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Sample records for model results obtained

  1. Results of the 2013 UT modeling benchmark obtained with models implemented in CIVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toullelan, Gwénaël; Raillon, Raphaële; Chatillon, Sylvain [CEA, LIST, 91191Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lonne, Sébastien [EXTENDE, Le Bergson, 15 Avenue Emile Baudot, 91300 MASSY (France)

    2014-02-18

    The 2013 Ultrasonic Testing (UT) modeling benchmark concerns direct echoes from side drilled holes (SDH), flat bottom holes (FBH) and corner echoes from backwall breaking artificial notches inspected with a matrix phased array probe. This communication presents the results obtained with the models implemented in the CIVA software: the pencilmodel is used to compute the field radiated by the probe, the Kirchhoff approximation is applied to predict the response of FBH and notches and the SOV (Separation Of Variables) model is used for the SDH responses. The comparison between simulated and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  2. First results obtained in France with the latest model of the Fresenius cell separator: AS 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, C; Couteret, Y; Devillers, M; Fest, T; Hervé, P; Kieffer, Y; Lamy, B; Masse, M; Morel, P; Pouthier-Stein, F

    1993-01-01

    In Besançon, we carried out 40 plateletphereses with the latest model of the Fresenius cell separator AS 104 to check this new system against the new generation of cell separators, according to the following criteria: less than 2x10 6 leukocytes (before filtration) and more than 5x10 11 platelets. The results show that platelet concentrates contained 5.04+/-0.88x10 11 platelets in a total volume of 435+/-113 mL. The mean platelet recovery was 40.95+/-4.86% (from 31.7 to 51.6). The leukocyte content was 2.28+/-5.48x10 6 and the red blood cell contamination was 3.48+/-2.38x10 8. The quality of the platelets was very satisfactory. There was no problem with donor biocompatibility or procedure safety, few adverse donor reactions (0.6%) and good therapeutic efficiency of platelet concentrates.

  3. Results of the 2014 UT modeling benchmark obtained with models implemented in CIVA: Solution of the FMC-TFM ultrasonic benchmark problem using CIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon, Sylvain; Robert, Sébastien; Brédif, Philippe; Calmon, Pierre; Daniel, Guillaume; Cartier, François

    2015-03-01

    The last decade has seen the emergence of new ultrasonic array techniques going beyond the simple application of suitable delays (phased array techniques) for focusing purposes. Amongst these techniques, the particular method combining the so-called FMC (Full Matrix Capture) acquisition scheme with the synthetic focusing algorithm denoted by TFM (Total Focusing Method) has become popular in the NDE community. The 2014 WFNDEC ultrasonic benchmark aims at providing FMC experimental data for evaluating the ability of models to predict images obtained by TFM algorithms (or equivalent ones). In this paper we describe the benchmark and report comparisons obtained with the CIVA simulation software. The simulations and measurements are carried out on two steel blocks, one in carbon steel and another in stainless steel. The reference probe is a 64 elements linear array, with .5mm element width and a gap of .1mm, working at 5 MHz. The benchmark problem consists in predicting images of vertical and tilted notches located on plane or inclined backwalls. The notches have different heights and different ligaments. The images can be obtained considering different paths (direct echoes or corner echoes). For each notch, the full matrix capture (FMC) have been recorded in one unique position with the probe positioned such that than angle between the probe axis and the notch direction corresponds to 45°. The results are calibrated on the response of a 2mm side drilled hole. For each case, TFM images have been reconstructed for both experimental and simulated signals. The models used are those implemented in CIVA based on Kirchhoff approximation. Comparisons are reported and discussed.

  4. Results of the 2016 UT modeling benchmark proposed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) obtained with models implemented in CIVA software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullelan, Gwénaël; Chatillon, Sylvain; Raillon, Raphaële; Mahaut, Steve; Lonné, Sébastien; Bannouf, Souad

    2017-02-01

    For several years, the World Federation of NDE Centers, WFNDEC, proposes benchmark studies in which simulated results (in either ultrasonic, X-rays or eddy current NDT configurations) obtained with various models are compared to experiments. This year the proposed UT benchmark proposed by CEA concerns inspection configurations with multi-skips echoes i.e. the incident beam undergoes several skips on the surface and bottom of the specimen before interacting with the defect. This technique is commonly used to inspect thin specimen and/or in case of limited access inspection. This technique relies on the use of T45° mode in order to avoid mode conversion and to facilitate the interpretation of the echoes. The inspections were carried out with two probes of different aperture working at 5MHz.

  5. Overview of galactic results obtained by MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Roberta

    2013-06-15

    MAGIC is a system of two atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes which explores the very-high-energy sky, from some tens of GeV up to tens of TeV. Located in the Canary island of La Palma, MAGIC has the lowest energy threshold among the instruments of its kind, well suited to study the still poorly explored energy band below 100 GeV. Although the space-borne gamma-ray telescope Fermi/LAT is sensitive up to 300 GeV, gamma-ray rates drop fast with increasing energy, so γ-ray collection areas larger than 10{sup 4}m{sup 2}, as those provided by grounds-based instruments, are crucial above a few GeV. The combination of MAGIC and Fermi/LAT observations have provided the first astrophysical spectra sampled in the inverse Compton peak region, resulting in a complete coverage from MeV up to TeV energies, as well as the discovery of a pulsed emission in the very-high-energy band. This paper focuses on the latest results on Galactic sources obtained by MAGIC which are highlighted by the detection of the pulsed gamma-ray emission from the Crab pulsar up to 400 GeV. In addition, we will present the morphological study on the W51 complex which allowed to pinpoint the location of the majority of the emission around the interaction point between the supernova remnant W51C and the star forming region W51B, but also to find a possible contribution from the associated pulsar wind nebula. Other important scientific achievements involve the Crab Nebula with an unprecedented spectrum covering three decades in energy starting from 50 GeV and a morphological study of the unidentified source HESS J1857+026 which supports the pulsar wind nebula scenario. Finally we will report on the searches of very-high-energy signals from gamma-ray binaries, mainly LS I 303+ and HESS J0632+057.

  6. Reducing the item number to obtain the same-length self-assessment scales: a systematic approach using result of graphical loglinear rasch models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Kreiner, Svend

    2011-01-01

    approach to item reduction based on results of graphical loglinear Rasch modeling (GLLRM) was designed. This approach was then used to reduce the number of items in the subscales of the R-D-LSI which had an item-length of more than seven items, thereby obtaining the Danish Self-Assessment Learning Styles......The Revised Danish Learning Styles Inventory (R-D-LSI) (Nielsen 2005), which is an adaptation of Sternberg- Wagner Thinking Styles Inventory (Sternberg, 1997), comprises 14 subscales, each measuring a separate learning style. Of these 14 subscales, 9 are eight items long and 5 are seven items long...

  7. Source spectra of the gravity waves obtained from momentum flux and kinetic energy over Indian region: Comparison between observations and model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramitha, M.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Vijaya Bhaskar Rao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Using 8 years (May 2006 to March 2014) of high resolution and high accuracy GPS radiosonde observations available from a tropical station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), India, we have investigated the climatology of gravity wave energy and zonal momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere. We also obtained best fit spectrum model for the gravity waves (GWs) for this tropical station. In general, strong annual variation in the energy and momentum flux with maximum during Indian summer monsoon is observed in the lower stratospheric region (18-25 km). By considering different source spectra, we have applied Gravitywave Regional or Global RAy Tracer (GROGRAT) model run on monthly basis using the source spectrum values at different altitudes on the ERA-Interim background fields to obtain the kinetic energy and zonal momentum fluxes for each of the spectra considered. These simulated fluxes are compared with the observed fluxes to arrive at the best fit spectrum model. It is found that the spectrum which represents the convection transient mountain mechanism that is purely anti-symmetric and anisotropic in nature is the best fit model for Gadanki location. This information would be useful in parameterization of the GWs in numerical models over Indian region.

  8. Euclid Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument concept and first test results obtained for different breadboards models at the end of phase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszek, Thierry; Ealet, Anne; Jahnke, Knud; Prieto, Eric; Barbier, Rémi; Mellier, Yannick; Beaumont, Florent; Bon, William; Bonnefoi, Anne; Carle, Michael; Caillat, Amandine; Costille, Anne; Dormoy, Doriane; Ducret, Franck; Fabron, Christophe; Febvre, Aurélien; Foulon, Benjamin; Garcia, Jose; Gimenez, Jean-Luc; Grassi, Emmanuel; Laurent, Philippe; Le Mignant, David; Martin, Laurent; Rossin, Christelle; Pamplona, Tony; Sanchez, Patrice; Vives, Sébastien; Clémens, Jean Claude; Gillard, William; Niclas, Mathieu; Secroun, Aurélia; Serra, Benoit; Kubik, Bogna; Ferriol, Sylvain; Amiaux, Jérôme; Barrière, Jean Christophe; Berthe, Michel; Rosset, Cyrille; Macias-Perez, Juan Francisco; Auricchio, Natalia; De Rosa, Adriano; Franceschi, Enrico; Guizzo, Gian Paolo; Morgante, Gianluca; Sortino, Francesca; Trifoglio, Massimo; Valenziano, Luca; Patrizii, Laura; Chiarusi, T.; Fornari, F.; Giacomini, F.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Sirri, G.; Spurio, M.; Tenti, M.; Travaglini, R.; Dusini, Stefano; Dal Corso, F.; Laudisio, F.; Sirignano, C.; Stanco, L.; Ventura, S.; Borsato, E.; Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; Balestra, Andrea; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Medinaceli, Eduardo; Farinelli, Ruben; Corcione, Leonardo; Ligori, Sebastiano; Grupp, Frank; Wimmer, Carolin; Hormuth, Felix; Seidel, Gregor; Wachter, Stefanie; Padilla, Cristóbal; Lamensans, Mikel; Casas, Ricard; Lloro, Ivan; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Gomez, Jaime; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Lizán, David; Diaz, Jose Javier; Lilje, Per B.; Toulouse-Aastrup, Corinne; Andersen, Michael I.; Sørensen, Anton N.; Jakobsen, Peter; Hornstrup, Allan; Jessen, Niels-Christian; Thizy, Cédric; Holmes, Warren; Israelsson, Ulf; Seiffert, Michael; Waczynski, Augustyn; Laureijs, René J.; Racca, Giuseppe; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Boenke, Tobias; Strada, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The Euclid mission objective is to understand why the expansion of the Universe is accelerating through by mapping the geometry of the dark Universe by investigating the distance-redshift relationship and tracing the evolution of cosmic structures. The Euclid project is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision program with its launch planned for 2020 (ref [1]). The NISP (Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer) is one of the two Euclid instruments and is operating in the near-IR spectral region (900- 2000nm) as a photometer and spectrometer. The instrument is composed of: - a cold (135K) optomechanical subsystem consisting of a Silicon carbide structure, an optical assembly (corrector and camera lens), a filter wheel mechanism, a grism wheel mechanism, a calibration unit and a thermal control system - a detection subsystem based on a mosaic of 16 HAWAII2RG cooled to 95K with their front-end readout electronic cooled to 140K, integrated on a mechanical focal plane structure made with molybdenum and aluminum. The detection subsystem is mounted on the optomechanical subsystem structure - a warm electronic subsystem (280K) composed of a data processing / detector control unit and of an instrument control unit that interfaces with the spacecraft via a 1553 bus for command and control and via Spacewire links for science data This presentation describes the architecture of the instrument at the end of the phase C (Detailed Design Review), the expected performance, the technological key challenges and preliminary test results obtained for different NISP subsystem breadboards and for the NISP Structural and Thermal model (STM).

  9. Test Beam Results Obtained with the Q4 Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; Daniel, M.; Fouz, M. c.; Marin, J.; Mocholi, J.; Oller, J. C.; Puerta, J.; Romero, L.; Salicio, J. M.

    2000-07-01

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)

  10. Results obtained by geodetic instruments of SELENE (KAGUYA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAWANO; Nobuyuki; VRAD/RSAT; Team; LALT; Team

    2010-01-01

    Japanese lunar explorer SELENE (KAGUYA) was equipped with 14 instruments for various measurements of the Moon. Three of these instruments took geodetic measurements of the Moon. These were two sub-satellites and a laser altimeter. The main results obtained by the instruments are: (1) precise orbit determination with an accuracy of ten meters by Doppler and same-beam VLBI; (2) the first precise gravity fields on the lunar far side by 4-way Doppler measurements; (3) the first topography in latitudes higher than 86 degrees; (4) a global map of the gravity anomaly by using the global topography and the global gravity fields; (5) a global map of the lunar crustal thickness and (6) an illumination rate map in the north and south polar regions.

  11. First results obtained by the Cluster STAFF experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin

    Full Text Available The Spatio Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF experiment is one of the five experiments, which constitute the Cluster Wave Experiment Consortium (WEC. STAFF consists of a three-axis search coil magnetometer to measure magnetic fluctuations at frequencies up to 4 kHz, a waveform unit (up to either 10 Hz or 180 Hz and a Spectrum Analyser (up to 4 kHz. The Spectrum Analyser combines the 3 magnetic components of the waves with the two electric components measured by the Electric Fields and Waves experiment (EFW to calculate in real time the 5 × 5 Hermitian cross-spectral matrix at 27 frequencies distributed logarithmically in the frequency range 8 Hz to 4 kHz. The time resolution varies between 0.125 s and 4 s. The first results show the capabilities of the experiment, with examples in different regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system that were encountered by Cluster at the beginning of its operational phase. First results obtained by the use of some of the tools that have been prepared specifically for the Cluster mission are described. The characterisation of the motion of the bow shock between successive crossings, using the reciprocal vector method, is given. The full characterisation of the waves analysed by the Spectrum Analyser, thanks to a dedicated program called PRASSADCO, is applied to some events; in particular a case of very confined electromagnetic waves in the vicinity of the equatorial region is presented and discussed.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layer – Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities; shock waves

  12. Obtaining Diagnostic Classification Model Estimates Using Mplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Jonathan; Hoffman, Lesa

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic classification models (aka cognitive or skills diagnosis models) have shown great promise for evaluating mastery on a multidimensional profile of skills as assessed through examinee responses, but continued development and application of these models has been hindered by a lack of readily available software. In this article we…

  13. Results obtained by investigating saffron ussing FT-IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Andronie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological activity and the pharmaceutical properties of plants are strongly dependent on their structure. The FT-IR spectra of saffron (commercial have been obtained. The vibrational fundamentals from the IR spectrum, were analyzed  and assigned acoording to the available literature. In the present research work the genus saffron is selected because it is famous in wold as foods and also as medicine.

  14. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R. [Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  15. PROBABILITY MODELS FOR OBTAINING NON-NUMERICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of objects of non-numerical nature (statistics of non-numerical objects, non-numerical data statistics, non-numeric statistics is the area of mathematical statistics, devoted to the analysis methods of non-numeric data. Basis of applying the results of mathematical statistics are probabilistic-statistical models of real phenomena and processes, the most important (and often only which are models for obtaining data. The simplest example of a model for obtaining data is the model of the sample as a set of independent identically distributed random variables. In this article we have considered the basic probabilistic models for obtaining non-numeric data. Namely, the models of dichotomous data, results of paired comparisons, binary relations, ranks, the objects of general nature. We have discussed the various options of probabilistic models and their practical use. For example, the basic probabilistic model of dichotomous data - Bernoulli vector (Lucian i.e. final sequence of independent Bernoulli trials, for which the probabilities of success may be different. The mathematical tools of solutions of various statistical problems associated with the Bernoulli vectors are useful for the analysis of random tolerances; random sets with independent elements; in processing the results of independent pairwise comparisons; statistical methods for analyzing the accuracy and stability of technological processes; in the analysis and synthesis of statistical quality control plans (for dichotomous characteristics; the processing of marketing and sociological questionnaires (with closed questions like "yes" - "no"; the processing of socio-psychological and medical data, in particular, the responses to psychological tests such as MMPI (used in particular in the problems of human resource management, and analysis of topographic maps (used for the analysis and prediction of the affected areas for technological disasters, distributing corrosion

  16. Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Löfström, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types......, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude...

  17. Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Knegt, Leonardo V; Pires, Sara M; Löfström, Charlotta; Sørensen, Gitte; Pedersen, Karl; Torpdahl, Mia; Nielsen, Eva M; Hald, Tine

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of bacterial foodborne infections in Denmark. To identify the main animal-food sources of human salmonellosis, risk managers have relied on a routine application of a microbial subtyping-based source attribution model since 1995. In 2013, multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude that loci schemes STTR5/STTR10/STTR3 for S. Typhimurium and SE9/SE5/SE2/SE1/SE3 for S. Enteritidis can be used in microbial subtyping-based source attribution models. Based on the results, we discuss that an adjustment of the discriminatory level of the subtyping method applied often will be required to fit the purpose of the study and the available data. The issues discussed are also considered highly relevant when applying, e.g., extended multi-locus sequence typing or next-generation sequencing techniques.

  18. Comparison of the Calculations Results of Heat Exchange Between a Single-Family Building and the Ground Obtained with the Quasi-Stationary and 3-D Transient Models. Part 2: Intermittent and Reduced Heating Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staszczuk Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides comparative results of calculations of heat exchange between ground and typical residential buildings using simplified (quasi-stationary and more accurate (transient, three-dimensional methods. Such characteristics as building’s geometry, basement hollow and construction of ground touching assemblies were considered including intermittent and reduced heating mode. The calculations with simplified methods were conducted in accordance with currently valid norm: PN-EN ISO 13370:2008. Thermal performance of buildings. Heat transfer via the ground. Calculation methods. Comparative estimates concerning transient, 3-D, heat flow were performed with computer software WUFI®plus. The differences of heat exchange obtained using more exact and simplified methods have been specified as a result of the analysis.

  19. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, S.; Castelletto, S.; Aruldoss, C.; Scholten, R. E.; Roberts, A.

    2007-08-01

    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres.

  20. Effective Charge on Polymer Colloids Obtained Using a Renormalization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Pérez; Callejas-Fernández; Hidalgo-Álvarez

    1998-10-01

    Static light scattering has been used to study the electrostatic interaction between colloidal particles. Experiments were carried out using a latex with a very small diameter, allowing structure determination at high particle concentration. The obtained effective charge characterizing this interaction is found to be smaller than the bare charge determined from titration. A renormalization model connecting both values has been used. The agreement between the renormalized charge and that obtained from scattering data seems to point out that this model operates well. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  1. Coronal temperature profiles obtained from kinetic models and from coronal brightness measurements obtained during solar eclipses

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrard, V; Lemaire, J F

    2012-01-01

    Coronal density, temperature and heat flux distributions for the equatorial and polar corona have been deduced by Lemaire [2012] from Saito's model of averaged coronal white light (WL) brightness and polarization observations. They are compared with those determined from a kinetic collisionless/exospheric model of the solar corona. This comparison indicates rather similar distributions at large radial distances (> 7 Rs) in the collisionless region. However, rather important differences are found close to the Sun in the acceleration region of the solar wind. The exospheric heat flux is directed away from the Sun, while that inferred from all WL coronal observations is in the opposite direction, i.e., conducting heat from the inner corona toward the chromosphere. This could indicate that the source of coronal heating rate extends up into the inner corona where it maximizes at r > 1.5 Rs well above the transition region.

  2. Technology obtainment and adopting results, an empirical study based on China’s auto industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The article focuses on a development history of China’s auto industry over the past 30 years in learning from the foreign companies and obtaining their technologies, and the relationship between the obtaining methods and the results. Riding on the

  3. DETERMINATION OF ELECTRODEPOSITION HARDNESS BY ANALYTICAL MODELING PART I - Ni-P COATINGS OBTAINED BY VARYING THE ELABORATION TIME -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASĂRE Minodora Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained from Vickers hardness tests were used for analytical modeling models Buckle, Jönsson, Hogmark. Ni-P electrodeposition were obtained by varying the elaboration time. The analytic models obtained by theoretical means, by applying the corresponding formulas to each model have been compared to the experimental results obtained at hardness tests.

  4. Harmonic Analysis of Currents and Voltages Obtained in the Result of Computational Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Novash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a methodology for execution of a harmonic analysis of current and voltage numerical values obtained in the result of a computational experiment and saved in an external data file. The harmonic analysis has been carried out in the Mathcad mathematical packet environment.

  5. Gratifications Sought and Obtained: Model Specification and Theoretical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Lawrence A.

    Uses of the gratifications sought and gratifications obtained distinction in explanations of media effects have taken two conceptually distinct forms. The discrepancy approach poses that the difference between what is sought and what is actually obtained, expressed effectively as a discrepancy score, significantly aids effects explanations. The…

  6. Potential causes for obtaining non-diagnostic results from fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Deniz; Özel, Betül Duran; Özkan, Fuat

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate factors that could affect the diagnostic result success ratio of fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules. 664 patients and 696 nodules were included in this study. Demographic features of age and gender and nodule features of macrocalcification (MC) and internal content (cystic or solid predominance) were evaluated. All biopsies were performed from 1 cm or larger nodules. Three different size needles were used for comparison (22, 23 and 25 G). The patients in each group had a similar number of nodules with MC, and cystic predominance to obtain comparable results. All procedures were performed by the same radiologist, who had 4 years of experience. Histologically adequate material criteria were identified. All pathological specimens were evaluated as diagnostic or non-diagnostic by the same pathology technician. Chi-square, student's t test and univariate analysis were used for statistical analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic features and nodule properties from diagnostic results of fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules. On the other hand, 23 G needles offered a better potential for obtaining adequate samples with a statistically significant difference. Obtaining adequate material in fine needle aspiration biopsy from thyroid nodules is a challenging issue and the results are controversial. Since we obtained the best ratio with 23 G needles, we recommend interventional radiologists to use 23 G needles as far as possible and not to consider needles thicker needles than 22 G or thinner than 25 G. Nodule features and demographic features did not have an effect on obtaining adequate cytological material.

  7. Modeling of the inlet and exhaust manifolds by using the wave action and her influence on the accuracy of the results obtained from the internal combustion engines simulator program; Modelagem dos coletores de admissao e descarga pelo metodo da acao das ondas e sua influencia sobre a precisao dos resultados do programa simulador de motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Joao Nildo de S.; Oliveira, Guilherme L. de; Oliveira, Lucio H.H. de [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1996-07-01

    This work presents a comparative study of the performance of a simulation computer program where the inlet and exhaust manifolds are modeled by the control volume method and the by the wave action method. Results obtained by both methods are compared with experimental data. To validate the method of wave action an exhaust manifold wa specifically built. The results show that the wave action method improves considerably the performance of the simulation software, although it increases the processing time. (author)

  8. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  9. JFIT: a framework to obtain combined experimental results through joint fits

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080561; Echenard, Bertrand; Latham, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    A framework is presented for obtaining combined experimental results through joint fits of datasets from several experiments. The JFIT framework allows such fits to be performed keeping the data separated, in its original format, and using independent fitting environments, thus simplifying the process with respect to data access policies. It is based on a master-server architecture, using the network communication classes from ROOT. The framework provides an optimal way to exploit data from several experiments: it ensures that correlations are correctly taken into account and results in a better determination of nuisance parameters. Its advantages are discussed and illustrated by two examples from the domain of high energy physics.

  10. Results of Investigative Tests of Gas Turbine Engine Compressor Blades Obtained by Electrochemical Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhina, T. D.; Kurochkin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights results of the investigative tests of GTE compressor Ti-alloy blades obtained by the method of electrochemical machining with oscillating tool-electrodes, carried out in order to define the optimal parameters of the ECM process providing attainment of specified blade quality parameters given in the design documentation, while providing maximal performance. The new technological methods suggested based on the results of the tests; in particular application of vibrating tool-electrodes and employment of locating elements made of high-strength materials, significantly extend the capabilities of this method.

  11. MULTISPECTRAL MICROSCOPY AND COMPUTERIZED IMAGE ANALYSIS: A METHOD TO OBTAIN MORE RELIABLE AND REPRODUCIBLE IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Francesco Spatola

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of image analysis methods has allowed us to obtain more reliable and repro-ducible immunohistochemistry (IHC results. Wider use of such approaches and sim-plification of software allowing a colorimetric study has meant that these methods are available to everyone, and made it possible to standardize the technique by a reliable systems score. Moreover, the recent introduction of multispectral image acquisition systems methods has further refined these techniques, minimizing artefacts and eas-ing the evaluation of the data by the observer.

  12. Results obtained with a low cost software-based audiometer for hearing screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari, Deborah Viviane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of hearing screening programs can be facilitated by reducing operating costs, including the cost of equipment. The Telessaúde (TS audiometer is a low-cost, software-based, and easy-to-use piece of equipment for conducting audiometric screening. Aim: To evaluate the TS audiometer for conducting audiometric screening. Methods: A prospective randomized study was performed. Sixty subjects, divided into those who did not have (group A, n = 30 and those who had otologic complaints (group B, n = 30, underwent audiometric screening with conventional and TS audiometers in a randomized order. Pure tones at 25 dB HL were presented at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. A "fail" result was considered when the individual failed to respond to at least one of the stimuli. Pure-tone audiometry was also performed on all participants. The concordance of the results of screening with both audiometers was evaluated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of screening with the TS audiometer were calculated. Results: For group A, 100% of the ears tested passed the screening. For group B, "pass" results were obtained in 34.2% (TS and 38.3% (conventional of the ears tested. The agreement between procedures (TS vs. conventional ranged from 93% to 98%. For group B, screening with the TS audiometer showed 95.5% sensitivity, 90.4% sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values equal to 94.9% and 91.5%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of the TS audiometer were similar to those obtained with the conventional audiometer, indicating that the TS audiometer can be used for audiometric screening.

  13. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  14. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  15. Experimental results obtained with the positron-annihilation-radiation telescope of the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, J.E. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements; Ballmoos, P. von [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements; Smither, R.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Div.; Faiz, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Div.; Fernandez, P.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Div.; Graber, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Div.; Albernhe, F. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements; Vedrenne, G. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements

    1996-04-11

    We present laboratory measurements obtained with a ground-based prototype of the focusing positron-annihilation-radiation telescope developed by the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration. This instrument has been designed to collect 511-keV photons from astrophysical sources when operating as a balloon borne observatory. The ground-based prototype consists of a crystal lens holding small cubes of diffracting germanium crystals and a 3 x 3 germanium array that detects the concentrated beam in the focal plane. Measured performances of the instrument at different line energies (511 and 662 keV) are presented and compared with Monte Carlo simulations; also the advantages of combining the lens with a detector array are discussed. The results obtained in the laboratory have strengthened interest in a crystal-diffraction telescope: the balloon instrument will provide a combination of high spatial and energy resolution (15 arc sec and 2 keV, respectively) with an extremely low instrumental background resulting in a sensitivity of similar 3.10{sup -5} photons cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. These features will allow us to resolve a possible narrow 511-keV line both energetically and spatially within a Galactic center microquasar or in other broad-class annihilators. (orig.).

  16. Simulation of energy barrier distributions using real particle parameters and comparison with experimental obtained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Büttner, M., E-mail: Markus.Buettner@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Schiffler, M. [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749 Jena (Germany); Weber, P.; Seidel, P. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Distributions of energy barriers in systems of magnetic nanoparticles have been calculated by means of the path integral method and the results have been compared with distributions previously obtained in our experiments by means of the temperature dependent magnetorelaxation method. The path integral method allowed to obtain energies of the interactions of magnetic moments of nanoparticles with axes of their easy magnetisation as well as energies of mutual interactions of magnetic moments. Calculated distributions of energy barriers have been described satisfactorily by curves of the lognormal distribution. We found an agreement between the theory and the experiment at temperatures above approximately 100 K. The influence of the volume concentration of nanoparticles and agglomeration on the energy barrier distribution has been investigated. - Highlights: • The path integral method of calculation allows to satisfactorily reproduce the quantitative experimental results. • The simulations of the energy barrier distributions reflect the lognormal distribution of the MNP found in real experiments. • Higher particle volume concentration leads to a broadening of the simulated energy barrier distribution. • At low particle concentration there is only anisotropy energy. • In case of agglomeration the energy barrier distribution broadens.

  17. Deep-sequencing protocols influence the results obtained in small-RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Toedling

    Full Text Available Second-generation sequencing is a powerful method for identifying and quantifying small-RNA components of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of the choice of sequencing platform and library preparation protocol on the results obtained. We present a thorough comparison of small-RNA sequencing libraries generated from the same embryonic stem cell lines, using different sequencing platforms, which represent the three major second-generation sequencing technologies, and protocols. We have analysed and compared the expression of microRNAs, as well as populations of small RNAs derived from repetitive elements. Despite the fact that different libraries display a good correlation between sequencing platforms, qualitative and quantitative variations in the results were found, depending on the protocol used. Thus, when comparing libraries from different biological samples, it is strongly recommended to use the same sequencing platform and protocol in order to ensure the biological relevance of the comparisons.

  18. Experimental results obtained with the positron-annihilation- radiation telescope of the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, J.E.; von Ballmoos, P.; Albernhe, F.; Vedrenne, G. [Centre d`Etude Spatial des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France); Smither, R.K.; Faiz, M.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We present laboratory measurements obtained with a ground-based prototype of a focusing positron-annihilation-radiation telescope developed by the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration. This balloon-borne telescope has been designed to collect 511-keV photons with an extremely low instrumental background. The telescope features a Laue diffraction lens and a detector module containing a small array of germanium detectors. It will provide a combination of high spatial and energy resolution (15 arc sec and 2 keV, respectively) with a sensitivity of {approximately}3{times}10{sup {minus}5} photons cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. These features will allow us to resolve a possible narrow 511-keV line both energetically and spatially within a Galactic center ``microquasar`` or in other broad-class annihilators. The ground-based prototype consists of a crystal lens holding small cubes of diffracting germanium crystals and a 3{times}3 germanium array that detects the concentrated beam in the focal plane. Measured performances of the instrument at different line energies (511 keV and 662 keV) are presented and compared with Monte-Carlo simulations. The advantages of a 3{times}3 Ge-detector array with respect to a standard-monoblock detector have been confirmed. The results obtained in the laboratory have strengthened interest in a crystal-diffraction telescope, offering new perspectives for die future of experimental gamma-ray astronomy.

  19. Conversion of the exhaust emission results obtained from combustion engines of heavy-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, J.; Pielecha, J.

    2016-09-01

    The use of internal combustion engines as the drive for heavy-duty vehicles forces these engines to be tested on an engine dynamometer. Thus, these engines operate under forced conditions, which are significantly different from their actual application. To assess the ecology of such vehicles (or more accurately the engine alone) the emission of pollution per unit of work done by the engine must be determined. However, obtaining the results of unit emissions (expressed in grams of the compound per a unit of performed work) does not give the grounds for determining the mass of pollutants on a given stretch of the road travelled by the vehicle. Therefore, there is a need to change the emission value expressed in units referenced to the engine work into a value of road emissions. The paper presents a methodology of determining pollutant emissions of heavy-duty road vehicles on the basis of the unit emissions, as well as additional parameters determined on the basis of the algorithm presented in the article. A solution was obtained that can be used not only for heavy-duty vehicles, but was also extended to allow use for buses.

  20. Applications of products obtained from digital terrain models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M.A.; Castro, J.A.D. [Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia)

    1996-11-01

    The representation of relief is a fundamental component of the cartographic process. A wide range of techniques representing the topographic variations of the earth`s surface on a two dimensional surface have been developed and these vary both in their symbolic content and in their degree of realism. In even that the Digital Terrain Models have been used since finals sixty`s decade, recently it has been increased their multiple applications and uses in different technical areas and of engineering, especially in Geographic Information Systems where they are need to data georeferencing. With this work we want to contribute in a technical, efficient and economical manner to the diverse processes that involve the usefulness of the DTM and especially to present the possibility of capturing data with a photogrammetric method alternative to the conventional method. The quality of the data source, the accuracy, the resolution and the ability to define small details, the hardware, methods and procedures to capture and processing data are the most important parameters when considering the generation of the Digital Terrain Models. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Why should we keep measuring zenital dependence of muon flux? Results obtained at Campinas (SP) BR

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, B; Nunes, M; Vieira, T V; Kemp, E

    2013-01-01

    The zenital dependence of muon flux which reaches the earth's surface is well known as proportional to cos^n(\\theta). Generally, for practical purposes and simplicity in calculations, n is taken as 2. However, compilations of measurements show dependence on the geographical location of the experiments as well as the muons energy range. Since analytical solutions appear to be increasingly less necessary because of the higher accessibility to low cost computational power, accurate and precise determination of the value of the exponent n, under different conditions, can be useful in the necessary calculations to estimate signals and backgrounds, either for terrestrial and underground experiments. In this work we discuss a method for measuring n using a simple muon telescope and the results obtained for measurements taken at Campinas (SP), Brazil. After validation of the method, we intend to extend the measurements for different geographic locations due to the simplicity of the method, and thus collect more value...

  2. Results obtained with methyl ethyl ketoxime for fixation of oxygen in water-steam cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wal, W.J.F. van der

    1989-03-01

    It is a well-known problem that the oxygen dissolved in the feedwater is responsible to a large extent for the corrosion problems in steam raising systems. Hence it is a high-priority task of any feedwater treatment programme to provide for oxygen monitoring and control. Usually, the following two means are available and provided for in order to remove the dissolved oxygen in the feedwater: (1) A well functioning thermal degassing system, (2) an efficient agent for fixation of residual oxygen. The article in hand explains the properties of MEKO (methyl ethyl ketoxime) and the results obtained with this agent as an alternative to some other, currently used substances for oxygen removal.

  3. A comparative study for results obtained using biomonitors and PM10 collectors in Sado Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C J; Marques, A P; Freitas, M C; Reis, M A; Oliveira, O R

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 a program was started, financed by the Environmental Ministry of Portugal and IAEA, aiming to study the inorganic atmospheric pollutant dispersion in Sado Estuary. Gent PM10 air samplers were used for air particulate matter sampling. Three sampling sites were chosen, forming a triangle around the fuel power station of Setúbal. Transplants of Parmelia sulcata Taylor were suspended in nylon bags within a rectangle 15 km wide and 25 km long on a 2.5 x 2.5 km grid. Two sets of four transplants were hung in each of the 47 locations, one set facing the wind and the other set opposing the wind. The transplants were suspended in December 1997 for a 1-year period; every 3 months, one transplant of each set was collected. Both lichen transplants and PM10 filters were analysed by INAA and PIXE. A comparative study of results obtained for the two sampling procedures is presented in this work.

  4. IAOOS Microlidar Development and First Results Obtained During 2014 and 2015 Arctic Drifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariage Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a first ever autonomous aerosol and cloud backscatter lidar system for on-buoy arctic observations has been achieved in 2014, within the French EQUIPEX IAOOS project developed in collaboration with LOCEAN at UPMC. This development is part of a larger set-up designed for integrated ocean-ice-atmosphere observations. First results have been obtained from spring to autumn 2014 after the system was installed at the North Pole at the Barneo Russian camp, and in winter-spring 2015 during the Norwegian campaign N-ICE 2015. The buoys were taking observations as drifting in the high arctic region where very few measurements have been made so far. This project required the design and the conception of an all-new lidar system to fit with the numerous constraints of such a deployment. We describe here the prototype and its performance. First analyzes are presented.

  5. Obtaining and Visualization of the Topological Functioning Model from the UML Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikova Viktoria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A domain model can provide compact information about its corresponding software system for business people. If the software system exists without its domain model and documentation it is time-consuming to understand its behavior and structure only from the code. Reverse Engineering (RE tools can be used for obtaining behavior and structure of the software system from source code. After that the domain model can be created. A short overview and an example of obtaining the domain model, Topological Functioning Model (TFM, from source code are provided in the paper. Positive and negative effects of the process of TFM backward derivation are also discussed.

  6. Monitoring system for a synthesizer at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility and obtained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Y., E-mail: ykawashima@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, PS, Bldg. 817, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ego, H. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hara, M. [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ohashi, Y.; Ohshima, T.; Takao, M.; Takashima, T. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-02-11

    Beam orbit distortion in all dispersive sections was observed in the SPring-8 storage ring during beam commissioning. In order to confirm the stability of the radio frequency (RF) synthesizer, a monitoring system was developed. The system consists of a frequency counter referenced to a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. With this system, the output of the synthesizer, which uses an external 10 MHz-Rubidium atomic clock with the time accuracy of Δt/t=10{sup −12}, is correctly monitored with 11 digits absolute accuracy, verifying that the synthesizer works well. Measurement of the circumference of the SPring-8 storage ring reveals the effect of tidal forces and seasonal temperature variations on beam orbit. To maintain the center axis of photon radiation in experimental beam lines, a beam energy correction is carried out. The frequency of the RF synthesizer is changed every 5 min with 10-digit accuracy. This corresponds to an energy accuracy of ΔE/E=1.16×10{sup −6}. The monitoring system for the synthesizer and obtained results are described.

  7. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System: CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcayre, F.; Courty, J.-C.; Hamber, F.; Hilbert, B.; Monneret, E.; Toia, J.-L.

    2006-04-01

    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high-capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC will be detailed. The principles of control for the CCC in series will be detailed.

  8. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...

  9. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Toshio; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the construction of a practical liquid-hydrogen moderator system of the Mega-Watt scale target system. (author)

  10. 2D and 3D Core-Collapse Supernovae Simulation Results Obtained with the CHIMERA Code

    CERN Document Server

    Bruenn, S W; Hix, W R; Blondin, J M; Marronetti, P; Messer, O E B; Dirk, C J; Yoshida, S

    2010-01-01

    Much progress in realistic modeling of core-collapse supernovae has occurred recently through the availability of multi-teraflop machines and the increasing sophistication of supernova codes. These improvements are enabling simulations with enough realism that the explosion mechanism, long a mystery, may soon be delineated. We briefly describe the CHIMERA code, a supernova code we have developed to simulate core-collapse supernovae in 1, 2, and 3 spatial dimensions. We then describe the results of an ongoing suite of 2D simulations initiated from a 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar mass progenitor. These have all exhibited explosions and are currently in the expanding phase with the shock at between 5,000 and 20,000 km. We also briefly describe an ongoing simulation in 3 spatial dimensions initiated from the 15 solar mass progenitor.

  11. 2D and 3D core-collapse supernovae simulation results obtained with the CHIMERA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenn, S W; Marronetti, P; Dirk, C J [Physics Department, Florida Atlantic University, 777 W. Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States); Mezzacappa, A; Hix, W R [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States); Blondin, J M [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Messer, O E B [Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States); Yoshida, S, E-mail: bruenn@fau.ed [Max-Planck-Institut fur Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Golm (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Much progress in realistic modeling of core-collapse supernovae has occurred recently through the availability of multi-teraflop machines and the increasing sophistication of supernova codes. These improvements are enabling simulations with enough realism that the explosion mechanism, long a mystery, may soon be delineated. We briefly describe the CHIMERA code, a supernova code we have developed to simulate core-collapse supernovae in 1, 2, and 3 spatial dimensions. We then describe the results of an ongoing suite of 2D simulations initiated from a 12, 15, 20, and 25 M{sub o-dot} progenitor. These have all exhibited explosions and are currently in the expanding phase with the shock at between 5,000 and 20,000 km. We also briefly describe an ongoing simulation in 3 spatial dimensions initiated from the 15 M{sub o-dot} progenitor.

  12. Bad results obtained from the current public health policies and recommendations of hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael San Mauro Martín

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achieving an adequate intake of water is crucial within a balanced diet. For that purpose, dietary guidelines for healthy eating and drinking are an important consideration and need to be updated and disseminated to the population. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the liquid intake habits of a Mediterranean and Latin American population (Spain-Portugal and Mexico-Uruguay and if they support the current recommendations of hydration by the EFSA. Methods: A record of fluid intake was obtained from 1,168 participants from 4 countries above; and then compared with current consensus about hydration 1,600 mL/day (female and 2,000 mL/day (male. Results: The average fluid intake slightly surpassed the recommended: mean of 2,049 mL/day (2,223 mL in males, 1,938 mL in females. Portugal stood out due to its lower intake (mean of 1,365 mL/day. Water contributed the largest part to total fluid intake (37% in all countries (mean of 1,365 mL/day. Hot beverages (18% and milk and derivates (17% follow water in highest consumption. The 20% of males and only 0.3% of females knew recommendations of hydration, while 63.3% of males and 62% of females followed them. Only 8.4% of people who follow the recommendations know them. Conclusion: The people studied surpassed the recommendation, although the majority did not realize. Future research should examine actual beverage consumption patterns and evaluate if the current consensuses are correctly adapted to the population needs. Hydration's policies should be transmitted to the population for their knowledge and adequate compliance.

  13. A comparison of results obtained with two subsurface non-isothermal multiphase reactive transport simulators, FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juncosa Rivera, Ricardo; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT are codes used to model the non-isothermal multiphase flow with multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. Different flow and reactive transport problems were used to compare the FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT codes. These problems take into account the different cases of multiphase flow with and without heat transport, conservative transport, and reactive transport. Consistent results were obtained from both codes, which use different numerical methods to solve the differential equations resulting from the various physicochemical processes. Here we present the results obtained from both codes for various cases. Some results are slightly different with minor discrepancies, which have been remedied, so that both codes would be able to reproduce the same processes using the same parameters. One of the discrepancies found is related to the different calculation for thermal conductivity in heat transport, which affects the calculation of the temperatures, as well as the pH of the reaction of calcite dissolution problem modeled. Therefore it is possible to affirm that the pH is highly sensitive to temperature. Generally speaking, the comparison was concluded to be highly satisfactory, leading to the complete verification of the FADES-CORE code. However, we must keep in mind that, as there are no analytical solutions available with which to verify the codes, the TOUGHREACT code has been thoroughly corroborated, given that the only possible way to prove that the code simulation is correct, is by comparing the results obtained with both codes for the identical problems, or to validate the simulation results with actual measured data.

  14. Preliminary Results from Duplex Procedure for Obtain of Fe Based Materials for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, R. C.; Stanciu, S.; Geantă, V.; Voiculescu, I.; Manole, V.; Gârneţ, I. A.; Alexandru, A.; Cimpoesu, N.; Săndulache, F.

    2017-06-01

    Abstract Iron based materials still represent a high percentage from metallic materials used in industry, in general, and in automotive industry, in particular. In this case we used a duplex process in order to obtain the FeMnSiAl experimental alloy for a more efficient use of various units. In the first stage iron, manganese, silicon and aluminum were melted and mixed together using arc melting technology and for the second stage the alloy was re-melt for homogeneity in an induction furnace. Chemical composition, after each melting step, was analyzed using EDS Bruker detector for various areas and microstructural characterization using SEM, VegaTescan LMH II with SE detector, equipment. This alloy is proposed as a metallic approach of mechanical dumpers used in automotive industry for low and medium impact contacts.

  15. Virtual animation of victim-specific 3D models obtained from CT scans for forensic reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, C; Olsen, K B; Hansen, S H

    2017-01-01

    the anatomical proportions of the patient was made combining the actual bones of the victim with those obtained from the human anatomy 3D model. The resulted 3D model was used for the animation process. Several probable postures were also visualized in this case. It has be shown that in Case #1 the lesions...... and the bullet path were not consistent with an upright standing position; instead, the victim was slightly bent forward, i.e. he was sitting or running when he was shot. In Case #2, one of the bullets could have passed through the arm and continued into the thorax. In conclusion, specialized 3D modelling...

  16. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing. METHODS: We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later. Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent. RESULTS: During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (% when women were pregnant (n = 20 results compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum. In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test. CONCLUSIONS: These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  17. Results obtained with the Tropospheric Ozone DIAL System Using a YAG Laser and Raman Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Sumnicht, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    This poster will detail the findings of the ground based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system built and operated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Beltsville, MD 38.99° N, 76.84° W) in 2012. Current atmospheric satellites cannot peer through the optically thick stratospheric ozone layer to remotely sense boundary layer tropospheric ozone. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, NASA has funded the ground based Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNET) which currently consists of five stations across the US. The Goddard instrument is based on the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, and has initially transmitted two wavelengths, 289 and 299 nm. Ozone is absorbed more strongly at 289 nm than at 299 nm, and the DIAL technique exploits this difference between the two returned signals to obtain the ozone number density as a function of altitude. The transmitted wavelengths are generated by focusing the output of a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser beam (266 nm) into a pair of Raman Cells, filled with high pressure Hydrogen and Deuterium. Stimulated Raman Scattering within the focus shifts the pump wavelength, and the first Stokes shift in each cell produces the required wavelengths. With the knowledge of the ozone absorption coefficient at these two wavelengths, the vertical number density can then be derived. There are currently surface ozone measurements hourly and ozonesonde launches occasionally, but this system will be the first to make long term ozone profile measurements in the Washington, DC - Baltimore area.

  18. Non-surgical synovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis. Results obtained by radio-synoviorthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbarre, F.; Menkes, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    The different radioactive isotopes used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by non-surgical synovectomy are discussed. The results of ..beta.. irradiation on the synovium are compared in a double blind trial using yttrium isotopes. Some cases of polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis and their therapy with ..beta.. emitters are described. Histological and biological changes after synoviorthesis and the results of this therapy are compared with surgical synovectomy.

  19. Interactions between riluzole and conventional antiepileptic drugs -- a comparison of results obtained in the subthreshold method and isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, K K; Rwiader, M; Drelewska, E; Czuczwar, S J

    2004-12-01

    The exact types of pharmacodynamic interactions between riluzole and conventional antiepileptic drugs were evaluated in two available ways, the subthreshold and isobolographic analysis. Maximal electroshock test in mice was used as an animal model for generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. In the first method, riluzole (1.25-2.5 mg/kg) significantly raised the electroconvulsive threshold in mice. The drug administered at its subprotective dose of 0.3125 mg/kg enhanced the antiseizure activity of carbamazepine and phenobarbital, while, when applied at the higher dose of 0.625 mg/kg, it potentiated also the action of valproate and diphenylhydantoin. Riluzole (0.625) alone and in combinations with antiepileptic drugs did not produced any motor or log-term memory deficit. Results obtained from isobolographic analysis determined pure additive interaction between riluzole and all used conventional antiepileptic drugs. Since riluzole did not change plasma concentrations of co-administered antiepileptics, pharmacokinetic interactions, at least in terms of their free plasma levels, do not seem probable. The results of the present study confirm significant antiseizure properties of riluzole in the model of generalized tonic-clonic epileptic attacks. Moreover, comparison of effects obtained from both methods evaluating drug interactions strongly indicates a crucial role of the isobolographic analysis in verification and supplementation data achieved from the subthreshold method.

  20. Remanence anisotropy effect on the palaeointensity results obtained from various archaeological materials, excluding pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacheva, M.; Chauvin, A.; Jordanova, N.; Lanos, P.; Karloukovski, V.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of magnetic anisotropy on the palaeointensity results has been evaluated in different materials, including samples from archaeological structures of various ages, such as baked clay from prehistoric domestic ovens or pottery kilns, burnt soil from ancient fires, and bricks and bricks or tiles used in the kiln's construction. The remanence anisotropy was estimated by the thermoremanent (TRM) anisotropy tensor and isothermal remanence (IRM) tensor methods. The small anisotropy effect (less than 5%) observed in the palaeointensity results of baked clay from the relatively thin prehistoric oven's floors estimated previously through IRM anisotropy was confirmed by TRM anisotropy of this material. The new results demonstrate the possibility of using IRM anisotropy evaluation to correct baked clay palaeointensity data instead of the more difficult to determine TRM anisotropy ellipsoid. This is not always the case for the palaeointensity results from bricks and tiles. The anisotropy correction to palaeointensity results seems negligible for materials other than pottery. It would therefore appear that the palaeointensity determination is more sensitive to the degree of remanence anisotropy P and the angle between the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) vector and the laboratory field direction, than to the angle between the NRM and the maximum axis of the remanence anisotropy ellipsoid (Kmax).

  1. Simulation shows hospitals that cooperate on infection control obtain better results than hospitals acting alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Wong, Kim F; Yilmaz, S Levent; Avery, Taliser R; Singh, Ashima; Song, Yeohan; Kim, Diane S; Brown, Shawn T; Potter, Margaret A; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2012-10-01

    Efforts to control life-threatening infections, such as with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), can be complicated when patients are transferred from one hospital to another. Using a detailed computer simulation model of all hospitals in Orange County, California, we explored the effects when combinations of hospitals tested all patients at admission for MRSA and adopted procedures to limit transmission among patients who tested positive. Called "contact isolation," these procedures specify precautions for health care workers interacting with an infected patient, such as wearing gloves and gowns. Our simulation demonstrated that each hospital's decision to test for MRSA and implement contact isolation procedures could affect the MRSA prevalence in all other hospitals. Thus, our study makes the case that further cooperation among hospitals--which is already reflected in a few limited collaborative infection control efforts under way--could help individual hospitals achieve better infection control than they could achieve on their own.

  2. Molecular engineering of polymer alloys: A final report of results obtained on CRADA No. 1078

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curro, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schweizer, K.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Honeycutt, J.D. [BIOSYM Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes the technical progress made in the past three years on CRADA No. 1078, Molecular Engineering of Polymer Alloys. The thrust of this CRADA was to start with the basic ideas of PRISM theory and develop it to the point where it could be applied to modeling of polymer alloys. In this program, BIOSYM, Sandia and the University of Illinois worked jointly to develop the theoretical techniques and numerical formalisms necessary to implement the theoretical ideas into commercial software aimed at molecular engineering of polymer alloys. This CRADA focused on developing the techniques required to make the transition from theory to practice. These techniques were then used by BIOSYM to incorporate PRISM theory and other new developments into their commercial software.

  3. Assessment of the accuracy of 3D models obtained with DSLR camera and Kinect v2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, E.; Macher, H.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2015-05-01

    3D modeling of objects such as statues, moldings or ornaments, answers to a need of documentation and analysis in the field of cultural heritage. Several sensors based on different technologies are used to obtain information on the geometry of an object in form of point clouds: laser scanners, digital cameras or more recently RGB-D cameras. Among them, the recent Kinect v2 sensor looks promising and therefore its use has been studied in this paper. The aim of this paper is to compare two methodologies for 3D models acquisition: photogrammetry-based models and models obtained using a RGB-D camera. Since the quality of the meshed models is obviously correlated to the quality of the point cloud, the result will be more or less faithful to reality. To quantify this reliability, several comparisons to a reference model have been carried out. Regarding the results of the comparisons, we will be able to conclude about the strengths and weaknesses of photogrammetry and RGB-D cameras for 3D modeling of complex objects.

  4. Comparison of the results obtained by CALUX bioassay and GC-HRMS for different matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonnelle, S.; Loco, J. van; Overmeire, I. van; Windal, I.; Wouwe, N. van; Goeyens, L. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Cleuvenbergen, R. van [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Leeuwen, S. van [Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research, Ijmuiden (Netherlands). Animal Science Group

    2004-09-15

    The reference method used to analyse polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) is chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). It is interesting to check the suitability of screening methods that are faster and less expensive. Different matrices (milk, fish oil, chicken compound feed, pork tissue, chicken tissue, sepiolitic clay, whole egg and herring tissue) were analysed in the frame of the European project DIFFERENCE1. One of the aims of this project is to optimise screening methods. The CALUX bio-assay was one of the screening techniques used. This paper presents the extraction and purification methods used for the analyses. The CALUX results for dioxins and for dl-PCBs were compared to the corresponding GC-HRMS results.

  5. Cumulative atomic multipole moments complement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate electrostatic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of several atomic charge models based on different definitions has been analyzed using cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMM). This formalism can generate higher atomic moments starting from any atomic charges, while preserving the corresponding molecular moments. The atomic charge contribution to the higher molecular moments, as well as to the electrostatic potentials, has been examined for CO and HCN molecules at several different levels of theory. The results clearly show that the electrostatic potential obtained from CAMM expansion is convergent up to R-5 term for all atomic charge models used. This illustrates that higher atomic moments can be used to supplement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate description of electrostatic properties.

  6. Simbol-X Hard X-ray Focusing Mirrors: Results Obtained During the Phase A Study

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferri, G; Borghi, G; Burkert, W; Citterio, O; Civitani, M; Conconi, P; Cotroneo, V; Freyberg, M; Garoli, D; Gorenstein, P; Hartner, G; Mattarello, V; Orlandi, A; Pareschi, G; Romaine, S; Spiga, D; Valsecchi, G; Vernani, D

    2009-01-01

    Simbol-X will push grazing incidence imaging up to 80 keV, providing a strong improvement both in sensitivity and angular resolution compared to all instruments that have operated so far above 10 keV. The superb hard X-ray imaging capability will be guaranteed by a mirror module of 100 electroformed Nickel shells with a multilayer reflecting coating. Here we will describe the technogical development and solutions adopted for the fabrication of the mirror module, that must guarantee an Half Energy Width (HEW) better than 20 arcsec from 0.5 up to 30 keV and a goal of 40 arcsec at 60 keV. During the phase A, terminated at the end of 2008, we have developed three engineering models with two, two and three shells, respectively. The most critical aspects in the development of the Simbol-X mirrors are i) the production of the 100 mandrels with very good surface quality within the timeline of the mission; ii) the replication of shells that must be very thin (a factor of 2 thinner than those of XMM-Newton) and still h...

