical interest. Recently, crystal structures of two bacterial representatives of the MFS family — the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter (GlpT) and lac-permease (LacY) — have been solved and, because of assumptions regarding the high structural conservation of this family, there is hope that the results can be applied to mammalian transporters as well. Based on crystallography, it has been suggested that a major conformational “switching” mechanism accounts for ligand transport by MFS proteins. This conformational switch would then allow periodic changes in the overall transporter configuration, resulting in its cyclic opening to the periplasm or cytoplasm. Following this lead, we have modeled a possible “switch” mechanism in GlpT, using the concept of rotation of protein domains as in the DynDom program17 and membranephilic constraints predicted by the MAPAS program.23 We found that the minima of energies of intersubunit interactions support two alternate positions consistent with their transport properties. Thus, for GlpT, a “tilt” of 9°–10° rotation had the most favorable energetics of electrostatic interaction between the two halves of the transporter; moreover, this confirmation was sufficient to suggest transport of the ligand across the membrane. We conducted steered molecular dynamics simulations of the GlpT-ligand system to explore how glycerol-3-phosphate would be handled by the “tilted” structure, and obtained results generally consistent with experimental mutagenesis data. While biochemical data remain most consistent with a single-site alternating access model, our results raise the possibility that, while

  3. Research Spotlight: Model suggests path to ending the ongoing Haitian cholera epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-05-01

    Since early November 2010 a deadly cholera epidemic has been spreading across the Caribbean nation of Haiti, killing thousands of people and infecting hundreds of thousands. While infection rates are being actively monitored, health organizations have been left without a clear understanding of exactly how the disease has spread across Haiti. Cholera can spread through exposure to contaminated water, and the disease travels over long distances if an infected individual moves around the country. Using representations of these two predominant dispersion mechanisms, along with information on the size of the susceptible population, the number of infected individuals, and the aquatic concentration of the cholera-causing bacteria for more than 500 communities, Bertuzzo et al. designed a model that was able to accurately reproduce the progression of the Haitian cholera epidemic. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL046823, 2011)

  4. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  5. A link between mitotic entry and membrane growth suggests a novel model for cell size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Steph D; Nguyen, Duy Linh; Thai, Vu; Meloy, Melissa; MacDonough, Tracy; Kellogg, Douglas R

    2012-04-02

    Addition of new membrane to the cell surface by membrane trafficking is necessary for cell growth. In this paper, we report that blocking membrane traffic causes a mitotic checkpoint arrest via Wee1-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1. Checkpoint signals are relayed by the Rho1 GTPase, protein kinase C (Pkc1), and a specific form of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A(Cdc55)). Signaling via this pathway is dependent on membrane traffic and appears to increase gradually during polar bud growth. We hypothesize that delivery of vesicles to the site of bud growth generates a signal that is proportional to the extent of polarized membrane growth and that the strength of the signal is read by downstream components to determine when sufficient growth has occurred for initiation of mitosis. Growth-dependent signaling could explain how membrane growth is integrated with cell cycle progression. It could also control both cell size and morphogenesis, thereby reconciling divergent models for mitotic checkpoint function.

  6. Testing long-term memory in animal models of schizophrenia: suggestions from CNTRICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Timothy J; Barch, Deanna M; Baxter, Mark G

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports the results of discussions at the fourth meeting of Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) meeting, held over two days in Washington, DC in April 2011. The meeting focused on animal paradigms for assessing the cognitive constructs relevant to schizophrenia identified in previous CNTRICS meetings. This report focuses on the outcome of discussions in the general area of long-term memory. A number of candidate animal paradigms were discussed. Two of these - one for rodents and one for non-human primates - were recommended as particularly promising for further development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mathematical Models Suggest Facilitated Fatty Acids Crossing of the Luminal Membrane in the Cardiac Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Efrath

    2017-02-01

    Long-chain fatty acids cross a few membranes on their way from the capillary blood to the cardiomyocyte cytosol, where they are utilized as an essential source of energy. Details of the transport mechanism across those membranes remained elusive despite decades of laboratory and theoretical work. Here we inspect several optional scenarios for the crossing of the luminal membrane of the endothelial cell, the first barrier that should be crossed: a passive diffusion, facilitation by receptors for albumin and facilitation by fatty acids transporters. Related measured rate constants are incorporated in a theoretical simulation that is based on reaction-diffusion equations. Asymptotic analytical solutions for the resulting stiff boundary value problems are formulated based on singular perturbations theory. We conclude that a passive diffusion has to be supplemented with facilitation mechanisms in order to meet energy requirements. Binding sites for albumin, scattered on the membrane face, might enhance the flux provided that they internalize the captured fatty acids and speed up the dissociation of the albumin-fatty acids complex. As such enhancement is moderate, another mechanism seems to be essential for an adequate supply of fatty acids. Lack of experimental data prohibits us from computing the quantitative effect of membrane fatty acids transporters but their involvement in the membrane crossing is inferred.

  8. Quantitative modeling of clinical, cellular, and extracellular matrix variables suggest prognostic indicators in cancer: a model in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, Irene; Piqueras, Marta; Montaner, David; Villamón, Eva; Berbegall, Ana P; Cañete, Adela; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Risk classification and treatment stratification for cancer patients is restricted by our incomplete picture of the complex and unknown interactions between the patient's organism and tumor tissues (transformed cells supported by tumor stroma). Moreover, all clinical factors and laboratory studies used to indicate treatment effectiveness and outcomes are by their nature a simplification of the biological system of cancer, and cannot yet incorporate all possible prognostic indicators. A multiparametric analysis on 184 tumor cylinders was performed. To highlight the benefit of integrating digitized medical imaging into this field, we present the results of computational studies carried out on quantitative measurements, taken from stromal and cancer cells and various extracellular matrix fibers interpenetrated by glycosaminoglycans, and eight current approaches to risk stratification systems in patients with primary and nonprimary neuroblastoma. New tumor tissue indicators from both fields, the cellular and the extracellular elements, emerge as reliable prognostic markers for risk stratification and could be used as molecular targets of specific therapies. The key to dealing with personalized therapy lies in the mathematical modeling. The use of bioinformatics in patient-tumor-microenvironment data management allows a predictive model in neuroblastoma.

  9. Results of the naive quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gignoux, C.

    1987-10-01

    The hypotheses and limits of the naive quark model are recalled and results on nucleon-nucleon scattering and possible multiquark states are presented. Results show that with this model, ropers do not come. For hadron-hadron interactions, the model predicts Van der Waals forces that the resonance group method does not allow. Known many-body forces are not found in the model. The lack of mesons shows up in the absence of a far reaching force. However, the model does have strengths. It is free from spuriousness of center of mass, and allows a democratic handling of flavor. It has few parameters, and its predictions are very good [fr

  10. Interpreting Results from the Multinomial Logit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This article provides guidelines and illustrates practical steps necessary for an analysis of results from the multinomial logit model (MLM). The MLM is a popular model in the strategy literature because it allows researchers to examine strategic choices with multiple outcomes. However, there see...... suitable for both interpretation and communication of results. The pratical steps are illustrated through an application of the MLM to the choice of foreign market entry mode.......This article provides guidelines and illustrates practical steps necessary for an analysis of results from the multinomial logit model (MLM). The MLM is a popular model in the strategy literature because it allows researchers to examine strategic choices with multiple outcomes. However, there seem...... to be systematic issues with regard to how researchers interpret their results when using the MLM. In this study, I present a set of guidelines critical to analyzing and interpreting results from the MLM. The procedure involves intuitive graphical representations of predicted probabilities and marginal effects...

  11. Lattice-based model of ductal carcinoma in situ suggests rules for breast cancer progression to an invasive state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Boghaert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS is a heterogeneous group of non-invasive lesions of the breast that result from abnormal proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Pathologists characterize DCIS by four tissue morphologies (micropapillary, cribriform, solid, and comedo, but the underlying mechanisms that distinguish the development and progression of these morphologies are not well understood. Here we explored the conditions leading to the emergence of the different morphologies of DCIS using a two-dimensional multi-cell lattice-based model that incorporates cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, adhesion, and contractility. We found that the relative rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis governed which of the four morphologies emerged. High proliferation and low apoptosis favored the emergence of solid and comedo morphologies. In contrast, low proliferation and high apoptosis led to the micropapillary morphology, whereas high proliferation and high apoptosis led to the cribriform morphology. The natural progression between morphologies cannot be investigated in vivo since lesions are usually surgically removed upon detection; however, our model suggests probable transitions between these morphologies during breast cancer progression. Importantly, cribriform and comedo appear to be the ultimate morphologies of DCIS. Motivated by previous experimental studies demonstrating that tumor cells behave differently depending on where they are located within the mammary duct in vivo or in engineered tissues, we examined the effects of tissue geometry on the progression of DCIS. In agreement with our previous experimental work, we found that cells are more likely to invade from the end of ducts and that this preferential invasion is regulated by cell adhesion and contractility. This model provides additional insight into tumor cell behavior and allows the exploration of phenotypic transitions not easily monitored in vivo.

  12. Lattice-based model of ductal carcinoma in situ suggests rules for breast cancer progression to an invasive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghaert, Eline; Radisky, Derek C; Nelson, Celeste M

    2014-12-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a heterogeneous group of non-invasive lesions of the breast that result from abnormal proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Pathologists characterize DCIS by four tissue morphologies (micropapillary, cribriform, solid, and comedo), but the underlying mechanisms that distinguish the development and progression of these morphologies are not well understood. Here we explored the conditions leading to the emergence of the different morphologies of DCIS using a two-dimensional multi-cell lattice-based model that incorporates cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, adhesion, and contractility. We found that the relative rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis governed which of the four morphologies emerged. High proliferation and low apoptosis favored the emergence of solid and comedo morphologies. In contrast, low proliferation and high apoptosis led to the micropapillary morphology, whereas high proliferation and high apoptosis led to the cribriform morphology. The natural progression between morphologies cannot be investigated in vivo since lesions are usually surgically removed upon detection; however, our model suggests probable transitions between these morphologies during breast cancer progression. Importantly, cribriform and comedo appear to be the ultimate morphologies of DCIS. Motivated by previous experimental studies demonstrating that tumor cells behave differently depending on where they are located within the mammary duct in vivo or in engineered tissues, we examined the effects of tissue geometry on the progression of DCIS. In agreement with our previous experimental work, we found that cells are more likely to invade from the end of ducts and that this preferential invasion is regulated by cell adhesion and contractility. This model provides additional insight into tumor cell behavior and allows the exploration of phenotypic transitions not easily monitored in vivo.

  13. Skin care products can aggravate epidermal function: studies in a murine model suggest a pathogenic role in sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengxiao; Hu, Lizhi; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Sensitive skin is defined as a spectrum of unpleasant sensations in response to a variety of stimuli. However, only some skin care products provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. Hence, it would be useful to identify products that could provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. To assess whether vehicles, as well as certain branded skin care products, can alter epidermal function following topical applications to normal mouse skin. Following topical applications of individual vehicle or skin care product to C57BL/6J mice twice daily for 4 days, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) rates, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH were measured on treated versus untreated mouse skin with an MPA5 device and pH 900 pH meter. Our results show that all tested products induced abnormalities in epidermal functions of varying severity, including elevations in TEWL and skin surface pH, and reduced SC hydration. Our results suggest that mice can serve as a predictive model that could be used to evaluate the potential safety of skin care products in humans with sensitive skin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mouse model for Usher syndrome: linkage mapping suggests homology to Usher type I reported at human chromosome 11p15.

    OpenAIRE

    Heckenlively, J R; Chang, B; Erway, L C; Peng, C; Hawes, N L; Hageman, G S; Roderick, T H

    1995-01-01

    Usher syndrome is a group of diseases with autosomal recessive inheritance, congenital hearing loss, and the development of retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive retinal degeneration characterized by night blindness and visual field loss over several decades. The causes of Usher syndrome are unknown and no animal models have been available for study. Four human gene sites have been reported, suggesting at least four separate forms of Usher syndrome. We report a mouse model of type I Usher syndr...

  15. Rapid genome reshaping by multiple-gene loss after whole-genome duplication in teleost fish suggested by mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukuto; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) is believed to be a significant source of major evolutionary innovation. Redundant genes resulting from WGD are thought to be lost or acquire new functions. However, the rates of gene loss and thus temporal process of genome reshaping after WGD remain unclear. The WGD shared by all teleost fish, one-half of all jawed vertebrates, was more recent than the two ancient WGDs that occurred before the origin of jawed vertebrates, and thus lends itself to analysis of gene loss and genome reshaping. Using a newly developed orthology identification pipeline, we inferred the post–teleost-specific WGD evolutionary histories of 6,892 protein-coding genes from nine phylogenetically representative teleost genomes on a time-calibrated tree. We found that rapid gene loss did occur in the first 60 My, with a loss of more than 70–80% of duplicated genes, and produced similar genomic gene arrangements within teleosts in that relatively short time. Mathematical modeling suggests that rapid gene loss occurred mainly by events involving simultaneous loss of multiple genes. We found that the subsequent 250 My were characterized by slow and steady loss of individual genes. Our pipeline also identified about 1,100 shared single-copy genes that are inferred to have become singletons before the divergence of clupeocephalan teleosts. Therefore, our comparative genome analysis suggests that rapid gene loss just after the WGD reshaped teleost genomes before the major divergence, and provides a useful set of marker genes for future phylogenetic analysis. PMID:26578810

  16. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan

  17. Results of steel containment vessel model test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, V.K.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Komine, Kuniaki; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Costello, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two tests are being conducted: (1) a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) and (2) a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper summarizes the conduct of the high pressure pneumatic test of the SCV model and the results of that test. Results of this test are summarized and are compared with pretest predictions performed by the sponsoring organizations and others who participated in a blind pretest prediction effort. Questions raised by this comparison are identified and plans for posttest analysis are discussed

  18. The EURAD model: Design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The contributions are abridged versions of lectures delivered on the occasion of the presentation meeting of the EURAD project on the 20th and 21st of February 1989 in Cologne. EURAD stands for European Acid Deposition Model. The project takes one of the possible and necessary ways to search for scientific answers to the questions which the modifications of the atmosphere caused by anthropogenic influence raise. One of the objectives is to develop a realistic numeric model of long-distance transport of harmful substances in the troposphere over Europe and to use this model for the investigation of pollutant distribution but also for the support of their experimental study. The EURAD Model consists of two parts: a meteorologic mesoscale model and a chemical transport model. In the first part of the presentation, these parts are introduced and questions concerning the implementation of the entire model on the computer system CRAY X-MP/22 discussed. Afterwards it is reported upon the results of the test calculations for the cases 'Chernobyl' and 'Alpex'. Thereafter selected problems concerning the treatments of meteorological and air-chemistry processes as well as the parametrization of subscale processes within the model are discussed. The conclusion is made by two lectures upon emission evaluations and emission scenarios. (orig./KW) [de

  19. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  20. Modelling rainfall erosion resulting from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Peter

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion leads to agricultural productivity decline and contributes to water quality decline. The current widely used models for determining soil erosion for management purposes in agriculture focus on long term (~20 years) average annual soil loss and are not well suited to determining variations that occur over short timespans and as a result of climate change. Soil loss resulting from rainfall erosion is directly dependent on the product of runoff and sediment concentration both of which are likely to be influenced by climate change. This presentation demonstrates the capacity of models like the USLE, USLE-M and WEPP to predict variations in runoff and erosion associated with rainfall events eroding bare fallow plots in the USA with a view to modelling rainfall erosion in areas subject to climate change.

  1. INTRAVAL test case 1b - modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, A.; Hadermann, J.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents results obtained within Phase I of the INTRAVAL study. Six different models are fitted to the results of four infiltration experiments with 233 U tracer on small samples of crystalline bore cores originating from deep drillings in Northern Switzerland. Four of these are dual porosity media models taking into account advection and dispersion in water conducting zones (either tubelike veins or planar fractures), matrix diffusion out of these into pores of the solid phase, and either non-linear or linear sorption of the tracer onto inner surfaces. The remaining two are equivalent porous media models (excluding matrix diffusion) including either non-linear sorption onto surfaces of a single fissure family or linear sorption onto surfaces of several different fissure families. The fits to the experimental data have been carried out by Marquardt-Levenberg procedure yielding error estimates of the parameters, correlation coefficients and also, as a measure for the goodness of the fits, the minimum values of the χ 2 merit function. The effects of different upstream boundary conditions are demonstrated and the penetration depth for matrix diffusion is discussed briefly for both alternative flow path scenarios. The calculations show that the dual porosity media models are significantly more appropriate to the experimental data than the single porosity media concepts. Moreover, it is matrix diffusion rather than the non-linearity of the sorption isotherm which is responsible for the tailing part of the break-through curves. The extracted parameter values for some models for both the linear and non-linear (Freundlich) sorption isotherms are consistent with the results of independent static batch sorption experiments. From the fits, it is generally not possible to discriminate between the two alternative flow path geometries. On the basis of the modelling results, some proposals for further experiments are presented. (author) 15 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs

  2. An integrated disease/pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model suggests improved interleukin-21 regimens validated prospectively for mouse solid cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Elishmereni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-21 is an attractive antitumor agent with potent immunomodulatory functions. Yet thus far, the cytokine has yielded only partial responses in solid cancer patients, and conditions for beneficial IL-21 immunotherapy remain elusive. The current work aims to identify clinically-relevant IL-21 regimens with enhanced efficacy, based on mathematical modeling of long-term antitumor responses. For this purpose, pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD data were acquired from a preclinical study applying systemic IL-21 therapy in murine solid cancers. We developed an integrated disease/PK/PD model for the IL-21 anticancer response, and calibrated it using selected "training" data. The accuracy of the model was verified retrospectively under diverse IL-21 treatment settings, by comparing its predictions to independent "validation" data in melanoma and renal cell carcinoma-challenged mice (R(2>0.90. Simulations of the verified model surfaced important therapeutic insights: (1 Fractionating the standard daily regimen (50 µg/dose into a twice daily schedule (25 µg/dose is advantageous, yielding a significantly lower tumor mass (45% decrease; (2 A low-dose (12 µg/day regimen exerts a response similar to that obtained under the 50 µg/day treatment, suggestive of an equally efficacious dose with potentially reduced toxicity. Subsequent experiments in melanoma-bearing mice corroborated both of these predictions with high precision (R(2>0.89, thus validating the model also prospectively in vivo. Thus, the confirmed PK/PD model rationalizes IL-21 therapy, and pinpoints improved clinically-feasible treatment schedules. Our analysis demonstrates the value of employing mathematical modeling and in silico-guided design of solid tumor immunotherapy in the clinic.

  3. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-1 Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Suggested Format for Reporting Test... Difference Table C-1 spec. Pass or fail Low 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm 3 4 5 6 Medium 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm...

  4. Model suggests potential for Porites coral population recovery after removal of anthropogenic disturbance (Luhuitou, Hainan, South China Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meixia; Riegl, Bernhard; Yu, Kefu; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Qiaomin; Liu, Guohui; Yang, Hongqiang; Yan, Hongqiang

    2016-09-13

    Population models are important for resource management and can inform about potential trajectories useful for planning purposes, even with incomplete monitoring data. From size frequency data on Luhuitou fringing reef, Hainan, South China Sea, a matrix population model of massive corals (Porites lutea) was developed and trajectories over 100 years under no disturbance and random disturbances were projected. The model reflects a largely open population of Porites lutea, with low local recruitment and preponderance of imported recruitment. Under no further disturbance, the population of Porites lutea will grow and its size structure will change from predominance of small size classes to large size classes. Therewith, total Porites cover will increase. Even under random disturbances every 10 to 20 years, the Porites population could remain viable, albeit at lower space cover. The models suggest recovery at Luhuitou following the removal of chronic anthropogenic disturbance. Extending the area of coral reef reserves to protect the open coral community and the path of connectivity is advisable and imperative for the conservation of Hainan's coral reefs.

  5. Model suggests potential for Porites coral population recovery after removal of anthropogenic disturbance (Luhuitou, Hainan, South China Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meixia; Riegl, Bernhard; Yu, Kefu; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Qiaomin; Liu, Guohui; Yang, Hongqiang; Yan, Hongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Population models are important for resource management and can inform about potential trajectories useful for planning purposes, even with incomplete monitoring data. From size frequency data on Luhuitou fringing reef, Hainan, South China Sea, a matrix population model of massive corals (Porites lutea) was developed and trajectories over 100 years under no disturbance and random disturbances were projected. The model reflects a largely open population of Porites lutea, with low local recruitment and preponderance of imported recruitment. Under no further disturbance, the population of Porites lutea will grow and its size structure will change from predominance of small size classes to large size classes. Therewith, total Porites cover will increase. Even under random disturbances every 10 to 20 years, the Porites population could remain viable, albeit at lower space cover. The models suggest recovery at Luhuitou following the removal of chronic anthropogenic disturbance. Extending the area of coral reef reserves to protect the open coral community and the path of connectivity is advisable and imperative for the conservation of Hainan’s coral reefs.

  6. High-resolution mutational profiling suggests the genetic validity of glioblastoma patient-derived pre-clinical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn E Yost

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the ability to efficiently characterize tumor genomes is enabling targeted drug development, which requires rigorous biomarker-based patient selection to increase effectiveness. Consequently, representative DNA biomarkers become equally important in pre-clinical studies. However, it is still unclear how well these markers are maintained between the primary tumor and the patient-derived tumor models. Here, we report the comprehensive identification of somatic coding mutations and copy number aberrations in four glioblastoma (GBM primary tumors and their matched pre-clinical models: serum-free neurospheres, adherent cell cultures, and mouse xenografts. We developed innovative methods to improve the data quality and allow a strict comparison of matched tumor samples. Our analysis identifies known GBM mutations altering PTEN and TP53 genes, and new actionable mutations such as the loss of PIK3R1, and reveals clear patient-to-patient differences. In contrast, for each patient, we do not observe any significant remodeling of the mutational profile between primary to model tumors and the few discrepancies can be attributed to stochastic errors or differences in sample purity. Similarly, we observe ∼96% primary-to-model concordance in copy number calls in the high-cellularity samples. In contrast to previous reports based on gene expression profiles, we do not observe significant differences at the DNA level between in vitro compared to in vivo models. This study suggests, at a remarkable resolution, the genome-wide conservation of a patient's tumor genetics in various pre-clinical models, and therefore supports their use for the development and testing of personalized targeted therapies.

  7. Discussion of gas trade model (GTM) results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.

    1989-01-01

    This is in response to your invitation to comment on the structure of GTM and also upon the differences between its results and those of other models participating in EMF9. First a word upon the structure. GTM was originally designed to provide both regional and sectoral detail within the North American market for natural gas at a single point in time, e.g. the year 2000. It is a spatial equilibrium model in which a solution is obtained by maximizing a nonlinear function, the sum of consumers and producers surplus. Since transport costs are included in producers cost, this formulation automatically ensures that geographical price differentials will not differ by more than transport costs. For purposes of EMF9, GTM was modified to allow for resource development and depletion over time

  8. Superconducting solenoid model magnet test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcagno, R.; Dimarco, J.; Feher, S.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Hess, C.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Superconducting solenoid magnets suitable for the room temperature front end of the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (formerly known as Proton Driver), an 8 GeV superconducting H- linac, have been designed and fabricated at Fermilab, and tested in the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility. We report here results of studies on the first model magnets in this program, including the mechanical properties during fabrication and testing in liquid helium at 4.2 K, quench performance, and magnetic field measurements. We also describe new test facility systems and instrumentation that have been developed to accomplish these tests.

  9. Superconducting solenoid model magnet test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Dimarco, J.; Feher, S.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Hess, C.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.C.; Wokas, T.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting solenoid magnets suitable for the room temperature front end of the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (formerly known as Proton Driver), an 8 GeV superconducting H- linac, have been designed and fabricated at Fermilab, and tested in the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility. We report here results of studies on the first model magnets in this program, including the mechanical properties during fabrication and testing in liquid helium at 4.2 K, quench performance, and magnetic field measurements. We also describe new test facility systems and instrumentation that have been developed to accomplish these tests

  10. Scale Model Thruster Acoustic Measurement Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Magda; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale representation of the SLS vehicle, mobile launcher, tower, and launch pad trench. The SLS launch propulsion system will be comprised of the Rocket Assisted Take-Off (RATO) motors representing the solid boosters and 4 Gas Hydrogen (GH2) thrusters representing the core engines. The GH2 thrusters were tested in a horizontal configuration in order to characterize their performance. In Phase 1, a single thruster was fired to determine the engine performance parameters necessary for scaling a single engine. A cluster configuration, consisting of the 4 thrusters, was tested in Phase 2 to integrate the system and determine their combined performance. Acoustic and overpressure data was collected during both test phases in order to characterize the system's acoustic performance. The results from the single thruster and 4- thuster system are discussed and compared.

  11. CMS standard model Higgs boson results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Abia Pablo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012 CMS announced the discovery of a new boson with properties resembling those of the long-sought Higgs boson. The analysis of the proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb−1 at √s = 7 TeV and 19.6 fb−1 at √s = 8 TeV, confirm the Higgs-like nature of the new boson, with a signal strength associated with vector bosons and fermions consistent with the expectations for a standard model (SM Higgs boson, and spin-parity clearly favouring the scalar nature of the new boson. In this note I review the updated results of the CMS experiment.

  12. Modelling Extortion Racket Systems: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, Luis G.; Andrighetto, Giulia; Székely, Áron; Conte, Rosaria

    Mafias are highly powerful and deeply entrenched organised criminal groups that cause both economic and social damage. Overcoming, or at least limiting, their harmful effects is a societally beneficial objective, which renders its dynamics understanding an objective of both scientific and political interests. We propose an agent-based simulation model aimed at understanding how independent and combined effects of legal and social norm-based processes help to counter mafias. Our results show that legal processes are effective in directly countering mafias by reducing their activities and changing the behaviour of the rest of population, yet they are not able to change people's mind-set that renders the change fragile. When combined with social norm-based processes, however, people's mind-set shifts towards a culture of legality rendering the observed behaviour resilient to change.

  13. New results in the Dual Parton Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, J.T.T.; Capella, A.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the similarity between the x distribution for particle production and the fragmentation functions are observed in e+e- collisions and in deep inelastic scattering are presented. Based on the observation, the authors develop a complete approach to multiparticle production which incorporates the most important features and concepts learned about high energy collisions. 1. Topological expansion : the dominant diagram at high energy corresponds to the simplest topology. 2. Unitarity : diagrams of various topology contribute to the cross sections in a way that unitary is preserved. 3. Regge behaviour and Duality. 4. Partonic structure of hadrons. These general theoretical ideas, result from many joint experimental and theoretical efforts on the study of soft hadron physics. The dual parton model is able to explain all the experimental features from FNAL to SPS collider energies. It has all the properties of an S-matrix theory and provides a unified description of hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

  14. An interactive activation and competition model of person knowledge, suggested by proactive interference by traits spontaneously inferred from behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanbo E; Higgins, Nancy C; Uleman, James S; Michaux, Aaron; Vipond, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    People unconsciously and unintentionally make inferences about others' personality traits based on their behaviours. In this study, a classic memory phenomenon--proactive interference (PI)--is for the first time used to detect spontaneous trait inferences. PI should occur when lists of behaviour descriptions, all implying the same trait, are to be remembered. Switching to a new trait should produce 'release' from proactive interference (or RPI). Results from two experiments supported these predictions. PI and RPI effects are consistent with an interactive activation and competition model of person perception (e.g., McNeill & Burton, 2002, J. Exp. Psychol., 55A, 1141), which predicts categorical organization of social behaviours based on personality traits. Advantages of this model are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Loss of Niemann-Pick C1 or C2 protein results in similar biochemical changes suggesting that these proteins function in a common lysosomal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali S Dixit

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the endolysosomal system. NPC disease results from a defect in either of two distinct cholesterol-binding proteins: a transmembrane protein, NPC1, and a small soluble protein, NPC2. NPC1 and NPC2 are thought to function closely in the export of lysosomal cholesterol with both proteins binding cholesterol in vitro but they may have unrelated lysosomal roles. To investigate this possibility, we compared biochemical consequences of the loss of either protein. Analyses of lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from brain and liver revealed similar decreases in buoyant densities of lysosomes from NPC1 or NPC2 deficient mice compared to controls. The subcellular distribution of both proteins was similar and paralleled a lysosomal marker. In liver, absence of either NPC1 or NPC2 resulted in similar alterations in the carbohydrate processing of the lysosomal protease, tripeptidyl peptidase I. These results highlight biochemical alterations in the lysosomal system of the NPC-mutant mice that appear secondary to lipid storage. In addition, the similarity in biochemical phenotypes resulting from either NPC1 or NPC2 deficiency supports models in which the function of these two proteins within lysosomes are linked closely.

  16. Retrospective analysis of the quality of reports by author-suggested and non-author-suggested reviewers in journals operating on open or single-blind peer review models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Maria K; Dudbridge, Frank; Nanda, Shreeya; Harriman, Stephanie L; Patel, Jigisha; Moylan, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-29

    To assess whether reports from reviewers recommended by authors show a bias in quality and recommendation for editorial decision, compared with reviewers suggested by other parties, and whether reviewer reports for journals operating on open or single-blind peer review models differ with regard to report quality and reviewer recommendations. Retrospective analysis of the quality of reviewer reports using an established Review Quality Instrument, and analysis of reviewer recommendations and author satisfaction surveys. BioMed Central biology and medical journals. BMC Infectious Diseases and BMC Microbiology are similar in size, rejection rates, impact factors and editorial processes, but the former uses open peer review while the latter uses single-blind peer review. The Journal of Inflammation has operated under both peer review models. Two hundred reviewer reports submitted to BMC Infectious Diseases, 200 reviewer reports submitted to BMC Microbiology and 400 reviewer reports submitted to the Journal of Inflammation. For each journal, author-suggested reviewers provided reports of comparable quality to non-author-suggested reviewers, but were significantly more likely to recommend acceptance, irrespective of the peer review model (previewer reports measured by the Review Quality Instrument was 5% higher than for BMC Microbiology (p=0.042). For the Journal of Inflammation, the quality of reports was the same irrespective of the peer review model used. Reviewers suggested by authors provide reports of comparable quality to non-author-suggested reviewers, but are significantly more likely to recommend acceptance. Open peer review reports for BMC Infectious Diseases were of higher quality than single-blind reports for BMC Microbiology. There was no difference in quality of peer review in the Journal of Inflammation under open peer review compared with single blind. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  17. Finiteness results for Abelian tree models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.; Eggermont, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Equivariant tree models are statistical models used in the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from genetic data. Here equivariant refers to a symmetry group imposed on the root distribution and on the transition matrices in the model. We prove that if that symmetry group is Abelian, then the

  18. Finiteness results for Abelian tree models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.; Eggermont, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Equivariant tree models are statistical models used in the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from genetic data. Here equivariant refers to a symmetry group imposed on the root distribution and on the transition matrices in the model. We prove that if that symmetry group is Abelian, then the

  19. Finiteness results for Abelian tree models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.; Eggermont, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Equivariant tree models are statistical models used in the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from genetic data. Here equivariant§ refers to a symmetry group imposed on the root distribution and on the transition matrices in the model. We prove that if that symmetry group is Abelian, then the

  20. Genomic, RNAseq, and Molecular Modeling Evidence Suggests That the Major Allergen Domain in Insects Evolved from a Homodimeric Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas A.; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects. PMID:24253356

  1. Replication and extension of the dual pathway model of disordered eating: The role of fear of negative evaluation, suggestibility, rumination, and self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldo, Toni M; Zhou, Wanni; Dowling, Jessica; Vander Wal, Jillon S

    2016-12-01

    The dual pathway model, a theoretical model of eating disorder development, suggests that thin ideal internalization leads to body dissatisfaction which leads to disordered eating via the dual pathways of negative affect and dietary restraint. While the dual pathway model has been a valuable guide for eating disorder prevention, greater knowledge of characteristics that predict thin ideal internalization is needed. The present study replicated and extended the dual pathway model by considering the addition of fear of negative evaluation, suggestibility, rumination, and self-compassion in a sample of community women and female university students. Results showed that fear of negative evaluation and suggestibility predicted thin ideal internalization whereas rumination and self-compassion (inversely) predicted body dissatisfaction. Negative affect was predicted by fear of negative evaluation, rumination, and self-compassion (inversely). The extended model fit the data well in both samples. Analogue and longitudinal study of these constructs is warranted in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonhomologous recombination between defective poliovirus and coxsackievirus genomes suggests a new model of genetic plasticity for picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2014-08-05

    Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3' end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. Importance: The multiplication of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in poorly immunized human populations can render these viruses pathogenic, causing poliomyelitis outbreaks. Most cVDPVs are intertypic recombinants between a poliovirus (PV) strain and another human enterovirus, such as type 17 coxsackie A viruses (CA17). For further studies of the genetic exchanges

  3. Immersive visualization of dynamic CFD model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparato, J.R.; Ringel, K.L.; Heath, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    With immersive visualization the engineer has the means for vividly understanding problem causes and discovering opportunities to improve design. Software can generate an interactive world in which collaborators experience the results of complex mathematical simulations such as computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling. Such software, while providing unique benefits over traditional visualization techniques, presents special development challenges. The visualization of large quantities of data interactively requires both significant computational power and shrewd data management. On the computational front, commodity hardware is outperforming large workstations in graphical quality and frame rates. Also, 64-bit commodity computing shows promise in enabling interactive visualization of large datasets. Initial interactive transient visualization methods and examples are presented, as well as development trends in commodity hardware and clustering. Interactive, immersive visualization relies on relevant data being stored in active memory for fast response to user requests. For large or transient datasets, data management becomes a key issue. Techniques for dynamic data loading and data reduction are presented as means to increase visualization performance. (author)

  4. Linkage of PRA models. Phase 1, Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.; Knudsen, J.K.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    The goal of the Phase I work of the ``Linkage of PRA Models`` project was to postulate methods of providing guidance for US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) personnel on the selection and usage of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models that are best suited to the analysis they are performing. In particular, methods and associated features are provided for (a) the selection of an appropriate PRA model for a particular analysis, (b) complementary evaluation tools for the analysis, and (c) a PRA model cross-referencing method. As part of this work, three areas adjoining ``linking`` analyses to PRA models were investigated: (a) the PRA models that are currently available, (b) the various types of analyses that are performed within the NRC, and (c) the difficulty in trying to provide a ``generic`` classification scheme to groups plants based upon a particular plant attribute.

  5. Linkage of PRA models. Phase 1, Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.L.; Knudsen, J.K.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    The goal of the Phase I work of the ''Linkage of PRA Models'' project was to postulate methods of providing guidance for US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) personnel on the selection and usage of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models that are best suited to the analysis they are performing. In particular, methods and associated features are provided for (a) the selection of an appropriate PRA model for a particular analysis, (b) complementary evaluation tools for the analysis, and (c) a PRA model cross-referencing method. As part of this work, three areas adjoining ''linking'' analyses to PRA models were investigated: (a) the PRA models that are currently available, (b) the various types of analyses that are performed within the NRC, and (c) the difficulty in trying to provide a ''generic'' classification scheme to groups plants based upon a particular plant attribute

  6. CIEMAT model results for Esthwaite Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero, A.; Garcia-Olivares, A.

    2000-01-01

    This study used the transfer model PRYMA-LO, developed by CIEMAT-IMA, Madrid, Spain, to simulate the transfer of Cs-137 in watershed scenarios. The main processes considered by the model include: transfer of the fallout to the ground, incorporation of the fallout radioisotopes into the water flow, and their removal from the system. The model was tested against observation data obtained in water and sediments of Esthwaite Water, Lake District, UK. This comparison made it possible to calibrate the parameters of the model to the specific scenario

  7. Zebrafish models of BAG3 myofibrillar myopathy suggest a toxic gain of function leading to BAG3 insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Oorschot, Viola; Vaz, Raquel; Ramm, Georg; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in the co-chaperone Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) can cause myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), a childhood-onset progressive muscle disease, characterized by the formation of protein aggregates and myofibrillar disintegration. In contrast to other MFM-causing proteins, BAG3 has no direct structural role, but regulates autophagy and the degradation of misfolded proteins. To investigate the mechanism of disease in BAG3-related MFM, we expressed wild-type BAG3 or the dominant MFM-causing BAG3 (BAG3(P209L)) in zebrafish. Expression of the mutant protein results in the formation of aggregates that contain wild-type BAG3. Through the stimulation and inhibition of autophagy, we tested the prevailing hypothesis that impaired autophagic function is responsible for the formation of protein aggregates. Contrary to the existing theory, our studies reveal that inhibition of autophagy is not sufficient to induce protein aggregation. Expression of the mutant protein, however, did not induce myofibrillar disintegration and we therefore examined the effect of knocking down Bag3 function. Loss of Bag3 resulted in myofibrillar disintegration, but not in the formation of protein aggregates. Remarkably, BAG3(P209L) is able to rescue the myofibrillar disintegration phenotype, further demonstrating that its function is not impaired. Together, our knockdown and overexpression experiments identify a mechanism whereby BAG3(P209L) aggregates form, gradually reducing the pool of available BAG3, which eventually results in BAG3 insufficiency and myofibrillar disintegration. This mechanism is consistent with the childhood onset and progressive nature of MFM and suggests that reducing aggregation through enhanced degradation or inhibition of nucleation would be an effective therapy for this disease.

  8. Increasing organic C and N fluxes from a northern Boreal river basin - monitoring and modelling suggest climate related controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, A.; Futter, M.; Kortelainen, P.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing trends in total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in lakes and streams across northern Europe and North America have been reported. Various hypotheses including enhanced decomposition of organic soils, changes in hydrology and flow paths, decreased acid deposition and land use changes have been put forward to explain the widespread occurrence of this phenomenon. Both observational and modelling studies are needed to identify the most important drivers and relevant processes controlling observed trends in TOC concentrations. Typically, TOC concentrations in Finnish rivers and lakes are high. The Simojoki river basin (3160 km2) is located in the northern Boreal zone of Finland and experiences low, declining sulphate deposition and limited other human impacts. Forest harvest, land drainage and ditch maintenance are the main land management activities in the catchment. Long-term changes (30-40 years) and seasonal trends of total organic nitrogen (TON) and carbon (TOC) concentrations and fluxes in the Simojoki river system were studied. Concentrations of TOC and TON increased particularly during high flows. TOC concentrations are slowly but continuously increasing, fluctuating between droughts and wet periods. The highest concentrations were detected in 1998-2000 during a period of very high flows, after the drought period 1994-1997. Trends in concentrations of TOC and TON in Simojoki were not linked to declines in sulphate deposition but were more related to trends in climate and hydrology. The autumn season is particularly sensitive to climate change impacts. The INCA-C model was applied to simulate TOC dynamics in the catchment. Model results showed that climate change driven patterns in runoff and soil moisture and soil temperature were more important than temporal patterns of sulphate deposition and land management in controlling surface water TOC concentrations. The possible factors behind changes of TOC and TON concentrations and increasing fluxes to

  9. Some major problems with existing models and terminology associated with kimberlite pipes from a volcanological perspective, and some suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cas, R. A. F.; Hayman, P.; Pittari, A.; Porritt, L.

    2008-06-01

    have a more factual, descriptive basis, but are still inadequately documented given the recency of their discovery. The diversity amongst kimberlite bodies suggests that a three-model classification is an over-simplification. Every kimberlite is altered to varying degrees, which is an intrinsic consequence of the ultrabasic composition of kimberlite and the in-vent context; few preserve original textures. The effects of syn- to post-emplacement alteration on original textures have not been adequately considered to date, and should be back-stripped to identify original textural elements and configurations. Applying sedimentological textural configurations as a guide to emplacement processes would be useful. The traditional terminology has many connotations about spatial position in pipe and of process. Perhaps the traditional terminology can be retained in the industrial situation as a general lithofacies-mining terminological scheme because it is so entrenched. However, for research purposes a more descriptive lithofacies terminology should be adopted to facilitate detailed understanding of deposit characteristics, important variations in these, and the process origins. For example every deposit of TKB is different in componentry, texture, or depositional structure. However, because so many deposits in many different pipes are called TKB, there is an implication that they are all similar and that similar processes were involved, which is far from clear.

  10. Nonhomologous Recombination between Defective Poliovirus and Coxsackievirus Genomes Suggests a New Model of Genetic Plasticity for Picornaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3′ end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. PMID:25096874

  11. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...

  12. Genetic and functional analyses of SHANK2 mutations suggest a multiple hit model of autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire S Leblond

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls. We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4% patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5% controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23-4.70. In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013. Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11-q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the "multiple hit model" for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD.

  13. Graphical interpretation of numerical model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewes, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Computer software has been developed to produce high quality graphical displays of data from a numerical grid model. The code uses an existing graphical display package (DISSPLA) and overcomes some of the problems of both line-printer output and traditional graphics. The software has been designed to be flexible enough to handle arbitrarily placed computation grids and a variety of display requirements

  14. Ignalina NPP Safety Analysis: Models and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uspuras, E.

    1999-01-01

    Research directions, linked to safety assessment of the Ignalina NPP, of the scientific safety analysis group are presented: Thermal-hydraulic analysis of accidents and operational transients; Thermal-hydraulic assessment of Ignalina NPP Accident Localization System and other compartments; Structural analysis of plant components, piping and other parts of Main Circulation Circuit; Assessment of RBMK-1500 reactor core and other. Models and main works carried out last year are described. (author)

  15. Analysing population numbers of the house sparrow in the Netherlands with a matrix model and suggestions for conservation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Holtkamp, R.; Apeldoorn, van R.C.; Visser, M.E.; Hemerik, L.

    2006-01-01

    The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), formerly a common bird species, has shown a rapid decline in Western Europe over recent decades. In The Netherlands, its decline is apparent from 1990 onwards. Many causes for this decline have been suggested that all decrease the vital rates, i.e. survival and

  16. Exposure–response model for sibutramine and placebo: suggestion for application to long-term weight-control drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghoon; Jeon, Sangil; Hong, Taegon; Lee, Jongtae; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Wan-su; Park, Gab-jin; Youn, Sunil; Jang, Doo Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    No wholly successful weight-control drugs have been developed to date, despite the tremendous demand. We present an exposure–response model of sibutramine mesylate that can be applied during clinical development of other weight-control drugs. Additionally, we provide a model-based evaluation of sibutramine efficacy. Data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study were used (N=120). Subjects in the treatment arm were initially given 8.37 mg sibutramine base daily, and those who lost sibutramine, including the placebo effect, were modeled using NONMEM 7.2. An asymptotic model approaching the final body weight was chosen to describe the time course of weight loss. Extent of weight loss was described successfully using a sigmoidal exposure–response relationship of the drug with a constant placebo effect in each individual. The placebo effect was influenced by subjects’ sex and baseline body mass index. Maximal weight loss was predicted to occur around 1 year after treatment initiation. The difference in mean weight loss between the sibutramine (daily 12.55 mg) and placebo groups was predicted to be 4.5% in a simulation of 1 year of treatment, with considerable overlap of prediction intervals. Our exposure–response model, which included the placebo effect, is the first example of a quantitative model that can be used to predict the efficacy of weight-control drugs. Similar approaches can help decision-making during clinical development of novel weight-loss drugs. PMID:26392753

  17. Exposure-response model for sibutramine and placebo: suggestion for application to long-term weight-control drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghoon; Jeon, Sangil; Hong, Taegon; Lee, Jongtae; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Wan-su; Park, Gab-jin; Youn, Sunil; Jang, Doo Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    No wholly successful weight-control drugs have been developed to date, despite the tremendous demand. We present an exposure-response model of sibutramine mesylate that can be applied during clinical development of other weight-control drugs. Additionally, we provide a model-based evaluation of sibutramine efficacy. Data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study were used (N=120). Subjects in the treatment arm were initially given 8.37 mg sibutramine base daily, and those who lost sibutramine, including the placebo effect, were modeled using NONMEM 7.2. An asymptotic model approaching the final body weight was chosen to describe the time course of weight loss. Extent of weight loss was described successfully using a sigmoidal exposure-response relationship of the drug with a constant placebo effect in each individual. The placebo effect was influenced by subjects' sex and baseline body mass index. Maximal weight loss was predicted to occur around 1 year after treatment initiation. The difference in mean weight loss between the sibutramine (daily 12.55 mg) and placebo groups was predicted to be 4.5% in a simulation of 1 year of treatment, with considerable overlap of prediction intervals. Our exposure-response model, which included the placebo effect, is the first example of a quantitative model that can be used to predict the efficacy of weight-control drugs. Similar approaches can help decision-making during clinical development of novel weight-loss drugs.

