WorldWideScience

Sample records for model results highlight

  1. Overview of NSTX Upgrade initial results and modelling highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, J. E.; Allain, J. P.; Battaglia, D. J.; Bedoya, F.; Bell, R. E.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J. W.; Boyer, M. D.; Crocker, N.; Diallo, A.; Ebrahimi, F.; Ferraro, N.; Fredrickson, E.; Frerichs, H.; Gerhardt, S.; Gorelenkov, N.; Guttenfelder, W.; Heidbrink, W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kriete, D. M.; Kubota, S.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Liu, D.; Lunsford, R.; Mueller, D.; Myers, C. E.; Ono, M.; Park, J.-K.; Podesta, M.; Raman, R.; Reinke, M.; Ren, Y.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schmitz, O.; Scotti, F.; Sechrest, Y.; Skinner, C. H.; Smith, D. R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Yuh, H.; Wang, Z.; Waters, I.; Ahn, J.-W.; Andre, R.; Barchfeld, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bertelli, N.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Brennan, D.; Buttery, R.; Capece, A.; Canal, G.; Canik, J.; Chang, C. S.; Darrow, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Domier, C.; Ethier, S.; Evans, T.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Fonck, R.; Gan, K.; Gates, D.; Goumiri, I.; Gray, T.; Hosea, J.; Humphreys, D.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M. A.; Koel, B.; Kolemen, E.; Ku, S.; La Haye, R. J.; Levinton, F.; Luhmann, N.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; McKee, G.; Meier, E.; Myra, J.; Perkins, R.; Poli, F.; Rhodes, T.; Riquezes, J.; Rowley, C.; Russell, D.; Schuster, E.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Wang, W.; Wirth, B.; Zweben, S. J.

    2017-10-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has undergone a major upgrade, and the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) Project was completed in the summer of 2015. NSTX-U first plasma was subsequently achieved, diagnostic and control systems have been commissioned, the H-mode accessed, magnetic error fields identified and mitigated, and the first physics research campaign carried out. During ten run weeks of operation, NSTX-U surpassed NSTX record pulse-durations and toroidal fields (TF), and high-performance ~1 MA H-mode plasmas comparable to the best of NSTX have been sustained near and slightly above the n  =  1 no-wall stability limit and with H-mode confinement multiplier H98y,2 above 1. Transport and turbulence studies in L-mode plasmas have identified the coexistence of at least two ion-gyro-scale turbulent micro-instabilities near the same radial location but propagating in opposite (i.e. ion and electron diamagnetic) directions. These modes have the characteristics of ion-temperature gradient and micro-tearing modes, respectively, and the role of these modes in contributing to thermal transport is under active investigation. The new second more tangential neutral beam injection was observed to significantly modify the stability of two types of Alfven eigenmodes. Improvements in offline disruption forecasting were made in the areas of identification of rotating MHD modes and other macroscopic instabilities using the disruption event characterization and forecasting code. Lastly, the materials analysis and particle probe was utilized on NSTX-U for the first time and enabled assessments of the correlation between boronized wall conditions and plasma performance. These and other highlights from the first run campaign of NSTX-U are described.

  2. The benchmark aeroelastic models program: Description and highlights of initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Farmer, Moses G.; Durham, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental effort was implemented in aeroelasticity called the Benchmark Models Program. The primary purpose of this program is to provide the necessary data to evaluate computational fluid dynamic codes for aeroelastic analysis. It also focuses on increasing the understanding of the physics of unsteady flows and providing data for empirical design. An overview is given of this program and some results obtained in the initial tests are highlighted. The tests that were completed include measurement of unsteady pressures during flutter of a rigid wing with an NACA 0012 airfoil section and dynamic response measurements of a flexible rectangular wing with a thick circular arc airfoil undergoing shock boundary layer oscillations.

  3. LHC Results Highlights (CLASHEP 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, O

    2015-01-01

    The good performance of the LHC provided enough data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV to allow the experiments to perform very competitive measurements and to expand the knowledge about the fundamental interaction far beyond that from previous colliders. This report summarizes the highlights of the results obtained with these data samples by the four large experiments, covering all the topics of the physics program and focusing on those exploiting the possibilities of the LHC.

  4. ISO: highlights of recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, L.; Salama, A.

    ESA's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) mission, operating in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 240 microns, made over 26000 scientific observations during its 2.5 year operational lifetime. ISO's results broke new ground on all scales. New asteroid counts and improved asteroid thermophysical models augmented important advances in Solar System chemistry to comprise a striking body of results addressing our planetary system. In turn, parallels between the chemical composition of Solar System dust and dust around other stars revealed by the comparison of stellar spectra with cometary spectra, together with results on the incidence and stability of stellar disks, recall the birth of our Solar System and point to fundamental similarities with other star systems. Numerous important facts concerning the chemistry of the ISM have unfolded, such as the ubiquity of water and of the probably-organic carriers of the Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs). The large systematic body of data on galactic stars has permitted fascinating advances in the characterisation of important aspects of stellar evolution. Investigations of nearby normal galaxies complement template specimens of interacting galaxies. These in turn exemplify galaxy evolutionary processes in the early Universe associated with a huge burst of dust-obscured star formation at redshifts of just below one. This global surge of star formation has vital implications for the interpretation and explanation of major components of the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) and for charting the global history of star formation and the relative importance of sources which derive their energy from accretion processes. Representative examples of key aspects of ISO's recent scientific output will be presented, once again affirming ISO's place at the forefront of successful space-borne astronomy missions.