  7. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an AIRS "Version-6 like" Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    We tested and evaluated Version-6.22 AIRS and Version-6.22 CrIS products on a single day, December 4, 2013, and compared results to those derived using AIRS Version-6. AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 O3(p) and q(p) products are both superior to those of AIRS Version-6All AIRS and CrIS products agree reasonably well with each other. CrIS Version-6.22 T(p) and q(p) results are slightly poorer than AIRS over land, especially under very cloudy conditions. Both AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 run now at JPL. Our short term plans are to analyze many common months at JPL in the near future using Version-6.22 or a further improved algorithm to assess the compatibility of AIRS and CrIS monthly mean products and their interannual differences. Updates to the calibration of both CrIS and ATMS are still being finalized. JPL plans, in collaboration with the Goddard DISC, to reprocess all AIRS data using a still to be finalized Version-7 retrieval algorithm, and to reprocess all recalibrated CrISATMS data using Version-7 as well.

  8. Students' Progression in Monitoring Anomalous Results Obtained in Inquiry-Based Laboratory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras-Pérez, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines students' engagement in monitoring anomalous results across a 2-year longitudinal study with 9th and 10th graders (14-15 and 15-16 years of age). The context is a set of five inquiry-based laboratory tasks, requiring students to plan and carry out investigations. The study seeks to examine students' interpretation of data, in particular anomalous results generated by them during the process of solving the tasks, and their ability to monitor them. Data collected include video and audio recordings as well as students' written products. For the analysis, two rubrics were developed drawing on Chinn and Brewer (Cognition and Instruction, 19, 323-393, 2001) and Hmelo-Silver et al. (Science Education, 86, 219-243, 2002). The findings point to a pattern of progress in students' responses across the 2 years: (a) responses revealing a low capacity of monitoring due to not recognizing the data as anomalous or recognizing it as anomalous but being unable to explain their causes are more frequent in the first tasks and (b) responses revealing an improved capacity of monitoring are more frequent in the last tasks. The factors influencing students' regulation of their performances, as the requirement of planning, and specific scaffolding based on activity theory are discussed.

  9. Randomization in laboratory procedure is key to obtaining reproducible microarray results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuna Yang

    Full Text Available The quality of gene expression microarray data has improved dramatically since the first arrays were introduced in the late 1990s. However, the reproducibility of data generated at multiple laboratory sites remains a matter of concern, especially for scientists who are attempting to combine and analyze data from public repositories. We have carried out a study in which a common set of RNA samples was assayed five times in four different laboratories using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. We observed dramatic differences in the results across laboratories and identified batch effects in array processing as one of the primary causes for these differences. When batch processing of samples is confounded with experimental factors of interest it is not possible to separate their effects, and lists of differentially expressed genes may include many artifacts. This study demonstrates the substantial impact of sample processing on microarray analysis results and underscores the need for randomization in the laboratory as a means to avoid confounding of biological factors with procedural effects.

  10. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploc, Ondřej; Spurný, František; Jadrníčková, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-08-01

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin—a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (Edep) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated.

  11. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-07-30

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  12. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Schüler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1, the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  13. THE ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL RESULTS OBTAINED BY ROMANIA IN THE FIELD OF SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perțicaș Diana Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We know that between the transport sector and all other branches of economy there is a strong interdependence link but also between it and the surrounding environment, being one of the most polluting sectors of activity. Transport is considered a primary field in any national economy development context, especially if we take into account its interdependence with other branches of national economy. Developing of transports also includes improving road, rail, river and sea services, as well as air transports. The objectives of the EU aim especially to modernize the transport infrastructures, be them by road, ship or by air, which would result in increasing the speed of freight transport, fluidizing traffic, attracting new foreign investors in various areas, accelerating the renewal of the auto park and decommissioning morally and physically worn vehicles which are extremely pollutant, the revival of maritime transports through Romanian ports, progressive completion of imposed performances through standards and regulations on the transport market, etc. All these objectives have as a main purpose the reducing of energy consumption, reducing transport costs as well as increasing competition in the national transport system.The development of transport has the role of stimulating public transport services and to guarantee a minimum general accessibility to public services for all citizens. Children, the elderly, disabled people or other vulnerable categories of people are not and will not be forgotten, for which certain standards set by the European Union must be respected.The present paper wishes to analyze a part of the results, either positive or negative, in the field of transports, made by our country.

  14. Comparison of NDT techniques to evaluate CFRP. Results obtained in a MAIzfp round robin test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Christian U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chair of Non-destructive Testing; Goldammer, Matthias; Grager, Jan-Carl [Siemens AG Corporate Technology, Muenchen (Germany); and others

    2016-10-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric materials are used for lightweight constructions and are an integral part of cars, airplanes or rotor blades of wind turbines. Nondestructive testing (NDT) methods play an increasing role concerning the manufacturing process and the inspection during lifetime. The selection of the best NDT technique for a certain application depends - of course - on many factors including the type, position and size of the defect to be detected but also on secondary issues like accessibility, automation, testing costs, reliability and resolution to mention only some. For the more technical-scientific part of these issues, the determination of the probability of detection (PoD) plays a significant role. Early in the design process questions should be raised concerning the probability with which certain attribute of interest (a defect that has an effect on the structural behavior) can be detected (and localized) in a certain construction. Several defect types have been identified to be critical like impact damages, undulations and porosity. Test samples out of differently processed Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) as used in the automotive or aeronautical industry have been produced including defects of different type and size. In order to determine the PoD and to check whether a technique is applicable the different partners applied a broad variety of selected NDT techniques including Micro CT, Ultrasound (including phased-array and air-coupled UT), Active Thermography, Eddy Current, Vibration and Visual Analysis and Local Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (LARS). The presentation will summarize some of the results of the experiments and ongoing data analysis.

  15. Implantation of peritoneal catheters by laparotomy: nephrologists obtained similar results to general surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cesar A Restrepo, Carlos Alberto Buitrago, Cielo Holguin Division of Nephrology, Department of Health Sciences, Caldas University, Caldas, ColombiaPurpose: To analyze the complications and costs of minilaparotomies performed by a nephrologist (group A compared with conventional laparotomies performed by a surgeon (group B for peritoneal catheter implantation.Setting: Two university hospitals (Santa Sofia and Caldas in Manizales, Caldas, Colombia.Methods: The study included stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients, with indication of renal replacement therapy, who were candidates for peritoneal dialysis and gave informed consent for a peritoneal catheter implant. Minilaparotomies were performed by a nephrologist in a minor surgery room under local anesthesia. Conventional laparotomies were performed by a surgeon in an operating room under general anesthesia.Results: Two nephrologists inserted 157 peritoneal catheters, and seven general surgeons inserted 185 peritoneal catheters. The groups had similar characteristics: the mean age was 55 years, 49.5% were men, and the primary diagnoses were diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and unknown etiology. The implant was successful for 98.09% of group A and 99.46% of group B. There was no procedure-related mortality. The most frequent complications in the first 30 days postsurgery in group A versus group B, respectively, were: peritonitis (6.37% versus 3.78%, exit-site infection (3.82% versus 2.16%, tunnel infection (0% versus 0.54%, catheter entrapment by omentum (1.27% versus 3.24%, peritoneal effluent spillover (1.91% versus 2.16%, draining failure (4.46% versus 6.49%, hematoma (0% versus 1.08%, catheter migration with kinking (3.18% versus 2.70%, hemoperitoneum (1.27% versus 0%, and hollow viscera accidental puncture (1.91% versus 0.54%. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of complications between groups. In 2013, the cost of a surgeon-implanted peritoneal

  16. Determination of averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces according to results obtained by numerical simulation of flow in turbomachinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Jovanović Jasmina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the increasing need for energy saving worldwide, the designing process of turbomachinery, as an essential part of thermal and hydroenergy systems, goes in the direction of enlarging efficiency. Therefore, the optimization of turbomachinery designing strongly affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. In the designing process of turbomachinery blade profiling, the model of axisymmetric fluid flows is commonly used in technical practice, even though this model suits only the profile cascades with infinite number of infinitely thin blades. The actual flow in turbomachinery profile cascades is not axisymmetric, and it can be fictively derived into the axisymmetric flow by averaging flow parameters in the blade passages according to the circular coordinate. Using numerical simulations of flow in turbomachinery runners, its operating parameters can be preliminarily determined. Furthermore, using the numerically obtained flow parameters in the blade passages, averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces in blade profile cascades can also be determined. The method of determination of averaged flow parameters and averaged meridian streamlines is presented in this paper, using the integral continuity equation for averaged flow parameters. With thus obtained results, every designer can be able to compare the obtained averaged flow surfaces with axisymmetric flow surfaces, as well as the specific work of elementary stages, which are used in the procedure of blade designing. Numerical simulations of flow in an exemplary axial flow pump, used as a part of the thermal power plant cooling system, were performed using Ansys CFX. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33040: Revitalization of existing and designing new micro and mini hydropower plants (from 100 kW to 1000 kW in the territory of South and Southeast Serbia

  17. Results from CrIS-ATMS Obtained Using the AIRS Science Team Retrieval Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    which significantly improved results of AIRS Version-6. Version-5.70 CrIS/ATMS temperature profile and surface skin temperature retrievals are of very good quality, and are better than AIRS Version-5 retrievals, but are still significantly poorer than those of AIRS Version-6. CrIS/ATMS retrievals should improve when a Neural-Net start-up system is ready for use. We also examined CrIS/ATMS retrievals generated by NOAA using their NUCAPS retrieval algorithm, which is based on earlier versions of the AIRS Science Team retrieval algorithms. We show that the NUCAPS algorithm as currently configured is not well suited for climate monitoring purposes.

  18. Results from CrIS/ATMS obtained using the AIRS Science Team retrieval methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2013-09-01

    which significantly improved results of AIRS Version-6. Version-5.70 CrIS/ATMS temperature profile and surface skin temperature retrievals are of very good quality, and are better than AIRS Version-5 retrievals, but are still significantly poorer than those of AIRS Version-6. CrIS/ATMS retrievals should improve when a Neural-Net start-up system is ready for use. We also examined CrIS/ATMS retrievals generated by NOAA using their NUCAPS retrieval algorithm, which is based on earlier versions of the AIRS Science Team retrieval algorithms. We show that the NUCAPS algorithm as currently configured is not well suited for climate monitoring purposes.

  19. Comparison of CATHARE results with the experimental results of cold leg intermediate break LOCA obtained during ROSA-2/LSTF test 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazgaj Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-hydraulic analysis is a key part in support of regulatory work and nuclear power plant design and operation. In the field of Loss Of Coolant Accident, evolutions of the regulations are discussed in various countries taking into account the very unlikely character of a double-ended guillotine break and questioning the necessity to study such an event with Design Basis Conditions assumptions. As a consequence, the consideration of intermediate size piping rupture becomes more and more important. The paper presents the modeling of the Test Facility ROSA-2/LSTF in the calculation code CATHARE 2.V2.5. OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 7 was conducted with the Large Scale Test Facility on June 14, 2012. The experiment simulated the thermal-hydraulic responses during a PWR 13% cold leg Intermediate Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (IBLOCA. The break was simulated by a cold leg upwardly mounted long break nozzle. The facility and the experiment conditions are modeled in CATHARE. The vessel is modeled by using a 3D module. A thermal-hydraulic analysis is conducted and the obtained results are subsequently compared with the experimental results from ROSA-2/LSTF Test 7. Evaluation of the differences between experimental and calculated results is discussed.

  20. Bending of geometrically nonlinear cantilever beam. Results obtained by Cosserat – Timoshenko and Kirchhoff’s rod theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Lalin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of verification of different program suites for structural analysis has recently become an important component of the construction science. One of the most extensively used benchmark problem is a classical geometrically nonlinear problem of deflection of the cantilever beam of linear elastic material, under the action of external vertical concentrated load at the free end. In fact, the solution for Kirchhoff’s rod is used as an analytical result. This rod is inextensible and Kirchhoff’s rod theory disregards flexibility of the rod in tension and shear. But in modern program suites Cosserat-Timoshenko rod is often used because Cosserat-Timoshenko rod theory is a geometrically exact theory. It considers not only bending strain but also shear and tensile strain. This means that it is necessary to get a model solution for Cosserat – Timoshenko rod, which can be used for verification of different software suites. This paper presents solutions of the geometrically nonlinear problem obtained by Cosserat – Timoshenko and Kirchhoff’s rod theory with comparison of those results. The findings can be used as a benchmark problem for verification of software suites.

  1. Performance results of HESP physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanumolu, Anantha; Thirupathi, Sivarani; Jones, Damien; Giridhar, Sunetra; Grobler, Deon; Jakobsson, Robert

    2017-02-01

    As a continuation to the published work on model based calibration technique with HESP(Hanle Echelle Spectrograph) as a case study, in this paper we present the performance results of the technique. We also describe how the open parameters were chosen in the model for optimization, the glass data accuracy and handling the discrepancies. It is observed through simulations that the discrepancies in glass data can be identified but not quantifiable. So having an accurate glass data is important which is possible to obtain from the glass manufacturers. The model's performance in various aspects is presented using the ThAr calibration frames from HESP during its pre-shipment tests. Accuracy of model predictions and its wave length calibration comparison with conventional empirical fitting, the behaviour of open parameters in optimization, model's ability to track instrumental drifts in the spectrum and the double fibres performance were discussed. It is observed that the optimized model is able to predict to a high accuracy the drifts in the spectrum from environmental fluctuations. It is also observed that the pattern in the spectral drifts across the 2D spectrum which vary from image to image is predictable with the optimized model. We will also discuss the possible science cases where the model can contribute.

  2. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-11-01

    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature ( PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  3. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-11-01

    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  4. Comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by GPS and ionosonde with IRI model over China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheng Wang

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by a GPS networkand three ionosondes at Mohe (122.4^◦E, 53.5^◦N, dip angle 70.983^◦N), Zuolingzhen (114.6^◦E, 30.5^◦N, dipangle 46.350^◦N), and Fuke (109.1^◦E, 19.5^◦N, dip angle 27.083^◦N) located in China with an IRI model inthe year 2011. Observed NmF2 and hmF2 values at the three stations are compared with IRI2007 andIRI2012 predictions, respectively. The results show that there are clear linear correlations between theobserved values and the IRI model predicted values. The IRI model gives overestimations at the threestations mostly in 2011. For the NmF2 and hmF2 values, most of the results show that the IRI2012predicted values are closer to the observed values compared with those of IRI2007. Additionally, theGPS TEC values derived from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) arecompared with the IRI2012 predictions. From the results, it is evident that the IRI2012 model predictionsfollow the normal trend of diurnal variation of GPS measured TEC monthly means but do not reproducethe measured data well. The IRI2012 model overestimates electron density in the latter part of spring aswell as the first half of autumn and winter and underestimates electron density in early spring and thelatter part of autumn. Referring to GPS TEC, the precision of the IRI2012 model predicted TEC valuesis ∼5 TECU over China. It may also be noted that there are two discontinuities of IRI-TEC monthlymeans appearing in November and December of the year 2011. This brings a bias of ∼3 TECU of TECvalues between two adjacent months.

  5. Technical note: Determination of acidity in whole raw milk: comparison of results obtained by two different analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabro, M A; Milanesio, H V; Robert, L M; Speranza, J L; Murphy, M; Rodríguez, G; Castañeda, R

    2006-03-01

    In Argentina, one analytical method is usually carried out to determine acidity in whole raw milk: the Instituto Nacional de Racionalización de Materiales standard (no. 14005), based on the Dornic method of French origin. In a national and international regulation, the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International method (no. 947.05) is proposed as the standard method of analysis. Although these methods have the same foundation, there is no evidence that results obtained using the 2 methods are equivalent. The presence of some trends and discordant data lead us to perform a statistical study to verify the equivalency of the obtained results. We analyzed 266 samples and the existence of significant differences between the results obtained by both methods was determined.

  6. 75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... provides guidance on the requirements for obtaining approval of alternative vapor-gas dispersion models... vapor-gas dispersion. Certain mathematical models and other parameters must be used to calculate the...

  7. Standardization of a fluconazole bioassay and correlation of results with those obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Rex, J H; Hanson, L H; Amantea, M A; Stevens, D.A.; BENNETT,J.E.

    1991-01-01

    An improved bioassay for fluconazole was developed. This assay is sensitive in the clinically relevant range (2 to 40 micrograms/ml) and analyzes plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens; bioassay results correlate with results obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay and HPLC analyses of spiked plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid samples (run as unknowns) gave good agreement with expected values. Analysis of specimens from patients gave equivalent results b...

  8. Constitutive Model Of Graded Micro-Structure Obtained Via Strain Induced Phase Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Ortwein, Rafał

    The literature review has been divided into three main sub-chapters. The first one is concentrated on the general information about stainless steels and their applications. It is important to perform a general overview and get an idea where the results of the present thesis could be applied. Description of all the brands of stainless steels, their microstructures and properties are important, as similar characteristics can be found in the newly created functionally graded structures. The second sub-chapter is an overview of the most important constitutive models and the experimental results for materials that undergo plastic strain induced phase transformation. Finally, the last one is devoted to functionally graded microstructures obtained via strain induced martensitic transformation – the subject of particular importance for the present thesis. As a general note, the literature review is organized mainly in a chronological order. In some cases similar publications or publications of the same Authors were...

  9. Deterministic Method for Obtaining Nominal and Uncertainty Models of CD Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Enrique Sanchez; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle;

    2002-01-01

    properties. The method provides a systematic way to derive a nominal average model as well as a structures multiplicative input uncertainty model, and it is demonstrated how to apply mu-theory to design a controller based on the models obtained that meets certain robust performance criteria.......In this paper a deterministic method for obtaining the nominal and uncertainty models of the focus loop in a CD-player is presented based on parameter identification and measurements in the focus loop of 12 actual CD drives that differ by having worst-case behaviors with respect to various...

  10. [Vascular deconditioning (correction of deconditionring) in microgravity: results obtained in the french spationaut during the spatial mission EO 22].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisy, F; Andre-Deshays, C; Schroiff, P; Cauquil, D; Lazerges, M; Lafaye, C; Camus, A L; Fomina, G

    1997-01-01

    First results on changes in vascular physiology in the first french spationaut during the French-russian spatial mission CASSIOPEE are reported in this paper. The data, obtained by Air Plethysmography during flight, evidence at the level of lower limbs alterations of venous filling and emptying characteristics (the latter particularly depending on the muscular pump function of the calf) and of capillary circulation.

  11. Using New Approaches to obtain Gibbs Measures of Vannimenus model on a Cayley tree

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Vannimenus model with competing nearest-neighbors and prolonged next-nearest-neighbors interactions on a Cayley tree. For this model we define Markov random fields with memory of length 2. By using a new approach, we obtain new sets of Gibbs measures of Ising-Vannimenus model on Cayley tree of order 2. We construct the recurrence equations corresponding Ising-Vannimenus model. We prove the Kolmogorov consistency condition. We investigate the translation-invariant an...

  12. A new non-convex model of the binary asteroid 90 Antiope obtained with the SAGE modelling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, P.; Michałowski, T.; Santana-Ros, T.; Dudziński, G.

    2014-09-01

    We present a new non-convex model of the 90 Antiope binary asteroid, derived with a modified version of the Shaping Asteroids with Genetic Evolution (SAGE) method using disc-integrated photometry only. A new variant of the SAGE algorithm capable of deriving models of binary systems is described. The model of 90 Antiope confirms the system's pole solution (λ = 199°, β = 38°, σ = ±5°) and the orbital period (16.505 046 ± 0.000 005 h). A comparison between the stellar occultation chords obtained during the 2011 occultation and the projected shape solution has been used to scale the model. The resulting scaled model allowed us to obtain the equivalent radii (R1 = 40.4 ± 0.9 km and R2 = 40.2 ± 0.9 km) and the distance between the two system components (176 ± 4 km), leading to a total system mass of (9.14 ± 0.62) · 1017 kg. The non-convex shape description of the components permitted a refined calculation of the components' volumes, leading to a density estimation of 1.67 ± 0.23 g cm-3. The intermediate-scale features of the model may also offer new clues on the components' origin and evolution.

  13. Pipeline inspection - failures selection and results obtained; Inspeccion interna de ductos - seleccion de fallas y resultados obtenidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motylicki, Juan Enrique [Oleoductos del Valle S.A. (OLDEVAL S.A.), (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of the pipelines maintenance is to assure the integrity of them in order to have a reliable operation and with an acceptable level of risk that minimizes the impact to people, to the environment and the business. The objective of this work is to expose the experiences obtained before by Oldelval and after the passages of the intelligent pig, carried out in the years 1999/2000. In the same one they will be described: How the flaws were selected to verify / to repair. Results obtained in digs. Laboratory studies to determine like they affect to the integrity of the pipeline, the different types of opposing plane defects. Conclusions. (author)

  14. A new non-convex model of the binary asteroid 90 Antiope obtained with the SAGE modelling technique

    CERN Document Server

    Bartczak, P; Santana-Ros, T; Dudziński, G

    2014-01-01

    We present a new non-convex model of the 90 Antiope binary asteroid, derived with a modified version of the SAGE (Shaping Asteroids with Genetic Evolution) method using disk-integrated photometry only. A new variant of the SAGE algorithm capable of deriving models of binary systems is described. The model of 90 Antiope confirms the system's pole solution ($\\lambda=199^{\\circ}$, $\\beta=38^{\\circ}$, $\\sigma=\\pm5^{\\circ}$) and the orbital period ($16.505046 \\pm 0.000005$ h). A comparison between the stellar occultation chords obtained during the 2011 occultation and the projected shape solution has been used to scale the model. The resulting scaled model allowed us to obtain the equivalent radii ($R_{1}=40.4\\pm0.9$ km and $R_{2}=40.2\\pm0.9$ km) and the distance between the two system components ($176\\pm4$ km), leading to a total system mass of ($9.14\\pm0.62$)$\\cdot10^{17}$ kg. The non-convex shape description of the components permitted a refined calculation of the components' volumes, leading to a density estim...

  15. Total electron content obtained from the USU-GAIM data assimilation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherliess, Ludger; Eccles, Vince; Schunk, Robert; Zhu, Lie; Gardner, Larry

    2016-07-01

    Physics-based data assimilation models have been used in meteorology and oceanography for several decades and are now also prevalent for specifications and forecasts of the ionosphere. This increased use of ionospheric data assimilation models coincides with the increase in data suitable for assimilation. At USU we have developed several different data assimilation models, including the Global Assimilation on Ionospheric Measurements Gauss-Markov (GAIM-GM) and Full Physics (GAIM-FP) models. Both models assimilate a variety of different data types, including ground-based GPS/TEC, occultation, bottomside electron density profiles from ionosondes, in-situ electron densities, and space-based UV radiance measurements and provide specifications and forecasts on a spatial grid that can be global, regional, or local. The GAIM-GM model is a simpler model that uses the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM) as a background model but uses a statistical process in the Kalman filter. The GAIM-FP model is a more sophisticated model that uses a physics-based ionosphere-plasmasphere model (IPM) and an Ensemble Kalman filter. The primary GAIM-FP output is in the form of 3-dimensional electron density distributions from 90 km to near geosynchronous altitude. The 3-d densities can be used to obtain the total electron content (TEC) over the globe. We will present the differences and similarities of TEC obtained from our models and compare them with independent observations.

  16. Preliminary Results of Nb Thin Film Coating for HIE-ISOLDE SRF Cavities Obtained by Magnetron Sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Sublet, A; Calatroni, S; D'Elia, A; Jecklin, N; Mondino, I; Prunet, S; Therasse, M; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Zhang, P

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade at CERN, several new facilities for the niobium sputter coating of QWR-type superconducting RF accelerating cavities have been developed, built, and successfully operated. In order to further optimize the production process of these cavities the magnetron sputtering technique has been further investigated and continued as an alternative to the already successfully operational DC bias diode sputtering method. The purpose of this poster is to present the results obtained with this technique. The Nb thickness profile along the cavity and its correlation with the electro-magnetic field distribution inside the cavity are discussed. Film structure, morphology and Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) will be considered as well and compared with films obtained by DC bias diode sputtering. Finally these results will be compared with RF measurement of a production-like magnetron-coated cavity.

  17. [Results obtained using de "Meckrognost Harnstoff" strip method in estimating plasma urea concentrations in dogs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyne, J J

    1977-09-01

    The "Merckognost Harntoff" strip method described in a previous paper was recently modified by the manufactures. An important alterations consisted in the method by which samples were applied to the strips, viz. using micropipetters rather than by dipping. In view of the findings in the comparative study reported, the results obtained on dipping are regarded as superior, the method also being easier to handle. However, the prescribed correction factor should be used.

  18. Optimization of grapevine yield by applying mathematical models to obtain quality wine products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alina, Dobrei; Alin, Dobrei; Eleonora, Nistor; Teodor, Cristea; Marius, Boldea; Florin, Sala

    2016-06-01

    Relationship between the crop load and the grape yield and quality is a dynamic process, specific for wine cultivars and for fresh consumption varieties. Modeling these relations is important for the improvement of technological works. This study evaluated the interrelationship of crop load (B - buds number) and several production parameters (Y - yield; S - sugar; A - acidity; GaI - Glucoacidimetric index; AP - alcoholic potential; F - flavorings, WA - wine alcohol; SR - sugar residue, in Muscat Ottonel wine cultivar and Y - yield; S - sugar; A - acidity; GaI - Glucoacidimetric Index; CP - commercial production; BS - berries size in the Victoria table grape cultivar). In both varieties have been identified correlations between the independent variable (B - buds number as a result of pruning and training practices) and quality parameters analyzed (r = -0.699 for B vsY relationship; r = 0.961 for the relationship B vs S; r = -0.959 for B vs AP relationship; r = 0.743 for the relationship Y vs S, p <0.01, in the Muscat Ottonel cultivar, respectively r = -0.907 for relationship B vs Y; r = -0.975 for B vs CP relationship; r = -0.971 for relationship B vs BS; r = 0.990 for CP vs BS relationship in the Victoria cultivar. Through regression analysis were obtained models that describe the variation concerning production and quality parameters in relation to the independent variable (B - buds number) with statistical significance results.

  19. Reproducibility, reliability and validity of measurements obtained from Cecile3 digital models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Watanabe-Kanno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility, reliability and validity of measurements in digital models compared to plaster models. Fifteen pairs of plaster models were obtained from orthodontic patients with permanent dentition before treatment. These were digitized to be evaluated with the program Cécile3 v2.554.2 beta. Two examiners measured three times the mesiodistal width of all the teeth present, intercanine, interpremolar and intermolar distances, overjet and overbite. The plaster models were measured using a digital vernier. The t-Student test for paired samples and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC were used for statistical analysis. The ICC of the digital models were 0.84 ± 0.15 (intra-examiner and 0.80 ± 0.19 (inter-examiner. The average mean difference of the digital models was 0.23 ± 0.14 and 0.24 ± 0.11 for each examiner, respectively. When the two types of measurements were compared, the values obtained from the digital models were lower than those obtained from the plaster models (p < 0.05, although the differences were considered clinically insignificant (differences < 0.1 mm. The Cécile digital models are a clinically acceptable alternative for use in Orthodontics.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO OBTAINING ISLET CELLS BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PANCREAS OF RABBITS OF DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Skaletskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A comparative morphological analysis of adult pancreas and newborn rabbits as acceptable model for obtaining of islet cell cultures having a low immunogenicity was agoal of this study. Materials and methods. Pancreas from adult and newborn rabbits and islet cell culture was examined by histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Results. Shown, the pancreas of adult rabbits contains great amount of exocrine tissue and culturing it does not allow to obtain the purified islets of impurities. By contrast, pancreas of newborn rabbits in which the ratio of the islets and the exocrine tissue is much higher, it is possible to obtain highly purified cultures of islet cells. Conclusion. Morphological features of newborn rabbit pancreas can use it as a model for obtaining cultures of islet cells having low immunogenicity. 

  1. Potential theory for stationary Schrödinger operators: a survey of results obtained with non-probabilistic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Bramanti

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we deal with a uniformly elliptic operator of the kind: Lu  Au + Vu, where the principal part A is in divergence form, and V is a function assumed in a “Kato class”. This operator has been studied in different contexts, especially using probabilistic techniques. The aim of the present work is to give a unified and simplified presentation of the results obtained with non probabilistic methods for the operator L on a bounded Lipschitz domain. These results regard: con...

  2. Per pixel uncertainty modelling and its spatial representation on land cover maps obtained by hybrid classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Xavier; Sevillano, Eva; Moré, Gerard; Serra, Pere; Cornford, Dan; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2013-04-01

    The usage of remote sensing imagery combined with statistical classifiers to obtain categorical cartography is now common practice. As in many other areas of geographic information quality assessment, knowing the accuracy of these maps is crucial, and the spatialization of quality information is becoming ever more important for a large range of applications. Whereas some classifiers (e.g., maximum likelihood, linear discriminant analysis, naive Bayes, etc) permit the estimation and spatial representation of the uncertainty through a pixel level probabilistic estimator (and, from that, to compute a global accuracy estimator for the whole map), for other methods such a direct estimator does not exist. Regardless of the classification method applied, ground truth data is almost always available (to train the classifier and/or to compute the global accuracy and, usually, a confusion matrix). Our research is devoted to the development of a protocol to spatialize the error on a general framework based on the classifier parameters, and some ground truth reference data. In the methodological experiment presented here we provide an insight into uncertainty modelling for a hybrid classifier that combines unsupervised and supervised stages (implemented in the MiraMon GIS). In this work we describe what we believe is the first attempt to characterise pixel level uncertainty in a two stage classification process. We describe the model setup, show the preliminary results and identify future work that will be undertaken. The study area is a Landsat full frame located at the North-eastern region of the Iberian Peninsula. The six non-thermal bands + NDVI of a multi-temporal set of six geometrically and radiometrically corrected Landsat-5 images (between 2005 and 2007) were submitted to a hybrid classification process, together with some ancillary data (climate, slopes, etc). Training areas were extracted from the Land Cover Map of Catalonia (MCSC), a 0.5 m resolution map created by

  3. Multiple regression models for the prediction of the maximum obtainable thermal efficiency of organic Rankine cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Wronski, Jorrit;

    2014-01-01

    to power. In this study we propose four linear regression models to predict the maximum obtainable thermal efficiency for simple and recuperated ORCs. A previously derived methodology is able to determine the maximum thermal efficiency among many combinations of fluids and processes, given the boundary...

  4. Potential theory for stationary Schrödinger operators: a survey of results obtained with non-probabilistic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bramanti

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deal with a uniformly elliptic operator of the kind: Lu  Au + Vu, where the principal part A is in divergence form, and V is a function assumed in a “Kato class”. This operator has been studied in different contexts, especially using probabilistic techniques. The aim of the present work is to give a unified and simplified presentation of the results obtained with non probabilistic methods for the operator L on a bounded Lipschitz domain. These results regard: continuity of the solutions of Lu=0; Harnack inequality; estimates on the Green's function and L-harmonic measure; boundary behavior of positive solutions of Lu=0, in particular a “Fatou's theorem”.

  5. Analysis of chromameter results obtained from corticosteroid-induced skin blanching assay: comparison of visual and chromameter data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, F P; Smith, E W; Haigh, J M; Surber, C

    1999-05-01

    In a Guidance document, the American FDA recommends the use of a Minolta chromameter rather than the human eye for the quantitative assessment of the pharmacodynamic blanching response produced by topical application of corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to compare the appropriateness of the human eye and two models of chromameter for the estimation of skin blanching, in terms of the quality of the data generated by each method. The corticosteroid-induced skin blanching from four different betamethasone 17-valerate cream formulations was compared in a typical human skin blanching trial. The optimized assay methodology routinely practised in our laboratories was utilized. The blanching responses were assessed visually by three trained, independent observers and recorded by two chromameters (Minolta model CR-200 and model CR-300). The topical availability of the four creams was determined using visual scoring and chromameter measurements. All data were manipulated in such a manner as to produce a blanching response versus time profile from which AUBC analysis could be performed. Good correlation was observed between the visual assessments made by three independent observers. In contrast, moderate correlation was determined between visual, CR-200 and CR-300 measurements. Surprisingly, no direct linear relationship between the AUBCs produced by the two chromameters was observed indicating that the quality of the data obtained from the two instruments may not be equal. This investigation also indicated that the use of the chromameter is not completely objective. Visual scoring and chromameter measurement produce data sets that differ in quality. Each procedure needs to be validated and investigators have to be trained for both visual assessment and the operation of the chromameter, particularly with regard to the manipulation of the measuring head of the instrument.

  6. Evidence for obtaining a second successive semen sample for intrauterine insemination in selected patients: results from 32 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Ortiz, Rita; Soto, Evelyn; Hartmann, Jonathan; Manzur, Alejandro; Marconi, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the semen parameters of two successive samples obtained within an interval of less than 60 minutes from patients planning to undergo intrauterine insemination (IUI) whose first samples exhibited low semen quality. Thirty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. On the day of IUI, the semen analysis of the samples initially presented by all patients met at least two of the following criteria: sperm concentration <5×10(6)/mL, total sperm count <10×10(6), progressive sperm motility (a+b) in the native sample <30%, and total motile sperm count (TMSC) <4×10(6). A successive semen sample was obtained no more than 60 minutes after the first sample. Compared to the first sample, the second exhibited significantly (p<0.05) improved sperm concentration, TMSC, progressive motility, and vitality. Regarding TMSC, the most critical parameter on the day of IUI, 23 patients (71.8%) improved it, while nine (28.2%) displayed poorer outcomes. In defined cases, requesting a second successive ejaculate on the day of insemination may result in a high percentage of cases in an improvement of the quality of the sample.

  7. Computational model of abiogenic amino acid condensation to obtain a polar amino acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego, José Lino; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto; Arias Estrada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, the Universe as a whole tends to higher entropy. However, the sequence of far-from-equilibrium events that led to the emergence of life on Earth could have imposed order and complexity during the course of chemical reactions in the so-called primordial soup of life. Hence, we may expect to find characteristic profiles or biases in the prebiotic product mixtures, as for instance among the first amino acids. Seeking to shed light on this hypothesis, we have designed a high performance computer program that simulates the spontaneous formation of the amino acid monomers in closed environments. The program was designed in reference to a prebiotic scenario proposed by Sydney W. Fox. The amino acid abundances and their polarities as the two principal biases were also taken into consideration. We regarded the computational model as exhaustive since 200,000 amino acid dimers were formed by simulation, subsequently expressed in a vector and compared with the corresponding amino acid dimers that were experimentally obtained by Fox. We found a very high similarity between the experimental results and our simulations.

  8. Short Communication: Testosterone Measured with an Automatic Immunoassay Compares Reasonbly Well to Results Obtained by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Cindy Søndersø; Højskov, Carsten Schriver; Møller, Holger Jon

    2016-01-01

    hormonebinding globulin (SHBG), and albumin employing Cobas e601/c501. Testosterone, androstenedione (andro), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentrations were measured employing LC-MS/MS. We evaluated the difference between testosterone measured by the two methods...... for the difference between results obtained by the two methods and the sample concentration of DHEAS and andro: Diff (Cobas e601 - LC-MS/MS) = 0.116 x DHEAS - 0.396, r = 0.84 and Diff (Cobas e601 - LC-MS/MS) = 0.08 andro - 0.380, r = 0.58. No statistically significant interference was observed for progesterone, 17......-OHP, SHBG, and albumin. Conclusions: We report significant differences between testosterone measurements employing an automatic second generation immunoassay and LC-MS/MS. The difference can be correlated with the measured concentrations of DHEAS and andro, and its magnitude is judged to be of limited...

  9. Thermodynamic prediction of glycine polymerization as a function of temperature and pH consistent with experimentally obtained results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2014-04-01

    Prediction of the thermodynamic behaviors of biomolecules at high temperature and pressure is fundamental to understanding the role of hydrothermal systems in the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. However, available thermodynamic dataset for amino acids, essential components for life, cannot represent experimentally observed polymerization behaviors of amino acids accurately under hydrothermal conditions. This report presents the thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the simplest amino acid "Gly" and its polymers (GlyGly, GlyGlyGly and DKP) based on experimental thermodynamic data from the literature. Values for the ionization states of Gly (Gly(+) and Gly(-)) and Gly peptides (GlyGly(+), GlyGly(-), GlyGlyGly(+), and GlyGlyGly(-)) were also retrieved from reported experimental data by combining group additivity algorithms. The obtained dataset enables prediction of the polymerization behavior of Gly as a function of temperature and pH, consistent with experimentally obtained results in the literature. The revised thermodynamic data for zwitterionic Gly, GlyGly, and DKP were also used to estimate the energetics of amino acid polymerization into proteins. Results show that the Gibbs energy necessary to synthesize a mole of peptide bond is more than 10 kJ mol(-1) less than previously estimated over widely various temperatures (e.g., 28.3 kJ mol(-1) → 17.1 kJ mol(-1) at 25 °C and 1 bar). Protein synthesis under abiotic conditions might therefore be more feasible than earlier studies have shown.

  10. Issues to be considered on obtaining plant models for formal verification purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, R.; Gonzalez, L.; Intriago, M.; Machado, J.; Prisacaru, G.; Olaru, D.

    2016-08-01

    The development of dependable software for mechatronic systems can be a very complex and hard task. For facilitating the obtaining of dependable software for industrial controllers, some powerful software tools and analysis techniques can be used. Mainly, when using simulation and formal verification analysis techniques, it is necessary to develop plant models, in order to describe the plant behavior of those systems. However, developing a plant model implies that designer takes his (or her) decisions concerning granularity and level of abstraction of models; approach to consider for modeling (global or modular); and definition of strategies for simulation and formal verification tasks. This paper intends to highlight some aspects that can be considered for taking into account those decisions. For this purpose, it is presented a case study and there are illustrated and discussed very important aspects concerning above exposed issues.

  11. Obtain Lower-Dimensional Turbulence Systems from Higher-Dimensional Lax Integrable Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Sen-Yue

    2001-01-01

    Taking the well known (1-+l)-dimensional turbulence system,the Korteweg de-Vries Burgers equation,as a special example,we show that some types of lower-dimensional turbulence systems may be derived from some higherdimensional Lax integrable models,say,the (2+1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation.On the other hand,using the Lax pair of the original higher-dimensional integrable model(s),we may obtain higher-dimensional Lax pair(s) for a lower-dimensional turbulence system.``

  12. A model to obtain an optimum erbium desity for gain increasing in EDFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arzi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper, we suggest a novel model, based on input pump power and wave guidestructure, to calculate the Er-density profile in Erbium doped fiber amplifiers. This optimization is carried out for both SMF and DSF fibers. These optimized profiles have a Gaussian-like shape. Using the SMF optimized Er-density profile, high gain enhancement is obtained in a relatively short length of fibers. On the other hand, the DSF optimized profile shows small changes in the gain, which agrees with the previously report on other method of gain enhancement. This model is applicable to all active waveguides and any other dopant as well .

  13. EDUCATION IMPACT ON THE RESULTS OBTAINED IN AGRICULTURE, IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND IN THE JURIDIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana HOROIAŞ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches a difficult issue especially by its originality and complexity, since it involves the application of the same type of research on completely different areas of activity. Based on the idea that nowadays it is increasingly thought that „the school of life” is the one which really matters and that the level of educational training has no longer an important role in the professional achievements, we proposed ourselves to emphasize the concrete results of those working in agriculture, education and legal field, according to their level of specialization. The orientation towards a socio-economic study has determined the selection of some suitable research methods, in order to help us to obtain answers as close as possible with reality. For this purpose, a series of questionnaires, adapted to each individual case, but having a common basis were used. Interviews with 50 people for each of the mentioned branches of activity have been established. All the responses have been then inserted into a database and statistically processed, being obtained three distinct analyzes, which afterwards could be compared to each other, leading to the final findings. Another direction of research has been the one represented by the education awareness, many of the surveyed persons, who oriented themselves to these professions, completing their studies along the way, and afterwards continuing to inform themselves, to learn, to ask other specialized people. Conclusions arising are among the most diverse, but all guides us to the necessity of changing the way of thinking, of education and of its entire aim perception. Motivating people is an aspect that deserves all the specialists in sociology attention, being a phenomenon of real importance for the society we live in and especially for the future of education.

  14. Obtaining 3d models of surface snow and ice features (penitentes) with a Xbox Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Partan, Benjamin; Pętlicki, Michał; MacDonell, Shelley

    2014-05-01

    Penitentes are snow or ice spikes that can reach several metres in height. They are a common feature of snow and ice surfaces in the semi-arid Andes as their formation is favoured by very low humidity, persistently low temperatures and sustained high solar radiation. While the conditions of their formation are relatively well constrained it is not yet clear how their presence influences the rate of mass loss and meltwater production from the mountain cryosphere and there is a need for accurate measurements of ablation within penitente fields through time in order to evaluate how well existing energy balance models perform for surfaces with penitentes. The complex surface morphology poses a challenge to measuring the mass loss at snow or glacier surfaces as (i) the spatial distribution of surface lowering within a penitente field is very heterogeneous, and (ii) the steep walls and sharp edges of the penitentes limit the line of sight view for surveying from fixed positions. In this work we explored whether these problems can be solved by using the Xbox Kinect sensor to generate small scale digital terrain models (DTMs) of sample areas of snow and ice penitentes. The study site was Glaciar Tapado in Chile (30°08'S; 69°55'W) where three sample sites were monitored from November 2013 to January 2014. The range of the Kinect sensor was found to be restricted to about 1 m over snow and ice, and scanning was only possible after dusk. Moving the sensor around the penitente field was challenging and often resulted in fragmented scans. However, despite these challenges, the scans obtained could be successfully combined in MeshLab software to produce good surface representations of the penitentes. GPS locations of target stakes in the sample plots allow the DTMs to be orientated correctly in space so the morphology of the penitente field and the volume loss through time can be fully described. At the study site in snow penitentes the Kinect DTM was compared with the quality

  15. How many replicate tests do I need?$-$ Variability of cookstove performance and emissions has implications for obtaining useful results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yungang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Gadgil, Ashok J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wang, Yilun [ISO Innovative Analytics San Francisco, CA (United States); Lask, Kathleen M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). College of Engineering Applied Science and Technology Program; Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-02-01

    Almost half of the world’s population still cooks on biomass cookstoves of poor efficiency and primitive design, such as three stone fires (TSF). Emissions from biomass cookstoves contribute to adverse health effects and climate change. A number of “improved cookstoves” with higher energy efficiency and lower emissions have been designed and promoted across the world. During the design development, and for selection of a stove for dissemination, the stove performance and emissions are commonly evaluated, communicated and compared using the arithmetic average of replicate tests made using a standardized laboratory-based test, commonly the water boiling test (WBT). However, published literature shows different WBT results reported from different laboratories for the same stove technology. Also, there is no agreement in the literature on how many replicate tests should be performed to ensure “significance” in the reported average performance. This matter has not received attention in the rapidly growing literature on stoves, and yet is crucial for estimating and communicating the performance of a stove, and for comparing the performance between stoves. We present results of statistical analyses using data from a number of replicate tests of performance and emission of the Berkeley-Darfur Stove (BDS) and the TSF under well-controlled laboratory conditions. We observed moderate variability in the test results for the TSF and BDS when measuring several characteristics. Here we focus on two as illustrative: time-to-boil and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers in diameter) emissions. We demonstrate that interpretation of the results comparing these stoves could be misleading if only a small number of replicates had been conducted. We then describe a practical approach, useful to both stove testers and designers, to assess the number of replicates needed to obtain useful data. Caution should be exercised in attaching high credibility to

  16. A New Theoretical Approach Based on the Maxwell Model to Obtain Rheological Properties of Solidifying Alloys and Its Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Akira; Takai, Ryosuke; Ezaki, Hideaki; Okane, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    This paper proposes a new method for obtaining the rheological properties of solidifying alloys in the brittle temperature range (BTR). In that range, alloys show not only rheological, but also brittle behavior. Conventional methods to obtain rheological properties require steady state stress with ductility. Therefore, rheological properties of BTR alloys are unobtainable, or are otherwise including the effects of microscopic damage. The method proposed in this paper uses the stress-strain relation derived from the Maxwell model assuming that strain hardening is negligible in solid-liquid coexistence states. By removing the plastic strain term, the creep strain rate in Norton's law is derived by the total strain rate and stress rate without the steady state stress condition. Consequently, the stress exponent n and material constant A of Norton's law can be obtained even for alloys in the BTR. We applied this method to both tensile process before crack initiation and stress relaxation process. According to the Maxwell model, couples of the properties ( n and A) obtained in both processes must be equal. Therefore, the difference can validate the obtained properties. From tensile and stress relaxation tests, we obtained the properties of solidifying Al-5 wt pct Mg alloy. We validated results by examining the difference. This report is the first to provide a method to obtain the rheological properties of BTR alloy without damage.

  17. A new non-convex model of the binary asteroid (809) Lundia obtained with the SAGE modelling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, P.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Dudziński, G.; Polińska, M.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Marciniak, A.; Pollock, J.; Apostolovska, G.; Santana-Ros, T.; Hirsch, R.; Dimitrow, W.; Murawiecka, M.; Wietrzycka, P.; Nadolny, J.

    2017-10-01

    We present a new non-convex model of the binary asteroid (809) Lundia. A SAGE (Shaping Asteroids with Genetic Evolution) method using disc-integrated photometry only was used for deriving physical parameters of this binary system. The model of (809) Lundia improves former system's pole solution and gives the ecliptic coordinates of the orbit pole - λ = 122°, β = 22°, σ = ±5° - and the orbital period of 15.415 74 ± 0.000 01 h. For scaling our results, we used an effective diameter (Deff) of 9.6 ± 1.1 km obtained from Spitzer observations. The non-convex shape description of the components permitted a refined calculation of the components' volumes, leading to a density estimation of 2.5 ± 0.2 g cm-3 and a macroporosity of 13-23 per cent. The intermediate-scale features of the model may also offer new clues on the components' origin and evolution.

  18. Implementing fluid dynamics obtained from GeoPET in reactive transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna; Eichelbaum, Sebastian; Kulenkampff, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Flow and transport simulations in geomaterials are commonly conducted on high-resolution tomograms (μCT) of the pore structure or stochastic models that are calibrated with measured integral quantities, like break through curves (BTC). Yet, there existed virtually no method for experimental verification of the simulated velocity distribution results. Positron emission tomography (PET) has unrivaled sensitivity and robustness for non-destructive, quantitative, spatio-temporal measurement of tracer concentrations in body tissue. In the past decade, we empowered PET for its applicability in opaque/geological media - GeoPET (Kulenkampff et al.; Kulenkampff et al., 2008; Zakhnini et al., 2013) and have developed detailed correction schemes to bring the images into sharp focus. Thereby it is the appropriate method for experimental verification and calibration of computer simulations of pore-scale transport by means of the observed propagation of a tracer pulse, c_PET(x,y,z,t). In parallel, we aimed at deriving velocity and porosity distributions directly from our concentration time series of fluid flow processes in geomaterials. This would allow us to directly benefit from lab scale observations and to parameterize respective numerical transport models. For this we have developed a robust spatiotemporal (3D+t) parameter extraction algorithm. Here, we will present its functionality, and demonstrate the use of obtained velocity distributions in finite element simulations of reactive transport processes on drill core scale. Kulenkampff, J., Gruendig, M., Zakhnini, A., Gerasch, R., and Lippmann-Pipke, J.: Process tomography of diffusion with PET for evaluating anisotropy and heterogeneity, Clay Minerals, in press. Kulenkampff, J., Gründig, M., Richter, M., and Enzmann, F.: Evaluation of positron emission tomography for visualisation of migration processes in geomaterials, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 33, 937-942, 2008. Zakhnini, A., Kulenkampff, J., Sauerzapf, S

  19. Continuous H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise: a necessity to understand microzonation results obtained by mobile stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the resonance frequency (f0) and amplification factor of unconsolidated sediments by H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of seismic ambient noise has been widely used since Nakamura's proposal in 1989. To measure f0 properly, Nakamura suggested to perform microzonation surveys at night when the artificial microtremor is small and does not fully disrupt the ambient seismic noise. As nightly fieldwork is not always a reasonable demand, we propose an alternative workflow of Nakamura's technique to improve the quality of HVSR results obtained by ambient noise measurements of mobile stations during the day. This new workflow includes the automated H/V calculation of continuous seismic data of a stationary or permanent station installed near the microzonation site for as long as the survey lasts in order to control the error in the HVSR analysis obtained by the mobile stations. In this presentation, we apply this workflow on one year of seismic data at two different case studies; i.e. a rural site with a shallow bedrock depth of 30 m and an urban site (Brussels, capital of Belgium, bedrock depth of 110 m) where human activity is continuous 24h/day. By means of an automated python script, the fundamental peak frequency and the H/V amplitude are automatically picked from H/V spectra that are calculated from 50% overlapping, 30 minute windows during the whole year. Afterwards, the f0 and amplitude picks are averaged per hour/per day for the whole year. In both case studies, the H/V amplitude and the fundamental frequencies range considerable, up to ˜15% difference between the daily and nightly measurements. As bedrock depth is known from boreholes at both sites, we concluded that the nightly picked f0 is the true one. Our results thus suggest that changes in the determined f0 and H/V amplitude are dominantly caused by the human behaviour which is stored in the ambient seismic noise (e.g. later onset of traffic in a weekend, quiet Sundays, differences between

  20. Obtaining Material Data for Heat Treatment Simulation of Casr Alloy Parts with Unified Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work, which is part of the IDEAL (Integrated Development Routes for Optimized Cast Aluminium Components) project, financed by the EU in frame work 6 and born in collaboration with the automobile and foundry industries, is to simulate creep behavior of aluminum cast samples...... of dislocations motion in the material structure, can be modelled through the implementation of a similar plastic strain velocity law, generally called flow rule. The paper shows how to obtain the material data needed for the simulation of the stress-strain behavior of aluminum at high temperature. As an example......, the analysis of several tests performed at various temperatures and strain rates on a particular aluminum alloy, is presented as well. Furthermore, the one dimensional code developed during this project is illustrated and a simulation is run using the material data obtained through the mentioned experimental...

  1. Linear fuzzy gene network models obtained from microarray data by exhaustive search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quong Judy N

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent technological advances in high-throughput data collection allow for experimental study of increasingly complex systems on the scale of the whole cellular genome and proteome. Gene network models are needed to interpret the resulting large and complex data sets. Rationally designed perturbations (e.g., gene knock-outs can be used to iteratively refine hypothetical models, suggesting an approach for high-throughput biological system analysis. We introduce an approach to gene network modeling based on a scalable linear variant of fuzzy logic: a framework with greater resolution than Boolean logic models, but which, while still semi-quantitative, does not require the precise parameter measurement needed for chemical kinetics-based modeling. Results We demonstrated our approach with exhaustive search for fuzzy gene interaction models that best fit transcription measurements by microarray of twelve selected genes regulating the yeast cell cycle. Applying an efficient, universally applicable data normalization and fuzzification scheme, the search converged to a small number of models that individually predict experimental data within an error tolerance. Because only gene transcription levels are used to develop the models, they include both direct and indirect regulation of genes. Conclusion Biological relationships in the best-fitting fuzzy gene network models successfully recover direct and indirect interactions predicted from previous knowledge to result in transcriptional correlation. Fuzzy models fit on one yeast cell cycle data set robustly predict another experimental data set for the same system. Linear fuzzy gene networks and exhaustive rule search are the first steps towards a framework for an integrated modeling and experiment approach to high-throughput "reverse engineering" of complex biological systems.

  2. The effects of metal ion PCR inhibitors on results obtained with the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Laura Gaydosh; Warren, Joseph E; Huynh, Vivian; Castaneda, Joanna; Golden, Teresa D; Roby, Rhonda K

    2015-11-01

    Forensic DNA samples may include the presence of PCR inhibitors, even after extraction and purification. Studies have demonstrated that metal ions, co-purified at specific concentrations, inhibit DNA amplifications. Metal ions are endogenous to sample types, such as bone, and can be introduced from environmental sources. In order to examine the effect of metal ions as PCR inhibitors during quantitative real-time PCR, 2800 M DNA was treated with 0.0025-18.750 mM concentrations of aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, nickel, and lead. DNA samples, both untreated and metal-treated, were quantified using the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit. Quantification cycle (Cq) values for the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA and internal PCR control (IPC) assays were measured and the estimated concentrations of human DNA were obtained. Comparisons were conducted between metal-treated and control DNA samples to determine the accuracy of the quantification estimates and to test the efficacy of the IPC inhibition detection. This kit is most resistant to the presence of calcium as compared to all metals tested; the maximum concentration tested does not affect the amplification of the IPC or quantification of the sample. This kit is most sensitive to the presence of aluminum; concentrations greater than 0.0750 mM negatively affected the quantification, although the IPC assay accurately assessed the presence of PCR inhibition. The Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit accurately quantifies human DNA in the presence of 0.5000 mM copper, iron, nickel, and lead; however, the IPC does not indicate the presence of PCR inhibition at this concentration of these metals. Unexpectedly, estimates of DNA quantity in samples treated with 18.750 mM copper yielded values in excess of the actual concentration of DNA in the samples; fluorescence spectroscopy experiments indicated this increase was not a direct interaction between the copper metal and 6-FAM dye used to label the probe that

  3. Obtaining Material Data for Heat Treatment Simulation of Casr Alloy Parts with Unified Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work, which is part of the IDEAL (Integrated Development Routes for Optimized Cast Aluminium Components) project, financed by the EU in frame work 6 and born in collaboration with the automobile and foundry industries, is to simulate creep behavior of aluminum cast samples...... subjected to high temperature. In this paper a two-state variables unified model is applied in order to simulate creep behavior and time-dependent metallurgical changes. The fundamental assumption of the unified theory is that creep and viscoplasticity, which are both irreversible strains developed because...... of dislocations motion in the material structure, can be modelled through the implementation of a similar plastic strain velocity law, generally called flow rule. The paper shows how to obtain the material data needed for the simulation of the stress-strain behavior of aluminum at high temperature. As an example...