  18. Microplasticity of MMC. Experimental results and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, E.; Lormand, G.; Gobin, P.F.; Fougeres, R.

    1993-01-01

    The microplastic behavior of several MMC is investigated by means of tension and compression tests. This behavior is assymetric : the proportional limit is higher in tension than in compression but the work hardening rate is higher in compression. These differences are analysed in terms of maxium of the Tresca's shear stress at the interface (proportional limit) and of the emission of dislocation loops during the cooling (work hardening rate). On another hand, a model is proposed to calculate the value of the yield stress, describing the composite as a material composed of three phases : inclusion, unaffected matrix and matrix surrounding the inclusion having a gradient in the density of the thermally induced dilocations. (orig.)

  19. Microplasticity of MMC. Experimental results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, E. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Lormand, G. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Gobin, P.F. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Fougeres, R. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France))

    1993-11-01

    The microplastic behavior of several MMC is investigated by means of tension and compression tests. This behavior is assymetric : the proportional limit is higher in tension than in compression but the work hardening rate is higher in compression. These differences are analysed in terms of maxium of the Tresca's shear stress at the interface (proportional limit) and of the emission of dislocation loops during the cooling (work hardening rate). On another hand, a model is proposed to calculate the value of the yield stress, describing the composite as a material composed of three phases : inclusion, unaffected matrix and matrix surrounding the inclusion having a gradient in the density of the thermally induced dilocations. (orig.).

  20. Didactical suggestion for a Dynamic Hybrid Intelligent e-Learning Environment (DHILE) applying the PENTHA ID Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dall'Acqua, Luisa

    2011-08-01

    The teleology of our research is to propose a solution to the request of "innovative, creative teaching", proposing a methodology to educate creative Students in a society characterized by multiple reference points and hyper dynamic knowledge, continuously subject to reviews and discussions. We apply a multi-prospective Instructional Design Model (PENTHA ID Model), defined and developed by our research group, which adopts a hybrid pedagogical approach, consisting of elements of didactical connectivism intertwined with aspects of social constructivism and enactivism. The contribution proposes an e-course structure and approach, applying the theoretical design principles of the above mentioned ID Model, describing methods, techniques, technologies and assessment criteria for the definition of lesson modes in an e-course.

  1. Bifurcation Analysis of an Existing Mathematical Model Reveals Novel Treatment Strategies and Suggests Potential Cure for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kenneth Hagde Mandrup; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Pociot, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a disease with serious personal and socioeconomic consequences that has attracted the attention of modellers recently. But as models of this disease tend to be complicated, there has been only limited mathematical analysis to date. Here we address this problem by providing...... a bifurcation analysis of a previously published mathematical model for the early stages of type 1 diabetes in diabetes-prone NOD mice, which is based on the data available in the literature. We also show positivity and the existence of a family of attracting trapping regions in the positive 5D cone, converging...... or activated macrophages, increasing the phagocytic ability of resting and activated macrophages simultaneously and lastly, adding additional macrophages to the site of inflammation. The latter seems counter-intuitive at first glance, but nevertheless it appears to be the most promising, as evidenced by recent...

  2. Low Level Evidence Suggests That Librarian-Led Instruction in Evidence Based Practice is Effective Regardless of Instructional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Alcock

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Swanberg, S. M., Dennison, C. C., Farrell, A., Machel, V., Marton, C., O'Brien, K. K., … & Holyoke, A. N. (2016. Instructional methods used by health sciences librarians to teach evidence-based practice (EBP: a systematic review. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 104(3, 197-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.3.004 Abstract Objective – To determine both the instructional methods and their effectiveness in teaching evidence based practice (EBP by librarians in health sciences curricula. Design – Systematic review. Setting – A total of 16 databases, Google Scholar, and MLA Annual Meeting abstracts. Subjects – There were 27 studies identified through a systematic literature search. Methods – An exhaustive list of potential articles was gathered through searching 16 online databases, Google Scholar, and MLA Annual Conference abstracts. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified to inform the literature search and determine article eligibility. Duplicates were removed and the remaining search results were divided into sets and assigned to two reviewers who screened first by title/abstract and then by full-text. A third reviewer addressed disagreement in article inclusion. Data extraction, using a validated method described by Koufogiannakis and Wiebe (2006, and critical appraisal, using the Glasgow checklist (1999, were performed concurrently. Main Results – After removal of duplicates 30,043 articles were identified for initial title/abstract screening. Of the 637 articles assessed for full-text screening 26 articles and 1 conference proceeding ultimately met all eligibility criteria. There was no meta-analysis included in the synthesis. There were 16 articles published in library and information science journals and 10 in health sciences journals. Of those studies, 22 were conducted in the United States. A wide range of user groups was identified as participants in the studies with medical

  3. Challenges and uncertainties in hydrological modelling of remote Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) basins: suggestions for calibration strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Konz, M.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Shresta, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of water resources from remote mountainous catchments plays a crucial role for the development of rural areas in or in the vicinity of mountain ranges. The scarcity of data, however, prevents the application of standard approaches that are based on data-driven models. The Hindu

  4. Exposure–response model for sibutramine and placebo: suggestion for application to long-term weight-control drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seunghoon Han,1,2 Sangil Jeon,1,2 Taegon Hong,1,2 Jongtae Lee,1,2 Soo Hyeon Bae,1,2 Wan-su Park,1,2 Gab-jin Park,1,2 Sunil Youn,1,2 Doo Yeon Jang,1,2 Kyung-Soo Kim,3 Dong-Seok Yim1,2 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 2Pharmacometrics Institute for Practical Education and Training, 3Department of Family Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, Seochogu, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: No wholly successful weight-control drugs have been developed to date, despite the tremendous demand. We present an exposure–response model of sibutramine mesylate that can be applied during clinical development of other weight-control drugs. Additionally, we provide a model-based evaluation of sibutramine efficacy. Data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study were used (N=120. Subjects in the treatment arm were initially given 8.37 mg sibutramine base daily, and those who lost <2 kg after 4 weeks’ treatment were escalated to 12.55 mg. The duration of treatment was 24 weeks. Drug concentration and body weight were measured predose and at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 24 weeks after treatment initiation. Exposure and response to sibutramine, including the placebo effect, were modeled using NONMEM 7.2. An asymptotic model approaching the final body weight was chosen to describe the time course of weight loss. Extent of weight loss was described successfully using a sigmoidal exposure–response relationship of the drug with a constant placebo effect in each individual. The placebo effect was influenced by subjects’ sex and baseline body mass index. Maximal weight loss was predicted to occur around 1 year after treatment initiation. The difference in mean weight loss between the sibutramine (daily 12.55 mg and placebo groups was predicted to be 4.5% in a simulation of 1 year of treatment, with considerable overlap of prediction intervals. Our exposure–response model, which

  5. A novel adoptive transfer model of chronic lymphocytic leukemia suggests a key role for T lymphocytes in the disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnara, Davide; Kaufman, Matthew S.; Calissano, Carlo; Marsilio, Sonia; Patten, Piers E. M.; Simone, Rita; Chum, Philip; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Allen, Steven L.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Baskar, Sivasubramanian; Rader, Christoph; Mellstedt, Hakan; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Lee, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable adult disease of unknown etiology. Understanding the biology of CLL cells, particularly cell maturation and growth in vivo, has been impeded by lack of a reproducible adoptive transfer model. We report a simple, reproducible system in which primary CLL cells proliferate in nonobese diabetes/severe combined immunodeficiency/γcnull mice under the influence of activated CLL-derived T lymphocytes. By cotransferring autologous T lymphocytes, activ...

  6. Results of a multinational study suggest the need for rapid diagnosis and early antiviral treatment at the onset of herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya

    2015-01-01

    survived, with sequelae. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05), Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.93), and symptomatic periods of 2 to 7 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.79) and >7 days (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.15) until the commencement...... of treatment predicted unfavorable outcomes. The outcome in HME patients is related to a combination of therapeutic and host factors. This study suggests that rapid diagnosis and early administration of antiviral treatment in HME patients are keys to a favorable outcome....

  7. Synthetic biology between challenges and risks: suggestions for a model of governance and a regulatory framework, based on fundamental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, Ilaria Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the emerging synthetic biology, its challenges and risks, and tries to design a model for the governance and regulation of the field. The model is called of "prudent vigilance" (inspired by the report about synthetic biology, drafted by the U.S. Presidential Commission on Bioethics, 2010), and it entails (a) an ongoing and periodically revised process of assessment and management of all the risks and concerns, and (b) the adoption of policies - taken through "hard law" and "soft law" sources - that are based on the principle of proportionality (among benefits and risks), on a reasonable balancing between different interests and rights at stake, and are oriented by a constitutional frame, which is represented by the protection of fundamental human rights emerging in the field of synthetic biology (right to life, right to health, dignity, freedom of scientific research, right to environment). After the theoretical explanation of the model, its operability is "checked", by considering its application with reference to only one specific risk brought up by synthetic biology - biosecurity risk, i.e. the risk of bioterrorism.

  8. Modeling Results For the ITER Cryogenic Fore Pump. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfotenhauer, John M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zhang, Dongsheng [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-03-31

    A numerical model characterizing the operation of a cryogenic fore-pump (CFP) for ITER has been developed at the University of Wisconsin – Madison during the period from March 15, 2011 through June 30, 2014. The purpose of the ITER-CFP is to separate hydrogen isotopes from helium gas, both making up the exhaust components from the ITER reactor. The model explicitly determines the amount of hydrogen that is captured by the supercritical-helium-cooled pump as a function of the inlet temperature of the supercritical helium, its flow rate, and the inlet conditions of the hydrogen gas flow. Furthermore the model computes the location and amount of hydrogen captured in the pump as a function of time. Throughout the model’s development, and as a calibration check for its results, it has been extensively compared with the measurements of a CFP prototype tested at Oak Ridge National Lab. The results of the model demonstrate that the quantity of captured hydrogen is very sensitive to the inlet temperature of the helium coolant on the outside of the cryopump. Furthermore, the model can be utilized to refine those tests, and suggests methods that could be incorporated in the testing to enhance the usefulness of the measured data.

  9. VDR regulation of microRNA differs across prostate cell models suggesting extremely flexible control of transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant K; Long, Mark D; Battaglia, Sebastiano; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Campbell, Moray J

    2015-01-01

    The Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and is of therapeutic interest in cancer and other settings. Regulation of microRNA (miRNA) by the VDR appears to be important to mediate its actions, for example, to control cell growth. To identify if and to what extent VDR-regulated miRNA patterns change in prostate cancer progression, we undertook miRNA microarray analyses in 7 cell models representing non-malignant and malignant prostate cells (RWPE-1, RWPE-2, HPr1, HPr1AR, LNCaP, LNCaP-C4-2, and PC-3). To focus on primary VDR regulatory events, we undertook expression analyses after 30 minutes treatment with 1α,25(OH)2D3. Across all models, 111 miRNAs were significantly modulated by 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Of these, only 5 miRNAs were modulated in more than one cell model, and of these, only 3 miRNAs were modulated in the same direction. The patterns of miRNA regulation, and the networks they targeted, significantly distinguished the different cell types. Integration of 1α,25(OH)2D3-regulated miRNAs with published VDR ChIP-seq data showed significant enrichment of VDR peaks in flanking regions of miRNAs. Furthermore, mRNA and miRNA expression analyses in non-malignant RWPE-1 cells revealed patterns of miRNA and mRNA co-regulation; specifically, 13 significant reciprocal patterns were identified and these patterns were also observed in TCGA prostate cancer data. Lastly, motif search analysis revealed differential motif enrichment within VDR peaks flanking mRNA compared to miRNA genes. Together, this study revealed that miRNAs are rapidly regulated in a highly cell-type specific manner, and are significantly co-integrated with mRNA regulation.

  10. The α-fetoprotein knock-out mouse model suggests that parental behavior is sexually differentiated under the influence of prenatal estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Pawluski, Jodi L.; Brock, Olivier; Douhard, Quentin; Bakker, Julie

    2010-01-01

    In rodent species, sexual differentiation of the brain for many reproductive processes depends largely on estradiol. This was recently confirmed again by using the α-fetoprotein knockout (AFP-KO) mouse model, which lacks the protective actions of α-fetoprotein against maternal estradiol and as a result represents a good model to determine the contribution of prenatal estradiol to the sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Female AFP-KO mice were defeminized and masculinized with regard to their neuroendocrine responses as well as sexual behavior. Since parental behavior is also strongly sexually differentiated in mice, we used the AFP-KO mouse model here to ask whether parental responses are differentiated prenatally under the influence of estradiol. It was found that AFP-KO females showed longer latencies to retrieve pups to the nest and also exhibited lower levels of crouching over the pups in the nest in comparison to WT females. In fact, they resembled males (WT and AFP-KO). Other measures of maternal behavior, for example the incidence of infanticide, tended to be higher in AFP-KO females than in WT females but this increase failed to reach statistical significance. The deficits observed in parental behavior of AFP-KO females could not be explained by any changes in olfactory function, novelty recognition or anxiety. Thus our results suggest that prenatal estradiol defeminizes the parental brain in mice. PMID:20109458

  11. Expression of venom gene homologs in diverse python tissues suggests a new model for the evolution of snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Card, Daren C; Andrew, Audra L; Shaney, Kyle J; Adams, Richard H; Schield, Drew R; Casewell, Nicholas R; Mackessy, Stephen P; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Snake venom gene evolution has been studied intensively over the past several decades, yet most previous studies have lacked the context of complete snake genomes and the full context of gene expression across diverse snake tissues. We took a novel approach to studying snake venom evolution by leveraging the complete genome of the Burmese python, including information from tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. We identified the orthologs of snake venom genes in the python genome, and conducted detailed analysis of gene expression of these venom homologs to identify patterns that differ between snake venom gene families and all other genes. We found that venom gene homologs in the python are expressed in many different tissues outside of oral glands, which illustrates the pitfalls of using transcriptomic data alone to define "venom toxins." We hypothesize that the python may represent an ancestral state prior to major venom development, which is supported by our finding that the expansion of venom gene families is largely restricted to highly venomous caenophidian snakes. Therefore, the python provides insight into biases in which genes were recruited for snake venom systems. Python venom homologs are generally expressed at lower levels, have higher variance among tissues, and are expressed in fewer organs compared with all other python genes. We propose a model for the evolution of snake venoms in which venom genes are recruited preferentially from genes with particular expression profile characteristics, which facilitate a nearly neutral transition toward specialized venom system expression. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Results of the eruptive column model inter-comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio; Suzuki, Yujiro; Cerminara, M.; Devenish, Ben J.; Esposti Ongaro, T.; Herzog, Michael; Van Eaton, Alexa; Denby, L.C.; Bursik, Marcus; de' Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Engwell, S.; Neri, Augusto; Barsotti, Sara; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni; Girault, F.; Carazzo, G.; Tait, S.; Kaminski, E.; Mastin, Larry G.; Woodhouse, Mark J.; Phillips, Jeremy C.; Hogg, Andrew J.; Degruyter, Wim; Bonadonna, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    This study compares and evaluates one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical models of volcanic eruption columns in a set of different inter-comparison exercises. The exercises were designed as a blind test in which a set of common input parameters was given for two reference eruptions, representing a strong and a weak eruption column under different meteorological conditions. Comparing the results of the different models allows us to evaluate their capabilities and target areas for future improvement. Despite their different formulations, the 1D and 3D models provide reasonably consistent predictions of some of the key global descriptors of the volcanic plumes. Variability in plume height, estimated from the standard deviation of model predictions, is within ~ 20% for the weak plume and ~ 10% for the strong plume. Predictions of neutral buoyancy level are also in reasonably good agreement among the different models, with a standard deviation ranging from 9 to 19% (the latter for the weak plume in a windy atmosphere). Overall, these discrepancies are in the range of observational uncertainty of column height. However, there are important differences amongst models in terms of local properties along the plume axis, particularly for the strong plume. Our analysis suggests that the simplified treatment of entrainment in 1D models is adequate to resolve the general behaviour of the weak plume. However, it is inadequate to capture complex features of the strong plume, such as large vortices, partial column collapse, or gravitational fountaining that strongly enhance entrainment in the lower atmosphere. We conclude that there is a need to more accurately quantify entrainment rates, improve the representation of plume radius, and incorporate the effects of column instability in future versions of 1D volcanic plume models.

  13. Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Claire S.; Heinrich, Jutta; Delorme, Richard; Proepper, Christian; Betancur, Catalina; Huguet, Guillaume; Konyukh, Marina; Chaste, Pauline; Ey, Elodie; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nygren, Gudrun; Gillberg, I. Carina; Melke, Jonas; Toro, Roberto; Regnault, Beatrice; Fauchereau, Fabien; Mercati, Oriane; Lemière, Nathalie; Skuse, David; Poot, Martin; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Järvelä, Irma; Kantojärvi, Katri; Vanhala, Raija; Curran, Sarah; Collier, David A.; Bolton, Patrick; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Waltes, Regina; Kopp, Marnie; Duketis, Eftichia; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Ruta, Liliana; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Maestrini, Elena; Sequeira, Ana F.; Oliveira, Barbara; Vicente, Astrid; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Bonneau, Dominique; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23–4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11–q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the “multiple hit model” for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD. PMID:22346768

  14. Preliminary time-phased TWRS process model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orme, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the first phase of efforts to model the retrieval and processing of Hanford tank waste within the constraints of an assumed tank farm configuration. This time-phased approach simulates a first try at a retrieval sequence, the batching of waste through retrieval facilities, the batching of retrieved waste through enhanced sludge washing, the batching of liquids through pretreatment and low-level waste (LLW) vitrification, and the batching of pretreated solids through high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. The results reflect the outcome of an assumed retrieval sequence that has not been tailored with respect to accepted measures of performance. The batch data, composition variability, and final waste volume projects in this report should be regarded as tentative. Nevertheless, the results provide interesting insights into time-phased processing of the tank waste. Inspection of the composition variability, for example, suggests modifications to the retrieval sequence that will further improve the uniformity of feed to the vitrification facilities. This model will be a valuable tool for evaluating suggested retrieval sequences and establishing a time-phased processing baseline. An official recommendation on tank retrieval sequence will be made in September, 1995

  15. Simulated Models Suggest That Price per Calorie Is the Dominant Price Metric That Low-Income Individuals Use for Food Decision Making123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: The price of food has long been considered one of the major factors that affects food choices. However, the price metric (e.g., the price of food per calorie or the price of food per gram) that individuals predominantly use when making food choices is unclear. Understanding which price metric is used is especially important for studying individuals with severe budget constraints because food price then becomes even more important in food choice. Objective: We assessed which price metric is used by low-income individuals in deciding what to eat. Methods: With the use of data from NHANES and the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, we created an agent-based model that simulated an environment representing the US population, wherein individuals were modeled as agents with a specific weight, age, and income. In our model, agents made dietary food choices while meeting their budget limits with the use of 1 of 3 different metrics for decision making: energy cost (price per calorie), unit price (price per gram), and serving price (price per serving). The food consumption patterns generated by our model were compared to 3 independent data sets. Results: The food choice behaviors observed in 2 of the data sets were found to be closest to the simulated dietary patterns generated by the price per calorie metric. The behaviors observed in the third data set were equidistant from the patterns generated by price per calorie and price per serving metrics, whereas results generated by the price per gram metric were further away. Conclusions: Our simulations suggest that dietary food choice based on price per calorie best matches actual consumption patterns and may therefore be the most salient price metric for low-income populations. PMID:27655757

  16. Expertly validated models and phylogenetically-controlled analysis suggests responses to climate change are related to species traits in the order lagomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Leach

    Full Text Available Climate change during the past five decades has impacted significantly on natural ecosystems, and the rate of current climate change is of great concern among conservation biologists. Species Distribution Models (SDMs have been used widely to project changes in species' bioclimatic envelopes under future climate scenarios. Here, we aimed to advance this technique by assessing future changes in the bioclimatic envelopes of an entire mammalian order, the Lagomorpha, using a novel framework for model validation based jointly on subjective expert evaluation and objective model evaluation statistics. SDMs were built using climatic, topographical, and habitat variables for all 87 lagomorph species under past and current climate scenarios. Expert evaluation and Kappa values were used to validate past and current models and only those deemed 'modellable' within our framework were projected under future climate scenarios (58 species. Phylogenetically-controlled regressions were used to test whether species traits correlated with predicted responses to climate change. Climate change is likely to impact more than two-thirds of lagomorph species, with leporids (rabbits, hares, and jackrabbits likely to undertake poleward shifts with little overall change in range extent, whilst pikas are likely to show extreme shifts to higher altitudes associated with marked range declines, including the likely extinction of Kozlov's Pika (Ochotona koslowi. Smaller-bodied species were more likely to exhibit range contractions and elevational increases, but showing little poleward movement, and fecund species were more likely to shift latitudinally and elevationally. Our results suggest that species traits may be important indicators of future climate change and we believe multi-species approaches, as demonstrated here, are likely to lead to more effective mitigation measures and conservation management. We strongly advocate studies minimising data gaps in our knowledge of

  17. The modeled structure of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase of GBV-C Virus suggests a role for motif E in Flaviviridae RNA polymerases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutartre Hélène

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Flaviviridae virus family includes major human and animal pathogens. The RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp plays a central role in the replication process, and thus is a validated target for antiviral drugs. Despite the increasing structural and enzymatic characterization of viral RdRps, detailed molecular replication mechanisms remain unclear. The hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major human pathogen difficult to study in cultured cells. The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is often used as a surrogate model to screen antiviral drugs against HCV. The structure of BVDV RdRp has been recently published. It presents several differences relative to HCV RdRp. These differences raise questions about the relevance of BVDV as a surrogate model, and cast novel interest on the "GB" virus C (GBV-C. Indeed, GBV-C is genetically closer to HCV than BVDV, and can lead to productive infection of cultured cells. There is no structural data for the GBV-C RdRp yet. Results We show in this study that the GBV-C RdRp is closest to the HCV RdRp. We report a 3D model of the GBV-C RdRp, developed using sequence-to-structure threading and comparative modeling based on the atomic coordinates of the HCV RdRp structure. Analysis of the predicted structural features in the phylogenetic context of the RNA polymerase family allows rationalizing most of the experimental data available. Both available structures and our model are explored to examine the catalytic cleft, allosteric and substrate binding sites. Conclusion Computational methods were used to infer evolutionary relationships and to predict the structure of a viral RNA polymerase. Docking a GTP molecule into the structure allows defining a GTP binding pocket in the GBV-C RdRp, such as that of BVDV. The resulting model suggests a new proposition for the mechanism of RNA synthesis, and may prove useful to design new experiments to implement our knowledge on the initiation mechanism of RNA

  18. An Extremely Massive White Dwarf of the Symbiotic Classical Nova V407 Cyg as Suggested by the RS Oph and U SCO Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachisu I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the optical light curve of the symbiotic star V407 Cyg that underwent a classical nova outburst in 2010 March. Being guided by a supersoft X-ray phase observed during days 20-40 after the nova outburst, we are able to reproduce the light curve during a very early phase of the nova outburst. Our model consists of an outbursting white dwarf and an extended equatorial disk. An extremely massive white dwarf of 1.35-1.37 M⊙ is suggested. the optical light curve is also consistent with a sharp drop 47 days after the outburst, which is the end of hydrogen shell-burning on the white dwarf. Although the extremely massive white dwarf is favourable to the interpretation that V407 Cyg is a recurrent nova, enrichment of heavy elements in the ejecta suggests that the white dwarf is eroded and, as a result, its mass is not increasing. Therefore, V407 Cyg may not explode as a Type Ia supernova even if it is a carbon-oxygen white dwarf.

  19. Simulated Models Suggest That Price per Calorie Is the Dominant Price Metric That Low-Income Individuals Use for Food Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Igusa, Takeru; Jones-Smith, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    The price of food has long been considered one of the major factors that affects food choices. However, the price metric (e.g., the price of food per calorie or the price of food per gram) that individuals predominantly use when making food choices is unclear. Understanding which price metric is used is especially important for studying individuals with severe budget constraints because food price then becomes even more important in food choice. We assessed which price metric is used by low-income individuals in deciding what to eat. With the use of data from NHANES and the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, we created an agent-based model that simulated an environment representing the US population, wherein individuals were modeled as agents with a specific weight, age, and income. In our model, agents made dietary food choices while meeting their budget limits with the use of 1 of 3 different metrics for decision making: energy cost (price per calorie), unit price (price per gram), and serving price (price per serving). The food consumption patterns generated by our model were compared to 3 independent data sets. The food choice behaviors observed in 2 of the data sets were found to be closest to the simulated dietary patterns generated by the price per calorie metric. The behaviors observed in the third data set were equidistant from the patterns generated by price per calorie and price per serving metrics, whereas results generated by the price per gram metric were further away. Our simulations suggest that dietary food choice based on price per calorie best matches actual consumption patterns and may therefore be the most salient price metric for low-income populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Model estimates of leaf area and reference canopy stomatal conductance suggest correlation between phenology and physiology in both trembling aspen and red pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Kruger, E. L.

    2006-12-01

    Phenological variations impact water and carbon fluxes, as evidenced by the large interannual variability of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and evapotranspiration (ET). In northern Wisconsin we observed daily variations of canopy transpiration from hardwoods from 1.0 to 1.7 mm/day during the leaf unfolding period and 1.7 to 2.6 mm/day with leaves fully out. Correlations between such flux rates and phenology have not been extensively tested and mechanistic connections are in their infancy. Some data suggest that stomatal conductance and photosynthesis increases up to full expansion. Moreover, in conifers, the interaction of phenology and physiology is more complicated than in deciduous trees because needles are retained for several years. Using inverse modeling with a coupled photosynthesis-transpiration model we estimated reference canopy stomatal conductance, Gsref, for red pine (Pinus resinosa), and Gsref and leaf area index, L, for trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), using 30-min continuous sap flux data spanning a period from just prior to the start of leaf expansion to just after leaf senescence. The red pine showed Gsref ramp up from 105 to 179 mmol m-2 leaf s-1, which represented a 37 to 50 percent increase in Gsref after accounting for maximum possible changes in L. After full leaf out, the trembling aspen were almost immediately defoliated, and then reflushed after three weeks. Model estimates of L reflected this pattern and were consistent with measurements. However, Gsref never exceeded 45 mmol m-2 s-1 prior to defoliation, but peaked at 112 mmol m-2 s-1 after reflushing. These results support the need for further work that aims to separate phenology and physiology.

  1. Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases : a review and suggested reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Decision analytic models play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of health technologies. Given uncertainties around the assumptions used to develop such models, several guidelines have been published to identify and assess 'best practice' in the model development process, including general modelling approach (e.g., time horizon), model structure, input data and model performance evaluation. This paper focuses on model performance evaluation. In the absence of a sufficient level of detail around model performance evaluation, concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs, and hence the credibility of such models, are frequently raised. Following presentation of its components, a review of the application and reporting of model performance evaluation is presented. Taking cardiovascular disease as an illustrative example, the review investigates the use of face validity, internal validity, external validity, and cross model validity. As a part of the performance evaluation process, model calibration is also discussed and its use in applied studies investigated. The review found that the application and reporting of model performance evaluation across 81 studies of treatment for cardiovascular disease was variable. Cross-model validation was reported in 55 % of the reviewed studies, though the level of detail provided varied considerably. We found that very few studies documented other types of validity, and only 6 % of the reviewed articles reported a calibration process. Considering the above findings, we propose a comprehensive model performance evaluation framework (checklist), informed by a review of best-practice guidelines. This framework provides a basis for more accurate and consistent documentation of model performance evaluation. This will improve the peer review process and the comparability of modelling studies. Recognising the fundamental role of decision analytic models in informing public funding decisions, the proposed

  2. The uncertainty analysis of model results a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofer, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    This book is a practical guide to the uncertainty analysis of computer model applications. Used in many areas, such as engineering, ecology and economics, computer models are subject to various uncertainties at the level of model formulations, parameter values and input data. Naturally, it would be advantageous to know the combined effect of these uncertainties on the model results as well as whether the state of knowledge should be improved in order to reduce the uncertainty of the results most effectively. The book supports decision-makers, model developers and users in their argumentation for an uncertainty analysis and assists them in the interpretation of the analysis results.

  3. V and V Efforts of Auroral Precipitation Models: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Rastaetter, Lutz; Hesse, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Auroral precipitation models have been valuable both in terms of space weather applications and space science research. Yet very limited testing has been performed regarding model performance. A variety of auroral models are available, including empirical models that are parameterized by geomagnetic indices or upstream solar wind conditions, now casting models that are based on satellite observations, or those derived from physics-based, coupled global models. In this presentation, we will show our preliminary results regarding V&V efforts of some of the models.

  4. VNIR spectral modeling of Mars analogue rocks: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, L.; Roush, T.; Pedrazzi, G.; Sgavetti, M.

    Knowledge regarding the surface composition of Mars and other bodies of the inner solar system is fundamental to understanding of their origin, evolution, and internal structures. Technological improvements of remote sensors and associated implications for planetary studies have encouraged increased laboratory and field spectroscopy research to model the spectral behavior of terrestrial analogues for planetary surfaces. This approach has proven useful during Martian surface and orbital missions, and petrologic studies of Martian SNC meteorites. Thermal emission data were used to suggest two lithologies occurring on Mars surface: basalt with abundant plagioclase and clinopyroxene and andesite, dominated by plagioclase and volcanic glass [1,2]. Weathered basalt has been suggested as an alternative to the andesite interpretation [3,4]. Orbital VNIR spectral imaging data also suggest the crust is dominantly basaltic, chiefly feldspar and pyroxene [5,6]. A few outcrops of ancient crust have higher concentrations of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, and have been interpreted as cumulates [6]. Based upon these orbital observations future lander/rover missions can be expected to encounter particulate soils, rocks, and rock outcrops. Approaches to qualitative and quantitative analysis of remotely-acquired spectra have been successfully used to infer the presence and abundance of minerals and to discover compositionally associated spectral trends [7-9]. Both empirical [10] and mathematical [e.g. 11-13] methods have been applied, typically with full compositional knowledge, to chiefly particulate samples and as a result cannot be considered as objective techniques for predicting the compositional information, especially for understanding the spectral behavior of rocks. Extending the compositional modeling efforts to include more rocks and developing objective criteria in the modeling are the next required steps. This is the focus of the present investigation. We present results of

  5. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...

  6. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  7. Verification of aseismic design model by using experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, N.; Sugiyama, N.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, Y.; Miura, K.; Miyagawa, N.

    1985-01-01

    A lattice model is applied as an analysis model for an aseismic design of the Hamaoka nuclear reactor building. With object to verify an availability of this design model, two reinforced concrete blocks are constructed on the ground and the forced vibration tests are carried out. The test results are well followed by simulation analysis using the lattice model. Damping value of the ground obtained from the test is more conservative than the design value. (orig.)

  8. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  9. Final model independent result of DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)

    2013-12-15

    The results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton x yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles (i.e. adding a further 0.17 ton x yr exposure) are presented. The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 data give evidence for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target, at 7.5{sigma} C.L. Including also the first generation DAMA/NaI experiment (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton x yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles), the C.L. is 9.3{sigma} and the modulation amplitude of the single-hit events in the (2-6) keV energy interval is: (0.0112{+-}0.0012) cpd/kg/keV; the measured phase is (144{+-}7) days and the measured period is (0.998{+-}0.002) yr, values well in agreement with those expected for DM particles. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. (orig.)

  10. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology.

  11. Effects of anti-inflammatory compounds on sulfur mustard injured cells: Recommendations and caveats suggested by in vitro cell culture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacher, Georg; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Popp, Tanja; Worek, Franz; Gudermann, Thomas; Thiermann, Horst; Balszuweit, Frank

    2018-09-01

    harmful. Diclofenac significantly reduced necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation in the co-culture in a dose-dependent manner. The greatest benefit regarding cell survival and reduction of the inflammation-marker IL-6 after a SM treatment was observed after diclofenac treatment. The protective effects of diclofenac were less pronounced in the monoculture which suggests, that diclofenac can modify the response of immune cells to SM. In conclusion, the results of our experiments, showing a benefit for diclofenac after SM exposure are in line with in vivo data of other researchers. Though, our in vitro results suggest the preferred use of diclofenac over ibuprofen. The benefit of dexamethasone is still equivocal, but low concentrations seem to have some positive effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pattyn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models that are able to robustly simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison exercise for marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no effects of lateral buttressing. Unique steady state grounding line positions exist for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed, while hysteresis occurs across an overdeepened bed, and stable steady state grounding line positions only occur on the downward-sloping sections. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which does not resolve extensional stresses, do not reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line. For extensional-stress resolving "shelfy stream" models, differences between model results were mainly due to the choice of spatial discretization. Moving grid methods were found to be the most accurate at capturing grounding line evolution, since they track the grounding line explicitly. Adaptive mesh refinement can further improve accuracy, including fixed grid models that generally perform poorly at coarse resolution. Fixed grid models, with nested grid representations of the grounding line, are able to generate accurate steady state positions, but can be inaccurate over transients. Only one full-Stokes model was included in the intercomparison, and consequently the accuracy of shelfy stream models as approximations of full-Stokes models remains to be determined in detail, especially during transients.

  13. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  14. Generalised Chou-Yang model and recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1995-09-01

    It is shown that most recent results of E710 and UA4/2 collaboration for the total cross section and ρ together with earlier measurements give good agreement with measurements for the differential cross section at 546 and 1800 GeV the framework of Generalised Chou-Yang model. These results are also compared with the predictions of other models. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs

  15. Generalised Chou-Yang model and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-e-Aleem [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Rashid, H. [Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Centre for High Energy Physics

    1996-12-31

    It is shown that most recent results of E710 and UA4/2 collaboration for the total cross section and {rho} together with earlier measurements give good agreement with measurements for the differential cross section at 546 and 1800 GeV within the framework of Generalised Chou-Yang model. These results are also compared with the predictions of other models. (author) 16 refs.

  16. Generalised Chou-Yang model and recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that most recent results of E710 and UA4/2 collaboration for the total cross section and ρ together with earlier measurements give good agreement with measurements for the differential cross section at 546 and 1800 GeV within the framework of Generalised Chou-Yang model. These results are also compared with the predictions of other models. (author)

  17. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  18. Results from the IAEA benchmark of spallation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.; David, J.C.; Khandaker, M.; Mank, G.; Mengoni, A.; Otsuka, N.; Filges, D.; Gallmeier, F.; Konobeyev, A.; Michel, R.

    2011-01-01

    Spallation reactions play an important role in a wide domain of applications. In the simulation codes used in this field, the nuclear interaction cross-sections and characteristics are computed by spallation models. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recently organised a benchmark of the spallation models used or that could be used in the future into high-energy transport codes. The objectives were, first, to assess the prediction capabilities of the different spallation models for the different mass and energy regions and the different exit channels and, second, to understand the reason for the success or deficiency of the models. Results of the benchmark concerning both the analysis of the prediction capabilities of the models and the first conclusions on the physics of spallation models are presented. (authors)

  19. The animal model determines the results of Aeromonas virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of A. hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analysed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1∆vapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1∆rmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and the AH-1∆wahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella. They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study

  20. Statistical Modeling Suggests that Antiandrogens in Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works Contribute to Widespread Sexual Disruption in Fish Living in English Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Susan; Burn, Robert. W.; Thorpe, Karen; Williams, Richard; Tyler, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background The widespread occurrence of feminized male fish downstream of some wastewater treatment works has led to substantial interest from ecologists and public health professionals. This concern stems from the view that the effects observed have a parallel in humans, and that both phenomena are caused by exposure to mixtures of contaminants that interfere with reproductive development. The evidence for a “wildlife–human connection” is, however, weak: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, seen in human males, is most easily reproduced in rodent models by exposure to mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals. In contrast, the accepted explanation for feminization of wild male fish is that it results mainly from exposure to steroidal estrogens originating primarily from human excretion. Objectives We sought to further explore the hypothesis that endocrine disruption in fish is multicausal, resulting from exposure to mixtures of chemicals with both estrogenic and antiandrogenic properties. Methods We used hierarchical generalized linear and generalized additive statistical modeling to explore the associations between modeled concentrations and activities of estrogenic and antiandrogenic chemicals in 30 U.K. rivers and feminized responses seen in wild fish living in these rivers. Results In addition to the estrogenic substances, antiandrogenic activity was prevalent in almost all treated sewage effluents tested. Further, the results of the modeling demonstrated that feminizing effects in wild fish could be best modeled as a function of their predicted exposure to both antiandrogens and estrogens or to antiandrogens alone. Conclusion The results provide a strong argument for a multicausal etiology of widespread feminization of wild fish in U.K. rivers involving contributions from both steroidal estrogens and xenoestrogens and from other (as yet unknown) contaminants with antiandrogenic properties. These results may add further credence to the hypothesis that endocrine

  1. The effect of bathymetric filtering on nearshore process model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, N.G.; Edwards, K.L.; Kaihatu, J.M.; Veeramony, J.; Hsu, L.; Holland, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    Nearshore wave and flow model results are shown to exhibit a strong sensitivity to the resolution of the input bathymetry. In this analysis, bathymetric resolution was varied by applying smoothing filters to high-resolution survey data to produce a number of bathymetric grid surfaces. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of model-predicted wave height and flow to variations in bathymetric resolution had different characteristics. Wave height predictions were most sensitive to resolution of cross-shore variability associated with the structure of nearshore sandbars. Flow predictions were most sensitive to the resolution of intermediate scale alongshore variability associated with the prominent sandbar rhythmicity. Flow sensitivity increased in cases where a sandbar was closer to shore and shallower. Perhaps the most surprising implication of these results is that the interpolation and smoothing of bathymetric data could be optimized differently for the wave and flow models. We show that errors between observed and modeled flow and wave heights are well predicted by comparing model simulation results using progressively filtered bathymetry to results from the highest resolution simulation. The damage done by over smoothing or inadequate sampling can therefore be estimated using model simulations. We conclude that the ability to quantify prediction errors will be useful for supporting future data assimilation efforts that require this information.

  2. Structural models of zebrafish (Danio rerio NOD1 and NOD2 NACHT domains suggest differential ATP binding orientations: insights from computational modeling, docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Maharana

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1 and NOD2 are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors playing pivotal roles in innate immune signaling. NOD1 and NOD2 recognize bacterial peptidoglycan derivatives iE-DAP and MDP, respectively and undergoes conformational alternation and ATP-dependent self-oligomerization of NACHT domain followed by downstream signaling. Lack of structural adequacy of NACHT domain confines our understanding about the NOD-mediated signaling mechanism. Here, we predicted the structure of NACHT domain of both NOD1 and NOD2 from model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio using computational methods. Our study highlighted the differential ATP binding modes in NOD1 and NOD2. In NOD1, γ-phosphate of ATP faced toward the central nucleotide binding cavity like NLRC4, whereas in NOD2 the cavity was occupied by adenine moiety. The conserved 'Lysine' at Walker A formed hydrogen bonds (H-bonds and Aspartic acid (Walker B formed electrostatic interaction with ATP. At Sensor 1, Arg328 of NOD1 exhibited an H-bond with ATP, whereas corresponding Arg404 of NOD2 did not. 'Proline' of GxP motif (Pro386 of NOD1 and Pro464 of NOD2 interacted with adenine moiety and His511 at Sensor 2 of NOD1 interacted with γ-phosphate group of ATP. In contrast, His579 of NOD2 interacted with the adenine moiety having a relatively inverted orientation. Our findings are well supplemented with the molecular interaction of ATP with NLRC4, and consistent with mutagenesis data reported for human, which indicates evolutionary shared NOD signaling mechanism. Together, this study provides novel insights into ATP binding mechanism, and highlights the differential ATP binding modes in zebrafish NOD1 and NOD2.

  3. Consultation and illness behaviour in response to symptoms: A comparison of models from different disciplinary frameworks and suggestions for future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyke, S.; Adamson, J.; Dixon, D.; Hunt, K.

    2013-01-01

    We all get ill and social scientific interest in how we respond - the study of illness behaviour - continues unabated. Existing models are useful, but have been developed and applied within disciplinary silos, resulting in wasted intellectual and empirical effort and an absence of accumulation of

  4. Circulation in the Gulf of Trieste: measurements and model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogunovici, B.; Malacic, V.

    2008-01-01

    The study presents seasonal variability of currents in the southern part of the Gulf of Trieste. A time series analysis of currents and wind stress for the period 2003-2006, which were measured by the coastal oceanographic buoy, was conducted. A comparison between these data and results obtained from a numerical model of circulation in the Gulf was performed to validate model results. Three different approaches were applied to the wind data to determine the wind stress. Similarities were found between Kondo and Smith approaches while the method of Vera shows differences which were particularly noticeable for lower (= 1 m/s) and higher wind speeds (= 15 m/s). Mean currents in the surface layer are generally outflow currents from the Gulf due to wind forcing (bora). However in all other depth layers inflow currents are dominant. With the principal component analysis (Pca) major and minor axes were determined for all seasons. The major axis of maximum variance in years between 2003 and 2006 is prevailing in Ne-Sw direction, which is parallel to the coastline. Comparison of observation and model results is showing that currents are similar (in direction) for the surface and bottom layers but are significantly different for the middle layer (5-13 m). At a depth between 14-21 m velocities are comparable in direction as well as in magnitude even though model values are higher. Higher values of modelled currents at the surface and near the bottom are explained by higher values of wind stress that were used in the model as driving input with respect to the stress calculated from the measured winds. Larger values of modelled currents near the bottom are related to the larger inflow that needs to compensate for the larger modelled outflow at the surface. However, inspection of the vertical structure of temperature, salinity and density shows that the model is reproducing a weaker density gradient which enables the penetration of the outflow surface currents to larger depths.