  5. Highlights of Commission 37 Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Giovanni; de Grijs, Richard; Elmegreen, Bruce; Stetson, Peter; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Goodwin, Simon; Geisler, Douglas; Minniti, Dante

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that stars do not form in isolation but result from the fragmentation of molecular clouds, which in turn leads to star cluster formation. Over time, clusters dissolve or are destroyed by interactions with molecular clouds or tidal stripping, and their members become part of the general field population. Star clusters are thus among the basic building blocks of galaxies. In turn, star cluster populations, from young associations and open clusters to old globulars, are powerful tracers of the formation, assembly, and evolutionary history of their parent galaxies. Although their importance (e.g., in mapping out the Milky Way) had been recognised for decades, major progress in this area has only become possible in recent years, both for Galactic and extragalactic cluster populations. Star clusters are the observational foundation for stellar astrophysics and evolution, provide essential tracers of galactic structure, and are unique stellar dynamical environments. Star formation, stellar structure, stellar evolution, and stellar nucleosynthesis continue to benefit and improve tremendously from the study of these systems. Additionally, fundamental quantities such as the initial mass function can be successfully derived from modelling either the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams or the integrated velocity structures of, respectively, resolved and unresolved clusters and cluster populations. Star cluster studies thus span the fields of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysics, while heavily affecting our detailed understanding of the process of star formation in dense environments. This report highlights science results of the last decade in the major fields covered by IAU Commission 37: Star clusters and associations. Instead of focusing on the business meeting - the out-going president presentation can be found here: http://www.sc.eso.org/gcarraro/splinter2015.pdf - this legacy report contains highlights of the most important scientific achievements in

  6. Highlights of Recent Results with Clas

    CERN Document Server

    Burkert, V D

    2005-01-01

    Recent results on the study of the electromagnetic structure of nucleon resonances, the spin structure of proton and neutrons at small and intermediate photon virtualities, and the search for exotic pentaquark baryons are presented.

  7. Highlight Talk: Recent Results from VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, R A; Arlen, T; Aune, T; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Boltuch, D; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cannon, A; Cesarini, A; Ciupik, L; Chow, Y C; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Duke, C; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Finnegan, G; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gall, D; Gillanders, G H; Godambe, S; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Horan, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, P; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Pichel, A; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Theiling, M; Thibadeau, S; Toner, J A; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wagner, R G; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Williams, D A; Wissel, S; Wood, M; Zitzer, B

    2009-01-01

    VERITAS is a state-of-the-art ground-based gamma-ray observatory that operates in the very high-energy (VHE) region of 100 GeV to 50 TeV. The observatory consists of an array of four 12m-diameter imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes located in southern Arizona, USA. The four-telescope array has been fully operational since September 2007, and over the last two years, VERITAS has been operating with high efficiency and with excellent performance. This talk summarizes the recent results from VERITAS, including the discovery of eight new VHE gamma-ray sources.

  8. Recent results and highlights from the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211911; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After a 2-year stop for the upgrade of the detector, since 2015 the ATLAS collaboration has collected data for over 20 fb$^{-1}$ at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy of pp collisions at the LHC. In this talk a summary of recent measurements of Higgs boson properties, BSM Higgs searches and the status with the resonance at 750 GeV will be presented. Also some of most recent SM and electroweak results will be highlighted.

  9. Recent results and highlights from the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Caforio, Davide; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After a 2-year stop for the upgrade of the detector, since 2015 the ATLAS collaboration has collected data for over 20 fb-1 at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy of pp collisions at the LHC. In this talk a summary of recent measurements of Higgs boson properties, BSM Higgs searches and the situation with the resonance at 750 GeV will be presented. Also some of most recent SM and Electroweak results will be highlighted.

  10. Highlights from the 2016 Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, Christiane; Ullrich, Paul A.; Reed, Kevin A.; Zarzycki, Colin M.; Kent, James; Lauritzen, Peter H.; Nair, Ramachandran D.

    2017-04-01

    The 2016 Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP-2016) shed light on the newest modeling techniques for global weather and climate and models with particular focus on the newest non-hydrostatic atmospheric dynamical cores, their physics-dynamics coupling, and variable-resolution aspects. As part of a two-week summer school held in June 2016 at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a main objective of DCMIP-2016 was to establish an open-access database via the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) that hosts DCMIP-2016 simulations for community use from over 12 international modeling groups. In addition, DCMIP-2016 established new atmospheric model test cases of intermediate complexity that incorporated simplified physical parameterizations. The paper presents the results of the three DCMIP-2016 test cases which assess the evolution of an idealized moist baroclinic wave, a tropical cyclone and a supercell. All flow scenarios start from analytically-prescribed moist reference states in gradient-wind and hydrostatic balance which are overlaid by localized perturbations. The simple moisture feedbacks are represented by a warm-rain Kessler-type parameterization without any cloud stage. The tropical cyclone test case also utilizes surface fluxes and turbulent mixing in the boundary layer. The paper highlights the characteristics of the DCMIP-2016 dynamical cores and reveals the impact of the moisture processes on the flow fields over 5-15-day forecast periods. In addition, the coupling between the dynamics, physics and the tracer advection schemes is assessed via a "Terminator" tracer test. The work demonstrates how idealized test cases are part of a model hierarchy that helps distinguish between causes and effects in atmospheric models and their physics-dynamics interplay. This characterizes and informs the design of atmospheric dynamical cores.