  4. Validation and Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Project Cost Models with Project Cost Data Obtained from the Southwest Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Lee; Reid Grigg; Brian McPherson

    2011-04-15

    Obtaining formal quotes and engineering conceptual designs for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration sites and facilities is costly and time-consuming. Frequently, when looking at potential locations, managers, engineers and scientists are confronted with multiple options, but do not have the expertise or the information required to quickly obtain a general estimate of what the costs will be without employing an engineering firm. Several models for carbon compression, transport and/or injection have been published that are designed to aid in determining the cost of sequestration projects. A number of these models are used in this study, including models by J. Ogden, MIT's Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program Model, the Environmental Protection Agency and others. This report uses the information and data available from several projects either completed, in progress, or conceptualized by the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) to determine the best approach to estimate a project's cost. The data presented highlights calculated versus actual costs. This data is compared to the results obtained by applying several models for each of the individual projects with actual cost. It also offers methods to systematically apply the models to future projects of a similar scale. Last, the cost risks associated with a project of this scope are discussed, along with ways that have been and could be used to mitigate these risks.

  5. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis Results Obtained in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Davis, F.J.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Miller, J.; O' Brien, D.G.; Ramsey, J.L.; Schreiber, J.D.; Shinta, A.; Smith, L.N.; Stockman, C.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Vaughn, P.

    1998-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) is located in southeastern New Mexico and is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A detailed performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP was carried out in 1996 and supports an application by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. The 1996 WIPP PA uses a computational structure that maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 yr regulatory period that applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from the imprecision with which many of the quantities required in the PA are known. Important parts of this structure are (1) the use of Latin hypercube sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncertainty, (2) the use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncertainty, and (3) the efficient use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to support the analysis. The use of Latin hypercube sampling generates a mapping from imprecisely known analysis inputs to analysis outcomes of interest that provides both a display of the uncertainty in analysis outcomes (i.e., uncertainty analysis) and a basis for investigating the effects of individual inputs on these outcomes (i.e., sensitivity analysis). The sensitivity analysis procedures used in the PA include examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, and partial correlation analysis. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained as part of the 1996 WIPP PA are presented and discussed. Specific topics considered include two phase flow in the vicinity of the repository, radionuclide release from the repository, fluid flow and radionuclide

  6. Convection-Diffusion Model for Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets: Obtaining Off-Axis Data from On-Axis Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; Dünnbier, Mario; Winter, Jörn; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Reuter, Stephan

    2012-10-01

    An analytical convection-diffusion model for atmospheric pressure plasma jets is presented. The model can be applied both for ambient air species diffusion and for heat transfer into a jets effluent. Using on-axis data from experiments as input, the model can be used to extrapolate the measured quantities to the complete domain for laminar flows and near-axis region for turbulent flows. The method is applied to experimental data obtained from molecular beam mass spectrometry as well as from a VUV absorption spectrometry method using the plasma jet itself as a VUV emitter. The measurements are conducted on a turbulent atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with a protective gas nozzle, allowing for the creation of a shielding gas curtain around the plasma jets effluent. The results obtained from the hybrid analytical-experimental method are compared to computational fluid dynamics simulations.

  7. Using text messaging to obtain weekly data on infant feeding in a Danish birth cohort resulted in high participation rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to use text message questions to obtain prospective, real-time data on exclusive and partial breastfeeding and introduction to complementary foods in a Danish birth cohort. We also wanted to identify factors influencing breastfeeding initiation and cessation. METHODS: This study ...

  8. Interpreting Results from the Multinomial Logit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This article provides guidelines and illustrates practical steps necessary for an analysis of results from the multinomial logit model (MLM). The MLM is a popular model in the strategy literature because it allows researchers to examine strategic choices with multiple outcomes. However, there see...

  9. Evaluation of digital dental models obtained from dental cone-beam computed tomography scan of alginate impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tingting; Lee, Sang-Mi; Hou, Yanan; Chang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models obtained from the dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of alginate impressions according to the time elapse when the impressions are stored under ambient conditions. Methods Alginate impressions were obtained from 20 adults using 3 different alginate materials, 2 traditional alginate materials (Alginoplast and Cavex Impressional) and 1 extended-pour alginate material (Cavex ColorChange). The impressions were stored under ambient conditions, and scanned by CBCT immediately after the impressions were taken, and then at 1 hour intervals for 6 hours. After reconstructing three-dimensional digital dental models, the models were measured and the data were analyzed to determine dimensional changes according to the elapsed time. The changes within the measurement error were regarded as clinically acceptable in this study. Results All measurements showed a decreasing tendency with an increase in the elapsed time after the impressions. Although the extended-pour alginate exhibited a less decreasing tendency than the other 2 materials, there were no statistically significant differences between the materials. Changes above the measurement error occurred between the time points of 3 and 4 hours after the impressions. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that digital dental models can be obtained simply from a CBCT scan of alginate impressions without sending them to a remote laboratory. However, when the impressions are not stored under special conditions, they should be scanned immediately, or at least within 2 to 3 hours after the impressions are taken. PMID:27226958

  10. Reduced Effective Model for Condensation in Slender Tubes with Rotational Symmetry, Obtained by Generalized Dimensional Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dziubek, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results for condensation in compact heat exchangers show that the heat transfer due to condensation is significantly better compared to classical heat exchangers, especially when using R134a instead of water as the refrigerant. This suggests that surface tension plays a role. Using generalized dimensional analysis we derive reduced model equations and jump conditions for condensation in a vertical tube with cylindrical cross section. Based on this model we derive a single ordinary differential equation for the thickness of the condensate film as function of the tube axis. Our model agrees well with commonly used models from existing literature. It is based on the physical dimensions of the problem and has greater geometrical flexibility.

  11. Modeling of Production and Quality of Bioethanol Obtained from Sugarcane Fermentation Using Direct Dissolved Sugars Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Velazquez-Marti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from sugarcane represents an opportunity for urban-agricultural development in small communities of Ecuador. Despite the fact that the industry for bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is fully developed, it is still considered expensive as a small rural business. In order to be able to reduce the costs of monitoring the production process, and avoid the application of expensive sensors, the aim of this research was modeling the kinetics of production of bioethanol based on direct measurements of Brix grades, instead of the concentration of alcohol, during the process of cane juice bio-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This avoids the application of expensive sensors that increase the investment costs. Fermentation experiments with three concentrations of yeast and two temperatures were carried out in a laboratory reactor. In each case Brix grades, amount of ethanol and alcoholic degree were measured. A mathematical model to predict the quality and production of bioethanol was developed from Brix grade measurements, obtaining an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.97. The model was validated in a pilot plant.

  12. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemann, S.; Chen, Cui; Clark, D.B.; Folwell, S.; Gosling, S.; Haddeland, I.; Hanasaki, N.; Heinke, J.; Ludwig, F.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three) and hydrological 5 models (eight) were used to systematically

  13. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemann, S.; Chen, Cui; Clark, D.B.; Folwell, S.; Gosling, S.; Haddeland, I.; Hanasaki, N.; Heinke, J.; Ludwig, F.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three) and hydrological 5 models (eight) were used to systematically

  14. Creating competitive poles – the sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Mihaela MATEI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global economy that has as its own competitive advantage the transfer of information and goods around the world in real time, the annexes that surround the ecosystem are the centers for innovation founded on hedge & mutual funds, investment scenarios and the development of biotechnology (for developed countries or for the development of aircrafts or equipment used for the manufacturing of tangible goods (in emergent countries. For these to create synergy there is the idea of clusters, because they offer to the companies the possibility to change and to add dynamism to the microeconomic open system. Although globalization offers the power of global trading, clusters are found in developed countries with economies that can support multidisciplinary interactions, and their creation must be followed by the emergent countries that want to progress in this area. This paper represents a review and a research in progress on creating competitive poles (or clusters as a sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage.

  15. Drude's Model Optical Parameters and the Color of TiNx Films Obtained Through Reflectivity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L. A.; Sagás, J. C.; Damião, A. J.; Fontana, L. C.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been applied as decorative coating due to its high reflectivity and goldish color, having high hardness and wear resistance. In the present work, TiNx films were deposited by grid-assisted magnetron sputtering. The color and reflectivity were investigated by spectrophotometry as a function of the working gas ratio N2/Ar used during films deposition. The crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The TiNx plasma frequency ( ω p) and the relaxation time ( τ) were determined by fitting the experimental reflectivity curves, according to the Drude model. The color parameters obtained by the CieLab method were used to compare TiNx films with gold film.

  16. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  17. The precise computation of geoid undulation differences with comparison to results obtained from the global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelis, T.; Rapp, R. H.; Tscherning, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Ellipsoidal height differences have been determined for 13 station pairs in the central Ohio region using measurements made with the Global Positioning System. This information was used to compute geoid undulation differences based on known orthometric heights. These differences were compared to gravimetrically-computed undulations (using a Stokes integration procedure, and least squares collocation having an internal r.m.s. agreement of plus or minus 1 cm in undulation differences). The two sets of undulation differences have an r.m.s. discrepancy of plus or minus 5 cm while the average station separation is of the order of 14 km. This good agreement suggests that gravimetric data can be used to compute accurate geoid undulation differences that can be used to convert ellipsoidal height differences obtained from GPS to orthometric height differences.

  18. Topological study of the late steps of the artemisinin decomposition process: modeling the outcome of the experimentally obtained products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Pamela; Oliva, Mónica; Safont, Vicent S

    2011-01-20

    By using 6,7,8-trioxabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane as the artemisinin model and dihydrated Fe(OH)(2) as the heme model, we report a theoretical study of the late steps of the artemisinin decomposition process. The study offers two viewpoints: first, the energetic and geometric parameters are obtained and analyzed, and hence, different reaction paths have been studied. The second point of view uses the electron localization function (ELF) and the atoms in molecules (AIM) methodology, to conduct a complete topological study of such steps. The MO analysis together with the spin density description has also been used. The obtained results agree nicely with the experimental data, and a new mechanistic proposal that explains the experimentally determined outcome of deoxiartemisinin has been postulated.

  19. A convolution model for obtaining the response of an ionization chamber in static non standard fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Castano, D. M.; Gonzalez, L. Brualla; Gago-Arias, M. A.; Pardo-Montero, J.; Gomez, F.; Luna-Vega, V.; Sanchez, M.; Lobato, R. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain) and Dpto de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica ERESA, Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, 46014 (Spain); Dpto de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain); Radiation Physics Laboratory, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Spain and Dpto de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: This work contains an alternative methodology for obtaining correction factors for ionization chamber (IC) dosimetry of small fields and composite fields such as IMRT. The method is based on the convolution/superposition (C/S) of an IC response function (RF) with the dose distribution in a certain plane which includes chamber position. This method is an alternative to the full Monte Carlo (MC) approach that has been used previously by many authors for the same objective. Methods: The readout of an IC at a point inside a phantom irradiated by a certain beam can be obtained as the convolution of the dose spatial distribution caused by the beam and the IC two-dimensional RF. The proposed methodology has been applied successfully to predict the response of a PTW 30013 IC when measuring different nonreference fields, namely: output factors of 6 MV small fields, beam profiles of cobalt 60 narrow fields and 6 MV radiosurgery segments. The two-dimensional RF of a PTW 30013 IC was obtained by MC simulation of the absorbed dose to cavity air when the IC was scanned by a 0.6 x 0.6 mm{sup 2} cross section parallel pencil beam at low depth in a water phantom. For each of the cases studied, the results of the IC direct measurement were compared with the corresponding obtained by the C/S method. Results: For all of the cases studied, the agreement between the IC direct measurement and the IC calculated response was excellent (better than 1.5%). Conclusions: This method could be implemented in TPS in order to calculate dosimetry correction factors when an experimental IMRT treatment verification with in-phantom ionization chamber is performed. The miss-response of the IC due to the nonreference conditions could be quickly corrected by this method rather than employing MC derived correction factors. This method can be considered as an alternative to the plan-class associated correction factors proposed recently as part of an IAEA work group on nonstandard field dosimetry.

  20. An easy way to obtain strong duality results in linear, linear semidefinite and linear semi-infinite programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, P.C.; Still, Georg J.

    1999-01-01

    In linear programming it is known that an appropriate non-homogeneous Farkas Lemma leads to a short proof of the strong duality results for a pair of primal and dual programs. By using a corresponding generalized Farkas lemma we give a similar proof of the strong duality results for semidefinite

  1. Non-Uniqueness of the Geometry of Interplanetary Magnetic Flux Ropes Obtained from Model-Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubashi, K.; Cho, K.-S.

    2015-12-01

    Since the early recognition of the important role of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (IPFRs) to carry the southward magnetic fields to the Earth, many attempts have been made to determine the structure of the IPFRs by model-fitting analyses to the interplanetary magnetic field variations. This paper describes the results of fitting analyses for three selected solar wind structures in the latter half of 2014. In the fitting analysis a special attention was paid to identification of all the possible models or geometries that can reproduce the observed magnetic field variation. As a result, three or four geometries have been found for each of the three cases. The non-uniqueness of the fitted results include (1) the different geometries naturally stemming from the difference in the models used for fitting, and (2) an unexpected result that either of magnetic field chirality, left-handed and right-handed, can reproduce the observation in some cases. Thus we conclude that the model-fitting cannot always give us a unique geometry of the observed magnetic flux rope. In addition, we have found that the magnetic field chirality of a flux rope cannot be uniquely inferred from the sense of field vector rotation observed in the plane normal to the Earth-Sun line; the sense of rotation changes depending on the direction of the flux rope axis. These findings exert an important impact on the studies aimed at the geometrical relationships between the flux ropes and the magnetic field structures in the solar corona where the flux ropes were produced, such studies being an important step toward predicting geomagnetic storms based on observations of solar eruption phenomena.

  2. Modeling Malaysia's Energy System: Some Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The current dynamic and fragile world energy environment necessitates the development of new energy model that solely caters to analyze Malaysia’s energy scenarios. Approach: The model is a network flow model that traces the flow of energy carriers from its sources (import and mining through some conversion and transformation processes for the production of energy products to final destinations (energy demand sectors. The integration to the economic sectors is done exogeneously by specifying the annual sectoral energy demand levels. The model in turn optimizes the energy variables for a specified objective function to meet those demands. Results: By minimizing the inter temporal petroleum product imports for the crude oil system the annual extraction level of Tapis blend is projected at 579600 barrels per day. The aggregate demand for petroleum products is projected to grow at 2.1% year-1 while motor gasoline and diesel constitute 42 and 38% of the petroleum products demands mix respectively over the 5 year planning period. Petroleum products import is expected to grow at 6.0% year-1. Conclusion: The preliminary results indicate that the model performs as expected. Thus other types of energy carriers such as natural gas, coal and biomass will be added to the energy system for the overall development of Malaysia energy model.

  3. Modelling rainfall erosion resulting from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Peter

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion leads to agricultural productivity decline and contributes to water quality decline. The current widely used models for determining soil erosion for management purposes in agriculture focus on long term (~20 years) average annual soil loss and are not well suited to determining variations that occur over short timespans and as a result of climate change. Soil loss resulting from rainfall erosion is directly dependent on the product of runoff and sediment concentration both of which are likely to be influenced by climate change. This presentation demonstrates the capacity of models like the USLE, USLE-M and WEPP to predict variations in runoff and erosion associated with rainfall events eroding bare fallow plots in the USA with a view to modelling rainfall erosion in areas subject to climate change.

  4. Simulation Modeling of Radio Direction Finding Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pelikan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available It is sometimes difficult to determine analytically error probabilities of direction finding results for evaluating algorithms of practical interest. Probalistic simulation models are described in this paper that can be to study error performance of new direction finding systems or to geographical modifications of existing configurations.

  5. Poroelastic model for adsorption-induced deformation of biopolymers obtained from molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulasinski, Karol; Guyer, Robert; Derome, Dominique; Carmeliet, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Molecular simulation of adsorption of water molecules in nanoporous amorphous biopolymers, e.g., cellulose, reveals nonlinear swelling and nonlinear mechanical response with the increase in fluid content. These nonlinearities result from hydrogen bond breakage by water molecules. Classical poroelastic models, employing porosity and pore pressure as basic variables for describing the "pore fluid," are not adequate for the description of these systems. There is neither a static geometric structure to which porosity can sensibly be assigned nor arrangements of water molecules that are adequately described by giving them a pressure. We employ molar concentration of water and chemical potential to describe the state of the "pore fluid" and stress-strain as mechanical variables. A thermodynamic description is developed using a model energy function having mechanical, fluid, and fluid-mechanical coupling contributions. The parameters in this model energy are fixed by the output of the initial simulation and validated with the results of further simulation. The poroelastic properties, e.g., swelling and mechanical response, are found to be functions both of the molar concentration of water and the stress. The basic fluid-mechanical coupling coefficient, the swelling coefficient, depends on the molar concentration of water and stress and is interpreted in terms of porosity change and solid matrix deformation. The difference between drained and undrained bulk stiffness is explained as is the dependence of these moduli on concentration and stress.

  6. Drug binding to human serum albumin: abridged review of results obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography and circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Giorgio A; Domenici, Enrico; Bertucci, Carlo

    2006-09-01

    The drug binding to plasma and tissue proteins are fundamental factors in determining the overall pharmacological activity of a drug. Human serum albumin (HSA), together with alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), are the most important plasma proteins, which act as drug carriers, with drug pharmacokinetic implications, resulting in important clinical impacts for drugs that have a relatively narrow therapeutic index. This review focuses on the combination of biochromatography and circular dichroism as an effective approach for the characterization of albumin binding sites and their enantioselectivity. Furthermore, their applications to the study of changes in the binding properties of the protein arising by the reversible or covalent binding of drugs are discussed, and examples of physiological relevance reported. Perspectives of these studies reside in supporting the development of new drugs, which require miniaturization to facilitate the screening of classes of compounds for their binding to the target protein, and a deeper characterization of the mechanisms involved in the molecular recognition processes.

  7. Exact results for car accidents in a traffic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    1998-07-01

    Within the framework of a recent model for car accidents on single-lane highway traffic, we study analytically the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. Exact results are obtained. Various scaling behaviours are observed. The linear dependence of the occurrence of car accidents on density is understood as the dominance of a single velocity in the distribution.

  8. Comparison of results obtained with keratophakia, hypermetropic keratomileusis, intraocular lens implantation, and extended-wear contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, C A

    1983-01-01

    The limited experience with LRK precludes a valid comparison with IOLs and extended-wear contact lenses. Only observations, unsupported by valid statistical analysis, are possible. Some of these observations follow. Technically, LRK is very difficult. In their present form, the classic Barraquer procedures could never be used widely. However, if lenticle banks were to supply preground lenticles, the level of difficulty of LRK procedures would be comparable to IOL implantation. The magnitude of refractive correction possible with LRK compares favorably with that of contact lenses and IOLs. However, the accuracy of achieving a given correction is lower with LRK. Unlike contact lenses or IOLs, LRK induces both regular and irregular astigmatism. The latter accounts, in part, for the delayed visual result with LRK. The percentage of patients with 20/40 or better vision following LRK compares favorably with the percentages for contact lenses or IOLs, whereas the percentage of patients with 20/25 or better vision does not. This is true for at least 1 year following surgery. Compared to extended-wear contact lenses, IOLs and LRK typically require less commitment, fewer postoperative visits, and less expenditure by the patient, in terms of time and money, to achieve full-time correction. Although LRK is associated with a number of postoperative complications, none are known to be intraocular, and there have been no known reports of permanent severe visual loss. In contrast, the patient with an extended-wear contact lens or IOL is permanently at risk to develop sight-threatening complications. This is not the case with LRK, which has no known complications after the early postoperative period. Application of the IOL or extended-wear contact lens to the neonate or pediatric patient is associated with increased risk and difficulty. This may not be true with LRK, especially epikeratophakia. The major advantages of LRK appear to be permanent optical correction without the threat

  9. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained.

  10. Properties of the prominence magnetic field and plasma distributions as obtained from 3D whole-prominence fine structure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunár, S.; Mackay, D. H.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We analyze distributions of the magnetic field strength and prominence plasma (temperature, pressure, plasma β, and mass) using the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. Methods: The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence, obtained from non-linear force-free field simulations, with a detailed semi-empirically derived description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Results: We show that in the modeled prominence, the variations of the magnetic field strength and its orientation are insignificant on scales comparable to the smallest dimensions of the observed prominence fine structures. We also show the ability of the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to reveal the distribution of the prominence plasma with respect to its temperature within the prominence volume. This provides new insights into the composition of the prominence-corona transition region. We further demonstrate that the values of the plasma β are small throughout the majority of the modeled prominences when realistic photospheric magnetic flux distributions and prominence plasma parameters are assumed. While this is generally true, we also find that in the region with the deepest magnetic dips, the plasma β may increase towards unity. Finally, we show that the mass of the modeled prominence plasma is in good agreement with the mass of observed non-eruptive prominences.

  11. Life cycle Prognostic Model Development and Initial Application Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, Brien; Hines, Wesley; Nam, Alan; Sharp, Michael; Upadhyaya, Belle [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2014-08-15

    In order to obtain more accurate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) estimates based on empirical modeling, a Lifecycle Prognostics algorithm was developed that integrates various prognostic models. These models can be categorized into three types based on the type of data they process. The application of multiple models takes advantage of the most useful information available as the system or component operates through its lifecycle. The Lifecycle Prognostics is applied to an impeller test bed, and the initial results serve as a proof of concept.

  12. Measurements using orthodontic analysis software on digital models obtained by 3D scans of plaster casts : Intrarater reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Judith; Hey, Jeremias; Fuhrmann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the reliability and validity of measurements performed on digital models with a desktop scanner and analysis software in comparison with measurements performed manually on conventional plaster casts. A total of 20 pairs of plaster casts reflecting the intraoral conditions of 20 fully dentate individuals were digitized using a three-dimensional scanner (D700; 3Shape). A series of defined parameters were measured both on the resultant digital models with analysis software (Ortho Analyzer; 3Shape) and on the original plaster casts with a digital caliper (Digimatic CD-15DCX; Mitutoyo). Both measurement series were repeated twice and analyzed for intrarater reliability based on intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The results from the digital models were evaluated for their validity against the casts by calculating mean-value differences and associated 95 % limits of agreement (Bland-Altman method). Statistically significant differences were identified via a paired t test. Significant differences were obtained for 16 of 24 tooth-width measurements, for 2 of 5 sites of contact-point displacement in the mandibular anterior segment, for overbite, for maxillary intermolar distance, for Little's irregularity index, and for the summation indices of maxillary and mandibular incisor width. Overall, however, both the mean differences between the results obtained on the digital models versus on the plaster casts and the dispersion ranges associated with these differences suggest that the deviations incurred by the digital measuring technique are not clinically significant. Digital models are adequately reproducible and valid to be employed for routine measurements in orthodontic practice.

  13. Detection probability models for bacteria, and how to obtain them from heterogeneous spiking data. An application to Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedell, Ronny; Stephansson, Olga; Mostad, Petter; Andersson, Mats Gunnar

    2017-01-16

    Efficient and correct evaluation of sampling results with respect to hypotheses about the concentration or distribution of bacteria generally requires knowledge about the performance of the detection method. To assess the sensitivity of the detection method an experiment is usually performed where the target matrix is spiked (i.e. artificially contaminated) with different concentrations of the bacteria, followed by analyses of the samples using the pre-enrichment method and the analytical detection method of interest. For safety reasons or because of economic or time limits it is not always possible to perform exactly such an experiment, with the desired number of samples. In this paper, we show how heterogeneous data from diverse sources may be combined within a single model to obtain not only estimates of detection probabilities, but also, crucially, uncertainty estimates. We indicate how such results can then be used to obtain optimal conclusions about presence of bacteria, and illustrate how strongly the sampling results speak in favour of or against contamination. In our example, we consider the case when B. cereus is used as surrogate for B. anthracis, for safety reasons. The statistical modelling of the detection probabilities and of the growth characteristics of the bacteria types is based on data from four experiments where different matrices of food were spiked with B. anthracis or B. cereus and analysed using plate counts and qPCR. We show how flexible and complex Bayesian models, together with inference tools such as OpenBUGS, can be used to merge information about detection probability curves. Two different modelling approaches, differing in whether the pre-enrichment step and the PCR detection step are modelled separately or together, are applied. The relative importance on the detection curves for various existing data sets are evaluated and illustrated.

  14. Comparison of speciation sampler and PC-BOSS fine particulate matter organic material results obtained in Lindon, Utah, during winter 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Cory; Eatough, Norman L; Eatough, Delbert J; Olson, Neal; Long, Russell W

    2008-01-01

    The Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS) has been previously verified as being capable of measuring total fine particulate matter (PM2.5), including semi-volatile species. The present study was conducted to determine if the simple modification of a commercial speciation sampler with a charcoal denuder followed by a filter pack containing a quartz filter and a charcoal-impregnated glass (CIG) fiber filter would allow for the measurement of total PM2.5, including semi-volatile organic material. Data were collected using an R&P (Rupprecht and Pastasnik Co., Inc.) Partisol Model 2300 speciation sampler; an R&P Partisol speciation sampler modified with a BOSS denuder, followed by a filter pack with a quartz and a CIG filter; a Met One spiral aerosol speciation sampler (SASS); and the PC-BOSS from November 2001 to March 2002 at a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) sampling site in Lindon, UT. Total PM2.5 mass, ammonium nitrate (both nonvolatile and semi-volatile), ammonium sulfate, organic carbon (both non-volatile and semi-volatile), and elemental carbon were determined on a 24-hr basis. Results obtained with the individual samplers were compared to determine the capability of the modified R&P speciation sampler for measuring total PM2.5, including semi-volatile components. Data obtained with the modified speciation sampler agreed with the PC-BOSS results. Data obtained with the two unmodified speciation samplers were low by an average of 26% because of the loss of semi-volatile organic material from the quartz filter during sample collection.

  15. Electrolytes assessed by point-of-care testing - Are the values comparable with results obtained from the central laboratory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binila Chacko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: When dealing with very sick patients, the speed and accuracy of tests to detect metabolic derangements is very important. We evaluated if there was agreement between whole blood electrolytes measured by a point-of-care device and serum electrolytes measured using indirect ion-selective electrodes. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, electrolytes were analyzed in 44 paired samples drawn from critically ill patients. Whole blood electrolytes were analyzed using a point-of-care blood gas analyzer and serum electrolytes were analyzed in the central laboratory on samples transported through a rapid transit pneumatic system. Agreement was summarized by the mean difference with 95% limits of agreement (LOA and Lin′s concordance correlation (p c. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean (±standard deviation sodium value between whole blood and serum samples (135.8 ± 5.7 mmol/L vs. 139.9 ± 5.4 mmol/L, P < 0.001, with the agreement being modest (p c = 0.71; mean difference -4.0; 95% LOA -8.78 to 0.65. Although the agreement between whole blood and serum potassium was good (p c = 0.96, and the average difference small (-0.3; 95% LOA -0.72 to 0.13, individual differences were clinically significant, particularly at lower potassium values. For potassium values <3.0 mmol/L, the concordance was low (p c = 0.53 and the LOA was wide (1.0 to -0.13. The concordance for potassium was good (p c = 0.96 for values ≥3.0 (mean difference -0.2; 95% LOA -0.48 to 0.06. Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of the difference between whole blood and serum electrolytes, particularly when urgent samples are tested at point of care and routine follow-up electrolytes are sent to the central laboratory. A correction factor needs to be determined at each center.

  16. On the vortical motions in the Black Sea obtained by the 3-D hydrothermodynamical numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Demetrashvili

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some results of simulation of the Black Sea circulation with consideration of forcing of different averaged wind types by using 3-D prognostic baroclinic model are presented. The results allow us to consider all depth of the sea basin consisting of some relatively homogeneous sub-layers. Within each of them general circulation processes practically do not change by depth, but essentially change from layer to layer. Such character of changeability interpreted by us as a steepness of the Black Sea general circulation takes place in majority cases of climatic atmospheric wind forcing. In the present paper results are analyzed on an example of forcing of January atmospheric cyclonic vortex with ~250 km diameter. Under such forcing the Ekman surface layer of ~12 m thickness is created. The cyclonic vortex formed in the east part of the Black Sea, which is Taylor-Proudman potential vortex with vertical cylindrical configuration, is described in detail. The vertical distribution of vortex characteristics are given in figures: Brunt-Väisälä frequency and Richardson number taken near the vortex wall with maximal velocity. The viable vortexes are characterized by introduced the universal Reynolds number Re.

  17. Distributional behavior of diffusion coefficients obtained by single trajectories in annealed transit time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    Local diffusion coefficients in disordered systems such as spin glass systems and living cells are highly heterogeneous and may change over time. Such a time-dependent and spatially heterogeneous environment results in irreproducibility of single-particle-tracking measurements. Irreproducibility of time-averaged observables has been theoretically studied in the context of weak ergodicity breaking in stochastic processes. Here, we provide rigorous descriptions of equilibrium and non-equilibrium diffusion processes for the annealed transit time model, which is a heterogeneous diffusion model in living cells. We give analytical solutions for the mean square displacement (MSD) and the relative standard deviation of the time-averaged MSD for equilibrium and non-equilibrium situations. We find that the time-averaged MSD grows linearly with time and that the time-averaged diffusion coefficients are intrinsically random (irreproducible) even in the long-time measurements in non-equilibrium situations. Furthermore, the distribution of the time-averaged diffusion coefficients converges to a universal distribution in the sense that it does not depend on initial conditions. Our findings pave the way for a theoretical understanding of distributional behavior of the time-averaged diffusion coefficients in disordered systems.

  18. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: An Automated Procedure to Obtain Coil-specific Models for Field Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Ewald, Lars; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Field calculations for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly implemented online in neuronavigation systems and in more realistic offline approaches based on finite-element methods. They are often based on simplified and/or non-validated models of the magnetic vector...... potential of the TMS coils. Objective: To develop an approach to reconstruct the magnetic vector potential based on automated measurements. Methods: We implemented a setup that simultaneously measures the three components of the magnetic field with high spatial resolution. This is complemented by a novel...... approach to determine the magnetic vector potential via volume integration of the measured field. Results: The integration approach reproduces the vector potential with very good accuracy. The vector potential distribution of a standard figure-of-eight shaped coil determined with our setup corresponds well...

  19. Multi body model approach to obtain construction criteria for a large space structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, M.; Shigedomi, Y.

    Such natural environmental torques as the gravity gradient could substantially influence the attitude behavior of a large space structure, especially in a low Earth orbit. This paper has tried to introduce the basic criteria for constructing a large structure in low-orbit environment, by using the Solar Power Satellite as a model. The criteria can be derived from the static stability map from the rigid body equations and the dynamic behavior from the multi body equations. The multi-body octopus type equations of motion has been introduced to examine transient behaviors during construction. Specifically, inertia matrix change including unsymmetrical configuration change, construction speed and internal momentum change are considered. These results from the transient behavior studies are included, in a general level, in a set of construction criteria.

  20. A presentation of base heating data obtained from the 25-O space shuttle model at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, K. C.

    1974-01-01

    During development of the 25-O space shuttle model, several test firings were made in a vacuum chamber at simulated altitude conditions in order to verify satisfactory ignition and operation of the model in a high altitude environment. In conjunction with these firings, heating rate and pressure measurements were obtained at several locations in the orbiter base region on a piggy-back basis. Data obtained during these experiments are summarized, the 25-O space shuttle model is described.

  1. Value of the distant future: Model-independent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that the model-independent account of correlations in an interest rate process or a log-consumption growth process leads to declining long-term tails of discount curves. Under the assumption of an exponentially decaying memory in fluctuations of risk-free real interest rates, I derive the analytical expression for an apt value of the long run discount factor and provide a detailed comparison of the obtained result with the outcome of the benchmark risk-free interest rate models. Utilizing the standard consumption-based model with an isoelastic power utility of the representative economic agent, I derive the non-Markovian generalization of the Ramsey discounting formula. Obtained analytical results allowing simple calibration, may augment the rigorous cost-benefit and regulatory impact analysis of long-term environmental and infrastructure projects.

  2. Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros

    2008-08-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

  3. The Danish national passenger modelModel specification and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Hansen, Christian Overgaard

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of the new Danish National Passenger model and provides on this basis a general discussion of large-scale model design, cost-damping and model validation. The paper aims at providing three main contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, at the general level......, the paper provides a description of a large-scale forecast model with a discussion of the linkage between population synthesis, demand and assignment. Secondly, the paper gives specific attention to model specification and in particular choice of functional form and cost-damping. Specifically we suggest...... a family of logarithmic spline functions and illustrate how it is applied in the model. Thirdly and finally, we evaluate model sensitivity and performance by evaluating the distance distribution and elasticities. In the paper we present results where the spline-function is compared with more traditional...

  4. A nonlinear mixed-effects model for degradation data obtained from in-service inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, X.-X. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pandey, M.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: mdpandey@uwaterloo.ca

    2009-02-15

    Monitoring of degradation and predicting its progression using periodic inspection data are important to ensure safety and reliability of engineering systems. Traditional regression models are inadequate in modeling the periodic inspection data, as it ignores units specific random effects and potential correlation among repeated measurements. This paper presents an advanced nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) model, generally adopted in bio-statistical literature, for modeling and predicting degradation in nuclear piping system. The proposed model offers considerable improvement by reducing the variance associated with degradation of a specific unit, which leads to more realistic estimates of risk.

  5. Constraining hybrid inflation models with WMAP three-year results

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, A

    2006-01-01

    We reconsider the original model of quadratic hybrid inflation in light of the WMAP three-year results and study the possibility of obtaining a spectral index of primordial density perturbations, $n_s$, smaller than one from this model. The original hybrid inflation model naturally predicts $n_s\\geq1$ in the false vacuum dominated regime but it is also possible to have $n_s<1$ when the quadratic term dominates. We therefore investigate whether there is also an intermediate regime compatible with the latest constraints, where the scalar field value during the last 50 e-folds of inflation is less than the Planck scale.

  6. Use of weather research and forecasting model outputs to obtain near-surface refractive index structure constant over the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Chun; Wu, Xiaoqing; Li, Xuebin; Zhu, Wenyue; Qiao, Chunhong; Rao, Ruizhong; Mei, Haipin

    2016-06-13

    The methods to obtain atmospheric refractive index structure constant (Cn2) by instrument measurement are limited spatially and temporally and they are more difficult and expensive over the ocean. It is useful to forecast Cn2 effectively from Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) outputs. This paper introduces a method that WRF Model is used to forecast the routine meteorological parameters firstly, and then Cn2 is calculated based on these parameters by the Bulk model from the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) over the ocean near-surface. The corresponding Cn2 values measured by the micro-thermometer which is placed on the ship are compared with the ones forecasted by WRF model to determine how this method performs. The result shows that the forecasted Cn2 is consistent with the measured Cn2 in trend and the order of magnitude as a whole, as well as the correlation coefficient is up to 77.57%. This method can forecast some essential aspects of Cn2 and almost always captures the correct magnitude of Cn2, which experiences fluctuations of two orders of magnitude. Thus, it seems to be a feasible and meaningful method that using WRF model to forecast near-surface Cn2 value over the ocean.

  7. Combined drug and surgery treatment of plutonium-contaminated wounds: indications obtained using a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Nina M; Coudert, Sylvie; Wilk, Jean Claude; Renault, Daniel; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2014-06-01

    There is an important requirement following accidental actinide contamination of wounds to limit the dissemination and retention of such alpha-emitting radionuclides. To reduce wound and systemic contamination, treatment approaches include chelation therapy with or without wound excision. However, it has been hypothesized that wound excision could lead to increased contaminant release and systemic organ retention. This study in the rat addresses this question. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with plutonium nitrate following wounding by deep incision of hind leg muscle. Excision of tissue at the contaminated site was performed 7 d later with or without Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) treatment (30 μmol kg⁻¹ i.v.). Pu urinary excretion was then measured for a further 3 d, and animals were euthanized at 14 d after contamination. Tissue samples were evaluated for Pu activity and histology. At 7 d after contamination, around 50% of the initial activity remained at the wound site. An average of 16% of this activity was then removed by surgery. Surgery alone resulted in increased urinary excretion, suggesting release from the wound site, but no subsequent increases in organ retention (bone, liver) were observed at 14 d. Indeed, organ Pu activity was slightly reduced. The combination of surgery and DTPA or DTPA treatment alone was much more effective than excision alone as shown by the markedly increased urinary Pu excretion and decreased tissue levels. This is the first report in an experimental rodent model of resection of Pu-contaminated wound. Urinary excretion data provide evidence for the release of activity as a result of surgery, but this does not appear to lead to further Pu organ retention. However, a combination of prior DTPA treatment with wound excision is particularly effective.

  8. Comparison of finite difference based methods to obtain sensitivities of stochastic chemical kinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Anderson, David F; Rawlings, James B

    2013-02-21

    Sensitivity analysis is a powerful tool in determining parameters to which the system output is most responsive, in assessing robustness of the system to extreme circumstances or unusual environmental conditions, in identifying rate limiting pathways as a candidate for drug delivery, and in parameter estimation for calculating the Hessian of the objective function. Anderson [SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 50, 2237 (2012)] shows the advantages of the newly developed coupled finite difference (CFD) estimator over the common reaction path (CRP) [M. Rathinam, P. W. Sheppard, and M. Khammash, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 034103 (2010)] estimator. In this paper, we demonstrate the superiority of the CFD estimator over the common random number (CRN) estimator in a number of scenarios not considered previously in the literature, including the sensitivity of a negative log likelihood function for parameter estimation, the sensitivity of being in a rare state, and a sensitivity with fast fluctuating species. In all examples considered, the superiority of CFD over CRN is demonstrated. We also provide an example in which the CRN method is superior to the CRP method, something not previously observed in the literature. These examples, along with Anderson's results, lead to the conclusion that CFD is currently the best estimator in the class of finite difference estimators of stochastic chemical kinetic models.

  9. Comparative morphometry of facial surface models obtained from a stereo vision system in a healthy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Leticia; Gastélum, Alfonso; Chan, Yuk Hin; Delmas, Patrice; Escorcia, Lilia; Márquez, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    Our goal is to obtain three-dimensional measurements of craniofacial morphology in a healthy population, using standard landmarks established by a physical-anthropology specialist and picked from computer reconstructions of the face of each subject. To do this, we designed a multi-stereo vision system that will be used to create a data base of human faces surfaces from a healthy population, for eventual applications in medicine, forensic sciences and anthropology. The acquisition process consists of obtaining the depth map information from three points of views, each depth map is obtained from a calibrated pair of cameras. The depth maps are used to build a complete, frontal, triangular-surface representation of the subject face. The triangular surface is used to locate the landmarks and the measurements are analyzed with a MATLAB script. The classification of the subjects was done with the aid of a specialist anthropologist that defines specific subject indices, according to the lengths, areas, ratios, etc., of the different structures and the relationships among facial features. We studied a healthy population and the indices from this population will be used to obtain representative averages that later help with the study and classification of possible pathologies.

  10. An Evaluation of Residual Feed Intake Estimates Obtained with Computer Models Versus Empirical Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on individual daily feed intake, bi-weekly BW, and carcass composition were obtained on 1,212 crossbred steers, in Cycle VII of the Germplasm Evaluation Project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Within animal regressions of cumulative feed intake and BW on linear and quadratic days on fe...

  11. CMS standard model Higgs boson results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Abia Pablo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012 CMS announced the discovery of a new boson with properties resembling those of the long-sought Higgs boson. The analysis of the proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb−1 at √s = 7 TeV and 19.6 fb−1 at √s = 8 TeV, confirm the Higgs-like nature of the new boson, with a signal strength associated with vector bosons and fermions consistent with the expectations for a standard model (SM Higgs boson, and spin-parity clearly favouring the scalar nature of the new boson. In this note I review the updated results of the CMS experiment.

  12. Updated Results for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Robert E.; Lai, David Y.; Delisi, Donald P.; Mellman, George R.

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an Inverse Model for inverting aircraft wake vortex data. The objective of the inverse modeling is to obtain estimates of the vortex circulation decay and crosswind vertical profiles, using time history measurements of the lateral and vertical position of aircraft vortices. The Inverse Model performs iterative forward model runs using estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Outputs from an Inverse Model run are the best estimates of the time history of the vortex circulation derived from the observed data, the vertical crosswind profile, and several vortex parameters. The forward model, named SHRAPA, used in this inverse modeling is a modified version of the Shear-APA model, and it is described in Section 2 of this document. Details of the Inverse Model are presented in Section 3. The Inverse Model was applied to lidar-observed vortex data at three airports: FAA acquired data from San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and Denver International Airport (DEN), and NASA acquired data from Memphis International Airport (MEM). The results are compared with observed data. This Inverse Model validation is documented in Section 4. A summary is given in Section 5. A user's guide for the inverse wake vortex model is presented in a separate NorthWest Research Associates technical report (Lai and Delisi, 2007a).

  13. Evaluation of conditional non-linear optimal perturbation obtained by an ensemble-based approach using the Lorenz-63 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Yin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose to implement conditional non-linear optimal perturbation related to model parameters (CNOP-P through an ensemble-based approach. The approach was first used in our earlier study and is improved to be suitable for calculating CNOP-P. Idealised experiments using the Lorenz-63 model are conducted to evaluate the performance of the improved ensemble-based approach. The results show that the maximum prediction error after optimisation has been multiplied manifold compared with the initial-guess prediction error, and is extremely close to, or greater than, the maximum value of the exhaustive attack method (a million random samples. The calculation of CNOP-P by the ensemble-based approach is capable of maintaining a high accuracy over a long prediction time under different constraints and initial conditions. Further, the CNOP-P obtained by the approach is applied to sensitivity analysis of the Lorenz-63 model. The sensitivity analysis indicates that when the prediction time is set to 0.2 time units, the Lorenz-63 model becomes extremely insensitive to one parameter, which leaves the other two parameters to affect the uncertainty of the model. Finally, a serial of parameter estimation experiments are performed to verify sensitivity analysis. It is found that when the three parameters are estimated simultaneously, the insensitive parameter is estimated much worse, but the Lorenz-63 model can still generate a very good simulation thanks to the relatively accurate values of the other two parameters. When only two sensitive parameters are estimated simultaneously and the insensitive parameter is left to be non-optimised, the outcome is better than the case when the three parameters are estimated simultaneously. With the increase of prediction time and observation, however, the model sensitivity to the insensitive parameter increases accordingly and the insensitive parameter can also be estimated successfully.

  14. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.

  15. Obtaining a Pragmatic Representation of Fire Disturbance in Dynamic Vegetation Models by Assimilating Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzas, Euripides; Quegan, Shaun

    2015-04-01

    Fire constitutes a violent and unpredictable pathway of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere into the atmosphere. Despite fire emissions being in many biomes of similar magnitude to that of Net Ecosystem Exchange, even the most complex Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs) embedded in IPCC General Circulation Models poorly represent fire behavior and dynamics, a fact which still remains understated. As DVMs operate on a deterministic, grid cell-by-grid cell basis they are unable to describe a host of important fire characteristics such as its propagation, magnitude of area burned and stochastic nature. Here we address these issues by describing a model-independent methodology which assimilates Earth Observation (EO) data by employing image analysis techniques and algorithms to offer a realistic fire disturbance regime in a DVM. This novel approach, with minimum model restructuring, manages to retain the Fire Return Interval produced by the model whilst assigning pragmatic characteristics to its fire outputs thus allowing realistic simulations of fire-related processes such as carbon injection into the atmosphere and permafrost degradation. We focus our simulations in the Arctic and specifically Canada and Russia and we offer a snippet of how this approach permits models to engage in post-fire dynamics hitherto absent from any other model regardless of complexity.

  16. Accurate nonlinear modeling for flexible manipulators using mixed finite element formulation in order to obtain maximum allowable load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.

  17. A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed‐effects models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Schielzeth, Holger; O'Hara, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    The use of both linear and generalized linear mixed‐effects models ( LMM s and GLMM s) has become popular not only in social and medical sciences, but also in biological sciences, especially in the field of ecology and evolution...

  18. A Nonminimal SO(10) x U(1)-F SUSY GUT model obtained from a bottom up approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, Carl H.

    1996-08-01

    Many of the ingredients are explored which are needed to develop a super- symmetric SO(10) x U(1)_F grand unified model based on the Yukawa structure of a model previously constructed in collaboration with S. Nandi to explain the quark and lepton masses and mixings in a particular neutrino scenario. The U(1)_F family symmetry can be made anomaly-free with the introduction of one conjugate pair of SO(10)-singlet neutrinos with the same U(1)_F charge. Due to a plethora of conjugate pairs of supermultiplets, the model develops a Landau singularity within a factor of 1.5 above the GUT scale. With the imposition of a Z_2 discrete symmetry and under certain conditions, all higgsino triplets can be made superheavy while just one pair of higgsino doublets remains light and results in mass matrix textures previously obtained from the bottom-up approach. Diametrically opposite splitting of the first and third family scalar quark and lepton masses away from the second family ones results from the nonuniversal D-term contributions.

  19. Multi-Model Combination techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajami, N K; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

    2005-04-11

    This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multi-model Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

  20. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.; Hakim, V.; Pasquier, V.

    1993-11-01

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices.

  1. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M.R.; Pasquier, V. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Hakim, V. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-12-31

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices. (author).

  2. APPLYING LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL TO THE EXAMINATION RESULTS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary logistic regression model is used to analyze the school examination results(scores of 1002 students. The analysis is performed on the basis of the independent variables viz.gender, medium of instruction, type of schools, category of schools, board of examinations andlocation of schools, where scores or marks are assumed to be dependent variables. The odds ratioanalysis compares the scores obtained in two examinations viz. matriculation and highersecondary.

  3. Analytical results for a three-phase traffic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2003-10-01

    We study analytically a cellular automaton model, which is able to present three different traffic phases on a homogeneous highway. The characteristics displayed in the fundamental diagram can be well discerned by analyzing the evolution of density configurations. Analytical expressions for the traffic flow and shock speed are obtained. The synchronized flow in the intermediate-density region is the result of aggressive driving scheme and determined mainly by the stochastic noise.

  4. A comparison of two methods for prediction of response and rates of inbreeding in selected populations with the results obtained in two selection experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loywyck, V.; Bijma, P.; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Verrier, E.

    2005-01-01

    Selection programmes are mainly concerned with increasing genetic gain. However, short-term progress should not be obtained at the expense of the within-population genetic variability. Different prediction models for the evolution within a small population of the genetic mean of a selected trait, it

  5. Multi-Model Combination Techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajami, N; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

    2006-05-08

    This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multimodel Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

  6. Assessing the quality of digital elevation models obtained from mini unmanned aerial vehicles for overland flow modelling in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João P.; Moy de Vitry, Matthew; Scheidegger, Andreas; Rieckermann, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Precise and detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are essential to accurately predict overland flow in urban areas. Unfortunately, traditional sources of DEM, such as airplane light detection and ranging (lidar) DEMs and point and contour maps, remain a bottleneck for detailed and reliable overland flow models, because the resulting DEMs are too coarse to provide DEMs of sufficient detail to inform urban overland flows. Interestingly, technological developments of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) suggest that they have matured enough to be a competitive alternative to satellites or airplanes. However, this has not been tested so far. In this study we therefore evaluated whether DEMs generated from UAV imagery are suitable for urban drainage overland flow modelling. Specifically, 14 UAV flights were conducted to assess the influence of four different flight parameters on the quality of generated DEMs: (i) flight altitude, (ii) image overlapping, (iii) camera pitch, and (iv) weather conditions. In addition, we compared the best-quality UAV DEM to a conventional lidar-based DEM. To evaluate both the quality of the UAV DEMs and the comparison to lidar-based DEMs, we performed regression analysis on several qualitative and quantitative metrics, such as elevation accuracy, quality of object representation (e.g. buildings, walls and trees) in the DEM, which were specifically tailored to assess overland flow modelling performance, using the flight parameters as explanatory variables. Our results suggested that, first, as expected, flight altitude influenced the DEM quality most, where lower flights produce better DEMs; in a similar fashion, overcast weather conditions are preferable, but weather conditions and other factors influence DEM quality much less. Second, we found that for urban overland flow modelling, the UAV DEMs performed competitively in comparison to a traditional lidar-based DEM. An important advantage of using UAVs to generate DEMs in urban areas is

  7. Revisiting Runoff Model Calibration: Airborne Snow Observatory Results Allow Improved Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, B. J.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Deterministic snow accumulation and ablation simulation models are widely used by runoff managers throughout the world to predict runoff quantities and timing. Model fitting is typically based on matching modeled runoff volumes and timing with observed flow time series at a few points in the basin. In recent decades, sparse networks of point measurements of the mountain snowpacks have been available to compare with modeled snowpack, but the comparability of results from a snow sensor or course to model polygons of 5 to 50 sq. km is suspect. However, snowpack extent, depth, and derived snow water equivalent have been produced by the NASA/JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) mission for spring of 20013 and 2014 in the Tuolumne River basin above Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. These high-resolution snowpack data have exposed the weakness in a model calibration based on runoff alone. The U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) calibration that was based on 30-years of inflow to Hetch Hetchy produces reasonable inflow results, but modeled spatial snowpack location and water quantity diverged significantly from the weekly measurements made by ASO during the two ablation seasons. The reason is that the PRMS model has many flow paths, storages, and water transfer equations, and a calibrated outflow time series can be right for many wrong reasons. The addition of a detailed knowledge of snow extent and water content constrains the model so that it is a better representation of the actual watershed hydrology. The mechanics of recalibrating PRMS to the ASO measurements will be described, and comparisons in observed versus modeled flow for both a small subbasin and the entire Hetch Hetchy basin will be shown. The recalibrated model provided a bitter fit to the snowmelt recession, a key factor for water managers as they balance declining inflows with demand for power generation and ecosystem releases during the final months of snow melt runoff.

  8. Ground Signatures of EMIC Waves obtained From a 3D Global Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.; Zong, Q.; Zhang, L.

    2016-12-01

    EMIC waves generated in the inner magnetosphere are important drivers of radiation belt particle loss. Van Allen Probes and ground observations of EMIC waves suggest that localized magnetospheric sources inject waves that are guided along geomagnetic field lines and then reflected and refracted in the low altitude magnetosphere [Kim, E.-H., and J. R. Johnson (2016), Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 13-21, doi:10.1002/2015GL066978] before entering the ionosphere. The waves then spread horizontally within the F-region waveguide and propagate to the ground. To understand the observed properties of EMIC waves, a global 3D model of ULF waves in Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and neutral atmosphere has been developed. The simulation domain extends from Earth's surface to a spherical boundary a few tens of thousands of km in radius. The model uses spherical coordinates and incorporates an overset Yin-Yang grid that eliminates the singularity at the polar axis and improves uniformity of the grid in the polar areas [Kageyama, A., and T. Sato (2004), Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q09005, doi:10.1029/2004GC000734]. The geomagnetic field in the model is general, but is dipole in this study. The plasma is described as a set of electron and multiple species ion conducting fluids. Realistic 3D density profiles of various ion species as well as thermospheric parameters are provided by the Canadian Ionosphere Atmosphere Model (C-IAM) [Martynenko O.V. et al. (2014), J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 120, 51-61, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2014.08.014]. The global ULF wave model is applied to study propagation of EMIC waves excited in the equatorial plane near L=7. Wave propagation along field lines, reflection and refraction in the zone of critical frequencies, and further propagation through the ionosphere to the ground are discussed.

  9. Modeling Malaysia's Energy System: Some Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The current dynamic and fragile world energy environment necessitates the development of new energy model that solely caters to analyze Malaysias energy scenarios. Approach: The model is a network flow model that traces the flow of energy carriers from its sources (import and mining) through some conversion and transformation processes for the production of energy products to final destinations (energy demand sectors). The integration to the economic sectors is done exogene...

  10. Modeling of the selective pertraction of carboxylic acids obtained by citric fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Facilitated pertraction was applied for the selective separation of citric, maleic and succinic acids from a mixture obtained by citric fermentation. The pertraction equipment included a U-shaped cell containing 1,2-dichloro-ethane as the liquid membrane and Amberlite LA-2 as the carrier. The experimental data indicated that maleic and succinic acids can be initially selectively separated from citric acid, followed by the selectively separation of maleic acid from succinic acid. Using statistical analysis and a second order factorial experiment, two mathematical correlations describing the influence of the main process variables on pertraction selectivity were established. For both extraction systems, the considered variables controlled the extraction process to an extent of 92.9-99.9%, the carrier concentration inside the liquid membrane exhibiting the most important influence.