  5. Melt coolability modeling and comparison to MACE test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    An important question in the assessment of severe accidents in light water nuclear reactors is the ability of water to quench a molten corium-concrete interaction and thereby terminate the accident progression. As part of the Melt Attack and Coolability Experiment (MACE) Program, phenomenological models of the corium quenching process are under development. The modeling approach considers both bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes, as well as criteria for the pool thermal hydraulic conditions which separate the two regimes. The model is then compared with results of the MACE experiments

  6. Disentangling unisensory from fusion effects in the attentional modulation of McGurk effects: a Bayesian modeling study suggests that fusion is attention-dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Tiiippana, Kaisa; Andersen, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The McGurk effect has been shown to be modulated by attention. However, it remains unclear whether attentional effects are due to changes in unisensory processing or in the fusion mechanism. In this paper, we used published experimental data showing that distraction of visual attention weakens th...... Selection criterion. Our findings suggest that distraction of visual attention affects fusion by decreasing the weight of the visual input.......The McGurk effect has been shown to be modulated by attention. However, it remains unclear whether attentional effects are due to changes in unisensory processing or in the fusion mechanism. In this paper, we used published experimental data showing that distraction of visual attention weakens...... the McGurk effect, to fit either the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP) in which the fusion mechanism is fixed, or a variant of it in which the fusion mechanism could be varied depending on attention. The latter model was associated with a larger likelihood when assessed with a Bayesian Model...

  7. Relationship Marketing results: proposition of a cognitive mapping model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná Futino Barreto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This research sought to develop a cognitive model that expresses how marketing professionals understand the relationship between the constructs that define relationship marketing (RM. It also tried to understand, using the obtained model, how objectives in this field are achieved. Design/methodology/approach – Through cognitive mapping, we traced 35 individual mental maps, highlighting how each respondent understands the interactions between RM elements. Based on the views of these individuals, we established an aggregate mental map. Theoretical foundation – The topic is based on a literature review that explores the RM concept and its main elements. Based on this review, we listed eleven main constructs. Findings – We established an aggregate mental map that represents the RM structural model. Model analysis identified that CLV is understood as the final result of RM. We also observed that the impact of most of the RM elements on CLV is brokered by loyalty. Personalization and quality, on the other hand, proved to be process input elements, and are the ones that most strongly impact others. Finally, we highlight that elements that punish customers are much less effective than elements that benefit them. Contributions - The model was able to insert core elements of RM, but absent from most formal models: CLV and customization. The analysis allowed us to understand the interactions between the RM elements and how the end result of RM (CLV is formed. This understanding improves knowledge on the subject and helps guide, assess and correct actions.

  8. Functional results-oriented healthcare leadership: a novel leadership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Touby, Salem Said

    2012-03-01

    This article modifies the traditional functional leadership model to accommodate contemporary needs in healthcare leadership based on two findings. First, the article argues that it is important that the ideal healthcare leadership emphasizes the outcomes of the patient care more than processes and structures used to deliver such care; and secondly, that the leadership must strive to attain effectiveness of their care provision and not merely targeting the attractive option of efficient operations. Based on these premises, the paper reviews the traditional Functional Leadership Model and the three elements that define the type of leadership an organization has namely, the tasks, the individuals, and the team. The article argues that concentrating on any one of these elements is not ideal and proposes adding a new element to the model to construct a novel Functional Result-Oriented healthcare leadership model. The recommended Functional-Results Oriented leadership model embosses the results element on top of the other three elements so that every effort on healthcare leadership is directed towards attaining excellent patient outcomes.

  9. Value of the distant future: Model-independent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that the model-independent account of correlations in an interest rate process or a log-consumption growth process leads to declining long-term tails of discount curves. Under the assumption of an exponentially decaying memory in fluctuations of risk-free real interest rates, I derive the analytical expression for an apt value of the long run discount factor and provide a detailed comparison of the obtained result with the outcome of the benchmark risk-free interest rate models. Utilizing the standard consumption-based model with an isoelastic power utility of the representative economic agent, I derive the non-Markovian generalization of the Ramsey discounting formula. Obtained analytical results allowing simple calibration, may augment the rigorous cost-benefit and regulatory impact analysis of long-term environmental and infrastructure projects.

  10. Storm-time ring current: model-dependent results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Ganushkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of the paper is to investigate how much the modeled ring current depends on the representations of magnetic and electric fields and boundary conditions used in simulations. Two storm events, one moderate (SymH minimum of −120 nT on 6–7 November 1997 and one intense (SymH minimum of −230 nT on 21–22 October 1999, are modeled. A rather simple ring current model is employed, namely, the Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration model (IMPTAM, in order to make the results most evident. Four different magnetic field and two electric field representations and four boundary conditions are used. We find that different combinations of the magnetic and electric field configurations and boundary conditions result in very different modeled ring current, and, therefore, the physical conclusions based on simulation results can differ significantly. A time-dependent boundary outside of 6.6 RE gives a possibility to take into account the particles in the transition region (between dipole and stretched field lines forming partial ring current and near-Earth tail current in that region. Calculating the model SymH* by Biot-Savart's law instead of the widely used Dessler-Parker-Sckopke (DPS relation gives larger and more realistic values, since the currents are calculated in the regions with nondipolar magnetic field. Therefore, the boundary location and the method of SymH* calculation are of key importance for ring current data-model comparisons to be correctly interpreted.

  11. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  12. 3D mathematical modeling of glioblastoma suggests that transdifferentiated vascular endothelial cells mediate resistance to current standard-of-care therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huaming; Romero-López, Mónica; Benitez, Lesly I.; Di, Kaijun; Frieboes, Hermann B.; Hughes, Christopher C. W.; Bota, Daniela A.; Lowengrub, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive brain tumor in human patients, is decidedly heterogeneous and highly vascularized. Glioma stem/initiating cells (GSC) are found to play a crucial role by increasing cancer aggressiveness and promoting resistance to therapy. Recently, crosstalk between GSC and vascular endothelial cells has been shown to significantly promote GSC self-renewal and tumor progression. Further, GSC also transdifferentiate into bona-fide vascular endothelial cells (GEC), which inherit mutations present in GSC and are resistant to traditional anti-angiogenic therapies. Here we use 3D mathematical modeling to investigate GBM progression and response to therapy. The model predicted that GSC drive invasive fingering and that GEC spontaneously form a network within the hypoxic core, consistent with published experimental findings. Standard-of-care treatments using DNA-targeted therapy (radiation/chemo) together with anti-angiogenic therapies, reduced GBM tumor size but increased invasiveness. Anti-GEC treatments blocked the GEC support of GSC and reduced tumor size but led to increased invasiveness. Anti-GSC therapies that promote differentiation or disturb the stem cell niche effectively reduced tumor invasiveness and size, but were ultimately limited in reducing tumor size because GEC maintain GSC. Our study suggests that a combinatorial regimen targeting the vasculature, GSC, and GEC, using drugs already approved by the FDA, can reduce both tumor size and invasiveness and could lead to tumor eradication. PMID:28536277

  13. Test results of the SMES model coil. Pulse performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamajima, Takataro; Shimada, Mamoru; Ono, Michitaka

    1998-01-01

    A model coil for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES model coil) has been developed to establish the component technologies needed for a small-scale 100 kWh SMES device. The SMES model coil was fabricated, and then performance tests were carried out in 1996. The coil was successfully charged up to around 30 kA and down to zero at the same ramp rate of magnetic field experienced in a 100 kWh SMES device. AC loss in the coil was measured by an enthalpy method as parameters of ramp rate and flat top current. The results were evaluated by an analysis and compared with short-sample test results. The measured hysteresis loss is in good agreement with that estimated from the short-sample results. It was found that the coupling loss of the coil consists of two major coupling time constants. One is a short time constant of about 200 ms, which is in agreement with the test results of a short real conductor. The other is a long time constant of about 30 s, which could not be expected from the short sample test results. (author)

  14. Methodology and Results of Mathematical Modelling of Complex Technological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Nataliya V.

    2018-03-01

    The methodology of system analysis allows us to draw a mathematical model of the complex technological process. The mathematical description of the plasma-chemical process was proposed. The importance the quenching rate and initial temperature decrease time was confirmed for producing the maximum amount of the target product. The results of numerical integration of the system of differential equations can be used to describe reagent concentrations, plasma jet rate and temperature in order to achieve optimal mode of hardening. Such models are applicable both for solving control problems and predicting future states of sophisticated technological systems.

  15. Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the 1 / 5 -scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena

  16. Initial CGE Model Results Summary Exogenous and Endogenous Variables Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The following discussion presents initial results of tests of the most recent version of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of this is to test and assess the model’s behavioral properties. The test evaluated whether the predicted impacts are reasonable from a qualitative perspective. This issue is whether the predicted change, be it an increase or decrease in other model variables, is consistent with prior economic intuition and expectations about the predicted change. One of the purposes of this effort is to determine whether model changes are needed in order to improve its behavior qualitatively and quantitatively.

  17. First experiments results about the engineering model of Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, A.; Ginier, R.; Sauvage, M.

    1964-01-01

    This report deals with the first series of experiments carried out on the engineering model of Rapsodie and on an associated sodium facility set in a laboratory hall of Cadarache. It conveys more precisely: 1/ - The difficulties encountered during the erection and assembly of the engineering model and a compilation of the results of the first series of experiments and tests carried out on this installation (loading of the subassemblies preheating, thermal chocks...). 2/ - The experiments and tests carried out on the two prototypes control rod drive mechanisms which brought to the choice for the design of the definitive drive mechanism. As a whole, the results proved the validity of the general design principles adopted for Rapsodie. (authors) [fr

  18. Endometriosis education in schools: A New Zealand model examining the impact of an education program in schools on early recognition of symptoms suggesting endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Deborah; Brick, Emily; East, Michael C; Johnson, Neil

    2017-08-01

    Menstrual morbidity plays a significant role in adolescent females' lives. There are no studies to date reporting such data from menstrual health education programs in schools. The aim of our study was to report results from an audit of a menstrual health and endometriosis education program in secondary schools and observe age patterns of young women presenting for menstrual morbidity care. Audit data from education in secondary schools and audit data of patients from an Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain Coaching clinic operating in a private endometriosis specialised centre are reported. In a region of consistent delivery of the education program, student awareness of endometriosis was 32% in 2015. Overall in 2015, 13% of students experienced distressing menstrual symptoms and 27% of students sometimes or always missed school due to menstrual symptoms. Further, in one region of consistent delivery of the menstrual health education program, data show an increase in younger patients attending for specialised endometriosis care. There is strong suggestive evidence that consistent delivery of a menstrual health education program in schools increases adolescent student awareness of endometriosis. In addition, there is suggestive evidence that in a geographical area of consistent delivery of the program, a shift in earlier presentation of young women to a specialised health service is observed. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-08-15

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  20. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H.

    2013-08-01

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  1. Acoustic results of the Boeing model 360 whirl tower test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael E.; Jordan, David

    1990-09-01

    An evaluation is presented for whirl tower test results of the Model 360 helicopter's advanced, high-performance four-bladed composite rotor system intended to facilitate over-200-knot flight. During these performance measurements, acoustic data were acquired by seven microphones. A comparison of whirl-tower tests with theory indicate that theoretical prediction accuracies vary with both microphone position and the inclusion of ground reflection. Prediction errors varied from 0 to 40 percent of the measured signal-to-peak amplitude.

  2. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M.R.; Pasquier, V.

    1993-01-01

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices. (author)

  3. Review of Current Standard Model Results in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Gerhard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This talk highlights results selected from the Standard Model research programme of the ATLAS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider. Results using data from $p-p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7,8$~TeV in LHC Run-1 as well as results using data at $\\sqrt{s}=13$~TeV in LHC Run-2 are covered. The status of cross section measurements from soft QCD processes and jet production as well as photon production are presented. The presentation extends to vector boson production with associated jets. Precision measurements of the production of $W$ and $Z$ bosons, including a first measurement of the mass of the $W$ bosons, $m_W$, are discussed. The programme to measure electroweak processes with di-boson and tri-boson final states is outlined. All presented measurements are compatible with Standard Model descriptions and allow to further constrain it. In addition they allow to probe new physics which would manifest through extra gauge couplings, or Standard Model gauge couplings deviating from their predicted value.

  4. Learning semantic query suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Bron, M.; Hollink, L.; Huurnink, B.; de Rijke, M.

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide

  5. Comparison of transient PCRV model test results with analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.; Belytschko, T.B.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons are made of transient data derived from simple models of a reactor containment vessel with analytical solutions. This effort is a part of the ongoing process of development and testing of the DYNAPCON computer code. The test results used in these comparisons were obtained from scaled models of the British sodium cooled fast breeder program. The test structure is a scaled model of a cylindrically shaped reactor containment vessel made of concrete. This concrete vessel is prestressed axially by holddown bolts spanning the top and bottom slabs along the cylindrical walls, and is also prestressed circumferentially by a number of cables wrapped around the vessel. For test purposes this containment vessel is partially filled with water, which comes in direct contact with the vessel walls. The explosive charge is immersed in the pool of water and is centrally suspended from the top of the vessel. The load history was obtained from an ICECO analysis, using the equations of state for the source and the water. A detailed check of this solution was made to assure that the derived loading did provide the correct input. The DYNAPCON code was then used for the analysis of the prestressed concrete containment model. This analysis required the simulation of prestressing and the response of the model to the applied transient load. The calculations correctly predict the magnitudes of displacements of the PCRV model. In addition, the displacement time histories obtained from the calculations reproduce the general features of the experimental records: the period elongation and amplitude increase as compared to an elastic solution, and also the absence of permanent displacement. However, the period still underestimates the experiment, while the amplitude is generally somewhat large

  6. Thermal-Chemical Model Of Subduction: Results And Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, W.; Gerya, T. V.; Connolly, J. A.; Yuen, D. A.; Rudolph, M.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic structures with strong positive and negative velocity anomalies in the mantle wedge above subduction zones have been interpreted as thermally and/or chemically induced phenomena. We have developed a thermal-chemical model of subduction, which constrains the dynamics of seismic velocity structure beneath volcanic arcs. Our simulations have been calculated over a finite-difference grid with (201×101) to (201×401) regularly spaced Eulerian points, using 0.5 million to 10 billion markers. The model couples numerical thermo-mechanical solution with Gibbs energy minimization to investigate the dynamic behavior of partially molten upwellings from slabs (cold plumes) and structures associated with their development. The model demonstrates two chemically distinct types of plumes (mixed and unmixed), and various rigid body rotation phenomena in the wedge (subduction wheel, fore-arc spin, wedge pin-ball). These thermal-chemical features strongly perturb seismic structure. Their occurrence is dependent on the age of subducting slab and the rate of subduction.The model has been validated through a series of test cases and its results are consistent with a variety of geological and geophysical data. In contrast to models that attribute a purely thermal origin for mantle wedge seismic anomalies, the thermal-chemical model is able to simulate the strong variations of seismic velocity existing beneath volcanic arcs which are associated with development of cold plumes. In particular, molten regions that form beneath volcanic arcs as a consequence of vigorous cold wet plumes are manifest by > 20% variations in the local Poisson ratio, as compared to variations of ~ 2% expected as a consequence of temperature variation within the mantle wedge.

  7. Measurement model choice influenced randomized controlled trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Rosalie; Fox, Jean-Paul; Apeldoorn, Adri; Twisk, Jos

    2016-11-01

    In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), outcome variables are often patient-reported outcomes measured with questionnaires. Ideally, all available item information is used for score construction, which requires an item response theory (IRT) measurement model. However, in practice, the classical test theory measurement model (sum scores) is mostly used, and differences between response patterns leading to the same sum score are ignored. The enhanced differentiation between scores with IRT enables more precise estimation of individual trajectories over time and group effects. The objective of this study was to show the advantages of using IRT scores instead of sum scores when analyzing RCTs. Two studies are presented, a real-life RCT, and a simulation study. Both IRT and sum scores are used to measure the construct and are subsequently used as outcomes for effect calculation. The bias in RCT results is conditional on the measurement model that was used to construct the scores. A bias in estimated trend of around one standard deviation was found when sum scores were used, where IRT showed negligible bias. Accurate statistical inferences are made from an RCT study when using IRT to estimate construct measurements. The use of sum scores leads to incorrect RCT results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mnemonic Discrimination Deficits in First-Episode Psychosis and a Ketamine Model Suggests Dentate Gyrus Pathology Linked to N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraguljac, Nina Vanessa; Carle, Matthew; Frölich, Michael A; Tran, Steve; Yassa, Michael A; White, David Matthew; Reddy, Abhishek; Lahti, Adrienne Carol

    2018-03-01

    Converging evidence from neuroimaging and postmortem studies suggests that hippocampal subfields are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Recent studies report dentate gyrus dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we sought to examine if this deficit is already present in first-episode psychosis, and if N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction, a putative central pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia, experimentally induced by ketamine, would result in a similar abnormality. We applied a mnemonic discrimination task selectively taxing pattern separation in two experiments: 1) a group of 23 first-episode psychosis patients and 23 matched healthy volunteers and 2) a group of 19 healthy volunteers before and during a ketamine challenge (0.27 mg/kg over 10 minutes, then 0.25 mg/kg/hour for 50 minutes, 0.01 mL/s). We calculated response bias-corrected pattern separation and recognition scores. We also examined the relationships between task performance and symptom severity as well as ketamine levels. We report a deficit in pattern separation but not recognition performance in first-episode psychosis patients compared with healthy volunteers (p = .04) and in volunteers during the ketamine challenge compared with baseline (p = .003). Exploratory analyses revealed no correlation between task performance and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status total scores or positive symptoms in first-episode psychosis patients, or with ketamine serum levels. We observed a mnemonic discrimination deficit but intact recognition in both datasets. Our findings suggest a tentative mechanistic link between dentate gyrus dysfunction in first-episode psychosis and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Uncertainty in parameterisation and model structure affect simulation results in coupled ecohydrological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arnold

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop and apply a conceptual ecohydrological model to investigate the effects of model structure and parameter uncertainty on the simulation of vegetation structure and hydrological dynamics. The model is applied for a typical water limited riparian ecosystem along an ephemeral river: the middle section of the Kuiseb River in Namibia. We modelled this system by coupling an ecological model with a conceptual hydrological model. The hydrological model is storage based with stochastical forcing from the flood. The ecosystem is modelled with a population model, and represents three dominating riparian plant populations. In appreciation of uncertainty about population dynamics, we applied three model versions with increasing complexity. Population parameters were found by Latin hypercube sampling of the parameter space and with the constraint that three species should coexist as observed. Two of the three models were able to reproduce the observed coexistence. However, both models relied on different coexistence mechanisms, and reacted differently to change of long term memory in the flood forcing. The coexistence requirement strongly constrained the parameter space for both successful models. Only very few parameter sets (0.5% of 150 000 samples allowed for coexistence in a representative number of repeated simulations (at least 10 out of 100 and the success of the coexistence mechanism was controlled by the combination of population parameters. The ensemble statistics of average values of hydrologic variables like transpiration and depth to ground water were similar for both models, suggesting that they were mainly controlled by the applied hydrological model. The ensemble statistics of the fluctuations of depth to groundwater and transpiration, however, differed significantly, suggesting that they were controlled by the applied ecological model and coexistence mechanisms. Our study emphasizes that uncertainty about ecosystem

  10. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof; Follin, Sven

    2010-12-01

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report

  11. Geochemical controls on shale groundwaters: Results of reaction path modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Damm, K.L.; VandenBrook, A.J.

    1989-03-01

    The EQ3NR/EQ6 geochemical modeling code was used to simulate the reaction of several shale mineralogies with different groundwater compositions in order to elucidate changes that may occur in both the groundwater compositions, and rock mineralogies and compositions under conditions which may be encountered in a high-level radioactive waste repository. Shales with primarily illitic or smectitic compositions were the focus of this study. The reactions were run at the ambient temperatures of the groundwaters and to temperatures as high as 250/degree/C, the approximate temperature maximum expected in a repository. All modeling assumed that equilibrium was achieved and treated the rock and water assemblage as a closed system. Graphite was used as a proxy mineral for organic matter in the shales. The results show that the presence of even a very small amount of reducing mineral has a large influence on the redox state of the groundwaters, and that either pyrite or graphite provides essentially the same results, with slight differences in dissolved C, Fe and S concentrations. The thermodynamic data base is inadequate at the present time to fully evaluate the speciation of dissolved carbon, due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for organic compounds. In the illitic cases the groundwaters resulting from interaction at elevated temperatures are acid, while the smectitic cases remain alkaline, although the final equilibrium mineral assemblages are quite similar. 10 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs

  12. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 x 10 -5 and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 x 10 -3 . Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible

  13. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  14. Results of the benchmark for blade structural models, part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekou, D.J.; Chortis, D.; Belen Fariñas, A.

    2013-01-01

    A benchmark on structural design methods for blades was performed within the InnWind.Eu project under WP2 “Lightweight Rotor” Task 2.2 “Lightweight structural design”. The present document is describes the results of the comparison simulation runs that were performed by the partners involved within...... Task 2.2 of the InnWind.Eu project. The benchmark is based on the reference wind turbine and the reference blade provided by DTU [1]. "Structural Concept developers/modelers" of WP2 were provided with the necessary input for a comparison numerical simulation run, upon definition of the reference blade...

  15. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S.

    1997-01-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented

  16. Results of the ITER toroidal field model coil project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpietro, E.; Maix, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the scope of the ITER EDA one of the seven largest projects was devoted to the development, manufacture and testing of a Toroidal Field Model Coil (TFMC). The industry consortium AGAN manufactured the TFMC based on on a conceptual design developed by the ITER EDA EU Home Team. The TFMC was completed and assembled in the test facility TOSKA of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the first half of 2001. The first testing phase started in June 2001 and lasted till October 2001. The first results have shown that the main goals of the project have been achieved

  17. An Associative Index Model for the Results List Based on Vannevar Bush's Selection Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles; Julien, Charles-Antoine; Leide, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We define the results list problem in information search and suggest the "associative index model", an ad-hoc, user-derived indexing solution based on Vannevar Bush's description of an associative indexing approach for his memex machine. We further define what selection means in indexing terms with reference to Charles…

  18. Comparison of transient PCRV model test results with analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.; Belytschko, T.B.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons are made of transient data derived from simple models of a reactor containment vessel with analytical solutions. This effort is a part of the ongoing process of development and testing of the DYNAPCON computer code. The test results used in these comparisons were obtained from scaled models of the British sodium cooled fast breeder program. The test structure is a scaled model of a cylindrically shaped reactor containment vessel made of concrete. This concrete vessel is prestressed axially by holddown bolts spanning the top and bottom slabs along the cylindrical walls, and is also prestressed circumferentially by a number of cables wrapped around the vessel. For test purposes this containment vessel is partially filled with water, which comes in direct contact with the vessel walls. The explosive charge is immersed in the pool of water and is centrally suspended from the top of the vessel. The tests are very similar to the series of tests made for the COVA experimental program, but the vessel here is the prestressed concrete container. (orig.)

  19. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  20. INTRAVAL Finnsjoen Test - modelling results for some tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, A.; Hadermann, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results within Phase II of the INTRAVAL study. Migration experiments performed at the Finnsjoen test site were investigated. The study was done to gain an improved understanding of not only the mechanisms of tracer transport, but also the accuracy and limitations of the model used. The model is based on the concept of a dual porosity medium, taking into account one dimensional advection, longitudinal dispersion, sorption onto the fracture surfaces, diffusion into connected pores of the matrix rock, and sorption onto matrix surfaces. The number of independent water carrying zones, represented either as planar fractures or tubelike veins, may be greater than one, and the sorption processes are described either by linear or non-linear Freundlich isotherms assuming instantaneous sorption equilibrium. The diffusion of the tracer out of the water-carrying zones into connected pore space of the adjacent rock is calculated perpendicular to the direction of the advective/dispersive flow. In the analysis, the fluid flow parameters are calibrated by the measured breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer (iodide). Subsequent fits to the experimental data for the two sorbing tracers strontium and cesium then involve element dependent parameters providing information on the sorption processes and on its representation in the model. The methodology of fixing all parameters except those for sorption with breakthrough curves for non-sorbing tracers generally worked well. The investigation clearly demonstrates the necessity of taking into account pump flow rate variations at both boundaries. If this is not done, reliable conclusions on transport mechanisms or geometrical factors can not be achieved. A two flow path model reproduces the measured data much better than a single flow path concept. (author) figs., tabs., 26 refs

  1. Portfolio Effects of Renewable Energies - Basics, Models, Exemplary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Andreas; Herrmann, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    The combination of sites and technologies to so-called renewable energy portfolios, which are being developed and implemented under the same financing umbrella, is currently the subject of intense discussion in the finance world. The resulting portfolio effect may allow the prediction of a higher return with the same risk or the same return with a lower risk - always in comparison with the investment in a single project. Models are currently being developed to analyse this subject and derive the portfolio effect. In particular, the effect of the spatial distribution, as well as the effects of using different technologies, suppliers and cost assumptions with different level of uncertainties, are of importance. Wind parks, photovoltaic, biomass, biogas and hydropower are being considered. The status of the model development and first results are being presented in the current paper. In a first example, the portfolio effect has been calculated and analysed using selected parameters for a wind energy portfolio of 39 sites distributed over Europe. Consequently it has been shown that the predicted yield, with the predetermined probabilities between 75 to 90%, is 3 - 8% higher than the sum of the yields for the individual wind parks using the same probabilities. (auth)

  2. Results and Error Estimates from GRACE Forward Modeling over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer; Chambers, Don

    2013-04-01

    Forward modeling using a weighted least squares technique allows GRACE information to be projected onto a pre-determined collection of local basins. This decreases the impact of spatial leakage, allowing estimates of mass change to be better localized. The technique is especially valuable where models of current-day mass change are poor, such as over Antarctica. However when tested previously, the least squares technique has required constraints in the form of added process noise in order to be reliable. Poor choice of local basin layout has also adversely affected results, as has the choice of spatial smoothing used with GRACE. To develop design parameters which will result in correct high-resolution mass detection and to estimate the systematic errors of the method over Antarctica, we use a "truth" simulation of the Antarctic signal. We apply the optimal parameters found from the simulation to RL05 GRACE data across Antarctica and the surrounding ocean. We particularly focus on separating the Antarctic peninsula's mass signal from that of the rest of western Antarctica. Additionally, we characterize how well the technique works for removing land leakage signal from the nearby ocean, particularly that near the Drake Passage.

  3. Some exact results for the three-layer Zamolodchikov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, H.E.; Mangazeev, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we continue the study of the three-layer Zamolodchikov model started in our previous works (H.E. Boos, V.V. Mangazeev, J. Phys. A 32 (1999) 3041-3054 and H.E. Boos, V.V. Mangazeev, J. Phys. A 32 (1999) 5285-5298). We analyse numerically the solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations obtained in H.E. Boos, V.V. Mangazeev, J. Phys. A 32 (1999) 5285-5298. We consider two regimes I and II which differ by the signs of the spherical sides (a 1 ,a 2 ,a 3 )→(-a 1 ,-a 2 ,-a 3 ). We accept the two-line hypothesis for the regime I and the one-line hypothesis for the regime II. In the thermodynamic limit we derive integral equations for distribution densities and solve them exactly. We calculate the partition function for the three-layer Zamolodchikov model and check a compatibility of this result with the functional relations obtained in H.E. Boos, V.V. Mangazeev, J. Phys. A 32 (1999) 5285-5298. We also do some numeric checkings of our results

  4. Graph and model transformation tools for model migration : empirical results from the transformation tool contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, L.M.; Herrmannsdoerfer, M.; Mazanek, S.; Van Gorp, P.M.E.; Buchwald, S.; Horn, T.; Kalnina, E.; Koch, A.; Lano, K.; Schätz, B.; Wimmer, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the results of the Transformation Tool Contest 2010 workshop, in which nine graph and model transformation tools were compared for specifying model migration. The model migration problem—migration of UML activity diagrams from version 1.4 to version 2.2—is non-trivial and practically

  5. Modeling of arylamide helix mimetics in the p53 peptide binding site of hDM2 suggests parallel and anti-parallel conformations are both stable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Fuller

    Full Text Available The design of novel α-helix mimetic inhibitors of protein-protein interactions is of interest to pharmaceuticals and chemical genetics researchers as these inhibitors provide a chemical scaffold presenting side chains in the same geometry as an α-helix. This conformational arrangement allows the design of high affinity inhibitors mimicking known peptide sequences binding specific protein substrates. We show that GAFF and AutoDock potentials do not properly capture the conformational preferences of α-helix mimetics based on arylamide oligomers and identify alternate parameters matching solution NMR data and suitable for molecular dynamics simulation of arylamide compounds. Results from both docking and molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with the arylamides binding in the p53 peptide binding pocket. Simulations of arylamides in the p53 binding pocket of hDM2 are consistent with binding, exhibiting similar structural dynamics in the pocket as simulations of known hDM2 binders Nutlin-2 and a benzodiazepinedione compound. Arylamide conformations converge towards the same region of the binding pocket on the 20 ns time scale, and most, though not all dihedrals in the binding pocket are well sampled on this timescale. We show that there are two putative classes of binding modes for arylamide compounds supported equally by the modeling evidence. In the first, the arylamide compound lies parallel to the observed p53 helix. In the second class, not previously identified or proposed, the arylamide compound lies anti-parallel to the p53 helix.

  6. Further Results on Dynamic Additive Hazard Rate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengcheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the proportional and additive hazard rate models have been investigated in the works. Nanda and Das (2011 introduced and studied the dynamic proportional (reversed hazard rate model. In this paper we study the dynamic additive hazard rate model, and investigate its aging properties for different aging classes. The closure of the model under some stochastic orders has also been investigated. Some examples are also given to illustrate different aging properties and stochastic comparisons of the model.

  7. Tapering of the CHESS-APS undulator: Results and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Dejus, R.; Gluskin, E.; Yun, W.B.; McNulty, I.; Henderson, C.; White, J.; Shen, Q.; Finkelstein, K.

    1992-01-01

    When the magnetic gap of an undulator is tapered along the beam direction, the slowly varying peak field B o introduces a spread in the value of the deflection parameter K. The result is a broad energy-band undulator that still maintains high degree of spatial collimation. These properties are very useful for EXAFS and energy dispersive techniques. We have characterized the CHESS-APS undulator (1 υ = 3.3cm) at one tapered configuration (10% change of the magnetic gap from one end of the undulator to the other). Spatial distribution and energy spectra of the first three harmonics through a pinhole were measured. The on-axis first harmonic width increased from 0.27 keV to 0.61 keV (FWHM) at the central energy of E 1 = 6.6 keV (K average = 0.69). Broadening in the angular distribution due to tapering was minimal. These results will be compared with computer modelling which simulates the actual electron trajectory in the tapered case

  8. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew [School of Computational & Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala [School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Krishna Kant, E-mail: kekulsharma@gmail.com [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2016-01-08

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K{sub m} values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  9. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender; Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew; Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala; Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-01-01

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K m values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  10. Lowest Astronomical Tide in the North Sea derived from a vertically referenced shallow water model, and an assessment of its suggested sense of safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobbe, D.C.; Klees, R.; Verlaan, M.; Dorst, L.; Gerritsen, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, LAT will be modeled relative to a geoid, after which the ellipsoidal heights of LAT will be obtained by adding geoid heights to the modeled LAT values. The use of a geoid instead of MSL has the advantage that the former can be realized everywhere and does not leave a gap along the

  11. Demixing in a metal halide lamp, results from modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beks, M.L.; Hartgers, A.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Convection and diffusion in the discharge region of a metal halide lamp is studied using a computer model built with the plasma modeling package Plasimo. A model lamp contg. mercury and sodium iodide is studied. The effects of the total lamp pressure on the degree of segregation of the light

  12. A Duality Result for the Generalized Erlang Risk Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanpeng Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the generalized Erlang risk model and its dual model. By using a conditional measure-preserving correspondence between the two models, we derive an identity for two interesting conditional probabilities. Applications to the discounted joint density of the surplus prior to ruin and the deficit at ruin are also discussed.

  13. Results based on 124 cases of breast cancer and 97 controls from Taiwan suggest that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP309) in the MDM2 gene promoter is associated with earlier onset and increased risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ying-Fang; Leu, Jyh-Der; Chen, Su-Mei; Lin, I-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism 309 (SNP309, T -> G) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene is important for tumor development; however, with regards to breast cancer, inconsistent associations have been reported worldwide. It is speculated that these conflicting results may have arisen due to different patient subgroups and ethnicities studied. For the first time, this study explores the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 genotype on Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Genomic DNA was obtained from the whole blood of 124 breast cancer patients and 97 cancer-free healthy women living in Taiwan. MDM2 SNP309 genotyping was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The multivariate logistic regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analyzing the risk association and significance of age at diagnosis among different MDM2 SNP309 genotypes, respectively. Compared to the TT genotype, an increased risk association with breast cancer was apparent for the GG genotype (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.04 to 8.95), and for the TG genotype (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 0.90 to 5.00) after adjusting for age, cardiovascular disease/diabetes, oral contraceptive usage, and body mass index, which exhibits significant difference between cases and controls. Furthermore, the average ages at diagnosis for breast cancer patients were 53.6, 52 and 47 years for those harboring TT, TG and GG genotypes, respectively. A significant difference in median age of onset for breast cancer between GG and TT+TG genotypes was obtained by the log-rank test (p = 0.0067). Findings based on the current sample size suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype may be associated with both the risk of breast cancer and an earlier age of onset in Taiwanese women

  14. The Plumbing of Land Surface Models: Is Poor Performance a Result of Methodology or Data Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Ned; Abramowitz, Gab; Pitman, Andy J.; Or, Dani; Best, Martin J.; Johnson, Helen R.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Boone, Aaron; Cuntz, Matthais; Decharme, Bertrand; hide

    2016-01-01

    The PALS Land sUrface Model Benchmarking Evaluation pRoject (PLUMBER) illustrated the value of prescribing a priori performance targets in model intercomparisons. It showed that the performance of turbulent energy flux predictions from different land surface models, at a broad range of flux tower sites using common evaluation metrics, was on average worse than relatively simple empirical models. For sensible heat fluxes, all land surface models were outperformed by a linear regression against downward shortwave radiation. For latent heat flux, all land surface models were outperformed by a regression against downward shortwave, surface air temperature and relative humidity. These results are explored here in greater detail and possible causes are investigated. We examine whether particular metrics or sites unduly influence the collated results, whether results change according to time-scale aggregation and whether a lack of energy conservation in fluxtower data gives the empirical models an unfair advantage in the intercomparison. We demonstrate that energy conservation in the observational data is not responsible for these results. We also show that the partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes in LSMs, rather than the calculation of available energy, is the cause of the original findings. Finally, we present evidence suggesting that the nature of this partitioning problem is likely shared among all contributing LSMs. While we do not find a single candidate explanation forwhy land surface models perform poorly relative to empirical benchmarks in PLUMBER, we do exclude multiple possible explanations and provide guidance on where future research should focus.

  15. Waste glass corrosion modeling: Comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Models for borosilicate glass dissolution must account for the processes of (1) kinetically-controlled network dissolution, (2) precipitation of secondary phases, (3) ion exchange, (4) rate-limiting diffusive transport of silica through a hydrous surface reaction layer, and (5) specific glass surface interactions with dissolved cations and anions. Current long-term corrosion models for borosilicate glass employ a rate equation consistent with transition state theory embodied in a geochemical reaction-path modeling program that calculates aqueous phase speciation and mineral precipitation/dissolution. These models are currently under development. Future experimental and modeling work to better quantify the rate-controlling processes and validate these models are necessary before the models can be used in repository performance assessment calculations

  16. Argonne Fuel Cycle Facility ventilation system -- modeling and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, D.; Feldman, E.E.; Danielson, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated study of the Argonne-West Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) interconnected ventilation systems during various operations. Analyses and test results include first a nominal condition reflecting balanced pressures and flows followed by several infrequent and off-normal scenarios. This effort is the first study of the FCF ventilation systems as an integrated network wherein the hydraulic effects of all major air systems have been analyzed and tested. The FCF building consists of many interconnected regions in which nuclear fuel is handled, transported and reprocessed. The ventilation systems comprise a large number of ducts, fans, dampers, and filters which together must provide clean, properly conditioned air to the worker occupied spaces of the facility while preventing the spread of airborne radioactive materials to clean am-as or the atmosphere. This objective is achieved by keeping the FCF building at a partial vacuum in which the contaminated areas are kept at lower pressures than the other worker occupied spaces. The ventilation systems of FCF and the EBR-II reactor are analyzed as an integrated totality, as demonstrated. We then developed the network model shown in Fig. 2 for the TORAC code. The scope of this study was to assess the measured results from the acceptance/flow balancing testing and to predict the effects of power failures, hatch and door openings, single-failure faulted conditions, EBR-II isolation, and other infrequent operations. The studies show that the FCF ventilation systems am very controllable and remain stable following off-normal events. In addition, the FCF ventilation system complex is essentially immune to reverse flows and spread of contamination to clean areas during normal and off-normal operation

  17. ExEP yield modeling tool and validation test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rhonda; Turmon, Michael; Delacroix, Christian; Savransky, Dmitry; Garrett, Daniel; Lowrance, Patrick; Liu, Xiang Cate; Nunez, Paul

    2017-09-01

    EXOSIMS is an open-source simulation tool for parametric modeling of the detection yield and characterization of exoplanets. EXOSIMS has been adopted by the Exoplanet Exploration Programs Standards Definition and Evaluation Team (ExSDET) as a common mechanism for comparison of exoplanet mission concept studies. To ensure trustworthiness of the tool, we developed a validation test plan that leverages the Python-language unit-test framework, utilizes integration tests for selected module interactions, and performs end-to-end crossvalidation with other yield tools. This paper presents the test methods and results, with the physics-based tests such as photometry and integration time calculation treated in detail and the functional tests treated summarily. The test case utilized a 4m unobscured telescope with an idealized coronagraph and an exoplanet population from the IPAC radial velocity (RV) exoplanet catalog. The known RV planets were set at quadrature to allow deterministic validation of the calculation of physical parameters, such as working angle, photon counts and integration time. The observing keepout region was tested by generating plots and movies of the targets and the keepout zone over a year. Although the keepout integration test required the interpretation of a user, the test revealed problems in the L2 halo orbit and the parameterization of keepout applied to some solar system bodies, which the development team was able to address. The validation testing of EXOSIMS was performed iteratively with the developers of EXOSIMS and resulted in a more robust, stable, and trustworthy tool that the exoplanet community can use to simulate exoplanet direct-detection missions from probe class, to WFIRST, up to large mission concepts such as HabEx and LUVOIR.

  18. Innovation ecosystem model for commercialization of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlăduţ Gabriel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovation means Creativity and Added value recognise by the market. The first step in creating a sustainable commercialization of research results, Technological Transfer – TT mechanism, on one hand is to define the “technology” which will be transferred and on other hand to define the context in which the TT mechanism work, the ecosystem. The focus must be set on technology as an entity, not as a science or a study of the practical industrial arts and certainly not any specific applied science. The transfer object, the technology, must rely on a subjectively determined but specifiable set of processes and products. Focusing on the product is not sufficient to the transfer and diffusion of technology. It is not merely the product that is transferred but also knowledge of its use and application. The innovation ecosystem model brings together new companies, experienced business leaders, researchers, government officials, established technology companies, and investors. This environment provides those new companies with a wealth of technical expertise, business experience, and access to capital that supports innovation in the early stages of growth.

  19. Results from the Savannah River Laboratory model validation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate existing and newly developed air pollution models used in DOE-funded laboratories, the Savannah River Laboratory sponsored a model validation workshop. The workshop used Kr-85 measurements and meteorology data obtained at SRL during 1975 to 1977. Individual laboratories used models to calculate daily, weekly, monthly or annual test periods. Cumulative integrated air concentrations were reported at each grid point and at each of the eight sampler locations

  20. Waste glass corrosion modeling: Comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1993-11-01

    A chemical model of glass corrosion will be used to predict the rates of release of radionuclides from borosilicate glass waste forms in high-level waste repositories. The model will be used both to calculate the rate of degradation of the glass, and also to predict the effects of chemical interactions between the glass and repository materials such as spent fuel, canister and container materials, backfill, cements, grouts, and others. Coupling between the degradation processes affecting all these materials is expected. Models for borosilicate glass dissolution must account for the processes of (1) kinetically-controlled network dissolution, (2) precipitation of secondary phases, (3) ion exchange, (4) rate-limiting diffusive transport of silica through a hydrous surface reaction layer, and (5) specific glass surface interactions with dissolved cations and anions. Current long-term corrosion models for borosilicate glass employ a rate equation consistent with transition state theory embodied in a geochemical reaction-path modeling program that calculates aqueous phase speciation and mineral precipitation/dissolution. These models are currently under development. Future experimental and modeling work to better quantify the rate-controlling processes and validate these models are necessary before the models can be used in repository performance assessment calculations

  1. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauker, F.

    1999-07-01

    A dynamical downscaling is presented that allows an estimation of potential effects of climate change on the North Sea. Therefore, the ocean general circulation model OPYC is adapted for application on a shelf by adding a lateral boundary formulation and a tide model. In this set-up the model is forced, first, with data from the ECMWF reanalysis for model validation and the study of the natural variability, and, second, with data from climate change experiments to estimate the effects of climate change on the North Sea. (orig.)

  2. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  3. Conformational changes in Sindbis virions resulting from exposure to low pH and interactions with cells suggest that cell penetration may occur at the cell surface in the absence of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Angel M.; Ferreira, Davis; Horton, Michelle; Saad, Ali; Tsuruta, Hiro; Johnston, Robert; Klimstra, William; Ryman, Kate; Hernandez, Raquel; Chiu Wah; Brown, Dennis T.

    2004-01-01

    Alphaviruses have the ability to induce cell-cell fusion after exposure to acid pH. This observation has served as an article of proof that these membrane-containing viruses infect cells by fusion of the virus membrane with a host cell membrane upon exposure to acid pH after incorporation into a cell endosome. We have investigated the requirements for the induction of virus-mediated, low pH-induced cell-cell fusion and cell-virus fusion. We have correlated the pH requirements for this process to structural changes they produce in the virus by electron cryo-microscopy. We found that exposure to acid pH was required to establish conditions for membrane fusion but that membrane fusion did not occur until return to neutral pH. Electron cryo-microscopy revealed dramatic changes in the structure of the virion as it was moved to acid pH and then returned to neutral pH. None of these treatments resulted in the disassembly of the virus protein icosahedral shell that is a requisite for the process of virus membrane-cell membrane fusion. The appearance of a prominent protruding structure upon exposure to acid pH and its disappearance upon return to neutral pH suggested that the production of a 'pore'-like structure at the fivefold axis may facilitate cell penetration as has been proposed for polio (J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1342) and human rhino virus (Mol. Cell 10 (2002) 317). This transient structural change also provided an explanation for how membrane fusion occurs after return to neutral pH. Examination of virus-cell complexes at neutral pH supported the contention that infection occurs at the cell surface at neutral pH by the production of a virus structure that breaches the plasma membrane bilayer. These data suggest an alternative route of infection for Sindbis virus that occurs by a process that does not involve membrane fusion and does not require disassembly of the virus protein shell

  4. Spinal cord stimulation: modeling results and clinical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, Johannes J.; Struijk, J.J.; Holsheimer, J.; Barolat, Giancarlo; He, Jiping

    1992-01-01

    The potential distribution in volume couductor models of the spinal cord at cervical, midthoracic and lowthoracic levels, due to epidural stimulation, was calculated. Treshold stimuli of modeled myelhated dorsal column and dorsal root fibers were calculated and were compared with perception

  5. How to: understanding SWAT model uncertainty relative to measured results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed models are being relied upon to contribute to most policy-making decisions of watershed management, and the demand for an accurate accounting of complete model uncertainty is rising. Generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) is a widely used method for quantifying uncertainty i...