  11. Interpretation of Results of Studies Evaluating an Intervention Highlighted in Google Health News: A Cross-Sectional Study of News.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Haneef

    Full Text Available Mass media through the Internet is a powerful means of disseminating medical research. We aimed to determine whether and how the interpretation of research results is misrepresented by the use of "spin" in the health section of Google News. Spin was defined as specific way of reporting, from whatever motive (intentional or unintentional, to emphasize that the beneficial effect of the intervention is greater than that shown by the results.We conducted a cross-sectional study of news highlighted in the health section of US, UK and Canada editions of Google News between July 2013 and January 2014. We searched for news items for 3 days a week (i.e., Monday, Wednesday, and Friday during 6 months and selected a sample of 130 news items reporting a scientific article evaluating the effect of an intervention on human health.In total, 78% of the news did not provide a full reference or electronic link to the scientific article. We found at least one spin in 114 (88% news items and 18 different types of spin in news. These spin were mainly related to misleading reporting (59% such as not reporting adverse events that were reported in the scientific article (25%, misleading interpretation (69% such as claiming a causal effect despite non-randomized study design (49% and overgeneralization/misleading extrapolation (41% of the results such as extrapolating a beneficial effect from an animal study to humans (21%. We also identified some new types of spin such as highlighting a single patient experience for the success of a new treatment instead of focusing on the group results.Interpretation of research results was frequently misrepresented in the health section of Google News. However, we do not know whether these spin were from the scientific articles themselves or added in the news.

  12. Models in physics teaching: an approach to highlight the nature of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho Kneubil, Fabiana

    2016-11-01

    In this work we show an approach based on models, for an usual subject in an introductory physics course, in order to foster discussions on the nature of physical knowledge. The introduction of elements of the nature of knowledge in physics lessons has been emphasised by many educators and one uses the case of metals to show the theoretical and phenomenological dimensions of physics. The discussion is made by means of four questions whose answers cannot be reached neither for theoretical elements nor experimental measurements. Between these two dimensions it is necessary to realise a series of reasoning steps to deepen the comprehension of microscopic concepts, such as electrical resistivity, drift velocity and free electrons. When this approach is highlighted, beyond the physical content, aspects of its nature become explicit and may improve the structuring of knowledge for learners on this subject.

  13. BBG Highlights

    Data.gov (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — BBG Highlights is a monthly summary of the BBG's accomplishments and news and developments affecting the Agency's work. Now, for the first time, this monthly update...

  14. DNA and dispersal models highlight constrained connectivity in a migratory marine megavertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naro-Maciel, Eugenia; Hart, Kristen M.; Cruciata, Rossana; Putman, Nathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Population structure and spatial distribution are fundamentally important fields within ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. To investigate pan-Atlantic connectivity of globally endangered green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from two National Parks in Florida, USA, we applied a multidisciplinary approach comparing genetic analysis and ocean circulation modeling. The Everglades (EP) is a juvenile feeding ground, whereas the Dry Tortugas (DT) is used for courtship, breeding, and feeding by adults and juveniles. We sequenced two mitochondrial segments from 138 turtles sampled there from 2006-2015, and simulated oceanic transport to estimate their origins. Genetic and ocean connectivity data revealed northwestern Atlantic rookeries as the major natal sources, while southern and eastern Atlantic contributions were negligible. However, specific rookery estimates differed between genetic and ocean transport models. The combined analyses suggest that post-hatchling drift via ocean currents poorly explains the distribution of neritic juveniles and adults, but juvenile natal homing and population history likely play important roles. DT and EP were genetically similar to feeding grounds along the southern US coast, but highly differentiated from most other Atlantic groups. Despite expanded mitogenomic analysis and correspondingly increased ability to detect genetic variation, no significant differentiation between DT and EP, or among years, sexes or stages was observed. This first genetic analysis of a North Atlantic green turtle courtship area provides rare data supporting local movements and male philopatry. The study highlights the applications of multidisciplinary approaches for ecological research and conservation.

  15. Living with fibromyalgia: results from the functioning with fibro survey highlight patients' experiences and relationships with health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Angela Golden,1 Yvonne D'Arcy,2 Elizabeth T Masters,3 Andrew Clair3 1NP from Home, LLC, Munds Park, AZ, 2Pain Management and Palliative Care, Suburban Hospital-Johns Hopkins Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 3Pfizer, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain, which can limit patients' physical function and daily activities. FM can be challenging to treat, and the treatment approach could benefit from a greater understanding of patients' perspectives on their condition and their care. Patients with FM participated in an online survey conducted in the USA that sought to identify the symptoms that had the greatest impact on patients' daily lives. The purpose of the survey was to facilitate efforts toward improving care of patients by nurse practitioners, primary care providers, and specialists, in addition to contributing to the development of new outcome measures in both clinical trials and general practice. A total of 1,228 patients with FM completed the survey, responding to specific questions pertaining to symptoms, impact of symptoms, management of FM, and the relationship with health care providers. Chronic pain was identified as the key FM symptom, affecting personal and professional relationships, and restricting physical activity, work, and social commitments. Patients felt that the severity of their condition was underestimated by family, friends, and health care providers. The results of this survey highlight the need for nurse practitioners, primary care providers, and specialists to provide understanding and support to patients as they work together to enable effective diagnosis and management of FM. Keywords: fibromyalgia, pain, survey, impact, support

  16. Group-ICA model order highlights patterns of functional brain connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eAbou Elseoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state networks (RSNs can be reliably and reproducibly detected using independent component analysis (ICA at both individual subject and group levels. Altering ICA dimensionality (model order estimation can have a significant impact on the spatial characteristics of the RSNs as well as their parcellation into sub-networks. Recent evidence from several neuroimaging studies suggests that the human brain has a modular hierarchical organization which resembles the hierarchy depicted by different ICA model orders. We hypothesized that functional connectivity between-group differences measured with ICA might be affected by model order selection. We investigated differences in functional connectivity using so-called dual-regression as a function of ICA model order in a group of unmedicated seasonal affective disorder (SAD patients compared to normal healthy controls. The results showed that the detected disease-related differences in functional connectivity alter as a function of ICA model order. The volume of between-group differences altered significantly as a function of ICA model order reaching maximum at model order 70 (which seems to be an optimal point that conveys the largest between-group difference then stabilized afterwards. Our results show that fine-grained RSNs enable better detection of detailed disease-related functional connectivity changes. However, high model orders show an increased risk of false positives that needs to be overcome. Our findings suggest that multilevel ICA exploration of functional connectivity enables optimization of sensitivity to brain disorders.