  11. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan

  12. A microscopic "social norm" model to obtain realistic macroscopic velocity and density pedestrian distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Zanlungo

    Full Text Available We propose a way to introduce in microscopic pedestrian models a "social norm" in collision avoiding and overtaking, i.e. the tendency, shared by pedestrians belonging to the same culture, to avoid collisions and perform overtaking in a preferred direction. The "social norm" is implemented, regardless of the specific collision avoiding model, as a rotation in the perceived velocity vector of the opponent at the moment of computation of the collision avoiding strategy, and justified as an expectation that the opponent will follow the same "social norm" (for example a tendency to avoid on the left and overtake on the right, as proposed in this work for Japanese pedestrians. By comparing with real world data, we show that the introduction of this norm allows for a better reproduction of macroscopic pedestrian density and velocity patterns.

  13. Modeling of Production and Quality of Bioethanol Obtained from Sugarcane Fermentation Using Direct Dissolved Sugars Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Velazquez-Marti; Sergio Pérez-Pacheco; Juan Gaibor-Chávez; Paola Wilcaso

    2016-01-01

    Bioethanol production from sugarcane represents an opportunity for urban-agricultural development in small communities of Ecuador. Despite the fact that the industry for bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is fully developed, it is still considered expensive as a small rural business. In order to be able to reduce the costs of monitoring the production process, and avoid the application of expensive sensors, the aim of this research was modeling the kinetics of production of bioeth...

  14. Solving the Boltzmann equation to obtain electron transport coefficients and rate coefficients for fluid models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelaar, G J M; Pitchford, L C [Centre de Physique des Plasmas et de leurs Applications de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2005-11-15

    Fluid models of gas discharges require the input of transport coefficients and rate coefficients that depend on the electron energy distribution function. Such coefficients are usually calculated from collision cross-section data by solving the electron Boltzmann equation (BE). In this paper we present a new user-friendly BE solver developed especially for this purpose, freely available under the name BOLSIG+, which is more general and easier to use than most other BE solvers available. The solver provides steady-state solutions of the BE for electrons in a uniform electric field, using the classical two-term expansion, and is able to account for different growth models, quasi-stationary and oscillating fields, electron-neutral collisions and electron-electron collisions. We show that for the approximations we use, the BE takes the form of a convection-diffusion continuity-equation with a non-local source term in energy space. To solve this equation we use an exponential scheme commonly used for convection-diffusion problems. The calculated electron transport coefficients and rate coefficients are defined so as to ensure maximum consistency with the fluid equations. We discuss how these coefficients are best used in fluid models and illustrate the influence of some essential parameters and approximations.

  15. Very fast road database verification using textured 3D city models obtained from airborne imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, Dimitri; Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Pohl, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    Road databases are known to be an important part of any geodata infrastructure, e.g. as the basis for urban planning or emergency services. Updating road databases for crisis events must be performed quickly and with the highest possible degree of automation. We present a semi-automatic algorithm for road verification using textured 3D city models, starting from aerial or even UAV-images. This algorithm contains two processes, which exchange input and output, but basically run independently from each other. These processes are textured urban terrain reconstruction and road verification. The first process contains a dense photogrammetric reconstruction of 3D geometry of the scene using depth maps. The second process is our core procedure, since it contains various methods for road verification. Each method represents a unique road model and a specific strategy, and thus is able to deal with a specific type of roads. Each method is designed to provide two probability distributions, where the first describes the state of a road object (correct, incorrect), and the second describes the state of its underlying road model (applicable, not applicable). Based on the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a single distribution that refers to three states: correct, incorrect, and unknown. With respect to the interaction of both processes, the normalized elevation map and the digital orthophoto generated during 3D reconstruction are the necessary input - together with initial road database entries - for the road verification process. If the entries of the database are too obsolete or not available at all, sensor data evaluation enables classification of the road pixels of the elevation map followed by road map extraction by means of vectorization and filtering of the geometrically and topologically inconsistent objects. Depending on the time issue and availability of a geo-database for buildings, the urban terrain reconstruction procedure has semantic models

  16. Modeling Self-Occlusions/Disocclusions in Dynamic Shape and Appearance Tracking for Obtaining Precise Shape

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao

    2013-05-01

    We present a method to determine the precise shape of a dynamic object from video. This problem is fundamental to computer vision, and has a number of applications, for example, 3D video/cinema post-production, activity recognition and augmented reality. Current tracking algorithms that determine precise shape can be roughly divided into two categories: 1) Global statistics partitioning methods, where the shape of the object is determined by discriminating global image statistics, and 2) Joint shape and appearance matching methods, where a template of the object from the previous frame is matched to the next image. The former is limited in cases of complex object appearance and cluttered background, where global statistics cannot distinguish between the object and background. The latter is able to cope with complex appearance and a cluttered background, but is limited in cases of camera viewpoint change and object articulation, which induce self-occlusions and self-disocclusions of the object of interest. The purpose of this thesis is to model self-occlusion/disocclusion phenomena in a joint shape and appearance tracking framework. We derive a non-linear dynamic model of the object shape and appearance taking into account occlusion phenomena, which is then used to infer self-occlusions/disocclusions, shape and appearance of the object in a variational optimization framework. To ensure robustness to other unmodeled phenomena that are present in real-video sequences, the Kalman filter is used for appearance updating. Experiments show that our method, which incorporates the modeling of self-occlusion/disocclusion, increases the accuracy of shape estimation in situations of viewpoint change and articulation, and out-performs current state-of-the-art methods for shape tracking.

  17. Evaluation of the chemical-enzymatic decellularization method for obtaining extracellular trachea matrixes in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Valencia, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different diseases may affect the trachea and, therefore, the quality of life. Tissue engineering may be a therapeutic alternative for patients with such diseases, using decellularized trachea matrixes seeded with cells from the recipient, which do not generate immune response and may even prevent rejection of zoo-transplants. Objective: To evaluate a decellularization method to obtain tracheal extracellular matrixes in the porcine model. Materials and methods: Two study groups, treated and control, were obtained from 5 porcine tracheas. A chemical-enzymatic method for decellularization was used. Histological analyses were performed with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichromic stain and safranin O. Biomechanical properties of both groups were evaluated by determining the Young modulus, maximum strength and deformation rate. Results: Compared to the controls, there was a 66 % decrease in the cell content in the treated specimens. Collagen was preserved and a reduction of glycosaminoglycans was detected. Biomechanical tests revealed a significant difference in the percentage of deformation, with no alteration of the remaining parameters. Conclusions: The evaluated decellularization method proved to be efficient to reduce the cellular content of porcine tracheas, with a considerable decrease in cost and production time. These advantages could make it a good option for the socio-economic Colombian conditions.

  18. Quantitative magnetospheric models: results and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Gombosi, T.; Csem Team

    Global magnetospheric models are indispensable tool that allow multi-point measurements to be put into global context Significant progress is achieved in global MHD modeling of magnetosphere structure and dynamics Medium resolution simulations confirm general topological pictures suggested by Dungey State of the art global models with adaptive grids allow performing simulations with highly resolved magnetopause and magnetotail current sheet Advanced high-resolution models are capable to reproduced transient phenomena such as FTEs associated with formation of flux ropes or plasma bubbles embedded into magnetopause and demonstrate generation of vortices at magnetospheric flanks On the other hand there is still controversy about the global state of the magnetosphere predicted by MHD models to the point of questioning the length of the magnetotail and the location of the reconnection sites within it For example for steady southwards IMF driving condition resistive MHD simulations produce steady configuration with almost stationary near-earth neutral line While there are plenty of observational evidences of periodic loading unloading cycle during long periods of southward IMF Successes and challenges in global modeling of magnetispheric dynamics will be addessed One of the major challenges is to quantify the interaction between large-scale global magnetospheric dynamics and microphysical processes in diffusion regions near reconnection sites Possible solutions to controversies will be discussed

  19. Multi-Matrix Models and Noncommutative Frobenius Algebras Obtained from Symmetric Groups and Brauer Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yusuke

    2015-07-01

    It has been understood that correlation functions of multi-trace operators in SYM can be neatly computed using the group algebra of symmetric groups or walled Brauer algebras. On the other hand, such algebras have been known to construct 2D topological field theories (TFTs). After reviewing the construction of 2D TFTs based on symmetric groups, we construct 2D TFTs based on walled Brauer algebras. In the construction, the introduction of a dual basis manifests a similarity between the two theories. We next construct a class of 2D field theories whose physical operators have the same symmetry as multi-trace operators constructed from some matrices. Such field theories correspond to non-commutative Frobenius algebras. A matrix structure arises as a consequence of the noncommutativity. Correlation functions of the Gaussian complex multi-matrix models can be translated into correlation functions of the two-dimensional field theories.

  20. Multi-matrix models and Noncommutative Frobenius algebras obtained form symmetric groups and Brauer algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    It has been understood that correlation functions of multi-trace operators in N=4 SYM can be neatly computed using the group algebra of symmetric groups or walled Brauer algebras. On the other hand such algebras have been known to construct 2D topological field theories (TFTs). After reviewing the construction of 2D TFTs based on symmetric groups, we construct 2D TFTs based on walled Brauer algebras. In the construction, the introduction of a dual basis manifests a similarity between the two theories. We next construct a class of 2D field theories whose physical operators have the same symmetry as multi-trace operators constructed from some matrices. Such field theories correspond to non-commutative Frobenius algebras. A matrix structure arises as a consequence of the noncommutativity. Correlation functions of the Gaussian complex multi-matrix models can be translated into correlation functions of the two-dimensional field theories.

  1. Some issues of the human arm motion obtained from its kinematic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarčič, Jadran

    1998-07-01

    A possible direction in the development of future robot manipulators is in the so-called humanoid robot systems. The objective is to develop robots that behave, work, and communicate like humans. This will open a new era in robot applications, in particular in service robotics, will facilitate robot programming, and create a more effective human-robot interface. This paper presents some potential motion properties of a future humanoid robot manipulator retrieved from kinematical models of the human arm, such as the kinematic redundancy, the workspace properties, and the velocity-torque capabilities. Special attention is given to the utilisation of the kinematic singularities in handling heavy objects. Based on experiments, it is unequivocally demonstrated that the human arm takes advantage of the kinematic singularities in order to compensate weak actuation, while in the actual robotic practice the kinematic singularities are avoided.

  2. Neural and Hybrid Modeling: An Alternative Route to Efficiently Predict the Behavior of Biotechnological Processes Aimed at Biofuels Obtainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved. PMID:24516363

  3. Neural and hybrid modeling: an alternative route to efficiently predict the behavior of biotechnological processes aimed at biofuels obtainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Stefano; Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved.

  4. Virtual animation of victim-specific 3D models obtained from CT scans for forensic reconstructions: Living and dead subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, C; Olsen, K B; Hansen, S H

    2017-09-01

    Post-mortem CT scanning (PMCT) has been introduced at several forensic medical institutions many years ago and has proved to be a useful tool. 3D models of bones, skin, internal organs and bullet paths can rapidly be generated using post-processing software. These 3D models reflect the individual physiognomics and can be used to create whole-body 3D virtual animations. In such way, virtual reconstructions of the probable ante-mortem postures of victims can be constructed and contribute to understand the sequence of events. This procedure is demonstrated in two victims of gunshot injuries. Case #1 was a man showing three perforating gunshot wounds, who died due to the injuries of the incident. Whole-body PMCT was performed and 3D reconstructions of bones, relevant internal organs and bullet paths were generated. Using 3ds Max software and a human anatomy 3D model, a virtual animated body was built and probable ante-mortem postures visualized. Case #2 was a man presenting three perforating gunshot wounds, who survived the incident: one in the left arm and two in the thorax. Only CT scans of the thorax, abdomen and the injured arm were provided by the hospital. Therefore, a whole-body 3D model reflecting the anatomical proportions of the patient was made combining the actual bones of the victim with those obtained from the human anatomy 3D model. The resulted 3D model was used for the animation process. Several probable postures were also visualized in this case. It has be shown that in Case #1 the lesions and the bullet path were not consistent with an upright standing position; instead, the victim was slightly bent forward, i.e. he was sitting or running when he was shot. In Case #2, one of the bullets could have passed through the arm and continued into the thorax. In conclusion, specialized 3D modelling and animation techniques allow for the reconstruction of ante-mortem postures based on both PMCT and clinical CT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Clinical results obtained with a combination of an anti-inflammatory steroid, an antibacterial agent and an antifungal in dermatological outpatient practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, A

    1985-07-01

    Forty outpatients with skin diseases were treated with an extempore combination of three creams, the respective bases of which were beclomethasone dipropionate, sodium fusidate and ketoconazole. Positive results were obtained in 97.5% of the cases with good relief of symptoms and excellent local tolerance in all cases treated.

  6. Modeling clicks beyond the first result page

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most modern web search engines yield a list of documents of a fixed length (usually 10) in response to a user query. The next ten search results are usually available in one click. These documents either replace the current result page or are appended to the end. Hence, in order to examine more

  7. Modeling clicks beyond the first result page

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most modern web search engines yield a list of documents of a fixed length (usually 10) in response to a user query. The next ten search results are usually available in one click. These documents either replace the current result page or are appended to the end. Hence, in order to examine more docu

  8. Relationship Marketing results: proposition of a cognitive mapping model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná Futino Barreto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This research sought to develop a cognitive model that expresses how marketing professionals understand the relationship between the constructs that define relationship marketing (RM. It also tried to understand, using the obtained model, how objectives in this field are achieved. Design/methodology/approach – Through cognitive mapping, we traced 35 individual mental maps, highlighting how each respondent understands the interactions between RM elements. Based on the views of these individuals, we established an aggregate mental map. Theoretical foundation – The topic is based on a literature review that explores the RM concept and its main elements. Based on this review, we listed eleven main constructs. Findings – We established an aggregate mental map that represents the RM structural model. Model analysis identified that CLV is understood as the final result of RM. We also observed that the impact of most of the RM elements on CLV is brokered by loyalty. Personalization and quality, on the other hand, proved to be process input elements, and are the ones that most strongly impact others. Finally, we highlight that elements that punish customers are much less effective than elements that benefit them. Contributions - The model was able to insert core elements of RM, but absent from most formal models: CLV and customization. The analysis allowed us to understand the interactions between the RM elements and how the end result of RM (CLV is formed. This understanding improves knowledge on the subject and helps guide, assess and correct actions.

  9. Association between adverse cardiovascular outcomes and PM2.5 data obtained from monitors, CMAQ models, and satellite models.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been linked with PM2.5 exposure obtained primarily from air quality monitors, which rarely co-locate with participant...

  10. Engineering model development and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, John A.

    1993-08-01

    The correctability of the primary mirror spherical error in the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC) is sensitive to the precise alignment of the incoming aberrated beam onto the corrective elements. Articulating fold mirrors that provide +/- 1 milliradian of tilt in 2 axes are required to allow for alignment corrections in orbit as part of the fix for the Hubble space telescope. An engineering study was made by Itek Optical Systems and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to investigate replacement of fixed fold mirrors within the existing WF/PC optical bench with articulating mirrors. The study contract developed the base line requirements, established the suitability of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) actuators and evaluated several tilt mechanism concepts. Two engineering model articulating mirrors were produced to demonstrate the function of the tilt mechanism to provide +/- 1 milliradian of tilt, packaging within the space constraints and manufacturing techniques including the machining of the invar tilt mechanism and lightweight glass mirrors. The success of the engineering models led to the follow on design and fabrication of 3 flight mirrors that have been incorporated into the WF/PC to be placed into the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the servicing mission scheduled for late 1993.

  11. Microplasticity of MMC. Experimental results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, E. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Lormand, G. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Gobin, P.F. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Fougeres, R. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France))

    1993-11-01

    The microplastic behavior of several MMC is investigated by means of tension and compression tests. This behavior is assymetric : the proportional limit is higher in tension than in compression but the work hardening rate is higher in compression. These differences are analysed in terms of maxium of the Tresca's shear stress at the interface (proportional limit) and of the emission of dislocation loops during the cooling (work hardening rate). On another hand, a model is proposed to calculate the value of the yield stress, describing the composite as a material composed of three phases : inclusion, unaffected matrix and matrix surrounding the inclusion having a gradient in the density of the thermally induced dilocations. (orig.).

  12. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  13. Assessment of Galileo modal test results for mathematical model verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubert, M.

    1984-01-01

    The modal test program for the Galileo Spacecraft was completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the summer of 1983. The multiple sine dwell method was used for the baseline test. The Galileo Spacecraft is a rather complex 2433 kg structure made of a central core on which seven major appendages representing 30 percent of the total mass are attached, resulting in a high modal density structure. The test revealed a strong nonlinearity in several major modes. This nonlinearity discovered in the course of the test necessitated running additional tests at the unusually high response levels of up to about 21 g. The high levels of response were required to obtain a model verification valid at the level of loads for which the spacecraft was designed. Because of the high modal density and the nonlinearity, correlation between the dynamic mathematical model and the test results becomes a difficult task. Significant changes in the pre-test analytical model are necessary to establish confidence in the upgraded analytical model used for the final load verification. This verification, using a test verified model, is required by NASA to fly the Galileo Spacecraft on the Shuttle/Centaur launch vehicle in 1986.

  14. A systematic approach to obtain validated partial least square models for predicting lipoprotein subclasses from serum NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaleva, Velitchka V; van Schalkwijk, Daniël B; de Graaf, Albert A; van Duynhoven, John; van Dorsten, Ferdinand A; Vervoort, Jacques; Smilde, Age; Westerhuis, Johan A; Jacobs, Doris M

    2014-01-07

    A systematic approach is described for building validated PLS models that predict cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in lipoprotein subclasses in fasting serum from a normolipidemic, healthy population. The PLS models were built on diffusion-edited (1)H NMR spectra and calibrated on HPLC-derived lipoprotein subclasses. The PLS models were validated using an independent test set. In addition to total VLDL, LDL, and HDL lipoproteins, statistically significant PLS models were obtained for 13 subclasses, including 5 VLDLs (particle size 64-31.3 nm), 4 LDLs (particle size 28.6-20.7 nm) and 4 HDLs (particle size 13.5-9.8 nm). The best models were obtained for triglycerides in VLDL (0.82 < Q(2) <0.92) and HDL (0.69 < Q(2) <0.79) subclasses and for cholesterol in HDL subclasses (0.68 < Q(2) <0.96). Larger variations in the model performance were observed for triglycerides in LDL subclasses and cholesterol in VLDL and LDL subclasses. The potential of the NMR-PLS model was assessed by comparing the LPD of 52 subjects before and after a 4-week treatment with dietary supplements that were hypothesized to change blood lipids. The supplements induced significant (p < 0.001) changes on multiple subclasses, all of which clearly exceeded the prediction errors.

  15. Obtaining informed consent from study participants and results of field studies. Methodological problems caused by the literal treatment of codes of ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzyb Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the necessity of obtaining informed consent from an individual who is to be a participant in an experiment. Codes of ethics concerning the behaviour of a psychologist fundamentally do not permit conducting experiments without informing their participants in advance that they will be conducted. Meanwhile, the act of obtaining prior consent (and thus of informing the study participant that they will be taking part in an experiment can have a significant impact on results. The article describes an experiment in the field of social influence psychology during which one group was asked for their informed consent to participate in a study, while the second was simply presented with the main request (to sign a letter to the mayor about reducing the number of parking spaces for the disabled. The results demonstrate the strong influence of awareness that a study is being conducted on the decisions taken in the course of the experiment.

  16. LEP and results obtained by DELPHI after four years of operation; LEP i wyniki uzyskane przez DELPHI po czterech latach dzialania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocki, J. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Doswiadczalnej; Brueckman de Renstrom, P.; Budziak, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)] [and others

    1993-10-01

    We characterize the most important problems of modern elementary particles physics, for the solution of which the LEP (Large Electron Positron) accelerator was built. We present the characteristics of this accelerator. The structure and properties of the DELPHI detector are described with special emphasis on the contribution of Polish groups. The most important results obtained so far in the LEP accelerator are discussed. (author). 12 refs, 17 figs, 1 tab.

  17. Neisseria gonorrhoeae False-Positive Result Obtained from a Pharyngeal Swab by Using the Roche cobas 4800 CT/NG Assay in New Zealand in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Upton, Arlo; Bromhead, Collette; Whiley, David M

    2013-01-01

    The Roche cobas 4800 CT/NG assay is a commonly used commercial system for screening for Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, and previous studies have shown the method to be highly sensitive and specific for urogenital samples. We present the first confirmed clinical N. gonorrhoeae false-positive result using the cobas 4800 NG assay, obtained from testing a pharyngeal swab sample and caused by cross-reaction with a commensal Neisseria strain.

  18. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Hamidreza Rostami; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Ghafoori, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test (WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14-22 Lu (2.3 ×10-4-3.6 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to the permeability models and permeation amounts of different

  19. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamidreza Rostami Barani; Gholamreza Lashkaripour; Mohammad Ghafoori

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly > 3 Lu (less of 5 × 10−5 m3/s) per fracture, whereas the fault core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14–22 Lu (2.3 × 10−4 –3.6 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make

  20. Modal correlation of test and finite element results using cross orthogonality with a reduced mass matrix obtained by modal reduction and NASTRAN's Generalized Dynamic Reduction solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Derek; Budynas, Richard G.

    A common procedure for performing a cross orthogonality check for the purpose of modal correlation between the test and the finite element analysis results incorporates the Guyan reduction method to obtain a reduced mass matrix. This paper describes a procedure which uses NASTRAN's Generalized Dynamic Reduction solution routine which is much more accurate than the standard Guyan reduction solution and which offers the advantage of not requiring the selection of mdof. Using NASTRAN's DMAP programming methods, a modal reduction of the full analytical mass matrix is performed based on the accelerometer locations and the analytical modal matrix results. The accuracy of the procedure is illustrated in two case studies.

  1. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  2. The calibration and initial results of the HeI D3 line flash spectrum obtained during the 2008 total solar eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; ZHOU TuanHui; LI JingWei; SHEN JinHua; JI HaiSheng; NI HouKun; ZHANG HaiYing; ZHANG YaNan; LIU HongRui; DENG YuanYong; WANG DongGuang; DU QiuSheng

    2009-01-01

    The flash spectra in the Hel D3 line were obtained during the 2008 total solar eclipse. This paper describes the instrument and the calibration of the obtained flash spectrum, and presents our initial results.The average integrated intensity is E_(ave)=8.13×10~(13)erg·cm~(-1)·s~(-1)·ster~(-1)ath=1100km,which confirms that the Hel D3 emission is negatively correlated with the solar activity. The surface brightness reaches a maximum of F_(ave)=8.25×10~5 erg·cm~(-2)·s~(-1)·ster(-1) at about h≈(1290±75) km and then decreases exponentially with height when h > 1800 km with an exponential index β= 1.63×10~(-8)cm~(-1).

  3. The calibration and initial results of the HeI D3 line flash spectrum obtained during the 2008 total solar eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The flash spectra in the HeI D3 line were obtained during the 2008 total solar eclipse. This paper describes the instrument and the calibration of the obtained flash spectrum, and presents our initial results. The average integrated intensity is Eave = 8.13×1013 erg·cm-1· s-1·ster-1 at h = 1100 km, which confirms that the HeI D3 emission is negatively correlated with the solar activity. The surface brightness reaches a maximum of F ave = 8.25×105 erg·cm-2·s-1·ster-1 at about h ≈ (1290 ± 75) km and then decreases exponentially with height when h >1800 km with an exponential index β = 1.63×10-8 cm-1.

  4. Results obtained during accelerated transonic tests of the Bell XS-1 airplane in flights to a Mach number of 0.92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Hubert M; Mclaughlin, Milton D; Goodman, Harold R

    1948-01-01

    Results are presented of tests up to a Mach number of 0.92 at altitudes around 30,000 feet. The data obtained show that the airplane can be flown to this Mach number above 30,000 feet. Longitudinal trim changes have been experienced but the forces involved have been small. The elevator effectiveness decreased about one-half with increase of Mach number from 0.70 to 0.87. Buffeting has been experienced in level flight but it has been mild and the associated tail loads have been small. No aileron buzz or other flutter phenomena have been noted.

  5. Determination of hydraulic properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite at the bure site: Synthesis of the results obtained in deep boreholes using several in situ investigation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distinguin, Marc; Lavanchy, Jean-Marc

    -term monitoring sections). Borehole simulators were used to define a suitable flow model taking into account the complete pressure history of the borehole, and to derive best-guess estimates and uncertainty ranges for the hydraulic parameters. The sources of perturbations and the consistency of results are discussed in this paper. For instance, for a same interval tested through different techniques, an overestimation by one order of magnitude of the hydraulic conductivity due to a large overestimation of pore pressure during packer test was observed. In situ permeability estimations are also compared with those obtained from laboratory tests on core samples. Both short-term and long-term measurements provide values for the hydraulic conductivity at different scales with high consistency. This parameter is shown to be less than 2 × 10 -12 m/s. Pressures measurements from long-term monitoring are sufficiently accurate for determining formation hydraulic heads. A pressure profile in the argillite, derived from the extensive set of data currently available, shows an overpressure in the argillite 20-60 m above its surrounding formations. As a whole, the pressure data and derived hydraulic properties acquired from deep boreholes, offer a high degree of reliability and constitute a major contribution to the hydraulic characterisation of the low-permeable argillite formation. In 2006, this data will be complemented with measurements carried out in the Laboratory at 490 m depth, with the aim to characterize in greater depth the pressure profile of the argillite.

  6. From global to local statistical shape priors novel methods to obtain accurate reconstruction results with a limited amount of training shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Last, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    This book proposes a new approach to handle the problem of limited training data. Common approaches to cope with this problem are to model the shape variability independently across predefined segments or to allow artificial shape variations that cannot be explained through the training data, both of which have their drawbacks. The approach presented uses a local shape prior in each element of the underlying data domain and couples all local shape priors via smoothness constraints. The book provides a sound mathematical foundation in order to embed this new shape prior formulation into the well-known variational image segmentation framework. The new segmentation approach so obtained allows accurate reconstruction of even complex object classes with only a few training shapes at hand.

  7. A comparison of low back kinetic estimates obtained through posture matching, rigid link modeling and an EMG-assisted model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, R J; Bezaire, M; Callaghan, J P

    2011-07-01

    This study examined errors introduced by a posture matching approach (3DMatch) relative to dynamic three-dimensional rigid link and EMG-assisted models. Eighty-eight lifting trials of various combinations of heights (floor, 0.67, 1.2 m), asymmetry (left, right and center) and mass (7.6 and 9.7 kg) were videotaped while spine postures, ground reaction forces, segment orientations and muscle activations were documented and used to estimate joint moments and forces (L5/S1). Posture matching over predicted peak and cumulative extension moment (p posture matching or EMG-assisted approaches (p = 0.7987). Posture matching over predicted cumulative (p posture matching provides a method to analyze industrial lifting exposures that will predict kinetic values similar to those of more sophisticated models, provided necessary corrections are applied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Obtaining Content Weights for Test Specifications from Job Analysis Task Surveys: An Application of the Many-Facets Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Stahl, John

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Many-Facets Rasch Model, via the FACETS computer program (Linacre, 2006a), to scale job/practice analysis survey data as well as to combine multiple rating scales into single composite weights representing the tasks' relative importance. Results from the Many-Facets Rasch Model are compared with those…

  9. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  10. Keratoconus, cross-link-induction, comparison between fitting exponential function and a fitting equation obtained by a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, A; Urso, R; Bianciardi, L; Rigato, M; Battisti, E

    2009-11-01

    With reference to experimental data in the literature, we present a model consisting of two elastic elements, conceived to simulate resistance to stretching, at constant velocity of elongation, of corneal tissue affected by keratoconus, treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet irradiation to induce cross-linking. The function describing model behaviour adapted to stress and strain values. It was found that the Young's moduli of the two elastic elements increased in cross-linked tissues and that cross-linking treatment therefore increased corneal rigidity. It is recognized that this observation is substantially in line with the conclusion reported in the literature, obtained using an exponential fitting function. It is observed, however, that the latter function implies a condition of non-zero stresses without strain, and does not provide interpretative insights for lack of any biomechanical basis. Above all, the function fits a singular trend, inexplicably claimed to be viscoelastic, with surprising perfection. In any case, using the reported data, the study demonstrates that a fitting equation obtained by a modelling approach not only shows the evident efficacy of the treatment, but also provides orientations for studying modifications induced in cross-linked fibres.

  11. MCTP system model based on linear programming optimization of apertures obtained from sequencing patient image data maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ureba, A. [Dpto. Fisiología Médica y Biofísica. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41009 Sevilla (Spain); Salguero, F. J. [Nederlands Kanker Instituut, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis, 1066 CX Ámsterdam, The Nederlands (Netherlands); Barbeiro, A. R.; Jimenez-Ortega, E.; Baeza, J. A.; Leal, A., E-mail: alplaza@us.es [Dpto. Fisiología Médica y Biofísica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41009 Sevilla (Spain); Miras, H. [Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, E-41009 Sevilla (Spain); Linares, R.; Perucha, M. [Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Infanta Luisa, E-41010 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The authors present a hybrid direct multileaf collimator (MLC) aperture optimization model exclusively based on sequencing of patient imaging data to be implemented on a Monte Carlo treatment planning system (MC-TPS) to allow the explicit radiation transport simulation of advanced radiotherapy treatments with optimal results in efficient times for clinical practice. Methods: The planning system (called CARMEN) is a full MC-TPS, controlled through aMATLAB interface, which is based on the sequencing of a novel map, called “biophysical” map, which is generated from enhanced image data of patients to achieve a set of segments actually deliverable. In order to reduce the required computation time, the conventional fluence map has been replaced by the biophysical map which is sequenced to provide direct apertures that will later be weighted by means of an optimization algorithm based on linear programming. A ray-casting algorithm throughout the patient CT assembles information about the found structures, the mass thickness crossed, as well as PET values. Data are recorded to generate a biophysical map for each gantry angle. These maps are the input files for a home-made sequencer developed to take into account the interactions of photons and electrons with the MLC. For each linac (Axesse of Elekta and Primus of Siemens) and energy beam studied (6, 9, 12, 15 MeV and 6 MV), phase space files were simulated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code. The dose calculation in patient was carried out with the BEAMDOSE code. This code is a modified version of EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc able to calculate the beamlet dose in order to combine them with different weights during the optimization process. Results: Three complex radiotherapy treatments were selected to check the reliability of CARMEN in situations where the MC calculation can offer an added value: A head-and-neck case (Case I) with three targets delineated on PET/CT images and a demanding dose-escalation; a partial breast

  12. Urban traffic noise assessment by combining measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.; Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A model based monitoring system is applied on a local scale in an urban area to obtain a better understanding of the traffic noise situation. The system consists of a scalable sensor network and an engineering model. A better understanding is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures,

  13. Modelling and experimental investigations of thin films of Mg phosphorus-doped tungsten bronzes obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, V; Nedić, Z; Colović, B

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the synthesis of thin films of Mg phosphorus doped tungsten bronzes (MgPTB; MgHPW(12)O(40).29H(2)O) by the self-assembly of nano-structured particles of MgPTB obtained using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method was investigated. As the precursor, MgPTB, prepared by the ionic exchange method, was used. Nano-structured particles of MgPTB were obtained using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The nano-structure of the particles used as the building blocks in the MgPTB thin film were investigated experimentally and theoretically, applying the model given in this article. The obtained data for the mean particle size and their size distribution show a high degree of agreement. These previously tailored particles used for the preparation of thin films during the next synthesis step, by their self-assembly over slow deposition on a silica glass substrate, show how it is possible to create thin MgPTB films under advance projected conditions of the applied physical fields with a fully determined nanostructure of their building block particles, with a relatively small roughness and unique physical properties.

  14. Intrahepatic transneedle inoculation of VX2 particles for obtaining a solitary hepatic tumor in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Han; Choi, Jong Cheol; Shin, Tae Beom; Park, Byeong Ho [Dong-A University, School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    %) had tumor growth both in the liver and the peritoneal cavity, suggesting tumor leakage from the injection site into the peritoneal cavity. The remaining rabbits (n=17) had successful inoculation in the liver parenchyma as a solitary mass. Three of twenty rabbits (15%) showed tumor regression after successful inoculation. Tumor metastasis in extratumoral regions, including the liver and peritoneal seeding, increased beginning in the fourth week and more than 12x103 mm{sup 3} in volume after the initial inoculation of the VX2 tumors. This new technique using innoculated intrahepatic VX2 tumor particles seems to be a simple and effective method for obtaining a solitary hepatic tumor in animal models. Results of this study suggest that a solitary intrahepatic tumor model without metastasis can be maintained. However, the evaluation of any therapeutic effects or any planned intervention should not occur until the fourth week following innoculation or less than 12x103 mm{sup 3} in volume after the inoculation of the VX2 tumor. The second highlighted section dose not seem to fir with the rest of the sentence. Consider rephrasing the last part of the sentence.

  15. RESULTS OF INTERBANK EXCHANGE RATES FORECASTING USING STATE SPACE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of three alternative models for forecasting daily interbank exchange rate of U.S. dollar measured in Pak rupees. The simple ARIMA models and complex models such as GARCH-type models and a state space model are discussed and compared. Four different measures are used to evaluate the forecasting accuracy. The main result is the state space model provides the best performance among all the models.

  16. Convergence results for a coarsening model using global linearization

    CERN Document Server

    Gallay, T; Gallay, Th.

    2002-01-01

    We study a coarsening model describing the dynamics of interfaces in the one-dimensional Allen-Cahn equation. Given a partition of the real line into intervals of length greater than one, the model consists in constantly eliminating the shortest interval of the partition by merging it with its two neighbors. We show that the mean-field equation for the time-dependent distribution of interval lengths can be explicitly solved using a global linearization transformation. This allows us to derive rigorous results on the long-time asymptotics of the solutions. If the average length of the intervals is finite, we prove that all distributions approach a uniquely determined self-similar solution. We also obtain global stability results for the family of self-similar profiles which correspond to distributions with infinite expectation. eliminating the shortest interval of the partition by merging it with its two neighbors. We show that the mean-field equation for the time-dependent distribution of interval lengths can...

  17. Recent Advances in Solid Catalysts Obtained by Metalloporphyrins Immobilization on Layered Anionic Exchangers: A Short Review and Some New Catalytic Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Nakagaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Layered materials are a very interesting class of compounds obtained by stacking of two-dimensional layers along the basal axis. A remarkable property of these materials is their capacity to interact with a variety of chemical species, irrespective of their charge (neutral, cationic or anionic. These species can be grafted onto the surface of the layered materials or intercalated between the layers, to expand or contract the interlayer distance. Metalloporphyrins, which are typically soluble oxidation catalysts, are examples of molecules that can interact with layered materials. This work presents a short review of the studies involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on two different anionic exchangers, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs and Layered Hydroxide Salts (LHSs, published over the past year. After immobilization of anionic porphyrins, the resulting solids behave as reusable catalysts for heterogeneous oxidation processes. Although a large number of publications involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on LDHs exist, only a few papers have dealt with LHSs as supports, so metalloporphyrins immobilized on LHSs represent a new and promising research field. This work also describes new results on an anionic manganese porphyrin (MnP immobilized on Mg/Al-LDH solids with different nominal Mg/Al molar ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 and intercalated with different anions (CO32− or NO3−. The influence of the support composition on the MnP immobilization rates and the catalytic performance of the resulting solid in cyclooctene oxidation reactions will be reported.

  18. Assessment of the variations in fat content in normal liver using a fast MR imaging method in comparison with results obtained by spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Roy; Edens, Mireille A; Sijens, Paul E

    2008-04-01

    A recently published Dixon-based MRI method for quantifying liver fat content using dual-echo breath-hold gradient echo imaging was validated by phantom experiments and compared with results of biopsy in two patients (Radiology 2005;237:1048-1055). We applied this method in ten healthy volunteers and compared the outcomes with the results of MR spectroscopy (MRS), the gold standard in quantifying liver fat content. Novel was the use of spectroscopic imaging yielding the variations in fat content across the liver rather than a single value obtained by single voxel MRS. Compared with the results of MRS, liver fat content according to MRI was too high in nine subjects (range 3.3-10.7% vs. 0.9-7.7%) and correct in one (21.1 vs. 21.3%). Furthermore, in one of the ten subjects the MRI fat content according to the Dixon-based MRI method was incorrect due to a (100-x) versus x percent lipid content mix-up. The second problem was fixed by a minor adjustment of the MRI algorithm. Despite systematic overestimation of liver fat contents by MRI, Spearman's correlation between the adjusted MRI liver fat contents with MRS was high (r = 0.927, P < 0.001). Even after correction of the algorithm, the problem remaining with the Dixon-based MRI method for the assessment of liver fat content,is that, at the lower end range, liver fat content is systematically overestimated by 4%.

  19. Results of Satellite Brightness Modeling Using Kringing Optimized Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, C.; Hejduk, M.

    At the 2005 AMOS conference, Kriging Optimized Interpolation (KOI) was presented as a tool to model satellite brightness as a function of phase angle and solar declination angle (J.M Okada and M.D. Hejduk). Since November 2005, this method has been used to support the tasking algorithm for all optical sensors in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The satellite brightness maps generated by the KOI program are compared to each sensor's ability to detect an object as a function of the brightness of the background sky and angular rate of the object. This will determine if the sensor can technically detect an object based on an explicit calculation of the object's probability of detection. In addition, recent upgrades at Ground-Based Electro Optical Deep Space Surveillance Sites (GEODSS) sites have increased the amount and quality of brightness data collected and therefore available for analysis. This in turn has provided enough data to study the modeling process in more detail in order to obtain the most accurate brightness prediction of satellites. Analysis of two years of brightness data gathered from optical sensors and modeled via KOI solutions are outlined in this paper. By comparison, geo-stationary objects (GEO) were tracked less than non-GEO objects but had higher density tracking in phase angle due to artifices of scheduling. A statistically-significant fit to a deterministic model was possible less than half the time in both GEO and non-GEO tracks, showing that a stochastic model must often be used alone to produce brightness results, but such results are nonetheless serviceable. Within the Kriging solution, the exponential variogram model was the most frequently employed in both GEO and non-GEO tracks, indicating that monotonic brightness variation with both phase and solar declination angle is common and testifying to the suitability to the application of regionalized variable theory to this particular problem. Finally, the average nugget value, or

  20. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  1. Statistical Model to Analyze Quantitative Proteomics Data Obtained by 18O/16O Labeling and Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Inmaculada; Navarro, Pedro; Martínez-Acedo, Pablo; Núñez, Estefanía; Serrano, Horacio; Alfranca, Arántzazu; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Vázquez, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Statistical models for the analysis of protein expression changes by stable isotope labeling are still poorly developed, particularly for data obtained by 16O/18O labeling. Besides large scale test experiments to validate the null hypothesis are lacking. Although the study of mechanisms underlying biological actions promoted by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on endothelial cells is of considerable interest, quantitative proteomics studies on this subject are scarce and have been performed after exposing cells to the factor for long periods of time. In this work we present the largest quantitative proteomics study to date on the short term effects of VEGF on human umbilical vein endothelial cells by 18O/16O labeling. Current statistical models based on normality and variance homogeneity were found unsuitable to describe the null hypothesis in a large scale test experiment performed on these cells, producing false expression changes. A random effects model was developed including four different sources of variance at the spectrum-fitting, scan, peptide, and protein levels. With the new model the number of outliers at scan and peptide levels was negligible in three large scale experiments, and only one false protein expression change was observed in the test experiment among more than 1000 proteins. The new model allowed the detection of significant protein expression changes upon VEGF stimulation for 4 and 8 h. The consistency of the changes observed at 4 h was confirmed by a replica at a smaller scale and further validated by Western blot analysis of some proteins. Most of the observed changes have not been described previously and are consistent with a pattern of protein expression that dynamically changes over time following the evolution of the angiogenic response. With this statistical model the 18O labeling approach emerges as a very promising and robust alternative to perform quantitative proteomics studies at a depth of several thousand proteins

  2. Employing the effective medium approximation to model the optical properties of crystallized a-Si:H obtained by MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, T.F.G.; Knoesen, D.; Arendse, C.J.; Halindintwali, S. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Malgas, G.F. [CSIR National Centre for Nano-structured Material, Pretoria (South Africa); Houweling, Z.S.; Schropp, R.E.I. [Section Nanophotonics, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Metal induced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has been the subject of intense scrutiny in recent years. In this contribution we report on the metal-mediated-thermally induced changes of the structural and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited by hot-wire CVD, where aluminium and nickel were used to induce crystallization. The metal-coated amorphous silicon was subjected to a thermal annealing regime of between 150 and 520 C. The structural measurements, obtained by Raman spectroscopy, show partial crystallization occurring at 350 C. At the higher annealing temperatures of 450 C and 520 C complete crystallization occurs. Reflection and transmission measurements in the UV-visible range were then used to extract the optical properties. By adopting the effective medium approximation a single optical model could be constructed that could successfully model material that was in different structural phases, irrespective of metal contamination. Changes in the absorption of the material in various stages of transition were confirmed with a directly measured absorption technique, and the modelled absorption closely followed the same trends. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Obtaining land cover changes information from multitemporal analysis of Landsat-TM images: results from a case study in West African dryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutini, F.; Boschetti, M.; Brivio, P. A.; Antoninetti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sahelian belt of West Africa is a semiarid region characterized by wide climate variations, which can in turn affect the livelihood of local populations particularly in rangeland areas, as happens during the dramatic food crisis in the 70-80s caused by rainfall scarcity. The monitoring of natural resources and rainfed agricultural activities, with the aim to provide information to support Sahelian food security action, needs the production of detailed thematic maps as emphasized by several scientific papers. In this framework, a study was conducted to develop a method to exploit time series of remote sensed satellite data to 1) provide reliable land cover (LC) map at local scale in a dry region and 2) obtain a LC change (LCC) map that contribute to identify the plausible causes of local environmental instability. Satellite images used for this work consist in a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) (path row 195-50) acquired in the 2000 (6 scenes) and 2007 (9 scenes) from February (Dry season) to September (end of wet season). The study investigates the different contribution provided by spectra information of a single Landsat TM image and by time series of derived NDVI. Different tests have been conducted with different combination of data set (spectral and temporal)in order to identify the best approach to obtain a LC map in five classes of interest: Shrubland, Cultivated Land, Water body, Herbaceous vegetation and Bare soil. The best classification approach is exposed and applied on two years in the last decade. The comparison between this two LC results in land cover change map, that displays the changes of vegetation patterns that have been characterized the area. The discussed results show a largely stable dryland region, but locally characterized by hot-spot of decreasing in natural vegetation inside the rangelands and an increasing of cultivations along fossil valleys where human activities are slightly intense. The discussion shows that this hot

  4. Assessment of the variations in fat content in normal liver using a fast MR imaging method in comparison with results obtained by spectroscopic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwan, Roy [University Medical Center Groningen, Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Toshiba Medical Systems Europe, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Edens, Mireille A. [University of Groningen, Epidemiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Center Groningen, Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    A recently published Dixon-based MRI method for quantifying liver fat content using dual-echo breath-hold gradient echo imaging was validated by phantom experiments and compared with results of biopsy in two patients (Radiology 2005;237:1048-1055). We applied this method in ten healthy volunteers and compared the outcomes with the results of MR spectroscopy (MRS), the gold standard in quantifying liver fat content. Novel was the use of spectroscopic imaging yielding the variations in fat content across the liver rather than a single value obtained by single voxel MRS. Compared with the results of MRS, liver fat content according to MRI was too high in nine subjects (range 3.3-10.7% vs. 0.9-7.7%) and correct in one (21.1 vs. 21.3%). Furthermore, in one of the ten subjects the MRI fat content according to the Dixon-based MRI method was incorrect due to a (100-x) versus x percent lipid content mix-up. The second problem was fixed by a minor adjustment of the MRI algorithm. Despite systematic overestimation of liver fat contents by MRI, Spearman's correlation between the adjusted MRI liver fat contents with MRS was high (r = 0.927, P < 0.001). Even after correction of the algorithm, the problem remaining with the Dixon-based MRI method for the assessment of liver fat content,is that, at the lower end range, liver fat content is systematically overestimated by 4%. (orig.)

  5. Color screening scenario for quarkonia suppression in a quasiparticle model compared with data obtained from experiments at the CERN SPS, BNL RHIC, and CERN LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Mishra, M.; Singh, C. P.

    2013-03-01

    We present a modified color screening model for J/ψ suppression in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) using the quasiparticle model (QPM) as the equation of state (EOS). Other theoretical ingredients incorporated in the model are feed-down from higher resonances, namely, χc, and ψ', dilated formation time for quarkonia, and viscous effects of the QGP medium. By assuming further that the QGP is expanding with Bjorken's hydrodynamical expansion, the present model is used to analyze the centrality dependence of the J/ψ suppression in the mid-rapidity region and compare it with the data obtained from Super Proton Synchrotron, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and Large Hadron Collider experiments. We find that the centrality dependence of the data for the survival probability at all energies is well reproduced by our model. We further compare our model predictions with the results obtained from the bag model EOS for QGP which has usually been used earlier in all such calculations.

  6. First results from the ionospheric tomography experiment using beacon TEC data obtained by means of a network along a longitude of 136°E over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Smitha V.; Yamamoto, Mamoru

    2010-03-01

    A chain of newly designed GNU (GNU is not UNIX) Radio Beacon Receivers (GRBR) has recently been established over Japan, primarily for tomographic imaging of the ionosphere over this region. Receivers installed at Shionomisaki (33.45°N, 135.8°E), Shigaraki (34.8°N, 136.1°E), and Fukui (36°N, 136°E) continuously track low earth orbiting satellites (LEOS), mainly OSCAR, Cosmos, and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, to obtain simultaneous total electron content (TEC) data from these three locations, which are then used for the tomographic reconstruction of ionospheric electron densities. This is the first GRBR network established for TEC observations, and the first beacon-based tomographic imaging in Japanese longitudes. The first tomographic images revealed the temporal evolution with all of the major features in the ionospheric electron density distribution over Japan. A comparison of the tomographically reconstructed electron densities with the ƒ o F 2 data from Kokubunji (35°N, 139°E) revealed that there was good agreement between the datasets. These first results show the potential of GRBR and its network for making continuous, unattended ionospheric TEC measurements and for tomographic imaging of the ionosphere.

  7. VNIR spectral modeling of Mars analogue rocks: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, L.; Roush, T.; Pedrazzi, G.; Sgavetti, M.

    a study applying the Modified Gaussian Model [MGM, 13] to solid mafic rock spectral modeling. Reflectance measurements were acquired on rock slabs, rock powder, and mineral separates. The results of spectral modeling were evaluated using compositional data determined from techniques other than reflectance spectroscopy. The rocks studied, melanorite (cumulate analog) and basalt (effusive analog), have different textural characteristics. The modal composition of melanorite includes relatively high opaque content. Opaque minerals strongly affect reflectance 1 spectra of transparent minerals and the criteria for their identification from remotely acquired data are not clearly established. Detailed studies of the melanorite slab spectrum, which includes accounting for the opaque content, can be extended to the basalt spectrum, which must also account for the spectral influence of glass. The spectral analyses reveal the MGM decompositions of solid rock samples can be used to obtain qualitative estimates of the main mineral compositions, for the melanorite, but become more problematic for the basalt. Statistically objective evaluation of the spectral models is complicated by the increased observational error due to the heterogeneity of the rock surfaces relative to mixtures of powders. This suggests additional efforts are required to provide a better understanding regarding the spectral modeling of both laboratory and in-situ measurements of bulk rocks. REFERENCES - [1] Bandfield, J., P. Christensen, and V. Hamilton (2000) Science, 287, 1626-1630. [2] Christensen, P., J. Bandfield, V. Hamilton, and 23 others (2001) J. Geophys. Res.-Planets., 106 (E10), 23823-23871. [3] Wyatt, M. and H. McSween (2002) Nature, 417, 263-266. [4] Hamilton, V. and M. Minitti (2003) Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, PLA 1-1. [5] Bibring, J., Y. Langevin, A. Gendrin, and 9 others (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [6] Mustard, J., F. Poulet, A. Gendrin, and 6 others (2005) Science, 307, 1594-1597. [7] Hapke

  8. Ionospheric Poynting Flux and Joule Heating Modeling Challenge: Latest Results and New Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Knipp, D. J.; Zheng, Y.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Newell, P. T.; Weimer, D. R.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Wang, W.

    2014-12-01

    Poynting Flux and Joule Heating in the ionosphere - latest results from the challenge and updates at the CCMC. With the addition of satellite tracking and display features in the online analysis tool and at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), we are now able to obtain Poynting flux and Joule heating values from a wide variety of ionospheric models. In addition to Poynting fluxes derived from electric and magnetic field measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites for a recent modeling challenge, we can now use a Poynting Flux model derived from FAST satellite observations for comparison. Poynting Fluxes are also correlated using Ovation Prime maps of precipitation patterns during the same time periods to assess how "typical" the events in the challenge are.

  9. Nonlinear Modelling of Kinetic Data Obtained from Photocatalytic Mineralisation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol on a Titanium Dioxide Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Renato Bellobono

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Photomineralisation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP in aqueous solutions (10.0–100.0 mg/L of C was systematically studied at 318±3 K, in an annular laboratory-scale reactor, by photocatalytic membranes immobilizing titanium dioxide, as a function of substrate concentration, and absorbed power per unit length of membrane. Kinetics of both substrate disappearance, to yield intermediates, and total organic carbon (TOC disappearance, to yield carbon dioxide, were followed (first series of experiments. At a fixed value of irradiance (1.50 W⋅cm−1, other series of mineralization experiments were repeated (second series of experiments by carrying out only analyses of chemical oxygen demand (COD, in order to compare modelling results of the two sets of experiments. In both sets of experiments, stoichiometric hydrogen peroxide was used as oxygen donor. For the first series of experiments, a kinetic model was employed, already validated in previous work, from which, by a set of differential equations, four final optimised parameters, k1 and K1, k2 and K2, were calculated. By these parameters, the whole kinetic profile could be fitted adequately. The influence of irradiance on k1 and k2 could be rationalised very well by this four-parameter kinetic model. Modelling of quantum yields, as a function of irradiance, could also be carried out satisfactorily. As has been found previously for other kinds of substrates, modelling of quantum yields for DCP mineralization is consistent with kinetics of hydroxyl radicals reacting between themselves, leading to hydrogen peroxide, other than with substrate or intermediates leading finally to carbon dioxide, paralleled by a second competition kinetics involving superoxide radical anion. For the second series of experiments, on the contrary, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was employed. Uncertainties of COD analyses, coupled with discrepancies of this model and with its inability to reproduce kinetics up to

  10. Statistical distribution of the optical intensity obtained using a Gaussian Schell model for space-to-ground link laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengnan; Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing; Yu, Siyuan; Yang, Qingbo; Wu, Jiajie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the characteristics of the laser device and the inevitable error of the processing technique, a laser beam emitted from a communication terminal can be represented by the Gaussian Schell model (GSM). In space-to-ground link laser communications, the optical intensity is affected by the source coherence parameter and the zenith angle. With full consideration of these two parameters, the statistical distribution model of the optical intensity with a GSM laser in both downlink and uplink is derived. The simulation results indicate that increasing the source coherence parameter has an effect on the statistical distribution of the optical intensity; this effect is highly similar to the effect of a larger zenith angle. The optical intensity invariably degrades with increasing source coherence parameter or zenith angle. The results of this work can promote the improvement of the redundancy design of a laser communication receiver system.

  11. Sea Level Variability During The 1993-1999 Obtained From A Assimilation of Topex/poseidon Altimetry Into A Global Ocean General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, J.; Wenzel, M.; Schroeter, J.

    Sea surface height variability is studied from ocean model simulations and altimer data. The estimate of the ocean state is obtained by constraining the LSG model of the Max Plank Institute of Meteorology, Hamburg. Seven years (1993-1999) TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) sea surface heights relative to the EGM96 geoid model are assimilated into the model. 4D-VAR is used to optimize a set of control variables. The impact of the geoid data is presented by comparing the results from assimilating of mean plus time variability of sea surface heigh, or assimilating of sea level tempo- ral anomaly provided by T/P only. The sea surface height variability is analyzed. The individual effects of thermal and haline variability on the sea level are investigated as well.