  6. Urban traffic noise assessment by combining measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.; Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A model based monitoring system is applied on a local scale in an urban area to obtain a better understanding of the traffic noise situation. The system consists of a scalable sensor network and an engineering model. A better understanding is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures,

  7. Noise and dose modeling for pediatric CT optimization: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller Clemente, Rafael A.; Perez Diaz, Marlen; Mora Reyes, Yudel; Rodriguez Garlobo, Maikel; Castillo Salazar, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A Multiple Linear Regression Model was developed to predict noise and dose in computed tomography pediatric imaging for head and abdominal examinations. Relative values of Noise and Volumetric Computed Tomography Dose Index was used to estimate de model respectively. 54 images of physical phantoms were performed. Independent variables considered included: phantom diameter, tube current and kilovolts, x ray beam collimation, reconstruction diameter and equipment's post processing filters. Predicted values show good agreement with measurements, which were better in noise model (R 2 adjusted =0.953) than the dose model (R 2 adjusted =0.744). Tube current, object diameter, beam collimation and reconstruction filter were identified as the most influencing factors in models. (author)

  8. Comparison of analytical models and experimental results for single-event upset in CMOS SRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnich, T.M.; Diehl, S.E.; Shafer, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    In an effort to design fully radiation-hardened memories for satellite and deep-space applications, a 16K and a 2K CMOS static RAM were modeled for single-particle upset during the design stage. The modeling resulted in the addition of a hardening feedback resistor in the 16K remained tentatively unaltered. Subsequent experiments, using the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories' 88-inch cyclotron to accelerate krypton and oxygen ions, established an upset threshold for the 2K and the 16K without resistance added, as well as a hardening threshold for the 16K with feedback resistance added. Results for the 16K showed it to be hardenable to the higher level than previously published data for other unhardened 16K RAMs. The data agreed fairly well with the modeling results; however, a close look suggests that modification of the simulation methodology is required to accurately predict the resistance necessary to harden the RAM cell

  9. Rasch models suggested the satisfactory psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief among lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Yang, Szu-Chun; Lai, Wu-Wei; Su, Wu-Chou; Wang, Jung-Der

    2017-03-01

    The study examined whether the items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief questionnaire can assess its four underlying domains (Physical, Psychological, Social, and Environment) in a sample of lung cancer patients. All patients ( n = 1150) were recruited from a medical center in Tainan, and each participant completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief. Several Rasch rating scale models were used to examine the data-model fit, and Rasch analyses corroborated that each domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief could be unidimensional. Although three items were found to have a poor fit, all the other items fit the unidimensionality with ordered thresholds.

  10. Results on a Binding Neuron Model and Their Implications for Modified Hourglass Model for Neuronal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical models of single neuron like Hodgkin-Huxley point neuron or leaky integrate and fire neuron assume the influence of postsynaptic potentials to last till the neuron fires. Vidybida (2008 in a refreshing departure has proposed models for binding neurons in which the trace of an input is remembered only for a finite fixed period of time after which it is forgotten. The binding neurons conform to the behaviour of real neurons and are applicable in constructing fast recurrent networks for computer modeling. This paper develops explicitly several useful results for a binding neuron like the firing time distribution and other statistical characteristics. We also discuss the applicability of the developed results in constructing a modified hourglass network model in which there are interconnected neurons with excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs. Limited simulation results of the hourglass network are presented.

  11. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario....

  12. Verification of Simulation Results Using Scale Model Flight Test Trajectories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obermark, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    .... A second compromise scaling law was investigated as a possible improvement. For ejector-driven events at minimum sideslip, the most important variables for scale model construction are the mass moment of inertia and ejector...

  13. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....

  14. The 3D Reference Earth Model: Status and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulik, P.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the 20th century, seismologists constructed models of how average physical properties (e.g. density, rigidity, compressibility, anisotropy) vary with depth in the Earth's interior. These one-dimensional (1D) reference Earth models (e.g. PREM) have proven indispensable in earthquake location, imaging of interior structure, understanding material properties under extreme conditions, and as a reference in other fields, such as particle physics and astronomy. Over the past three decades, new datasets motivated more sophisticated efforts that yielded models of how properties vary both laterally and with depth in the Earth's interior. Though these three-dimensional (3D) models exhibit compelling similarities at large scales, differences in the methodology, representation of structure, and dataset upon which they are based, have prevented the creation of 3D community reference models. As part of the REM-3D project, we are compiling and reconciling reference seismic datasets of body wave travel-time measurements, fundamental mode and overtone surface wave dispersion measurements, and normal mode frequencies and splitting functions. These reference datasets are being inverted for a long-wavelength, 3D reference Earth model that describes the robust long-wavelength features of mantle heterogeneity. As a community reference model with fully quantified uncertainties and tradeoffs and an associated publically available dataset, REM-3D will facilitate Earth imaging studies, earthquake characterization, inferences on temperature and composition in the deep interior, and be of improved utility to emerging scientific endeavors, such as neutrino geoscience. Here, we summarize progress made in the construction of the reference long period dataset and present a preliminary version of REM-3D in the upper-mantle. In order to determine the level of detail warranted for inclusion in REM-3D, we analyze the spectrum of discrepancies between models inverted with different subsets of the

  15. Recent shell-model results for exotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utsuno Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on our recent advancement in the shell model and its applications to exotic nuclei, focusing on the shell evolution and large-scale calculations with the Monte Carlo shell model (MCSM. First, we test the validity of the monopole-based universal interaction (VMU as a shell-model interaction by performing large-scale shell-model calculations in two different mass regions using effective interactions which partly comprise VMU. Those calculations are successful and provide a deeper insight into the shell evolution beyond the single-particle model, in particular showing that the evolution of the spin-orbit splitting due to the tensor force plays a decisive role in the structure of the neutron-rich N ∼ 28 region and antimony isotopes. Next, we give a brief overview of recent developments in MCSM, and show that it is applicable to exotic nuclei that involve many valence orbits. As an example of its applications to exotic nuclei, shape coexistence in 32Mg is examined.

  16. A model for hot electron phenomena: Theory and general results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J.L.; Rodriquez, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    We propose a model for the description of the hot electron phenomena in semiconductors. Based on this model we are able to reproduce accurately the main characteristics observed in experiments of electric field transport, optical absorption, steady state photoluminescence and relaxation process. Our theory does not contain free nor adjustable parameters, it is very fast computerwise, and incorporates the main collision mechanisms including screening and phonon heating effects. Our description on a set of nonlinear rate equations in which the interactions are represented by coupling coefficients or effective frequencies. We calculate three coefficients from the characteristic constants and the band structure of the material. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  17. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  18. Results From Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, Kevin [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  19. Auditory function in the Tc1 mouse model of down syndrome suggests a limited region of human chromosome 21 involved in otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kuhn

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is one of the most common congenital disorders leading to a wide range of health problems in humans, including frequent otitis media. The Tc1 mouse carries a significant part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21 in addition to the full set of mouse chromosomes and shares many phenotypes observed in humans affected by Down syndrome with trisomy of chromosome 21. However, it is unknown whether Tc1 mice exhibit a hearing phenotype and might thus represent a good model for understanding the hearing loss that is common in Down syndrome. In this study we carried out a structural and functional assessment of hearing in Tc1 mice. Auditory brainstem response (ABR measurements in Tc1 mice showed normal thresholds compared to littermate controls and ABR waveform latencies and amplitudes were equivalent to controls. The gross anatomy of the middle and inner ears was also similar between Tc1 and control mice. The physiological properties of cochlear sensory receptors (inner and outer hair cells: IHCs and OHCs were investigated using single-cell patch clamp recordings from the acutely dissected cochleae. Adult Tc1 IHCs exhibited normal resting membrane potentials and expressed all K(+ currents characteristic of control hair cells. However, the size of the large conductance (BK Ca(2+ activated K(+ current (I(K,f, which enables rapid voltage responses essential for accurate sound encoding, was increased in Tc1 IHCs. All physiological properties investigated in OHCs were indistinguishable between the two genotypes. The normal functional hearing and the gross structural anatomy of the middle and inner ears in the Tc1 mouse contrast to that observed in the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome which shows otitis media. Genes that are trisomic in Ts65Dn but disomic in Tc1 may predispose to otitis media when an additional copy is active.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of the anti-cancer drug sunitinib in models of HIV neurotoxicity suggests potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrasidlo, Wolf; Crews, Leslie A; Tsigelny, Igor F; Stocking, Emily; Kouznetsova, Valentina L; Price, Diana; Paulino, Amy; Gonzales, Tania; Overk, Cassia R; Patrick, Christina; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-12-01

    Anti-retrovirals have improved and extended the life expectancy of patients with HIV. However, as this population ages, the prevalence of cognitive changes is increasing. Aberrant activation of kinases, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), play a role in the mechanisms of HIV neurotoxicity. Inhibitors of CDK5, such as roscovitine, have neuroprotective effects; however, CNS penetration is low. Interestingly, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) display some CDK inhibitory activity and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. We screened a small group of known TKIs for a candidate with additional CDK5 inhibitory activity and tested the efficacy of the candidate in in vitro and in vivo models of HIV-gp120 neurotoxicity. Among 12 different compounds, sunitinib inhibited CDK5 with an IC50 of 4.2 μM. In silico analysis revealed that, similarly to roscovitine, sunitinib fitted 6 of 10 features of the CDK5 pharmacophore. In a cell-based model, sunitinib reduced CDK5 phosphorylation (pCDK5), calpain-dependent p35/p25 conversion and protected neuronal cells from the toxic effects of gp120. In glial fibrillary acidic protein-gp120 transgenic (tg) mice, sunitinib reduced levels of pCDK5, p35/p25 and phosphorylated tau protein, along with amelioration of the neurodegenerative pathology. Compounds such as sunitinib with dual kinase inhibitory activity could ameliorate the cognitive impairment associated with chronic HIV infection of the CNS. Moreover, repositioning existing low MW compounds holds promise for the treatment of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid suggests historical non drinking-water exposures are important for predicting current serum concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Manufacturing of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic chemical with a long half-life in humans, peaked between 1970 and 2002, and has since diminished. In the United States, PFOA is detected in the blood of >99% of people tested, but serum concentrations have decreased since 1999. Much is known about exposure to PFOA in drinking water; however, the impact of non-drinking water PFOA exposure on serum PFOA concentrations is not well characterized. The objective of this research is to apply physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and Monte Carlo analysis to evaluate the impact of historic non-drinking water PFOA exposure on serum PFOA concentrations. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation was utilized to inform descriptions of PFOA transport in the kidney. Monte Carlo simulations were incorporated to evaluate factors that account for the large inter-individual variability of serum PFOA concentrations measured in individuals from North Alabama in 2010 and 2016, and the Mid-Ohio River Valley between 2005 and 2008. Predicted serum PFOA concentrations were within two-fold of experimental data. With incorporation of Monte Carlo simulations, the model successfully tracked the large variability of serum PFOA concentrations measured in populations from the Mid-Ohio River Valley. Simulation of exposure in a population of 45 adults from North Alabama successfully predicted 98% of individual serum PFOA concentrations measured in 2010 and 2016, respectively, when non-drinking water ingestion of PFOA exposure was included. Variation in serum PFOA concentrations may be due to inter-individual variability in the disposition of PFOA and potentially elevated historical non-drinking water exposures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A hierarchy of models for simulating experimental results from a 3D heterogeneous porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Daniel; Ostvar, Sassan; Paustian, Rebecca; Wood, Brian D.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we examine the dispersion of conservative tracers (bromide and fluorescein) in an experimentally-constructed three-dimensional dual-porosity porous medium. The medium is highly heterogeneous (σY2 = 5.7), and consists of spherical, low-hydraulic-conductivity inclusions embedded in a high-hydraulic-conductivity matrix. The bimodal medium was saturated with tracers, and then flushed with tracer-free fluid while the effluent breakthrough curves were measured. The focus for this work is to examine a hierarchy of four models (in the absence of adjustable parameters) with decreasing complexity to assess their ability to accurately represent the measured breakthrough curves. The most information-rich model was (1) a direct numerical simulation of the system in which the geometry, boundary and initial conditions, and medium properties were fully independently characterized experimentally with high fidelity. The reduced-information models included; (2) a simplified numerical model identical to the fully-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) model, but using a domain that was one-tenth the size; (3) an upscaled mobile-immobile model that allowed for a time-dependent mass-transfer coefficient; and, (4) an upscaled mobile-immobile model that assumed a space-time constant mass-transfer coefficient. The results illustrated that all four models provided accurate representations of the experimental breakthrough curves as measured by global RMS error. The primary component of error induced in the upscaled models appeared to arise from the neglect of convection within the inclusions. We discuss the necessity to assign value (via a utility function or other similar method) to outcomes if one is to further select from among model options. Interestingly, these results suggested that the conventional convection-dispersion equation, when applied in a way that resolves the heterogeneities, yields models with high fidelity without requiring the imposition of a more

  3. Analytical results for the Sznajd model of opinion formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slanina, František; Lavička, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2003), s. 279-288 ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/1091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : agent models * sociophysics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2003

  4. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely’ di...

  5. Some Results On The Modelling Of TSS Manufacturing Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MÎNZU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling of a particular class of manufacturing lines, governed by a decentralised control strategy so that they balance themselves. Such lines are known as “bucket brigades” and also as “TSS lines”, after their first implementation, at Toyota, in the 70’s. A first study of their behaviour was based upon modelling as stochastic dynamic systems, which emphasised, in the frame of the so-called “Normative Model”, a sufficient condition for self-balancing, that means for autonomous functioning at a steady production rate (stationary behaviour. Under some particular conditions, a simulation analysis of TSS lines could be made on non-linear block diagrams, showing that the state trajectories are piecewise continuous in between occurrences of certain discrete events, which determine their discontinuity. TSS lines may therefore be modelled as hybrid dynamic systems, more specific, with autonomous switching and autonomous impulses (jumps. A stability analysis of such manufacturing lines is allowed by modelling them as hybrid dynamic systems with discontinuous motions.

  6. Recent numerical results on the two dimensional Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parola, A.; Sorella, S.; Baroni, S.; Car, R.; Parrinello, M.; Tosatti, E. (SISSA, Trieste (Italy))

    1989-12-01

    A new method for simulating strongly correlated fermionic systems, has been applied to the study of the ground state properties of the 2D Hubbard model at various fillings. Comparison has been made with exact diagonalizations in the 4 x 4 lattices where very good agreement has been verified in all the correlation functions which have been studied: charge, magnetization and momentum distribution. (orig.).

  7. Recent numerical results on the two dimensional Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parola, A.; Sorella, S.; Baroni, S.; Car, R.; Parrinello, M.; Tosatti, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a new method for simulating strongly correlated fermionic systems applied to the study of the ground state properties of the 2D Hubbard model at various fillings. Comparison has been made with exact diagonalizations in the 4 x 4 lattices where very good agreement has been verified in all the correlation functions which have been studied: charge, magnetization and momentum distribution

  8. Some rigorous results on the Hopfield neural network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.; Piasko, J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors analyze the thermal equilibrium distribution of 2 p mean field variables for the Hopfield model with p stored patterns, in the case where 2 p is small compared to the number of spins. In particular, they give a full description of the free energy density in the thermodynamic limit, and of the so-called symmetric solutions for the mean field equations

  9. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauker, F. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Storch, H. von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2000-07-01

    A dynamical downscaling for the North Sea is presented. The numerical model used for the study is the coupled ice-ocean model OPYC. In a hindcast of the years 1979 to 1993 it was forced with atmospheric forcing of the ECMWF reanalysis. The models capability in simulating the observed mean state and variability in the North Sea is demonstrated by the hindcast. Two time scale ranges, from weekly to seasonal and the longer-than-seasonal time scales are investigated. Shorter time scales, for storm surges, are not captured by the model formulation. The main modes of variability of sea level, sea-surface circulation, sea-surface temperature, and sea-surface salinity are described and connections to atmospheric phenomena, like the NAO, are discussed. T106 ''time-slice'' simulations with a ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' horizon are used to estimate the effects of a changing climate on the shelf sea ''North Sea''. The ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' changes in the surface forcing are accompanied by changes in the lateral oceanic boundary conditions taken from a global coupled climate model. For ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' the time mean sea level increases up to 25 cm in the German Bight in the winter, where 15 cm are due to the surface forcing and 10 cm due to thermal expansion. This change is compared to the ''natural'' variability as simulated in the ECMWF integration and found to be not outside the range spanned by it. The variability of sea level on the weekly-to-seasonal time-scales is significantly reduced in the scenario integration. The variability on the longer-than-seasonal time-scales in the control and scenario runs is much smaller then in the ECMWF integration. This is traced back to the use of ''time-slice'' experiments. Discriminating between locally forced changes and changes induced at the lateral oceanic boundaries of the model in the circulation and

  10. Guiding center model to interpret neutral particle analyzer results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, G. W.; Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.

    1974-01-01

    The theoretical model is discussed, which accounts for drift and cyclotron components of ion motion in a partially ionized plasma. Density and velocity distributions are systematically precribed. The flux into the neutral particle analyzer (NPA) from this plasma is determined by summing over all charge exchange neutrals in phase space which are directed into apertures. Especially detailed data, obtained by sweeping the line of sight of the apertures across the plasma of the NASA Lewis HIP-1 burnout device, are presented. Selection of randomized cyclotron velocity distributions about mean azimuthal drift yield energy distributions which compared well with experiment. Use of data obtained with a bending magnet on the NPA showed that separation between energy distribution curves of various mass species correlate well with a drift divided by mean cyclotron energy parameter of the theory. Use of the guiding center model in conjunction with NPA scans across the plasma aid in estimates of ion density and E field variation with plasma radius.

  11. Use of results from microscopic methods in optical model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, C.

    1985-11-01

    A concept of vectorization for coupled-channel programs based upon conventional methods is first presented. This has been implanted in our program for its use on the CRAY-1 computer. In a second part we investigate the capabilities of a semi-microscopic optical model involving fewer adjustable parameters than phenomenological ones. The two main ingredients of our calculations are, for spherical or well-deformed nuclei, the microscopic optical-model calculations of Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux and nuclear densities from Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the density-dependent force D1. For transitional nuclei deformation-dependent nuclear structure wave functions are employed to weigh the scattering potentials for different shapes and channels [fr

  12. 1-g model loading tests: methods and results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feda, Jaroslav

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (1999), s. 371-381 ISSN 1436-6517. [Int.Conf. on Soil - Structure Interaction in Urban Civ. Engineering. Darmstadt, 08.10.1999-09.10.1999] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC C7.10 Keywords : shallow foundation * model tests * sandy subsoil * bearing capacity * subsoil failure * volume deformation Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  13. Considerations on Modeling Strategies of the Financial Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cernuşca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study's objective is to highlight some of the strategies to maximize or minimize the accounting result, situated un-der the impulse of bad accounting. Although we assist the manipulation of the accounting result, this procedure is done according to the law, been exploited by some entities in knowledge of the lack of justice and accounting regulations.

  14. Exploring the uncertainties of early detection results: model-based interpretation of mayo lung project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Barbara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mayo Lung Project (MLP, a randomized controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening conducted between 1971 and 1986 among male smokers aged 45 or above, demonstrated an increase in lung cancer survival since the time of diagnosis, but no reduction in lung cancer mortality. Whether this result necessarily indicates a lack of mortality benefit for screening remains controversial. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed outcome, including over-diagnosis, screening sensitivity, and population heterogeneity (initial difference in lung cancer risks between the two trial arms. This study is intended to provide model-based testing for some of these important arguments. Method Using a micro-simulation model, the MISCAN-lung model, we explore the possible influence of screening sensitivity, systematic error, over-diagnosis and population heterogeneity. Results Calibrating screening sensitivity, systematic error, or over-diagnosis does not noticeably improve the fit of the model, whereas calibrating population heterogeneity helps the model predict lung cancer incidence better. Conclusions Our conclusion is that the hypothesized imperfection in screening sensitivity, systematic error, and over-diagnosis do not in themselves explain the observed trial results. Model fit improvement achieved by accounting for population heterogeneity suggests a higher risk of cancer incidence in the intervention group as compared with the control group.

  15. A model-based telecoupling analysis for the Patagonian shelf: a new suggested template on how to study global seabirds-fisheries interactions for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettmann, F.; Raya Rey, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Southwest Atlantic Ocean, and the extended Patagonian shelf in particular, presents us with a very complex ecosystem of global relevance for food security and global peace. It is a highly productive area and it maintains a great diversity and abundance of seabird species. Fisheries have been identified as a main stressor for the marine ecosystems and as one of the main causes of seabird population declines. Using the framework of telecoupling - a sophisticated description of natural and socioeconomic interactions over large distances - here we present a fresh holistic look at the dynamic fisheries and (endangered) seabird interactions for the Patagonian shelf. While data are sparse, we employ machine learning-based predictions for a more holistic overview. We found that these waters of the Patagonian Shelf are significantly affected by many nations and outside players. We found that the input, output and spill-over of the Patagonian shelf ecosystem are distributed virtually all over the globe. In addition, we also found `losers' (=nations and their citizens that are left out entirely from this global resource and its governance). Our findings are based on best-available public trade and fish harvest analysis for this region, linked with predictive modeling (machine learning and geographic information systems GIS) to generalize for nine seabird species. We conveniently extend this analysis with a perspective from the financial sector and policy that enables the Patagonian fisheries as international investment and development projects. As increasingly recognized elsewhere, we believe that telecoupling can serve as a new but rather sophisticated study template highlighting wider complexities, bottlenecks and sensitivities for a vastly improved conservation research on oceans and global sustainability questions.

  16. Half-Life of Sulfonylureas in HNF1A and HNF4A Human MODY Patients is not Prolonged as Suggested by the Mouse Hnf1a(-/-) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Jana; Andel, Michal; Potockova, Jana; Klima, Josef; Macek, Jan; Ptacek, Pavel; Mat'oska, Vaclav; Kumstyrova, Tereza; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonylurea derivatives are widely used for clinical treatment of human subjects with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) caused by mutations in HNF-1α or HNF-4α despite the mechanism leading to their hypersensitivity is incompletely understood. In Hnf1a(-/-) mice, serum concentrations and half-life of sulfonylurea derivatives are strongly increased. We thus hypothesized that reduced sulfonylurea derivatives clearance stands behind their therapeutic potential in human HNF1A/HNF4A MODY subjects. Single doses of 3 mg glipizide and 5 mg glibenclamide/glyburide were administered sequentially to seven HNF1A/HNF4A MODY subjects and six control individuals matched for their age, BMI and CYP2C9 genotype. Pharmacokinetic (plasma concentration levels, Cmax, tmax, t1/2, AUC) and pharmacodynamic parameters (glycemia, C-peptide and insulin plasma levels) were followed for 24 hours after drug administration. We provide the first evidence on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sulfonylurea derivatives in human MODY subjects. The half-life of glipizide did not change, and reached 3.8±0.7 and 3.7±1.8 h in the MODY and control subjects, respectively. The half-life of glibenclamide was increased only in some MODY subjects (t1/2 9.5±6.7 and 5.0±1.4 h, respectively). Importantly, the intra- individual responses of MODY (but control) subjects to glipizide and glibenclamide treatment were highly correlated. With regards to pharmacodynamics, we observed a differential response of control but not MODY subjects to the doses of glipizide and glibenclamide applied. We rejected the hypothesis that all human MODY-associated mutations in HNF1A / HNF4A induce changes in the pharmacokinetics of sulfonylureas in humans analogically to the Hnf1a(-/-) mouse model.

  17. The physical model of a terraced plot: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlotto, Chiara; D'Agostino, Vincenzo; Buzzanca, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Terrace building have been expanded in the 19th century because of the increased demographic pressure and the need to crop additional areas at steeper slopes. Terraces are also important to regulate the hydrological behavior of the hillslope. Few studies are available in literature on rainfall-runoff processes and flood risk mitigation in terraced areas. Bench terraces, reducing the terrain slope and the length of the overland flow, quantitatively control the runoff flow velocity, facilitating the drainage and thus leading to a reduction of soil erosion. The study of the hydrologic-hydraulic function of terraced slopes is essential in order to evaluate their possible use to cooperate for flood-risk mitigation also preserving the landscape value. This research aims to better focus the times of the hydrological response, which are determined by a hillslope plot bounded by a dry-stone wall, considering both the overland flow and the groundwater. A physical model, characterized by a quasi-real scale, has been built to reproduce the behavior of a 3% outward sloped terrace at bare soil condition. The model consists of a steel metal box (1 m large, 3.3 m long, 2 m high) containing the hillslope terrain. The terrain is equipped with two piezometers, 9 TDR sensors measuring the volumetric water content, a surface spillway at the head releasing the steady discharge under test, a scale at the wall base to measure the outflowing discharge. The experiments deal with different initial moisture condition (non-saturated and saturated), and discharges of 19.5, 12.0 and 5.0 l/min. Each experiment has been replicated, conducting a total number of 12 tests. The volumetric water content analysis produced by the 9 TDR sensors was able to provide a quite satisfactory representation of the soil moisture during the runs. Then, different lag times at the outlet since the inflow initiation were measured both for runoff and groundwater. Moreover, the time of depletion and the piezometer

  18. DISCRETE DEFORMATION WAVE DYNAMICS IN SHEAR ZONES: PHYSICAL MODELLING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bornyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of earthquake migration along active fault zones [Richter, 1958; Mogi, 1968] and related theoretical concepts [Elsasser, 1969] have laid the foundation for studying the problem of slow deformation waves in the lithosphere. Despite the fact that this problem has been under study for several decades and discussed in numerous publications, convincing evidence for the existence of deformation waves is still lacking. One of the causes is that comprehensive field studies to register such waves by special tools and equipment, which require sufficient organizational and technical resources, have not been conducted yet.The authors attempted at finding a solution to this problem by physical simulation of a major shear zone in an elastic-viscous-plastic model of the lithosphere. The experiment setup is shown in Figure 1 (A. The model material and boundary conditions were specified in accordance with the similarity criteria (described in detail in [Sherman, 1984; Sherman et al., 1991; Bornyakov et al., 2014]. The montmorillonite clay-and-water paste was placed evenly on two stamps of the installation and subject to deformation as the active stamp (1 moved relative to the passive stamp (2 at a constant speed. The upper model surface was covered with fine sand in order to get high-contrast photos. Photos of an emerging shear zone were taken every second by a Basler acA2000-50gm digital camera. Figure 1 (B shows an optical image of a fragment of the shear zone. The photos were processed by the digital image correlation method described in [Sutton et al., 2009]. This method estimates the distribution of components of displacement vectors and strain tensors on the model surface and their evolution over time [Panteleev et al., 2014, 2015].Strain fields and displacements recorded in the optical images of the model surface were estimated in a rectangular box (220.00×72.17 mm shown by a dot-and-dash line in Fig. 1, A. To ensure a sufficient level of

  19. The Prevalence of Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Disease in the Patients who Underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, Shiraz, Iran: Suggesting a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ostovan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of 40% of deaths in Iran annually. Many patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery have previous cardiovascular risk factors which could be prevented. Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional (descriptive – analytical study, a data collecting form was used. A total of 246 patients were selected from six hospitals of Shiraz using random stratification. Descriptive statistics were presented through figures and tables and t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. All the statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software (version 15.0. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the study patients, only 11.67% had no risk factors and 88.33% had one or more risk factors. The most common risk factors observed in the patients were hypertension, obesity and overweight, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. The results showed a significant difference between males and females regarding the prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.001, diabetes (P = 0.028, hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.020, and cigarette smoking (P = 0.001. In addition, the patients' mean levels of cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar were higher than the acceptable level, while that of HDL was lower than the accepted level. Conclusions:: These patients are recommended to be trained regarding lifestyle changes. Also, prevention strategies can play an important role in reducing patient morbidity and mortality.

  20. Integrative modeling of eQTLs and cis-regulatory elements suggests mechanisms underlying cell type specificity of eQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Brown

    Full Text Available Genetic variants in cis-regulatory elements or trans-acting regulators frequently influence the quantity and spatiotemporal distribution of gene transcription. Recent interest in expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL mapping has paralleled the adoption of genome-wide association studies (GWAS for the analysis of complex traits and disease in humans. Under the hypothesis that many GWAS associations tag non-coding SNPs with small effects, and that these SNPs exert phenotypic control by modifying gene expression, it has become common to interpret GWAS associations using eQTL data. To fully exploit the mechanistic interpretability of eQTL-GWAS comparisons, an improved understanding of the genetic architecture and causal mechanisms of cell type specificity of eQTLs is required. We address this need by performing an eQTL analysis in three parts: first we identified eQTLs from eleven studies on seven cell types; then we integrated eQTL data with cis-regulatory element (CRE data from the ENCODE project; finally we built a set of classifiers to predict the cell type specificity of eQTLs. The cell type specificity of eQTLs is associated with eQTL SNP overlap with hundreds of cell type specific CRE classes, including enhancer, promoter, and repressive chromatin marks, regions of open chromatin, and many classes of DNA binding proteins. These associations provide insight into the molecular mechanisms generating the cell type specificity of eQTLs and the mode of regulation of corresponding eQTLs. Using a random forest classifier with cell specific CRE-SNP overlap as features, we demonstrate the feasibility of predicting the cell type specificity of eQTLs. We then demonstrate that CREs from a trait-associated cell type can be used to annotate GWAS associations in the absence of eQTL data for that cell type. We anticipate that such integrative, predictive modeling of cell specificity will improve our ability to understand the mechanistic basis of human

  1. A Novel In Vitro CypD-Mediated p53 Aggregation Assay Suggests a Model for Mitochondrial Permeability Transition by Chaperone Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Ivan; Nemajerova, Alice; Foda, Zachariah H; Kornaj, Maja; Tong, Michael; Moll, Ute M; Seeliger, Markus A

    2016-10-09

    Tissue necrosis as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxidative damage is a leading cause of permanent disability and death worldwide. The complete mechanism by which cells undergo necrosis upon oxidative stress is not understood. In response to an oxidative insult, wild-type p53 has been implicated as a central regulatory component of the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), triggering necrosis. This process is associated with cellular stabilization and translocation of p53 into the mitochondrial matrix. Here, we probe the mechanism by which p53 activates the key mPT regulator cyclophilin D (CypD). We explore the involvement of Trap1, an Hsp90-related mitochondrial matrix protein and a member of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, and its ability to suppress mPT in a p53-dependent manner. Our study finds that catalytically active CypD causes strong aggregation of wild-type p53 protein (both full-length and isolated DNA-binding domain) into amyloid-type fibrils in vitro. The responsible CypD residues for this activity were mapped by NMR to the active site amino acids R55, F60, F113, and W121. The data also present a new proline isomerization assay for CypD by monitoring the aggregation of p53 as an indicator of CypD activity. Moreover, we find that the inhibition of Trap1 by the mitochondria-specific HSP90 ATPase antagonist Gamitrinib strongly sensitizes primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts to mPT and permeability transition pore opening in a p53- and CypD-dependent manner. We propose a mechanism by which the influx of unfolded p53 into the mitochondrial matrix in response to oxidative stress indirectly activates the normally inhibited CypD by displacing it from Trap1 complexes. This activates CypD's isomerase activity. Liberated CypD then isomerizes multiple proteins including p53 (causing p53 aggregation) and the structural components of the mPTP pore, inducing pore opening. This working model can now be tested in the future

  2. Analysis of inelastic neutron scattering results on model compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vibrational spectroscopy; nitrogenous bases; inelastic neutron scattering. PACS No. ... obtain good quality, high resolution results in this region. Here the .... knowledge of the character of each molecular transition as well as the calculated.

  3. MCNP Modeling Results for Location of Buried TRU Waste Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, D K; Schweitzer, J S

    2006-01-01

    In the 1960's, fifty-five gallon drums of TRU waste were buried in shallow pits on remote U.S. Government facilities such as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (now split into the Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Completion Project [ICP]). Subsequently, it was decided to remove the drums and the material that was in them from the burial pits and send the material to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Several technologies have been tried to locate the drums non-intrusively with enough precision to minimize the chance for material to be spread into the environment. One of these technologies is the placement of steel probe holes in the pits into which wireline logging probes can be lowered to measure properties and concentrations of material surrounding the probe holes for evidence of TRU material. There is also a concern that large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are also present that would contaminate the environment during removal. In 2001, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) built two pulsed neutron wireline logging tools to measure TRU and VOC around the probe holes. The tools are the Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) and the Pulsed Neutron Gamma (PNG), respectively. They were tested experimentally in surrogate test holes in 2003. The work reported here estimates the performance of the tools using Monte-Carlo modelling prior to field deployment. A MCNP model was constructed by INEEL personnel. It was modified by the authors to assess the ability of the tools to predict quantitatively the position and concentration of TRU and VOC materials disposed around the probe holes. The model was used to simulate the tools scanning the probe holes vertically in five centimetre increments. A drum was included in the model that could be placed near the probe hole and at other locations out to forty-five centimetres from the probe-hole in five centimetre increments. Scans were performed with no chlorine in the

  4. Delta-tilde interpretation of standard linear mixed model results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per Bruun; Amorim, Isabel de Sousa; Kuznetsova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    effects relative to the residual error and to choose the proper effect size measure. For multi-attribute bar plots of F-statistics this amounts, in balanced settings, to a simple transformation of the bar heights to get them transformed into depicting what can be seen as approximately the average pairwise...... data set and compared to actual d-prime calculations based on Thurstonian regression modeling through the ordinal package. For more challenging cases we offer a generic "plug-in" implementation of a version of the method as part of the R-package SensMixed. We discuss and clarify the bias mechanisms...

  5. Solar activity variations of ionosonde measurements and modeling results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altadill, D.; Arrazola, D.; Blanch, E.; Burešová, Dalia

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2008), s. 610-616 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS300120506 Grant - others:MCYT(ES) REN2003-08376-C02-02; CSIC(XE) 2004CZ0002; AGAUR(XE) 2006BE00112; AF Research Laboratory(XE) FA8718-L-0072 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : mid-latitude ionosphere * bottomside modeling * ionospheric variability Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2008 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02731177

  6. NASA Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM): Capabilities and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Julie; Culver, George; Naderi, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    NAFCOM is a parametric estimating tool for space hardware. Uses cost estimating relationships (CERs) which correlate historical costs to mission characteristics to predict new project costs. It is based on historical NASA and Air Force space projects. It is intended to be used in the very early phases of a development project. NAFCOM can be used at the subsystem or component levels and estimates development and production costs. NAFCOM is applicable to various types of missions (crewed spacecraft, uncrewed spacecraft, and launch vehicles). There are two versions of the model: a government version that is restricted and a contractor releasable version.

  7. The calculation of exchange forces: General results and specific models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, T.C.; Babb, J.F.; Dalgarno, A.; Morgan, J.D. III

    1993-01-01

    In order to clarify questions about the calculation of the exchange energy of a homonuclear molecular ion, an analysis is carried out of a model problem consisting of the one-dimensional limit of H 2 + . It is demonstrated that the use of the infinite polarization expansion for the localized wave function in the Holstein--Herring formula yields an approximate exchange energy which at large internuclear distances R has the correct leading behavior to O(e -R ) and is close to but not equal to the exact exchange energy. The extension to the n-dimensional double-well problem is presented

  8. Guiding center model to interpret neutral particle analyzer results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, G.W.; Reinmann, J.J.; Lauver, M.R.

    1974-01-01

    The theoretical model is discussed, which accounts for drift and cyclotron components of ion motion in a partially ionized plasma. Density and velocity distributions are systematically prescribed. The flux into the neutron particle analyzer (NPA) from this plasma is determined by summing over all charge exchange neutrals in phase space which are directed into apertures. Especially detailed data, obtained by sweeping the line of sight of the apertures across the plasma of the NASA Lewis HIP-1 burnout device, are presented. Selection of randomized cyclotron velocity distributions about mean azimuthal drift yield energy distributions which compared well with experiment. Use of data obtained with a bending magnet on the NPA showed that separation between energy distribution curves of various mass species correlate well with a drift divided by mean cyclotron energy parameter of the theory. Use of the guiding center model in conjunction with NPA scans across the plasma aid in estimates of ion density and E field variation with plasma radius. (U.S.)

  9. Constraining performance assessment models with tracer test results: a comparison between two conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Sean A.; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    Tracer tests are conducted to ascertain solute transport parameters of a single rock feature over a 5-m transport pathway. Two different conceptualizations of double-porosity solute transport provide estimates of the tracer breakthrough curves. One of the conceptualizations (single-rate) employs a single effective diffusion coefficient in a matrix with infinite penetration depth. However, the tracer retention between different flow paths can vary as the ratio of flow-wetted surface to flow rate differs between the path lines. The other conceptualization (multirate) employs a continuous distribution of multiple diffusion rate coefficients in a matrix with variable, yet finite, capacity. Application of these two models with the parameters estimated on the tracer test breakthrough curves produces transport results that differ by orders of magnitude in peak concentration and time to peak concentration at the performance assessment (PA) time and length scales (100,000 years and 1,000 m). These differences are examined by calculating the time limits for the diffusive capacity to act as an infinite medium. These limits are compared across both conceptual models and also against characteristic times for diffusion at both the tracer test and PA scales. Additionally, the differences between the models are examined by re-estimating parameters for the multirate model from the traditional double-porosity model results at the PA scale. Results indicate that for each model the amount of the diffusive capacity that acts as an infinite medium over the specified time scale explains the differences between the model results and that tracer tests alone cannot provide reliable estimates of transport parameters for the PA scale. Results of Monte Carlo runs of the transport models with varying travel times and path lengths show consistent results between models and suggest that the variation in flow-wetted surface to flow rate along path lines is insignificant relative to variability in

  10. Comparison of Experimental Surface and Flow Field Measurements to Computational Results of the Juncture Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozeboom, Nettie H.; Lee, Henry C.; Simurda, Laura J.; Zilliac, Gregory G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Wing-body juncture flow fields on commercial aircraft configurations are challenging to compute accurately. The NASA Advanced Air Vehicle Program's juncture flow committee is designing an experiment to provide data to improve Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling in the juncture flow region. Preliminary design of the model was done using CFD, yet CFD tends to over-predict the separation in the juncture flow region. Risk reduction wind tunnel tests were requisitioned by the committee to obtain a better understanding of the flow characteristics of the designed models. NASA Ames Research Center's Fluid Mechanics Lab performed one of the risk reduction tests. The results of one case, accompanied by CFD simulations, are presented in this paper. Experimental results suggest the wall mounted wind tunnel model produces a thicker boundary layer on the fuselage than the CFD predictions, resulting in a larger wing horseshoe vortex suppressing the side of body separation in the juncture flow region. Compared to experimental results, CFD predicts a thinner boundary layer on the fuselage generates a weaker wing horseshoe vortex resulting in a larger side of body separation.

  11. First Results of Modeling Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics with the SAMI3 Plasmasphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, C. M.; Glocer, A.; Huba, J.; Fok, M. C. H.; Kang, S. B.; Buzulukova, N.

    2017-12-01

    The radiation belts were one of the first discoveries of the Space Age some sixty years ago and radiation belt models have been improving since the discovery of the radiation belts. The plasmasphere is one region that has been critically important to determining the dynamics of radiation belt populations. This region of space plays a critical role in describing the distribution of chorus and magnetospheric hiss waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. Both of these waves have been shown to interact with energetic electrons in the radiation belts and can result in the energization or loss of radiation belt electrons. However, radiation belt models have been historically limited in describing the distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma and have relied on empirically determined plasmasphere models. Some plasmasphere models use an azimuthally symmetric distribution of the plasmasphere which can fail to capture important plasmaspheric dynamics such as the development of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Previous work have coupled the kinetic bounce-averaged Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model used to model ring current and radiation belt populations with the Block-adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATSRUS) global magnetohydrodynamic model to self-consistently obtain the magnetospheric magnetic field and ionospheric potential. The present work will utilize this previous coupling and will additionally couple the SAMI3 plasmasphere model to better represent the dynamics on the plasmasphere and its role in determining the distribution of waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. First results on the relevance of chorus, hiss, and ultralow frequency waves on radiation belt electron dynamics will be discussed in context of the June 1st, 2013 storm-time dropout event.

  12. Experimental results and modeling of a dynamic hohlraum on SATURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzon, M.S.; Allshouse, G.O.; Deeney, C.; Leeper, R.J.; Nash, T.J.; Matuska, W.; Peterson, D.L.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1998-06-01

    Experiments were performed at SATURN, a high current z-pinch, to explore the feasibility of creating a hohlraum by imploding a tungsten wire array onto a low-density foam. Emission measurements in the 200--280 eV energy band were consistent with a 110--135 eV Planckian before the target shock heated, or stagnated, on-axis. Peak pinch radiation temperatures of nominally 160 eV were obtained. Measured early time x-ray emission histories and temperature estimates agree well with modeled performance in the 200--280 eV band using a 2D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics code. However, significant differences are observed in comparisons of the x-ray images and 2D simulations

  13. Results of modeling advanced BWR fuel designs using CASMO-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.; Edenius, M.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced BWR fuel designs from General Electric, Siemens and ABB-Atom have been analyzed using CASMO-4 and compared against fission rate distributions and control rod worths from MCNP. Included in the analysis were fuel storage rack configurations and proposed mixed oxide (MOX) designs. Results are also presented from several cycles of SIMULATE-3 core follow analysis, using nodal data generated by CASMO-4, for cycles in transition from 8x8 designs to advanced fuel designs. (author)

  14. First results from the International Urban Energy Balance Model Comparison: Model Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, M.; Grimmond, S.; Best, M.

    2009-04-01

    A great variety of urban energy balance models has been developed. These vary in complexity from simple schemes that represent the city as a slab, through those which model various facets (i.e. road, walls and roof) to more complex urban forms (including street canyons with intersections) and features (such as vegetation cover and anthropogenic heat fluxes). Some schemes also incorporate detailed representations of momentum and energy fluxes distributed throughout various layers of the urban canopy layer. The models each differ in the parameters they require to describe the site and the in demands they make on computational processing power. Many of these models have been evaluated using observational datasets but to date, no controlled comparisons have been conducted. Urban surface energy balance models provide a means to predict the energy exchange processes which influence factors such as urban temperature, humidity, atmospheric stability and winds. These all need to be modelled accurately to capture features such as the urban heat island effect and to provide key information for dispersion and air quality modelling. A comparison of the various models available will assist in improving current and future models and will assist in formulating research priorities for future observational campaigns within urban areas. In this presentation we will summarise the initial results of this international urban energy balance model comparison. In particular, the relative performance of the models involved will be compared based on their degree of complexity. These results will inform us on ways in which we can improve the modelling of air quality within, and climate impacts of, global megacities. The methodology employed in conducting this comparison followed that used in PILPS (the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes) which is also endorsed by the GEWEX Global Land Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) panel. In all cases, models were run

  15. Exact results for the O( N ) model with quenched disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Gesualdo; Lamsen, Noel

    2018-04-01

    We use scale invariant scattering theory to exactly determine the lines of renormalization group fixed points for O( N )-symmetric models with quenched disorder in two dimensions. Random fixed points are characterized by two disorder parameters: a modulus that vanishes when approaching the pure case, and a phase angle. The critical lines fall into three classes depending on the values of the disorder modulus. Besides the class corresponding to the pure case, a second class has maximal value of the disorder modulus and includes Nishimori-like multicritical points as well as zero temperature fixed points. The third class contains critical lines that interpolate, as N varies, between the first two classes. For positive N , it contains a single line of infrared fixed points spanning the values of N from √{2}-1 to 1. The symmetry sector of the energy density operator is superuniversal (i.e. N -independent) along this line. For N = 2 a line of fixed points exists only in the pure case, but accounts also for the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase observed in presence of disorder.