  17. Expo Highlights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING; SHAO DA

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 2010 World Expo opened in Shanghai on May 1.While serving as a platform to display the latest global scientific achievements and economic growth,it otters a wonderful opportunity for Chinese culture to be shared with the rest of the world as well.On this occasion,participants from 246 nations and international organizations gathered in Shanghai to create an Expo stage that goes beyond national,ethnic and religious boundaries,and to convey the Expo ideas of "understanding,communication,togetherness and cooperation" to the world.Currently,four highlights of the Expo are available to visitors.

  18. Interpreting predictive maps of disease: highlighting the pitfalls of distribution models in epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A. Wardrop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of spatial modelling to epidemiology has increased significantly over the past decade, delivering enhanced understanding of the environmental and climatic factors affecting disease distributions and providing spatially continuous representations of disease risk (predictive maps. These outputs provide significant information for disease control programmes, allowing spatial targeting and tailored interventions. However, several factors (e.g. sampling protocols or temporal disease spread can influence predictive mapping outputs. This paper proposes a conceptual framework which defines several scenarios and their potential impact on resulting predictive outputs, using simulated data to provide an exemplar. It is vital that researchers recognise these scenarios and their influence on predictive models and their outputs, as a failure to do so may lead to inaccurate interpretation of predictive maps. As long as these considerations are kept in mind, predictive mapping will continue to contribute significantly to epidemiological research and disease control planning.

  19. Habitat modelling predictions highlight seasonal relevance of Marine Protected Areas for marine megafauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C.; Virgili, A.; Pettex, E.; Delavenne, J.; Toison, V.; Blanck, A.; Ridoux, V.

    2017-07-01

    According to the European Union Habitats and Birds Directives, EU Member States must extend the Natura 2000 network to marine ecosystems, through the designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, the initial status of cetacean and seabird communities across European waters is often poorly understood. It is assumed that an MPA is justified where at least 1% of the ;national population; of a species is present during at least part of its biological cycle. The aim of the present work was to use model-based cetacean and seabird distribution to assess the networks of existing Natura 2000 sites and offshore proposed areas of biological interest. The habitat models used here were Generalised Additive Models computed from aerial surveys observational data collected during the winter 2011-2012 and the summer 2012 across the English Channel, Bay of Biscay and north-western Mediterranean Sea. Based on these models, a ratio between species relative abundance predicted within each MPA and the total relative abundance predicted over the French Atlantic or Mediterranean marine regions was computed and compared to the 1% threshold. This assessment was conducted for winter and summer independently, providing information for assessing the relevance of individual MPAs and MPA networks at a seasonal scale. Our results showed that the existing network designed for coastal seabird species was relevant in both marine regions. In contrast, a clear shortfall was identified for offshore seabird species in the Atlantic region and for cetaceans in both regions. Moreover, the size of MPAs appeared to be a crucial feature, with larger MPAs being relevant for more species. Finally, we showed that the proposed large offshore areas of interest would constitute a highly relevant network for all offshore species, with e.g. up to 61% of the Globicephalinae population in the Atlantic French waters being present within these areas.

  20. Highlighting the complexities of a groundwater pilot study during an avian influenza outbreak: Methods, lessons learned, and select contaminant results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E; Kolpin, Dana W; Fields, Chad L; Hladik, Michelle L; Iwanowicz, Luke R

    2017-10-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N2) outbreak in the Midwestern United States (US) in 2015 was historic due to the number of birds and poultry operations impacted and the corresponding economic loss to the poultry industry and was the largest animal health emergency in US history. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with the assistance of several state and federal agencies, aided the response to the outbreak by developing a study to determine the extent of virus transport in the environment. The study goals were to: develop the appropriate sampling methods and protocols for measuring avian influenza virus (AIV) in groundwater, provide the first baseline data on AIV and outbreak- and poultry-related contaminant occurrence and movement into groundwater, and document climatological factors that may have affected both survival and transport of AIV to groundwater during the months of the 2015 outbreak. While site selection was expedient, there were often delays in sample response times due to both relationship building between agencies, groups, and producers and logistical time constraints. This study's design and sampling process highlights the unpredictable nature of disease outbreaks and the corresponding difficulty in environmental sampling of such events. The lessons learned, including field protocols and approaches, can be used to improve future research on AIV in the environment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Highlighting the complexities of a groundwater pilot study during an avian influenza outbreak: Methods, lessons learned, and select contaminant results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fields, Chad L.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke

    2017-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N2) outbreak in the Midwestern United States (US) in 2015 was historic due to the number of birds and poultry operations impacted and the corresponding economic loss to the poultry industry and was the largest animal health emergency in US history. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with the assistance of several state and federal agencies, aided the response to the outbreak by developing a study to determine the extent of virus transport in the environment. The study goals were to: develop the appropriate sampling methods and protocols for measuring avian influenza virus (AIV) in groundwater, provide the first baseline data on AIV and outbreak- and poultry-related contaminant occurrence and movement into groundwater, and document climatological factors that may have affected both survival and transport of AIV to groundwater during the months of the 2015 outbreak. While site selection was expedient, there were often delays in sample response times due to both relationship building between agencies, groups, and producers and logistical time constraints. This study's design and sampling process highlights the unpredictable nature of disease outbreaks and the corresponding difficulty in environmental sampling of such events. The lessons learned, including field protocols and approaches, can be used to improve future research on AIV in the environment.