  12. Stochastic Modeling of Lift and Drag Dynamics to Obtain Aerodynamic Forces with Local Dynamics on Rotor Blade under Unsteady Wind Inflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ramzan Luhur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution provides the development of a stochastic lift and drag model for an airfoil FX 79-W-151A under unsteady wind inflow based on wind tunnel measurements. Here we present the integration of the stochastic model into a well-known standard BEM (Blade Element Momentum model to obtain the corresponding aerodynamic forces on a rotating blade element. The stochastic model is integrated as an alternative to static tabulated data used by classical BEM. The results show that in comparison to classical BEM, the BEM with stochastic approach additionally reflects the local force dynamics and therefore provides more information on aerodynamic forces that can be used by wind turbine simulation codes

  13. Potential data used for validation of concentration statistics obtained using analytical model for conservative transport in an estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galesic, Morena; Andricevic, Roko; Divic, Vladimir; Mateus, Marcos; Pinto, Ligia

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas worldwide are important and sensitive ecosystems. Rivers are considered to be one of the most influential hydrological pathways for the waterborne transport and therefore estuaries are critical areas for a pollution hazard. To describe that hazard, the risk of exceeding the allowed concentration values of the pollution substance in such environment is often used. The analytical model calculates concentration statistics directly from the fundamental advective-diffusion equation for the case of continuous, steady conservative transport with the dominant stream flow mean velocity such is the case of low tide estuaries. Similar analytical models were previously proposed in atmosphere (Sullivan, 2004) and in groundwater (Andricevic, 2008). Knowing the main velocity and initial mass coming from the river, this kind of approach enables one a direct prediction of one-point concentration probability density function (pdf) which is then used to define the risk of exceeding the allowed concentration for certain water body. In this work we investigate how different data can be used for validation of the developed analytical model for conservative transport in an estuary. Two different types of measurement are being conducted at the local river Zrnovnica near city of Split, one measuring velocity and the other measuring salinity and temperature. Velocity data are used as an input to a numerical random walk particle tracking model to calculate the concentration moments. The salinity data are used as inverse proxy substance, hence the concentration moments are calculated directly from the inverse measured values. The results are highly affected by the scale effect, as the analytical model is developed at the point, while both numerical and measured values are smoothed over the grid size and over the sampling volume, respectively. However, the measured salinity, as concentration proxy, proved more resemblance to the concentration moment's shape, while numerical model

  14. Some results regarding the comparison of the Earth's atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šegan S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine air densities derived from our realization of aeronomic atmosphere models based on accelerometer measurements from satellites in a low Earth's orbit (LEO. Using the adapted algorithms we derive comparison parameters. The first results concerning the adjustment of the aeronomic models to the total-density model are given.

  15. Final model independent result of DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)

    2013-12-15

    The results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton x yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles (i.e. adding a further 0.17 ton x yr exposure) are presented. The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 data give evidence for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target, at 7.5{sigma} C.L. Including also the first generation DAMA/NaI experiment (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton x yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles), the C.L. is 9.3{sigma} and the modulation amplitude of the single-hit events in the (2-6) keV energy interval is: (0.0112{+-}0.0012) cpd/kg/keV; the measured phase is (144{+-}7) days and the measured period is (0.998{+-}0.002) yr, values well in agreement with those expected for DM particles. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. (orig.)

  16. Infrared thermography for CFRP inspection: computational model and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Henrique C.; Zhang, Hai; Morioka, Karen; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; López, Fernando; Maldague, Xavier P. V.; Tarpani, José R.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) is a well-known Non-destructive Testing (NDT) technique. In the last decades, it has been widely applied in several fields including inspection of composite materials (CM), specially the fiber-reinforced polymer matrix ones. Consequently, it is important to develop and improve efficient NDT techniques to inspect and assess the quality of CM parts in order to warranty airworthiness and, at the same time, reduce costs of airline companies. In this paper, active IRT is used to inspect carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) at laminate with artificial inserts (built-in sample) placed on different layers prior to the manufacture. Two optical active IRT are used. The first is pulsed thermography (PT) which is the most widely utilized IRT technique. The second is a line-scan thermography (LST) technique: a dynamic technique, which can be employed for the inspection of materials by heating a component, line-by-line, while acquiring a series of thermograms with an infrared camera. It is especially suitable for inspection of large parts as well as complex shaped parts. A computational model developed using COMSOL Multiphysics® was used in order to simulate the inspections. Sequences obtained from PT and LST were processed using principal component thermography (PCT) for comparison. Results showed that it is possible to detect insertions of different sizes at different depths using both PT and LST IRT techniques.

  17. Results from modeling and simulation of chemical downstream etch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Vosen, S.R.; Shon, J.W.; Larson, R.S.; Fox, C.A.; Buchenauer

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes modeling work performed at Sandia in support of Chemical Downstream Etch (CDE) benchmark and tool development programs under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with SEMATECH. The Chemical Downstream Etch (CDE) Modeling Project supports SEMATECH Joint Development Projects (JDPs) with Matrix Integrated Systems, Applied Materials, and Astex Corporation in the development of new CDE reactors for wafer cleaning and stripping processes. These dry-etch reactors replace wet-etch steps in microelectronics fabrication, enabling compatibility with other process steps and reducing the use of hazardous chemicals. Models were developed at Sandia to simulate the gas flow, chemistry and transport in CDE reactors. These models address the essential components of the CDE system: a microwave source, a transport tube, a showerhead/gas inlet, and a downstream etch chamber. The models have been used in tandem to determine the evolution of reactive species throughout the system, and to make recommendations for process and tool optimization. A significant part of this task has been in the assembly of a reasonable set of chemical rate constants and species data necessary for successful use of the models. Often the kinetic parameters were uncertain or unknown. For this reason, a significant effort was placed on model validation to obtain industry confidence in the model predictions. Data for model validation were obtained from the Sandia Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) experiments, from the literature, from the CDE Benchmark Project (also part of the Sandia/SEMATECH CRADA), and from the JDP partners. The validated models were used to evaluate process behavior as a function of microwave-source operating parameters, transport-tube geometry, system pressure, and downstream chamber geometry. In addition, quantitative correlations were developed between CDE tool performance and operation set points.

  18. Phenotypic transition maps of 3D breast acini obtained by imaging-guided agent-based modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jonathan; Enderling, Heiko; Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Pham, Christopher; Polyzos, Aris; Chen, Chen-Yi; Costes, Sylvain V

    2011-02-18

    We introduce an agent-based model of epithelial cell morphogenesis to explore the complex interplay between apoptosis, proliferation, and polarization. By varying the activity levels of these mechanisms we derived phenotypic transition maps of normal and aberrant morphogenesis. These maps identify homeostatic ranges and morphologic stability conditions. The agent-based model was parameterized and validated using novel high-content image analysis of mammary acini morphogenesis in vitro with focus on time-dependent cell densities, proliferation and death rates, as well as acini morphologies. Model simulations reveal apoptosis being necessary and sufficient for initiating lumen formation, but cell polarization being the pivotal mechanism for maintaining physiological epithelium morphology and acini sphericity. Furthermore, simulations highlight that acinus growth arrest in normal acini can be achieved by controlling the fraction of proliferating cells. Interestingly, our simulations reveal a synergism between polarization and apoptosis in enhancing growth arrest. After validating the model with experimental data from a normal human breast line (MCF10A), the system was challenged to predict the growth of MCF10A where AKT-1 was overexpressed, leading to reduced apoptosis. As previously reported, this led to non growth-arrested acini, with very large sizes and partially filled lumen. However, surprisingly, image analysis revealed a much lower nuclear density than observed for normal acini. The growth kinetics indicates that these acini grew faster than the cells comprising it. The in silico model could not replicate this behavior, contradicting the classic paradigm that ductal carcinoma in situ is only the result of high proliferation and low apoptosis. Our simulations suggest that overexpression of AKT-1 must also perturb cell-cell and cell-ECM communication, reminding us that extracellular context can dictate cellular behavior.

  19. New results on ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland) obtained during the DORIS Project (EU-FP 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graniczny, Marek; Colombo, Davide; Kowalski, Zbigniew; Przyłucka, Maria; Zdanowski, Albin

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of satellite interferometric methods (persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR™) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)) for observation of ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Southern Poland. The presented results were obtained during the DORIS project (EC FP 7, Grant Agreement n. 242212, www.doris-project.eu). Several InSAR datasets for this area were analysed. Most of them were processed by Tele-Rilevamento Europa - T.R.E. s.r.l. Italy. Datasets came from different SAR satellites (ERS 1 and 2, Envisat, ALOS- PALSAR and TerraSAR-X) and cover three different SAR bands (L, C and X). They were processed using both InSAR techniques: DInSAR, where deformations are presented as interferometric fringes on the raster image, and PSInSAR, where motion is indentified on irregular set of persistent scatterer (PS) points. Archival data from the C-band European Space Agency satellites ERS and ENVISAT provided information about ground movement since 1992 until 2010 in two separate datasets (1992-2000 and 2003-2010). Two coal mines were selected as examples of ground motion within inactive mining areas: Sosnowiec and Saturn, where mining ceased in 1995 and 1997, respectively. Despite well pumping after closure of the mines, groundwater rose several dozen meters, returning to its natural horizon. Small surface uplift clearly indicated on satellite interferometric data is related to high permeability of the hydrogeological subregion and insufficient water withdrawal from abandoned mines. The older 1992-2000 PSInSAR dataset indicates values of ground motion ranging from -40.0 to 0.0 mm. The newer 2003-2010 dataset shows values ranging from -2.0 to +7.0 mm. This means that during this period of time subsidence was less and uplift greater in comparison to the older dataset. This is even more evident in the time series of randomly selected PS points from both coal

  20. The Effect of Bathymetric Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results 6. AUTHOR(S) Nathaniel Plant, Kacey L. Edwards, James M. Kaihatu, Jayaram Veeramony, Yuan-Huang L. Hsu...filtering on nearshore process model results Nathaniel G. Plant **, Kacey L Edwardsb, James M. Kaihatuc, Jayaram Veeramony b, Larry Hsu’’, K. Todd Holland...assimilation efforts that require this information. Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Nearshore process models are capable of predicting

  1. Assessment of oncologic control obtained after open versus laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUT-UCs): results from a large French multicenter collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariane, Mehdi Mokhtar; Colin, Pierre; Ouzzane, Adil; Pignot, Geraldine; Audouin, Marie; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Albouy, Baptiste; Guillotreau, Julien; Neuzillet, Yann; Crouzet, Sébastien; Hurel, Sophie; Arroua, Frederic; Bigot, Pierre; Marchand, Charles; Fais, Pierre Olivier; de la Taille, Alexandre; Saint, Fabien; Ravier, Emmanuel; Matte, Alexandre; Guy, Laurent; Bruyère, Franck; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the postsurgical survival of UUT-UC patients treated with ONU and LNU. Using a multi-institutional, national, retrospective database, we identified patients with UUT-UC who underwent radical nephroureterectomy by open access (ONU) or by the minimally invasive alternative (LNU). Survival curves were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate Cox model was used to evaluate the association between surgical approach and disease recurrence. Overall, 609 patients were included (ONU = 459 and LNU = 150). The median age was 69.8 years (range 61.9-76), and the male-to-female ratio was 2:1. Postoperative complications occurred in 80 patients, with no significant difference between ONU and LNU on the whole (P = 0.64). The median follow-up was 27 months. There was no difference between the 2 procedures in the 5-year CSS or 5-year RFS. Moreover, the 5-year CSS (P = 0.053) and 5-year RFS (P = 0.9) for cases with locally advanced disease (pT3/pT4) were similar between ONU and LNU. In the multivariate analysis, the surgical procedure used was not found to be associated with survival. The main limitation of the study is its retrospective design, which is the result of the rarity of the disease. There is no evidence that oncological outcomes for LNU are inferior to those for open surgery, provided that the appropriate precautionary measures are taken.

  2. Biomarker based reconstruction of Pleistocene climate and environmental conditions in the Gulf of Alaska: Preliminary results obtained from IODP Expedition 341 sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliane; Sanchez Montes, Maria Luisa; McClymont, Erin; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wilkes, Heinz; 341 Scientists, Expedition

    2014-05-01

    (Etourneau et al., 2013) - is applied to gain information about the variability in polar water/sea ice extent in the study area. Previously, Rowland et al. (2001) documented that not only the degree of unsaturation in C25-HBIs but also the E- to Z-isomerisation in the C25-HBI trienes increases with increasing water temperature. Based on this observation we suggest that the ratio of the Z-isomer to the E-isomer in the trienes might reflect SST changes and could be used as an additional SST proxy. The applicability of this approach, however, needs further evaluation (e.g. through comparisons with alkenone SST data obtained from Expedition 341 sediments). References Addison, J.A., Finney, B.P., Dean, W.E., Davies, M.H., Mix, A.C., Stoner, J.S. and Jaeger, J.M., 2012. Productivity and sedimentary d15N variability for the last 17,000 years along the northern Gulf of Alaska continental slope. Paleoceanography, 27 (1), PA1206. Barron, J.A., Bukry, D., Dean, W.E., Addison, J.A. and Finney, B., 2009. Paleoceanography of the Gulf of Alaska during the past 15,000 years: Results from diatoms, silicoflagellates, and geochemistry. Marine Micropaleontology, 72 (3-4), 176-195. Davies, M.H., Mix, A.C., Stoner, J.S., Addison, J.A., Jaeger, J., Finney, B. and Wiest, J., 2011. The deglacial transition on the southeastern Alaska Margin: Meltwater input, sea level rise, marine productivity, and sedimentary anoxia. Paleoceanography, 26 (2), PA2223. Etourneau, J., Collins, L.G., Willmott, V., Kim, J.H., Barbara, L., Leventer, A., Schouten, S., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Bianchini, A., Klein, V., Crosta, X. and Massé, G., 2013. Holocene climate variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula: evidence for sea ice extent predominantly controlled by changes in insolation and ENSO variability. Clim. Past, 9 (4), 1431-1446. Rowland, S.J., Allard, W.G., Belt, S.T., Masse, G., Robert, J.M., Blackburn, S., Frampton, D., Revill, A.T. and Volkman, J.K., 2001. Factors influencing the distributions of

  3. Mouse p53-Deficient Cancer Models as Platforms for Obtaining Genomic Predictors of Human Cancer Clinical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, Marta; Santos, Mirentxu; Aranda, Juan F.; Bielza, Concha; Martínez-Cruz, Ana B.; Lorz, Corina; Taron, Miquel; Ciruelos, Eva M.; Rodríguez-Peralto, José L.; Martín, Miguel; Larrañaga, Pedro; Dahabreh, Jubrail; Stathopoulos, George P.; Rosell, Rafael; Paramio, Jesús M.; García-Escudero, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the TP53 gene are very common in human cancers, and are associated with poor clinical outcome. Transgenic mouse models lacking the Trp53 gene or that express mutant Trp53 transgenes produce tumours with malignant features in many organs. We previously showed the transcriptome of a p53-deficient mouse skin carcinoma model to be similar to those of human cancers with TP53 mutations and associated with poor clinical outcomes. This report shows that much of the 682-gene signature of this murine skin carcinoma transcriptome is also present in breast and lung cancer mouse models in which p53 is inhibited. Further, we report validated gene-expression-based tests for predicting the clinical outcome of human breast and lung adenocarcinoma. It was found that human patients with cancer could be stratified based on the similarity of their transcriptome with the mouse skin carcinoma 682-gene signature. The results also provide new targets for the treatment of p53-defective tumours. PMID:22880004

  4. Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.

    1999-03-01

    A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

  5. Results from a new Cocks-Ashby style porosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    A new porosity evolution model is described, along with preliminary results. The formulation makes use of a Cocks-Ashby style treatment of porosity kinetics that includes rate dependent flow in the mechanics of porosity growth. The porosity model is implemented in a framework that allows for a variety of strength models to be used for the matrix material, including ones with significant changes in rate sensitivity as a function of strain rate. Results of the effect of changing strain rate sensitivity on porosity evolution are shown. The overall constitutive model update involves the coupled solution of a system of nonlinear equations.

  6. Seismological results from the records obtained by the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX). The analysis of the earthquake of March 20, 2012 and other examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Perez, S.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, M.; Uribe Carvajal, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Cuellar Martinez, A.

    2013-05-01

    In this talk we show seismological processes performed with data obtained from the records collected by the strong motion recorders that constitute the seismic alert system of Mexico (SASMEX). The instruments and the triggering algorithms are original design of CIRES, This has allowed that optimal time modifications, improvements and error corrections. Punctual parameters as first time arrivals, S-P times, and maximum acceleration (Amax) for each seismic station can be obtained from the warning record it self, before the earthquake arrives. When the system initiates the alert process the S-P time at least two sites are already known and at this moment common time is set in all the array which allows the synchronization of all the records, these are recovered during field trips after every trigger. The time histories are obtained by A/D converters (12 bits) and MEMS accelerometers. During the March 20, 2012 earthquake nine seismic stations of the SASMEX array detected the event at less than one hundred kilometres of epicentral distance, this allowed to calculate the location of the hypocenter, the maxima displacements associated to each of these sites. The greatest value corresponds to the Llano Grande seismic station, 0.47m on the SW direction, for the NS component. The distributions of Amax and the estimated movement displacement are shown. The foreshock of October 6 is also analysed, The behaviour of the SASMEX during the earthquakes of Tehuacan (June 15, 1999) and of Guatemala (Nov 7, 2012) are shown as examples of the possibility that the nature of the seismic activity it self point the need and probable success of increasing the coverage of SASMEX.

  7. First pregnancy and live birth resulting from cryopreserved embryos obtained from in vitro matured oocytes after oophorectomy in an ovarian cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, E B; Chan, M L H; Wong, W H W; Lim, C J W; Tharmalingam, M D; Hendricks, M; Loh, S F; Chia, Y N

    2014-02-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes retrieved from surgically resected ovaries has been proposed as a method of fertility preservation in ovarian cancer patients undergoing definitive surgery. While there had been several reports of successful derivation of mature oocytes and or embryos, there have been no reports as yet of successful pregnancies. In this case report, we present a pregnancy and live birth from a young patient, with stage IIIC ovarian cancer, who had undergone fertility sparing surgery. The immature oocytes recovered after oophorectomy were fertilized after IVM. The embryos obtained were cryopreserved and later transferred to achieve a singleton healthy pregnancy leading to a live birth.

  8. Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pattyn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models that are able to robustly simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison exercise for marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no effects of lateral buttressing. Unique steady state grounding line positions exist for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed, while hysteresis occurs across an overdeepened bed, and stable steady state grounding line positions only occur on the downward-sloping sections. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which does not resolve extensional stresses, do not reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line. For extensional-stress resolving "shelfy stream" models, differences between model results were mainly due to the choice of spatial discretization. Moving grid methods were found to be the most accurate at capturing grounding line evolution, since they track the grounding line explicitly. Adaptive mesh refinement can further improve accuracy, including fixed grid models that generally perform poorly at coarse resolution. Fixed grid models, with nested grid representations of the grounding line, are able to generate accurate steady state positions, but can be inaccurate over transients. Only one full-Stokes model was included in the intercomparison, and consequently the accuracy of shelfy stream models as approximations of full-Stokes models remains to be determined in detail, especially during transients.

  9. A Method to Obtain Orange Crop Geometry Information Using a Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanner and 3D Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F. Colaço

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging technology has been used to obtain geometrical attributes of tree crops in small field plots, sometimes using manual steps in data processing. The objective of this study was to develop a method for estimating canopy volume and height based on a mobile terrestrial laser scanner suited for large commercial orange groves. A 2D LiDAR sensor and a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System receiver were mounted on a vehicle for data acquisition. A georeferenced point cloud representing the laser beam impacts on the crop was created and later classified into transversal sections along the row or into individual trees. The convex-hull and the alpha-shape reconstruction algorithms were used to reproduce the shape of the tree crowns. Maps of canopy volume and height were generated for a 25 ha orange grove. The different options of data processing resulted in different values of canopy volume. The alpha-shape algorithm was considered a good option to represent individual trees whereas the convex-hull was better when representing transversal sections of the row. Nevertheless, the canopy volume and height maps produced by those two methods were similar. The proposed system is useful for site-specific management in orange groves.

  10. Six missense mutations associated with type I and type II protein C deficiency and implications obtained from molecular modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y Z; Sakata, T; Matsusue, T; Umeyama, H; Kato, H; Miyata, T

    1994-10-01

    The molecular basis of protein C deficiency was studied in three type I and three type II heterozygotes. Three probands showed thrombotic complications. All the exons and intron/exon junctions of the protein C gene were studied using a strategy combining by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, and DNA sequencing of the PCR-amplified fragments. Six missense mutations were identified, including three novel ones. One was located in exon II, in which the initiating translation codon (ATG) encoding for Met at position -42 was replaced by ACG encoding for Thr. The other five were located in exon IX, and included TAC(Tyr399)-->CAC(His), CCG(Pro327)-->CTG(Leu), GAC(Asp359)-->AAC(Asn) in two cases, and GGG(Gly350)-->AGG(Arg). Four of the six missense mutations occurred in CG dinucleotide. Sequence analysis of the other exons excluded additional mutations. By restriction enzyme analysis, co-segregation of the mutation with protein C deficiency was observed in four families. The other two mutations at amino acid positions -42 and 350 were also considered to be associated with protein C deficiency due to the absence of these mutations in 50 normal individuals. A structural model of the protease domain of mutant activated protein C was constructed by the chimeric modelling method, and the resultant model suggested conformational changes due to each missense mutation identified in protein C deficiency. The present data also provide some evidence regarding the genetic heterogeneity of protein C deficiency.

  11. Comparison of ATLAS Tilecal MODULE No 8 high-precision metrology measurement results obtained by laser (JINR) and photogrammetric (CERN) methods

    CERN Document Server

    Batusov, V; Gayde, J C; Khubua, J I; Lasseur, C; Lyablin, M V; Miralles-Verge, L; Nessi, Marzio; Rusakovitch, N A; Sissakian, A N; Topilin, N D

    2002-01-01

    The high-precision assembly of large experimental set-ups is of a principal necessity for the successful execution of the forthcoming LHC research programme in the TeV-beams. The creation of an adequate survey and control metrology method is an essential part of the detector construction scenario. This work contains the dimension measurement data for ATLAS hadron calorimeter MODULE No. 8 (6 m, 22 tons) which were obtained by laser and by photogrammetry methods. The comparative data analysis demonstrates the measurements agreement within +or-70 mu m. It means, these two clearly independent methods can be combined and lead to the rise of a new-generation engineering culture: high-precision metrology when precision assembling of large scale massive objects. (3 refs).

  12. Topological and geometrical analysis of a low-dimensional chaotic model obtained for the dynamics of cereal crops cycles observed from satellite in semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    A low-dimensional chaotic model was recently obtained for the dynamics of cereal crops cycles in semi-arid region [1]. This model was obtained from one single time series of vegetation index measured from space. The global modeling approach [2] was used based on powerful algorithms recently developed for this purpose [3]. The resulting model could be validated by comparing its predictability (a data assimilation scheme was used for this purpose) with a statistical prediction approach based on the search of analogous states in the phase space [4]. The cereal crops model exhibits a weakly dissipative chaos (DKY = 2.68) and a toroidal-like structure. At present, quite few cases of such chaos are known and these are exclusively theoretical. The first case was introduced by Lorenz in 1984 to model the global circulation dynamics [5], which attractor's structure is remained poorly understood. Indeed, one very powerful way to characterize low-dimensional chaos is based on the topological analysis of the attractors' flow [6]. Unfortunately, such approach does not apply to weakly dissipative chaos. In this work, a color tracer method is introduced and used to perform a complete topological analysis of both the Lorenz-84 system and the cereal crops model. The usual stretching and squeezing mechanisms are easily detected in the attractors' structure. A stretching taking place in the globally contracting direction of the flow is also found in both attractors. Such stretching is unexpected and was not reported previously. The analysis also confirms the toroidal type of chaos and allows producing both the skeleton and algebraic descriptions of the two attractors. Their comparison shows that the cereal crops attractor is a new attractor. References [1] Mangiarotti S., Drapreau L., Letellier C., 2014. Two chaotic global models for cereal crops cycles observed from satellite in Northern Morocco. revision submitted. [2] Letellier C., Aguirre L.A., Freitas U.S., 2009. Frequently

  13. Constrains on Crustal Accretion Obtained from Cooling Rate Calculations with a Thermo-Mechanical Model of Fast-Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, C. J.; Machetel, P.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a thermo-mechanical model designed to find steady-state solutions of motion and temperature with variable viscosity, heat diffusion, heat advection, hydrothermal cooling and latent heat release. Cases analogous to the "gabbro glacier" (G accretion structure), "sheeted sills" (S structure) and "mixed shallow and MTZ lenses" (M structure) were computed with and without sheeted dyke level modeling. The results show that thermal patterns near the ridge mainly depend on hydrothermal cooling. Several hydrothermal cooling cracking temperature have been used in order to illustrate the present scientific debate on the penetration depth and efficiency of hydrothermal flows. Second, higher cooling rates are obtained for the G structures. Third, whereas the subsolidus cooling rates, SCR, decrease monotonically with depth, the igneous cooling rates, ICR, display local minima at the merging levels of the upper and lower lenses. It appears that ICR reveal the near-ridge thermal and mechanical structures, whereas the lower value of the initial-to-closure temperature ranges used for SCR cause shifts farther from the ridge that reduces the ability of SCR to discriminate the ridge thermo-mechanical configuration. It also indicates that the common assumption that ICR and SCR should be similar is probably over-simplified. Finally, the cooling rates obtained bears the clear signature of the three intrusion hypothesis. The results show that numerical modeling of the lower crust's thermo-mechanical properties may provide new insights to discriminate among hypotheses related to G, M and S structures for fast-spreading ridges.; Thermal history obtained for the Gabro Glacier (top panels), Mixed shallow and MTZ zone (middle panels) and Sheeted Sills hypothesis (bottom panels)for the magma intrusion at ridge. Columns corresponds to various hydrothermal cooling and viscosity hypothesis.

  14. Generalised Chou-Yang model and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-e-Aleem [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Rashid, H. [Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Centre for High Energy Physics

    1996-12-31

    It is shown that most recent results of E710 and UA4/2 collaboration for the total cross section and {rho} together with earlier measurements give good agreement with measurements for the differential cross section at 546 and 1800 GeV within the framework of Generalised Chou-Yang model. These results are also compared with the predictions of other models. (author) 16 refs.

  15. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  16. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  17. On the Model-Based Bootstrap with Missing Data: Obtaining a "P"-Value for a Test of Exact Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalei, Victoria; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating the fit of a structural equation model via bootstrap requires a transformation of the data so that the null hypothesis holds exactly in the sample. For complete data, such a transformation was proposed by Beran and Srivastava (1985) for general covariance structure models and applied to structural equation modeling by Bollen and Stine…

  18. Transferred multipolar atom model for 10β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one dihydrate obtained from the biotransformation of methyloestrenolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroque, Muhammad Umer; Yousuf, Sammer; Zafar, Salman; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Ahmed, Maqsood

    2016-05-01

    Biotransformation is the structural modification of compounds using enzymes as the catalysts and it plays a key role in the synthesis of pharmaceutically important compounds. 10β,17β-Dihydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one dihydrate, C19H28O3·2H2O, was obtained from the fungal biotransformation of methyloestrenolone. The structure was refined using the classical independent atom model (IAM) and a transferred multipolar atom model using the ELMAM2 database. The results from the two refinements have been compared. The ELMAM2 refinement has been found to be superior in terms of the refinement statistics. It has been shown that certain electron-density-derived properties can be calculated on the basis of the transferred parameters for crystals which diffract to ordinary resolution.

  19. Cyclostationarity and the cepstrum for operational modal analysis of MIMO systems—Part II: Obtaining scaled mode shapes through finite element model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D.; Randall, R. B.; Antoni, J.; Waters, T. P.; Thompson, D. J.; Ford, R. A. J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a new technique for scaling mode shapes, obtained from cepstrum-based operational modal analysis (OMA) techniques, such as that described in the companion paper, using finite element model updating. This OMA technique estimated frequency response functions (FRFs) between a cyclostationary input and response measurements. If the input is frequentially white, the resulting FRFs can be obtained up to an overall scaling constant using the in-band poles and zeros identified in the OMA process and employing the response autospectrum as a reference to correct for the effect of out of band modes. In this way, the mode shapes would be scaled correctly relative to each other but would still have arbitrary overall magnitude. If the input is not white, then no reference is available to correct FRF regenerated from in-band poles and zeros, and so these FRFs will exhibit both an overall slope resulting from the effect of out-of-band poles and zeros, and an arbitrary magnitude. This overall slope will differ between measurement locations so even the relative scaling between the mode shapes will be lost. This paper describes a simple technique for recovering both the relative and overall scaling of the FRFs, and hence the mode shapes, based on finite element model updating.

  20. Construction of an extended library of adult male 3D models: rationale and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Bremaud, M.; Desbrée, A.; Farah, J.; Huet, C.; Franck, D.

    2011-12-01

    In order to best cover the possible extent of heights and weights of male adults the construction of 25 whole body 3D models has been undertaken. Such a library is thought to be useful to specify the uncertainties and relevance of dosimetry calculations carried out with models representing individuals of average body heights and weights. Representative 3D models of Caucasian body types are selected in a commercial database according to their height and weight, and 3D models of the skeleton and internal organs are designed using another commercial dataset. A review of the literature enabled one to fix volume or mass target values for the skeleton, soft organs, skin and fat content of the selected individuals. The composition of the remainder tissue is fixed so that the weight of the voxel models equals the weight of the selected individuals. After mesh and NURBS modelling, volume adjustment of the selected body shapes and additional voxel-based work, 25 voxel models with 109 identified organs or tissue are obtained. Radiation transport calculations are carried out with some of the developed models to illustrate potential uses. The following points are discussed throughout this paper: justification of the fixed or obtained models' features regarding available and relevant literature data; workflow and strategy for major modelling steps; advantages and drawbacks of the obtained library as compared with other works. The construction hypotheses are explained and justified in detail since future calculation results obtained with this library will depend on them.

  1. Can a partial volume edge effect reduction algorithm improve the repeatability of subject-specific finite element models of femurs obtained from CT data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Eran; Herblum, Ryan; Beek, Maarten; Joskowicz, Leo; Liebergall, Meir; Mosheiff, Rami; Whyne, Cari

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of patient-specific finite element (FE) modelling is dependent on the ability to provide repeatable analyses. Differences of inter-operator generated grids can produce variability in strain and stress readings at a desired location, which are magnified at the surface of the model as a result of the partial volume edge effects (PVEEs). In this study, a new approach is introduced based on an in-house developed algorithm which adjusts the location of the model's surface nodes to a consistent predefined threshold Hounsfield unit value. Three cadaveric human femora specimens were CT scanned, and surface models were created after a semi-automatic segmentation by three different experienced operators. A FE analysis was conducted for each model, with and without applying the surface-adjustment algorithm (a total of 18 models), implementing identical boundary conditions. Maximum principal strain and stress and spatial coordinates were probed at six equivalent surface nodes from the six generated models for each of the three specimens at locations commonly utilised for experimental strain guage measurement validation. A Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was conducted to determine inter-operator variability and the impact of the PVEE-adjustment algorithm. The average inter-operator difference in stress values was significantly reduced after applying the adjustment algorithm (before: 3.32 ± 4.35 MPa, after: 1.47 ± 1.77 MPa, p = 0.025). Strain values were found to be less sensitive to inter-operative variability (p = 0.286). In summary, the new approach as presented in this study may provide a means to improve the repeatability of subject-specific FE models of bone obtained from CT data.

  2. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found....

  3. A comparison of the impact of screen-positive results obtained from ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinans, M.J.; Kooij, L.; Muller, M.A.; Bilardo, K.M.; van Lith, J.M.; Tymstra, T.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of women who received a screen-positive test result for Down syndrome after nuchal translucency screening or after biochemical screening in the first trimester of pregnancy in the Netherlands. METHOD: Semi-quantitative questionnaires were sent to 40 women with a

  4. Assessing representativeness of sampling methods for reaching men who have sex with men: a direct comparison of results obtained from convenience and probability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra; Spindler, Hilary; Scheer, Susan; Valleroy, Linda; Lansky, Amy

    2007-07-01

    Convenience samples are used to determine HIV-related behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) without measuring the extent to which the results are representative of the broader MSM population. We compared results from a cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited from gay bars between June and October 2001 to a random digit dial telephone survey conducted between June 2002 and January 2003. The men in the probability sample were older, better educated, and had higher incomes than men in the convenience sample, the convenience sample enrolled more employed men and men of color. Substance use around the time of sex was higher in the convenience sample but other sexual behaviors were similar. HIV testing was common among men in both samples. Periodic validation, through comparison of data collected by different sampling methods, may be useful when relying on survey data for program and policy development.

  5. Nanotechnology and Life Cycle Assessment. A systems approach to Nanotechnology and the environment:Synthesis of Results Obtained at a Workshop Washington, DC 2–3 October 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Klöpffer, Walter; Curran, Mary Ann; Frankl, Paolo; Heijungs, Reinout; Köhler, Annette; OLSEN Stig Irving

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of “Nanotechnology and Life Cycle Assessment,” a twoday workshop jointly convened by the Woodrow Wilson Center Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies; the United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development; and the European Commission, RTD.G4 “Nano S&T: Converging Science and Technologies.” Held in October 2006, the workshop involved international experts from the fields of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and nanotechnology. The m...

  6. Analysis of results obtained using the automatic chemical control of the quality of the water heat carrier in the drum boiler of the Ivanovo CHP-3 power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, A. B.; Kolegov, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    Results of industrial tests of the new method used for the automatic chemical control of the quality of boiler water of the drum-type power boiler ( P d = 13.8 MPa) are described. The possibility of using an H-cationite column for measuring the electric conductivity of an H-cationized sample of boiler water over a long period of time is shown.

  7. Multi-stage IT project evaluation: The flexibility value obtained by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik (2004) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Fathi; Guermazi, Dorra

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a multi-stage information technology investment project, by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik's (2004) model, which takes into account specific features of IT projects and considers the real option to suspend investment at each stage. We present a particular case of the model where the project value is the solution of an optimal control problem with a single state variable. In this case, the model is more intuitive and tractable. The case study confirms the practical potential of the model and highlights the importance of the real-option approach compared to classical discounted cash flow techniques in the valuation of IT projects.

  8. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario...... of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological obser-vations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observa-tional data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced....... However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties...

  9. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely...... uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble......’ dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent...

  10. Mathematical Existence Results for the Doi-Edwards Polymer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupin, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present some mathematical results on the Doi-Edwards model describing the dynamics of flexible polymers in melts and concentrated solutions. This model, developed in the late 1970s, has been used and extensively tested in modeling and simulation of polymer flows. From a mathematical point of view, the Doi-Edwards model consists in a strong coupling between the Navier-Stokes equations and a highly nonlinear constitutive law. The aim of this article is to provide a rigorous proof of the well-posedness of the Doi-Edwards model, namely that it has a unique regular solution. We also prove, which is generally much more difficult for flows of viscoelastic type, that the solution is global in time in the two dimensional case, without any restriction on the smallness of the data.

  11. A systematic approach to obtain validated partial least square models for predicting lipoprotein subclasses from serum NMR spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, van D.B.; Graaf, de A.A.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic approach is described for building validated PLS models that predict cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in lipoprotein subclasses in fasting serum from a normolipidemic, healthy population. The PLS models were built on diffusion-edited (1)H NMR spectra and calibrated on HPLC-de

  12. A systematic approach to obtain validated partial least square models for predicting lipoprotein subclasses from serum nmr spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Duynhoven, J. van; Dorsten, F.A. van; Vervoort, J.; Smilde, A.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic approach is described for building validated PLS models that predict cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in lipoprotein subclasses in fasting serum from a normolipidemic, healthy population. The PLS models were built on diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra and calibrated on HPLC-deri

  13. Modeling Results for the ITER Cryogenic Fore Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongsheng

    The work presented here is the analysis and modeling of the ITER-Cryogenic Fore Pump (CFP), also called Cryogenic Viscous Compressor (CVC). Unlike common cryopumps that are usually used to create and maintain vacuum, the cryogenic fore pump is designed for ITER to collect and compress hydrogen isotopes during the regeneration process of the torus cryopumps. Different from common cryopumps, the ITER-CFP works in the viscous flow regime. As a result, both adsorption boundary conditions and transport phenomena contribute unique features to the pump performance. In this report, the physical mechanisms of cryopumping are studied, especially the diffusion-adsorption process and these are coupled with the standard equations of species, momentum and energy balance, as well as the equation of state. Numerical models are developed, which include highly coupled non-linear conservation equations of species, momentum, and energy and equation of state. Thermal and kinetic properties are treated as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas fluid mixture. To solve such a set of equations, a novel numerical technique, identified as the Group-Member numerical technique is proposed. This document presents three numerical models: a transient model, a steady state model, and a hemisphere (or molecular flow) model. The first two models are developed based on analysis of the raw experimental data while the third model is developed as a preliminary study. The modeling results are compared with available experiment data for verification. The models can be used for cryopump design, and can also benefit problems, such as loss of vacuum in a cryomodule or cryogenic desublimation. The scientific and engineering investigation being done here builds connections between Mechanical Engineering and other disciplines, such as Chemical Engineering, Physics, and Chemistry.

  14. Comparison of NASCAP modelling results with lumped circuit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, D. B.; Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    Engineering design tools that can be used to predict the development of absolute and differential potentials by realistic spacecraft under geomagnetic substorm conditions are described. Two types of analyses are in use: (1) the NASCAP code, which computes quasistatic charging of geometrically complex objects with multiple surface materials in three dimensions; (2) lumped element equivalent circuit models that are used for analyses of particular spacecraft. The equivalent circuit models require very little computation time, however, they cannot account for effects, such as the formation of potential barriers, that are inherently multidimensional. Steady state potentials of structure and insulation are compared with those resulting from the equivalent circuit model.

  15. The East model: recent results and new progresses

    CERN Document Server

    Faggionato, Alessandra; Roberto, Cyril; Toninelli, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The East model is a particular one dimensional interacting particle system in which certain transitions are forbidden according to some constraints depending on the configuration of the system. As such it has received particular attention in the physics literature as a special case of a more general class of systems referred to as kinetically constrained models, which play a key role in explaining some features of the dynamics of glasses. In this paper we give an extensive overview of recent rigorous results concerning the equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of the East model together with some new improvements.

  16. Recent MEG Results and Predictive SO(10) Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuyama, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Recent MEG results of a search for the lepton flavor violating (LFV) muon decay, $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$, show 3 events as the best value for the number of signals in the maximally likelihood fit. Although this result is still far from the evidence/discovery in statistical point of view, it might be a sign of a certain new physics beyond the Standard Model. As has been well-known, supersymmetric (SUSY) models can generate the $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ decay rate within the search reach of the MEG experiment. A certain class of SUSY grand unified theory (GUT) models such as the minimal SUSY SO(10) model (we call this class of models "predictive SO(10) models") can unambiguously determine fermion Yukawa coupling matrices, in particular, the neutrino Dirac Yukawa matrix. Based on the universal boundary conditions for soft SUSY breaking parameters at the GUT scale, we calculate the rate of the $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ process by using the completely determined Dirac Yukawa matrix in two examples of predictive SO(10) models. If we ...

  17. Summary of FY15 results of benchmark modeling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguello, J. Guadalupe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia is participating in the third phase of an is a contributing partner to a U.S.-German "Joint Project" entitled "Comparison of current constitutive models and simulation procedures on the basis of model calculations of the thermo-mechanical behavior and healing of rock salt." The first goal of the project is to check the ability of numerical modeling tools to correctly describe the relevant deformation phenomena in rock salt under various influences. Achieving this goal will lead to increased confidence in the results of numerical simulations related to the secure storage of radioactive wastes in rock salt, thereby enhancing the acceptance of the results. These results may ultimately be used to make various assertions regarding both the stability analysis of an underground repository in salt, during the operating phase, and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier against the release of harmful substances into the biosphere, in the post-operating phase.

  18. Standard Model physics results from ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dordevic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The most recent results of Standard Model physics studies in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV center-of-mass energy based on data recorded by ATLAS and CMS detectors during the LHC Run I are reviewed. This overview includes studies of vector boson production cross section and properties, results on V+jets production with light and heavy flavours, latest VBS and VBF results, measurement of diboson production with an emphasis on ATGC and QTGC searches, as well as results on inclusive jet cross sections with strong coupling constant measurement and PDF constraints. The outlined results are compared to the prediction of the Standard Model.

  19. Examining the meaning of the peptide transfer free energy obtained from blocked (Gly)_n and cyclic-diglycine model compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Asthagiri, D; Weber, V

    2013-01-01

    In experiments, the free energy of transferring the peptide group from water to an osmolyte solution is obtained using the transfer free energy of (Gly)_n with the added assumption that a constant incremental change in free energy with n implies that each additional unit makes an independent contribution to the free energy. Here we test this assumption and uncover its limitations. Together with results for cyclic-diglycine, we show that, in principle, it is not possible to obtain a peptide group transfer free energy that is independent of the model system. We calculate the hydration free energy of acetyl-(Gly)_n-methyl amide (n=1..7) peptides modeled in the extended conformation in water and osmolyte solutions and find that the hydration free energy is linear in n, suggestive of independent, additive group-contributions. To probe the observed linearity further, we study the hydration of the solute bereft of water molecules in the first hydration shell. This conditioned solute arises naturally in the theoretic...

  20. [Diagnosis of malaria in Antananarivo City: examination of the results obtained at the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar from 2001 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencimon, C; Belmonte, O; Randrianarivelojosia, M; Grosjean, P; Pfister, P; Combe, P

    2006-07-01

    Malaria diagnosis is part of the daily activities of the Clinical Biology Center (CBC) of the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar in Antananarivo. Over a period of four years (2001-2004), regardless the methods being used, out of 6537 blood samples examined, 159 (2.43%) tests were positive. All four species of Plasmodium infecting human. were detected with a high prevalence of P. falciparum (87.2%). 49/159 patients were foreigners, but their files did not allow us to distinguish imported from locally acquired malaria cases. Also, among Malagasy patients, there was no possibility to recognize introduced malaria cases (contracted in coastal areas). In Madagascar malaria remains a public health problem. But fever and recent history of fever are often considered and treated as malaria. Our results demonstrated that confirmed malaria rate was very low. Reporting malaria on the basis of clinical signs overestimates malaria cases at the national level. The importance of malaria biological diagnosis is discussed in this article.

  1. The use of skin surface electropotentials for breast cancer detection--preliminary clinical trial results obtained using the biofield diagnostic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, Subbhuraam Vinitha; Ng, E Y K; Kaw, G; U, Rajendra Acharya; Chong, B K

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) as an adjunct to established diagnostic techniques such as mammography and ultrasound in differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions. The clinical trial was conducted at the Tan Tock Seng hospital, Singapore. 103 women scheduled for mammography and/or ultrasound tests participated in the study. The BDS test recorded a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 97.6%, and an accuracy of 98.1%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.988 which was slightly lower than that of ultrasound (0.994) and slightly higher than that of mammography (0.951). The BDS test has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity values in the studied population. The accuracy is also comparable to that of diagnostic techniques like mammography and ultrasound. Thus, it is evident that BDS can be a fast and reliable adjunct tool for getting a secondary opinion on lesions with indeterminate mammographic and sonographic results.

  2. Quantity and quality of black carbon molecular markers as obtained by two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-DAD) - How do results compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M. P. W.; Smittenberg, R. H.; Dittmar, T.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2009-04-01

    Chars produced by wildfires are an important source of black carbon (BC) in the environment. After their deposition on the soil surface they can be distributed into rivers, marine waters and sediments. The analysis of benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) as a quantitative measure for black carbon (BC) in soil and sediment samples is a well-established method (Glaser et al., 1998; Brodowski et al., 2005). Briefly, the nitric acid oxidation of fused aromatic ring systems in BC forms eight molecular markers (BPCAs), which can be assigned to BC, and which subsequently can be quantified by GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector). Recently, this method was modified for the quantification of BC in seawater samples using HPLC-DAD (High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector) for the determination of individual BPCAs (Dittmar, 2008). A direct comparison of both analytical techniques is lacking but would be important for future data comparison aimed at the calculation of global BC budgets. Here we present a systematic comparison of the two BPCA quantification methods. We prepared chars under well-defined laboratory conditions. In order to cover a broad spectrum of char properties we used two sources of biomass and a wide range of pyrolysis temperatures. Chestnut hardwood chips (Castanea sativa) and rice straw (Oryza sativa) were pyrolysed at temperatures between 200 and 1000°C under a constant N2 stream. The maximum temperatures were held constant for 5 hours (Hammes et al., 2006). The BC contents of the chars have been analysed using the BPCA extraction method followed by either GC-FID or HPLC-DAD quantification. Preliminary results suggest that both methods yield similar total quantities of BPCA, and also the proportions of the individual markers are similar. Ongoing experiments will allow for a more detailed comparison of the two methods. The BPCA composition of chars formed at different temperatures and from different precursor

  3. Integrated modeling of steel refining, casting and rolling operations to obtain design set points for quality steel sheet production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akash; Kumar, Prabhash; Anapagaddi, Ravikiran; Reddy, Niranjan; Goyal, Sharad; Singh, A. K.; Padmanabhan, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    Non-metallic inclusions are defects present in steel which disrupt the homogeneity of structure and adversely affects the mechanical properties. To some extent silo approach based mathematical models have been successfully used to modify and control inclusions in steel making but very few attempts have been made to deal with these processes in integrated framework. With computational advancement and high promising potential of ICME (Integrated Computational Materials Engineering), physics based models can be integrated which will lead to overall increase of process understanding, control and eventually to better properties and performance of material. The objectives of the present work are: (a) using CFD based models understand the influence of various design and process parameters on inclusion removal during secondary steel making, (b) using FEM model study the effects of type and characteristics of inclusions during solid state forming operations, and finally (c) integrate these models in order to develop an integrated modeling framework. This integrated framework will determine the extent up to which inclusions can be tolerated in downstream processes without affecting the quality and properties of final steel sheet significantly and suggest modifications in upstream processes if inclusions are above acceptable limit.

  4. Results from Mobile Lab Measurements Obtained in the Barnett Shale with Emphasis on Methane and Gaseous Mercury Emissions (Fort Worth, TX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, P. L.; Lan, X.; Anderson, D.; Talbot, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Our work is part of a comprehensive analysis conducted through a collaboration of ground based measurements and airborne measurements with several research groups in order to gain a better understanding of methane and mercury emissions in the Barnett Shale. It's a vast rock formation that sits in the 5,000 square miles surrounding the Fort Worth area. To get the gas to market requires an underground highway of pipelines and compression stations. Texas state records show that since 2000 the number of gas compressors in the Barnett Shale has tripled (from a few hundred to 1,300), and they're ever infringing on populated areas. Recent preliminary data reported by Pétron et al. and Tollefson et al. (from the natural-gas operations in Denver-Julesburg Basin) point to CH4 loss from the process of 4-8%, not including additional losses in the pipeline and distribution system. Additionally, Howarth et al. have conducted a comprehensive analysis of greenhouse gases (methane, in particular) emitted from shale gas as a result of hydraulic fracturing and they estimate up to 8% of all natural gas mined from shale formations leaks to the atmosphere. Not only is this cause for alarm due to the global warming potential of methane, but we would expect similar losses of additional (potentially harmful) gases, i.e., atmospheric Hg, from the extraction systems. These preliminary findings are higher than the current U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) leakage estimate of 2.3 percent. Our strategy employs the use of our mobile laboratory, a four door Chevrolet Silverado pickup truck with a camper shell, outfitted with trace gas instrumentation including a Picarro G2132i and a Tekran 2537 mercury analyzer. The Picarro cavity ring down instrument has high precision and accuracy H2O, CO2, CH4, and 13δC in CH4 and CO2 with very little drift due to precise temperature and pressure controls. The Tekran mercury analyzer allows for accurate total gaseous mercury measurements via

  5. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - II. Model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In the second part of this two-part article on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, we estimate the number of committed assets in water depth less than 1000 ft that are expected to be marginal over a 60-year time horizon. We compute the expected quantity and value of the production and gross revenue streams of the gulf's committed asset inventory circa. January 2007 using a probabilistic model framework. Cumulative hydrocarbon production from the producing inventory is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas. Marginal production from the committed asset inventory is expected to contribute 4.1% of total oil production and 5.4% of gas production. A meta-evaluation procedure is adapted to present the results of sensitivity analysis. Model results are discussed along with a description of the model framework and limitations of the analysis. (author)

  6. Models of convection-driven tectonic plates - A comparison of methods and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.; Gable, Carl W.; Weinstein, Stuart A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent numerical studies of convection in the earth's mantle have included various features of plate tectonics. This paper describes three methods of modeling plates: through material properties, through force balance, and through a thin power-law sheet approximation. The results obtained are compared using each method on a series of simple calculations. From these results, scaling relations between the different parameterizations are developed. While each method produces different degrees of deformation within the surface plate, the surface heat flux and average plate velocity agree to within a few percent. The main results are not dependent upon the plate modeling method and herefore are representative of the physical system modeled.

  7. Modelling the surface free energy parameters of polyurethane coats-part 1. Solvent-based coats obtained from linear polyurethane elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Piotr; Lechowicz, Jaromir B; Król, Bożena

    2013-04-01

    Polyurethane elastomers coating were synthesised by using typical diisocyanates, polyether and polyester polyols and HO-tertiary amines or diols as a chain extenders. Mole fractions of structural fragments (κexp) responsible for the polar interactions within polyurethane chains were calculated by (1)H NMR method. Obtained results were confronted with the analogous parameter values (κtheor) calculated on the basis of process stoichiometry, considering the stage of the production of isocyanate prepolymers and reaction of their extension for polyurethanes. Trials of linear correlation between the κexp parameters and surface free energy (SFE) values of investigated coatings were presented. SFE values were determined by Owens-Wendt method, using contact angles measured with the goniometric method. Based on achieved results, another empirical models, allowing for prediction the influence of the kind of polyurethane raw materials on SFE values of received coatings were determined. It was found that it is possible to regulate the SFE in the range millijoules per cubic metre by the selection of appropriate substrates. It has been found that use of 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-1,4-butanediol as a fluorinated extender of prepolymer chains is essential to obtain coatings with increased hydrophobicity, applied among others as biomaterials-next to diphenylmethane diisocyanate and polyoxyethylene glycol.

  8. Results obtained during wall breaching research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hattingh, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available the operator on the charge side of the building. Test walls (double and single brick walls) 3m wide by 2m height were used for testing different charges and their effects due to the different charges. The loop charge was found to be the most promising solution...

  9. Modeling Results For the ITER Cryogenic Fore Pump. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfotenhauer, John M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zhang, Dongsheng [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-03-31

    A numerical model characterizing the operation of a cryogenic fore-pump (CFP) for ITER has been developed at the University of Wisconsin – Madison during the period from March 15, 2011 through June 30, 2014. The purpose of the ITER-CFP is to separate hydrogen isotopes from helium gas, both making up the exhaust components from the ITER reactor. The model explicitly determines the amount of hydrogen that is captured by the supercritical-helium-cooled pump as a function of the inlet temperature of the supercritical helium, its flow rate, and the inlet conditions of the hydrogen gas flow. Furthermore the model computes the location and amount of hydrogen captured in the pump as a function of time. Throughout the model’s development, and as a calibration check for its results, it has been extensively compared with the measurements of a CFP prototype tested at Oak Ridge National Lab. The results of the model demonstrate that the quantity of captured hydrogen is very sensitive to the inlet temperature of the helium coolant on the outside of the cryopump. Furthermore, the model can be utilized to refine those tests, and suggests methods that could be incorporated in the testing to enhance the usefulness of the measured data.

  10. Two-dimensional prognostic experiments for fast-flowing ice streams from the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap: future modeled histories obtained for the reference surface mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Konovalov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic experiments for fast-flowing ice streams on the southern side of the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap in the Komsomolets Island, Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, are implemented in this study. These experiments are based on inversions of basal friction coefficients using a two-dimensional flow-line thermo-coupled model and the Tikhonov's regularization method. The modeled ice temperature distributions in the cross-sections were obtained using the ice surface temperature histories that were inverted previously from the borehole temperature profiles derived at the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap. Input data included InSAR ice surface velocities, ice surface elevations, and ice thicknesses obtained from airborne measurements and the surface mass balance, were adopted from the prior investigations for the implementation of both the forward and inverse problems. The prognostic experiments reveal that both ice mass and ice stream extents decline for the reference time-independent surface mass balance. Specifically, the grounding line retreats (a along the B–B' flow line from ~ 40 to ~ 30 km (the distance from the summit, (b along the C–C' flow line from ~ 43 to ~ 37 km, and (c along the D–D' flow line from ~ 41 to ~ 32 km considering a time period of 500 years and assuming time-independent surface mass balance. Ice flow velocities in the ice streams decrease with time and this trend results in the overall decline of the outgoing ice flux. Generally, the modeled histories are in agreement with observations of sea ice extent and thickness indicating a continual ice decline in the Arctic.

  11. 14 CFR 61.323 - How do I obtain privileges to operate a make and model of light-sport aircraft in the same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... make and model of light-sport aircraft in the same category and class within a different set of... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.323 How do I obtain privileges to operate a make and model of light-sport aircraft in the...