  16. Modeling Framework and Results to Inform Charging Infrastructure Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market is experiencing rapid growth with dozens of battery electric (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) models already available and billions of dollars being invested by automotive manufacturers in the PEV space. Electric range is increasing thanks to larger and more advanced batteries and significant infrastructure investments are being made to enable higher power fast charging. Costs are falling and PEVs are becoming more competitive with conventional vehicles. Moreover, new technologies such as connectivity and automation hold the promise of enhancing the value proposition of PEVs. This presentation outlines a suite of projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office to conduct assessments of the economic value and charging infrastructure requirements of the evolving PEV market. Individual assessments include national evaluations of PEV economic value (assuming 73M PEVs on the road in 2035), national analysis of charging infrastructure requirements (with community and corridor level resolution), and case studies of PEV ownership in Columbus, OH and Massachusetts.

  17. The Multipole Plasma Trap-PIC Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Nathaniel; Bowman, Amanda; Godden, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) multipole structure is studied via particle-in-cell computer modeling, to assess the response of quasi-neutral plasma to the imposed RF fields. Several regimes, such as pair plasma, antimatter plasma, and conventional (ion-electron) plasma are considered. In the case of equal charge-to-mass ratio of plasma species, the effects of the multipole field are symmetric between positive and negative particles. In the case of a charge-to-mass disparity, the multipole RF parameters (frequency, voltage, structure size) may be chosen such that the light species (e.g. electrons) is strongly confined, while the heavy species (e.g. positive ions) does not respond to the RF field. In this case, the trapped negative space charge creates a potential well that then traps the positive species. 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of this concept are presented, to assess plasma response and trapping dependences on multipole order, consequences of the formation of an RF plasma sheath, and the effects of an axial magnetic field. The scalings of trapped plasma parameters are explored in each of the mentioned regimes, to guide the design of prospective experiments investigating each. Supported by U.S. NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering Grant PHY-1619615.

  18. Mathematical modeling of ignition of woodlands resulted from accident on the pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perminov, V. A.; Loboda, E. L.; Reyno, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    Accidents occurring at the sites of pipelines, accompanied by environmental damage, economic loss, and sometimes loss of life. In this paper we calculated the sizes of the possible ignition zones in emergency situations on pipelines located close to the forest, accompanied by the appearance of fireballs. In this paper, using the method of mathematical modeling calculates the maximum size of the ignition zones of vegetation as a result of accidental releases of flammable substances. The paper suggested in the context of the general mathematical model of forest fires give a new mathematical setting and method of numerical solution of a problem of a forest fire modeling. The boundary-value problem is solved numerically using the method of splitting according to physical processes. The dependences of the size of the forest fuel for different amounts of leaked flammable substances and moisture content of vegetation.

  19. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stirling cryocooler test results and design model verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimko, M.A.; Stacy, W.D.; McCormick, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on progress in developing a long-life Stirling cycle cryocooler for space borne applications. It presents the results from tests on a preliminary breadboard version of the cryocooler used to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to validate the regenerator design code used in its development. This machine achieved a cold-end temperature of 65 K while carrying a 1/2 Watt cooling load. The basic machine is a double-acting, flexure-bearing, split Stirling design with linear electromagnetic drives for the expander and compressors. Flat metal diaphragms replace pistons for both sweeping and sealing the machine working volumes. In addition, the double-acting expander couples to a laminar-channel counterflow recuperative heat exchanger for regeneration. A PC compatible design code was developed for this design approach that calculates regenerator loss including heat transfer irreversibilities, pressure drop, and axial conduction in the regenerator walls

  1. The similia principle: results obtained in a cellular model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegant, Fred; Van Wijk, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research program focused on the beneficial effect of low dose stress conditions that were applied according to the similia principle to cells previously disturbed by more severe stress conditions. In first instance, we discuss criteria for research on the similia principle at the cellular level. Then, the homologous ('isopathic') approach is reviewed, in which the initial (high dose) stress used to disturb cellular physiology and the subsequent (low dose) stress are identical. Beneficial effects of low dose stress are described in terms of increased cellular survival capacity and at the molecular level as an increase in the synthesis of heat shock proteins (hsps). Both phenomena reflect a stimulation of the endogenous cellular self-recovery capacity. Low dose stress conditions applied in a homologous approach stimulate the synthesis of hsps and enhance survival in comparison with stressed cells that were incubated in the absence of low dose stress conditions. Thirdly, the specificity of the low dose stress condition is described where the initial (high dose) stress is different in nature from the subsequently applied (low dose) stress; the heterologous or 'heteropathic' approach. The results support the similia principle at the cellular level and add to understanding of how low dose stress conditions influence the regulatory processes underlying self-recovery. In addition, the phenomenon of 'symptom aggravation' which is also observed at the cellular level, is discussed in the context of self-recovery. Finally, the difference in efficiency between the homologous and the heterologous approach is discussed; a perspective is indicated for further research; and the relationship between studies on the similia principle and the recently introduced concept of 'postconditioning hormesis' is emphasized. Copyright 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling results for a linear simulator of a divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Jackson, M.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Molvik, A.W.; Nevins, W.M.; Nilson, D.G.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    A divertor simulator, IDEAL, has been proposed by S. Cohen to study the difficult power-handling requirements of the tokamak program in general and the ITER program in particular. Projections of the power density in the ITER divertor reach ∼ 1 Gw/m 2 along the magnetic fieldlines and > 10 MW/m 2 on a surface inclined at a shallow angle to the fieldlines. These power densities are substantially greater than can be handled reliably on the surface, so new techniques are required to reduce the power density to a reasonable level. Although the divertor physics must be demonstrated in tokamaks, a linear device could contribute to the development because of its flexibility, the easy access to the plasma and to tested components, and long pulse operation (essentially cw). However, a decision to build a simulator requires not just the recognition of its programmatic value, but also confidence that it can meet the required parameters at an affordable cost. Accordingly, as reported here, it was decided to examine the physics of the proposed device, including kinetic effects resulting from the intense heating required to reach the plasma parameters, and to conduct an independent cost estimate. The detailed role of the simulator in a divertor program is not explored in this report

  3. Modelling combustion reactions for gas flaring and its resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saheed Ismail

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flaring of associated petroleum gas is an age long environmental concern which remains unabated. Flaring of gas maybe a very efficient combustion process especially steam/air assisted flare and more economical than utilization in some oil fields. However, it has serious implications for the environment. This study considered different reaction types and operating conditions for gas flaring. Six combustion equations were generated using the mass balance concept with varying air and combustion efficiency. These equations were coded with a computer program using 12 natural gas samples of different chemical composition and origin to predict the pattern of emission species from gas flaring. The effect of key parameters on the emission output is also shown. CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 are the anticipated non-hydrocarbon emissions of environmental concern. Results show that the quantity and pattern of these chemical species depended on percentage excess/deficiency of stoichiometric air, natural gas type, reaction type, carbon mass content, impurities, combustion efficiency of the flare system etc. These emissions degrade the environment and human life, so knowing the emission types, pattern and flaring conditions that this study predicts is of paramount importance to governments, environmental agencies and the oil and gas industry.

  4. Environment modelling in near Earth space: Preliminary LDEF results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, C. R.; Atkinson, D. R.; Wagner, J. D.; Crowell, L. B.; Allbrooks, M.; Watts, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Hypervelocity impacts by space debris cause not only local cratering or penetrations, but also cause large areas of damage in coated, painted or laminated surfaces. Features examined in these analyses display interesting morphological characteristics, commonly exhibiting a concentric ringed appearance. Virtually all features greater than 0.2 mm in diameter possess a spall zone in which all of the paint was removed from the aluminum surface. These spall zones vary in size from approximately 2 - 5 crater diameters. The actual craters in the aluminum substrate vary from central pits without raised rims, to morphologies more typical of craters formed in aluminum under hypervelocity laboratory conditions for the larger features. Most features also possess what is referred to as a 'shock zone' as well. These zones vary in size from approximately 1 - 20 crater diameters. In most cases, only the outer-most layer of paint was affected by this impact related phenomenon. Several impacts possess ridge-like structures encircling the area in which this outer-most paint layer was removed. In many ways, such features resemble the lunar impact basins, but on an extremely reduced scale. Overall, there were no noticeable penetrations, bulges or spallation features on the backside of the tray. On Row 12, approximately 85 degrees from the leading edge (RAM direction), there was approximately one impact per 15 cm(exp 2). On the trailing edge, there was approximately one impact per 72 cm(exp 2). Currently, craters on four aluminum experiment trays from Bay E09, directly on the leading edge are being measured and analyzed. Preliminary results have produced more than 2200 craters on approximately 1500 cm(exp 2) - or approximately 1 impact per 0.7 cm(exp 2).

  5. Treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): results from a randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Matthias; Giuliano, François; Baygani, Simin K; Melby, Thomas; Sontag, Angelina

    2014-10-01

    To assess treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind study of men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). After a 4-week placebo lead-in period, men aged ≥45 years with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥13 and a maximum urinary flow rate of ≥4 to ≤15 mL/s received placebo (172 men), tadalafil 5 mg (171), or tamsulosin 0.4 mg (168) once daily for 12 weeks. Treatment Satisfaction Scale-BPH (TSS-BPH) responses were assessed based on median treatment differences using the van Elteren test. Overall treatment satisfaction was greater for tadalafil vs placebo (P = 0.005), based on greater satisfaction with efficacy (P = 0.003); neither overall treatment satisfaction nor satisfaction with efficacy was greater for tamsulosin vs placebo (P ≥ 0.409). For individual questions, 66.5% of men rated tadalafil treatment as 'effective/very effective' (Question 1, Q1) vs placebo (P = 0.011), 72.6% would 'definitely/probably recommend their treatment' (Q3; P = 0.043), 71.8% were generally 'very satisfied/satisfied with their medication' (Q8; P BPH by baseline age (≤65/>65 years), history of erectile dysfunction (yes/no), LUTS/BPH severity (IPSS

  6. Reconstructing Holocene climate using a climate model: Model strategy and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkorn, K.; Blender, R.; Lunkeit, F.; Fraedrich, K.

    2009-04-01

    An Earth system model of intermediate complexity (Planet Simulator; PlaSim) is used to reconstruct Holocene climate based on proxy data. The Planet Simulator is a user friendly general circulation model (GCM) suitable for palaeoclimate research. Its easy handling and the modular structure allow for fast and problem dependent simulations. The spectral model is based on the moist primitive equations conserving momentum, mass, energy and moisture. Besides the atmospheric part, a mixed layer-ocean with sea ice and a land surface with biosphere are included. The present-day climate of PlaSim, based on an AMIP II control-run (T21/10L resolution), shows reasonable agreement with ERA-40 reanalysis data. Combining PlaSim with a socio-technological model (GLUES; DFG priority project INTERDYNAMIK) provides improved knowledge on the shift from hunting-gathering to agropastoral subsistence societies. This is achieved by a data assimilation approach, incorporating proxy time series into PlaSim to initialize palaeoclimate simulations during the Holocene. For this, the following strategy is applied: The sensitivities of the terrestrial PlaSim climate are determined with respect to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Here, the focus is the impact of regionally varying SST both in the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. The inverse of these sensitivities is used to determine the SST conditions necessary for the nudging of land and coastal proxy climates. Preliminary results indicate the potential, the uncertainty and the limitations of the method.

  7. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  8. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Antidrug Advertising on Adolescent Drug Consumption: Results From a Behavioral Economic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lauren G.; Morwitz, Vicki G.; Putsis, William P.; Sen, Subrata K.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether adolescents’ recall of antidrug advertising is associated with a decreased probability of using illicit drugs and, given drug use, a reduced volume of use. Methods. A behavioral economic model of influences on drug consumption was developed with survey data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents to determine the incremental impact of antidrug advertising. Results. The findings provided evidence that recall of antidrug advertising was associated with a lower probability of marijuana and cocaine/crack use. Recall of such advertising was not associated with the decision of how much marijuana or cocaine/crack to use. Results suggest that individuals predisposed to try marijuana are also predisposed to try cocaine/crack. Conclusions. The present results provide support for the effectiveness of antidrug advertising programs. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1346–1351) PMID:12144995

  10. Could the eventual results of the NSABP* 39/RTOG** 0413 trial for partial breast irradiation (PBI) be improved by combining spherical applicators and whole breast irradiation? Radiobiology suggests it may.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, B J

    2010-01-01

    There may be unacceptable risks associated with the relatively large single doses of irradiation prescribed over five days instead of over six weeks for three of the four trial arms of the NSABP39/RTOG 0413 clinical trial seeking to enlist 4,300 patients. The first arm prescribes 60 Gray (Gy) in two Gy fractions over six weeks, which is the present standard. The dose implications of the other three arms with reference to this standard were examined using the ID2 formalism. Particularly poor (non-homogeneous) dose distributions characterise spherical applicators like "MammoSite" used as a sole device for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The alternative treatment, APBI done by 3-D conformal radiation, may also have a drawback, namely a sudden sharp cut-off in dose which may cause cosmetic problems due to circumscribed fibrosis and edema. Some recently published results from this trial reveal an alarming level of complications. The possible causes of these complications and poor cosmetic outcomes and how to avoid them are examined. An obstacle to the more widespread use of the "MammoSite type of device is that the device is not allowed closer than 5-7 mm from the skin or ribs; a possible remedy for this restriction is offered. It is also intended to make the relevant radiobiological principles usable for surgical oncologists.

  11. Modelling of carcinogenic effects resulting from the combined action of radon and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabova, S.V.; Petin, V.G. [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2002-03-01

    A simple mathematical model designed for the description of cell survival [1] and later developed for the evaluation of mutagenic effects [2] was proposed for the optimisation of the determination and prognosis of levels of carcinogenic effects in organisms, resulting from the combined action of different agents. The model postulates that the occurrence of synergism is to be expected as a result of additional carcinogenic damage arising from the interaction of sublesions induced by the two agents under investigation. These molecular sublesions are suggested to be non-carcinogenic, if each agent is taken separately. The main conclusion pertaining to this model is the existence of the highest level of synergistic effect. The model predicts the input values and conditions under which this level is reached. The synergistic effect appeared to decline with any deviation from the optimal value for the ratio of carcinogenic effects produced by each agent alone. These conclusions were verified by comparison with experimental data published by other researchers. (orig.)

  12. FEM effective suggestion of guitar construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Dániel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis of the whole guitar construction was performed. The results of eigenfrequencies were obtained. Stress in strings affects not only static loading of material, but also shift of eigenfrequencies. From obtained natural frequencies for solved spectrum such frequencies were used which coincides with assumed ribs new positions of ribs were suggested. Other ribs which do not carry out the mechanical function were removed. Also static reaction was evaluated and new position of ribs was adjusted. For final model new eigenfrequencies were computed and compared with previous ones. Significant changes were revealed in low frequencies (bellow 400 Hz where fewer amounts of natural shapes were obtained. Approximately 50% were lost by adding of ribs. For chosen frequencies of equal temperament the harmonic analysis was performed. The analysis proved ability of oscillation for frequencies far of natural frequencies. The final model satisfies the requirement of minimization of static stress in material due to strings and allows very effective oscillation of top the guitar resonance board. In comparison with literature good agreement in amplitude size of front board and amount of modes in appropriate frequencies were achieved. Suggested model even offers higher amount of natural shapes in comparison with literature, namely in high frequencies. From additional comparison of eigenfrequencies and natural shapes the influence of ribs position on natural shapes was approved.

  13. Measurements of entanglement over a kilometric distance to test superluminal models of Quantum Mechanics: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciaro, B.; Faetti, S.; Fronzoni, L.

    2017-08-01

    As shown in the EPR paper (Einstein, Podolsky e Rosen, 1935), Quantum Mechanics is a non-local Theory. The Bell theorem and the successive experiments ruled out the possibility of explaining quantum correlations using only local hidden variables models. Some authors suggested that quantum correlations could be due to superluminal communications that propagate isotropically with velocity vt > c in a preferred reference frame. For finite values of vt and in some special cases, Quantum Mechanics and superluminal models lead to different predictions. So far, no deviations from the predictions of Quantum Mechanics have been detected and only lower bounds for the superluminal velocities vt have been established. Here we describe a new experiment that increases the maximum detectable superluminal velocities and we give some preliminary results.

  14. Channel flow and trichloroethylene treatment in a partly iron-filled fracture: Experimental and model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zuansi; Merly, Corrine; Thomson, Neil R.; Wilson, Ryan D.; Lerner, David N.

    2007-08-01

    Technical developments have now made it possible to emplace granular zero-valent iron (Fe 0) in fractured media to create a Fe 0 fracture reactive barrier (Fe 0 FRB) for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. To evaluate this concept, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated water was flushed through a single uniform fracture created between two sandstone blocks. This fracture was partly filled with what was intended to be a uniform thickness of iron. Partial treatment of TCE by iron demonstrated that the concept of a Fe 0 FRB is practical, but was less than anticipated for an iron layer of uniform thickness. When the experiment was disassembled, evidence of discrete channelised flow was noted and attributed to imperfect placement of the iron. To evaluate the effect of the channel flow, an explicit Channel Model was developed that simplifies this complex flow regime into a conceptualised set of uniform and parallel channels. The mathematical representation of this conceptualisation directly accounts for (i) flow channels and immobile fluid arising from the non-uniform iron placement, (ii) mass transfer from the open fracture to iron and immobile fluid regions, and (iii) degradation in the iron regions. A favourable comparison between laboratory data and the results from the developed mathematical model suggests that the model is capable of representing TCE degradation in fractures with non-uniform iron placement. In order to apply this Channel Model concept to a Fe 0 FRB system, a simplified, or implicit, Lumped Channel Model was developed where the physical and chemical processes in the iron layer and immobile fluid regions are captured by a first-order lumped rate parameter. The performance of this Lumped Channel Model was compared to laboratory data, and benchmarked against the Channel Model. The advantages of the Lumped Channel Model are that the degradation of TCE in the system is represented by a first

  15. Discrete Element Modeling Results of Proppant Rearrangement in the Cooke Conductivity Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl Mattson; Hai Huang; Michael Conway; Lisa O' Connell

    2014-02-01

    The study of propped fracture conductivity began in earnest with the development of the Cooke cell which later became part of the initial API standard. Subsequent developments included a patented multicell design to conduct 4 tests in a press at the same time. Other modifications have been used by various investigators. Recent studies by the Stim-Lab proppant consortium have indicated that the flow field across a Cooke proppant conductivity testing cell may not be uniform as initially believed which resulted is significantly different conductivity results. Post test analysis of low temperature metal alloy injections at the termination of proppant testing prior to the release of the applied stress suggest that higher flow is to be expected along the sides and top of the proppant pack than compared to the middle of the pack. To evaluate these experimental findings, a physics-based two-dimensional (2-D) discrete element model (DEM) was developed and applied to simulate proppant rearrangement during stress loading in the Cooke conductivity cell and the resulting porosity field. Analysis of these simulations are critical to understanding the impact of modification to the testing cell as well as understanding key proppant conductivity issues such as how these effects are manifested in proppant concentration testing results. The 2-D DEM model was constructed to represent a realistic cross section of the Cooke cell with a distribution of four material properties, three that represented the Cooke cell (steel, sandstone,square rings), and one representing the proppant. In principle, Cooke cell materials can be approximated as assemblies of independent discrete elements (particles) of various sizes and material properties that interact via cohesive interactions, repulsive forces, and frictional forces. The macroscopic behavior can then be modeled as the collective behavior of many interacting discrete elements. This DEM model is particularly suitable for modeling proppant

  16. Sea ice thermohaline dynamics and biogeochemistry in the Arctic Ocean: Empirical and model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Olsen, Lasse M.; Kauko, Hanna M.; Assmy, Philipp; Rösel, Anja; Itkin, Polona; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Sundfjord, Arild; Steen, Harald; Hop, Haakon; Cohen, Lana; Peterson, Algot K.; Jeffery, Nicole; Elliott, Scott M.; Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Turner, Adrian K.

    2017-07-01

    Large changes in the sea ice regime of the Arctic Ocean have occurred over the last decades justifying the development of models to forecast sea ice physics and biogeochemistry. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) to simulate physical and biogeochemical properties at time scales of a few weeks and to use the model to analyze ice algal bloom dynamics in different types of ice. Ocean and atmospheric forcing data and observations of the evolution of the sea ice properties collected from 18 April to 4 June 2015, during the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition, were used to test the CICE model. Our results show the following: (i) model performance is reasonable for sea ice thickness and bulk salinity; good for vertically resolved temperature, vertically averaged Chl a concentrations, and standing stocks; and poor for vertically resolved Chl a concentrations. (ii) Improving current knowledge about nutrient exchanges, ice algal recruitment, and motion is critical to improve sea ice biogeochemical modeling. (iii) Ice algae may bloom despite some degree of basal melting. (iv) Ice algal motility driven by gradients in limiting factors is a plausible mechanism to explain their vertical distribution. (v) Different ice algal bloom and net primary production (NPP) patterns were identified in the ice types studied, suggesting that ice algal maximal growth rates will increase, while sea ice vertically integrated NPP and biomass will decrease as a result of the predictable increase in the area covered by refrozen leads in the Arctic Ocean.

  17. Pedestrian simulation model based on principles of bounded rationality: results of validation tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, W.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Lo, H.P.; Leung, Stephen C.H.; Tan, Susanna M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, different modelling approaches to simulating pedestrian movement have been suggested. The majority of pedestrian decision models are based on the concept of utility maximization. To explore alternatives, we developed the heterogeneous heuristic model (HHM), based on principles of

  18. Performances of the snow accumulation melting model SAMM: results in the Northern Apennines test area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Daniela; Martelloni, Gianluca; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo; Fanti, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    In this work we propose a snow accumulation-melting model (SAMM) to forecast the snowpack height and we compare the results with a simple temperature index model and an improved version of the latter.For this purpose we used rainfall, temperature and snowpack thickness 5-years data series from 7 weather stations in the Northern Apennines (Emilia Romagna Region, Italy). SAMM is based on two modules modelling the snow accumulation and the snowmelt processes. Each module is composed by two equations: a mass conservation equation is solved to model snowpack thickness and an empirical equation is used for the snow density. The processes linked to the accumulation/depletion of the snowpack (e.g. compression of the snowpack due to newly fallen snow and effects of rainfall) are modelled identifying limiting and inhibitory factors according to a kinetic approach. The model depends on 13 empirical parameters, whose optimal values were defined with an optimization algorithm (simplex flexible) using calibration measures of snowpack thickness. From an operational point of view, SAMM uses as input data only temperature and rainfall measurements, bringing the additional advantage of a relatively easy implementation. In order to verify the improvement of SAMM with respect to a temperature-index model, the latter was applied considering, for the amount of snow melt, the following equation: M = fm(T-T0), where M is hourly melt, fm is the melting factor and T0 is a threshold temperature. In this case the calculation of the depth of the snowpack requires the use of 3 parameters: fm, T0 and ?0 (the mean density of the snowpack). We also performed a simulation by replacing the SAMM melting module with the above equation and leaving unchanged the accumulation module: in this way we obtained a model with 9 parameters. The simulations results suggest that any further extension of the simple temperature index model brings some improvements with a consequent decrease of the mean error

  19. Storm-time meridional flows: a comparison of CINDI observations and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hairston

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During a large geomagnetic storm, the electric field from the polar ionosphere can expand far enough to affect the mid-latitude and equatorial electric fields. These changes in the equatorial zonal electric field, called the penetration field, will cause changes in the meridional ion flows that can be observed by radars and spacecraft. In general this E × B ion flow near the equator caused by the penetration field during undershielding conditions will be upward on the dayside and downward on the nightside of the Earth. Previous analysis of the equatorial meridional flows observed by CINDI instrument on the C/NOFS spacecraft during the 26 September 2011 storm showed that all of the response flows on the dayside were excess downward flows instead of the expected upward flows. These observed storm-time responses are compared to a prediction from a physics-based coupled model of thermosphere–ionosphere–inner-magnetosphere in an effort to explain these observations. The model results suggest that the equatorial downward flow could be attributed to a combined effect of the overshielding and disturbance dynamo processes. However, some discrepancy between the model and observation indicates a need for improving our understanding of how sensitive the equatorial electric field is to various model input parameters that describe the magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling processes.

  20. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  1. A Mathematical Model for Reactions During Top-Blowing in the AOD Process: Validation and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, Ville-Valtteri; Järvinen, Mika; Kärnä, Aki; Sulasalmi, Petri; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Kupari, Pentti; Fabritius, Timo

    2017-06-01

    In earlier work, a fundamental mathematical model was proposed for side-blowing operation in the argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) process. In the preceding part "Derivation of the Model," a new mathematical model was proposed for reactions during top-blowing in the AOD process. In this model it was assumed that reactions occur simultaneously at the surface of the cavity caused by the gas jet and at the surface of the metal droplets ejected from the metal bath. This paper presents validation and preliminary results with twelve industrial heats. In the studied heats, the last combined-blowing stage was altered so that oxygen was introduced from the top lance only. Four heats were conducted using an oxygen-nitrogen mixture (1:1), while eight heats were conducted with pure oxygen. Simultaneously, nitrogen or argon gas was blown via tuyères in order to provide mixing that is comparable to regular practice. The measured carbon content varied from 0.4 to 0.5 wt pct before the studied stage to 0.1 to 0.2 wt pct after the studied stage. The results suggest that the model is capable of predicting changes in metal bath composition and temperature with a reasonably high degree of accuracy. The calculations indicate that the top slag may supply oxygen for decarburization during top-blowing. Furthermore, it is postulated that the metal droplets generated by the shear stress of top-blowing create a large mass exchange area, which plays an important role in enabling the high decarburization rates observed during top-blowing in the AOD process. The overall rate of decarburization attributable to top-blowing in the last combined-blowing stage was found to be limited by the mass transfer of dissolved carbon.

  2. Tracer simulation using a global general circulation model: Results from a midlatitude instantaneous source experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlman, J.D.; Moxim, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    An 11-level general circulation model with seasonal variation is used to perform an experiment on the dispersion of passive tracers. Specially constructed time-dependent winds from this model are used as input to a separate tracer model. The methodologies employed to construct the tracer model are described.The experiment presented is the evolution of a hypothetical instantaneous source of tracer on 1 Janaury with maximum initial concentration at 65 mb, 36 0 N, 180 0 E. The tracer is assumed to have no sources or sinks in the stratosphere, but is subject to removal processes in the lower troposphere.The experimental results reveal a number of similarities to observed tracer behavior, including the average poleward-downward slope of mixing ratio isopleths, strong tracer gradients across the tropopause, intrusion of tracer into the Southern Hemisphere lower stratosphere, and the long-term interhemispheric exchange rate. The model residence times show behavior intermediate to those exhibited for particulate radioactive debris and gaseous C 14 O 2 . This suggests that caution should be employed when either radioactive debris or C 14 O 2 data are used to develop empirical models for prediction of gaseous tracers which are efficiently removed in the troposphere.In this experiment, the tracer mixing ratio and potential vorticity evolve to very high correlations. Mechanisms for this correlation are discussed. The zonal mean tracer balances exhibit complex behavior among the various transport terms. At early stages, the tracer evolution is dominated by eddy effects. Later, a very large degree of self-cancellation between mean cell and eddy effects is observed. During seasonal transitions, however, this self-cancellation diminishes markedly, leading to significant changes in the zonal mean tracer distribution. A possible theoretical explanation is presented

  3. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  4. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  5. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  6. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  7. Does folic acid supplementation prevent or promote colorectal cancer? Results from model-based predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebeck, E Georg; Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Liu, Amy Y; Boynton, Alanna; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2008-06-01

    Folate is essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA replication, and methyl group supply. Low-folate status has been associated with increased risks of several cancer types, suggesting a chemopreventive role of folate. However, recent findings on giving folic acid to patients with a history of colorectal polyps raise concerns about the efficacy and safety of folate supplementation and the long-term health effects of folate fortification. Results suggest that undetected precursor lesions may progress under folic acid supplementation, consistent with the role of folate role in nucleotide synthesis and cell proliferation. To better understand the possible trade-offs between the protective effects due to decreased mutation rates and possibly concomitant detrimental effects due to increased cell proliferation of folic acid, we used a biologically based mathematical model of colorectal carcinogenesis. We predict changes in cancer risk based on timing of treatment start and the potential effect of folic acid on cell proliferation and mutation rates. Changes in colorectal cancer risk in response to folic acid supplementation are likely a complex function of treatment start, duration, and effect on cell proliferation and mutations rates. Predicted colorectal cancer incidence rates under supplementation are mostly higher than rates without folic acid supplementation unless supplementation is initiated early in life (before age 20 years). To the extent to which this model predicts reality, it indicates that the effect on cancer risk when starting folic acid supplementation late in life is small, yet mostly detrimental. Experimental studies are needed to provide direct evidence for this dual role of folate in colorectal cancer and to validate and improve the model predictions.

  8. The suggestion about the absence of the phase transition, vacuum degeneration, spontaneous symmetry breaking and zero-mass Goldstone-bosons in QFT models of the type gphi4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastavenko, L.G.

    1979-01-01

    The usual proof of the phase transition existence in the gphi 4 model is considered. (For M 2 >M 0 2 minimum of the effective potential is at phi(0)=0, for M 2 >M 0 2 this minimum is at phi(0)=+-lambda not equal to 0, lambda→+ infinity at M 2 →- infinity). This proof is shown to be wrong, thus suggesting the absence in the model considered of the phase transition, vacuum degeneration, spontaneous symmetry breaking and zero-mass Goldstone-bosons

  9. MSFC Stream Model Preliminary Results: Modeling Recent Leonid and Perseid Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, William J.; Moser, Danielle E.

    2004-01-01

    The cometary meteoroid ejection model of Jones and Brown (1996b) was used to simulate ejection from comets 55P/Tempel-Tuttle during the last 12 revolutions, and the last 9 apparitions of 109P/Swift-Tuttle. Using cometary ephemerides generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory s (JPL) HORIZONS Solar System Data and Ephemeris Computation Service, two independent ejection schemes were simulated. In the first case, ejection was simulated in 1 hour time steps along the comet s orbit while it was within 2.5 AU of the Sun. In the second case, ejection was simulated to occur at the hour the comet reached perihelion. A 4th order variable step-size Runge-Kutta integrator was then used to integrate meteoroid position and velocity forward in time, accounting for the effects of radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson drag, and the gravitational forces of the planets, which were computed using JPL s DE406 planetary ephemerides. An impact parameter was computed for each particle approaching the Earth to create a flux profile, and the results compared to observations of the 1998 and 1999 Leonid showers, and the 1993 and 2004 Perseids.

  10. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: Comparison of model to human participant results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, G. C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Beko, G.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. The model predictions are consistent...

  11. XML-based formulation of field theoretical models. A proposal for a future standard and data base for model storage, exchange and cross-checking of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demichev, A.; Kryukov, A.; Rodionov, A.

    2002-01-01

    We propose an XML-based standard for formulation of field theoretical models. The goal of creation of such a standard is to provide a way for an unambiguous exchange and cross-checking of results of computer calculations in high energy physics. At the moment, the suggested standard implies that models under consideration are of the SM or MSSM type (i.e., they are just SM or MSSM, their submodels, smooth modifications or straightforward generalizations). (author)

  12. Comparison of model results obtained with several European regional air quality models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hass, H.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Simpson, D.; Stern, R.

    1997-01-01

    An intercomparison study has been performed with four photo-oxidant dispersion models (EMEP, EURAD, LOTOS and REM3) which are currently capable of performing photo-oxidant formation calculations over larger path of Europe. The models, in principle, were run in the mode in which they are normally

  13. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  14. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  15. Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterial Results in Disruption of Brush Borders in Epithelia Models in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, James J.

    Engineered nanoparticles (NP; 10-9 m) have found use in a variety of consumer goods and medical devices because of the unique changes in material properties that occur when synthesized on the nanoscale. Although many definitions for nanoparticle exist, from the perspective of size, nanoparticle is defined as particles with diameters less than 100 nm in any external dimension. Examples of their use include titanium dioxide added as a pigment in products intended to be ingested by humans, silicon dioxide NPs are used in foods as an anticaking agent, and gold or iron oxide NPs can be used as vectors for drug delivery or contrast agents for specialized medical imaging. Although the intended use of these NPs is often to improve human health, it has come to the attention of investigators that NPs can have unintended or even detrimental effects on the organism. This work describes one such unintended effect of NP exposure from the perspective of exposure via the oral route. First, this Dissertation will explain an event referred to as brush border disruption that occurred after nanoparticles interacted with an in vitro model of the human intestinal epithelium. Second, this Dissertation will identify and characterize several consumer goods that were shown to contain titanium dioxide that are intended to be ingested. Third, this Dissertation shows that sedimentation due to gravity does not artifactually result in disruption of brush borders as a consequence of exposure to food grade titanium dioxide in vitro. Finally, this Dissertation will demonstrate that iron oxide nanoparticles elicited similar effects after exposure to an in vitro brush border expressing model of the human placenta. Together, these data suggest that brush border disruption is not an artifact of the material/cell culture model, but instead represents a bona fide biological response as a result of exposure to nanomaterial.

  16. Updated comparison of groundwater flow model results and isotopic data in the Leon Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Northwest of Mexico City, the study area is located in the State of Guanajuato. Leon Valley has covered with groundwater its demand of water, estimated in 20.6 cubic meters per second. The constant increase of population and economic activities in the region, mainly in cities and automobile factories, has also a constant growth in water needs. Related extraction rate has produced an average decrease of approximately 1.0 m per year over the past two decades. This suggests that the present management of the groundwater should be checked. Management of groundwater in the study area involves the possibility of producing environmental impacts by extraction. This vital resource under stress becomes necessary studying its hydrogeological functioning to achieve scientific management of groundwater in the Valley. This research was based on the analysis and integration of existing information and the field generated by the authors. On the base of updated concepts like the geological structure of the area, the hydraulic parameters and the composition of deuterium-delta and delta-oxygen -18, this research has new results. This information has been fully analyzed by applying a groundwater flow model with particle tracking: the result has also a similar result in terms of travel time and paths derived from isotopic data.

  17. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  19. Large-Scale Features of Pliocene Climate: Results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, A. M.; Hill, D.J.; Dolan, A. M.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Bragg, F.; Chan, W.-L.; Chandler, M. A.; Contoux, C.; Dowsett, H. J.; Jost, A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Climate and environments of the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.264 to 3.025 Ma) have been extensively studied.Whilst numerical models have shed light on the nature of climate at the time, uncertainties in their predictions have not been systematically examined. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project quantifies uncertainties in model outputs through a coordinated multi-model and multi-mode data intercomparison. Whilst commonalities in model outputs for the Pliocene are clearly evident, we show substantial variation in the sensitivity of models to the implementation of Pliocene boundary conditions. Models appear able to reproduce many regional changes in temperature reconstructed from geological proxies. However, data model comparison highlights that models potentially underestimate polar amplification. To assert this conclusion with greater confidence, limitations in the time-averaged proxy data currently available must be addressed. Furthermore, sensitivity tests exploring the known unknowns in modelling Pliocene climate specifically relevant to the high latitudes are essential (e.g. palaeogeography, gateways, orbital forcing and trace gasses). Estimates of longer-term sensitivity to CO2 (also known as Earth System Sensitivity; ESS), support previous work suggesting that ESS is greater than Climate Sensitivity (CS), and suggest that the ratio of ESS to CS is between 1 and 2, with a "best" estimate of 1.5.

  20. Encouraging Sustainable Transport Choices in American Households: Results from an Empirically Grounded Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Natalini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector needs to go through an extended process of decarbonisation to counter the threat of climate change. Unfortunately, the International Energy Agency forecasts an enormous growth in the number of cars and greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Two issues can thus be identified: (1 the need for a new methodology that could evaluate the policy performances ex-ante and (2 the need for more effective policies. To help address these issues, we developed an Agent-Based Model called Mobility USA aimed at: (1 testing whether this could be an effective approach in analysing ex-ante policy implementation in the transport sector; and (2 evaluating the effects of alternative policy scenarios on commuting behaviours in the USA. Particularly, we tested the effects of two sets of policies, namely market-based and preference-change ones. The model results suggest that this type of agent-based approach will provide a useful tool for testing policy interventions and their effectiveness.

  1. The BirthPlace collaborative practice model: results from the San Diego Birth Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz; Jackson; Lang; Ecker; Ganiats; Dickinson; Nguyen

    1998-07-01

    compared along with cost-effectiveness and acceptance of the model by patients. Data collection occurred primarily through medical record abstraction with the addition of two patient questionnaires. Comparability of the cohorts was established by using a validated methodology to determine medical/perinatal risk and birth center eligibility, which included assessment by two CNMs and an independent blind review by a perinatologist. The cost analysis uses a resource-utilization approach and new methodologies such as activity-based-costing to compare costs from both the perspective of the payor and the health care provider. Patient satisfaction was measured using a self-administered patient questionnaire.Results: Current preliminary results from approximately 38% of the final expected study sample are available. Crude and adjusted analysis have been conducted. Overall, the preliminary results suggest similar morbidity and mortality in the two groups. Fetal deaths are 0.75% in the index and 0.64% in the comparison group, with early neonatal deaths at 0.26% and 0.23%, respectively. The traditional care group showed adjusted rate differences of 5.83% more major maternal intrapartum complications and 9% more NICU admissions. While the birth center group showed adjusted rate differences of 5.5% more low birth weight and 0.95% more preterm birth. For other outcomes, the birth center group showed an adjusted rate difference of 22.34% more exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. Also, there was less utilization of cesarean section and assisted delivery in the birth center group as compared to the traditional care group. The adjusted rate difference for normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries in nulliparas was 10.23% more in the birth center group, with similar results in multiparas with and without history of cesarean (28.88% and 7.84%, respectively). Preliminary results also show that the average total cost for pregnancy-related services paid by California Medicaid was $4,550 for the

  2. A Neighborhood-Scale Green Infrastructure Retrofit: Experimental Results, Model Simulations, and Resident Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, A.; Avellaneda, P. M.; Jarden, K. M.; Turner, V. K.; Grieser, J.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed green infrastructure approaches to stormwater management that can be retrofit into existing development are of growing interest, but questions remain about their effectiveness at the watershed-scale. In suburban northeastern Ohio, homeowners on a residential street with 55% impervious surface were given the opportunity for free rain barrels, rain gardens, and bioretention cells. Of 163 parcels, only 22 owners (13.5%) chose to participate, despite intense outreach efforts. After pre-treatment monitoring, 37 rain barrels, 7 rain gardens, and 16 street-side bioretention cells were installed in 2013-2014. Using a paired watershed approach, a reduction in up to 33% of peak flow and 40% of total runoff volume per storm was measured in the storm sewer. Using the monitoring data, a calibrated and validated SWMM model was built to explore the long-term effectiveness of the green infrastructure against a wider range of hydrological conditions. Model results confirm the effectiveness of green infrastructure in reducing surface runoff and increasing infiltration and evaporation. Based on 20 years of historical precipitation data, the model shows that the green infrastructure is capable of reducing flows by >40% at the 1, 2, and 5 year return period, suggesting some resilience to projected increases in precipitation intensity in a changing climate. Further, in this project, more benefit is derived from the street-side bioretention cells than from the rain barrels and gardens that treat rooftop runoff. Substantial hydrological gains were achieved despite low homeowner participation. Surveys indicate that many residents viewed stormwater as the city's problem and had negative perceptions of green infrastructure, despite slightly pro-environment values generally. Overall, this study demonstrates green infrastructure's hydrological effectiveness but raises challenging questions about overcoming social barriers retrofits at the neighborhood scale.

  3. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humada, Ali M.; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M.; Ahmed, Mushtaq N.

    2016-01-01

    A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions. PMID:27035575

  4. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humada, Ali M; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M; Ahmed, Mushtaq N

    2016-01-01

    A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions.

  5. [Computer optical topography: a study of the repeatability of the results of human body model examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnadskiĭ, V N

    2007-01-01

    The problem of repeatability of the results of examination of a plastic human body model is considered. The model was examined in 7 positions using an optical topograph for kyphosis diagnosis. The examination was performed under television camera monitoring. It was shown that variation of the model position in the camera view affected the repeatability of the results of topographic examination, especially if the model-to-camera distance was changed. A study of the repeatability of the results of optical topographic examination can help to increase the reliability of the topographic method, which is widely used for medical screening of children and adolescents.

  6. A dynamic bivariate Poisson model for analysing and forecasting match results in the English Premier League

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Lit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We develop a statistical model for the analysis and forecasting of football match results which assumes a bivariate Poisson distribution with intensity coefficients that change stochastically over time. The dynamic model is a novelty in the statistical time series analysis of match results

  7. Do astrophysical measurements suggest massive neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the solar neutrino puzzle and suggest modification in the standard solar model. It has been observed that the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretically produced values can be removed by considering neutrinos to process non-zero mass. (author)

  8. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  9. Seeking for the rational basis of the Median Model: the optimal combination of multi-model ensemble results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riccio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach for the statistical analysis of multi-model ensemble results. The models considered here are operational long-range transport and dispersion models, also used for the real-time simulation of pollutant dispersion or the accidental release of radioactive nuclides.

    We first introduce the theoretical basis (with its roots sinking into the Bayes theorem and then apply this approach to the analysis of model results obtained during the ETEX-1 exercise. We recover some interesting results, supporting the heuristic approach called "median model", originally introduced in Galmarini et al. (2004a, b.

    This approach also provides a way to systematically reduce (and quantify model uncertainties, thus supporting the decision-making process and/or regulatory-purpose activities in a very effective manner.

  10. Environmental influences on fruit and vegetable intake: Results from a path analytic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Bethany A.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hibbert, James D.; Blake, Christine E.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fruit and vegetable intake (F&V) is influenced by behavioral and environmental factors, but these have rarely been assessed simultaneously. We aimed to quantify the relative influence of supermarket availability, perceptions of the food environment, and shopping behavior on F&V intake. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Eight-counties in South Carolina, USA, with verified locations of all supermarkets. Subjects A telephone survey of 831 household food shoppers ascertained F&V intake with a 17-item screener, primary food store location, shopping frequency, perceptions of healthy food availability, and calculated GIS-based supermarket availability. Path analysis was conducted. We report standardized beta coefficients on paths significant at the 0.05 level. Results Frequency of grocery shopping at primary food store (β=0.11) was the only factor exerting an independent, statistically significant direct effect on F&V intake. Supermarket availability was significantly associated with distance to food store (β=-0.24) and shopping frequency (β=0.10). Increased supermarket availability was significantly and positively related to perceived healthy food availability in the neighborhood (β=0.18) and ease of shopping access (β=0.09). Collectively considering all model paths linked to perceived availability of healthy foods, this measure was the only other factor to have a significant total effect on F&V intake. Conclusions While the majority of literature to date has suggested an independent and important role of supermarket availability for F&V intake, our study found only indirect effects of supermarket availability and suggests that food shopping frequency and perceptions of healthy food availability are two integral components of a network of influences on F&V intake. PMID:24192274

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Of Scaled Hanford Double Shell Tank Mixing - CFD Modeling Sensitivity Study Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

  12. Numerical modelling of radon-222 entry into houses: An outline of techniques and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool for studies of soil gas and radon-222 entry into houses. It is the purpose of this paper to review some main techniques and results. In the past, modelling has focused on Darcy flow of soil gas (driven by indoor–outdoor pressure differences) and combined...... diffusive and advective transport of radon. Models of different complexity have been used. The simpler ones are finite-difference models with one or two spatial dimensions. The more complex models allow for full three-dimensional and time dependency. Advanced features include: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy......, fractures, moisture, non-uniform soil temperature, non-Darcy flow of gas, and flow caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Numerical models can be used to estimate the importance of specific factors for radon entry. Models are also helpful when results obtained in special laboratory or test structure...