  2. Highlighting the DNA damage response with ultrashort laser pulses in the near infrared and kinetic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFerrando-May

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the mechanisms governing the response to DNA damage in higher eucaryotes crucially depends on our ability to dissect the temporal and spatial organization of the cellular machinery responsible for maintaining genomic integrity. To achieve this goal, we need experimental tools to inflict DNA lesions with high spatial precision at pre-defined locations, and to visualize the ensuing reactions with adequate temporal resolution. Near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses focused through high-aperture objective lenses of advanced scanning microscopes offer the advantage of inducing DNA damage in a 3D-confined volume of subnuclear dimensions. This high spatial resolution results from the highly nonlinear nature of the excitation process. Here we review recent progress based on the increasing availability of widely tunable and user-friendly technology of ultrafast lasers in the near infrared. We present a critical evaluation of this approach for DNA microdamage as compared to the currently prevalent use of UV or VIS laser irradiation, the latter in combination with photosensitizers. Current and future applications in the field of DNA repair and DNA-damage dependent chromatin dynamics are outlined. Finally, we discuss the requirement for proper simulation and quantitative modeling. We focus in particular on approaches to measure the effect of DNA damage on the mobility of nuclear proteins and consider the pros and cons of frequently used analysis models for FRAP and photoactivation and their applicability to nonlinear photoperturbation experiments.

  3. Highlights from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Highlights of recent results from ATLAS were presented. The data collected to date, the detector and physics performance, and measurements of previously established Standard Model processes were reviewed briefly before summarising the latest ATLAS results in the Brout-Englert-Higgs sector, where big progress has been made in the year since the discovery. Finally, selected prospects for measurements including the data from the HL-LHC luminosity upgrade were presented, for both ATLAS and CMS. Many of the results mentioned are preliminary. These proceedings reflect only a brief summary of the material presented, and the status at the time of the conference is reported.

  4. OPERA HIGHLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Strauss

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The OPERA experiment is a long baseline neutrino oscillation  experiment aimed at observing the νμ → ντ neutrino oscillation in the CERN neutrino to Gran Sasso beamline in the appearance mode by detecting the τ-decay. Here I will summarize the results from the run years 2008–10 with an update on observed rare decay topologies and the results of the neutrino velocity measurements.

  5. STAR Highlights

    OpenAIRE

    Masui, Hiroshi; collaboration, for the STAR

    2011-01-01

    We report selected results from STAR collaboration at RHIC, focusing on jet-hadron and jet-like correlations, quarkonium suppression and collectivity, di-electron spectrum in both p+p and Au+Au, and higher moments of net-protons as well as azimuthal anisotropy from RHIC Beam Energy Scan program.

  6. MAGIC highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Coto, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    The present generation of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) has greatly improved our knowledge on the Very High Energy (VHE) side of our Universe. The MAGIC IACTs operate since 2004 with one telescope and since 2009 as a two telescope stereoscopic system. I will outline a few of our latest and most relevant results: the discovery of pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar at VHE, recently found to extend up to 400 GeV and along the "bridge" of the light curve, the measurement of the Crab nebula spectrum over three decades of energy, the discovery of VHE γ-ray emission from the PWN 3C 58, the very rapid emission of IC 310, in addition to dark matter studies. The results that will be described here and the planned deep observations in the next years will pave the path for the future generation of IACTs.

  7. MAGIC highlights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Coto Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs has greatly improved our knowledge on the Very High Energy (VHE side of our Universe. The MAGIC IACTs operate since 2004 with one telescope and since 2009 as a two telescope stereoscopic system. I will outline a few of our latest and most relevant results: the discovery of pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar at VHE, recently found to extend up to 400 GeV and along the “bridge” of the light curve, the measurement of the Crab nebula spectrum over three decades of energy, the discovery of VHE γ-ray emission from the PWN 3C 58, the very rapid emission of IC 310, in addition to dark matter studies. The results that will be described here and the planned deep observations in the next years will pave the path for the future generation of IACTs.

  8. HAWC highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin-Blicq, Armelle [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Collaboration: HAWC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory was completed and began full operation on March 20, 2015. The detector consists of an array of 300 water tanks, each containing 200 tons of purified water and instrumented with 4 PMTs. Located at an elevation of 4100m a.s.l. near the Sierra Negra volcano in central Mexico, HAWC observes gamma rays in the 0.1-100 TeV range and has a sensitivity to TeV-scale gamma-ray sources an order of magnitude better than previous air-shower arrays. It has 2 sr field-of-view and >90% duty cycle make HAWC an ideal instrument for surveying the high-energy sky. We describe the HAWC detector and its performance characteristics and report initial results from the first months of operation.

  9. Highlights 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This document summarizes a year of activities for the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facilities), this facility serves 31 beamlines that represent 34 end stations that can be run independently. This document is organized into 9 parts. Part 1: 'high resolution and resonance scattering' deals with surface science and magnetism at high pressure, in particular results are presented for samarium and europium chalcogenides. A cross-section of a variety of applications are presented, they range from glass physics to the understanding of thermoelectric materials. Part 2: 'materials sciences' deals with material behaviour under extreme conditions (metallic sulfur above 100 GPa,...) general applications of X-ray diffraction : stress and strain studies, assessment of excess free volume in metallic glasses, or grain nucleation and growth kinetics during solidification. Part 3: 'soft condensed matter'. Part 4: 'structural biology'. Part 5: 'surface and interface science' (at ESRF surfaces and interfaces are studied at about 50% of all beamlines). A study shows the existence of ordered SiGe domains in the interior of the small Ge islands in Si, whereas bulk SiGe alloy is disordered. Other studies shed light on the surprisingly different magnetic behaviour of ultra-thin cobalt and nickel films on a platinum surface. Part 6 : 'X-ray absorption and magnetic scattering'. Many of the studies push the limits of methods using high pressure, high magnetic fields, high and low temperature with absorption and scattering techniques. There are also examples of measurements on the femtosecond time scale using the core-hole clock method and on femto-meter length scale in magnetostriction measurements. Part 7: 'X-ray imaging and optics'. Part 8: 'the X-ray source'. Part 9: 'facts and figures'. (A.C.)