  12. TRICHODERMA VIRIDE PERS. – EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF MYCROMYCETA WITH IMPORTANCE IN OBTAINING PLANT PROTECTION BIOPRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SESAN TATIANA EUGENIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The technological process for obtaining plant protection bioproducts contains 2 main phases: (i biomass biosynthesis of microorganisms in a culture medium, available for industrialization and (ii biomass conditioning of microorganism, the antagonistic micromycetes, respectively. For this type of activities it is essential to establish biological development parameters: (i the optimum composition of the liquid culture medium for development of the fungus under aerobiotic conditions and (ii the optimal parameters of biosynthesis in the studied medium. The biomass biosynthesis technology is discontinuous, of cascade type, and develops several phases: (1 preparing of the laboratory inoculum, (2 preparing of the fungal pure culture in Erlenmeyer bottles, (3 industrial (simulated multiplication in the aired and agitated liquid medium.This paper presents some experimental aspects referring to: 1 – Characterization of the biologically active T. viride isolates, establishing and verifying of their biological thresholds; 2 – Evaluation and experimental verifying of the mass multiplication ability of antagonistic T. viride fungi on the culture media in order to select the optimum industrial culture substrate (medium; 3 – Biochimical characterization of T. viride isolates by electrophoretic analysis of their protein profile; 4 – Evaluation of the T. viride biological activity of T. viride isolates against phytopathogenic fungi with high practical importance: Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (T. Gibberella zeae (Schwein. Petch, F. culmorum (W. G. Sm. Sacc., Pythium ultimum Trow, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Alternaria spp. [A. alternata (Fr. Keissl., Alternaria radicina Meier, Drechsler and E. D. Eddy (Stemphylium radicinum (Meier, Drechsler and E. D. Eddy Neerg.] etc.; 5 – Processing of technological scheme for obtaining plant protection preparates based on biologically active isolates of T. viride.

  13. Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-06-15

    Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the /sup 1///sub 5/-scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena.

  14. Dynamic 99mTc-MAG3 renography: images for quality control obtained by combining pharmacokinetic modelling, an anthropomorphic computer phantom and Monte Carlo simulated scintillation camera imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolin, Gustav; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina; Ljungberg, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In dynamic renal scintigraphy, the main interest is the radiopharmaceutical redistribution as a function of time. Quality control (QC) of renal procedures often relies on phantom experiments to compare image-based results with the measurement setup. A phantom with a realistic anatomy and time-varying activity distribution is therefore desirable. This work describes a pharmacokinetic (PK) compartment model for 99mTc-MAG3, used for defining a dynamic whole-body activity distribution within a digital phantom (XCAT) for accurate Monte Carlo (MC)-based images for QC. Each phantom structure is assigned a time-activity curve provided by the PK model, employing parameter values consistent with MAG3 pharmacokinetics. This approach ensures that the total amount of tracer in the phantom is preserved between time points, and it allows for modifications of the pharmacokinetics in a controlled fashion. By adjusting parameter values in the PK model, different clinically realistic scenarios can be mimicked, regarding, e.g., the relative renal uptake and renal transit time. Using the MC code SIMIND, a complete set of renography images including effects of photon attenuation, scattering, limited spatial resolution and noise, are simulated. The obtained image data can be used to evaluate quantitative techniques and computer software in clinical renography.

  15. Seeking for the rational basis of the Median Model: the optimal combination of multi-model ensemble results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riccio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach for the statistical analysis of multi-model ensemble results. The models considered here are operational long-range transport and dispersion models, also used for the real-time simulation of pollutant dispersion or the accidental release of radioactive nuclides.

    We first introduce the theoretical basis (with its roots sinking into the Bayes theorem and then apply this approach to the analysis of model results obtained during the ETEX-1 exercise. We recover some interesting results, supporting the heuristic approach called "median model", originally introduced in Galmarini et al. (2004a, b.

    This approach also provides a way to systematically reduce (and quantify model uncertainties, thus supporting the decision-making process and/or regulatory-purpose activities in a very effective manner.

  16. Seeking for the rational basis of the median model: the optimal combination of multi-model ensemble results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riccio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach for the statistical analysis of multi-model ensemble results. The models considered here are operational long-range transport and dispersion models, also used for the real-time simulation of pollutant dispersion or the accidental release of radioactive nuclides.

    We first introduce the theoretical basis (with its roots sinking into the Bayes theorem and then apply this approach to the analysis of model results obtained during the ETEX-1 exercise. We recover some interesting results, supporting the heuristic approach called "median model", originally introduced in Galmarini et al. (2004a, b.

    This approach also provides a way to systematically reduce (and quantify model uncertainties, thus supporting the decision-making process and/or regulatory-purpose activities in a very effective manner.

  17. Numerical modelling of radon-222 entry into houses: An outline of techniques and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool for studies of soil gas and radon-222 entry into houses. It is the purpose of this paper to review some main techniques and results. In the past, modelling has focused on Darcy flow of soil gas (driven by indoor–outdoor pressure differences) and combined...... diffusive and advective transport of radon. Models of different complexity have been used. The simpler ones are finite-difference models with one or two spatial dimensions. The more complex models allow for full three-dimensional and time dependency. Advanced features include: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy......, fractures, moisture, non-uniform soil temperature, non-Darcy flow of gas, and flow caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Numerical models can be used to estimate the importance of specific factors for radon entry. Models are also helpful when results obtained in special laboratory or test structure...

  18. Initial CGE Model Results Summary Exogenous and Endogenous Variables Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The following discussion presents initial results of tests of the most recent version of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of this is to test and assess the model’s behavioral properties. The test evaluated whether the predicted impacts are reasonable from a qualitative perspective. This issue is whether the predicted change, be it an increase or decrease in other model variables, is consistent with prior economic intuition and expectations about the predicted change. One of the purposes of this effort is to determine whether model changes are needed in order to improve its behavior qualitatively and quantitatively.

  19. Polarized antiquark distributions from chiral quark-soliton model summary of the results

    CERN Document Server

    Göke, K; Polyakov, M V; Urbano, D

    2000-01-01

    In these short notes we present a parametrization of the results obtained in the chiral quark-soliton model for polarized antiquark distributions $\\Delta\\bar u$, $\\Delta\\bar d$ and $\\Delta\\bar s$ at a low normalization point around mu=0.6 GeV.

  20. Utilization of similitude relationships to obtain a compact transformer model useful for technical and economical networks studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierrat, L. [EDF-CNRS, Div. Technique Generale, Grenoble Cedex (France); Resende, M.J.; Santana, J. [IST-Seccao Maquinas Electricas e Elec. Potencia, Lisboa Codex (Portugal)

    1995-12-01

    Nowadays, utilities concentrate their efforts on a rationalized utilization of resources, in particular financial ones. On the electrical resources domain, investments are made on expensive and long life equipment, which means that must be taken into account specific long life characteristics some of them deterministic ones, and some with an high degree of uncertainty. A significant problem into this trend is the MV/LV distribution transformers renewal: the optimal choice of their rated power and renewal moment, depend upon consumers rate evolution and operation conditions. This paper proposes similitude relationships to define typical parameters present on thermal and, consequently, life expectancy models of distribution transformers. 8 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Sisal fibers: surface chemical modification using reagent obtained from a renewable source; characterization of hemicellulose and lignin as model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megiatto, Jackson D; Hoareau, William; Gardrat, Christian; Frollini, Elisabete; Castellan, Alain

    2007-10-17

    Sisal fibers have one of the greatest potentials among other lignocellulosic fibers to reinforce polymer matrices in composites. Sisal fibers have been modified to improve their compatibility with phenolic polymer matrices using furfuryl alcohol (FA) and polyfurfuryl alcohols (PFA) that can be obtained from renewable sources. The modification corresponded first to oxidation with ClO 2, which reacts mainly with guaiacyl and syringyl units of lignin, generating o- and p-quinones and muconic derivatives, followed by reaction with FA or PFA. The FA and PFA modified fibers presented a thin similar layer, indicating the polymer character of the coating. The untreated and treated sisal fibers were characterized by (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectrometry, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the reactions involved in the FA and PFA modifications, the sisal lignin previously extracted was also submitted to those reactions and characterized. The characterization of isolated lignin and hemicellulose provides some information on the chemical structure of the main constitutive macrocomponents of sisal fibers, such information being scarce in the literature.

  2. Simulating lightning into the RAMS model: implementation and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a tailored version of a previously published methodology, designed to simulate lightning activity, implemented into the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS. The method gives the flash density at the resolution of the RAMS grid-scale allowing for a detailed analysis of the evolution of simulated lightning activity. The system is applied in detail to two case studies occurred over the Lazio Region, in Central Italy. Simulations are compared with the lightning activity detected by the LINET network. The cases refer to two thunderstorms of different intensity. Results show that the model predicts reasonably well both cases and that the lightning activity is well reproduced especially for the most intense case. However, there are errors in timing and positioning of the convection, whose magnitude depends on the case study, which mirrors in timing and positioning errors of the lightning distribution. To assess objectively the performance of the methodology, standard scores are presented for four additional case studies. Scores show the ability of the methodology to simulate the daily lightning activity for different spatial scales and for two different minimum thresholds of flash number density. The performance decreases at finer spatial scales and for higher thresholds. The comparison of simulated and observed lighting activity is an immediate and powerful tool to assess the model ability to reproduce the intensity and the evolution of the convection. This shows the importance of the use of computationally efficient lightning schemes, such as the one described in this paper, in forecast models.

  3. Insights into Mechanistic Models for Evaporation of Organic Liquids in the Environment Obtained by Position-Specific Carbon Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S; Parinet, Julien; Höhener, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Position-specific isotope effects (PSIEs) have been measured by isotope ratio monitoring (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry during the evaporation of 10 liquids of different polarities under 4 evaporation modes (passive evaporation, air-vented evaporation, low pressure evaporation, distillation). The observed effects are used to assess the validity of the Craig-Gordon isotope model for organic liquids. For seven liquids the overall isotope effect (IE) includes a vapor-liquid contribution that is strongly position-specific in polar compounds but less so in apolar compounds and a diffusive IE that is not position-specific, except in the alcohols, ethanol and propan-1-ol. The diffusive IE is diminished under forced evaporation. The position-specific isotope pattern created by liquid-vapor IEs is manifest in five liquids, which have an air-side limitation for volatilization. For the alcohols, undefined processes in the liquid phase create additional PSIEs. Three other liquids with limitations on the liquid side have a lower, highly position-specific, bulk diffusive IE. It is concluded that evaporation of organic pollutants creates unique position-specific isotope patterns that may be used to assess the progress of remediation or natural attenuation of pollution and that the Craig-Gordon isotope model is valid for the volatilization of nonpolar organic liquids with air-side limitation of the volatilization rate.

  4. Verification of the component accuracy prediction obtained by physical modelling and the elastic simulation of the die/component interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb; Andersen, Claus Bo; Wanheim, Tarras

    2001-01-01

    There are three demands on a component that must undergo a die-cavity elasticity analysis. The demands to the product are specified as: (i) to be able to measure the loading profile which results in elestic die-cavity deflections; (ii) to be able to compute the elestic deflections using FE; (iii...

  5. Verification of the component accuracy prediction obtained by physical modelling and the elastic simulation of the die/component interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb; Andersen, Claus Bo; Wanheim, Tarras

    2001-01-01

    There are three demands on a component that must undergo a die-cavity elasticity analysis. The demands to the product are specified as: (i) to be able to measure the loading profile which results in elestic die-cavity deflections; (ii) to be able to compute the elestic deflections using FE; (iii)...

  6. Challenges in validating model results for first year ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Eastwood, Steinar; Xie, Jiping; Aaboe, Signe; Bertino, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the quality of model results for the distribution of first year ice, a comparison with a product based on observations from satellite-borne instruments has been performed. Such a comparison is not straightforward due to the contrasting algorithms that are used in the model product and the remote sensing product. The implementation of the validation is discussed in light of the differences between this set of products, and validation results are presented. The model product is the daily updated 10-day forecast from the Arctic Monitoring and Forecasting Centre in CMEMS. The forecasts are produced with the assimilative ocean prediction system TOPAZ. Presently, observations of sea ice concentration and sea ice drift are introduced in the assimilation step, but data for sea ice thickness and ice age (or roughness) are not included. The model computes the age of the ice by recording and updating the time passed after ice formation as sea ice grows and deteriorates as it is advected inside the model domain. Ice that is younger than 365 days is classified as first year ice. The fraction of first-year ice is recorded as a tracer in each grid cell. The Ocean and Sea Ice Thematic Assembly Centre in CMEMS redistributes a daily product from the EUMETSAT OSI SAF of gridded sea ice conditions which include "ice type", a representation of the separation of regions between those infested by first year ice, and those infested by multi-year ice. The ice type is parameterized based on data for the gradient ratio GR(19,37) from SSMIS observations, and from the ASCAT backscatter parameter. This product also includes information on ambiguity in the processing of the remote sensing data, and the product's confidence level, which have a strong seasonal dependency.

  7. A new procedure to built a model covariance matrix: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzaghi, R.; Marotta, A. M.; Splendore, R.; Borghi, A.

    2012-04-01

    In order to validate the results of geophysical models a common procedure is to compare model predictions with observations by means of statistical tests. A limit of this approach is the lack of a covariance matrix associated to model results, that may frustrate the achievement of a confident statistical significance of the results. Trying to overcome this limit, we have implemented a new procedure to build a model covariance matrix that could allow a more reliable statistical analysis. This procedure has been developed in the frame of the thermo-mechanical model described in Splendore et al. (2010), that predicts the present-day crustal velocity field in the Tyrrhenian due to Africa-Eurasia convergence and to lateral rheological heterogeneities of the lithosphere. Modelled tectonic velocity field has been compared to the available surface velocity field based on GPS observation, determining the best fit model and the degree of fitting, through the use of a χ2 test. Once we have identified the key models parameters and defined their appropriate ranges of variability, we have run 100 different models for 100 sets of randomly values of the parameters extracted within the corresponding interval, obtaining a stack of 100 velocity fields. Then, we calculated variance and empirical covariance for the stack of results, taking into account also cross-correlation, obtaining a positive defined, diagonal matrix that represents the covariance matrix of the model. This empirical approach allows us to define a more robust statistical analysis with respect the classic approach. Reference Splendore, Marotta, Barzaghi, Borghi and Cannizzaro, 2010. Block model versus thermomechanical model: new insights on the present-day regional deformation in the surroundings of the Calabrian Arc. In: Spalla, Marotta and Gosso (Eds) Advances in Interpretation of Geological Processes: Refinement of Multi scale Data and Integration in Numerical Modelling. Geological Society, London, Special

  8. Assessing the quality of Digital Elevation Models obtained from mini-Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for overland flow modelling in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, J. P.; Moy de Vitry, M.; Scheidegger, A.; Rieckermann, J.

    2015-06-01

    Precise and detailed Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are essential to accurately predict overland flow in urban areas. Unfortunately, traditional sources of DEM remain a bottleneck for detailed and reliable overland flow models, because the resulting DEMs are too coarse to provide DEMs of sufficient detail to inform urban overland flows. Interestingly, technological developments of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) suggest that they have matured enough to be a competitive alternative to satellites or airplanes. However, this has not been tested so far. In this this study we therefore evaluated whether DEMs generated from UAV imagery are suitable for urban drainage overland flow modelling. Specifically, fourteen UAV flights were conducted to assess the influence of four different flight parameters on the quality of generated DEMs: (i) flight altitude, (ii) image overlapping, (iii) camera pitch and (iv) weather conditions. In addition, we compared the best quality UAV DEM to a conventional Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-based DEM. To evaluate both the quality of the UAV DEMs and the comparison to LiDAR-based DEMs, we performed regression analysis on several qualitative and quantitative metrics, such as elevation accuracy, quality of object representation (e.g., buildings, walls and trees) in the DEM, which were specifically tailored to assess overland flow modelling performance, using the flight parameters as explanatory variables. Our results suggested that, first, as expected, flight altitude influenced the DEM quality most, where lower flights produce better DEMs; in a similar fashion, overcast weather conditions are preferable, but weather conditions and other factors influence DEM quality much less. Second, we found that for urban overland flow modelling, the UAV DEMs performed competitively in comparison to a traditional LiDAR-based DEM. An important advantage of using UAVs to generate DEMs in urban areas is their flexibility that enables more frequent

  9. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides. KLMN model; Probabilidades y energias de reestructuracion atomica subsiguientes a la captura electronica. Modelo KLMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiano, G.; Grau, A.

    1994-07-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electro capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high. (Author)

  10. Modelling of nano-alloying and structural evolution of bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles obtained via the microemulsion route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, F; Tojo, C

    2011-11-01

    A Monte Carlo model has been developed to describe the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles via the microemulsion route. The motivation stems from the need to understand the kinetics of nanoparticle formation in microemulsion droplets in order to determine the best experimental conditions to synthesize a nanoparticle with a given structure. We focus our study on the influence of the homogeneous and heterogeneous critical nucleus sizes of both metals on nanoparticle structure, as well as the role played by the surfactant film flexibility. The study reveals that the final structure is sensitive to changes in the critical nucleus numbers, because these parameters determine the rate of nucleation. An increase in the difference between nucleation rates of both metals gives rise to a better segregation of metals in the final nanoparticle. Likewise, as long as the formation of heterogeneous seeds is faster, the degree of alloying is greater. Finally, a fast material intermicellar exchange leads to a better mixture of metals, so the influence of the critical nucleus sizes on nanoparticle structure becomes less pronounced as the flexibility of surfactant film is increased.

  11. Titan Chemistry: Results From A Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric; West, R. A.; Friedson, A. J.; Oyafuso, F.

    2008-09-01

    We present results from a 3-dimesional global climate model of Titan's atmosphere and surface. This model, a modified version of NCAR's CAM-3 (Community Atmosphere Model), has been optimized for analysis of Titan's lower atmosphere and surface. With the inclusion of forcing from Saturn's gravitational tides, interaction from the surface, transfer of longwave and shortwave radiation, and parameterization of haze properties, constrained by Cassini observations, a dynamical field is generated, which serves to advect 14 long-lived species. The concentrations of these chemical tracers are also affected by 82 chemical reactions and the photolysis of 21 species, based on the Wilson and Atreya (2004) model, that provide sources and sinks for the advected species along with 23 additional non-advected radicals. In addition, the chemical contribution to haze conversion is parameterized along with the microphysical processes that serve to distribute haze opacity throughout the atmosphere. References Wilson, E.H. and S.K. Atreya, J. Geophys. Res., 109, E06002, 2004.

  12. Why Does a Kronecker Model Result in Misleading Capacity Estimates?

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Sayeed, Akbar M

    2008-01-01

    Many recent works that study the performance of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems in practice assume a Kronecker model where the variances of the channel entries, upon decomposition on to the transmit and the receive eigen-bases, admit a separable form. Measurement campaigns, however, show that the Kronecker model results in poor estimates for capacity. Motivated by these observations, a channel model that does not impose a separable structure has been recently proposed and shown to fit the capacity of measured channels better. In this work, we show that this recently proposed modeling framework can be viewed as a natural consequence of channel decomposition on to its canonical coordinates, the transmit and/or the receive eigen-bases. Using tools from random matrix theory, we then establish the theoretical basis behind the Kronecker mismatch at the low- and the high-SNR extremes: 1) Sparsity of the dominant statistical degrees of freedom (DoF) in the true channel at the low-SNR extreme, and 2) Non-regul...

  13. New DNS and modeling results for turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Arne; El Khoury, George; Grundestam, Olof; Schlatter, Philipp; Brethouwer, Geert; Linne Flow Centre Team

    2013-11-01

    The near-wall region of turbulent pipe and channel flows (as well as zero-pressure gradient boundary layers) have been shown to exhibit a very high degree of similarity in terms of all statistical moments and many other features, while even the mean velocity profile in the two cases exhibits significant differences between in the outer region. The wake part of the profile, i.e. the deviation from the log-law, in the outer region is of substantially larger amplitude in pipe flow as compared to channel flow (although weaker than in boundary layer flow). This intriguing feature has been well known but has no simple explanation. Model predictions typically give identical results for the two flows. We have analyzed a new set of DNS for pipe and channel flows (el Khoury et al. 2013, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion) for friction Reynolds numbers up to 1000 and made comparing calculations with differential Reynolds stress models (DRSM). We have strong indications that the key factor behind the difference in mean velocity in the outer region can be coupled to differences in the turbulent diffusion in this region. This is also supported by DRSM results, where interesting differences are seen depending on the sophistication of modeling the turbulent diffusion coefficient.

  14. Some Results on Optimal Dividend Problem in Two Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaiqi Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compound Poisson risk model and the compound Poisson risk model perturbed by diffusion are considered in the presence of a dividend barrier with solvency constraints. Moreover, it extends the known result due to [1]. Ref. [1] finds the optimal dividend policy is of a barrier type for a jump-diffusion model with exponentially distributed jumps. In this paper, it turns out that there can be two different solutions depending on the model’s parameters. Furthermore, an interesting result is given: the proportional transaction cost has no effect on the dividend barrier. The objective of the corporation is to maximize the cumulative expected discounted dividends payout with solvency constraints before the time of ruin. It is well known that under some reasonable assumptions, optimal dividend strategy is a barrier strategy, i.e., there is a level b_{1}(b_{2} so that whenever surplus goes above the level b_{1}(b_{2}, the excess is paid out as dividends. However, the optimal level b_{1}(b_{2} may be unacceptably low from a solvency point of view. Therefore, some constraints should imposed on an insurance company such as to pay out dividends unless the surplus has reached a level b^{1}_{c}>b_{1}(b^2_{c}>b_{2} . We show that in this case a barrier strategy at b^{1}_{c}(b^2_{c} is optimal.

  15. Modeling results for the ITER cryogenic fore pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D. S.; Miller, F. K.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The cryogenic fore pump (CFP) is designed for ITER to collect and compress hydrogen isotopes during the regeneration process of torus cryopumps. Different from common cryopumps, the ITER-CFP works in the viscous flow regime. As a result, both adsorption boundary conditions and transport phenomena contribute unique features to the pump performance. In this report, the physical mechanisms of cryopumping are studied, especially the diffusion-adsorption process and these are coupled with standard equations of species, momentum and energy balance, as well as the equation of state. Numerical models are developed, which include highly coupled non-linear conservation equations of species, momentum and energy and equation of state. Thermal and kinetic properties are treated as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition. To solve such a set of equations, a novel numerical technique, identified as the Group-Member numerical technique is proposed. It is presented here a 1D numerical model. The results include comparison with the experimental data of pure hydrogen flow and a prediction for hydrogen flow with trace helium. An advanced 2D model and detailed explanation of the Group-Member technique are to be presented in following papers.

  16. Development of the safety evaluation system in the respects of organizational factors and workers' consciousness. Pt. 1. Study of validities of functions for necessary evaluation and results obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Kenichi; Tsuge, Tadafumi; Hasegawa, Naoko; Hirose, Ayako; Sasou, Kunihide [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    CRIEPI decided to develop the safety evaluation system to investigate the safety level of the industrial sites due to questionnaires of organizational climate, safety managements, and workers' safety consciousness to workers. This report describes the questionnaire survey to apply to the domestic nuclear power plant for using obtained results as a fundamental data in order to construct the safety evaluation system. This system will be used for promoting safety culture in organizations of nuclear power plants. The questionnaire survey was conducted to 14 nuclear power stations for understanding the present status relating to safety issues. This questionnaire involves 122 items classified into following three categories: (1) safety awareness and behavior of plant personnel; (2) safety management; (3) organizational climate, based on the model considering contributing factor groups to safety culture. Obtained results were analyzed by statistical method to prepare functions of evaluation. Additionally, by applying a multivariate analysis, it was possible to extract several crucial factors influencing safety performance and to find a comprehensive safety indicator representing total organizational safety level. Significant relations were identified between accident rates (both labor accidents and facility failures) and above comprehensive safety indicator. Next, 122 questionnaire items were classified into 20 major safety factors to grasp the safety profiles of each site. This profile is considered as indicating the features of each site and also indicating the direction of progress for improvement of safety situation in the site. These findings can be reflected in developing the safety evaluation system, by confirming the validity of the evaluation method and giving specific functions. (author)

  17. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  18. Geochemical controls on shale groundwaters: Results of reaction path modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Damm, K.L.; VandenBrook, A.J.

    1989-03-01

    The EQ3NR/EQ6 geochemical modeling code was used to simulate the reaction of several shale mineralogies with different groundwater compositions in order to elucidate changes that may occur in both the groundwater compositions, and rock mineralogies and compositions under conditions which may be encountered in a high-level radioactive waste repository. Shales with primarily illitic or smectitic compositions were the focus of this study. The reactions were run at the ambient temperatures of the groundwaters and to temperatures as high as 250/degree/C, the approximate temperature maximum expected in a repository. All modeling assumed that equilibrium was achieved and treated the rock and water assemblage as a closed system. Graphite was used as a proxy mineral for organic matter in the shales. The results show that the presence of even a very small amount of reducing mineral has a large influence on the redox state of the groundwaters, and that either pyrite or graphite provides essentially the same results, with slight differences in dissolved C, Fe and S concentrations. The thermodynamic data base is inadequate at the present time to fully evaluate the speciation of dissolved carbon, due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for organic compounds. In the illitic cases the groundwaters resulting from interaction at elevated temperatures are acid, while the smectitic cases remain alkaline, although the final equilibrium mineral assemblages are quite similar. 10 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

  20. Comparison of results of experimental research with numerical calculations of a model one-sided seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Damian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+ has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.

  1. ITER CS Model Coil and CS Insert Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Michael, P; Minervina, J; Radovinsky, A; Takayasu, M; Thome, R; Ando, T; Isono, T; Kato, T; Nakajima, H; Nishijima, G; Nunoya, Y; Sugimoto, M; Takahashi, Y; Tsuji, H; Bessette, D; Okuno, K; Ricci, M

    2000-09-07

    The Inner and Outer modules of the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) were built by US and Japanese home teams in collaboration with European and Russian teams to demonstrate the feasibility of a superconducting Central Solenoid for ITER and other large tokamak reactors. The CSMC mass is about 120 t, OD is about 3.6 m and the stored energy is 640 MJ at 46 kA and peak field of 13 T. Testing of the CSMC and the CS Insert took place at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from mid March until mid August 2000. This paper presents the main results of the tests performed.

  2. Results of the benchmark for blade structural models, part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekou, D.J.; Chortis, D.; Belen Fariñas, A.;

    2013-01-01

    Task 2.2 of the InnWind.Eu project. The benchmark is based on the reference wind turbine and the reference blade provided by DTU [1]. "Structural Concept developers/modelers" of WP2 were provided with the necessary input for a comparison numerical simulation run, upon definition of the reference blade......A benchmark on structural design methods for blades was performed within the InnWind.Eu project under WP2 “Lightweight Rotor” Task 2.2 “Lightweight structural design”. The present document is describes the results of the comparison simulation runs that were performed by the partners involved within...

  3. Model independent analysis of dark energy I: Supernova fitting result

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Y

    2004-01-01

    The nature of dark energy is a mystery to us. This paper uses the supernova data to explore the property of dark energy by some model independent methods. We first Talyor expanded the scale factor $a(t)$ to find out the deceleration parameter $q_0<0$. This result just invokes the Robertson-Walker metric. Then we discuss several different parameterizations used in the literature. We find that $\\Omega_{\\rm DE0}$ is almost less than -1 at $1\\sigma$ level. We also find that the transition redshift from deceleration phase to acceleration phase is $z_{\\rm T}\\sim 0.3$.

  4. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  5. Impact Flash Physics: Modeling and Comparisons With Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, E.; Stickle, A. M.; Ernst, C. M.; Schultz, P. H.; Mehta, N. L.; Brown, R. C.; Swaminathan, P. K.; Michaelis, C. H.; Erlandson, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    horizontal. High-speed radiometer measurements were made of the time-dependent impact flash at wavelengths of 350-1100 nm. We will present comparisons between these measurements and the output of APL's model. The results of this validation allow us to determine basic relationships between observed optical signatures and impact conditions.

  6. Subsea Permafrost Climate Modeling - Challenges and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehacke, C. B.; Stendel, M.; Marchenko, S. S.; Christensen, J. H.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Nicolsky, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations indicate that the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) releases methane, which stems from shallow hydrate seabed reservoirs. The total amount of carbon within the ESAS is so large that release of only a small fraction, for example via taliks, which are columns of unfrozen sediment within the permafrost, could impact distinctly the global climate. Therefore it is crucial to simulate the future fate of ESAS' subsea permafrost with regard to changing atmospheric and oceanic conditions. However only very few attempts to address the vulnerability of subsea permafrost have been made, instead most studies have focused on the evolution of permafrost since the Late Pleistocene ocean transgression, approximately 14000 years ago.In contrast to land permafrost modeling, any attempt to model the future fate of subsea permafrost needs to consider several additional factors, in particular the dependence of freezing temperature on water depth and salt content and the differences in ground heat flux depending on the seabed properties. Also the amount of unfrozen water in the sediment needs to be taken into account. Using a system of coupled ocean, atmosphere and permafrost models will allow us to capture the complexity of the different parts of the system and evaluate the relative importance of different processes. Here we present the first results of a novel approach by means of dedicated permafrost model simulations. These have been driven by conditions of the Laptev Sea region in East Siberia. By exploiting the ensemble approach, we will show how uncertainties in boundary conditions and applied forcing scenarios control the future fate of the sub sea permafrost.

  7. DARK STARS: IMPROVED MODELS AND FIRST PULSATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rindler-Daller, T.; Freese, K. [Department of Physics and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, McDonald Observatory and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Paxton, B. [Kavli Insitute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars (DSs). DSs, which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with previous models, which assumed polytropic interiors. There are some differences in the details, with positive implications for observability. We found that, in the mass range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al., are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of three to four, and more luminous by a factor of two. Our models also confirm previous results, according to which supermassive DSs are very well approximated by (n = 3)-polytropes. We also perform a first study of DS pulsations. Our DS models have pulsation modes with timescales ranging from less than a day to more than two years in their rest frames, at z ∼ 15, depending on DM particle mass and overtone number. Such pulsations may someday be used to identify bright, cool objects uniquely as DSs; if properly calibrated, they might, in principle, also supply novel standard candles for cosmological studies.

  8. Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.

  9. The Efficacy of Social Role Models to Increase Motivation to Obtain Vaccination against Hepatitis B among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vet, R.; de Wit, J. B. F.; Das, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of role models in persuasive messages about risk and social norms to increase motivation to obtain hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM at risk for HBV in The Netherlands (N = 168) were recruited online via a range of websites and were randomly assigned to one of four…

  10. The Efficacy of Social Role Models to Increase Motivation to Obtain Vaccination against Hepatitis B among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vet, R.; de Wit, J. B. F.; Das, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of role models in persuasive messages about risk and social norms to increase motivation to obtain hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM at risk for HBV in The Netherlands (N = 168) were recruited online via a range of websites and were randomly assigned to one of four…

  11. A chemical energy approach of avascular tumor growth: multiscale modeling and qualitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzoglou, Pantelis; Dassios, George; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Kourea, Helen P; Vrahatis, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    In the present manuscript we propose a lattice free multiscale model for avascular tumor growth that takes into account the biochemical environment, mitosis, necrosis, cellular signaling and cellular mechanics. This model extends analogous approaches by assuming a function that incorporates the biochemical energy level of the tumor cells and a mechanism that simulates the behavior of cancer stem cells. Numerical simulations of the model are used to investigate the morphology of the tumor at the avascular phase. The obtained results show similar characteristics with those observed in clinical data in the case of the Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) of the breast.

  12. Comparison of multi-ħω shell-model results with MCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenne J. P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A multi-channel algebraic scattering (MCAS method has been used to obtain spectra of a number of light-mass nuclei, which are treated as a two-cluster system, here specifically a nucleon plus nucleus. To date, collective models have been used to specify the interactions between the nucleon and low-lying states of the nucleus that form the compound. For the case of the carbon isotopes, these studies have been complemented by sufficiently complex and complete shell-model calculations. Comparisons with the multi-ħω shell-model results provide new insights into the validity of those from MCAS.

  13. Model validation: Issues regarding comparisons of point measurements and high-resolution modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Anne D.; Skagseth, Øystein; Skogen, Morten D.

    2016-10-01

    In this study we compare a high resolution model of waters on the Norwegian Shelf with hydrographic observations obtained during 2009 at Ingøy, a fixed coastal station off northwestern Norway operated by the Institute of Marine Research. The observations comprise snapshots from Ingøy every two weeks, whereas the model represents an average over a certain volume and is continuous in time. We suggest that bias is the best way to compare the modeled and observed times series, while acknowledging the short-term variability (within a day) it is recommended to use the modeled range to estimate an acceptable deviation between single points in the series. Using the suggested method we conclude that an acceptable deviation between the modeled and observed surface temperatures at Ingøy is 0.6 °C. With such an acceptance level the model is correct in 27 out of 33 points for the time series considered.

  14. Europa's surface composition from near-infrared observations: A comparison of results from linear mixture modeling and radiative transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, James H.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Dalton, J. Bradley

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative estimates of the abundance of surface materials and of water ice particle grain sizes at five widely separated locations on the surface of Europa have been obtained by two independent methods in order to search for possible discrepancies that may be attributed to differences in the methods employed. Results of radiative transfer (RT) compositional modeling (also known as intimate mixture modeling) from two prior studies are here employed without modification. Areal (or "checkerboard") mixture modeling, also known as linear mixture (LM) modeling, was performed to allow direct comparisons. The failure to model scattering processes (whose effects may be strongly nonlinear) in the LM approach is recognized as a potential source of errors. RT modeling accounts for nonlinear spectral responses due to scattering but is subject to other uncertainties. By comparing abundance estimates for H2SO4 · nH2O and water ice, obtained through both methods as applied to identical spectra, we may gain some insight into the importance of "volume scattering" effects for investigations of Europa's surface composition. We find that both methods return similar abundances for each location analyzed; linear correlation coefficients of ≥ 0.98 are found between the derived H2SO4 · nH2O and water ice abundances returned by both methods. We thus find no evidence of a significant influence of volume scattering on the compositional solutions obtained by LM modeling for these locations. Some differences in the results obtained for water ice grain sizes are attributed to the limited selection of candidate materials allowed in the RT investigations.

  15. NACA 0012 benchmark model experimental flutter results with unsteady pressure distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Bennett, Robert M.; Durham, Michael H.; Silva, Walter A.

    1992-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Division at NASA Langley Research Center has started a wind tunnel activity referred to as the Benchmark Models Program. The primary objective of the program is to acquire measured dynamic instability and corresponding pressure data that will be useful for developing and evaluating aeroelastic type CFD codes currently in use or under development. The program is a multi-year activity that will involve testing of several different models to investigate various aeroelastic phenomena. This paper describes results obtained from a second wind tunnel test of the first model in the Benchmark Models Program. This first model consisted of a rigid semispan wing having a rectangular planform and a NACA 0012 airfoil shape which was mounted on a flexible two degree-of-freedom mount system. Experimental flutter boundaries and corresponding unsteady pressure distribution data acquired over two model chords located at the 60 and 95 percent span stations are presented.

  16. Modelling of a water plasma flow: I. Basic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KotalIk, Pavel [INP Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-06-21

    One-fluid MHD equations are numerically solved for an axisymmetric flow of thermal water plasma inside and outside a discharge chamber of a plasma torch with water vortex stabilization of electric arc. Comparisons with experimental data and previous calculations are given. For arc currents of 300-600 A, the respective temperatures and velocities in the range 16 700-26 400 K and 2300-6900 m s{sup -1} are obtained at the centre of the nozzle exit. The flow velocity on axis increases by 1-2 km s{sup -1} in the 5 mm long nozzle. Ohmic heating and radiative losses are two competitive processes influencing most the plasma temperature and velocity. The radiative losses represent 39% to 46% of the torch power of 69-174 kW when optical thickness of 3 mm is assumed for the plasma column. In front of the cathode, inside the discharge chamber, a recirculation zone is predicted and discussed. Effects of the temperature dependence of the plasma viscosity and sound velocity and of the optical thickness are examined. It is shown that the results such as waviness of the Mach number isolines are direct consequences of these dependences. Different lengths of 55 and 60 mm of the water vortex stabilized part of the electric arc do not substantially influence the plasma temperature and velocity at the nozzle exit.

  17. Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.

  18. Position-sensitive transition edge sensor modeling and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammock, Christina E-mail: chammock@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Apodaca, Emmanuel; Bandler, Simon; Boyce, Kevin; Chervenak, Jay; Finkbeiner, Fred; Kelley, Richard; Lindeman, Mark; Porter, Scott; Saab, Tarek; Stahle, Caroline

    2004-03-11

    We report the latest design and experimental results for a Position-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST). The PoST is motivated by the desire to achieve a larger field-of-view without increasing the number of readout channels. A PoST consists of a one-dimensional array of X-ray absorbers connected on each end to a Transition Edge Sensor (TES). Position differentiation is achieved through a comparison of pulses between the two TESs and X-ray energy is inferred from a sum of the two signals. Optimizing such a device involves studying the available parameter space which includes device properties such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity as well as TES read-out circuitry parameters. We present results for different regimes of operation and the effects on energy resolution, throughput, and position differentiation. Results and implications from a non-linear model developed to study the saturation effects unique to PoSTs are also presented.

  19. Dark Stars: Improved Models and First Pulsation Results

    CERN Document Server

    Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Freese, Katherine; Winget, Donald E; Paxton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars. Dark stars (DSs), which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the Universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10^6 M_sun. While previous calculations were limited to polytropic interiors, our current calculations use MESA, a modern stellar evolution code to solve the equations of stellar structure. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with the basic results of previous models. There are some differences, however, in the details, with positive implications for observability of DSs. We found that, in the mass range of 10^4 - 10^5 M_sun, using MESA, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al.(2010), are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of 3...

  20. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  1. Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, M; Ferracin, P; Fessia, P; Gauthier, R; Giloux, C; Guinchard, M; Kircher, F; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Millot, J-F; Muñoz Garcia, J-E; Oberli, L; Perez, J-C; Pietrowicz, S; Rifflet, J-M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F; Todesco, E; Viret, P; Ziemianski, D

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.3.1 “Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed “. The report has four parts: “Design report for the dipole magnet”, “Dipole magnet structure tested in LN2”, “Nb3Sn strand procured for one dipole magnet” and “One test double pancake copper coil made”. The 4 report parts show that, although the magnet construction will be only completed by end 2014, all elements are present for a successful completion. Due to the importance of the project for the future of the participants and given the significant investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment to finish the project.

  2. Dipole model test with one superconducting coil: results analysed

    CERN Document Server

    Bajas, H; Benda, V; Berriaud, C; Bajko, M; Bottura, L; Caspi, S; Charrondiere, M; Clément, S; Datskov, V; Devaux, M; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Ferracin, P; Fessia, P; Gauthier, R; Giloux, C; Guinchard, M; Kircher, F; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Millot, J-F; Muñoz Garcia, J-E; Oberli, L; Perez, J-C; Pietrowicz, S; Rifflet, J-M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F; Todesco, E; Viret, P; Ziemianski, D

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.3.1 “Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed “. The report has four parts: “Design report for the dipole magnet”, “Dipole magnet structure tested in LN2”, “Nb3Sn strand procured for one dipole magnet” and “One test double pancake copper coil made”. The 4 report parts show that, although the magnet construction will be only completed by end 2014, all elements are present for a successful completion. Due to the importance of the project for the future of the participants and given the significant investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment to finish the project.

  3. Further Results on Dynamic Additive Hazard Rate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengcheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the proportional and additive hazard rate models have been investigated in the works. Nanda and Das (2011 introduced and studied the dynamic proportional (reversed hazard rate model. In this paper we study the dynamic additive hazard rate model, and investigate its aging properties for different aging classes. The closure of the model under some stochastic orders has also been investigated. Some examples are also given to illustrate different aging properties and stochastic comparisons of the model.

  4. Understanding the subsurface thermal structure of deep sedimentary basins in Denmark - measurements and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, N.; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Bording, Thue Sylvester

    2015-01-01

    equilibrium temperature logging has been carried out in a number of accessible deep boreholes. A regional distribution of subsurface temperatures is obtained by combining measurements and 3D numerical modelling in which the heat equation is solved. Modelling results are constrained by observations in terms....... Information of subsurface temperature distribution originates from direct measurements in boreholes and from indirect theoretical modelling. "Point observations" of varying quality are available as industrially measured "Bottom Hole Temperatures" from deep exploration boreholes and accurate continuous...... of available measured temperatures and observed surface heat flow. Information on subsurface thermal conductivity, which is a critical parameter, is obtained from core measurements and well-log analyses. Interval temperature gradients are found to vary by a factor of three to four across lithologies...

  5. Mouse Model of Neurological Complications Resulting from Encephalitic Alphavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, Shannon E.; Smith, Jeanon; Koma, Takaaki; Miller, Magda M.; Yun, Nadezhda; Dineley, Kelly T.; Paessler, Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Symptomatic mice developed deficits in prepulse inhibition that lasted through 6 months post infection; these deficits were absent in asymptomatic or mock-infected groups. Accompanying prepulse inhibition deficits, symptomatic animals exhibited thalamus damage as visualized with H&E staining, as well as increased GFAP expression in the posterior complex of the thalamus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These histological changes and increased GFAP expression were absent in the asymptomatic and mock-infected animals, indicating that glial scarring could have contributed to the prepulse inhibition phenotype observed in the symptomatic animals. This model provides a tool to test mechanisms of and treatments for the neurological sequelae of viral encephalitis and begins to delineate potential explanations for the development of such sequelae post infection.

  6. Soil gas and radon entry into a simple test structure: Comparison of experimental and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1994-01-01

    A radon test structure has been established at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of soil gas entry rates, pressure couplings and radon depletion. The experimental results have been compared with results obtained from measured soil parameters and a two......-dimensional steady-state numerical model of Darcy flow and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. For most probe locations, the calculated values of the pressure couplings and the radon depletion agree well with the measured values, thus verifying important elements of the Darcy flow approximation......, and the ability of the model to treat combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. However, the model gives an underestimation of the soil gas entry rate. Even if it is assumed that the soil has a permeability equal to the highest of the measured values, the model underestimates the soil gas entry rate...

  7. A Duality Result for the Generalized Erlang Risk Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanpeng Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the generalized Erlang risk model and its dual model. By using a conditional measure-preserving correspondence between the two models, we derive an identity for two interesting conditional probabilities. Applications to the discounted joint density of the surplus prior to ruin and the deficit at ruin are also discussed.

  8. Establishment of an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtaining laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L W; Wang, J L; Zhang, L Y; Yang, S M; Li, C S; Yu, N; Zhao W, J D; Zhao, L D; Li, K; Liu, M B; Zhai, S Q

    2013-01-01

    To establish an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtain laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2 in logarithmic phase were inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice. HEP-2 cells metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes were isolated, cultured, and re-inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice twice. The tumor formation in the tongue and in the cervical lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological examination. Carcinoma cells' ability of invasion and migration was detected by transwell assay. Human specific Alu sequences were detected by PCR, which indicated that the tumor cells originated from human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2. Finally, an animal model of spontaneous lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was successfully established. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells with high metastatic potential to lymph nodes were obtained through repeated inoculations. .

  9. On the evaluation of box model results: the case of BOXURB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A

    2009-08-01

    In the present paper, the BOXURB model results, as they occurred in the Greater Area of Athens after model application on an hourly basis for the 10-year period 1995-2004, are evaluated both in time and space in the light of observed pollutant concentrations time series from 17 monitoring stations. The evaluation is performed at a total, monthly, daily and hourly scale. The analysis also includes evaluation of the model performance with regard to the meteorological parameters. Finally, the model is evaluated as an air quality forecasting and urban planning tool. Given the simplicity of the model and the complexity of the area topography, the model results are found to be in good agreement with the measured pollutant concentrations, especially in the heavy traffic stations. Therefore, the model can be used for regulatory purposes by authorities for time-efficient, simple and reliable estimation of air pollution levels within city boundaries.

  10. In Silico Model for Developmental Toxicity: How to Use QSAR Models and Interpret Their Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Marco; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Kulkarni, Sunil; Barton-Maclaren, Tara S; Benfenati, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Modeling developmental toxicity has been a challenge for (Q)SAR model developers due to the complexity of the endpoint. Recently, some new in silico methods have been developed introducing the possibility to evaluate the integration of existing methods by taking advantage of various modeling perspectives. It is important that the model user is aware of the underlying basis of the different models in general, as well as the considerations and assumptions relative to the specific predictions that are obtained from these different models for the same chemical. The evaluation on the predictions needs to be done on a case-by-case basis, checking the analogs (possibly using structural, physicochemical, and toxicological information); for this purpose, the assessment of the applicability domain of the models provides further confidence in the model prediction. In this chapter, we present some examples illustrating an approach to combine human-based rules and statistical methods to support the prediction of developmental toxicity; we also discuss assumptions and uncertainties of the methodology.

  11. A new method to obtain risk neutral probability, without stochastic calculus and price modeling, confirms the universal validity of Black-Scholes-Merton formula and volatility's role

    OpenAIRE

    Yatracos, Yannis G.

    2013-01-01

    A new method is proposed to obtain the risk neutral probability of share prices without stochastic calculus and price modeling, via an embedding of the price return modeling problem in Le Cam's statistical experiments framework. Strategies-probabilities $P_{t_0,n}$ and $P_{T,n}$ are thus determined and used, respectively,for the trader selling the share's European call option at time $t_0$ and for the buyer who may exercise it in the future, at $T; \\ n$ increases with the number of share's tr...

  12. A Tower Model for Lightning Overvoltage Studies Based on the Result of an FDTD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Taku

    This paper describes a method for deriving a transmission tower model for EMTP lightning overvoltage studies from a numerical electromagnetic simulation result obtained by the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method. The FDTD simulation carried out in this paper takes into account the following items which have been ignored or over-simplified in previously-presented simulations: (i) resistivity of the ground soil; (ii) arms, major slant elements, and foundations of the tower; (iii) development speed of the lightning return stroke. For validation purpose a pulse test of a 500-kV transmission tower is simulated, and a comparison with the measured result shows that the present FDTD simulation gives a sufficiently accurate result. Using this validated FDTD-based simulation method the insulator-string voltages of a tower for a lightning stroke are calculated, and based on the simulation result the parameter values of the proposed tower model for EMTP studies are determined in a systematic way. Since previously-presented models include trial-and-error process in the parameter determination, it can be said that the proposed model is more general in this regard. As an illustrative example, the 500-kV transmission tower mentioned above is modeled, and it is shown that the derived model closely reproduces the FDTD simulation result.

  13. Spin-1 Ising model on tetrahedron recursive lattices: Exact results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the ferromagnetic spin-1 Ising model on the tetrahedron recursive lattices. An exact solution of the model is found in the framework of which it is shown that the critical temperatures of the second order phase transitions of the model are driven by a single equation simultaneously on all such lattices. It is also shown that this general equation for the critical temperatures is equivalent to the corresponding polynomial equation for the model on the tetrahedron recursive lattice with arbitrary given value of the coordination number. The explicit form of these polynomial equations is shown for the lattices with the coordination numbers z = 6, 9, and 12. In addition, it is shown that the thermodynamic properties of all possible physical phases of the model are also completely driven by the corresponding single equations simultaneously on all tetrahedron recursive lattices. In this respect, the spontaneous magnetization, the free energy, the entropy, and the specific heat of the model are studied in detail.

  14. Droplet Reaction and Evaporation of Agents Model (DREAM). Glass model results; Sand model plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, A.R.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Agent Fate Program is generating an extensive set of quality agent fate data which is being used to develop highly accurate secondary evaporation predictive models. Models are being developed that cover a wide range of traditional chemical warfare agents deposited onto surfaces routinely found o

  15. Comparison of Mooring Loads in Survivability Mode on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Obtained by a Numerical Model and Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Muliawan, Made Jaya; Gao, Zhen;

    2012-01-01

    to be carried out numerically, through coupled analyses of alternative solutions. The present study deals with the preliminary hydrodynamic characterization of Wave Dragon needed in order to calibrate the numerical model to be used for the mooring design. A hydrodynamic analysis of the small scale model......, with experimental results derived from tank tests of a small scale model. Due to the complex geometry of the device, a sensitivity analysis is performed to discuss the influence of the mean position on the quality of the numerical predictions. Good correspondence is achieved between the experimental and numerical...... model. The numerical model is hence considered reliable for future design applications....

  16. Effect of geometry of rice kernels on drying modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geometry of rice grain is commonly represented by sphere, spheroid or ellipsoid shapes in the drying models. Models using simpler shapes are easy to solve mathematically, however, deviation from the true grain shape might lead to large errors in predictions of drying characteristics such as, moistur...

  17. Periodic Integration: Further Results on Model Selection and Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers model selection and forecasting issues in two closely related models for nonstationary periodic autoregressive time series [PAR]. Periodically integrated seasonal time series [PIAR] need a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. On the other

  18. Theoretical investigations on model ternary polypeptides using genetic algorithm—Some new results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vinita; Bakhshi, A. K.

    2011-04-01

    Using genetic algorithm (GA) model ternary polypeptides containing glycine, alanine and serine in β-pleated conformation have been theoretically investigated. In designing, the criterion to attain the optimum solution at the end of GA run is minimum band gap and maximum delocalization in the polypeptide chain. Ab initio results obtained using Clementi's minimal basis set are used as input. Effects of (i) change of basis set from minimal to double zeta, (ii) change in secondary structure from β-pleated to α-helical, (iii) presence of solvation shell and (iv) binding of H + and Li + ions to peptide group on the resulting solution as well as on electronic structure and conduction properties of polypeptides are investigated. A comparison is drawn between results obtained for the two cationic adducts. The protonated adduct is expected to withdraw more negative charge from the polypeptide chain due to smaller size of H + and is found to have high electron affinity compared to Li + adduct.

  19. Wave-current interactions: model development and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, Clement; Lyard, Florent; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    The coastal area concentrates many uses that require integrated management based on diagnostic and predictive tools to understand and anticipate the future of pollution from land or sea, and learn more about natural hazards at sea or activity on the coast. The realistic modelling of coastal hydrodynamics needs to take into account various processes which interact, including tides, surges, and sea state (Wolf [2008]). These processes act at different spatial scales. Unstructured-grid models have shown the ability to satisfy these needs, given that a good mesh resolution criterion is used. We worked on adding a sea state forcing in a hydrodynamic circulation model. The sea state model is the unstructured version of WAVEWATCH III c (Tolman [2008]) (which version is developed at IFREMER, Brest (Ardhuin et al. [2010]) ), and the hydrodynamic model is the 2D barotropic module of the unstructured-grid finite element model T-UGOm (Le Bars et al. [2010]). We chose to use the radiation stress approach (Longuet-Higgins and Stewart [1964]) to represent the effect of surface waves (wind waves and swell) in the barotropic model, as previously done by Mastenbroek et al. [1993]and others. We present here some validation of the model against academic cases : a 2D plane beach (Haas and Warner [2009]) and a simple bathymetric step with analytic solution for waves (Ardhuin et al. [2008]). In a second part we present realistic application in the Ushant Sea during extreme event. References Ardhuin, F., N. Rascle, and K. Belibassakis, Explicit wave-averaged primitive equations using a generalized Lagrangian mean, Ocean Modelling, 20 (1), 35-60, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.001, 2008. Ardhuin, F., et al., Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part I: Definition, Calibration, and Validation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40 (9), 1917-1941, doi:10.1175/2010JPO4324.1, 2010. Haas, K. A., and J. C. Warner, Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and

  20. The interface free energy: Comparison of accurate Monte Carlo results for the 3D Ising model with effective interface models

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Panero, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We provide accurate Monte Carlo results for the free energy of interfaces with periodic boundary conditions in the 3D Ising model. We study a large range of inverse temperatures, allowing to control corrections to scaling. In addition to square interfaces, we study rectangular interfaces for a large range of aspect ratios u=L_1/L_2. Our numerical results are compared with predictions of effective interface models. This comparison verifies clearly the effective Nambu-Goto model up to two-loop order. Our data also allow us to obtain the estimates T_c sigma^-1/2=1.235(2), m_0++ sigma^-1/2=3.037(16) and R_+=f_+ sigma_0^2 =0.387(2), which are more precise than previous ones.

  1. Comparative Results on 3D Navigation of Quadrotor using two Nonlinear Model based Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Y.; Siguerdidjane, H.; Bestaoui, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Recently the quadrotors are being increasingly employed in both military and civilian areas where a broad range of nonlinear flight control techniques are successfully implemented. With this advancement, it has become necessary to investigate the efficiency of these flight controllers by studying theirs features and compare their performance. In this paper, the control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) quadrotor, using two different approaches, is presented. The first controller is Nonlinear PID (NLPID) whilst the second one is Nonlinear Internal Model Control (NLIMC) that are used for the stabilization as well as for the 3D trajectory tracking. The numerical simulations have shown satisfactory results using nominal system model or disturbed model for both of them. The obtained results are analyzed with respect to several criteria for the sake of comparison.

  2. Influence of Different Modeling Strategies for CFRP on Finite Element Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xueshu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation is used to predict the behavior and response of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP. Sometimes zero thickness of interface layer is introduced into the numerical model to investigate the inter-layer behavior like delamination. To investigate the influence of critical volume-type defect like void, usually appeared in matrix rich region at the interface between layers, on mechanical properties of CFRP, numerical models with different interface thickness were created and tensile property and three-point bending simulation results were compared to experimental ones. It is found that accurate result is obtained with increasing of the interface thickness and up to 20% that of layer thickness is recommended to model the matrix rich region.

  3. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....

  4. Review of the dWind Model Conceptual Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Gleason, Michael; Preus, Robert; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-09-16

    This presentation provides an overview of the dWind model, including its purpose, background, and current status. Baring-Gould presented this material as part of the September 2015 WINDExchange webinar.

  5. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...