  13. Updating the CHAOS series of field models using Swarm data and resulting candidate models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    th order spline representation with knot points spaced at 0.5 year intervals. The resulting field model is able to consistently fit data from six independent low Earth orbit satellites: Oersted, CHAMP, SAC-C and the three Swarm satellites. As an example, we present comparisons of the excellent model...... therefore conclude that Swarm data is suitable for building high-resolution models of the large-scale internal field, and proceed to extract IGRF-12 candidate models for the main field in epochs 2010 and 2015, as well as the predicted linear secular variarion for 2015-2020. The properties of these IGRF...... candidate models are briefly presented....

  14. Water-in-oil emulsions results of formation studies and applicability to oil spill modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben; Mullin, Joe

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarises studies of water-in-oil emulsions, their stability, and modelling of their formation. Studies show that water-in-oil emulsions might be characterised into three categories (stable, mesostable and unstable). These categories were established by visual appearance, elasticity and viscosity difference. It was also shown that water content was not an important factor. A fourth category of water-in-oil exists, that of water entrainment, which is not an emulsion. Water-in-oil emulsions made from crude oils have different classes of stabilities as a result of the asphaltene and resin contents. The differences in the emulsion types are readily distinguished both by their rheological properties, and simply by appearance. The apparent viscosity of a stable emulsion at a shear rate of one reciprocal second, is at least three orders-of-magnitude greater than the starting oil. An unstable emulsion usually has a viscosity no more than one order-of-magnitude greater than that of the starting oil. A stable emulsion has a significant elasticity, whereas an unstable emulsion does not. Stable emulsions have sufficient asphaltenes (>∼7%) to establish films of these compounds around water droplets. Mesostable emulsions have insufficient asphaltenes to render them completely stable. Stability is achieved by visco-elastic retention of water and secondarily by the presence of asphaltene or resin films. Mesostable emulsions display apparent viscosities of about 80-600 times that of the starting oil and true viscosities of 20-200 times that of the starting oil. Mesostable emulsions have an asphaltene and resin content greater than 3%. Entrained water occurs when a viscous oil retains larger water droplets, but conditions are not suitable for the formation of an emulsion. Entrained water may have a viscosity that is similar or slightly greater (∼ 2-10 times) than the starting oil. It was found that emulsion formation occurs at a threshold energy, however this energy

  15. A regional climate model for northern Europe: model description and results from the downscaling of two GCM control simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, M.; Räisänen, J.; Bringfelt, B.; Ullerstig, A.; Omstedt, A.; Willén, U.; Hansson, U.; Jones, C.

    This work presents a regional climate model, the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric model (RCA1), recently developed from the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM). The changes in the HIRLAM parametrizations, necessary for climate-length integrations, are described. A regional Baltic Sea ocean model and a modeling system for the Nordic inland lake systems have been coupled with RCA1. The coupled system has been used to downscale 10-year time slices from two different general circulation model (GCM) simulations to provide high-resolution regional interpretation of large-scale modeling. A selection of the results from the control runs, i.e. the present-day climate simulations, are presented: large-scale free atmospheric fields, the surface temperature and precipitation results and results for the on-line simulated regional ocean and lake surface climates. The regional model modifies the surface climate description compared to the GCM simulations, but it is also substantially affected by the biases in the GCM simulations. The regional model also improves the representation of the regional ocean and the inland lakes, compared to the GCM results.

  16. A regional climate model for northern Europe: model description and results from the downscaling of two GCM control simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummukainen, M.; Raeisaenen, J.; Bringfelt, B.; Ullerstig, A.; Omstedt, A.; Willen, U.; Hansson, U.; Jones, C. [Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This work presents a regional climate model, the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric model (RCA1), recently developed from the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM). The changes in the HIRLAM parametrizations, necessary for climate-length integrations, are described. A regional Baltic Sea ocean model and a modeling system for the Nordic inland lake systems have been coupled with RCA1. The coupled system has been used to downscale 10-year time slices from two different general circulation model (GCM) simulations to provide high-resolution regional interpretation of large-scale modeling. A selection of the results from the control runs, i.e. the present-day climate simulations, are presented: large-scale free atmospheric fields, the surface temperature and precipitation results and results for the on-line simulated regional ocean and lake surface climates. The regional model modifies the surface climate description compared to the GCM simulations, but it is also substantially affected by the biases in the GCM simulations. The regional model also improves the representation of the regional ocean and the inland lakes, compared to the GCM results. (orig.)

  17. The Criticality of Connecting People to Financial Results ‒ an ROI Calculation Model for Romanian FSOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Niculescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Organisational culture and employee engagement have been the focus of recent broad-based research efforts. Adding this concern to the revealed importance of performance indicators on human capital, and that their use is getting momentum, in order to attach financial values to knowledge management assets, it becomes more and more critical to measure human capital value. Key for Romanian FSO’s managers becomes to consider that both human and financial values have a focus on adding value in every process and function in the organisation, and to perpetuate organisational profitability by the corporate culture, on the one hand, where culture is a powerful factor that helps a company to engage, on the other hand, talented people. There is a substantial concern on using ROI on Learning and Development programmes, but whilst this is still declared, Romanian FSOs do not yet have a consistent method to measure it. This study is showing the criticality of connecting people to financial results and data analysis suggests that ROI calculation has a positive impact on creating and fostering a powerful organisational culture and that employees’ awareness of ROI values within their organisation has a powerful effect on their sense of engagement. Our findings have a more practical implication for the analysed industry by shaping a formal ROI measurement mechanisms blueprint, an ROI calculation model for the Romanian FSOs, in the form of a mechanism that could be employed when considering the design of an ROI Methodology for Romanian FSOs.

  18. Results of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) test of earthquake forecasts in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ting; Turcotte, Donald L; Holliday, James R; Sachs, Michael K; Rundle, John B; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tiampo, Kristy F

    2011-10-04

    The Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) test of earthquake forecasts in California was the first competitive evaluation of forecasts of future earthquake occurrence. Participants submitted expected probabilities of occurrence of M ≥ 4.95 earthquakes in 0.1° × 0.1° cells for the period 1 January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. Probabilities were submitted for 7,682 cells in California and adjacent regions. During this period, 31 M ≥ 4.95 earthquakes occurred in the test region. These earthquakes occurred in 22 test cells. This seismic activity was dominated by earthquakes associated with the M = 7.2, April 4, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in northern Mexico. This earthquake occurred in the test region, and 16 of the other 30 earthquakes in the test region could be associated with it. Nine complete forecasts were submitted by six participants. In this paper, we present the forecasts in a way that allows the reader to evaluate which forecast is the most "successful" in terms of the locations of future earthquakes. We conclude that the RELM test was a success and suggest ways in which the results can be used to improve future forecasts.

  19. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  20. Study on driver model for hybrid truck based on driving simulator experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam Hoang Phuc

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a proposed car-following driver model taking into account some features of both the compensatory and anticipatory model representing the human pedal operation has been verified by driving simulator experiments with several real drivers. The comparison between computer simulations performed by determined model parameters with the experimental results confirm the correctness of this mathematical driver model and identified model parameters. Then the driver model is joined to a hybrid vehicle dynamics model and the moderate car following maneuver simulations with various driver parameters are conducted to investigate influences of driver parameters on vehicle dynamics response and fuel economy. Finally, major driver parameters involved in the longitudinal control of drivers are clarified. Keywords: Driver model, Driver-vehicle closed-loop system, Car Following, Driving simulator/hybrid electric vehicle (B1

  1. Effects of naloxone distribution to likely bystanders: Results of an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher; Egan, James E; Hawk, Mary

    2018-05-01

    .9% decrease associated with a tenfold increase in the number of sites, all distributing ten kits but with no secondary distribution. This suggests that, as long as multiple kits are picked up per visit, adding secondary distribution is at least as effective as increasing sites from one to ten. Combining the addition of secondary distribution with an increase in sites from one to ten resulted in a 61.1% drop in deaths relative to the baseline. Adding distribution through a syringe exchange site resulted in a drop of approximately 65% of deaths relative to baseline. In fact, when enabling distribution through a clean-syringe site, the secondary distribution through networks contributed no additional drops in deaths. Community-based naloxone distribution to reverse opioid overdose may significantly reduce deaths. Optimal distribution methods may include secondary distribution so that the person who picks up naloxone kits can enable others in the community to administer naloxone, as well as targeting naloxone distribution to sites where individuals at high-risk for opioid overdose death are likely to visit, such as syringe-exchange programs. This study design, which paired exploratory qualitative data with agent-based modeling, can be used in other settings seeking to implement and improve naloxone distribution programs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Does folic-acid supplementation prevent or promote colorectal cancer? Results from model-based predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Luebeck, EG; Moolgavkar, SH; Liu, AY; Boynton, A; Ulrich, CM

    2008-01-01

    Folate is essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA-replication and methyl-group supply. Low-folate status has been associated with increased risks of several cancer types, suggesting a chemopreventive role of folate. However, recent findings on giving folic acid (FA) to patients with a history of colorectal polyps raise concerns about the efficacy and safety of folate supplementation and the long-term health effects of folate fortification. Results suggest that undetected precursor lesions may...

  3. Influence of Various Irradiance Models and Their Combination on Simulation Results of Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hofmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the output of various state-of-the-art irradiance models for photovoltaic systems. The models include two sun position algorithms, three types of input data time series, nine diffuse fraction models and five transposition models (for tilted surfaces, resulting in 270 different model chains for the photovoltaic (PV system simulation. These model chains are applied to 30 locations worldwide and three different module tracking types, totaling in 24,300 simulations. We show that the simulated PV yearly energy output varies between −5% and +8% for fixed mounted PV modules and between −26% and +14% for modules with two-axis tracking. Model quality varies strongly between locations; sun position algorithms have negligible influence on the simulation results; diffuse fraction models add a lot of variability; and transposition models feature the strongest influence on the simulation results. To highlight the importance of irradiance with high temporal resolution, we present an analysis of the influence of input temporal resolution and simulation models on the inverter clipping losses at varying PV system sizing factors for Lindenberg, Germany. Irradiance in one-minute resolution is essential for accurately calculating inverter clipping losses.

  4. Some important results from the air pollution distribution model STACKS (1988-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbrink, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is paid to the results of the study on the distribution of air pollutants by high chimney-stacks of electric power plants. An important product of the study is the integrated distribution model STACKS (Short Term Air-pollutant Concentrations Kema modelling System). The improvements and the extensions of STACKS are described in relation to the National Model, which has been used to estimate the environmental effects of individual chimney-stacks. The National Model shows unacceptable variations for high pollutant sources. Based on the results of STACKS revision of the National model has been taken into consideration. By means of the revised National Model a more realistic estimation of the environmental effects of electric power plants can be carried out

  5. Non-extensitivity vs. informative moments for financial models —A unifying framework and empirical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, K.

    2009-11-01

    Information-theoretic approaches still play a minor role in financial market analysis. Nonetheless, there have been two very similar approaches evolving during the last years, one in the so-called econophysics and the other in econometrics. Both generalize the notion of GARCH processes in an information-theoretic sense and are able to capture kurtosis better than traditional models. In this article we present both approaches in a more general framework. The latter allows the derivation of a wide range of new models. We choose a third model using an entropy measure suggested by Kapur. In an application to financial market data, we find that all considered models - with similar flexibility in terms of skewness and kurtosis - lead to very similar results.

  6. A comparison among observations and earthquake simulator results for the allcal2 California fault model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Terry. E.; Richards-Dinger, Keith B.; Barall, Michael; Dieterich, James H.; Field, Edward H.; Heien, Eric M.; Kellogg, Louise; Pollitz, Fred F.; Rundle, John B.; Sachs, Michael K.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Ward, Steven N.; Yikilmaz, M. Burak

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand earthquake hazards we would ideally have a statistical description of earthquakes for tens of thousands of years. Unfortunately the ∼100‐year instrumental, several 100‐year historical, and few 1000‐year paleoseismological records are woefully inadequate to provide a statistically significant record. Physics‐based earthquake simulators can generate arbitrarily long histories of earthquakes; thus they can provide a statistically meaningful history of simulated earthquakes. The question is, how realistic are these simulated histories? This purpose of this paper is to begin to answer that question. We compare the results between different simulators and with information that is known from the limited instrumental, historic, and paleoseismological data.As expected, the results from all the simulators show that the observational record is too short to properly represent the system behavior; therefore, although tests of the simulators against the limited observations are necessary, they are not a sufficient test of the simulators’ realism. The simulators appear to pass this necessary test. In addition, the physics‐based simulators show similar behavior even though there are large differences in the methodology. This suggests that they represent realistic behavior. Different assumptions concerning the constitutive properties of the faults do result in enhanced capabilities of some simulators. However, it appears that the similar behavior of the different simulators may result from the fault‐system geometry, slip rates, and assumed strength drops, along with the shared physics of stress transfer.This paper describes the results of running four earthquake simulators that are described elsewhere in this issue of Seismological Research Letters. The simulators ALLCAL (Ward, 2012), VIRTCAL (Sachs et al., 2012), RSQSim (Richards‐Dinger and Dieterich, 2012), and ViscoSim (Pollitz, 2012) were run on our most recent all‐California fault

  7. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Formayer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily globalradiation (RG values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequentcrop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis ofthe RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central Europeanclimate conditions. The research was conducted i at the eight individual sites in Austria andthe Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, withseven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii for the agricultural areas of the CzechRepublic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In thelatter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the ångström-Prescottformula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At thesite level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showedthe lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs.When the ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviationsgreater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 percent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lowerwhen RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent. The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We

  8. Three-dimensional models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins Rv1555, Rv1554 and their docking analyses with sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil drugs, suggest interference with quinol binding likely to affect protein's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Pallabini; Bala Divya, M; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Guruprasad, Kunchur

    2018-04-18

    Earlier based on bioinformatics analyses, we had predicted the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554, among the potential new tuberculosis drug targets. According to the 'TB-drugome' the Rv1555 protein is 'druggable' with sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra) drugs. In the present work, we intended to understand via computer modeling studies, how the above drugs are likely to inhibit the M.tb protein's function. The three-dimensional computer models for M.tb proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554 constructed on the template of equivalent membrane anchor subunits of the homologous E.coli quinol fumarate reductase respiratory protein complex, followed by drug docking analyses, suggested that the binding of above drugs interferes with quinol binding sites. Also, we experimentally observed the in-vitro growth inhibition of E.coli bacteria containing the homologous M.tb protein sequences with sildenafil and tadalafil drugs. The predicted binding sites of the drugs is likely to affect the above M.tb proteins function as quinol binding is known to be essential for electron transfer function during anaerobic respiration in the homologous E.coli protein complex. Therefore, sildenafil and related drugs currently used in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction targeting the human phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme may be evaluated for their plausible role as repurposed drugs to treat human tuberculosis.

  9. Potential environmental impact of tidal energy extraction in the Pentland Firth at large spatial scales: results of a biogeochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Johan; Ruardij, Piet; Greenwood, Naomi

    2016-05-01

    A model study was carried out of the potential large-scale (> 100 km) effects of marine renewable tidal energy generation in the Pentland Firth, using the 3-D hydrodynamics-biogeochemistry model GETM-ERSEM-BFM. A realistic 800 MW scenario and a high-impact scenario with massive expansion of tidal energy extraction to 8 GW scenario were considered. The realistic 800 MW scenario suggested minor effects on the tides, and undetectable effects on the biogeochemistry. The massive-expansion 8 GW scenario suggested effects would be observed over hundreds of kilometres away with changes of up to 10 % in tidal and ecosystem variables, in particular in a broad area in the vicinity of the Wash. There, waters became less turbid, and primary production increased with associated increases in faunal ecosystem variables. Moreover, a one-off increase in carbon storage in the sea bed was detected. Although these first results suggest positive environmental effects, further investigation is recommended of (i) the residual circulation in the vicinity of the Pentland Firth and effects on larval dispersal using a higher-resolution model and (ii) ecosystem effects with (future) state-of-the-art models if energy extraction substantially beyond 1 GW is planned.

  10. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling....... The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density Sigma(Md), the dust optical extinction A(V), and the starlight intensity heating the bulk...... of the dust, parametrized by U-min. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31...

  11. GENERAL APROACH TO MODELING NONLINEAR AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY DEPENDENT HYSTERESIS EFFECTS BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the rubber parts’ properties is gaining in importance in the current simulation models of multi-body simulation. One application example is a multi-body simulation of the washing machine movement. Inside the washing machine, there are different force transmission elements, which consist completely or partly of rubber. Rubber parts or, generally, elastomers usually have amplitude-dependant and frequency-dependent force transmission properties. Rheological models are used to describe these properties. A method for characterization of the amplitude and frequency dependence of such a rheological model is presented within this paper. Within this method, the used rheological model can be reduced or expanded in order to illustrate various non-linear effects. An original result is given with the automated parameter identification. It is fully implemented in Matlab. Such identified rheological models are intended for subsequent implementation in a multi-body model. This allows a significant enhancement of the overall model quality.

  12. Linear regression metamodeling as a tool to summarize and present simulation model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Hawre; Dowd, Bryan; Sainfort, François; Kuntz, Karen M

    2013-10-01

    Modelers lack a tool to systematically and clearly present complex model results, including those from sensitivity analyses. The objective was to propose linear regression metamodeling as a tool to increase transparency of decision analytic models and better communicate their results. We used a simplified cancer cure model to demonstrate our approach. The model computed the lifetime cost and benefit of 3 treatment options for cancer patients. We simulated 10,000 cohorts in a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and regressed the model outcomes on the standardized input parameter values in a set of regression analyses. We used the regression coefficients to describe measures of sensitivity analyses, including threshold and parameter sensitivity analyses. We also compared the results of the PSA to deterministic full-factorial and one-factor-at-a-time designs. The regression intercept represented the estimated base-case outcome, and the other coefficients described the relative parameter uncertainty in the model. We defined simple relationships that compute the average and incremental net benefit of each intervention. Metamodeling produced outputs similar to traditional deterministic 1-way or 2-way sensitivity analyses but was more reliable since it used all parameter values. Linear regression metamodeling is a simple, yet powerful, tool that can assist modelers in communicating model characteristics and sensitivity analyses.

  13. Predicting ecosystem functioning from plant traits: Results from a multi-scale ecophsiological modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem functioning is the result of processes working at a hierarchy of scales. The representation of these processes in a model that is mathematically tractable and ecologically meaningful is a big challenge. In this paper I describe an individual based model (PLACO¿PLAnt COmpetition) that

  14. User's guide to Model Viewer, a program for three-dimensional visualization of ground-water model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul A.; Winston, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    Model Viewer is a computer program that displays the results of three-dimensional groundwater models. Scalar data (such as hydraulic head or solute concentration) may be displayed as a solid or a set of isosurfaces, using a red-to-blue color spectrum to represent a range of scalar values. Vector data (such as velocity or specific discharge) are represented by lines oriented to the vector direction and scaled to the vector magnitude. Model Viewer can also display pathlines, cells or nodes that represent model features such as streams and wells, and auxiliary graphic objects such as grid lines and coordinate axes. Users may crop the model grid in different orientations to examine the interior structure of the data. For transient simulations, Model Viewer can animate the time evolution of the simulated quantities. The current version (1.0) of Model Viewer runs on Microsoft Windows 95, 98, NT and 2000 operating systems, and supports the following models: MODFLOW-2000, MODFLOW-2000 with the Ground-Water Transport Process, MODFLOW-96, MOC3D (Version 3.5), MODPATH, MT3DMS, and SUTRA (Version 2D3D.1). Model Viewer is designed to directly read input and output files from these models, thus minimizing the need for additional postprocessing. This report provides an overview of Model Viewer. Complete instructions on how to use the software are provided in the on-line help pages.

  15. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Laman: Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data supporting the "Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions" manuscript are distribution and abundance of Pacific ocean perch from RACEBase,...

  16. First results with the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.; Frei, C.

    2000-01-01

    The GEM-E3 model has been implemented and applied for Switzerland. It has been in particular used to assess an ecological tax reform in Switzerland. Results of this analysis are presented here. (author)

  17. Removal of arsenic from wastewaters by cryptocrystalline magnesite: complimenting experimental results with modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Cleaner Production Removal of arsenic from wastewaters by cryptocrystalline magnesite: complimenting experimental results with modelling Vhahangwele Masindi W. Mugera Gitari Keywords: Arsenic Mine leachates Cryptocrystalline...

  18. Experimental and modelling results of a parallel-plate based active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Rowe, A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic...

  19. Modeling the radiation transfer of discontinuous canopies: results for gap probability and single-scattering contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Zou, Kai; Shang, Hong; Ji, Zheng; Zhao, Huijie; Huang, Wenjiang; Li, Cunjun

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we present an analytical model for the computation of radiation transfer of discontinuous vegetation canopies. Some initial results of gap probability and bidirectional gap probability of discontinuous vegetation canopies, which are important parameters determining the radiative environment of the canopies, are given and compared with a 3- D computer simulation model. In the model, negative exponential attenuation of light within individual plant canopies is assumed. Then the computation of gap probability is resolved by determining the entry points and exiting points of the ray with the individual plants via their equations in space. For the bidirectional gap probability, which determines the single-scattering contribution of the canopy, a gap statistical analysis based model was adopted to correct the dependence of gap probabilities for both solar and viewing directions. The model incorporates the structural characteristics, such as plant sizes, leaf size, row spacing, foliage density, planting density, leaf inclination distribution. Available experimental data are inadequate for a complete validation of the model. So it was evaluated with a three dimensional computer simulation model for 3D vegetative scenes, which shows good agreement between these two models' results. This model should be useful to the quantification of light interception and the modeling of bidirectional reflectance distributions of discontinuous canopies.

  20. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  1. Computation and experiment results of the grounding model of Three Gorges Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Xishan; Zhang Yuanfang; Yu Jianhui; Chen Cixuan [Wuhan University of Hydraulic and Electrical Engineering (China); Qin Liming; Xu Jun; Shu Lianfu [Yangtze River Water Resources Commission, Wuhan (China)

    1999-07-01

    A model for the computation of the grounding parameters of the grids of Three Gorges Power Plant (TGPP) on the Yangtze River is presented in this paper. Using this model computation and analysis of grounding grids is carried out. The results show that reinforcing the grid of the dam is the main body of current dissipation. It must be reliably welded to form a good grounding grid. The experimental results show that the method and program of the computations are correct. (UK)

  2. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  3. More performance results and implementation of an object oriented track reconstruction model in different OO frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, Irwin; Qian Sijin

    2001-01-01

    This is an update of the report about an Object Oriented (OO) track reconstruction model, which was presented in the previous AIHENP'99 at Crete, Greece. The OO model for the Kalman filtering method has been designed for high energy physics experiments at high luminosity hadron colliders. It has been coded in the C++ programming language and successfully implemented into a few different OO computing environments of the CMS and ATLAS experiments at the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. We shall report: (1) more performance result: (2) implementing the OO model into the new SW OO framework 'Athena' of ATLAS experiment and some upgrades of the OO model itself

  4. New Results on Robust Model Predictive Control for Time-Delay Systems with Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of model predictive control for a class of nonlinear systems subject to state delays and input constraints. The time-varying delay is considered with both upper and lower bounds. A new model is proposed to approximate the delay. And the uncertainty is polytopic type. For the state-feedback MPC design objective, we formulate an optimization problem. Under model transformation, a new model predictive controller is designed such that the robust asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed. Finally, the applicability of the presented results are demonstrated by a practical example.

  5. Discrete response patterns in the upper range of hypnotic suggestibility: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair

    2015-05-01

    High hypnotic suggestibility is a heterogeneous condition and there is accumulating evidence that highly suggestible individuals may be comprised of discrete subtypes with dissimilar cognitive and phenomenological profiles. This study applied latent profile analysis to response patterns on a diverse battery of difficult hypnotic suggestions in a sample of individuals in the upper range of hypnotic suggestibility. Comparisons among models indicated that a four-class model was optimal. One class was comprised of very highly suggestible (virtuoso) participants, two classes included highly suggestible participants who were alternately more responsive to inhibitory cognitive suggestions or posthypnotic amnesia suggestions, and the fourth class consisted primarily of medium suggestible participants. These results indicate that there are discrete response profiles in high hypnotic suggestibility. They further provide a number of insights regarding the optimization of hypnotic suggestibility measurement and have implications for the instrumental use of hypnosis for the modeling of different psychological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling of tracer-kinetic results using xylene isomerization as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, F.J.; Dermietzel, J.; Roesseler, M.; Koch, H.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis of results from differential or/and integral reactor experiments often admits the interpretation of a chemical reaction in several ways. In addition, the use of mathematical methods for the model selection and planning of experiments is rendered more difficult by great confidence intervals of the ascertained model parameters. The application of radioactively labelled molecules results in improving the knowledge of reaction mechanisms as well as the assessment of parameters obtained. This is shown on the basis of modelling the isomerization of xylene. (author)

  7. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  8. Theoretical results on the tandem junction solar cell based on its Ebers-Moll transistor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, C.; Vaughn, J.; Baraona, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional theoretical model of the tandem junction solar cell (TJC) with base resistivity greater than about 1 ohm-cm and under low level injection has been derived. This model extends a previously published conceptual model which treats the TJC as an npn transistor. The model gives theoretical expressions for each of the Ebers-Moll type currents of the illuminated TJC and allows for the calculation of the spectral response, I(sc), V(oc), FF and eta under variation of one or more of the geometrical and material parameters and 1MeV electron fluence. Results of computer calculations based on this model are presented and discussed. These results indicate that for space applications, both a high beginning of life efficiency, greater than 15% AM0, and a high radiation tolerance can be achieved only with thin (less than 50 microns) TJC's with high base resistivity (greater than 10 ohm-cm).

  9. Modelling lung cancer due to radon and smoking in WISMUT miners: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijwaard, H.; Dekkers, F.; Van Dillen, T.

    2011-01-01

    A mechanistic two-stage carcinogenesis model has been applied to model lung-cancer mortality in the largest uranium-miner cohort available. Models with and without smoking action both fit the data well. As smoking information is largely missing from the cohort data, a method has been devised to project this information from a case-control study onto the cohort. Model calculations using 256 projections show that the method works well. Preliminary results show that if an explicit smoking action is absent in the model, this is compensated by the values of the baseline parameters. This indicates that in earlier studies performed without smoking information, the results obtained for the radiation parameters are still valid. More importantly, the inclusion of smoking-related parameters shows that these mainly influence the later stages of lung-cancer development. (authors)

  10. Influence of delayed neutron parameter calculation accuracy on results of modeled WWER scram experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemov, V.G.; Gusev, V.I.; Zinatullin, R.E.; Karpov, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Using modeled WWER cram rod drop experiments, performed at the Rostov NPP, as an example, the influence of delayed neutron parameters on the modeling results was investigated. The delayed neutron parameter values were taken from both domestic and foreign nuclear databases. Numerical modeling was carried out on the basis of SAPFIR 9 5andWWERrogram package. Parameters of delayed neutrons were acquired from ENDF/B-VI and BNAB-78 validated data files. It was demonstrated that using delay fraction data from different databases in reactivity meters led to significantly different reactivity results. Based on the results of numerically modeled experiments, delayed neutron parameters providing the best agreement between calculated and measured data were selected and recommended for use in reactor calculations (Authors)

  11. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ex-plant consequence assessment for NUREG-1150: models, typical results, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of ex-plant consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms was performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). This paper briefly discusses the following elements of MACCS consequence calculations: input data, phenomena modeled, computational framework, typical results, controlling phenomena, and uncertainties. Wherever possible, NUREG-1150 results will be used to illustrate the discussion. 28 references

  13. On the use of Empirical Data to Downscale Non-scientific Scepticism About Results From Complex Physical Based Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, S.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2008-12-01

    The scepticism of non-scientific local stakeholders about results from complex physical based models is a major problem concerning the development and implementation of local climate change adaptation measures. This scepticism originates from the high complexity of such models. Local stakeholders perceive complex models as black-box models, as it is impossible to gasp all underlying assumptions and mathematically formulated processes at a glance. The use of physical based models is, however, indispensible to study complex underlying processes and to predict future environmental changes. The increase of climate change adaptation efforts following the release of the latest IPCC report indicates that the communication of facts about what has already changed is an appropriate tool to trigger climate change adaptation. Therefore we suggest increasing the practice of empirical data analysis in addition to modelling efforts. The analysis of time series can generate results that are easier to comprehend for non-scientific stakeholders. Temporal trends and seasonal patterns of selected hydrological parameters (precipitation, evapotranspiration, groundwater levels and river discharge) can be identified and the dependence of trends and seasonal patters to land use, topography and soil type can be highlighted. A discussion about lag times between the hydrological parameters can increase the awareness of local stakeholders for delayed environment responses.

  14. Empirical Results of Modeling EUR/RON Exchange Rate using ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH, TARCH and PARCH models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea – Cristina PETRICĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study consists in examining the changes in the volatility of daily returns of EUR/RON exchange rate using on the one hand symmetric GARCH models (ARCH and GARCH and on the other hand the asymmetric GARCH models (EGARCH, TARCH and PARCH, since the conditional variance is time-varying. The analysis takes into account daily quotations of EUR/RON exchange rate over the period of 04th January 1999 to 13th June 2016. Thus, we are modeling heteroscedasticity by applying different specifications of GARCH models followed by looking for significant parameters and low information criteria (minimum Akaike Information Criterion. All models are estimated using the maximum likelihood method under the assumption of several distributions of the innovation terms such as: Normal (Gaussian distribution, Student’s t distribution, Generalized Error distribution (GED, Student’s with fixed df. Distribution, and GED with fixed parameter distribution. The predominant models turned out to be EGARCH and PARCH models, and the empirical results point out that the best model for estimating daily returns of EUR/RON exchange rate is EGARCH(2,1 with Asymmetric order 2 under the assumption of Student’s t distributed innovation terms. This can be explained by the fact that in case of EGARCH model, the restriction regarding the positivity of the conditional variance is automatically satisfied.

  15. Analytical results for a stochastic model of gene expression with arbitrary partitioning of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Hugo; Platini, Thierry

    2018-05-01

    In biophysics, the search for analytical solutions of stochastic models of cellular processes is often a challenging task. In recent work on models of gene expression, it was shown that a mapping based on partitioning of Poisson arrivals (PPA-mapping) can lead to exact solutions for previously unsolved problems. While the approach can be used in general when the model involves Poisson processes corresponding to creation or degradation, current applications of the method and new results derived using it have been limited to date. In this paper, we present the exact solution of a variation of the two-stage model of gene expression (with time dependent transition rates) describing the arbitrary partitioning of proteins. The methodology proposed makes full use of the PPA-mapping by transforming the original problem into a new process describing the evolution of three biological switches. Based on a succession of transformations, the method leads to a hierarchy of reduced models. We give an integral expression of the time dependent generating function as well as explicit results for the mean, variance, and correlation function. Finally, we discuss how results for time dependent parameters can be extended to the three-stage model and used to make inferences about models with parameter fluctuations induced by hidden stochastic variables.

  16. Deriving user-informed climate information from climate model ensemble results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebener, Heike; Hoffmann, Peter; Keuler, Klaus; Pfeifer, Susanne; Ramthun, Hans; Spekat, Arne; Steger, Christian; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten

    2017-07-01

    Communication between providers and users of climate model simulation results still needs to be improved. In the German regional climate modeling project ReKliEs-De a midterm user workshop was conducted to allow the intended users of the project results to assess the preliminary results and to streamline the final project results to their needs. The user feedback highlighted, in particular, the still considerable gap between climate research output and user-tailored input for climate impact research. Two major requests from the user community addressed the selection of sub-ensembles and some condensed, easy to understand information on the strengths and weaknesses of the climate models involved in the project.

  17. Assessing flood risk at the global scale: model setup, results, and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Philip J; Jongman, Brenden; Weiland, Frederiek Sperna; Winsemius, Hessel C; Bouwman, Arno; Ligtvoet, Willem; Van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2013-01-01

    Globally, economic losses from flooding exceeded $19 billion in 2012, and are rising rapidly. Hence, there is an increasing need for global-scale flood risk assessments, also within the context of integrated global assessments. We have developed and validated a model cascade for producing global flood risk maps, based on numerous flood return-periods. Validation results indicate that the model simulates interannual fluctuations in flood impacts well. The cascade involves: hydrological and hydraulic modelling; extreme value statistics; inundation modelling; flood impact modelling; and estimating annual expected impacts. The initial results estimate global impacts for several indicators, for example annual expected exposed population (169 million); and annual expected exposed GDP ($1383 billion). These results are relatively insensitive to the extreme value distribution employed to estimate low frequency flood volumes. However, they are extremely sensitive to the assumed flood protection standard; developing a database of such standards should be a research priority. Also, results are sensitive to the use of two different climate forcing datasets. The impact model can easily accommodate new, user-defined, impact indicators. We envisage several applications, for example: identifying risk hotspots; calculating macro-scale risk for the insurance industry and large companies; and assessing potential benefits (and costs) of adaptation measures. (letter)

  18. Comparison of the 1981 INEL dispersion data with results from a number of different models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewellen, W S; Sykes, R I; Parker, S F

    1985-05-01

    The results from simulations by 12 different dispersion models are compared with observations from an extensive field experiment conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in July, 1981. Comparisons were made on the bases of hourly SF/sub 6/ samples taken at the surface, out to approximately 10 km from the 46 m release tower, both during and following 7 different 8-hour releases. Comparisons are also made for total integrated doses collected out to approximately 40 km. Three classes of models are used. Within the limited range appropriate for Class A models this data comparison shows that neither the puff models or the transport and diffusion models agree with the data any better than the simple Gaussian plume models. The puff and transport and diffusion models do show a slight edge in performance in comparison with the total dose over the extended range approximate for class B models. The best model results for the hourly samples show approximately 40% calculated within a factor of two when a 15/sup 0/ uncertainty in plume position is permitted and it is assumed that higher data samples may occur at stations between the actual sample sites. This is increased to 60% for the 12 hour integrated dose and 70% for the total integrated dose when the same performance measure is used. None of the models reproduce the observed patchy dose patterns. This patchiness is consistent with the discussion of the inherent uncertainty associated with time averaged plume observations contained in our companion reports on the scientific critique of available models.

  19. The use of the k - {epsilon} turbulence model within the Rossby Centre regional ocean climate model: parameterization development and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Meier, H.E. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden). Rossby Centre

    2000-09-01

    As mixing plays a dominant role for the physics of an estuary like the Baltic Sea (seasonal heat storage, mixing in channels, deep water mixing), different mixing parameterizations for use in 3D Baltic Sea models are discussed and compared. For this purpose two different OGCMs of the Baltic Sea are utilized. Within the Swedish regional climate modeling program, SWECLIM, a 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea has been coupled with an improved version of the two-equation k - {epsilon} turbulence model with corrected dissipation term, flux boundary conditions to include the effect of a turbulence enhanced layer due to breaking surface gravity waves and a parameterization for breaking internal waves. Results of multi-year simulations are compared with observations. The seasonal thermocline is simulated satisfactory and erosion of the halocline is avoided. Unsolved problems are discussed. To replace the controversial equation for dissipation the performance of a hierarchy of k-models has been tested and compared with the k - {epsilon} model. In addition, it is shown that the results of the mixing parameterization depend very much on the choice of the ocean model. Finally, the impact of two mixing parameterizations on Baltic Sea climate is investigated. In this case the sensitivity of mean SST, vertical temperature and salinity profiles, ice season and seasonal cycle of heat fluxes is quite large.

  20. A computer model to forecast wetland vegetation changes resulting from restoration and protection in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jenneke M.; Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.; Carter, Jacoby; Broussard, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    The coastal wetlands of Louisiana are a unique ecosystem that supports a diversity of wildlife as well as a diverse community of commercial interests of both local and national importance. The state of Louisiana has established a 5-year cycle of scientific investigation to provide up-to-date information to guide future legislation and regulation aimed at preserving this critical ecosystem. Here we report on a model that projects changes in plant community distribution and composition in response to environmental conditions. This model is linked to a suite of other models and requires input from those that simulate the hydrology and morphology of coastal Louisiana. Collectively, these models are used to assess how alternative management plans may affect the wetland ecosystem through explicit spatial modeling of the physical and biological processes affected by proposed modifications to the ecosystem. We have also taken the opportunity to advance the state-of-the-art in wetland plant community modeling by using a model that is more species-based in its description of plant communities instead of one based on aggregated community types such as brackish marsh and saline marsh. The resulting model provides an increased level of ecological detail about how wetland communities are expected to respond. In addition, the output from this model provides critical inputs for estimating the effects of management on higher trophic level species though a more complete description of the shifts in habitat.

  1. Probabilistic Modeling of Updating Epistemic Uncertainty In Pile Capacity Prediction With a Single Failure Test Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Djati Sidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The model error N has been introduced to denote the discrepancy between measured and predicted capacity of pile foundation. This model error is recognized as epistemic uncertainty in pile capacity prediction. The statistics of N have been evaluated based on data gathered from various sites and may be considered only as a eneral-error trend in capacity prediction, providing crude estimates of the model error in the absence of more specific data from the site. The results of even a single load test to failure, should provide direct evidence of the pile capacity at a given site. Bayes theorem has been used as a rational basis for combining new data with previous data to revise assessment of uncertainty and reliability. This study is devoted to the development of procedures for updating model error (N, and subsequently the predicted pile capacity with a results of single failure test.

  2. Soil gas and radon entry into a simple test structure: Comparison of experimental and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1994-01-01

    A radon test structure has been established at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of soil gas entry rates, pressure couplings and radon depletion. The experimental results have been compared with results obtained from measured soil parameters and a two......-dimensional steady-state numerical model of Darcy flow and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. For most probe locations, the calculated values of the pressure couplings and the radon depletion agree well with the measured values, thus verifying important elements of the Darcy flow approximation......, and the ability of the model to treat combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. However, the model gives an underestimation of the soil gas entry rate. Even if it is assumed that the soil has a permeability equal to the highest of the measured values, the model underestimates the soil gas entry rate...

  3. Ecosystem Model Performance at Wetlands: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, B. N.; Desai, A. R.; Schroeder, N. M.; NACP Site Synthesis Participants

    2011-12-01

    Northern peatlands contain a significant fraction of the global carbon pool, and their responses to hydrological change are likely to be important factors in future carbon cycle-climate feedbacks. Global-scale carbon cycle modeling studies typically use general ecosystem models with coarse spatial resolution, often without peatland-specific processes. Here, seven ecosystem models were used to simulate CO2 fluxes at three field sites in Canada and the northern United States, including two nutrient-rich fens and one nutrient-poor, sphagnum-dominated bog, from 2002-2006. Flux residuals (simulated - observed) were positively correlated with measured water table for both gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) at the two fen sites for all models, and were positively correlated with water table at the bog site for the majority of models. Modeled diurnal cycles at fen sites agreed well with eddy covariance measurements overall. Eddy covariance GEP and ER were higher during dry periods than during wet periods, while model results predicted either the opposite relationship or no significant difference. At the bog site, eddy covariance GEP had no significant dependence on water table, while models predicted higher GEP during wet periods. All models significantly over-estimated GEP at the bog site, and all but one over-estimated ER at the bog site. Carbon cycle models in peatland-rich regions could be improved by incorporating better models or measurements of hydrology and by inhibiting GEP and ER rates under saturated conditions. Bogs and fens likely require distinct treatments in ecosystem models due to differences in nutrients, peat properties, and plant communities.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF CONVERSION MODEL CHOICE FOR EROSION RATE ESTIMATION AND THE SENSITIVITY OF THE RESULTS TO CHANGES IN THE MODEL PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Suhartini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of soil erosion rates had been done on a slightly and long slope of cultivated area in Ciawi - Bogor, using 137Cs technique. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of the 137Cs technique in obtaining spatially distributed information of soil redistribution at small catchment. This paper reports the result of the choice of conversion model for erosion rate estimates and the sensitive of the changes in the model parameter. For this purpose, small site was selected, namely landuse I (LU-I. The top of a slope was chosen as a reference site. The erosion/deposit rate of individual sampling points was estimated using the conversion models, namely Proportional Model (PM, Mass Balance Model 1 (MBM1 and Mass Balance Model 2 (MBM2. A comparison of the conversion models showed that the lowest value is obtained by the PM. The MBM1 gave values closer to MBM2, but MBM2 gave a reliable values. In this study, a sensitivity analysis suggest that the conversion models are sensitive to changes in parameters that depend on the site conditions, but insensitive to changes in  parameters that interact to the onset of 137Cs fallout input.   Keywords: soil erosion, environmental radioisotope, cesium

  5. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: comparison of model to human participant results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. It also demonstrates that uptake...... is sensitive to both the gap between skin and clothing and the time clothing is allowed to adsorb phthalates. The model predictions are consistent with the observation that exposed clothing increases dermal uptake when compared with uptake observed in bare-skin participants. Extension of this model beyond...... the cotton-phthalate system will be challenging until data on partition coefficients are quantified for other combinations of SVOCs, fabric materials and environmental conditions....

  6. Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Bottrill; J. van Hunen; M. B. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) deepening in the area of the back arc-basin after initial collision. This collisional mantle dynamic basin (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing material away...

  7. Conditional Tests of Factor Augmented Asset Pricing Models with Human Capital and Housing: Some New Results

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Klinkowska

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I develop the asset pricing model in which the wealth portfolio is enriched with human capital and housing capital. These two types of capital account for a significant portion of the total wealth. Additionally I introduce dynamics into the model and represent conditioning information by common factors estimated with dynamic factor methodology. In this way I can use more accurate representative of the unobservable information set of the investors. Obtained results prove that ind...

  8. Research on PCPV for BWR - physical model as design tool - main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, E.; Verdelli, G.