  10. New highlights of phytolith structure and occluded carbon location: 3-D X-ray microscopy and NanoSIMS results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Delhaye, T.; Borshneck, D.; Mazur, J. C.; Reyerson, P.; Santos, G. M.

    2015-02-01

    Phytoliths contain occluded organic compounds called phytC. Recently, phytC content, nature, origin, paleoenvironmental meaning and impact in the global C cycle have been the subject of increasing debate. Inconsistencies were fed by the scarcity of in situ characterizations of phytC in phytoliths. Here we reconstructed at high spatial resolution the 3-D structure of harvested grass short cell (GSC) phytoliths using 3-D X-ray microscopy. While this technique has been widely used for 3-D reconstruction of biological systems it has never been applied in high-resolution mode to silica particles. Simultaneously, we investigated the location of phytC using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Our data evidenced that the silica structure contains micrometric internal cavities. These internal cavities were sometimes observed isolated from the outside. Their opening may be an original feature or may result from a beginning of dissolution of silica during the chemical extraction procedure, mimicking the progressive dissolution process that can happen in natural environments. The phytC that may originally occupy the cavities is thus susceptible to rapid oxidation. It was not detected by the NanoSIMS technique. However, another pool of phytC, continuously distributed in and protected by the silica structure, was observed. Its N/C ratio (0.27) is in agreement with the presence of amino acids. These findings constitute a basis to further characterize the origin, occlusion process, nature and accessibility of phytC, as a prerequisite for assessing its significance in the global C cycle.

  11. New highlights on phytolith structure and occluded carbon location: 3-D X-ray microscopy and NanoSIMS results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Delhaye, T.; Borshneck, D.; Mazur, J. C.; Reyerson, P.; Santos, G. M.

    2014-10-01

    Phytoliths contain occluded organic compounds called phytC. Recently, phytC content, nature, origin, paleoenvironmental meaning and impact in the global C cycle has been the subject of increasing debate. Inconsistencies were fed by the scarcity of in-situ characterization of phytC in phytoliths. Here we reconstructed at high spatial resolution the 3-dimensional (3-D) structure of harvested grass short cell (GSC) phytoliths using 3-D X-ray microscopy. While this technic has been widely used for 3-D reconstruction of biological systems it has never been applied in high resolution mode to silica particles. Simultaneously, we investigated the location of phytC using Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Our data evidenced that the silica structure contains micrometric internal cavities. These internal cavities were sometimes observed isolated from the outside. Their opening may be an original feature or may result from a beginning of dissolution of silica during the chemical extraction procedure, mimicking the progressive dissolution process that can happen in natural environments. The phytC that may originally occupy the cavities is thus susceptible to rapid oxidation. It was not detected by the nanoSIMS technique. To the contrary another pool of phytC, continuously distributed in and protected by the silica structure was evidenced. Its N/C ratio (0.27) is in agreement with the presence of amino acids. These findings allowed to discuss discrepancies in phytC quantification, evaluate phytC accessibility to oxidation, and reassess the paleo-environmental meaning of opaque features observed in phytoliths by natural light (NL) microcopy. They also should help to reappraise the significance of phytC in the global C cycle.

  12. Role of community pharmacists in asthma – Australian research highlighting pathways for future primary care models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting the Australian population. Amongst primary healthcare professionals, pharmacists are the most accessible and this places pharmacists in an excellent position to play a role in the management of asthma. Globally, trials of many community pharmacy-based asthma care models have provided evidence that pharmacist delivered interventions can improve clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes for asthma patients. In Australia, a decade of coordinated research efforts, in various aspects of asthma care, has culminated in the implementation trial of the Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS, a comprehensive disease management model. There has been research investigating asthma medication adherence through data mining, ways in which usual asthma care can be improved. Our research has focused on self-management education, inhaler technique interventions, spirometry trials, interprofessional models of care, and regional trials addressing the particular needs of rural communities. We have determined that inhaler technique education is a necessity and should be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. We have identified this effectiveness of health promotion and health education, conducted within and outside the confines of the pharmacy, in public for a and settings such as schools, and established that this outreach role is particularly well received and increases the opportunity for people with asthma to engage in their asthma management. Our research has identified that asthma patients have needs which pharmacists delivering specialized models of care, can address. There is a lot of evidence for the effectiveness of asthma care by pharmacists, the future must involve integration of this role into primary care.

  13. Pathological features of glycogen storage disease type II highlighted in the knockout mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvoet, A G; Van Hirtum, H; Vermey, M; Van Leenen, D; Van Der Ploeg, A T; Mooi, W J; Reuser, A J

    1999-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII; Pompe's disease) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by lysosomal alpha-glucosidase deficiency. Skeletal muscle weakness is the most conspicuous clinical symptom of patients suffering from GSDII and skeletal muscle also is prominently involved in the knockout mouse model of this disease. Thus far, however, little detailed information has been published on the pathological changes in other mouse tissues. This paper aims to provide these data and gives a record of the clinical course of the mouse model over a 2-year period. Four-month-old affected mice perform worse in a running wheel than their unaffected littermates, but do not yet display other clear signs of disease. The lysosomal glycogen storage, already evident at birth, becomes more severe in time, leading to muscle wasting by 9-10 months of age and then limb girdle weakness and kyphosis. The disease does not markedly shorten the animal's life span despite the serious tissue pathology, which is not limited to heart and skeletal muscle, but is also seen in the smooth muscle of blood vessels and of the respiratory, digestive, and urogenital tracts. In addition, the mice have lysosomal glycogen storage in the liver, kidney, spleen, and salivary gland; in Schwann cells of the peripheral nerves, and in a subset of neurons in the central nervous system. By pathological criteria, the knockout mouse model parallels the human infantile form of GSDII and is attractive for studying the possible reversal of tissue pathology and symptomatology under different therapeutic regimes.