  6. The Animal Model Determines the Results of Aeromonas Virulence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alejandro; Saraceni, Paolo R.; Merino, Susana; Figueras, Antonio; Tomás, Juan M.; Novoa, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analyzed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1ΔvapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild-type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1ΔrmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the AH-1ΔwahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim) and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella). They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study demonstrates

  7. Models for Fitting Gravimetric Geoids and GPS Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study how to use a gravimetric (quasi) geoid for levelling by GPS data in an optimal way.The advent of precise geodetic GPS has made the use of a technique possible,which might be called GPS- gravimetric geoid determination.In this approach,GPS heights above the reference ellipsoid are determined for points whose levelled (orthometric) height H is above sea level people have already surveyed;for these points,we thus have the values of the geoid undulation N.These values are then used to constrain the geoid undulations N′ obtained from the gravimetric solution.

  8. Preliminary results of a three-dimensional radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hirok, W. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Clouds act as the primary modulator of the Earth`s radiation at the top of the atmosphere, within the atmospheric column, and at the Earth`s surface. They interact with both shortwave and longwave radiation, but it is primarily in the case of shortwave where most of the uncertainty lies because of the difficulties in treating scattered solar radiation. To understand cloud-radiative interactions, radiative transfer models portray clouds as plane-parallel homogeneous entities to ease the computational physics. Unfortunately, clouds are far from being homogeneous, and large differences between measurement and theory point to a stronger need to understand and model cloud macrophysical properties. In an attempt to better comprehend the role of cloud morphology on the 3-dimensional radiation field, a Monte Carlo model has been developed. This model can simulate broadband shortwave radiation fluxes while incorporating all of the major atmospheric constituents. The model is used to investigate the cloud absorption anomaly where cloud absorption measurements exceed theoretical estimates and to examine the efficacy of ERBE measurements and cloud field experiments. 3 figs.

  9. Uncertainty in a Markov state model with missing states and rates: Application to a room temperature kinetic model obtained using high temperature molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-09-21

    Several studies in the past have generated Markov State Models (MSMs), i.e., kinetic models, of biomolecular systems by post-analyzing long standard molecular dynamics (MD) calculations at the temperature of interest and focusing on the maximally ergodic subset of states. Questions related to goodness of these models, namely, importance of the missing states and kinetic pathways, and the time for which the kinetic model is valid, are generally left unanswered. We show that similar questions arise when we generate a room-temperature MSM (denoted MSM-A) for solvated alanine dipeptide using state-constrained MD calculations at higher temperatures and Arrhenius relation — the main advantage of such a procedure being a speed-up of several thousand times over standard MD-based MSM building procedures. Bounds for rate constants calculated using probability theory from state-constrained MD at room temperature help validate MSM-A. However, bounds for pathways possibly missing in MSM-A show that alternate kinetic models exist that produce the same dynamical behaviour at short time scales as MSM-A but diverge later. Even in the worst case scenario, MSM-A is found to be valid longer than the time required to generate it. Concepts introduced here can be straightforwardly extended to other MSM building techniques.

  10. Hydrodynamic analysis of the artificial recharge of aquifers during the planning stage. Results obtained in the Quaternary aquifer in the Valley of the Guadalquivir (Spain); Analisis hidrodinamico de la recarga artificial de acuiferos durante la etapa de planificacion. Resultados obtenidos en el acuifero cuaternario del valle del Guadalquivir (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper shows a study on the viability of an artificial recharge in the flood-plain aquifer of the Guadalquivir River (Andalucia, Spain). The method used to the evaluation of the artificial recharge project is as follows: A simple model (one cell). The code has been made on the use of an EXCEL spreadsheet. A distributed parameters-flow model using a standard code (Modflow). A pilot recharge plant. The simple model has been applied in different zones. The model has only 5 parameters. It evaluates the artificial recharge by means of the depletion coefficient. The model was calibrated for a monthly time-step, although the water balances in the soil and in the aquifer were calculated daily. The calibration the distributed parameter-flow model shows a high transmissivity, storage coefficient and porosity. The pilot recharge plant is a trench with recharge wells within it. The water available for recharge is obtained from an irrigation canal. A network of control points has been established to monitor the piezometric levels. The results obtained show a high storage coefficient and porosity. These parameters show a rapid groundwater velocity. Finally, the paper compares and contrasts the results obtained with the simple model, distributed parameter- flow model and the pilot recharge plant. The results are quite similar. The groundwater velocity is rapid. Water remains in the aquifer for a few days before returning to the river. (Author)

  11. A mathematical model and simulation results of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride thin films from SiH4-NH3-N2-Ar mixture, an important application in modern materials science. Our multiphysics model describes gas dynamics, chemical physics, plasma physics and electrodynamics. The PECVD technology is inherently multiscale, from macroscale processes in the chemical reactor to atomic-scale surface chemistry. Our macroscale model is based on Navier-Stokes equations for a transient laminar flow of a compressible chemically reacting gas mixture, together with the mass transfer and energy balance equations, Poisson equation for electric potential, electrons and ions balance equations. The chemical kinetics model includes 24 species and 58 reactions: 37 in the gas phase and 21 on the surface. A deposition model consists of three stages: adsorption to the surface, diffusion along the surface and embedding of products into the substrate. A new model has been validated on experimental results obtained with the "Plasmalab System 100" reactor. We present the mathematical model and simulation results investigating the influence of flow rate and source gas proportion on silicon nitride film growth rate and chemical composition.

  12. Reply: New results justify open discussion of alternative models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew; Stein, Seth; Weber, John; Engeln, Joseph; Mao, Aitlin; Dixon, Timothy

    A millennium ago, Jewish sages wrote that “the rivalry of scholars increases wisdom.” In contrast, Schweig et al. (Eos, this issue) demand that “great caution” be exercised in discussing alternatives to their model of high seismic hazard in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). We find this view surprising; we have no objection to their and their coworkers' extensive efforts promoting their model in a wide variety of public media, but see no reason not to explore a lower-hazard alternative based on both new data and reanalysis of data previously used to justify their model. In our view, the very purpose of collecting new data and reassessing existing data is to promote spirited testing and improvement of existing hypotheses. For New Madrid, such open reexamination seems scientifically appropriate, given the challenge of understanding intraplate earthquakes, and socially desirable because of the public policy implications.

  13. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...... is whether a bubble model with infinite variance can create the long swings, or persistence, which are observed in many macro variables. We say that a variable is persistent if its autoregressive coefficient ¿(n) of y(t) on y(t-1), is close to one. We show that the estimator of ¿(n) converges to ¿p...

  14. Transmission resonance Raman spectroscopy: experimental results versus theoretical model calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Alicia G; González Ureña, Ángel

    2012-10-01

    A laser spectroscopic technique is described that combines transmission and resonance-enhanced Raman inelastic scattering together with low laser power (view, a model for the Raman signal dependence on the sample thickness is also presented. Essentially, the model considers the sample to be homogeneous and describes the underlying physics using only three parameters: the Raman cross-section, the laser-radiation attenuation cross-section, and the Raman signal attenuation cross-section. The model was applied successfully to describe the sample-size dependence of the Raman signal in both β-carotene standards and carrot roots. The present technique could be useful for direct, fast, and nondestructive investigations in food quality control and analytical or physiological studies of animal and human tissues.

  15. Results on a Binding Neuron Model and Their Implications for Modified Hourglass Model for Neuronal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical models of single neuron like Hodgkin-Huxley point neuron or leaky integrate and fire neuron assume the influence of postsynaptic potentials to last till the neuron fires. Vidybida (2008 in a refreshing departure has proposed models for binding neurons in which the trace of an input is remembered only for a finite fixed period of time after which it is forgotten. The binding neurons conform to the behaviour of real neurons and are applicable in constructing fast recurrent networks for computer modeling. This paper develops explicitly several useful results for a binding neuron like the firing time distribution and other statistical characteristics. We also discuss the applicability of the developed results in constructing a modified hourglass network model in which there are interconnected neurons with excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs. Limited simulation results of the hourglass network are presented.

  16. Some vaccination strategies for the SEIR epidemic model. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a vaccination-based control strategy for a SEIR (susceptible plus infected plus infectious plus removed populations) propagation disease model. The model takes into account the total population amounts as a refrain for the illness transmission since its increase makes more difficult contacts among susceptible and infected. The control objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero.

  17. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  18. Results From Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, Kevin [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  19. Preliminary results on molecular modeling of asphaltenes using structure elucidation programs in conjunction with molecular simulation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewski, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Huc, A.Y.; Taylor, M.J.; Faulon, J.L. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France). Division Geologie-Geochimie

    1996-01-01

    Molecular modeling using structure elucidation programs in conjunction with molecular simulation programs has been performed on asphaltene molecules, the heaviest fraction of crude oil, in order to obtain a chemical model allowing the tentative study of their physicochemical properties. Boscan asphaltenes (Venezuela) derived from a marine source rock have been analysed. The different steps of this molecular modeling are described. First, a 3-D chemical representation of Boscan asphaltene is defined from an analytical data set. Second, the results of molecular dynamic simulations indicate that only a few stable conformations are possible due to the high reticulation of the model of the asphaltene unit obtained. 42 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    physiological plant model, in the case of lettuce (since the leaf metabolic model predominates), the developed model was verified with the carbon consumption of plant, as input. The model predicts the biomass production (as output) with respect to the quantum of light absorbed by the plant. The obtained result was found satisfying for the first initiation in the physiological plant modelling.

  1. Determination of mechanical properties from depth-sensing indentation data and results of finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaenkova, M. G.; Perlovich, Yu A.; Krymskaya, O. A.; Zhuk, D. I.

    2016-04-01

    3D finite element model of indentation process with Berkovich tip was created. Using this model with different type of test materials, several series of calculations were made. These calculations lead to determination of material behavior features during indentation. Relations between material properties and its behavior during instrumented indentation were used for construction of dimensionless functions required for development the calculation algorithm, suitable to determine mechanical properties of materials by results of the depth-sensing indentation. Results of mechanical properties determination using elaborated algorithm for AISI 1020 steel grade were compared to properties obtained with standard compression tests. These two results differ by less than 10% for yield stress that evidence of a good accuracy of the proposed technique.

  2. Some Results On The Modelling Of TSS Manufacturing Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MÎNZU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling of a particular class of manufacturing lines, governed by a decentralised control strategy so that they balance themselves. Such lines are known as “bucket brigades” and also as “TSS lines”, after their first implementation, at Toyota, in the 70’s. A first study of their behaviour was based upon modelling as stochastic dynamic systems, which emphasised, in the frame of the so-called “Normative Model”, a sufficient condition for self-balancing, that means for autonomous functioning at a steady production rate (stationary behaviour. Under some particular conditions, a simulation analysis of TSS lines could be made on non-linear block diagrams, showing that the state trajectories are piecewise continuous in between occurrences of certain discrete events, which determine their discontinuity. TSS lines may therefore be modelled as hybrid dynamic systems, more specific, with autonomous switching and autonomous impulses (jumps. A stability analysis of such manufacturing lines is allowed by modelling them as hybrid dynamic systems with discontinuous motions.

  3. Statistics of dark matter substructure - II. Comparison of model with simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Frank C.; Jiang, Fangzhou

    2016-05-01

    We compare subhalo mass and velocity functions obtained from different simulations with different subhalo finders among each other, and with predictions from the new semi-analytical model presented in Paper I. We find that subhalo mass functions (SHMFs) obtained using different subhalo finders agree with each other at the level of ˜20 per cent, but only at the low-mass end. At the massive end, subhalo finders that identify subhaloes based purely on density in configuration space dramatically underpredict the subhalo abundances by more than an order of magnitude. These problems are much less severe for subhalo velocity functions (SHVFs), indicating that they arise from issues related to assigning masses to the subhaloes, rather than from detecting them. Overall the predictions from the semi-analytical model are in excellent agreement with simulation results obtained using the more advanced subhalo finders that use information in six-dimensional phase-space. In particular, the model accurately reproduces the slope and host-mass-dependent normalization of both the subhalo mass and velocity functions. We find that the SHMFs and SHVFs have power-law slopes of 0.86 and 2.77, respectively, significantly shallower than what has been claimed in several studies in the literature.

  4. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauker, F. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Storch, H. von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2000-07-01

    A dynamical downscaling for the North Sea is presented. The numerical model used for the study is the coupled ice-ocean model OPYC. In a hindcast of the years 1979 to 1993 it was forced with atmospheric forcing of the ECMWF reanalysis. The models capability in simulating the observed mean state and variability in the North Sea is demonstrated by the hindcast. Two time scale ranges, from weekly to seasonal and the longer-than-seasonal time scales are investigated. Shorter time scales, for storm surges, are not captured by the model formulation. The main modes of variability of sea level, sea-surface circulation, sea-surface temperature, and sea-surface salinity are described and connections to atmospheric phenomena, like the NAO, are discussed. T106 ''time-slice'' simulations with a ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' horizon are used to estimate the effects of a changing climate on the shelf sea ''North Sea''. The ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' changes in the surface forcing are accompanied by changes in the lateral oceanic boundary conditions taken from a global coupled climate model. For ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' the time mean sea level increases up to 25 cm in the German Bight in the winter, where 15 cm are due to the surface forcing and 10 cm due to thermal expansion. This change is compared to the ''natural'' variability as simulated in the ECMWF integration and found to be not outside the range spanned by it. The variability of sea level on the weekly-to-seasonal time-scales is significantly reduced in the scenario integration. The variability on the longer-than-seasonal time-scales in the control and scenario runs is much smaller then in the ECMWF integration. This is traced back to the use of ''time-slice'' experiments. Discriminating between locally forced changes and changes induced at the lateral oceanic boundaries of the model in the circulation and

  5. A Dissipative Model for Hydrogen Storage: Existence and Regularity Results

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodaroli, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    We prove global existence of a solution to an initial and boundary value problem for a highly nonlinear PDE system. The problem arises from a termomechanical dissipative model describing hydrogen storage by use of metal hydrides. In order to treat the model from an analytical point of view, we formulate it as a phase transition phenomenon thanks to the introduction of a suitable phase variable. Continuum mechanics laws lead to an evolutionary problem involving three state variables: the temperature, the phase parameter and the pressure. The problem thus consists of three coupled partial differential equations combined with initial and boundary conditions. Existence and regularity of the solutions are here investigated by means of a time discretization-a priori estimate-passage to the limit procedure joined with compactness and monotonicity arguments.

  6. The use of a new 3D splint and double CT scan procedure to obtain an accurate anatomic virtual augmented model of the skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, G R J; Barth, E-L; Eulzer, C; Schutyser, F

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) virtual planning of orthognathic surgery requires detailed visualization of the interocclusal relationship. The purpose of this study was to introduce the modification of the double computed tomography (CT) scan procedure using a newly designed 3D splint in order to obtain a detailed anatomic 3D virtual augmented model of the skull. A total of 10 dry adult human cadaver skulls were used to evaluate the accuracy of the automatic rigid registration method for fusion of both CT datasets (Maxilim, version 1.3.0). The overall mean registration error was 0.1355+/-0.0323 mm (range 0.0760-0.1782 mm). Analysis of variance showed a registration method error of 0.0564 mm (P 3D splint with the double CT scan procedure allowed accurate registration and the set-up of an accurate anatomic 3D virtual augmented model of the skull with detailed dental surface.

  7. Vaccination strategies for SEIR models using feedback linearization. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    A linearization-based feedback-control strategy for a SEIR epidemic model is discussed. The vaccination objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero. The disease controlpolicy is designed based on a feedback linearization technique which provides a general method to generate families of vaccination policies with sound technical background.

  8. Recent results in the NJL model with heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmann, T

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the interplay of chiral and heavy quark symmetries by using the NJL quark model. Heavy quarks with finite masses m(Q) as well as the limit m(Q) to infinity are studied. We found large corrections to the heavy mass scaling law for the pseudoscalar decay constant. The influence of external momenta on the shape parameters of the Isgur-Wise form factor is discussed.

  9. Coupling Landform Evolution and Soil Pedogenesis - Initial Results From the SSSPAM5D Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgoose, G. R.; Welivitiya, W. D. D. P.; Hancock, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of soil on a dynamic landform is a crucial next step in landscape evolution modelling. Some attempts have been taken such as MILESD by Vanwalleghem et al. to develop a first model which is capable of simultaneously evolving both the soil profile and the landform. In previous work we have presented physically based models for soil pedogenesis, mARM and SSSPAM. In this study we present the results of coupling a landform evolution model with our SSSPAM5D soil pedogenesis model. In previous work the SSSPAM5D soil evolution model was used to identify trends of the soil profile evolution on a static landform. Two pedogenetic processes, namely (1) armouring due to erosion, and (2) physical and chemical weathering were used in those simulations to evolve the soil profile. By incorporating elevation changes (due to erosion and deposition) we have advanced the SSSPAM5D modelling framework into the realm of landscape evolution. Simulations have been run using elevation and soil grading data of the engineered landform (spoil heap) at the Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results obtained for the coupled landform-soil evolution simulations predict the erosion of high slope areas, development of rudimentary channel networks in the landform and deposition of sediments in lowland areas, and qualitatively consistent with landform evolution models on their own. Examination of the soil profile characteristics revealed that hill crests are weathering dominated and tend to develop a thick soil layer. The steeper hillslopes at the edge of the landform are erosion dominated with shallow soils while the foot slopes are deposition dominated with thick soil layers. The simulation results of our coupled landform and soil evolution model provide qualitatively correct and timely characterization of the soil evolution on a dynamic landscape. Finally we will compare the characteristics of erosion and deposition predicted by the coupled landform-soil SSSPAM

  10. Blade element momentum modeling of inflow with shear in comparison with advanced model results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Riziotis, V.; Zahle, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    There seems to be a significant uncertainty in aerodynamic and aeroelastic simulations on megawatt turbines operating in inflow with considerable shear, in particular with the engineering blade element momentum (BEM) model, commonly implemented in the aeroelastic design codes used by industry....... Computations with advanced vortex and computational fluid dynamics models are used to provide improved insight into the complex flow phenomena and rotor aerodynamics caused by the sheared inflow. One consistent result from the advanced models is the variation of induced velocity as a function of azimuth when...... a higher power than in uniform flow. On the basis of the consistent azimuthal induction variations seen in the advanced model results, three different BEM implementation methods are discussed and tested in the same aeroelastic code. A full local BEM implementation on an elemental stream tube in both...

  11. The physical model of a terraced plot: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlotto, Chiara; D'Agostino, Vincenzo; Buzzanca, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Terrace building have been expanded in the 19th century because of the increased demographic pressure and the need to crop additional areas at steeper slopes. Terraces are also important to regulate the hydrological behavior of the hillslope. Few studies are available in literature on rainfall-runoff processes and flood risk mitigation in terraced areas. Bench terraces, reducing the terrain slope and the length of the overland flow, quantitatively control the runoff flow velocity, facilitating the drainage and thus leading to a reduction of soil erosion. The study of the hydrologic-hydraulic function of terraced slopes is essential in order to evaluate their possible use to cooperate for flood-risk mitigation also preserving the landscape value. This research aims to better focus the times of the hydrological response, which are determined by a hillslope plot bounded by a dry-stone wall, considering both the overland flow and the groundwater. A physical model, characterized by a quasi-real scale, has been built to reproduce the behavior of a 3% outward sloped terrace at bare soil condition. The model consists of a steel metal box (1 m large, 3.3 m long, 2 m high) containing the hillslope terrain. The terrain is equipped with two piezometers, 9 TDR sensors measuring the volumetric water content, a surface spillway at the head releasing the steady discharge under test, a scale at the wall base to measure the outflowing discharge. The experiments deal with different initial moisture condition (non-saturated and saturated), and discharges of 19.5, 12.0 and 5.0 l/min. Each experiment has been replicated, conducting a total number of 12 tests. The volumetric water content analysis produced by the 9 TDR sensors was able to provide a quite satisfactory representation of the soil moisture during the runs. Then, different lag times at the outlet since the inflow initiation were measured both for runoff and groundwater. Moreover, the time of depletion and the piezometer

  12. Modeling of Na airglow emission and first results on the nocturnal variation at midlatitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, T.; Sunil Krishna, M. V.; Singh, Vir

    2015-12-01

    A model for sodium airglow emission is developed by incorporating all the known reaction mechanisms. The neutral, ionic, and photochemical mechanisms are successfully implemented into this model. The values of reaction rate coefficients are based upon the theoretical calculations as well as from experimental observations. The densities of major species are calculated using the continuity equations, whereas for the minor, intermediating, and short-lived species steady state approximation method is used. The modeled results are validated with the rocket, lidar, and photometer observations for a branching ratio of 0.04 for the production of Na(2P) in the reaction NaO + O → Na(2P, 2S). The inputs have been obtained from other physics-based models and ground- and satellite-based observations to give the combined volume emission rate (VER) of Na airglow between 80 and 110 km altitude. In the present study, the model is used to understand the nocturnal variation of Na VER during the solstice conditions. The model results suggest a variation of peak emission layer between 85 and 90 km during summer solstice condition, indicating a lower value of peak emission rate during summer solstice. The emission rates bear a strong correlation with the O3 density during summer solstice, whereas the magnitude of VER follows the Na density during winter solstice. The altitude of peak VER shows an upward shift of 5 km during winter solstice.

  13. Role of numerical scheme choice on the results of mathematical modeling of combustion and detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, I. S.; Kiverin, A. D.; Pinevich, S. G.; Ivanov, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present study discusses capabilities of dissipation-free CABARET numerical method application to unsteady reactive gasdynamic flows modeling. In framework of present research the method was adopted for reactive flows governed by real gas equation of state and applied for several typical problems of unsteady gas dynamics and combustion modeling such as ignition and detonation initiation by localized energy sources. Solutions were thoroughly analyzed and compared with that derived by using of the modified Euler-Lagrange method of “coarse” particles. Obtained results allowed us to distinguish range of phenomena where artificial effects of numerical approach may counterfeit their physical nature and to develop guidelines for numerical approach selection appropriate for unsteady reactive gasdynamic flows numerical modeling.

  14. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus cycles and dissolved oxygen in the Zhujiang Estuary Ⅱ. Model results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Weibing; Wong Lai-Ah; Xu Dongfeng

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the ecosystem-based water quality model was applied to the Pearl River (Zhujiang) Estuary. The model results successfully represent the distribution trend of nutrients and dissolved oxygen both in the horizontal and vertical planes during the flood season, and it shows that the model has taken into consideration the key part of the dynamical, chemical and biological processes existing in the Zhujiang Estuary. The further studies illustrate that nitrogen is in plenty while phosphorus and light limit the phytoplankton biomass in the Zhujiang Estuary during the flood season.

  15. Comparison of the results obtained in the design of shallow foundations when applying the eurocode 7 and the Spanish standards; Comparacion del dimensionamiento de cimentaciones superficiales aplicando el Eurocodigo 7 y las normativas espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto Rodriguez, A.; Varela Nieto, J. M.; Magdaleno Mas, F.; Diaz Balteiro, L.; Saiz de Omenaca Gonzalez, J. A.; Saiz de Omena Gonzalez, J.; Lazaro Benito, F.; Macias Palomo, A.

    2008-07-01

    It has been done the comparison of the results obtained in the design of shallow foundations when the Eurocode 7 and different geotechnical Spanish Standards are applied (R.O.M. 05-94). Guia de cimentaciones para Obras de Carretera y Documento Basico SE-C del Codigo Tecnico de la Edificacion). Several designs have been done with different types of soils, characterized by their strength parameters, and with different shapes of foundations. the comparison of the results makes it possible to quantify the differences that exist between the European and the Spanish Standards. (Author) 8 refs.

  16. Exact results in modeling planetary atmospheres-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelkowski, J. [Institut fuer Atmosphaere und Umwelt, J.W. Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt, Campus Riedberg, Altenhoferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)], E-mail: Pelkowski@meteor.uni-frankfurt.de; Chevallier, L. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Laboratoire LUTH, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon cedex (France); Rutily, B. [Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CNRS, UMR 5574, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (France); Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, F-69007 Lyon (France); Titaud, O. [Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMI 2807 CNRS-UChile, Blanco Encalada 2120 - 7 Piso, Casilla 170 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile)

    2008-01-15

    We apply the semi-gray model of our previous paper to the particular case of the Earth's atmosphere, in order to illustrate quantitatively the inverse problem associated with the direct problem we dealt with before. From given climatological values of the atmosphere's spherical albedo and transmittance for visible radiation, the single-scattering albedo and the optical thickness in the visible are inferred, while the infrared optical thickness is deduced for given global average surface temperature. Eventually, temperature distributions in terms of the infrared optical depth will be shown for a terrestrial atmosphere assumed to be semi-gray and, locally, in radiative and thermodynamic equilibrium.

  17. Exact results in modeling planetary atmospheres-I. Gray atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, L. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Laboratoire LUTH, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon cedex (France)]. E-mail: loic.chevallier@obspm.fr; Pelkowski, J. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik, J.W. Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt, Robert Mayer Strasse 1, D-60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Rutily, B. [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, F-69000 (France) and Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, F-69622 (France) and Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andre, Saint-Genis Laval cedex, F-69561 (France) and CNRS, UMR 5574; Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2007-04-15

    An exact model is proposed for a gray, isotropically scattering planetary atmosphere in radiative equilibrium. The slab is illuminated on one side by a collimated beam and is bounded on the other side by an emitting and partially reflecting ground. We provide expressions for the incident and reflected fluxes on both boundary surfaces, as well as the temperature of the ground and the temperature distribution in the atmosphere, assuming the latter to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Tables and curves of the temperature distribution are included for various values of the optical thickness. Finally, semi-infinite atmospheres illuminated from the outside or by sources at infinity is dealt with.

  18. Delta-tilde interpretation of standard linear mixed model results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per Bruun; Amorim, Isabel de Sousa; Kuznetsova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    effects relative to the residual error and to choose the proper effect size measure. For multi-attribute bar plots of F-statistics this amounts, in balanced settings, to a simple transformation of the bar heights to get them transformed into depicting what can be seen as approximately the average pairwise...... for factors with differences in number of levels. For mixed models, where in general the relevant error terms for the fixed effects are not the pure residual error, it is suggested to base the d-prime-like interpretation on the residual error. The methods are illustrated on a multifactorial sensory profile...... inherently challenging effect size measure estimates in ANOVA settings....

  19. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  20. Action versus result-oriented schemes in a grassland agroecosystem: a dynamic modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Doyen, Luc; Tichit, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Effects of agri-environment schemes (AES) on biodiversity remain controversial. While most AES are action-oriented, result-oriented and habitat-oriented schemes have recently been proposed as a solution to improve AES efficiency. The objective of this study was to compare action-oriented, habitat-oriented and result-oriented schemes in terms of ecological and productive performance as well as in terms of management flexibility. We developed a dynamic modelling approach based on the viable control framework to carry out a long term assessment of the three schemes in a grassland agroecosystem. The model explicitly links grazed grassland dynamics to bird population dynamics. It is applied to lapwing conservation in wet grasslands in France. We ran the model to assess the three AES scenarios. The model revealed the grazing strategies respecting ecological and productive constraints specific to each scheme. Grazing strategies were assessed by both their ecological and productive performance. The viable control approach made it possible to obtain the whole set of viable grazing strategies and therefore to quantify the management flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem. Our results showed that habitat and result-oriented scenarios led to much higher ecological performance than the action-oriented one. Differences in both ecological and productive performance between the habitat and result-oriented scenarios were limited. Flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem in the result-oriented scenario was much higher than in that of habitat-oriented scenario. Our model confirms the higher flexibility as well as the better ecological and productive performance of result-oriented schemes. A larger use of result-oriented schemes in conservation may also allow farmers to adapt their management to local conditions and to climatic variations.

  1. Action versus result-oriented schemes in a grassland agroecosystem: a dynamic modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Sabatier

    Full Text Available Effects of agri-environment schemes (AES on biodiversity remain controversial. While most AES are action-oriented, result-oriented and habitat-oriented schemes have recently been proposed as a solution to improve AES efficiency. The objective of this study was to compare action-oriented, habitat-oriented and result-oriented schemes in terms of ecological and productive performance as well as in terms of management flexibility. We developed a dynamic modelling approach based on the viable control framework to carry out a long term assessment of the three schemes in a grassland agroecosystem. The model explicitly links grazed grassland dynamics to bird population dynamics. It is applied to lapwing conservation in wet grasslands in France. We ran the model to assess the three AES scenarios. The model revealed the grazing strategies respecting ecological and productive constraints specific to each scheme. Grazing strategies were assessed by both their ecological and productive performance. The viable control approach made it possible to obtain the whole set of viable grazing strategies and therefore to quantify the management flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem. Our results showed that habitat and result-oriented scenarios led to much higher ecological performance than the action-oriented one. Differences in both ecological and productive performance between the habitat and result-oriented scenarios were limited. Flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem in the result-oriented scenario was much higher than in that of habitat-oriented scenario. Our model confirms the higher flexibility as well as the better ecological and productive performance of result-oriented schemes. A larger use of result-oriented schemes in conservation may also allow farmers to adapt their management to local conditions and to climatic variations.

  2. Comparison of the validity of Hill and Huxley muscle-tendon complex models using experimental data obtained from rat m. soleus in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Koen K; Baan, Guus C; Jaspers, Richard T; van Soest, A J Knoek

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between mechanical and metabolic behaviour in the widely used Hill muscle-tendon complex (MTC) model is not straightforward, whereas this is an integral part of the Huxley model. In this study, we assessed to what extent Huxley- and Hill-type MTC models yield adequate predictions of mechanical muscle behaviour during stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs). In fully anaesthetized male Wistar rats (N=3), m. soleus was dissected completely free, except for the insertion. Cuff electrodes were placed over the n. ischiadicus. The distal end of the tendon was connected to a servo motor, via a force transducer. The setup allowed for full control over muscle stimulation and length, while force was measured. Quick-release and isovelocity contractions (part 1), and SSCs (part 2) were imposed. Simulations of part 2 were made with both a Hill and a Huxley MTC model, using parameter values determined from part 1. Modifications to the classic two-state Huxley model were made to incorporate series elasticity, activation dynamics, and active and passive force-length relationships. Results were similar for all rats. Fitting of the free parameters to the data of part 1 was near perfect (R(2)>0.97). During SSCs, predicted peak force and force during relaxation deviated from the experimental data for both models. Overall, both models yielded similarly adequate predictions of the experimental data. We conclude that Huxley and Hill MTC models are equally valid with respect to mechanical behaviour.

  3. Experimental results and numerical simulations for transonic flow over the ONERA M4R model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison between experimental results of transonic flow over the ONERA M4R calibration model obtained in the INCAS Trisonic wind tunnel and the numerical results. The first purpose, emphasized in this paper is to compare and validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD techniques for internal transonic flows and to try to find the most suitable numerical methodology for these flows in both accuracy and computational resources. The second purpose is to develop a general method in experimental data correction and flight Reynolds extrapolation, using numerical simulations for both global and local pressure coefficients, as a replacement for the classical vortex lattices based method. That will be developed in a future paper. Besides the computational work, the periodic wind tunnel calibration is required as a quality insurance operation and a numerical model is developed such that future hardware modifications to be included and their impact to be properly considered.

  4. Large Deviation Results for Generalized Compound Negative Binomial Risk Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan-chao Kong; Chen Shen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we extend and improve some results of the large deviation for random sums of random variables.Let {Xn;n≥1} be a sequence of non-negative,independent and identically distributed random variables with common heavy-tailed distribution function F and finite mean μ∈R+,{N(n);n≥0} be a sequence of negative binomial distributed random variables with a parameter p ∈(0,1),n≥0,let {M(n);n≥0} be a Poisson process with intensity λ0.Suppose {N(n);n≥0},{Xn;n≥1} and {M(n);n≥0} are mutually results.These results can be applied to certain problems in insurance and finance.

  5. Development of in vitro models for investigating spatially fractionated irradiation: physics and biological results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockhuys, S; Vanhoecke, B; Paelinck, L; Bracke, M; DeWagter, C

    2009-03-01

    We present different in vitro experimental models which allow us to evaluate the effect of spatially fractionated dose distributions on metabolic activity. We irradiated a monolayer of MCF-7/6 human breast cancer cells with a steep and a smooth 6 MV x-ray dose gradient. In the steep gradient model, we irradiated the cells with three separate small fields. We also developed two smooth gradient models. In the first model, the cells are cultured in a T25 flask and irradiated with a smooth dose gradient over the length of the flask, while in the second one, the cells are cultured in a 96-well plate and also irradiated over the length of the plate. In an attempt to correlate the spatially fractionated dose distributions with metabolic activity, the effect of irradiation was evaluated by means of the MTT assay. This assay is used to determine the metabolic activity by measuring the amount of formazan formed after the conversion of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) by cellular dehydrogenases. The results obtained with our different models suggest a dose-specific effect on metabolic activity, characterized by an increased formazan optical density occurring in the dose range 1.0-4.0 Gy in the steep dose gradient model and in the dose ranges 4.2-6.5 Gy and 2.3-5.1 Gy in the two smooth dose gradient models. The corresponding times for maximal formazan accumulation were 5-7 days in the steep dose gradient model and day 9-13 and day 9-11 in the smooth dose gradient models. Altogether, our results suggest that the MTT assay may be used as a biological dose-response meter to monitor the radiotherapeutic effectiveness.

  6. Development of in vitro models for investigating spatially fractionated irradiation: physics and biological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blockhuys, S; Vanhoecke, B; Bracke, M [Laboratory Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Paelinck, L; De Wagter, C [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: Stephanie.Blockhuys@ugent.be

    2009-03-21

    We present different in vitro experimental models which allow us to evaluate the effect of spatially fractionated dose distributions on metabolic activity. We irradiated a monolayer of MCF-7/6 human breast cancer cells with a steep and a smooth 6 MV x-ray dose gradient. In the steep gradient model, we irradiated the cells with three separate small fields. We also developed two smooth gradient models. In the first model, the cells are cultured in a T25 flask and irradiated with a smooth dose gradient over the length of the flask, while in the second one, the cells are cultured in a 96-well plate and also irradiated over the length of the plate. In an attempt to correlate the spatially fractionated dose distributions with metabolic activity, the effect of irradiation was evaluated by means of the MTT assay. This assay is used to determine the metabolic activity by measuring the amount of formazan formed after the conversion of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) by cellular dehydrogenases. The results obtained with our different models suggest a dose-specific effect on metabolic activity, characterized by an increased formazan optical density occurring in the dose range 1.0-4.0 Gy in the steep dose gradient model and in the dose ranges 4.2-6.5 Gy and 2.3-5.1 Gy in the two smooth dose gradient models. The corresponding times for maximal formazan accumulation were 5-7 days in the steep dose gradient model and day 9-13 and day 9-11 in the smooth dose gradient models. Altogether, our results suggest that the MTT assay may be used as a biological dose-response meter to monitor the radiotherapeutic effectiveness.

  7. Application of a computationally efficient method to approximate gap model results with a probabilistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherstjanoi, M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Lischke, H.

    2014-07-01

    To be able to simulate climate change effects on forest dynamics over the whole of Switzerland, we adapted the second-generation DGVM (dynamic global vegetation model) LPJ-GUESS (Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator) to the Alpine environment. We modified model functions, tuned model parameters, and implemented new tree species to represent the potential natural vegetation of Alpine landscapes. Furthermore, we increased the computational efficiency of the model to enable area-covering simulations in a fine resolution (1 km) sufficient for the complex topography of the Alps, which resulted in more than 32 000 simulation grid cells. To this aim, we applied the recently developed method GAPPARD (approximating GAP model results with a Probabilistic Approach to account for stand Replacing Disturbances) (Scherstjanoi et al., 2013) to LPJ-GUESS. GAPPARD derives mean output values from a combination of simulation runs without disturbances and a patch age distribution defined by the disturbance frequency. With this computationally efficient method, which increased the model's speed by approximately the factor 8, we were able to faster detect the shortcomings of LPJ-GUESS functions and parameters. We used the adapted LPJ-GUESS together with GAPPARD to assess the influence of one climate change scenario on dynamics of tree species composition and biomass throughout the 21st century in Switzerland. To allow for comparison with the original model, we additionally simulated forest dynamics along a north-south transect through Switzerland. The results from this transect confirmed the high value of the GAPPARD method despite some limitations towards extreme climatic events. It allowed for the first time to obtain area-wide, detailed high-resolution LPJ-GUESS simulation results for a large part of the Alpine region.

  8. Theoretical Modeling of ISO Results on Planetary Nebula NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M.; Federman, S. R.; Dalgarno, A.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    1999-04-01

    We present a thermal and chemical model of the neutral envelope of planetary nebula NGC 7027. In our model, the neutral envelope is composed of a thin dense shell of constant density and an outer stellar wind region with the usual inverse-square law density profile. The thermal and chemical structure is calculated with the assumption that the incident radiation field on the inner surface equals 0.5×105 times Draine's fit to the average interstellar far-ultraviolet field. The rate coefficient for H2 formation on grains is assumed to be 1/5 the usual value to take into account the lower dust-gas mass ratio in the neutral envelope of NGC 7027. The calculated temperature in the dense shell decreases from 3000 to under 200 K. Once the temperature drops to 200 K, we assume that it remains at 200 K until the outer edge of the dense shell is reached, so that the observed intensities of CO J=16-15, 15-14, and 14-13 lines can be reproduced. The 200 K temperature can be interpreted as the average temperature of the shocked gas just behind the forward shock front in the framework of the interacting stellar wind theory. We calculate the intensities of the molecular far-infrared rotational lines by using a revised version of the escape probability formalism. The theoretical intensities for rotational lines of CO (from J=29-28 to J=14-13), CH+, OH, and CH are shown to be in good agreement with ISO observations. The H2 rovibrational line intensities are also calculated and are in agreement with available observations.

  9. Combining forming results via weld models to powerful numerical assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kose, K.; Rietman, Bert

    2004-01-01

    Forming simulations generally give satisfying results with respect to thinning, stresses, changed material properties and, with a proper springback calculation, the geometric form. The joining of parts by means of welding yields an extra change of the material properties and the residual stresses.

  10. Combining forming results via weld models to powerful numerical assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kose, K.; Rietman, B.

    2004-01-01

    Forming simulations generally give satisfying results with respect to thinning, stresses, changed material properties and, with a proper springback calculation, the geometric form. The joining of parts by means of welding yields an extra change of the material properties and the residual stresses. W

  11. The benchmark aeroelastic models program: Description and highlights of initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Farmer, Moses G.; Durham, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental effort was implemented in aeroelasticity called the Benchmark Models Program. The primary purpose of this program is to provide the necessary data to evaluate computational fluid dynamic codes for aeroelastic analysis. It also focuses on increasing the understanding of the physics of unsteady flows and providing data for empirical design. An overview is given of this program and some results obtained in the initial tests are highlighted. The tests that were completed include measurement of unsteady pressures during flutter of a rigid wing with an NACA 0012 airfoil section and dynamic response measurements of a flexible rectangular wing with a thick circular arc airfoil undergoing shock boundary layer oscillations.

  12. Retrospective analysis of 55,769 HbA1c EQA results obtained from professional laboratories and medical offices participating in surveys organized by two European EQA centers over a nine-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Pierre-Alain; Deom, André; Kesseler, Dagmar; Cohen, Richard

    2011-01-01

    External Quality Assessment (EQA) is an essential tool for laboratories to monitor the performances of their analyses. It also allows a comparison of methods and types of laboratories (professional laboratories vs. medical offices). We, therefore, compared 55,769 HbA1c EQA results obtained between 1999 and 2008 by laboratories participating in EQA schemes organized by two European centers, Switzerland (center 1) and France (center 2). We used simple, nonparametrical statistics suited to EQA results to calculate the yearly and global precision performances. All the results, including the outliers, were included in the calculations. The best global precision performances were obtained by professional laboratories and medical offices using DCA POCT devices, followed by professional laboratories with the Integra, Hitachi, Cobas Mira, and HPLC groups of devices, and finally by both types of laboratories with the NycoCard POCT devices. When considering yearly precision performances, an overall improvement over time was observed for almost all diagnostic devices of center 1, whereas the trend was less clear for center 2. The HbA1c EQA results collected and analyzed over a 9-year period showed that the DCA POCT devices used either by professional laboratories or medical offices had better reproducibility than laboratory devices (other than POCT) and that a general improvement of yearly precision performances was observed, especially when frequent EQA schemes were organized. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The Use of Mixed Effects Models for Obtaining Low-Cost Ecosystem Carbon Stock Estimates in Mangroves of the Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukoski, Jacob J.; Broadhead, Jeremy S.; Donato, Daniel C.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gregoire, Timothy G.

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves provide extensive ecosystem services that support local livelihoods and international environmental goals, including coastal protection, biodiversity conservation and the sequestration of carbon (C). While voluntary C market projects seeking to preserve and enhance forest C stocks offer a potential means of generating finance for mangrove conservation, their implementation faces barriers due to the high costs of quantifying C stocks through field inventories. To streamline C quantification in mangrove conservation projects, we develop predictive models for (i) biomass-based C stocks, and (ii) soil-based C stocks for the mangroves of the Asia-Pacific. We compile datasets of mangrove biomass C (197 observations from 48 sites) and soil organic C (99 observations from 27 sites) to parameterize the predictive models, and use linear mixed effect models to model the expected C as a function of stand attributes. The most parsimonious biomass model predicts total biomass C stocks as a function of both basal area and the interaction between latitude and basal area, whereas the most parsimonious soil C model predicts soil C stocks as a function of the logarithmic transformations of both latitude and basal area. Random effects are specified by site for both models, which are found to explain a substantial proportion of variance within the estimation datasets and indicate significant heterogeneity across-sites within the region. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the biomass C model is approximated at 24.6 Mg/ha (18.4% of mean biomass C in the dataset), whereas the RMSE of the soil C model is estimated at 4.9 mg C/cm3 (14.1% of mean soil C). The results point to a need for standardization of forest metrics to facilitate meta-analyses, as well as provide important considerations for refining ecosystem C stock models in mangroves. PMID:28068361

  14. The Use of Mixed Effects Models for Obtaining Low-Cost Ecosystem Carbon Stock Estimates in Mangroves of the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukoski, Jacob J; Broadhead, Jeremy S; Donato, Daniel C; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gregoire, Timothy G

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves provide extensive ecosystem services that support local livelihoods and international environmental goals, including coastal protection, biodiversity conservation and the sequestration of carbon (C). While voluntary C market projects seeking to preserve and enhance forest C stocks offer a potential means of generating finance for mangrove conservation, their implementation faces barriers due to the high costs of quantifying C stocks through field inventories. To streamline C quantification in mangrove conservation projects, we develop predictive models for (i) biomass-based C stocks, and (ii) soil-based C stocks for the mangroves of the Asia-Pacific. We compile datasets of mangrove biomass C (197 observations from 48 sites) and soil organic C (99 observations from 27 sites) to parameterize the predictive models, and use linear mixed effect models to model the expected C as a function of stand attributes. The most parsimonious biomass model predicts total biomass C stocks as a function of both basal area and the interaction between latitude and basal area, whereas the most parsimonious soil C model predicts soil C stocks as a function of the logarithmic transformations of both latitude and basal area. Random effects are specified by site for both models, which are found to explain a substantial proportion of variance within the estimation datasets and indicate significant heterogeneity across-sites within the region. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the biomass C model is approximated at 24.6 Mg/ha (18.4% of mean biomass C in the dataset), whereas the RMSE of the soil C model is estimated at 4.9 mg C/cm3 (14.1% of mean soil C). The results point to a need for standardization of forest metrics to facilitate meta-analyses, as well as provide important considerations for refining ecosystem C stock models in mangroves.

  15. Modeling Framework and Results to Inform Charging Infrastructure Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market is experiencing rapid growth with dozens of battery electric (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) models already available and billions of dollars being invested by automotive manufacturers in the PEV space. Electric range is increasing thanks to larger and more advanced batteries and significant infrastructure investments are being made to enable higher power fast charging. Costs are falling and PEVs are becoming more competitive with conventional vehicles. Moreover, new technologies such as connectivity and automation hold the promise of enhancing the value proposition of PEVs. This presentation outlines a suite of projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office to conduct assessments of the economic value and charging infrastructure requirements of the evolving PEV market. Individual assessments include national evaluations of PEV economic value (assuming 73M PEVs on the road in 2035), national analysis of charging infrastructure requirements (with community and corridor level resolution), and case studies of PEV ownership in Columbus, OH and Massachusetts.

  16. Inactivation model equations and their associated parameter values obtained under static acid stress conditions cannot be used directly for predicting inactivation under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M; Verhulst, A; Valdramidis, V; Devlieghere, F; Van Impe, J F; Geeraerd, A H

    2008-11-30

    Organic acids (e.g., lactic acid, acetic acid and citric acid) are popular preservatives. In this study, the Listeria innocua inactivation is investigated under dynamic conditions of pH and undissociated lactic acid ([LaH]). A combined primary (Weibull-type) and secondary model developed for the L. innocua inactivation under static conditions [Janssen, M., Geeraerd, A.H., Cappuyns, A., Garcia-Gonzalez, L., Schockaert, G., Van Houteghem, N., Vereecken, K.M., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., Van Impe, J.F., 2007. Individual and combined effects of pH and lactic acid concentration on L. innocua inactivation: development of a predictive model and assessment of experimental variability. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73(5), 1601-1611] was applied to predict the microbial inactivation under dynamic conditions. Because of its non-autonomous character, two approaches were proposed for the application of the Weibull-type model to dynamic conditions. The results quantitatively indicated that the L. innocua cell population was able to develop an induced acid stress resistance under dynamic conditions of pH and [LaH]. From a modeling point of view, it needs to be stressed that (i) inactivation model equations and associated parameter values, derived under static conditions, may not be suitable for use as such under dynamic conditions, and (ii) non-autonomous dynamic models reveal additional technical intricacies in comparison with autonomous models.

  17. Pressure distributions obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's forebody in the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Henry, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure distribution test data obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the forward fuselage of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented without analysis. The tests were completed in the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The UPWT tests were conducted in two different test sections operating in the continuous mode, the 8 x 7 feet and 9 x 7 feet test sections. Each test section has its own Mach number range, 1.6 to 2.5 and 2.5 to 3.5 for the 9 x 7 feet and 8 x 7 feet test section, respectively. The test Reynolds number ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 x 10 to the 6th power ft and 0.6 to 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power ft, respectively. The tests were conducted in support of the development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). In addition to modeling the 20 SEADS orifices, the wind-tunnel model was also instrumented with orifices to match Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) port locations that existed on the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) during the Orbiter Flight test program. This DFI simulation has provided a means for comparisons between reentry flight pressure data and wind-tunnel and computational data.

  18. Standard Model Higgs results from ATLAS and CMS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221190; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The properties of the Higgs boson particle were measured with the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC at the centre-of-mass energies 7 TeV and 8 TeV. The combined data samples of the ATLAS and CMS experiments were used for the measurements of the Higgs boson mass and couplings. Furthermore, the CP and spin analysis done separately with the CMS and ATLAS experiments are described. Moreover, first results of the Higgs boson cross section at the centre-of-mass energy 13 TeV in the channels H->ZZ->4leptons and H->gamma+gamma with the ATLAS detector are presented.

  19. Ross ice shelf cavity circulation, residence time, and melting: Results from a model of oceanic chlorofluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Tasha E.; Holland, David M.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2010-04-01

    Despite their harmful effects in the upper atmosphere, anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons dissolved in seawater are extremely useful for studying ocean circulation and ventilation, particularly in remote locations. Because they behave as a passive tracer in seawater, and their atmospheric concentrations are well-mixed, well-known, and have changed over time, they are ideal for gaining insight into the oceanographic characteristics of the isolated cavities found under Antarctic ice shelves, where direct observations are difficult to obtain. Here we present results from a modeling study of air-sea chlorofluorocarbon exchange and ocean circulation in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. We compare our model estimates of oceanic CFC-12 concentrations along an ice shelf edge transect to field data collected during three cruises spanning 16 yr. Our model produces chlorofluorocarbon concentrations that are quite similar to those measured in the field, both in magnitude and distribution, showing high values near the surface, decreasing with depth, and increasing over time. After validating modeled circulation and air-sea gas exchange through comparison of modeled temperature, salinity, and chlorofluorocarbons with field data, we estimate that the residence time of water in the Ross Ice Shelf cavity is approximately 2.2 yr and that basal melt rates for the ice shelf average 10 cm yr -1. The model predicts a seasonal signature to basal melting, with highest melt rates in the spring and also the fall.

  20. Results comparison and model validation for flood loss functions in Australian geographical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh Nafari, R.; Ngo, T.; Lehman, W.

    2015-06-01

    Rapid urbanisation, climate change and unsustainable developments are increasing the risk of floods, namely flood frequency and intensity. Flood is a frequent natural hazard that has significant financial consequences for Australia. The emergency response system in Australia is very successful and has saved many lives over the years. However, the preparedness for natural disaster impacts in terms of loss reduction and damage mitigation has been less successful. This study aims to quantify the direct physical damage to residential structures that are prone to flood phenomena in Australia. In this paper, the physical consequences of two floods from Queensland have been simulated, and the results have been compared with the performance of two selected methodologies and one newly derived model. Based on this analysis, the adaptability and applicability of the selected methodologies will be assessed in terms of Australian geographical conditions. Results obtained from the new empirically-based function and non-adapted methodologies indicate that it is apparent that the precision of flood damage models are strongly dependent on selected stage damage curves, and flood damage estimation without model validation results in inaccurate prediction of losses. Therefore, it is very important to be aware of the associated uncertainties in flood risk assessment, especially if models have not been adapted with real damage data.

  1. Learning to obtain reward, but not avoid punishment, is affected by presence of PTSD symptoms in male veterans: empirical data and computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sheynin, Jony; Vanmeenen, Kirsten M; Gilbertson, Mark W; Orr, Scott P; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms include behavioral avoidance which is acquired and tends to increase with time. This avoidance may represent a general learning bias; indeed, individuals with PTSD are often faster than controls on acquiring conditioned responses based on physiologically-aversive feedback. However, it is not clear whether this learning bias extends to cognitive feedback, or to learning from both reward and punishment. Here, male veterans with self-reported current, severe PTSD symptoms (PTSS group) or with few or no PTSD symptoms (control group) completed a probabilistic classification task that included both reward-based and punishment-based trials, where feedback could take the form of reward, punishment, or an ambiguous "no-feedback" outcome that could signal either successful avoidance of punishment or failure to obtain reward. The PTSS group outperformed the control group in total points obtained; the PTSS group specifically performed better than the control group on reward-based trials, with no difference on punishment-based trials. To better understand possible mechanisms underlying observed performance, we used a reinforcement learning model of the task, and applied maximum likelihood estimation techniques to derive estimated parameters describing individual participants' behavior. Estimations of the reinforcement value of the no-feedback outcome were significantly greater in the control group than the PTSS group, suggesting that the control group was more likely to value this outcome as positively reinforcing (i.e., signaling successful avoidance of punishment). This is consistent with the control group's generally poorer performance on reward trials, where reward feedback was to be obtained in preference to the no-feedback outcome. Differences in the interpretation of ambiguous feedback may contribute to the facilitated reinforcement learning often observed in PTSD patients, and may in turn provide new insight into how

  2. Learning to obtain reward, but not avoid punishment, is affected by presence of PTSD symptoms in male veterans: empirical data and computational model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Myers

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms include behavioral avoidance which is acquired and tends to increase with time. This avoidance may represent a general learning bias; indeed, individuals with PTSD are often faster than controls on acquiring conditioned responses based on physiologically-aversive feedback. However, it is not clear whether this learning bias extends to cognitive feedback, or to learning from both reward and punishment. Here, male veterans with self-reported current, severe PTSD symptoms (PTSS group or with few or no PTSD symptoms (control group completed a probabilistic classification task that included both reward-based and punishment-based trials, where feedback could take the form of reward, punishment, or an ambiguous "no-feedback" outcome that could signal either successful avoidance of punishment or failure to obtain reward. The PTSS group outperformed the control group in total points obtained; the PTSS group specifically performed better than the control group on reward-based trials, with no difference on punishment-based trials. To better understand possible mechanisms underlying observed performance, we used a reinforcement learning model of the task, and applied maximum likelihood estimation techniques to derive estimated parameters describing individual participants' behavior. Estimations of the reinforcement value of the no-feedback outcome were significantly greater in the control group than the PTSS group, suggesting that the control group was more likely to value this outcome as positively reinforcing (i.e., signaling successful avoidance of punishment. This is consistent with the control group's generally poorer performance on reward trials, where reward feedback was to be obtained in preference to the no-feedback outcome. Differences in the interpretation of ambiguous feedback may contribute to the facilitated reinforcement learning often observed in PTSD patients, and may in turn provide new insight

  3. Stress Resultant Based Elasto-Viscoplastic Thick Shell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Woelke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents enhancement introduced to the elasto-viscoplastic shell formulation, which serves as a theoretical base for the finite element code EPSA (Elasto-Plastic Shell Analysis [1–3]. The shell equations used in EPSA are modified to account for transverse shear deformation, which is important in the analysis of thick plates and shells, as well as composite laminates. Transverse shear forces calculated from transverse shear strains are introduced into a rate-dependent yield function, which is similar to Iliushin's yield surface expressed in terms of stress resultants and stress couples [12]. The hardening rule defined by Bieniek and Funaro [4], which allows for representation of the Bauschinger effect on a moment-curvature plane, was previously adopted in EPSA and is used here in the same form. Viscoplastic strain rates are calculated, taking into account the transverse shears. Only non-layered shells are considered in this work.