    1975-01-01

    ISMES (Experimental Institute for Models and Structures) is now carrying out a series of tests on physical models as a part of a research programme sponsored by DSR (Studies and Research Direction) of ENEL (Italian State Electricity Board) on behalf of CPN (Nuclear Design and Construction Centre) of ENEL with the aim to experience a 'Thin'-walled PCPV for 'BWR'. The physical model, together with the mathematical model and the rheological model of the materials, is intended as a meaningful design tool. The mathematical model covers the overall structural design phase, (geometries) and the linear behaviour, whereas the physical model, besides of a global information to be compared with the results of the mathematical model, supplies a number of data as the non-linear behaviour up to failure and local conditions (penetration area etc.) are concerned. The aim of the first phase of this research programme is to make a comparison between the calculation and experiment tests as the thicknesses of the wall and the bottom slab are concerned, whereas the second phase of the research deals with the behaviour of the removable lid and its connection with the main structure. To do this, a model in scale 1:10 has been designed which symmetrically reproduces with respect to the equator, the bottom part of the structure. In the bottom slab the penetrations of the prototype design are reproduced, whereas the upper slab is plain. This paper describes the model, and illustrates the main results, underlining the different behaviour of the upper and bottom slabs up to collapse

  9. [DESCRIPTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM PROCESSING USING AN INFORMATION MODEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Nabokov, N L; Rogovanov, D Yu; Khankevich, Yu R

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes to apply the informational modeling of correlation matrix developed by I.L. Myznikov in early 1990s in neurophysiological investigations, such as electroencephalogram recording and analysis, coherence description of signals from electrodes on the head surface. The authors demonstrate information models built using the data from studies of inert gas inhalation by healthy human subjects. In the opinion of the authors, information models provide an opportunity to describe physiological processes with a high level of generalization. The procedure of presenting the EEG results holds great promise for the broad application.

  10. The design, results and future development of the National Energy Strategy Environmental Analysis Model (NESEAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.E.; Boyd, G.A.; Breed, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Strategy Environmental Model (NESEAM) has been developed to project emissions for the National Energy Strategy (NES). Two scenarios were evaluated for the NES, a Current Policy Base Case and a NES Action Case. The results from the NES Actions Case project much lower emissions than the Current Policy Base Case. Future enhancements to NESEAM will focus on fuel cycle analysis, including future technologies and additional pollutants to model. NESEAM's flexibility will allow it to model other future legislative issues. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Results and Error Estimates from GRACE Forward Modeling over Greenland, Canada, and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Forward modeling using a weighted least squares technique allows GRACE information to be projected onto a pre-determined collection of local basins. This decreases the impact of spatial leakage, allowing estimates of mass change to be better localized. The technique is especially valuable where models of current-day mass change are poor, such as over Greenland and Antarctica. However, the accuracy of the forward model technique has not been determined, nor is it known how the distribution of the local basins affects the results. We use a "truth" model composed of hydrology and ice-melt slopes as an example case, to estimate the uncertainties of this forward modeling method and expose those design parameters which may result in an incorrect high-resolution mass distribution. We then apply these optimal parameters in a forward model estimate created from RL05 GRACE data. We compare the resulting mass slopes with the expected systematic errors from the simulation, as well as GIA and basic trend-fitting uncertainties. We also consider whether specific regions (such as Ellesmere Island and Baffin Island) can be estimated reliably using our optimal basin layout.

  12. An analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog: comparisons with Monte Carlo computations and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillade, Frédéric; Dumont, Eric; Belin, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    We propose an analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog and derive an expression for the visibility signal-to-noise ratio as a function of meteorological visibility distance. The model uses single scattering processes. It is based on the Mie theory and the geometry of the optical device (emitter and receiver). In particular, we present an overlap function and take the phase function of fog into account. The results of the backscattered luminance obtained with our analytical model are compared to simulations made using the Monte Carlo method based on multiple scattering processes. An excellent agreement is found in that the discrepancy between the results is smaller than the Monte Carlo standard uncertainties. If we take no account of the geometry of the optical device, the results of the model-estimated backscattered luminance differ from the simulations by a factor 20. We also conclude that the signal-to-noise ratio computed with the Monte Carlo method and our analytical model is in good agreement with experimental results since the mean difference between the calculations and experimental measurements is smaller than the experimental uncertainty

  13. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL GROUP INVESTIGATION AND MOTIVATION TOWARD PHYSICS LEARNING RESULTS MAN TANJUNGBALAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Febri Aristi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine: (1 Is there a difference in student's learning outcomes with the application of learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction teaching model. (2 Is there a difference in students' motivation with the application of learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction teaching model, (3 Is there an interaction between learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction to improve students' motivation in learning outcomes Physics. This research is a quasi experimental. The study population was a student of class XII Tanjung Balai MAN. Random sample selection is done by randomizing the class. The instrument used consisted of: (1 achievement test (2 students' motivation questionnaire. The tests are used to obtain the data is shaped essay. The data in this study were analyzed using ANOVA analysis of two paths. The results showed that: (1 there were differences in learning outcomes between students who used the physics model of Group Investigation learning compared with students who used the Direct Instruction teaching model. (2 There was a difference in student's learning outcomes that had a low learning motivation and high motivation to learn both in the classroom and in the classroom Investigation Group Direct Instruction. (3 There was interaction between learning models Instruction Direct Group Investigation and motivation to learn in improving learning outcomes Physics.

  15. Comparison of inverse modeling results with measured and interpolated hydraulic head data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E.A.

    1986-12-01

    Inverse modeling of aquifers involves identification of effective parameters, such as transmissivities, based on hydraulic head data. The result of inverse modeling is a calibrated ground water flow model that reproduces the measured hydraulic head data as closely as is statistically possible. An inverse method that includes prior information about the parameters (i.e., kriged log transmissivity) was applied to the Avra Valley aquifer of southern Arizona using hydraulic heads obtained in three ways: measured at well locations, estimated at nodes by hand contouring, and estimated at nodes by kriging. Hand contouring yields only estimates of hydraulic head at node points, whereas kriging yields hydraulic head estimates at node points and their corresponding estimation errors. A comparison of the three inverse applications indicates the variations in the ground water flow model caused by the different treatments of the hydraulic head data. Estimates of hydraulic head computed by all three inverse models were more representative of the measured or interpolated hydraulic heads than those computed using the kriged estimates of log transmissivity. The large-scale trends in the estimates of log transmissivity determined by the three inverse models were generally similar except in the southern portion of the study area. The hydraulic head values and gradients produced by the three inverse models were similar in the interior of the study area, while the major differences between the inverse models occurred along the boundaries. 17 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab

  16. Microstructure evolution during homogenization of Al–Mn–Fe–Si alloys: Modeling and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Q.; Poole, W.J.; Wells, M.A.; Parson, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    Microstructure evolution during the homogenization heat treatment of Al–Mn–Fe–Si, or AA3xxx, alloys has been investigated using a combination of modeling and experimental studies. The model is fully coupled to CALculation PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) software and has explicitly taken into account the two different length scales for diffusion encountered in modeling the homogenization process. The model is able to predict the evolution of all the important microstructural features during homogenization, including the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of dispersoids and alloying elements in solution, the dispersoid number density and the size distribution, and the type and fraction of intergranular constituent particles. Experiments were conducted using four direct chill (DC) cast AA3xxx alloys subjected to various homogenization treatments. The resulting microstructures were then characterized using a range of characterization techniques, including optical and electron microscopy, electron micro probe analysis, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, and electrical resistivity measurements. The model predictions have been compared with the experimental measurements to validate the model. Further, it has been demonstrated that the validated model is able to predict the effects of alloying elements (e.g. Si and Mn) on microstructure evolution. It is concluded that the model provides a time and cost effective tool in optimizing and designing industrial AA3xxx alloy chemistries and homogenization heat treatments

  17. Results of the first tests of the SIDRA satellite-borne instrument breadboard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnik, O.V.; Kurbatov, E.V.; Avilov, A.M.; Titov, K.G.; Prieto, M; Sanchez, S.; Spassky, A.V.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Podgorski, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the results of the calibration of the solid-state detectors and electronic channels of the SIDRA satellite borne energetic charged particle spectrometer-telescope breadboard model are presented. The block schemes and experimental equipment used to conduct the thermal vacuum and electromagnetic compatibility tests of the assemblies and modules of the compact satellite equipment are described. The results of the measured thermal conditions of operation of the signal analog and digital processing critical modules of the SIDRA instrument prototype are discussed. Finally, the levels of conducted interference generated by the instrument model in the primary vehicle-borne power circuits are presented.

  18. Lattice Hamiltonian approach to the Schwinger model. Further results from the strong coupling expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szyniszewski, Marcin; Manchester Univ.; Cichy, Krzysztof; Poznan Univ.; Kujawa-Cichy, Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    We employ exact diagonalization with strong coupling expansion to the massless and massive Schwinger model. New results are presented for the ground state energy and scalar mass gap in the massless model, which improve the precision to nearly 10 -9 %. We also investigate the chiral condensate and compare our calculations to previous results available in the literature. Oscillations of the chiral condensate which are present while increasing the expansion order are also studied and are shown to be directly linked to the presence of flux loops in the system.

  19. Modelled and Observed Diurnal SST Signals: "SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M." Project Preliminary Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob; LeBorgne, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some of the preliminary results from the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). During this phase of the proj......This study presents some of the preliminary results from the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). During this phase...

  20. Conversion of IVA Human Computer Model to EVA Use and Evaluation and Comparison of the Result to Existing EVA Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, George S.; Williams, Jermaine C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methods, rationale, and comparative results of the conversion of an intravehicular (IVA) 3D human computer model (HCM) to extravehicular (EVA) use and compares the converted model to an existing model on another computer platform. The task of accurately modeling a spacesuited human figure in software is daunting: the suit restricts the human's joint range of motion (ROM) and does not have joints collocated with human joints. The modeling of the variety of materials needed to construct a space suit (e. g. metal bearings, rigid fiberglass torso, flexible cloth limbs and rubber coated gloves) attached to a human figure is currently out of reach of desktop computer hardware and software. Therefore a simplified approach was taken. The HCM's body parts were enlarged and the joint ROM was restricted to match the existing spacesuit model. This basic approach could be used to model other restrictive environments in industry such as chemical or fire protective clothing. In summary, the approach provides a moderate fidelity, usable tool which will run on current notebook computers.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of seven IVF strategies: results of a Markov decision-analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddelers, Audrey A A; Dirksen, Carmen D; Dumoulin, John C M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Land, Jolande A; Janssen, J Marij; Evers, Johannes L H; Severens, Johan L

    2009-07-01

    A selective switch to elective single embryo transfer (eSET) in IVF has been suggested to prevent complications of fertility treatment for both mother and infants. We compared seven IVF strategies concerning their cost-effectiveness using a Markov model. The model was based on a three IVF-attempts time horizon and a societal perspective using real world strategies and data, comparing seven IVF strategies, concerning costs, live births and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). In order to increase pregnancy probability, one cycle of eSET + one cycle of standard treatment policy [STP, i.e. eSET in patients IVF treatment, combining several transfer policies was not cost-effective. A choice has to be made between three cycles of eSET, STP or DET. It depends, however, on society's willingness to pay which strategy is to be preferred from a cost-effectiveness point of view.

  2. Chemical reaction path modeling of hydrothermal processes on Mars: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian

    1992-01-01

    Hydrothermal processes are thought to have had significant roles in the development of surficial mineralogies and morphological features on Mars. For example, a significant proportion of the Martian soil could consist of the erosional products of hydrothermally altered impact melt sheets. In this model, impact-driven, vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems hydrothermally altered the surrounding rocks and transported volatiles such as S and Cl to the surface. Further support for impact-driven hydrothermal alteration on Mars was provided by studies of the Ries crater, Germany, where suevite deposits were extensively altered to montmorillonite clays by inferred low-temperature (100-130 C) hydrothermal fluids. It was also suggested that surface outflow from both impact-driven and volcano-driven hydrothermal systems could generate the valley networks, thereby eliminating the need for an early warm wet climate. We use computer-driven chemical reaction path calculation to model chemical processes which were likely associated with postulated Martian hydrothermal systems.

  3. Increasing economic stability of the industrial enterprise as a result of its market value modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimova M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an urgent problem of the Russian and global economic stability. The issues of management of the modern industrial enterprise in the conditions of variable economy are considered in this research. Also the article highlights the importance of evaluation of industrial enterprises in Russia nowadays. The management model of the industrial enterprise cost based on sustainability criteria is constructed. The author focuses on new approaches to mathematic modeling of business evaluation. The article contains graphs and charts related to performance of enterprise system and different business strategies based on economic sustainability. Relevant problems of management by means of business assessment for enterprises owners and top managers are defined. The aim of the article is to suggest measures for the Russian industry to manage the cost of enterprises and consequently, to make national economy management more effective.

  4. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    physiological plant model, in the case of lettuce (since the leaf metabolic model predominates), the developed model was verified with the carbon consumption of plant, as input. The model predicts the biomass production (as output) with respect to the quantum of light absorbed by the plant. The obtained result was found satisfying for the first initiation in the physiological plant modelling.

  5. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrachini, L.; Blenkmann, A.; von Ellenrieder, N.; Petroni, A.; Urquina, H.; Manes, F.; Ibáñez, A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  6. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrachini, L; Blenkmann, A; Ellenrieder, N von; Muravchik, C H; Petroni, A; Urquina, H; Manes, F; Ibáñez, A

    2011-01-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  7. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrachini, L; Blenkmann, A; Ellenrieder, N von; Muravchik, C H [Laboratory of Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (LEICI), National University of La Plata (Argentina); Petroni, A [Integrative Neuroscience Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Urquina, H; Manes, F; Ibanez, A [Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO) and Institute of Neuroscience, Favaloro University, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-23

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  8. Acquisition War-Gaming Technique for Acquiring Future Complex Systems: Modeling and Simulation Results for Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien M. Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a high-level discussion and propositions of frameworks and models for acquisition strategy of complex systems. In particular, it presents an innovative system engineering approach to model the Department of Defense (DoD acquisition process and offers several optimization modules including simulation models using game theory and war-gaming concepts. Our frameworks employ Advanced Game-based Mathematical Framework (AGMF and Unified Game-based Acquisition Framework (UGAF, and related advanced simulation and mathematical models that include a set of War-Gaming Engines (WGEs implemented in MATLAB statistical optimization models. WGEs are defined as a set of algorithms, characterizing the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB, technology enablers, architectural solutions, contract type, contract parameters and associated incentives, and industry bidding position. As a proof of concept, Aerospace, in collaboration with the North Carolina State University (NCSU and University of Hawaii (UH, successfully applied and extended the proposed frameworks and decision models to determine the optimum contract parameters and incentives for a Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF contract. As a result, we can suggest a set of acquisition strategies that ensure the optimization of the PTB.

  9. Robustness of life cycle assessment results : influence of data variation and modelling choices on results for beverage packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of product and service systems throughout their life cycles. However, it can happen that LCAs for the same product have different and even conflicting outcomes. LCA results need to be robust

  10. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  11. Exact results for quantum chaotic systems and one-dimensional fermions from matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, B.D.; Lee, P.A.; Altshuler, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate a striking connection between the universal parametric correlations of the spectra of quantum chaotic systems and a class of integrable quantum hamiltonians. We begin by deriving a non-perturbative expression for the universal m-point correlation function of the spectra of random matrix ensembles in terms of a non-linear supermatrix σ-model. These results are shown to coincide with those from previous studies of weakly disordered metallic systems. We then introduce a continuous matrix model which describes the quantum mechanics of the Sutherland hamiltonian describing particles interacting through an inverse-square pairwise potential. We demonstrate that a field theoretic approach can be employed to determine exact analytical expressions for correlations of the quantum hamiltonian. The results, which are expressed in terms of a non-linear σ-model, are shown to coincide with those for analogous correlation functions of random matrix ensembles after an appropriate change of variables. We also discuss possible generalizations of the matrix model to higher dimensions. These results reveal a common mathematical structure which underlies branches of theoretical physics ranging from continuous matrix models to strongly interacting quantum hamiltonians, and universalities in the spectra of quantum chaotic systems. (orig.)

  12.  Functional Results-Oriented Healthcare Leadership: A Novel Leadership Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Said Al-Touby

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This article modifies the traditional functional leadership model to accommodate contemporary needs in healthcare leadership based on two findings. First, the article argues that it is important that the ideal healthcare leadership emphasizes the outcomes of the patient care more than processes and structures used to deliver such care; and secondly, that the leadership must strive to attain effectiveness of their care provision and not merely targeting the attractive option of efficient operations. Based on these premises, the paper reviews the traditional Functional Leadership Model and the three elements that define the type of leadership an organization has namely, the tasks, the individuals, and the team. The article argues that concentrating on any one of these elements is not ideal and proposes adding a new element to the model to construct a novel Functional Result-Oriented healthcare leadership model. The recommended Functional-Results Oriented leadership model embosses the results element on top of the other three elements so that every effort on healthcare leadership is directed towards attaining excellent patient outcomes.

  13. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  14. Computations for the 1:5 model of the THTR pressure vessel compared with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangenberg, F.

    1972-01-01

    In this report experimental results measured at the 1:5-model of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel of the THTR-nuclear power station Schmehausen in 1971, are compared with the results of axis-symmetrical computations. Linear-elastic computations were performed as well as approximate computations for overload pressures taking into consideration the influences of the load history (prestressing, temperature, creep) and the effects of the steel components. (orig.) [de

  15. Comparison of vibration test results for Atucha II NPP and large scale concrete block models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, S.; Konno, T.; Prato, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the soil structure interaction of reactor building that could be constructed on a Quaternary soil, a comparison study of the soil structure interaction springs was performed between full scale vibration test results of Atucha II NPP and vibration test results of large scale concrete block models constructed on Quaternary soil. This comparison study provides a case data of soil structure interaction springs on Quaternary soil with different foundation size and stiffness. (author)

  16. Models of Automation Surprise: Results of a Field Survey in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert De Boer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration with automation. In this paper, we report the results of a field study that empirically compared and contrasted two models of automation surprises: a normative individual-cognition model and a sensemaking model based on distributed cognition. Our data prove a good fit for the sense-making model. This finding is relevant for aviation safety, since our understanding of the cognitive processes that govern human interaction with automation drive what we need to do to reduce the frequency of automation-induced events.

  17. Results on Standard Model Higgs Boson searches at high mass at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    We present results from searches for the standard model Higgs boson with a mass greater than 200 GeV in pp collisions at √(s)=7 TeV. The data are collected at the LHC with both ATLAS and CMS detectors, and correspond to integrated luminosity of 5 fb -1 each. Searches are performed in the 2 main decay modes WW and ZZ. No significant excess of events above the standard model background expectations is observed, and upper limits on the Higgs boson production relative to the standard model expectation are derived. A standard model Higgs boson is excluded in the mass range up to 539 GeV or 600 GeV at 95% confidence level by the ATLAS or CMS experiments respectively. (author)

  18. Model unspecific search in CMS. Results at 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Hebbeker, Thomas; Knutzen, Simon; Lieb, Jonas; Meyer, Arnd; Pook, Tobias; Roemer, Jonas [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the year 2012, CMS collected a total data set of approximately 20 fb{sup -1} in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV. Dedicated searches for physics beyond the standard model are commonly designed with the signatures of a given theoretical model in mind. While this approach allows for an optimised sensitivity to the sought-after signal, it may cause unexpected phenomena to be overlooked. In a complementary approach, the Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC) analyses CMS data in a general way. Depending on the reconstructed final state objects (e.g. electrons), collision events are sorted into classes. In each of the classes, the distributions of selected kinematic variables are compared to standard model simulation. An automated statistical analysis is performed to quantify the agreement between data and prediction. In this talk, the analysis concept is introduced and selected results of the analysis of the 2012 CMS data set are presented.

  19. Global Monthly CO2 Flux Inversion Based on Results of Terrestrial Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F.; Chen, J.; Peters, W.; Krol, M.

    2008-12-01

    Most of our understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 has come from inverse studies of atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. However, the number of currently available observation stations and our ability to simulate the diurnal planetary boundary layer evolution over continental regions essentially limit the number of regions that can be reliably inverted globally, especially over continental areas. In order to overcome these restrictions, a nested inverse modeling system was developed based on the Bayesian principle for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Inverse modeling was conducted in monthly steps using CO2 concentration measurements of 5 years (2000 - 2005) with the following two models: (a) An atmospheric transport model (TM5) is used to generate the transport matrix where the diurnal variation n of atmospheric CO2 concentration is considered to enhance the use of the afternoon-hour average CO2 concentration measurements over the continental sites. (b) A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model (BEPS) is used to produce hourly step carbon fluxes, which could minimize the limitation due to our inability to solve the inverse problem in a high resolution, as the background of our inversion. We will present our recent results achieved through a combination of the bottom-up modeling with BEPS and the top-down modeling based on TM5 driven by offline meteorological fields generated by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMFW).

  20. Comparison of results of experimental research with numerical calculations of a model one-sided seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Damian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+ has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.

  1. Technogenic Rock Dumps Physical Properties' Prognosis via Results of the Structure Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of internal structure of the technogenic rock dumps (gob dumps is required condition for estimation of using ones as filtration massifs for treatment of mine wastewater. Internal structure of gob piles greatly depends on dumping technology to applying restrictions for use them as filtration massifs. Numerical modelling of gob dumps allows adequately estimate them physical parameters, as a filtration coefficient, density, etc. The gob dumps numerical modelling results given in this article, in particular was examined grain size distribution of determined fractions depend on dump height. Shown, that filtration coefficient is in a nonlinear dependence on amount of several fractions of rock in gob dump. The numerical model adequacy both the gob structure and the dependence of filtration coefficient from gob height acknowledged equality of calculated and real filtration coefficient values. The results of this research can be apply to peripheral dumping technology.

  2. Extending positive CLASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, Eric; Traxler, Adrienne; de la Garza, Jorge; Kramer, Laird H.

    2013-12-01

    We report on a multiyear study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed significantly improved attitudes from pre- to postcourse. Cohen’s d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d=0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26-0.64). These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.

  3. Extending positive CLASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Brewe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on a multiyear study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed significantly improved attitudes from pre- to postcourse. Cohen’s d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d=0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26–0.64. These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.

  4. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model. Comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, R.; Dameris, M.; Schnadt, C. [and others

    2000-01-01

    An interactively coupled climate-chemistry model which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks is presented. This is the first model, which interactively combines a general circulation model based on primitive equations with a rather complex model of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and which is computational efficient enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. The applied model version extends from the Earth's surface up to 10 hPa with a relatively high number (39) of vertical levels. We present the results of a present-day (1990) simulation and compare it to available observations. We focus on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. The current model version ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM can realistically reproduce stratospheric dynamics in the Arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to formerly applied model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their interhemispheric differences are reproduced. The consideration of the chemistry feedback on dynamics results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapor concentrations, i.e., the simulated meriodional water vapor gradient in the stratosphere is realistic. The present model version constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic trace gas emissions, and the future evolution of the ozone layer. (orig.)

  5. From sub-source to source: Interpreting results of biological trace investigations using probabilistic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, W.T.; Kokshoorn, B.; Maaskant-van Wijk, P.A.; de Zoete, J.

    2015-01-01

    The current method of reporting a putative cell type is based on a non-probabilistic assessment of test results by the forensic practitioner. Additionally, the association between donor and cell type in mixed DNA profiles can be exceedingly complex. We present a probabilistic model for

  6. Predictive Modeling of a Paradigm Mechanical Cooling Tower Model: II. Optimal Best-Estimate Results with Reduced Predicted Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixian Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work uses the adjoint sensitivity model of the counter-flow cooling tower derived in the accompanying PART I to obtain the expressions and relative numerical rankings of the sensitivities, to all model parameters, of the following model responses: (i outlet air temperature; (ii outlet water temperature; (iii outlet water mass flow rate; and (iv air outlet relative humidity. These sensitivities are subsequently used within the “predictive modeling for coupled multi-physics systems” (PM_CMPS methodology to obtain explicit formulas for the predicted optimal nominal values for the model responses and parameters, along with reduced predicted standard deviations for the predicted model parameters and responses. These explicit formulas embody the assimilation of experimental data and the “calibration” of the model’s parameters. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the PM_CMPS methodology reduces the predicted standard deviations to values that are smaller than either the computed or the experimentally measured ones, even for responses (e.g., the outlet water flow rate for which no measurements are available. These improvements stem from the global characteristics of the PM_CMPS methodology, which combines all of the available information simultaneously in phase-space, as opposed to combining it sequentially, as in current data assimilation procedures.

  7. Assessment of Energy Removal Impacts on Physical Systems: Hydrodynamic Model Domain Expansion and Refinement, and Online Dissemination of Model Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Wang, Taiping

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe the (1) the expansion of the PNNL hydrodynamic model domain to include the continental shelf along the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island; and (2) the approach and progress in developing the online/Internet disseminations of model results and outreach efforts in support of the Puget Sound Operational Forecast System (PS-OPF). Submittal of this report completes the work on Task 2.1.2, Effects of Physical Systems, Subtask 2.1.2.1, Hydrodynamics, for fiscal year 2010 of the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy project.

  8. Dynamic analysis of ITER tokamak. Based on results of vibration test using scaled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    The vibration experiments of the support structures with flexible plates for the ITER major components such as toroidal field coil (TF coil) and vacuum vessel (VV) were performed using small-sized flexible plates aiming to obtain its basic mechanical characteristics such as dependence of the stiffness on the loading angle. The experimental results were compared with the analytical ones in order to estimate an adequate analytical model for ITER support structure with flexible plates. As a result, the bolt connection of the flexible plates on the base plate strongly affected on the stiffness of the flexible plates. After studies of modeling the connection of the bolts, it is found that the analytical results modeling the bolts with finite stiffness only in the axial direction and infinite stiffness in the other directions agree well with the experimental ones. Based on this, numerical analysis regarding the actual support structure of the ITER VV and TF coil was performed. The support structure composed of flexible plates and connection bolts was modeled as a spring composed of only two spring elements simulating the in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness of the support structure with flexible plates including the effect of connection bolts. The stiffness of both spring models for VV and TF coil agree well with that of shell models, simulating actual structures such as flexible plates and connection bolts based on the experimental results. It is therefore found that the spring model with the only two values of stiffness enables to simplify the complicated support structure with flexible plates for the dynamic analysis of the VV and TF coil. Using the proposed spring model, the dynamic analysis of the VV and TF coil for the ITER were performed to estimate the integrity under the design earthquake. As a result, it is found that the maximum relative displacement of 8.6 mm between VV and TF coil is much less than 100 mm, so that the integrity of the VV and TF coil of the

  9. Furthering our Understanding of Land Surface Interactions using SVAT modelling: Results from SimSphere's Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Matt; Petropoulos, George; Ireland, Gareth; Rendal, Daisy; Carlson, Toby

    2015-04-01

    With current predicted climate change, there is an increased requirement to gain knowledge on the terrestrial biosphere, for numerous agricultural, hydrological and meteorological applications. To this end, Soil Vegetation Atmospheric Transfer (SVAT) models are quickly becoming the preferred scientific tool to monitor, at fine temporal and spatial resolutions, detailed information on numerous parameters associated with Earth system interactions. Validation of any model is critical to assess its accuracy, generality and realism to distinctive ecosystems and subsequently acts as important step before its operational distribution. In this study, the SimSphere SVAT model has been validated to fifteen different sites of the FLUXNET network, where model performance was statistically evaluated by directly comparing the model predictions vs in situ data, for cloud free days with a high energy balance closure. Specific focus is given to the models ability to simulate parameters associated with the energy balance, namely Shortwave Incoming Solar Radiation (Rg), Net Radiation (Rnet), Latent Heat (LE), Sensible Heat (H), Air Temperature at 1.3m (Tair 1.3m) and Air temperature at 50m (Tair 50m). Comparisons were performed for a number distinctive ecosystem types and for 150 days in total using in-situ data from ground observational networks acquired from the year 2011 alone. Evaluation of the models' coherence to reality was evaluated on the basis of a series of statistical parameters including RMSD, R2, Scatter, Bias, MAE , NASH index, Slope and Intercept. Results showed good to very good agreement between predicted and observed datasets, particularly so for LE, H, Tair 1.3m and Tair 50m where mean error distribution values indicated excellent model performance. Due to the systematic underestimation, poorer simulation accuracies were exhibited for Rg and Rnet, yet all values reported are still analogous to other validatory studies of its kind. In overall, the model

  10. Implementing a continuum of care model for older people - results from a Swedish case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Duner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a need for integrated care and smooth collaboration between care-providing organisations and professions to create a continuum of care for frail older people. However, collaboration between organisations and professions is often problematic. The aim of this study was to examine the process of implementing a new continuum of care model in a complex organisational context, and illuminate some of the challenges involved. The introduced model strived to connect three organisations responsible for delivering health and social care to older people: the regional hospital, primary health care and municipal eldercare.Methods: The actions of the actors involved in the process of implementing the model were understood to be shaped by the actors' understanding, commitment and ability. This article is based on 44 qualitative interviews performed on four occasions with 26 key actors at three organisational levels within these three organisations.Results and conclusions: The results point to the importance of paying regard to the different cultures of the organisations when implementing a new model. The role of upper management emerged as very important. Furthermore, to be accepted, the model has to be experienced as effectively dealing with real problems in the everyday practice of the actors in the organisations, from the bottom to the top.

  11. Results from a 2 x CO2 simulation with the Canadian Climate Centre general circulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian Climate Centre's general circulation model (GCM), GCMII, was used to simulate a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The experiment was a standard greenhouse gas climate change study, using a three-dimensional atmospheric circulation model coupled to a simple 'slab' ocean and a thermodynamic ice model. This standard experiment retains the sophistication and generality of an atmospheric GCM, is straightforward in its use of simplified ocean and ice models, is comparatively economical of computer time, and permits comparison of results from different models. Features of the second generation GCMII include: higher resolution at T32L10 with a transform grid of 3.75 x 3.75 degree; full diurnal and annual cycles; ocean and sea ice treatment involving specification of ocean transports; modified treatment of land surface processes and hydrology; a parameterization of cloud optical feedback; and a retention of the special application data sets of surface parameters for North America and Europe. Results of the simulation were a globally averaged surface temperature increase of 3.5 degree C; a precipitation and evaporation increase of 3%; an average decrease in soil moisture of 6.6%; a decrease in cloud cover of 2.2%; a 66% decrease in mass of sea ice; and marked changes in other quantities in the polar region. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Implementing a continuum of care model for older people - results from a Swedish case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Duner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a need for integrated care and smooth collaboration between care-providing organisations and professions to create a continuum of care for frail older people. However, collaboration between organisations and professions is often problematic. The aim of this study was to examine the process of implementing a new continuum of care model in a complex organisational context, and illuminate some of the challenges involved. The introduced model strived to connect three organisations responsible for delivering health and social care to older people: the regional hospital, primary health care and municipal eldercare. Methods: The actions of the actors involved in the process of implementing the model were understood to be shaped by the actors' understanding, commitment and ability. This article is based on 44 qualitative interviews performed on four occasions with 26 key actors at three organisational levels within these three organisations. Results and conclusions: The results point to the importance of paying regard to the different cultures of the organisations when implementing a new model. The role of upper management emerged as very important. Furthermore, to be accepted, the model has to be experienced as effectively dealing with real problems in the everyday practice of the actors in the organisations, from the bottom to the top.

  13. Development of Test-Analysis Models (TAM) for correlation of dynamic test and analysis results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Filippo; Javeed, Mehzad; Mcgowan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of structural analysis of aerospace applications is to obtain a verified finite element model (FEM). The verified FEM can be used for loads analysis, evaluate structural modifications, or design control systems. Verification of the FEM is generally obtained as the result of correlating test and FEM models. A test analysis model (TAM) is very useful in the correlation process. A TAM is essentially a FEM reduced to the size of the test model, which attempts to preserve the dynamic characteristics of the original FEM in the analysis range of interest. Numerous methods for generating TAMs have been developed in the literature. The major emphasis of this paper is a description of the procedures necessary for creation of the TAM and the correlation of the reduced models with the FEM or the test results. Herein, three methods are discussed, namely Guyan, Improved Reduced System (IRS), and Hybrid. Also included are the procedures for performing these analyses using MSC/NASTRAN. Finally, application of the TAM process is demonstrated with an experimental test configuration of a ten bay cantilevered truss structure.

  14. Response of a laminar premixed flame to flow oscillations: A kinematic model and thermoacoustic instability results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleifil, M.; Annaswamy, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ghoneim, Z.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Abassia (Egypt)

    1996-09-01

    Combustion instability is a resonance phenomenon that arises due to the coupling between the system acoustics and the unsteady heat release. The constructive feedback between the two processes, which is known to occur as a certain phase relationship between the pressure and the unsteady heat release rate is satisfied, depends on many parameters among which is the acoustic mode, the flame holder characteristics, and the dominant burning pattern. In this paper, the authors construct an analytical model to describe the dynamic response of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on the rim of a tube to velocity oscillation. They consider uniform and nonuniform velocity perturbations superimposed on a pipe flow velocity profile. The model results show that the magnitude of heat release perturbation and its phase with respect to the dynamic perturbation dependent primarily on the flame Strohal number, representing the ratio of the dominant frequency times the tube radius to the laminar burning velocity. In terms of this number, high-frequency perturbations pass through the flame while low frequencies lead to a strong response. The phase with respect to the velocity perturbation behaves in the opposite way. Results of this model are shown to agree with experimental observations and to be useful in determining how the combustion excited model is selected among all the acoustic unstable modes. The model is then used to obtain a time-domain differential equation describing the relationship between the velocity perturbation and the heat release response over the entire frequency range.

  15. Friction torque of wind-turbine pitch bearings – comparison of experimental results with available models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stammler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pitch bearings of wind turbines are large, grease-lubricated rolling bearings that connect the rotor blades with the rotor hub. They are used to turn the rotor blades to control the power output and/or structural loads of the turbine. Common actuators turning the blades are hydraulic cylinders or electrical motor–gearbox combinations. In order to design pitch actuator systems that are able to turn the blades reliably without imposing an excessive power demand, it is necessary to predict the friction torque of pitch bearings for different operating conditions. In this paper, the results of torque measurements under load are presented and compared to results obtained using different calculation models. The results of this comparison indicate the various sources of friction that should be taken into account for a reliable calculation model.

  16. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP): Progress and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is a distributed climate-scenario simulation exercise for historical model intercomparison and future climate change conditions with participation of multiple crop and agricultural trade modeling groups around the world. The goals of AgMIP are to improve substantially the characterization of risk of hunger and world food security due to climate change and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. Recent progress and the current status of AgMIP will be presented, highlighting three areas of activity: preliminary results from crop pilot studies, outcomes from regional workshops, and emerging scientific challenges. AgMIP crop modeling efforts are being led by pilot studies, which have been established for wheat, maize, rice, and sugarcane. These crop-specific initiatives have proven instrumental in testing and contributing to AgMIP protocols, as well as creating preliminary results for aggregation and input to agricultural trade models. Regional workshops are being held to encourage collaborations and set research activities in motion for key agricultural areas. The first of these workshops was hosted by Embrapa and UNICAMP and held in Campinas, Brazil. Outcomes from this meeting have informed crop modeling research activities within South America, AgMIP protocols, and future regional workshops. Several scientific challenges have emerged and are currently being addressed by AgMIP researchers. Areas of particular interest include geospatial weather generation, ensemble methods for climate scenarios and crop models, spatial aggregation of field-scale yields to regional and global production, and characterization of future changes in climate variability.

  17. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry – general circulation model: Comparison with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hein

    Full Text Available The coupled climate-chemistry model ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM is presented which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks. This is the first model which interactively combines a general circulation model with a chemical model, employing most of the important reactions and species necessary to describe the stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone chemistry, and which is computationally fast enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. This is possible as the model time-step used for the chemistry can be chosen as large as the integration time-step for the dynamics. Vertically the atmosphere is discretized by 39 levels from the surface up to the top layer which is centred at 10 hPa, with a relatively high vertical resolution of approximately 700 m near the extra-tropical tropopause. We present the results of a control simulation representing recent conditions (1990 and compare it to available observations. The focus is on investigations of stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM reproduces main features of stratospheric dynamics in the arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to earlier model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their inter-hemispheric differences are reproduced. Considering methane oxidation as part of the dynamic-chemistry feedback results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour concentrations. The current model constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic

  18. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Hill, Patrick M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark [Division of Medical Physics, CDH Proton Center, 4455 Weaver Parkway, Warrenville, Illinois 60555 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ{sub x1},σ{sub x2},σ{sub y1},σ{sub y2}) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ{sub x},μ{sub y}). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets.

  19. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hill, Patrick M.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ x1 ,σ x2 ,σ y1 ,σ y2 ) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ x ,μ y ). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets

  20. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Hill, Patrick M.; Flynn, Ryan T.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark; Hyer, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σx1,σx2,σy1,σy2) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μx,μy). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets. PMID:25735287

  1. Updated Results from the Michigan Titan Thermospheric General Circulation Model (TTGCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. M.; Bougher, S. W.; de Lahaye, V.; Waite, J. H.; Ridley, A.

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents updated results from the Michigan Titan Thermospheric General Circulation Model (TTGCM) that was recently unveiled in operational form (Bell et al 2005 Spring AGU). Since then, we have incorporated a suite of chemical reactions for the major neutral constituents in Titan's upper atmosphere (N2, CH4). Additionally, some selected minor neutral constituents and major ionic species are also supported in the framework. At this time, HCN, which remains one of the critical thermally active species in the upper atmosphere, remains specified at all altitudes, utilizing profiles derived from recent Cassini-Huygen's measurements. In addition to these improvements, a parallel effort is underway to develop a non-hydrostatic Titan Thermospheric General Circulation Model for further comparisons. In this work, we emphasize the impacts of self-consistent chemistry on the results of the updated TTGCM relative to its frozen chemistry predecessor. Meanwhile, the thermosphere's thermodynamics remains determined by the interplay of solar EUV forcing and HCN rotational cooling, which is calculated by a full line- by-line radiative transfer routine along the lines of Yelle (1991) and Mueller-Wodarg (2000, 2002). In addition to these primary drivers, a treatment of magnetospheric heating is further tested. The model's results will be compared with both the Cassini INMS data and the model of Mueller-Wodarg (2000,2002).

  2. Energy consumption and economic growth in New Zealand: Results of trivariate and multivariate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartleet, Matthew; Gounder, Rukmani

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the energy consumption-growth nexus in New Zealand. Causal linkages between energy and macroeconomic variables are investigated using trivariate demand-side and multivariate production models. Long run and short run relationships are estimated for the period 1960-2004. The estimated results of demand model reveal a long run relationship between energy consumption, real GDP and energy prices. The short run results indicate that real GDP Granger-causes energy consumption without feedback, consistent with the proposition that energy demand is a derived demand. Energy prices are found to be significant for energy consumption outcomes. Production model results indicate a long run relationship between real GDP, energy consumption and employment. The Granger-causality is found from real GDP to energy consumption, providing additional evidence to support the neoclassical proposition that energy consumption in New Zealand is fundamentally driven by economic activities. Inclusion of capital in the multivariate production model shows short run causality from capital to energy consumption. Also, changes in real GDP and employment have significant predictive power for changes in real capital.

  3. Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) Model: Documentation and Sample Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Margolis, R.

    2009-09-01

    The Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model is a bottom-up, market penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of photovoltaics (PV) on residential and commercial rooftops in the continental United States through 2030. NREL developed SolarDS to examine the market competitiveness of PV based on regional solar resources, capital costs, electricity prices, utility rate structures, and federal and local incentives. The model uses the projected financial performance of PV systems to simulate PV adoption for building types and regions then aggregates adoption to state and national levels. The main components of SolarDS include a PV performance simulator, a PV annual revenue calculator, a PV financial performance calculator, a PV market share calculator, and a regional aggregator. The model simulates a variety of installed PV capacity for a range of user-specified input parameters. PV market penetration levels from 15 to 193 GW by 2030 were simulated in preliminary model runs. SolarDS results are primarily driven by three model assumptions: (1) future PV cost reductions, (2) the maximum PV market share assumed for systems with given financial performance, and (3) PV financing parameters and policy-driven assumptions, such as the possible future cost of carbon emissions.

  4. A Compact Synchronous Cellular Model of Nonlinear Calcium Dynamics: Simulation and FPGA Synthesis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hamid; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that calcium is a widespread intracellular ion that controls a wide range of temporal dynamics in the mammalian body. The simulation and validation of such studies using experimental data would benefit from a fast large scale simulation and modelling tool. This paper presents a compact and fully reconfigurable cellular calcium model capable of mimicking Hopf bifurcation phenomenon and various nonlinear responses of the biological calcium dynamics. The proposed cellular model is synthesized on a digital platform for a single unit and a network model. Hardware synthesis, physical implementation on FPGA, and theoretical analysis confirm that the proposed cellular model can mimic the biological calcium behaviors with considerably low hardware overhead. The approach has the potential to speed up large-scale simulations of slow intracellular dynamics by sharing more cellular units in real-time. To this end, various networks constructed by pipelining 10 k to 40 k cellular calcium units are compared with an equivalent simulation run on a standard PC workstation. Results show that the cellular hardware model is, on average, 83 times faster than the CPU version.

  5. Financial analysis and forecasting of the results of small businesses performance based on regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana O. Musienko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the economicmathematical model of the dependence of revenue on other balance sheet items taking into account the sectoral affiliation of the companies. Methods using comparative analysis the article studies the existing approaches to the construction of the company management models. Applying the regression analysis and the least squares method which is widely used for financial management of enterprises in Russia and abroad the author builds a model of the dependence of revenue on other balance sheet items taking into account the sectoral affiliation of the companies which can be used in the financial analysis and prediction of small enterprisesrsquo performance. Results the article states the need to identify factors affecting the financial management efficiency. The author analyzed scientific research and revealed the lack of comprehensive studies on the methodology for assessing the small enterprisesrsquo management while the methods used for large companies are not always suitable for the task. The systematized approaches of various authors to the formation of regression models describe the influence of certain factors on the company activity. It is revealed that the resulting indicators in the studies were revenue profit or the company relative profitability. The main drawback of most models is the mathematical not economic approach to the definition of the dependent and independent variables. Basing on the analysis it was determined that the most correct is the model of dependence between revenues and total assets of the company using the decimal logarithm. The model was built using data on the activities of the 507 small businesses operating in three spheres of economic activity. Using the presented model it was proved that there is direct dependence between the sales proceeds and the main items of the asset balance as well as differences in the degree of this effect depending on the economic activity of small

  6. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Wanderer, P; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  7. Exact results for survival probability in the multistate Landau-Zener model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M V; Ostrovsky, V N

    2004-01-01

    An exact formula is derived for survival probability in the multistate Landau-Zener model in the special case where the initially populated state corresponds to the extremal (maximum or minimum) slope of a linear diabatic potential curve. The formula was originally guessed by S Brundobler and V Elzer (1993 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 26 1211) based on numerical calculations. It is a simple generalization of the expression for the probability of diabatic passage in the famous two-state Landau-Zener model. Our result is obtained via analysis and summation of the entire perturbation theory series

  8. Parameter uncertainty and model predictions: a review of Monte Carlo results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of parameter variability by Monte Carlo analysis are reviewed using repeated simulations of the model with randomly selected parameter values. At the beginning of each simulation, parameter values are chosen from specific frequency distributions. This process is continued for a number of iterations sufficient to converge on an estimate of the frequency distribution of the output variables. The purpose was to explore the general properties of error propagaton in models. Testing the implicit assumptions of analytical methods and pointing out counter-intuitive results produced by the Monte Carlo approach are additional points covered

  9. A Module for Graphical Display of Model Results with the CBP Toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-21

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to add enhanced graphical capabilities to display model results in the Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) Toolbox. Because Version 2.0 of the CBP Toolbox has just been released, the graphing enhancements described in this report have not yet been integrated into a new version of the Toolbox. Instead they have been tested using a standalone GoldSim model and, while they are substantially complete, may undergo further refinement before full implementation. Nevertheless, this report is issued to document the FY14 development efforts which will provide a basis for further development of the CBP Toolbox.