  14. A foam model highlights the differences of the macro- and microrheology of respiratory horse mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Andreas; Torge, Afra; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Wagner, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Native horse mucus is characterized with micro- and macrorheology and compared to hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gel as a model. Both systems show comparable viscoelastic properties on the microscale and for the HEC the macrorheology is in good agreement with the microrheology. For the mucus, the viscoelastic moduli on the macroscale are several orders of magnitude larger than on the microscale. Large amplitude oscillatory shear experiments show that the mucus responds nonlinearly at much smaller deformations than HEC. This behavior fosters the assumption that the mucus has a foam like structure on the microscale compared to the typical mesh like structure of the HEC, a model that is supported by cryogenic-scanning-electron-microscopy (CSEM) images. These images allow also to determine the relative amount of volume that is occupied by the pores and the scaffold. Consequently, we can estimate the elastic modulus of the scaffold. We conclude that this particular foam like microstructure should be considered as a key factor for the transport of particulate matter which plays a central role in mucus function with respect to particle penetration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiscale Vision Model Highlights Spontaneous Glial Calcium Waves Recorded by 2-Photon Imaging in Brain Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Alexey; Mathiesen, Claus; Lauritzen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular glial calcium waves constitute a signaling pathway which can be visualized by fluorescence imaging of cytosolic Ca2+ changes. However, there is a lack of procedures for sensitive and reliable detection of calcium waves in noisy multiphoton imaging data. Here we extend multiscale...... vision model based on the undecimated wavelet transform for detection and extraction of calcium wave events in cerebellar cortex in vivo. In experimental data and validation studies using simulated data, the detection and characterization of glial calcium waves was significantly improved as compared...... a possible interplay between the waves and interneurons and the expanding front of the waves cold take variable forms and sometimes deviated from simple geometrical shapes, being jagged or making curved spurts when occurring near a blood vessel or a location of a previous wave. The calcium waves sprawled...

  16. Could Perinatal Asphyxia Induce a Synaptopathy? New Highlights from an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Herrera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Birth asphyxia also termed perinatal asphyxia is an obstetric complication that strongly affects brain structure and function. Central nervous system is highly susceptible to oxidative damage caused by perinatal asphyxia while activation and maturity of the proper pathways are relevant to avoiding abnormal neural development. Perinatal asphyxia is associated with high morbimortality in term and preterm neonates. Although several studies have demonstrated a variety of biochemical and molecular pathways involved in perinatal asphyxia physiopathology, little is known about the synaptic alterations induced by perinatal asphyxia. Nearly 25% of the newborns who survive perinatal asphyxia develop neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy and certain neurodevelopmental and learning disabilities where synaptic connectivity disturbances may be involved. Accordingly, here we review and discuss the association of possible synaptic dysfunction with perinatal asphyxia on the basis of updated evidence from an experimental model.

  17. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Nordey

    Full Text Available Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  18. Highlighting the impact of aging on type I collagen: label-free investigation using confocal reflectance microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in 3D matrix model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Marie; Roig, Blandine; Terryn, Christine; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Manfait, Michel; Perraut, François; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Koenig, Anne; Piot, Olivier

    2016-02-23

    During aging, alterations of extracellular matrix proteins contribute to various pathological phenotypes. Among these alterations, type I collagen cross-linking and associated glycation products accumulation over time detrimentally affects its physico-chemical properties, leading to alterations of tissue biomechanical stability. Here, different-age collagen 3D matrices using non-destructive and label-free biophotonic techniques were analysed to highlight the impact of collagen I aging on 3D constructs, at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Matrices were prepared with collagens extracted from tail tendons of rats (newborns, young and old adults) to be within the physiological aging process. The data of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy reveal that aging leads to an inhibition of fibril assembly and a resulting decrease of gel density. Investigations by confocal reflectance microscopy highlight poor-fibrillar structures in oldest collagen networks most likely related to the glycation products accumulation. Complementarily, an infrared analysis brings out marked spectral variations in the Amide I profile, specific of the peptidic bond conformation and for carbohydrates vibrations as function of collagen-age. Interestingly, we also highlight an unexpected behavior for newborn collagen, exhibiting poorly-organized networks and microscopic features close to the oldest collagen. These results demonstrate that changes in collagen optical properties are relevant for investigating the incidence of aging in 3D matrix models.

  19. The association of hypertension with periodontitis is highlighted in female adults: results from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yoo-Been; Shin, Myung-Seop; Byun, Jong-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the association of hypertension and high systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with periodontitis in a nationally representative Korean adult population. Total of 14,625 participants of Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) aged over 19 years were cross-sectionally surveyed. Periodontitis was defined as CPI score of 3 or 4. Hypertension was categorized as: normotensive (SBP hypertensive (120 hypertensive (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or taking antihypertensive medication). Multivariate Poisson regression analyses were performed controlling for age, sex, household income, drinking, smoking, physical activity, obesity, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes mellitus. Stratified analyses were performed to identify specific risk groups. Hypertension showed a significant positive association with periodontitis in the fully adjusted model in female adults with a dose-response relationship. This association was highlighted in females aged 30-59 years (prevalence ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.40). The strength of the association was highest in females aged 30-39 years and decreased with increasing age. Among females aged 30-59 years, high-risk groups of this link were lower middle income quartile, never drinker and non-diabetes groups for both pre-hypertension and hypertension. Our data showed that hypertension was associated with periodontitis in Korean female adults independent of known confounders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Bayesian Spatial Model Highlights Distinct Dynamics in Deforestation from Coca and Pastures in an Andean Biodiversity Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Chadid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The loss of tropical forests has continued in recent decades despite wide recognition of their importance to maintaining biodiversity. Here, we examine the conversion of forests to pastures and coca crops (illicit activity on the San Lucas Mountain Range, Colombia for 2002–2007 and 2007–2010. Land use maps and biophysical variables were used as inputs to generate land use and cover change (LUCC models using the DINAMICA EGO software. These analyses revealed a dramatic acceleration of the pace of deforestation in the region, with rates of conversion from forest to pasture doubling from the first to the second period. Altitude, distance to other crops, and distance to rivers were the primary drivers of deforestation. The influence of these drivers, however, differed markedly depending on whether coca cultivation or pastures replaced forest. Conversion to coca was more probable farther from other crops and from settlements. In contrast, proximity to other crops and to settlements increased conversion to pasture. These relationships highlight the different roles of coca and pastures in forest loss, with coca tending to open up new forest frontiers, and pastures tending to consolidate agricultural expansion and urban influence. Large differences between LUCC processes for each period suggest highly dynamic changes, likely associated with shifting underlying causes of deforestation. These changes may relate to shifts in demand for illicit crops, land, or mining products; however, the data to test these hypotheses are currently lacking. More frequent and detailed monitoring is required to guide actions to decrease the loss of forest in this highly vulnerable biodiversity hotspot in the Northern Andes.