  4. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  5. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Evangelia [Queen Mary, University of London; Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Weber, William J [ORNL; Seaton, M [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Todorov, I T [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki; Dove, Martin T [Queen Mary, University of London; Trachenko, Kostya [Queen Mary, University of London

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  6. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, E., E-mail: zarkadoulae@ornl.gov [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Devanathan, R. [Nuclear Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Weber, W. J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Scientific Computing Department, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nordlund, K. [University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Dove, M. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Trachenko, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1–0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  7. Adaptation and Validation of QUick, Easy, New, CHEap, and Reproducible (QUENCHER) Antioxidant Capacity Assays in Model Products Obtained from Residual Wine Pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; García-Lomillo, Javier; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Muñiz, Pilar

    2015-08-12

    Evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity of solid matrices without extraction steps is a very interesting alternative for food researchers and also for food industries. These methodologies have been denominated QUENCHER from QUick, Easy, New, CHEap, and Reproducible assays. To demonstrate and highlight the validity of QUENCHER (Q) methods, values of Q-method validation were showed for the first time, and they were tested with products of well-known different chemical properties. Furthermore, new QUENCHER assays to measure scavenging capacity against superoxide, hydroxyl, and lipid peroxyl radicals were developed. Calibration models showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.995), proportionality and precision (CV antioxidant capacity values significantly different from those obtained with water. The dilution of samples with powdered cellulose was discouraged because possible interferences with some of the matrices analyzed may take place.

  8. First results from the International Urban Energy Balance Model Comparison: Model Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, M.; Grimmond, S.; Best, M.

    2009-04-01

    A great variety of urban energy balance models has been developed. These vary in complexity from simple schemes that represent the city as a slab, through those which model various facets (i.e. road, walls and roof) to more complex urban forms (including street canyons with intersections) and features (such as vegetation cover and anthropogenic heat fluxes). Some schemes also incorporate detailed representations of momentum and energy fluxes distributed throughout various layers of the urban canopy layer. The models each differ in the parameters they require to describe the site and the in demands they make on computational processing power. Many of these models have been evaluated using observational datasets but to date, no controlled comparisons have been conducted. Urban surface energy balance models provide a means to predict the energy exchange processes which influence factors such as urban temperature, humidity, atmospheric stability and winds. These all need to be modelled accurately to capture features such as the urban heat island effect and to provide key information for dispersion and air quality modelling. A comparison of the various models available will assist in improving current and future models and will assist in formulating research priorities for future observational campaigns within urban areas. In this presentation we will summarise the initial results of this international urban energy balance model comparison. In particular, the relative performance of the models involved will be compared based on their degree of complexity. These results will inform us on ways in which we can improve the modelling of air quality within, and climate impacts of, global megacities. The methodology employed in conducting this comparison followed that used in PILPS (the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes) which is also endorsed by the GEWEX Global Land Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) panel. In all cases, models were run

  9. The European-Alpine collision during the last 45Myrs - constraints obtained from comparing 3-D numerical subduction models and tomographic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, G.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Kissling, E.; Lippitsch, R.

    2003-04-01

    We analyze the interaction of Adriatic and the European Plates driven self-consistently by slab pull in order to seperate out the roles of (1) intrinsic dynamics of the slab driven Adriatic microplate system, (2) interaction with the subducting European plate, (3) the pushing African plate and (4) the feedback of slab induced flow within the mantle. The simulation is based on a new three-dimensional solid-fluid solver that we developed for plate tectonics reconstruction. The method embeds a Lagrangian Finite Element model of the lithosphere into a creeping medium (Stokeslet Method see poster) representing the mantle. Density inhomogeneities within the subducting plate are inserted to obtain realistic reconstructions of tomographically observed slab lengths in both the Central Mediterranean and European-Alpine subduction systems. In a first step we analyse the system in the absence of the African convergence. With this asssumption the model is only driven by gravity and thus gives an insight into the internal dynamics of the Central-European microplate evolution. In a second step we add the African convergence as a large scale distributed force. Using this method the mechanical origin of rotation of the Adriatic microplate in the vise of the African-European convergence can be analysed and its impact on the collision in the Alps derived. While our solution space is a first set, the aim of the analysis is to obtain constraints of the history of Adriatic-European collision using the new solver as a toolbox. The method has the potential to act as a filter between geological observation, tomographic data and mechanical constraints within the framework of a dynamic 3-D plate tectonic evolution.

  10. Post-glucose-load urinary C-peptide and glucose concentration obtained during OGTT do not affect oral minimal model-based plasma indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainandunsing, Sjaam; Wattimena, J L Darcos; Rietveld, Trinet; van Miert, Joram N I; Sijbrands, Eric J G; de Rooij, Felix W M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how renal loss of both C-peptide and glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) relate to and affect plasma-derived oral minimal model (OMM) indices. All individuals were recruited during family screening between August 2007 and January 2011 and underwent a 3.5-h OGTT, collecting nine plasma samples and urine during OGTT. We obtained the following three subgroups: normoglycemic, at risk, and T2D. We recruited South Asian and Caucasian families, and we report separate analyses if differences occurred. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed as AUCs during OGTT, OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion, and OMM beta-cell and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated to obtain disposition indices. Post-glucose load glucose and C-peptide in urine were measured and related to plasma-based indices. Urinary glucose corresponded well with plasma glucose AUC (Cau r = 0.64, P oral (Cau r = -0.61, P indices in general nor in T2D patients (renal clearance range 0-2.1 %, with median 0.2 % of plasma glucose AUC). C-indices of urinary glucose to detect various stages of glucose intolerance were excellent (Cau 0.83-0.98; SA 0.75-0.89). The limited role of renal glucose secretion validates the neglecting of urinary glucose secretion in kinetic models of glucose homeostasis using plasma glucose concentrations. Both C-peptide and glucose in urine collected during OGTT might be used as non-invasive measures for endogenous insulin secretion and glucose tolerance state.

  11. PICASSO VISION instrument design, engineering model test results, and flight model development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsilä, Antti; Holmlund, Christer; Mannila, Rami; Näkki, Ismo; Ojanen, Harri J.; Akujärvi, Altti; Saari, Heikki; Fussen, Didier; Pieroux, Didier; Demoulin, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    PICASSO - A PICo-satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations is an ESA project led by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, in collaboration with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Clyde Space Ltd. (UK) and Centre Spatial de Liège (BE). The test campaign for the engineering model of the PICASSO VISION instrument, a miniaturized nanosatellite spectral imager, has been successfully completed. The test results look very promising. The proto-flight model of VISION has also been successfully integrated and it is waiting for the final integration to the satellite platform.

  12. Modelling combustion reactions for gas flaring and its resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saheed Ismail

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flaring of associated petroleum gas is an age long environmental concern which remains unabated. Flaring of gas maybe a very efficient combustion process especially steam/air assisted flare and more economical than utilization in some oil fields. However, it has serious implications for the environment. This study considered different reaction types and operating conditions for gas flaring. Six combustion equations were generated using the mass balance concept with varying air and combustion efficiency. These equations were coded with a computer program using 12 natural gas samples of different chemical composition and origin to predict the pattern of emission species from gas flaring. The effect of key parameters on the emission output is also shown. CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 are the anticipated non-hydrocarbon emissions of environmental concern. Results show that the quantity and pattern of these chemical species depended on percentage excess/deficiency of stoichiometric air, natural gas type, reaction type, carbon mass content, impurities, combustion efficiency of the flare system etc. These emissions degrade the environment and human life, so knowing the emission types, pattern and flaring conditions that this study predicts is of paramount importance to governments, environmental agencies and the oil and gas industry.

  13. Variational tensor network renormalization in imaginary time: Benchmark results in the Hubbard model at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnik, Piotr; Rams, Marek M.; Dziarmaga, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    A Gibbs operator e-β H for a two-dimensional (2D) lattice system with a Hamiltonian H can be represented by a 3D tensor network, with the third dimension being the imaginary time (inverse temperature) β . Coarse graining the network along β results in a 2D projected entangled-pair operator (PEPO) with a finite bond dimension. The coarse graining is performed by a tree tensor network of isometries. They are optimized variationally to maximize the accuracy of the PEPO as a representation of the 2D thermal state e-β H. The algorithm is applied to the two-dimensional Hubbard model on an infinite square lattice. Benchmark results at finite temperature are obtained that are consistent with the best cluster dynamical mean-field theory and power-series expansion in the regime of parameters where they yield mutually consistent results.

  14. Magnetostriction of a Superconductor Results from the Critical-State Model

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, Z

    1995-01-01

    In many cases, the critical-state theory can be treated as a suffi ciently accurate approximation for the modelling of the magnetic properties of superconductors. In the present work, the magnetostrictive hysteresis is computed for a quite general case of the modified Kim-Anderson model. The results obtained reproduce many features of the giant magnetostriction (butterfly-shaped curves) reported in the literature for measurements made on single-crystal samples of the high-temperature superconductor $Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8$. It is shown that addition of a contribution to the magnetostriction in the superconducting state which is of similar origin as in the normal state, offers a broader phenomenological interpretation of the complex magnetostriction hysteresis found in such heavy-fermion compounds as $UPt_3$, $URu_2Si_2$ or $UBe_{13}$.

  15. Simulation and experimental results of optical and thermal modeling of gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Lida; Khosroshahi, Mohammad E

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a generalized method for optical and thermal modeling of synthesized magneto-optical nanoshells (MNSs) for biomedical applications. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles with diameter of 9.5 ± 1.4 nm are fabricated using co-precipitation method and subsequently covered by a thin layer of gold to obtain 15.8 ± 3.5 nm MNSs. In this paper, simulations and detailed analysis are carried out for different nanoshell geometry to achieve a maximum heat power. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of MNSs are assessed using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Magnetic saturation of synthesized magnetite nanoparticles are reduced from 46.94 to 11.98 emu/g after coating with gold. The performance of the proposed optical-thermal modeling technique is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  16. MODELING OF THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF INDIVIDUAL MARKETING DEMAND: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND GENERALIZATION OF THE PRECEDING CORRESPONDING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the modeling of series-STI formation of individual market demand. The analysis, and then sum-of three well-known inmarketing models, which exhaust the currentlyknown approaches is revised. The article shows that all three models have a signifi cant difference in the number of stages and terminology. The obtained results are the basis for the developmentof the author’s model of gradual development of demand - «need - desire - requirement -demand» or abbreviated as «model NDRD» and can be considered as a contribution to the methodology of study a demand.

  17. Cosmological model dependence of the galaxy luminosity function: far-infrared results in the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarrem, A; Gruppioni, C; February, S; Ribeiro, M B; Berta, S; Floc'h, E Le; Magnelli, B; Nordon, R; Popesso, P; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L

    2013-01-01

    This is the first paper of a series aiming at investigating galaxy formation and evolution in the giant-void class of the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models that best fits current cosmological observations. Here we investigate the Luminosity Function (LF) methodology, and how its estimates would be affected by a change on the cosmological model assumed in its computation. Are the current observational constraints on the allowed Cosmology enough to yield robust LF results? We use the far-infrared source catalogues built on the observations performed with the Herschel/PACS instrument, and selected as part of the PACS evolutionary probe (PEP) survey. Schechter profiles are obtained in redshift bins up to z approximately 4, assuming comoving volumes in both the standard model, that is, Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric with a perfect fluid energy-momentum tensor, and non-homogeneous LTB dust models, parametrized to fit the current combination of results stemming from the observations of supernovae Ia, th...

  18. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newberg Lee A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results.

  19. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Lee A

    2009-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results. PMID:19589158

  20. Implementing the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) in a general circulation model: Methodologies and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N.; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Schneider, E. K.; Shukla, J.; Kinter, J. L., III; Hou, Y.-T.; Albertazzi, E.

    1989-01-01

    The Simple Biosphere MOdel (SiB) of Sellers et al., (1986) was designed to simulate the interactions between the Earth's land surface and the atmosphere by treating the vegetation explicitly and relistically, thereby incorporating biophysical controls on the exchanges of radiation, momentum, sensible and latent heat between the two systems. The steps taken to implement SiB in a modified version of the National Meteorological Center's spectral GCM are described. The coupled model (SiB-GCM) was used with a conventional hydrological model (Ctl-GCM) to produce summer and winter simulations. The same GCM was used with a conventional hydrological model (Ctl-GCM) to produce comparable 'control' summer and winter variations. It was found that SiB-GCM produced a more realistic partitioning of energy at the land surface than Ctl-GCM. Generally, SiB-GCM produced more sensible heat flux and less latent heat flux over vegetated land than did Ctl-GCM and this resulted in the development of a much deeper daytime planetary boundary and reduced precipitation rates over the continents in SiB-GCM. In the summer simulation, the 200 mb jet stream and the wind speed at 850 mb were slightly weakened in the SiB-GCM relative to the Ctl-GCM results and equivalent analyses from observations.

  1. Simulation and experimental results of optical and thermal modeling of gold nanoshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazanfari, Lida; Khosroshahi, Mohammad E., E-mail: khosrom@mie.utoronto.ca

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a generalized method for optical and thermal modeling of synthesized magneto-optical nanoshells (MNSs) for biomedical applications. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles with diameter of 9.5 ± 1.4 nm are fabricated using co-precipitation method and subsequently covered by a thin layer of gold to obtain 15.8 ± 3.5 nm MNSs. In this paper, simulations and detailed analysis are carried out for different nanoshell geometry to achieve a maximum heat power. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of MNSs are assessed using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–VIS spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Magnetic saturation of synthesized magnetite nanoparticles are reduced from 46.94 to 11.98 emu/g after coating with gold. The performance of the proposed optical–thermal modeling technique is verified by simulation and experimental results. - Highlights: • Proposing a generalized method for optical and thermal modeling of nanoshells • Verification of the proposed modeling technique by simulation and experimental results • Simulations for different nanoshell geometry to achieve a maximum heat power • Synthesis and characterization of magneto-optical nanoshells.

  2. MbT-Tool: An open-access tool based on Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model to obtain microbial-metabolic reactions to be used in biotechnological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Pablo Granda; Gras, Anna; Ginovart, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs) using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo. This computational tool, called MbT-Tool (Metabolism based on Thermodynamics) can write MMRs for different microbial functional groups, such as aerobic heterotrophs, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, methanogens, sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and fermenters. The MbT-Tool's code contains eighteen organic and twenty inorganic reduction-half-reactions, four N-sources (NH4 (+), NO3 (-), NO2 (-), N2) to biomass synthesis and twenty-four microbial empirical formulas, one of which can be determined by the user (CnHaObNc). MbT-Tool is an open-source program capable of writing MMRs based on thermodynamic concepts, which are applicable in a wide range of academic research interested in designing, optimizing and modelling microbial activity without any extensive chemical, microbiological and programing experience.

  3. MbT-Tool: An open-access tool based on Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model to obtain microbial-metabolic reactions to be used in biotechnological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Araujo Granda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo. This computational tool, called MbT-Tool (Metabolism based on Thermodynamics can write MMRs for different microbial functional groups, such as aerobic heterotrophs, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, methanogens, sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and fermenters. The MbT-Tool's code contains eighteen organic and twenty inorganic reduction-half-reactions, four N-sources (NH4+, NO3−, NO2−, N2 to biomass synthesis and twenty-four microbial empirical formulas, one of which can be determined by the user (CnHaObNc. MbT-Tool is an open-source program capable of writing MMRs based on thermodynamic concepts, which are applicable in a wide range of academic research interested in designing, optimizing and modelling microbial activity without any extensive chemical, microbiological and programing experience.

  4. Surface temperature dataset for North America obtained by application of optimal interpolation algorithm merging tree-ring chronologies and climate model output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Xing, Pei; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu; Tian, Qinhua

    2017-02-01

    A new dataset of surface temperature over North America has been constructed by merging climate model results and empirical tree-ring data through the application of an optimal interpolation algorithm. Errors of both the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) simulation and the tree-ring reconstruction were considered to optimize the combination of the two elements. Variance matching was used to reconstruct the surface temperature series. The model simulation provided the background field, and the error covariance matrix was estimated statistically using samples from the simulation results with a running 31-year window for each grid. Thus, the merging process could continue with a time-varying gain matrix. This merging method (MM) was tested using two types of experiment, and the results indicated that the standard deviation of errors was about 0.4 °C lower than the tree-ring reconstructions and about 0.5 °C lower than the model simulation. Because of internal variabilities and uncertainties in the external forcing data, the simulated decadal warm-cool periods were readjusted by the MM such that the decadal variability was more reliable (e.g., the 1940-1960s cooling). During the two centuries (1601-1800 AD) of the preindustrial period, the MM results revealed a compromised spatial pattern of the linear trend of surface temperature, which is in accordance with the phase transition of the Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Compared with pure CCSM4 simulations, it was demonstrated that the MM brought a significant improvement to the decadal variability of the gridded temperature via the merging of temperature-sensitive tree-ring records.

  5. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  6. The response of an equatorial ocean to simple wind stress patterns. I - Model formulation and analytic results. II - Numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    A time-dependent, primitive equation, beta plane model that is two-dimensional in the horizontal has been developed to model wind-driven equatorial ocean circulation. A simple vertical structure consisting of two layers above the thermocline with the same constant density permits a steady-state undercurrent in the model. An analytical study of the linear dynamics of the model suggests that the addition of inertial effects is needed to simulate the undercurrent properly. Also, both linear and nonlinear dynamics of the model are investigated numerically. Such nonlinear response to wind stress as a strong eastward equatorial undercurrent and an intense eastward 'countercurrent' at three deg N are noted in the numerical results.

  7. Flood Damage Analysis: First Floor Elevation Uncertainty Resulting from LiDAR-Derived Digital Surface Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Bodoque

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of high resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR datasets provides spatial density and vertical precision for obtaining highly accurate Digital Surface Models (DSMs. As a result, the reliability of flood damage analysis has improved significantly, owing to the increased accuracy of hydrodynamic models. In addition, considerable error reduction has been achieved in the estimation of first floor elevation, which is a critical parameter for determining structural and content damages in buildings. However, as with any discrete measurement technique, LiDAR data contain object space ambiguities, especially in urban areas where the presence of buildings and the floodplain gives rise to a highly complex landscape that is largely corrected by using ancillary information based on the addition of breaklines to a triangulated irregular network (TIN. The present study provides a methodological approach for assessing uncertainty regarding first floor elevation. This is based on: (i generation an urban TIN from LiDAR data with a density of 0.5 points·m−2, complemented with the river bathymetry obtained from a field survey with a density of 0.3 points·m−2. The TIN was subsequently improved by adding breaklines and was finally transformed to a raster with a spatial resolution of 2 m; (ii implementation of a two-dimensional (2D hydrodynamic model based on the 500-year flood return period. The high resolution DSM obtained in the previous step, facilitated addressing the modelling, since it represented suitable urban features influencing hydraulics (e.g., streets and buildings; and (iii determination of first floor elevation uncertainty within the 500-year flood zone by performing Monte Carlo simulations based on geostatistics and 1997 control elevation points in order to assess error. Deviations in first floor elevation (average: 0.56 m and standard deviation: 0.33 m show that this parameter has to be neatly characterized in order

  8. Monte-Carlo code calculation of 3D reactor core model with usage of burnt fuel isotopic compositions, obtained by engineering codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Gorodkov, Sergey S.; Shcherenko, Anna I. [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A burn-up calculation of large systems by Monte-Carlo code (MCU) is complex process and it requires large computational costs. Previously prepared isotopic compositions are proposed to be used for the Monte-Carlo code calculations of different system states with burnt fuel. Isotopic compositions are calculated by an approximation method. The approximation method is based on usage of a spectral functionality and reference isotopic compositions, that are calculated by the engineering codes (TVS-M, BIPR-7A and PERMAK-A). The multiplication factors and power distributions of FAs from a 3-D reactor core are calculated in this work by the Monte-Carlo code MCU using earlier prepared isotopic compositions. The separate conditions of the burnt core are observed. The results of MCU calculations were compared with those that were obtained by engineering codes.

  9. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  10. Obtaining the porewater composition of a clay rock by modeling the in- and out-diffusion of anions and cations from an in-situ experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelo, C A J; Vinsot, A; Mettler, S; Wechner, S

    2008-10-23

    A borehole in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock in ANDRA's underground research facility was sampled during 1 year and chemically analyzed. Diffusion between porewater and the borehole solution resulted in concentration changes which were modeled with PHREEQC's multicomponent diffusion module. In the model, the clay rock's pore space is divided in free porewater (electrically neutral) and diffuse double layer water (devoid of anions). Diffusion is calculated separately for the two domains, and individually for all the solute species while a zero-charge flux is maintained. We explain how the finite difference formulas for radial diffusion can be translated into mixing factors for solutions. Operator splitting is used to calculate advective flow and chemical reactions such as ion exchange and calcite dissolution and precipitation. The ion exchange reaction is formulated in the form of surface complexation, which allows distributing charge over the fixed sites and the diffuse double layer. The charge distribution affects pH when calcite dissolves, and modeling of the experimental data shows that about 7% of the cation exchange capacity resides in the diffuse double layer. The model calculates the observed concentration changes very well and provides an estimate of the pristine porewater composition in the clay rock.

  11. New Insights into Fluvial Carbon Responses to Future Forest Management and Climate Change Obtained from Multi-Scale Modelling of Biogeochemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, S. K.; Tiwari, T.; Futter, M. N.; Agren, A.; Teutschbein, C.; Ledesma, J.; Schelker, J.; Laudon, H.

    2014-12-01

    The boreal ecozone covers 2x107 km2 of the northern circumpolar region and includes 29% of the world's forests. The boreal consists of mosaic of forest/wetland landscape elements and stores about 500 Gt3 carbon (C) with a delicate sink-source C balance. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the main form of C exported from boreal landscapes and is fundamental to global C cycling. This northern ecosystem is vulnerable to global climate change, and increasing demands for forest products threaten its surface water resources. So far, there have been no attempts to assess the combined impacts of climate change and forest management on the future DOC fluxes from boreal surface waters. While differences in model assumptions may have negligible effects on present day simulations, these differences could be amplified when projecting the future climate and land use change conditions. Here we use an ensemble of regional climate models and multi-scale models of biogeochemical processes to gain insights into uncertainties associated with climate change and forest management on C and runoff dynamics in boreal landscape. While there are significant uncertainties associated with model projections, our results show that climate change will be the main driver of long term DOC dynamics in meso- to large boreal catchments in the future. However, forestry intensifies hydrological processes and can lead to large DOC fluxes at the headwater scales.

  12. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  13. The impact of celestial pole offset modelling on VLBI UT1 Intensive results

    CERN Document Server

    Malkin, Zinovy

    2011-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Intensive sessions are scheduled to provide operational Universal Time (UT1) determinations with low latency. UT1 estimates obtained from these observations heavily depend on the model of the celestial pole motion used during data processing. However, even the most accurate precession-nutation model, IAU 2000/2006, is not accurate enough to realize the full potential of VLBI observations. To achieve the highest possible accuracy in UT1 estimates, a celestial pole offset (CPO), which is the difference between the actual and modelled precession-nutation angles, should be applied. Three CPO models are currently available for users. In this paper, these models have been tested and the differences between UT1 estimates obtained with those models are investigated. It has been shown that neglecting CPO modelling during VLBI UT1 Intensive processing causes systematic errors in UT1 series of up to 20 microarcseconds. It has been also found that using different CPO models causes...

  14. Biomonitoring of airborne particulate matter emitted from a cement plant and comparison with dispersion modelling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gabriela A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Mateos, Ana C.; Pignata, María L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a cement plant that incinerates industrial waste on the air quality of a region in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, was assessed by means of biomonitoring studies (effects of immission) and atmospheric dispersion (effects of emission) of PM10 with the application of the ISC3 model (Industrial Source Complex) developed by the USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). For the biomonitoring studies, samples from the epiphyte plant Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz & Pav. f. capillaris were transplanted to the vicinities of the cement plant in order to determine the physiological damage and heavy metal accumulation (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). For the application of the ISC3 model, point and area sources from the cement plant were considered to obtain average PM10 concentration results from the biomonitoring exposure period. This model permitted it to be determined that the emissions from the cement plant (point and area sources) were confined to the vicinities, without significant dispersion in the study area. This was also observed in the biomonitoring study, which identified Ca, Cd and Pb, pH and electric conductivity (EC) as biomarkers of this cement plant. Vehicular traffic emissions and soil re-suspension could be observed in the biomonitors, giving a more complete scenario. In this study, biomonitoring studies along with the application of atmospheric dispersion models, allowed the atmospheric pollution to be assessed in more detail.

  15. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging with the POLAR CEPPAD/ IPS Instrument : Initial Forward Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Moore, K. R.; Spence, H. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the primary function of the CEPPAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current. detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper. we present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  16. F-106 data summary and model results relative to threat criteria and protection design analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, F. L.; Finelli, G. B.; Perala, R. A.; Rudolph, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA F-106 has acquired considerable data on the rates-of-change of electromagnetic parameters on the aircraft surface during 690 direct lightning strikes while penetrating thunderstorms at altitudes ranging from 15,000 to 40,000 feet. These in-situ measurements have provided the basis for the first statistical quantification of the lightning electromagnetic threat to aircrat appropriate for determining lightning indirect effects on aircraft. The data are presently being used in updating previous lightning criteria and standards developed over the years from ground-based measurements. The new lightning standards will, therefore, be the first which reflect actual aircraft responses measured at flight altitudes. The modeling technique developed to interpret and understand the direct strike electromagnetic data acquired on the F-106 provides a means to model the interaction of the lightning channel with the F-106. The reasonable results obtained with the model, compared to measured responses, yield confidence that the model may be credibly applied to other aircraft types and uses in the prediction of internal coupling effects in the design of lightning protection for new aircraft.

  17. Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barettin, Daniele; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-05-16

    We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on In₀.₄₈Ga₀.₅₂ buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, [Formula: see text] bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband [Formula: see text] approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further verifications, which have clarified some aspects of the experimental

  18. Spectral modeling of Ceres VIR data from Dawn: Method and Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, Andrea; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ciarniello, M.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Frigeri, A.; Fonte, S.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Tosi, F.; Turrini, D.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-11-01

    The Dawn spacecraft [1] is at Ceres, the closest of the IAU-defined dwarf planets to the Sun. This work focuses on the interpretation of Ceres’ surface composition based on the data from the VIR instrument [2] onboard Dawn. The Visible InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer combines high spectral and spatial resolution in the VIS (0.25-1mm) and IR (1-5mm) spectral ranges. VIR will provide a very good coverage of the surface during its orbital mission at Ceres.In order to model the measured spectra, we have utilized Hapke's radiative transfer model [3], which allows estimation of the mineral composition, the relative abundances of the spectral end-members, and the grain size. Optical constants of the spectral end-members are approximated by applying the methodology described in [4] to IR spectra reflectance obtained from the RELAB database.The observed spectra of Ceres surface are affected by a thermal emission component that prevents direct comparison with laboratory data at longer wavelengths. Thus to model the whole wavelength range measured by VIR, the thermal emission is modeled together with the reflectance. Calibrated spectra are first cleaned by removing artefacts. A best fit is obtained with a least square optimization algorithm. For further details on the method, see reference [5].The range 2.5 - 2.9 μm is severely hindered by Earth's atmosphere, but it contains a strong absorption band that dominates the IR Ceres’ spectrum. Thanks to the VIR instrument we can obtain a compositional model for the whole IR range [6]. We used several different combinations of materials hypothesized to be representative of the Ceres’ surface including phyllosilicates, ices, carbonaceous chondrites and salts. The results will be discussed.Acknowledgements This work is supported by the Italian Space Agencies and NASA. Enabling contributions from the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams are gratefully acknowledged.Reference[1] Russell et al., Space Sci. Rev., 163

  19. Long Term Three-dimensional Model Parameterization and Evaluation By The Use of Combined Continuous Ozone Lidar Profiles, Vertical Wind Profiles and Ground Based Monitors Obtained During The Escompte Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frejafon, E.; Robin, D.; Kalthoff, N.; Pesch, M.

    ESCOMPTE 2001 is a field experiment that took place in the southeast of France, in order to understand chemical transformation and transport and then to improve numer- ical models devoted to pollution study and forecasting. To achieve this goal, a stand alone ozone LIDAR was installed from June 11th to July 13th in Cadarache, 30 km northeast of the cities of Marseilles and Aix-en-Provence, downwind from the ozone precursors emissions zones in case of sea-breeze development conditions. This full automatic LIDAR provided vertical profiles of ozone concentration and also the mix- ing height dynamics, between 100 m and 2 500 m, with a spatial resolution of less than 100 m and a temporal resolution of 3 minutes. Data obtained with the LIDAR were connected to ground based ozone monitor installed on the same location by the air quality network, in order to evaluate the data quality and to obtain ozone verti- cal profiles from the ground level up to the free troposphere, which is an optimized support for tree-dimensional photochemical models parameterization and evaluation. The ozone diurnal cycles and the daily atmospheric stratification recorded during this month show the fast dynamics during pollution episodes, resulting from combined photochemical and transport effects in case of sea-breeze. They also specify the re- maining ozone vertical structure during non polluted episodes. Such long-term infor- mation is then a consistent support for model parameterization and evaluation, as it can specify the ozone concentration and the PBL dynamics from the beginning to the last end of a pollution episode. This one month vertical ozone profiles, which were compiled in a movie, will be presented and discussed more precisely. The obtained results, combined with continuous vertical wind profiles obtained with a SODAR and a ground based meteorological station installed on the same location, give access to the continuous ozone flux vertical profiles and the PBL dynamics.

  20. Comparison of TS and ANN Models with the Results of Emission Scenarios in Rainfall Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babaei Hessar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Precipitation is one of the most important and sensitive parameters of the tropical climate that influence the catchments hydrological regime. The prediction of rainfall is vital for strategic planning and water resources management. Despite its importance, statistical rainfall forecasting, especially for long-term, has been proven to be a great challenge due to the dynamic nature of climate phenomena and random fluctuations involved in the process. Various methods, such as time series and artificial neural network models, have been proposed to predict the level of rainfall. But there is not enough attention to global warming and climate change issues. The main aim of this study is to investigate the conformity of artificial neural network and time series models with climate scenarios. Materials and Methods: For this study, 50 years of daily rainfall data (1961 to 2010 of the synoptic station of Urmia, Tabriz and Khoy was investigated. Data was obtained from Meteorological Organization of Iran. In the present study, the results of two Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Time Seri (TS methods were compared with the result of the Emission Scenarios (A2 & B1. HadCM3 model in LARS-WG software was used to generate rainfall for the next 18 years (2011-2029. The results of models were compared with climate scenarios over the next 18 years in the three synoptic stations located in the basin of the Lake Urmia. At the first stage, the best model of time series method was selected. The precipitation was estimated for the next 18 years using these models. For the same period, precipitation was forecast using artificial neural networks. Finally, the results of two models were compared with data generated under two scenarios (B1 and A2 in LARS-WG. Results and Discussion: Different order of AR, MA and ARMA was examined to select the best model of TS The results show that AR(1 was suitable for Tabriz and Khoy stations .In the Urmia station MA(1 was

  1. Influence of the quantum well models on the numerical simulation of planar InGaN/GaN LED results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórski, J.; Woźny, J.; Lisik, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Within this paper, we present electric model of a light emitting diode (LED) made of gallium nitride (GaN) followed by examples of simulation results obtained by means of Sentaurus software, which is the part of the TCAD package. The aim of this work is to answer the question of whether physical models of quantum wells used in commercial software are suitable for a correct analysis of the lateral LEDs made of GaN.

  2. Ship emitted NO2 in the Indian Ocean: comparison of model results with satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eyring

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of NOx emission from international shipping has been evaluated by comparing NO2 tropospheric columns derived from the satellite instruments SCIAMACHY (January 2003 to February 2008, GOME (January 1996 to June 2003, and GOME-2 (March 2007 to February 2008 to NO2 columns calculated with the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 (January 2000 to October 2005. The data set from SCIAMACHY yields the first monthly analysis of ship induced NO2 enhancements in the Indian Ocean. For both data and model consistently the tropospheric excess method was used to obtain mean NO2 columns over the shipping lane from India to Indonesia, and over two ship free regions, the Bay of Bengal and the central Indian Ocean. In general, the model simulates the differences between the regions affected by ship pollution and ship free regions reasonably well. Minor discrepancies between model results and satellite data were identified during biomass burning seasons in March to May over India and the Indochinese Peninsula and August to October over Indonesia. We conclude that the NOx ship emission inventory used in this study is a good approximation of NOx ship emissions in the Indian Ocean for the years 2002 to 2007. It assumes that around 6 Tg(N yr−1 are emitted by international shipping globally, resulting in 90 Gg(N yr−1 in the region of interest when using Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System (AMVER or 72 Gg(N yr−1 when using the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS as spatial proxy. The results do not support some previously published lower ship emissions estimates of 3–4 Tg(N yr−1 globally, making this study the first that evaluates atmospheric response to NOx ship emission estimates from space.

  3. Results from Modeling CN Jets in Comet Lulin (C/2007 N3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Allison Nicole; Schleicher, David G.; Knight, Matthew M.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from Monte Carlo modeling of the CN jets on dynamically new Comet Lulin (C/2007 N3). Our model is based on 16 nights of narrowband imaging obtained with Lowell Observatory's 1.1-m Hall Telescope from 2009 January 30 through April 1, an interval during which our viewing orientation varied by more than 120 degrees. Following basic image enhancement by removing median radial profiles, two opposite pointing corkscrew jets were revealed, and a rotation period of 42 +/- 0.5 hr was determined (Knight & Schleicher 2009; IAU Circular #9025). The presence of these two distinct, non-overlapping jets, combined with the large change in aspect angle, made Lulin an excellent candidate for detailed 3-D jet modeling, allowing us to test a number of physical properties of outgassing which can eventually be utilized for other comets. We successfully reproduced Lulin's CN morphology using a nucleus having a tightly constrained obliquity of 95 deg with the axis pointing toward RA = 90 deg and Dec = +27 deg. The jet towards the west is centered at ~65 deg latitude and has a radius of ~25 deg, while the east jet is centered near -75 deg latitude and has a radius of ~15 deg. The longitudes differ by about 120 deg. The rotation axis crossed the plane of the sky on Feb 22, coincidently just prior to opposition. Our modeling shows that at this heliocentric distance of 1.4 AU, the CN gas continued to accelerate away from the nucleus out to a distance of about 20,000 km, reaching a velocity of 0.48 km/s. We also significantly improved the period determination since the model compensates for the rapidly changing viewing geometry, obtaining a sidereal period of 42.0 +/- 0.2 hr. We see a strong seasonal change in activity consistent with the variation in the sub-solar latitude from January until April as the CN jets change in brightness relative to each other. These and other results will be presented. Support is provided by NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNX14AH32G.

  4. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  5. Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of (cyclic ethers + chlorohexane) mixtures: Experimental results and SAFT modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandres, I.; Giner, B.; Lopez, M.C.; Artigas, H. [Departamento de Quimica Organica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Lafuente, C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: celadi@unizar.es

    2008-08-15

    Experimental data for the isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of mixtures formed by several cyclic ethers (tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydropyran, 1,3-dioxolane, and 1,4-dioxane) and chlorohexane at temperatures of (298.15 and 328.15) K are presented. Experimental results have been discussed in terms of both, molecular characteristics of pure compounds and potential intermolecular interaction between them using thermodynamic information of the mixtures obtained earlier. Furthermore, the influence of the temperature on the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of these mixtures has been explored and discussed. Transferable parameters of the SAFT-VR approach together with standard combining rules have been used to model the phase equilibrium of the mixtures and a description of the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of them that is in excellent agreement with the experimental data are provided.

  6. [Erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Cătălina Daniela; Stefanache, Alina; Tântaru, Gladiola; Poiată, Antonia; Dumitrache, M; Diaconu, D E; Profire, Lenuţa

    2008-01-01

    In this study we tried to improve the erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining, having in view to separate the erythromycin ester by crystallization in water. The erythromycin acylation and the erythromycin ethylsuccinate crystallization were realized, following the next steps: 1. the acylation of the erythromycin with a methylene chloride solution of monoethylsuccinyl chloride, at 25-28 degrees C for 3 hours in the presence of NaHCO3; 2. the transfer of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate from methylene chloride solution in acetone solution by distillation of mixture methylene chloride: acetone 1:1 at 25-28 degrees C; 3. erythromycin ethylsuccinate separation by crystallization in water at pH = 8-8.5 and 5 degrees C for 90 minutes. The quality control for the erythromycin ester was performed according to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards using national standard for erythromycin ethylsuccinate and national standard for erythromycin with an activity of 1: 937 U and 2.02% humidity. The Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 was used as a test microorganism and a thin layer cromatography was performed for qualitative control. 13.1 g of erythromycin ethylsuccinate were obtained with an output of the process of 82.02%. Using water for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate the output of the process is greater (82.02%) than in case of using petroleum ether (74.14%) or hexane (80.25%). The thin layer cromatography revealed an Rf = 0.56 and the microbiological activity of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate was 98.7% compared with the standard. Using water instead of hexane or petroleum ether is gainful for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate from the reaction medium. The obtained erythromycin ethylsuccinate corresponds to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards. So, the raw materials consumption is decreased, the costs are cut down, the obtained product purity is high and the output of the process is greater.

  7. Structural and vibrational study of graphene oxide via coronene based models: theoretical and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida de Mendonça, João Paulo; Henrique de Lima, Alessandro; Amaral Junqueira, Georgia Maria; Gianini Quirino, Welber; Legnani, Cristiano; Oliveira Maciel, Indhira; Sato, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    We use the Coronene (C24H12), a simple and finite molecule, to make a model to study the spectroscopic and structural alterations generated by oxygenated groups in graphene oxide (GO). Based on the Lerf-Klinowski model, we chose the hydroxyl [OH-], the carboxyl [COOH-] and the epoxy [the ring C2O inside the molecule] as our radicals of interest and study their collective and isolated effects. We perform geometry optimization, vibrational IR (via AM1 and DFT-B3LYP) and Raman spectra (via DFT-B3LYP) of a series of functionalized coronene molecules. As results, we obtain some useful data for the analysis of IR and Raman spectra of GO, which facilitate the understanding and identification of the peaks found in the experiment. Finally, we suggest a new model to study GO, producing an accurate signature when compared to our experimental data. Such molecule shows in more details of the structural effects caused by functionalization when compared to experimental data.

  8. Critical manifold of the Potts model: exact results and homogeneity approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F Y; Guo, Wenan

    2012-08-01

    The q-state Potts model has stood at the frontier of research in statistical mechanics for many years. In the absence of a closed-form solution, much of the past effort has focused on locating its critical manifold, trajectory in the parameter (q,e(J)) space where J is the reduced interaction, along which the free energy is singular. However, except in isolated cases, antiferromagnetic (AF) models with JPotts model with AF interactions focusing on obtaining its critical manifold in exact and/or closed-form expressions. We first reexamine the known critical frontiers in light of AF interactions. For the square lattice we confirm the Potts self-dual point to be the sole critical frontier for J>0. We also locate its critical frontier for J0. More generally we consider the centered-triangle (CT) and Union-Jack (UJ) lattices consisting of mixed J and K interactions, and deduce critical manifolds under homogeneity hypotheses. For K = 0 the CT lattice is the diced lattice, and we determine its critical manifold for all J and find q(c) = 3.32472. For K = 0 the UJ lattice is the square lattice and from this we deduce both the J > 0 and J < 0 critical manifolds and q(c) = 3. Our theoretical predictions are compared with recent numerical results.

  9. Euclid Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument concept and first test results obtained for different breadboards models at the end of phase C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciaszek, Thierry; Ealet, Anne; Jahnke, Knud;

    2016-01-01

    subsystem consisting of a Silicon carbide structure, an optical assembly (corrector and camera lens), a filter wheel mechanism, a grism wheel mechanism, a calibration unit and a thermal control system - a detection subsystem based on a mosaic of 16 HAWAII2RG cooled to 95K with their front-end readout...... electronic cooled to 140K, integrated on a mechanical focal plane structure made with molybdenum and aluminum. The detection subsystem is mounted on the optomechanical subsystem structure - a warm electronic subsystem (280K) composed of a data processing / detector control unit and of an instrument control...... unit that interfaces with the spacecraft via a 1553 bus for command and control and via Spacewire links for science data This presentation describes the architecture of the instrument at the end of the phase C (Detailed Design Review), the expected performance, the technological key challenges...

  10. Euclid Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument concept and first test results obtained for different breadboards models at the end of phase C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciaszek, Thierry; Ealet, Anne; Jahnke, Knud

    2016-01-01

    The Euclid mission objective is to understand why the expansion of the Universe is accelerating through by mapping the geometry of the dark Universe by investigating the distance-redshift relationship and tracing the evolution of cosmic structures. The Euclid project is part of ESA's Cosmic Visio...

  11. Towards more accurate isoscapes encouraging results from wine, water and marijuana data/model and model/model comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Cerling, T.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how the biosphere responds to change it at the heart of biogeochemistry, ecology, and other Earth sciences. The dramatic increase in human population and technological capacity over the past 200 years or so has resulted in numerous, simultaneous changes to biosphere structure and function. This, then, has lead to increased urgency in the scientific community to try to understand how systems have already responded to these changes, and how they might do so in the future. Since all biospheric processes exhibit some patchiness or patterns over space, as well as time, we believe that understanding the dynamic interactions between natural systems and human technological manipulations can be improved if these systems are studied in an explicitly spatial context. We present here results of some of our efforts to model the spatial variation in the stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) of plants over large spatial extents, and how these spatial model predictions compare to spatially explicit data. Stable isotopes trace and record ecological processes and as such, if modeled correctly over Earth's surface allow us insights into changes in biosphere states and processes across spatial scales. The data-model comparisons show good agreement, in spite of the remaining uncertainties (e.g., plant source water isotopic composition). For example, inter-annual changes in climate are recorded in wine stable isotope ratios. Also, a much simpler model of leaf water enrichment driven with spatially continuous global rasters of precipitation and climate normals largely agrees with complex GCM modeling that includes leaf water δ18O. Our results suggest that modeling plant stable isotope ratios across large spatial extents may be done with reasonable accuracy, including over time. These spatial maps, or isoscapes, can now be utilized to help understand spatially distributed data, as well as to help guide future studies designed to understand ecological change across

  12. Resultados del LASIK miópico en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Results of myopic LASIK obtained at “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Lantigua Maldonado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar los resultados y la estabilidad del LASIK miópico realizado en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y comparativo. El universo estuvo compuesto por los pacientes operados mediante LASIK (4 011 ojos desde el inicio en nuestro centro (2005 de la cirugía refractiva corneal con láser de excímeros. Se seleccionaron los pacientes con estudios realizados un año después de la cirugía. Las variables estudiadas fueron queratometría, mejor agudeza visual sin corrección, mejor agudeza visual con corrección, equivalente esférico, paquimetría y topografía. Se compararon las variables antes de la cirugía y al año de esta. Los resultados se analizaron mediante la prueba t de Student para datos pareados con significación estadística cuando pObjective: To evaluate the results and the stability of the myopic Lasik carried out in “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology. Methods: A prospective, descriptive and comparative study was conducted. The universe of study was made up of the patients operated on by LASIK (4011 eyes from the beginning of the corneal refractive surgery with excimer laser in our center in 2005. The patients were selected from those that had been studied for ametropy correction one year after the surgery. The studied variables were keratometry, better visual acuity without correction, better visual acuity with correction, spherical equivalent, pachymetry and topography, and the obtained results were compared before and at one year of the surgery. The paired T test served to analyze the results with statistical significance of p < 0.05. Results: Significant changes took place in keratometry and spherical equivalent that brought about improved visual acuity without correction for distance vision. The best visual acuity with correction remained the same before and after the surgery. Pachymetry remained within safe

  13. Femtosecond pulse laser ablation of chromium: experimental results and two-temperature model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghebfar, M.; Tehrani, M. K.; Darbani, S. M. R.; Majd, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the results of experimental and computational single- and multi-shot ablation threshold and the incubation effect of chromium metal sample, irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses, are presented. The experimental value of the ablation threshold is determined based on D2 method by measuring the outer ablation crater diameters as a function of incident laser pulse energy using 800 nm, 30 fs, laser pulses. The value of 0.19 ± 0.04 (J/cm2 ), is obtained for the single-shot ablation threshold fluence. The experimental results are compared with time-dependent heat flow calculations based on the two-temperature model and the effect of number and separation time of two consecutive laser pulses with the same total fluence is studied for the Cr target. Moreover, the role of pulse width and absorbed fluence in thermal equilibrium time between electrons and lattice is investigated in two-temperature model. The thermal equilibrium between electron and lattice is established after a few picoseconds for low fluences and after a few tens of picoseconds at higher fluences.

  14. Comparison of the LUNA 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be activation results with earlier measurements and model calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Gyurky, Gy; Confortola, F; Costantini, H; Formicola, A; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Corvisiero, P; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Laubenstein, M; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Lozza, V; Marta, M; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the LUNA collaboration has carried out a high precision measurement on the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction cross section with both activation and on-line gamma-detection methods at unprecedented low energies. In this paper the results obtained with the activation method are summarized. The results are compared with previous activation experiments and the zero energy extrapolated astrophysical S factor is determined using different theoretical models.

  15. [Selection of a statistical model for the evaluation of the reliability of the results of toxicological analyses. II. Selection of our statistical model for the evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antczak, K; Wilczyńska, U

    1980-01-01

    Part II presents a statistical model devised by the authors for evaluating toxicological analyses results. The model includes: 1. Establishment of a reference value, basing on our own measurements taken by two independent analytical methods. 2. Selection of laboratories -- basing on the deviation of the obtained values from reference ones. 3. On consideration of variance analysis, t-student's test and differences test, subsequent quality controls and particular laboratories have been evaluated.

  16. Preliminary results of modeling fluid flow in the Hellenic accretionary complex, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufner, S. K.; Huepers, A.; Kopf, A.; Wenzel, F.

    2011-12-01

    Being the fastest growing accretionary complex in the world, the Mediterranean Ridge provides an excellent possibility to study the linkage between tectonic activity and fluid transport processes at convergent plate margins. Abundant mud volcanism provides evidence for mass transfer from depth to the ocean floor. Seismic and bathymetric profiles indicate active deformation in the entire region. We combine seismic data, laboratory measurements of hydrological properties and finite element modeling to characterize fluid migration and fluid pressures in a 2D cross-section perpendicular to the Hellenic trench. The results might give constraints on mass fluxes and mechanics in the upper portion of the Hellenic subduction zone including the up-dip limit of the seismogenic zone. At the Hellenic subduction zone the African plate subducts obliquely toward the northeast beneath the Eurasian lithosphere. The current subduction rate is about 16mm/year. The plate convergence between Africa and Eurasia led to the accretion of a sedimentary prism since approx. 19Ma. The upper part of ocean sediments was scraped off and accreted to the overriding Eurasian plate whereas the lower part was underthrust. Nowadays, in the central part of the Mediterranean Ridge, the prism is pushed over its backstop, because of initiated continent-continent collision, whereas a thick sequence of oceanic sediments still enters the subducting system in the east near the Island of Crete. We used a numerical model of fluid flow to estimate fluid fluxes and fluid pressures in the shallow part of the Hellenic subduction zone. The modeled domain in the present study comprises the accreted sediment section and the underthrust sequence. The wedge geometry is obtained from seismic cross-sections and bathymetric maps. Input into the hydro-geological model include the compaction fluid source, the dehydration source and sediment permeability. The compaction source is obtained from porosity-depth relationships

  17. The Preparation of Microzonation Map of the Gulf of Buyukcekmece using results obtain by Vertical Electrical Sounding Measurements with Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Wave and Microtremor Array Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Okan; Karabulut, Savas; Imre, Nazire; Caglak, Faruk; Yeziz, Hatice; Ozcep, Ferhat

    2013-04-01

    Istanbul is a megacity with 17 million inhabitants. After the 17 August 1999 earthquake, many researchers have focused on the mitigation of earthquake hazards in the Sea of Marmara and its vicinity. If we want to lessen the effects of such an earthquake, we have to learn about three different types of problems which are properties of the earthquake's source, whether of site effect or properties of engineering structures. When İstanbul Metropolitian Municipilaty obtained a World Bank Credit 5 years ago, they had a microzonation report for only a limited area which finished at Har amidere in the western site of Istanbul. Because they will not have any new project, the western side of Haramidere hasn't been studied by any scientist. For this reason, we focused on the Gulf of Buyukcekmece which is located on the western part of Haramidere and suffered in the 1999 earthquake. There are five geological units in the study area such as Bakirkoy formation, Gurpinar formation, Çukurçeşme formation, Güngören formation and Alluvial deposit. We conducted some measurements which are multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW), microtremor array method (MAM) and vertical electrical sounding(VES). The aim of using VES data is to determine bedrock depth, learn whether there is a new fault and learn the electrical properties of each layer of bedrock. The MASW method is so attactive, cheap and fast. According to seismic refraction, it has some advantages that are determining the deeper part of sub-surface, lower velocity layers and velocity contrast. Especially, we use natural sources; MAM methods are more useful method in the city. For all of these purposes, we collected MASW and MAM measurements at 80 sites and VES measurements at 20 sites. As primary results for VES measurements, we determined the bedrock depth by evaluating the VES measurements for the central, eastern and western part of Buyukcekmece Gulf. Bedrock depth is 308 meters in the central and eastern part of

  18. Theoretical investigations on model ternary polypeptides using genetic algorithm-Some new results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Vinita [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Bakhshi, A.K., E-mail: akbakhshi2000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2011-04-28

    Graphical abstract: Model ternary polypeptide chains consisting of glycine, alanine and serine amino acids as repeat units in anti-parallel {beta}-pleated sheet conformation have been theoretically investigated and designed using the genetic algorithm. The optimum solution or the polypeptide chain being searched for using the algorithm is the one having minimum band gap and maximum electronic delocalization in the polypeptide chain. The effects of (i) change of basis set from minimal to double zeta, (ii) change in secondary structure from {beta}-pleated to {alpha}-helical, (iii) presence of solvation shell, and (iv) binding of ions such as H{sup +} and Li{sup +} to the peptide group on the resulting optimum solution as well as on electronic structure and conduction properties of polypeptides have been investigated taking the ab initio Hartree-Fock crystal orbital results as input. The band gap value was also found to decrease in presence of a solvation shell, in presence of cations in the vicinity of the polypeptide chain as well as with the use of an improved basis set. Highlights: {yields} GA has been used for theoretical tailoring of aperiodic ternary polypeptides. {yields} Band gap of polypeptide chain decreases in presence of solvation shell. {yields} Band gap decreases in presence of cations in the vicinity of the chain. {yields} H{sup +} ion acts as a strong electron acceptor than Li{sup +} ion due to smaller size. - Abstract: Using genetic algorithm (GA) model ternary polypeptides containing glycine, alanine and serine in {beta}-pleated conformation have been theoretically investigated. In designing, the criterion to attain the optimum solution at the end of GA run is minimum band gap and maximum delocalization in the polypeptide chain. Ab initio results obtained using Clementi's minimal basis set are used as input. Effects of (i) change of basis set from minimal to double zeta, (ii) change in secondary structure from {beta}-pleated to {alpha

  19. Two-spacecraft observations of reconnection at the magnetopause: Model results and data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, T.; Farrugia, C. J.; Ivanova, V. V.; Semenov, V. S.; Biernat, H. K.; Torbert, R.

    We revisit an example of “quasi-steady” magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause on February 11, 1998, observed by Equator-S and Geotail at the dawnside magnetopause. Phan et al. [Phan, T.D. et al., 2000. Extended magnetic reconnection at the Earth’s magnetopause from detection of bi-directional jets. Nature 404, 848 850.] reported oppositely directed jets at these spacecrafts and inferred a length of the reconnection line of about 38RE. Pinnock et al. [Pinnock, M., Chisham, G., Coleman, I.J., Freeman, M.P., Hairston, M., Villain, J.-P., 2003. The location and rate of dayside reconnection during an interval of southward interplanetary magnetic field. Ann. Geophys. 21, 1467 1482.] used measurements from SuperDARN radars to show that the reconnection electric field was variable. Here we complement this work by obtaining snapshots of the reconnection electric field from the in situ observations. To do this, we apply a reconstruction method based on a model of compressible Petschek-type magnetic reconnection. This independent method uses magnetic field observations as input data to calculate the reconnection electric field. We obtain average values of Erec in the range of 0.4 2.4 mV/m. Further we infer a distance perpendicular to the reconnection line of 0.4 0.6RE. The model results are compared with the two studies mentioned above. It thus appears that while the transfer of momentum for this event is indeed large-scale, the actual rate depends on the time it is measured.

  20. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dal Grande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Methods Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually, included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013. Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013 and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013: directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Results Telephone (landline and mobile coverage in South Australia is very high (97 %. Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4 %, rising from 89.7 % in 2006 to 96.3 % in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431 % over the eight year period from 5.2 % in 2006 to 27.6 % in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of −0.077 in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a