  10. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Sabbi, G. [LBNL, Berkeley

    2016-10-06

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  11. Results of a feasibility study: barriers and facilitators in implementing the Sherbrooke model in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Durand, Marie-José; Caillard, Jean-François; Roquelaure, Yves; Loisel, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Return-to-work interventions associated with the workplace environment are often more effective than conventional care. The Sherbrooke model is an integrated intervention that has proved successful in preventing work disability due to low-back pain. Implementation, however, runs up against many obstacles, and failure has been reported in many countries. The present study sought to identify barriers to and facilitators of the implementation of the Sherbrooke model within the French health system. A multiple case study with nested levels of analysis was performed in two regions of France. A conceptual framework was designed and refined to identify barriers and facilitators at the individual, organizational and contextual levels. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interview (N=22), focus groups (N=7), and observation and from the gray literature. Participants (N=61) belonged to three fields: healthcare, social insurance, and the workplace. Numerous barriers and facilitators were identified in each field and at each level, some specific and others common to workers in all fields. Individual and organizational barriers comprised lack of time and resources, discordant professional values, and perceived risk. Legal barriers comprised medical confidentiality, legal complexity, and priority given to primary prevention. Individual-level facilitators comprised needs and perceived benefits. Some organizations had concordant values and practices. Legal facilitators comprised possibilities of collaboration and gradual return to work. The present feasibility analysis of implementing the Sherbrooke model revealed numerous barriers and facilitators suggesting a new implementation strategy be drawn up if failure is to be avoided.

  12. A comparison of results from groundwater flow modelling for two conceptual hydrogeological models for the Konrad site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Fein, E.; Storck, R.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive wastes with negligible heat production are planned to be disposed of into a deep iron ore formation at the Konrad site. This repository will be bedded in a low permeable formation called Oxfordian in a depth of 800 - 1300 m below the surface. The host formation is largely covered with clay of a few hundred meters thickness. The hydrogeological model area has an extension of 14 km in the west-east and 47 km in the north-south direction. The geological formations within the model area are disturbed by several fractured zones with a vertical extension of several hundred meters intersecting different horizontal layers. Due to this fact two hydrogeological models have been developed: The first one handles the fractured zones by globally increased permeabilities of the geological formations. The second handles the fractured zones by locally increased permeabilities, leaving the permeabilities of undisturbed areas unchanged. For both models, groundwater flow calculations have been carried out including parameter variations of permeability values. The results of the calculations are presented as flow paths which are compared for both models. Computer code used: SWIFT. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  13. A comparison of simulation results from two terrestrial carbon cycle models using three climate data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiko; Sasai, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    This study addressed how different climate data sets influence simulations of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. For the period 1982-2001, we compared the results of simulations based on three climate data sets (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE AMIP-II and ERA40) employed in meteorological, ecological and biogeochemical studies and two different models (BEAMS and Sim-CYCLE). The models differed in their parameterizations of photosynthetic and phenological processes but used the same surface climate (e.g. shortwave radiation, temperature and precipitation), vegetation, soil and topography data. The three data sets give different climatic conditions, especially for shortwave radiation, in terms of long-term means, linear trends and interannual variability. Consequently, the simulation results for global net primary productivity varied by 16%-43% only from differences in the climate data sets, especially in these regions where the shortwave radiation data differed markedly: differences in the climate data set can strongly influence simulation results. The differences among the climate data set and between the two models resulted in slightly different spatial distribution and interannual variability in the net ecosystem carbon budget. To minimize uncertainty, we should pay attention to the specific climate data used. We recommend developing an accurate standard climate data set for simulation studies

  14. Simulating Pacific Northwest Forest Response to Climate Change: How We Made Model Results Useful for Vulnerability Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Kerns, B. K.; Halofsky, J.

    2014-12-01

    GCM-based climate projections and downscaled climate data proliferate, and there are many climate-aware vegetation models in use by researchers. Yet application of fine-scale DGVM based simulation output in national forest vulnerability assessments is not common, because there are technical, administrative and social barriers for their use by managers and policy makers. As part of a science-management climate change adaptation partnership, we performed simulations of vegetation response to climate change for four national forests in the Blue Mountains of Oregon using the MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) for use in vulnerability assessments. Our simulation results under business-as-usual scenarios suggest a starkly different future forest conditions for three out of the four national forests in the study area, making their adoption by forest managers a potential challenge. However, using DGVM output to structure discussion of potential vegetation changes provides a suitable framework to discuss the dynamic nature of vegetation change compared to using more commonly available model output (e.g. species distribution models). From the onset, we planned and coordinated our work with national forest managers to maximize the utility and the consideration of the simulation results in planning. Key lessons from this collaboration were: (1) structured and strategic selection of a small number climate change scenarios that capture the range of variability in future conditions simplified results; (2) collecting and integrating data from managers for use in simulations increased support and interest in applying output; (3) a structured, regionally focused, and hierarchical calibration of the DGVM produced well-validated results; (4) simple approaches to quantifying uncertainty in simulation results facilitated communication; and (5) interpretation of model results in a holistic context in relation to multiple lines of evidence produced balanced guidance. This latest

  15. Advanced Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification for Flight Dynamics; Interim Results and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, David C.; Shweyk, Kamal M.; Brown, Frank; Shah, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    into a real-time simulation capability, generating techniques for uncertainty modeling that draw data from multiple modeling sources, and providing a unified database model that includes nominal plus increments for each flight condition. This paper presents status of testing in the BR&T water tunnel and analysis of the resulting data and efforts to characterize these data using alternative modeling methods. Program challenges and issues are also presented.

  16. Career Path Suggestion using String Matching and Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Akshay; P. Panda, Supriya

    2015-05-01

    High school and college graduates seemingly are often battling for the courses they should major in order to achieve their target career. In this paper, we worked on suggesting a career path to a graduate to reach his/her dream career given the current educational status. Firstly, we collected the career data of professionals and academicians from various career fields and compiled the data set by using the necessary information from the data. Further, this was used as the basis to suggest the most appropriate career path for the person given his/her current educational status. Decision trees and string matching algorithms were employed to suggest the appropriate career path for a person. Finally, an analysis of the result has been done directing to further improvements in the model.

  17. The impact of air traffic in the NAFC. Model results and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauben, W M.F.; Velthoven, P F.J. van; Kelder, H M [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric composition has been investigated with a global chemistry transport model. The model calculations show that aircraft emissions of nitrogen oxides contribute to about 40-80% of the background values of nitrogen oxides in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC), and lead to an increase of the background ozone concentrations by about 3-4% in winter and 5-7% in summer. The three-dimensional distributions of ozone, nitrogen oxides and nitric acid, calculated by using analysed meteorological data, have been compared with airborne measurements performed in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor as part of the EC POLINAT project. The agreement between modelled results and observations is reasonably good for ozone, but worse for nitrogen oxides and nitric acid. (author) 12 refs.

  18. Non-local energy density functionals: models plus some exact general results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2001-02-01

    Holas and March (Phys. Rev. A51, 2040, 1995) gave a formally exact expression for the force - δV xc (r-tilde)/δr-tilde associated with the exchange-correlation potential V xc (r-tilde) of density functional theory. This forged a precise link between first- and second-order density matrices and V xc (r-tilde). Here models are presented in which these low-order matrices can be related to the ground-state electron density. This allows non-local energy density functionals to be constructed within the framework of such models. Finally, results emerging from these models have led to the derivation of some exact 'nuclear cusp' relations for exchange and correlation energy densities in molecules, clusters and condensed phases. (author)

  19. The impact of air traffic in the NAFC. Model results and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauben, W.M.F.; Velthoven, P.F.J. van; Kelder, H.M. [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric composition has been investigated with a global chemistry transport model. The model calculations show that aircraft emissions of nitrogen oxides contribute to about 40-80% of the background values of nitrogen oxides in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC), and lead to an increase of the background ozone concentrations by about 3-4% in winter and 5-7% in summer. The three-dimensional distributions of ozone, nitrogen oxides and nitric acid, calculated by using analysed meteorological data, have been compared with airborne measurements performed in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor as part of the EC POLINAT project. The agreement between modelled results and observations is reasonably good for ozone, but worse for nitrogen oxides and nitric acid. (author) 12 refs.

  20. The t-J model at small t/j: Numerical, perturbative, and supersymmetric results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1991-02-01

    We discuss some recent results for one- and two-hole states in the t-J model at small t/J. These include numerical results (bandwidth determinations and accurate t/J values for 4 x 4 lattice one-hole ground-state level crossings), hopping-parameter perturbation theory (which gives the small-t/J one-hole bandwidth in terms of the static-vacancy ground state), and results at the supersymmetric point t/J = 1/2 (exact results for energies and bandwidths.) The perturbative results leads us to a new conjecture regarding the staggered magnetization of higher-spin states in the two-dimensional Heisenberg model. We also discuss extrapolation of small-t/J results to high-T c parameter values; in the two-hole ground states we find (t/J) λ behavior in the rms hole-hole separation, and an extrapolation to t/J = 3 gives a bulk-limit rms hole-hole separation of ∼ 7 angstrom. 18 refs., 6 figs

  1. Comparison of simulation and experimental results for a model aqueous tert-butanol solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, S. D.; Patey, G. N.

    2017-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the behavior of aqueous tert-butanol (TBA) solutions for a range of temperatures, using the CHARMM generalized force field (CGenFF) to model TBA and the TIP4P/2005 or TIP4P-Ew water model. Simulation results for the density, isothermal compressibility, constant pressure heat capacity, and self-diffusion coefficients are in good accord with experimental measurements. Agreement with the experiment is particularly good at low TBA concentration, where experiments have revealed anomalies in a number of thermodynamic properties. Importantly, the CGenFF model does not exhibit liquid-liquid demixing at temperatures between 290 and 320 K (for systems of 32 000 molecules), in contrast with the situation for several other common TBA models [R. Gupta and G. N. Patey, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034509 (2012)]. However, whereas real water and TBA are miscible at all temperatures where the liquid is stable, we observe some evidence of demixing at 340 K and above. To evaluate the structural properties at low concentrations, we compare with both neutron scattering and recent spectroscopic measurements. This reveals that while the CGenFF model is a definite improvement over other models that have been considered, the TBA molecules still exhibit a tendency to associate at low concentrations that is somewhat stronger than that indicated by experiments. Finally, we discuss the range and decay times of the long-range correlations, providing an indication of the system size and simulation times that are necessary in order to obtain reliable results for certain properties.

  2. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, O.; Mulu, B.; Nilsson, H.; Cervantes, M.

    2010-08-01

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Älvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  4. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, O; Nilsson, H; Mulu, B; Cervantes, M

    2010-01-01

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Alvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  5. Results from flamelet and non-flamelet models for supersonic combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeinde, Foluso; Li, Wenhai

    2017-11-01

    Air-breathing propulsion systems (scramjets) have been identified as a viable alternative to rocket engines for improved efficiency. A scramjet engine, which operates at flight Mach numbers around 7 or above, is characterized by the existence of supersonic flow conditions in the combustor. In a dual-mode scramjet, this phenomenon is possible because of the relatively low value of the equivalence ratio and high stagnation temperature, which, together, inhibits thermal choking downstream of transverse injectors. The flamelet method has been our choice for turbulence-combustion interaction modeling and we have extended the basic approach in several dimensions, with a focus on the way the pressure and progress variable are modeled. Improved results have been obtained. We have also examined non-flamelet models, including laminar chemistry (QL), eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and partially-stirred reactor (PaSR). The pressure/progress variable-corrected simulations give better results compared with the original model, with reaction rates that are lower than those from EDC and PaSR. In general, QL tends to over-predict the reaction rate for the supersonic combustion problems investigated in our work.

  6. An analytical model for nanoparticles concentration resulting from infusion into poroelastic brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzichelli, G; Di Michele, F; Sinibaldi, E

    2016-02-01

    We consider the infusion of a diluted suspension of nanoparticles (NPs) into poroelastic brain tissue, in view of relevant biomedical applications such as intratumoral thermotherapy. Indeed, the high impact of the related pathologies motivates the development of advanced therapeutic approaches, whose design also benefits from theoretical models. This study provides an analytical expression for the time-dependent NPs concentration during the infusion into poroelastic brain tissue, which also accounts for particle binding onto cells (by recalling relevant results from the colloid filtration theory). Our model is computationally inexpensive and, compared to fully numerical approaches, permits to explicitly elucidate the role of the involved physical aspects (tissue poroelasticity, infusion parameters, NPs physico-chemical properties, NP-tissue interactions underlying binding). We also present illustrative results based on parameters taken from the literature, by considering clinically relevant ranges for the infusion parameters. Moreover, we thoroughly assess the model working assumptions besides discussing its limitations. While not laying any claims of generality, our model can be used to support the development of more ambitious numerical approaches, towards the preliminary design of novel therapies based on NPs infusion into brain tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, O; Nilsson, H [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Hoersalsvaegen 7A, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Mulu, B; Cervantes, M, E-mail: olivierp@chalmers.s [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Alvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  8. Daily air quality forecast (gases and aerosols) over Switzerland. Modeling tool description and first results analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couach, O.; Kirchner, F.; Porchet, P.; Balin, I.; Parlange, M.; Balin, D.

    2009-04-01

    Map3D, the acronym for "Mesoscale Air Pollution 3D modelling", was developed at the EFLUM laboratory (EPFL) and received an INNOGRANTS awards in Summer 2007 in order to move from a research phase to a professional product giving daily air quality forecast. It is intended to give an objective base for political decisions addressing the improvement of regional air quality. This tool is a permanent modelling system which provides daily forecast of the local meteorology and the air pollutant (gases and particles) concentrations. Map3D has been successfully developed and calculates each day at the EPFL site a three days air quality forecast over Europe and the Alps with 50 km and 15 km resolution, respectively (see http://map3d.epfl.ch). The Map3D user interface is a web-based application with a PostgreSQL database. It is written in object-oriented PHP5 on a MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture. Our prediction system is operational since August 2008. A first validation of the calculations for Switzerland is performed for the period of August 2008 - January 2009 comparing the model results for O3, NO2 and particulates with the results of the Nabel measurements stations. The subject of air pollution regimes (NOX/VOC) and specific indicators application with the forecast will be also addressed.

  9. Application of the IPCC model to a Brazilian landfill: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penteado, Roger; Cavalli, Massimo; Magnano, Enrico; Chiampo, Fulvia

    2012-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change gave a methodology to estimate the methane emissions from Municipal Solid Wastes landfills, based on a First Order Decay (FOD) model that assumes biodegradation kinetics depending on the type of wastes. This model can be used to estimate both the National greenhouse gas emissions in the industrialized countries as well as the reductions of these emissions in the developing ones when the Clean Development Mechanism, as defined by the Kyoto Protocol, is implemented. In this paper, the FOD model has been use to evaluate the biogas flow rates emitted by a Brazilian landfill and the results have been compared to the extracted ones: some first results can be useful to evidence the weight of key parameters and do a correct use of the model. - Highlights: ► Landfill biogas is greenhouse gas and fuel at the same time. ► In developing countries its collection can implement Kyoto Protocol mechanisms. ► Biogas collection and exploiting become part of energy policy. ► Project economical balance is based on reliable estimates of generated quantities.

  10. Recent Result from E821 Experiment on Muon g-2 and Unconstrained Minimal Supersymemtric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Komine, S; Yamaguchi, M; Komine, Shinji; Moroi, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the E821 experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory announced their latest result of their muon g-2 measurement which is about 2.6-\\sigma away from the standard model prediction. Taking this result seriously, we examine the possibility to explain this discrepancy by the supersymmetric contribution. Our analysis is performed in the framework of the unconstrained supersymmetric standard model which has free seven parameters relevant to muon g-2. We found that, in the case of large \\tan\\beta, sparticle masses are allowed to be large in the region where the SUSY contribution to the muon g-2 is large enough, and hence the conventional SUSY search may fail even at the LHC. On the contrary, to explain the discrepancy in the case of small \\tan\\beta, we found that (i) sleptons and SU(2)_L gauginos should be light, and (ii) negative search for the Higgs boson severely constrains the model in the framework of the mSUGRA and gauge-mediated model.

  11. Turbulence modeling with fractional derivatives: Derivation from first principles and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Brenden; Cushman-Roisin, Benoit

    2017-11-01

    Fluid turbulence is an outstanding unsolved problem in classical physics, despite 120+ years of sustained effort. Given this history, we assert that a new mathematical framework is needed to make a transformative breakthrough. This talk offers one such framework, based upon kinetic theory tied to the statistics of turbulent transport. Starting from the Boltzmann equation and ``Lévy α-stable distributions'', we derive a turbulence model that expresses the turbulent stresses in the form of a fractional derivative, where the fractional order is tied to the transport behavior of the flow. Initial results are presented herein, for the cases of Couette-Poiseuille flow and 2D boundary layers. Among other results, our model is able to reproduce the logarithmic Law of the Wall in shear turbulence.

  12. Comparison of pellet acceleration model results to experimentally observed penetration depths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, T., E-mail: szepesi.tamas@gmail.co [KFKI - Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, MTA KFKI-RMKI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Kalvin, S.; Kocsis, G. [KFKI - Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, MTA KFKI-RMKI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Lang, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Senichenkov, I. [Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Polytehnicheskaya 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Cryogenic hydrogen isotope fuelling pellets were observed to undergo strong radial acceleration in the confined plasma. The reason for pellet acceleration is believed to originate from drift effects: the ionised part of pellet cloud is affected by the grad-B drift, therefore, the cloud becomes polarised. The E x B drift then deforms the pellet cloud so that it can no longer follow the original flux bundle - this results in a less efficient shielding on the pellet's HFS region, where the subsequently enhanced ablation pushes the pellet towards LFS, like a rocket. In order to study this effect, a simple and a comprehensive ablation model was developed. Results from both models show quantitatively acceptable agreement with ASDEX-Upgrade experiments concerning trajectory curvature, corresponding to radial acceleration in the range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} m/s{sup 2}.

  13. Lead/acid batteries for photovoltaic applications. Test results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copetti, J B [CIEMAT, Inst. de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Chenlo, F [CIEMAT, Inst. de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-01-01

    This work presents the results of experiments carried out on lead/acid batteries during charge and discharge processes at different currents and temperatures, selected to a cover a large range of operating conditions, including those encountered in photovoltaic (PV) system applications. The results allow us to verify the relations among the battery external parameters (voltage, current, state-of-charge and temperature), the behaviour of the internal resistance, and to deduce a model that represents the discharge and charge processes, including the overcharge. Finally, normalized equations with respect to the battery capacity are proposed, which allow us to fix the values of parameters and hence the model is valid for any type and size of lead/acid battery. (orig.)

  14. Non-SUSY Beyond Standard Model Searches: Recent Results from ATLAS and CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Fairouz

    2015-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics is a sensational success, especially since the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. However, there are still numerous unanswered questions. Why is the Higgs so light? Do the interactions couplings unify and how can gravity be included? Why three fermion generations? What is dark matter? Theories Beyond the Standard Model (BSM), such as Grand Unified Theories, Extra Dimensions or Technicolour are trying to answer these questions. In these proceedings, we will focus on the most recent results obtained by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC for BSM searches, excluding Higgs and supersymmetry searches. New results on Dark Matter, heavy narrow-width resonances, new heavy quarks and third generation leptoquarks are presented. A summary of the prospects at 14 TeV and at the High Luminosity LHC period is given. (paper)

  15. Non-SUSY Beyond Standard Model Searches: Recent Results from ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, Fairouz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics is a sensational success, especially since the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. However, there are still numerous unanswered questions. Why is the Higgs so light? Do the interactions couplings unify and how can gravity be included? Why three fermion generations? What is dark matter? Theories Beyond the Standard Model (BSM), such as Grand Unified Theories, Extra Dimensions or Technicolour are trying to answer these questions. In this proceedings, we will focus on the most recent results obtained by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC for BSM searches, excluding Higgs and supersymmetry searches. New results on Dark matter, heavy narrow bosons, new heavy quarks and third generation leptoquarks are presented. A summary of the prospects at 14 TeV and at the High Luminosity LHC period is given.

  16. Deep Learning Based Solar Flare Forecasting Model. I. Results for Line-of-sight Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Huaning; Xu, Long; Liu, Jinfu; Li, Rong; Dai, Xinghua

    2018-03-01

    Solar flares originate from the release of the energy stored in the magnetic field of solar active regions, the triggering mechanism for these flares, however, remains unknown. For this reason, the conventional solar flare forecast is essentially based on the statistic relationship between solar flares and measures extracted from observational data. In the current work, the deep learning method is applied to set up the solar flare forecasting model, in which forecasting patterns can be learned from line-of-sight magnetograms of solar active regions. In order to obtain a large amount of observational data to train the forecasting model and test its performance, a data set is created from line-of-sight magnetogarms of active regions observed by SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI from 1996 April to 2015 October and corresponding soft X-ray solar flares observed by GOES. The testing results of the forecasting model indicate that (1) the forecasting patterns can be automatically reached with the MDI data and they can also be applied to the HMI data; furthermore, these forecasting patterns are robust to the noise in the observational data; (2) the performance of the deep learning forecasting model is not sensitive to the given forecasting periods (6, 12, 24, or 48 hr); (3) the performance of the proposed forecasting model is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art flare forecasting models, even if the duration of the total magnetograms continuously spans 19.5 years. Case analyses demonstrate that the deep learning based solar flare forecasting model pays attention to areas with the magnetic polarity-inversion line or the strong magnetic field in magnetograms of active regions.

  17. GREET 1.5 - transportation fuel-cycle model - Vol. 1 : methodology, development, use, and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the development and use of the most recent version (Version 1.5) of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with diameters of 10 micrometers or less, and sulfur oxides) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates total energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption when various transportation fuels are used. The GREET model includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, dimethyl ether, and Fischer-Tropsch diesel; and landfill gases to methanol. This report also presents the results of the analysis of fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies to be applied to passenger cars and light-duty trucks

  18. A Risk Prediction Model for Sporadic CRC Based on Routine Lab Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursi, Ben; Mamtani, Ronac; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Haynes, Kevin; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Current risk scores for colorectal cancer (CRC) are based on demographic and behavioral factors and have limited predictive values. To develop a novel risk prediction model for sporadic CRC using clinical and laboratory data in electronic medical records. We conducted a nested case-control study in a UK primary care database. Cases included those with a diagnostic code of CRC, aged 50-85. Each case was matched with four controls using incidence density sampling. CRC predictors were examined using univariate conditional logistic regression. Variables with p value CRC prediction models which included age, sex, height, obesity, ever smoking, alcohol dependence, and previous screening colonoscopy had an AUC of 0.58 (0.57-0.59) with poor goodness of fit. A laboratory-based model including hematocrit, MCV, lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) had an AUC of 0.76 (0.76-0.77) and a McFadden's R2 of 0.21 with a NRI of 47.6 %. A combined model including sex, hemoglobin, MCV, white blood cells, platelets, NLR, and oral hypoglycemic use had an AUC of 0.80 (0.79-0.81) with a McFadden's R2 of 0.27 and a NRI of 60.7 %. Similar results were shown in an internal validation set. A laboratory-based risk model had good predictive power for sporadic CRC risk.

  19. Compilation of publication and results from project C2: Modelling of microclimates in collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holck, O. [ed.

    1999-08-01

    It is important to avoid condensation in solar collectors, most of all because wetness of the absorber can damage the selective surface and cause corrosion on the absorber plate. During night time the cover of collectors will cool below ambient temperature due to thermal radiation to the cold sky. In climates where the air during night time becomes saturated with humidity (the relative humidity is 100%), condensation will form on the outside and inside of the collector glazing. If too much condensation takes place on the inside of the glazing, it will start to fall off on to the absorber surface. The intent of the present work is improvement of a existing computer model for calculation of microclimates data in collectors. Calculations with the model give insight in the humidity and temperature for artificial or realistic climatic data. This design tool makes it possible to calculate the effect of ventilation and insulation materials. Results from investigation of ventilation rates together with a model of the moisture inside the collector are built into the computer program. It has been found that modelling of the moisture transfer in backside insulation is essential to determine the humidity in the air gap of the collector. The objective is to develop guidelines for solar collector design to achieve the most favourable microclimates condition for materials. As a tool the computer model will be useful to fulfil this. Guidelines for collectors will be essential for manufactures to improve the long-term durability of solar collectors. (au)

  20. Model unspecific search in CMS. First results at 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, Jonas; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Hebbeker, Thomas; Knutzen, Simon; Lieb, Jonas; Meyer, Arnd; Pook, Tobias [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Following an upgrade in center of mass energy from √(s) = 8 TeV to 13 TeV, the LHC delivered first proton-proton collisions at this unprecedented energy in 2015. The CMS experiment recorded data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.7 fb{sup -1}. Since many theoretical models predict signal cross sections to increase strongly with the center of mass energy, the data taken at √(s) = 13 TeV are competitive to the previous data taking period even with a lower recorded integrated luminosity. The Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC) searches for physics beyond the standard model independent of theoretical models. Using an automatic method, kinematic distributions of the data are compared with the standard model expectation in every final state. Therefore, MUSiC reduces the chance of overlooking new physics, since even distributions not covered by dedicated analyses are investigated. This talk outlines changes to the analysis made necessary by the increased center of mass energy and first results with lepton triggered events.

  1. Verification of simulation model with COBRA-IIIP code by confrontment of experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Galetti, M.R. da; Pontedeiro, A.C.; Oliveira Barroso, A.C. de

    1985-01-01

    It is presented an evaluation of the COBRA IIIP/MIT code (of thermal hydraulic analysis by subchannels), comparing their results with experimental data obtained in stationary and transient regimes. It was done a study to calculate the spatial and temporal critical heat flux. It is presented a sensitivity study of simulation model related to the turbulent mixture and the number of axial intervals. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Some results of model calculations of the solar S-component radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, A.; Hildebrandt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical calculations of special characteristics of the solar S-component microwave radiation are presented on the basis of recent sunspot and plage models. Quantitative results are discussed and can be used for the plasma diagnostics of solar active regions by comparisons with observations with high spatial and spectral resolution. The possibility of generalized applications to magnetic stars and stellar activity is briefly noted. (author)

  3. Fuel models and results from the TRAC-PF1/MIMAS TMI-2 accident calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwegler, E.C.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description of several fuel models used in the TRAC-PF1/MIMAS analysis of the TMI-2 accident is presented, and some of the significant fuel-rod behavior results from this analysis are given. Peak fuel-rod temperatures, oxidation heat production, and embrittlement and failure behavior calculated for the TMI-2 accident are discussed. Other aspects of fuel behavior, such as cladding ballooning and fuel-cladding eutectic formation, were found not to significantly affect the accident progression

  4. Carbon dioxide /V2/ radiance results using a new nonequilibrium model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. D.; Nadile, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    It was observed during the SPIRE experiment (Spectral Infrared Rocket Experiment) that the 15 micron limb radiance stays constant from 95 to 110 km despite the fact that CO2 concentration over this altitude range decreases by a factor of 20. The results of a 15 micron CO2 radiance model are presented which explain the observed anomaly. It is shown that CO2 deactivation by oxygen is the predominant factor in 15 micron emission above 95 km.

  5. Analytical results for entanglement in the five-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoguang

    2004-01-01

    We solve the eigenvalue problem of the five-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model, without use of Bethe's ansatz, and give analytical results for entanglement and mixedness of two nearest-neighbor qubits. The entanglement takes its maximum at Δ=1 (Δ>1) for the case of zero (finite) temperature with Δ being the anisotropic parameter. In contrast, the mixedness takes its minimum at Δ=1 (Δ>1) for the case of zero (finite) temperature

  6. Results of heater induced quenches on a 1-m SSC model dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the results of a series of heater induced quenches on the 1-m long SSC model dipole D-12C-7 constructed at LBL. Test results of the following types are described: quench propagation velocities - axial; quench propagation velocities - transverse; and rate of temperature rise in the conductor. The primary purpose of these tests was to measure quench velocities at a variety of locations and for several currents/fields which can be used to refine the quench predictions for longer magnets. Because of limited data in the low field region of this magnet, it is recommended that it be retested with additional voltage taps. 20 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Comprehensive Interpretation of the Laboratory Experiments Results to Construct Model of the Polish Shale Gas Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzyna, Jadwiga A.; Krakowska, Paulina I.; Puskarczyk, Edyta; Wawrzyniak-Guz, Kamila; Zych, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    More than 70 rock samples from so-called sweet spots, i.e. the Ordovician Sa Formation and Silurian Ja Member of Pa Formation from the Baltic Basin (North Poland) were examined in the laboratory to determine bulk and grain density, total and effective/dynamic porosity, absolute permeability, pore diameters size, total surface area, and natural radioactivity. Results of the pyrolysis, i.e., TOC (Total Organic Carbon) together with S1 and S2 - parameters used to determine the hydrocarbon generation potential of rocks, were also considered. Elemental composition from chemical analyses and mineral composition from XRD measurements were also included. SCAL analysis, NMR experiments, Pressure Decay Permeability measurements together with water immersion porosimetry and adsorption/ desorption of nitrogen vapors method were carried out along with the comprehensive interpretation of the outcomes. Simple and multiple linear statistical regressions were used to recognize mutual relationships between parameters. Observed correlations and in some cases big dispersion of data and discrepancies in the property values obtained from different methods were the basis for building shale gas rock model for well logging interpretation. The model was verified by the result of the Monte Carlo modelling of spectral neutron-gamma log response in comparison with GEM log results.

  8. Vulnerability of hydropower generation to climate change in China: Results based on Grey forecasting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Liang, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the long-term relationships between hydropower generation and climate factors (precipitation), hydropower generation capacity (installed capacity of hydropower station) to quantify the vulnerability of renewable energy production in China for the case of hydropower generation. Furthermore, this study applies Grey forecasting model to forecast precipitation in different provinces, and then sets up different scenarios for precipitation based on the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios and results from PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate projections for Impacts Studies) model. The most important result found in this research is the increasing hydropower vulnerability of the poorest regions and the main hydropower generation provinces of China to climate change. Other main empirical results reveal that the impacts of climate change on the supply of hydropower generation in China will be noteworthy for the society. Different scenarios have different effects on hydropower generation, of which A2 scenario (pessimistic, high emission) has the largest. Meanwhile, the impacts of climate change on hydropower generation of every province are distinctly different, of which the Southwest part has the higher vulnerability than the average level while the central part lower. - Highlights: • The hydropower vulnerability will be enlarged with the rapid increase of hydropower capacity. • Modeling the vulnerability of hydropower in different scenarios and different provinces. • The increasing hydropower vulnerability of the poorest regions to climate change. • The increasing hydropower vulnerability of the main hydropower generation provinces. • Rainfall pattern caused by climate change would be the reason for the increasing vulnerability

  9. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  10. Mercury Studies around the Mediterranean Sea Basin: Ten years of Measurements and Modeling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Only a few years ago the presence of Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM was believed to be almost exclusively the result of anthropogenic emissions and that sustained high RGM concentrations in the MBL were not considered likely. During the past ten years, an in-depth investigation was carried out in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL of the Mediterranean Sea to quantify and possibly explain spatial and temporal patterns of Hg-species concentrations. This paper provides an overview of modeling results and atmospheric measurements performed during several cruise campaigns performed aboard the Research Vessel (RV URANIA of the CNR over the Mediterranean sea basin. RGM concentrations have been modelled using a photochemical box model of the MBL and compared to measured data obtained during the research cruises. The comparison results supports the hypothesis that there are daytime mercury oxidation reactions occurring which have not yet been identified. Major findings of key studies carried out during ten years of ship-borne activities have been highlighted.

  11. Nurses and opioids: results of a bi-national survey on mental models regarding opioid administration in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Charlotte; Sobotka, Fabian; Karavasopoulou, Athina; Ward, Stephen; Bantel, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Pain remains insufficiently treated in hospitals. Increasing evidence suggests human factors contribute to this, due to nurses failing to administer opioids. This behavior might be the consequence of nurses' mental models about opioids. As personal experience and conceptions shape these models, the aim of this prospective survey was to identify model-influencing factors. A questionnaire was developed comprising of 14 statements concerning ideations about opioids and seven questions concerning demographics, indicators of adult learning, and strength of religious beliefs. Latent variables that may underlie nurses' mental models were identified using undirected graphical dependence models. Representative items of latent variables were employed for ordinal regression analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,379 nurses in two London, UK, hospitals (n=580) and one German (n=799) hospital between September 2014 and February 2015. A total of 511 (37.1%) questionnaires were returned. Mean (standard deviation) age of participants were 37 (11) years; 83.5% participants were female; 45.2% worked in critical care; and 51.5% had more than 10 years experience. Of the nurses, 84% were not scared of opioids, 87% did not regard opioids as drugs to help patients die, and 72% did not view them as drugs of abuse. More English (41%) than German (28%) nurses were afraid of criminal investigations and were constantly aware of side effects (UK, 94%; Germany, 38%) when using opioids. Four latent variables were identified which likely influence nurses' mental models: "conscious decision-making"; "medication-related fears"; "practice-based observations"; and "risk assessment". They were predicted by strength of religious beliefs and indicators of informal learning such as experience but not by indicators of formal learning such as conference attendance. Nurses in both countries employ analytical and affective mental models when administering the opioids and seem to learn from experience

  12. Gamma spectroscopy modelization intercomparison of the modelization results using two different codes (MCNP, and Pascalys-mercure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luneville, L.; Chiron, M.; Toubon, H.; Dogny, S.; Huver, M.; Berger, L.

    2001-01-01

    The research performed in common these last 3 years by the French Atomic Commission CEA, COGEMA and Eurisys Mesures had for main subject the realization of a complete tool of modelization for the largest range of realistic cases, the Pascalys modelization software. The main purpose of the modelization was to calculate the global measurement efficiency, which delivers the most accurate relationship between the photons emitted by the nuclear source in volume, punctual or deposited form and the germanium hyper pure detector, which detects and analyzes the received photons. It has been stated since long time that experimental global measurement efficiency becomes more and more difficult to address especially for complex scene as we can find in decommissioning and dismantling or in case of high activities for which the use of high activity reference sources become difficult to use for both health physics point of view and regulations. The choice of a calculation code is fundamental if accurate modelization is searched. MCNP represents the reference code but its use is long time calculation consuming and then not practicable in line on the field. Direct line-of-sight point kernel code as the French Atomic Commission 3-D analysis Mercure code can represent the practicable compromise between the most accurate MCNP reference code and the realistic performances needed in modelization. The comparison between the results of Pascalys-Mercure and MCNP code taking in account the last improvements of Mercure in the low energy range where the most important errors can occur, is presented in this paper, Mercure code being supported in line by the recent Pascalys 3-D modelization scene software. The incidence of the intrinsic efficiency of the Germanium detector is also approached for the total efficiency of measurement. (authors)

  13. Geoengineering by stratospheric SO2 injection: results from the Met Office HadGEM2 climate model and comparison with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kravitz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the response of the Met Office Hadley Centre's HadGEM2-AO climate model to simulated geoengineering by continuous injection of SO2 into the lower stratosphere, and compare the results with those from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. Despite the differences between the models, we find a broadly similar geographic distribution of the response to geoengineering in both models in terms of near-surface air temperature and mean June–August precipitation. The simulations also suggest that significant changes in regional climate would be experienced even if geoengineering was successful in maintaining global-mean temperature near current values, and both models indicate rapid warming if geoengineering is not sustained.

  14. Modelling the effects of phase change materials on the energy use in buildings. Results of Experiments and System Dynamics Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prins, J.

    2012-02-15

    The current era is in need for more and more sustainable energy solutions. Phase Change Materials (PCM's) are a solution for a more sustainable build environment because they can help to reduce the energy use of buildings during heating and cooling of the indoor air. This paper presents the results of recent experiments that have been executed with test boxes. In addition a System Dynamics model has been developed to find out how PCM's can be used efficiently without testing in reality. The first experiment, in which PCM's were applied in a concrete floor, shows a reduction of peak temperatures with 4C {+-} 0.7C on maximum temperatures and over 1.5C {+-} 0.7C on minimum temperatures during warm periods. The model confirmed these findings, although the predicted reductions were slightly. During the second experiment more PCM's were applied by mounting them into the walls using gypsum plasterboard to increase the latent heat capacity. Remarkably, both the experimental set-up as the model showed that the increase of PCM's (of almost 98%) causes hardly any difference compared to the first situation. Adapting the exterior in a way to absorb more solar energy, increases the average indoor temperature but decreases the reduction of peak temperatures. Again the model confirmed these findings of the experiment. These results show that the effect of PCM's varies on different climatological contexts and with different construction components physics. This means no straight forward advice on the use of PCM's for a building design can be given. The solution for this problem is provided by the model, showing that the effects of PCM's can be modelled in order to use PCM's in an effective way in different climatological contexts and with different characteristics of construction components. The research shows that a simple model is already capable of predicting PCM performance in test boxes with reasonable accuracy. Therefore it can be

  15. Health and budget impact of combined HIV prevention - first results of the BELHIVPREV model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Sebastian; Callens, Steven; De Wit, Stéphane; Goffard, Jean-Christophe; Laga, Marie; Van Beckhoven, Dominique; Annemans, Lieven

    2018-02-01

    We developed a pragmatic modelling approach to estimate the impact of treatment as prevention (TasP); outreach testing strategies; and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on the epidemiology of HIV and its associated pharmaceutical expenses. Our model estimates the incremental health (in terms of new HIV diagnoses) and budget impact of two prevention scenarios (outreach+TasP and outreach+TasP+PrEP) against a 'no additional prevention' scenario. Model parameters were estimated from reported Belgian epidemiology and literature data. The analysis was performed from a healthcare payer perspective with a 15-year-time horizon. It considers subpopulation differences, HIV infections diagnosed in Belgium having occurred prior to migration, and the effects of an ageing HIV population. Without additional prevention measures, the annual number of new HIV diagnoses rises to over 1350 new diagnoses in 2030 as compared to baseline, resulting in a budget expenditure of €260.5 million. Implementation of outreach+TasP and outreach+TasP+PrEP results in a decrease in the number of new HIV diagnoses to 865 and 663 per year, respectively. Respective budget impacts decrease by €20.6 million and €33.7 million. Foregoing additional investments in prevention is not an option. An approach combining TasP, outreach and PrEP is most effective in reducing the number of new HIV diagnoses and the HIV treatment budget. Our model is the first pragmatic HIV model in Belgium estimating the consequences of a combined preventive approach on the HIV epidemiology and its economic burden assuming other prevention efforts such as condom use and harm reduction strategies remain the same.

  16. Surfzone Currents Over Irregular Bathymetry: Drifter Observations and Numerical Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W. E.; Slinn, D. N.; Guza, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Surfzone currents on alongshore variable bathymetry were observed with recently developed GPS-tracked drifters and numerically modeled with the time-dependent, nonlinear shallow water equations. These currents, forced by alongshore inhomogeneous pressure and radiation stress gradients, contain flow features difficult to resolve with fixed instrument arrays, such as rips, eddies, and meanders. Drifters were repeatedly released and recovered near Scripps Beach, La Jolla, California, in July 2000, 2001, and 2002. The most recent deployment of 10 drifters yielded about 32 hours of drifter data for each 5 hour deployment day. Offshore wave heights were moderate, between 0.3-1.0 m. The bathymetry, measured over a 600-700 m alongshore span with a GPS- and sonar-equipped jetski (2001 and 2002 deployments), was alongshore inhomogeneous primarily where an irregularly shaped bar-trough feature spanned the surf zone. The model simulations suggest that the alongshore inhomogeneous bathymetry strongly influences the location and strength of the observed flow features. Research supported by the California Sea Grant College Program and the Office of Naval Research.

  17. New Results on Single-Channel Speech Separation Using Sinusoidal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2011-01-01

    We present new results on single-channel speech separation and suggest a new separation approach to improve the speech quality of separated signals from an observed mix- ture. The key idea is to derive a mixture estimator based on sinusoidal parameters. The proposed estimator is aimed at finding...... mixture estimator used in binary masks and the Wiener filtering approach, it is observed that the proposed method achieves an acceptable perceptual speech quality with less cross- talk at different signal-to-signal ratios. Moreover, the method is independent of pitch estimates and reduces the computational...... complexity of the separation by replacing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) feature vectors of high dimensionality with sinusoidal feature vectors. We report separation results for the proposed method and compare them with respect to other benchmark methods. The improvements made by applying...

  18. Velocity-mass correlation of the O-type stars: model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents new model results describing the evolution of massive close binaries from their initial ZAMS to post-supernova stages. Unlike the previous conservative study by Stone [Astrophys. J. 232, 520 (1979) (Paper II)], these results allow explicitly for mass loss from the binary system occurring during the core hydrogen- and helium-burning stages of the primary binary star as well as during the Roche lobe overflow. Because of uncertainties in these rates, model results are given for several reasonable choices for these rates. All of the models consistently predict an increasing relation between the peculiar space velocities and masses for runaway OB stars which agrees well with the observed correlations discussed in Stone [Astron. J. 86, 544 (1981) (Paper III)] and also predict a lower limit at Mroughly-equal11M/sub sun/ for the masses of runaway stars, in agreement with the observational limit found by A. Blaauw (Bull. Astron. Inst. Neth. 15, 265, 1961), both of which support the binary-supernova scenario described by van den Heuvel and Heise for the origin of runaway stars. These models also predict that the more massive O stars will produce correspondingly more massive compact remnants, and that most binaries experiencing supernova-induced kick velocities of magnitude V/sub k/> or approx. =300 km s -1 will disrupt following the explosions. The best estimate for this velocity as established from pulsar observations is V/sub k/roughly-equal150 km s -1 , in which case probably only 15% if these binaries will be disrupted by the supernova explosions, and therefore, almost all runaway stars should have either neutron star or black hole companions

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM1: Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Craig [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gunawan, Budi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guala, Michele [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Reference Model Project (RMP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), aims at expediting industry growth and efficiency by providing non-proprietary Reference Models (RM) of MHK technology designs as study objects for open-source research and development (Neary et al. 2014a,b). As part of this program, MHK turbine models were tested in a large open channel facility at the University of Minnesota’s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (UMN-SAFL). Reference Model 1 (RM2) is a 1:40 geometric scale dual-rotor axial flow horizontal axis device with counter-rotating rotors, each with a rotor diameter dT = 0.5m. Precise blade angular position and torque measurements were synchronized with three acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) aligned with each rotor and the midpoint for RM1. Flow conditions for each case were controlled such that depth, h = 1m, and volumetric flow rate, Qw = 2.425m3s-1, resulting in a hub height velocity of approximately Uhub = 1.05ms-1 and blade chord length Reynolds numbers of Rec ≈ 3.0x105. Vertical velocity profiles collected in the wake of each device from 1 to 10 rotor diameters are used to estimate the velocity recovery and turbulent characteristics in the wake, as well as the interaction of the counter-rotating rotor wakes. The development of this high resolution laboratory investigation provides a robust dataset that enables assessing turbulence performance models and their ability to accurately predict device performance metrics, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that can be used to predict turbulent inflow environments, reproduce wake velocity deficit, recovery and higher order turbulent statistics, as well as device performance metrics.

  20. U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM1: Experimental Results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Craig [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia Nati