  1. Highlights of the optical highlighter fluorescent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G H

    2011-07-01

    The development of super-resolution microscopy techniques using molecular localization, such as photoactivated localization microscopy, fluorescence photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, photoactivated localization microscopy with independent running acquisition and many others, has heightened interest in molecules that will be grouped here into a category referred to as 'optical highlighter' fluorescent proteins. This review will survey many of the advances in development of fluorescent proteins for optically highlighting sub-populations of fluorescently labelled molecules.

  2. I Love My Librarian Award: An Award That Recognizes Great Librarians Also Highlights the Central Role of Libraries in Communities across America. Carnegie Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The Carnegie Corporation of New York/"New York Times" I Love My Librar­ian Award publicizes librarians' abilities to improve their communities, and by highlighting the achievements of the winners, inspire other librarians to boost their own performance. Since the award's creation in 2008, it has helped the public to better understand…

  3. Highlights of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hucht, Karel

    2008-02-01

    Preface Karel A. van der Hucht; Part I. Invited Discourses: Part II. Joint Discussions: 1. Particle acceleration - from Solar System to AGN Marian Karlicky and John C. Brown; 2. Pulsar emission and related phenomena Werner Becker, Janusz A. Gil and Bronislaw Rudak; 3. Solar activity regions and magnetic structure Debi Prasad Choudhary and Michal Sobotka; 4. The ultraviolet universe: Stars from birth to death Ana I. Gomez de Castro and Martin A. Barstow; 5. Calibrating the top of the stellar M-L relationship Claus Leitherer, Anthony F. J. Moat and Joachim Puls; 6. Neutron stars and black holes in star clusters Frederic A. Rasio; 7. The Universe at z > 6 Daniel Schaerer and Andrea Ferrara; 8. Solar and stellar activity cycles Klaus G. Strassmeier and Alexander Kosovichev; 9. Supernovae: One millennium after SN 1006 P. Frank Winkler, Wolfgang Hillebrandt and Brian P. Schmidt; 10. Progress in planetary exploration missions Guy J. Consolmagno; 11. Pre-solar grains as astrophysical tools Anja C. Andersen and John C. Lattanzio; 12. Long wavelength astrophysics T. Joseph W. Lazio and Namir E. Kassim; 13. Exploiting large surveys for galactic astronomy Christopher J. Corbally, Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones, Sunetra Giridhar and Thomas H. Lloyd Evans; 14. Modeling dense stellar systems Alison I. Sills, Ladislav Subr and Simon F. Portegies Zwart; 15. New cosmology results from the Spitzer Space Telescope George Helou and David T. Frayer; 16. Nomenclature, precession and new models in fundamental astronomy Nicole Capitaine, Jan Vondrak & James L. Hilton; 17. Highlights of recent progress in seismology of the Sun and Sun-like stars John W. Leibacher and Michael J. Thompson; Part III. Special Sessions: SpS 1. Large astronomical facilities of the next decade Gerard F. Gilmore and Richard T. Schilizzi; SpS 2. Innovation in teaching and learning astronomy methods Rosa M. Ros and Jay M. Pasachoff; SpS 3. The Virtual Observatory in action: New science, new technology and next

  4. Science Highlights from SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Erick T.

    2017-06-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center DLR to provide infrared and sub-millimeter observing capabilities to the worldwide astronomical community. With a wide range of instruments that cover both imaging and spectroscopy, SOFIA has produced unique scientific results that could not be obtained with a ground-based facility. In this talk, I will describe highlights from a range of areas in astronomy. A particular strength of SOFIA is high resolution spectroscopy. In the mid-infrared, the instrument EXES has enabled velocity-resolved observations of solar system, interstellar, and star forming regions. The heterodyne spectrometer GREAT has been a particularly productive instrument on SOFIA, with high resolution studies of the gas in the interstellar medium. With its extremely high spectral resolution, GREAT has allowed dynamical studies of clouds and their interactions. I will highlight observations that demonstrate the infall of material in star-forming regions. SOFIA can go to where the science is. This mobility is important for localized events such as occultations. Results from the recent Pluto occultation campaign will be discussed.

  5. Science Highlights from VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Staszak, D; Archambault, S; Archer, A; Barnacka, A; Benbow, W; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Buchovecky, M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Christiansen, J L; Ciupik, L; Collins-Hughes, E; Connolly, M P; Coppi, P; Cui, W; Dwarkadas, V V; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Feng, Q; Alonso, M Fernandez; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Flinders, A; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Gyuk, G; Hütten, M; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krause, M; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nguyen, T; Nieto, D; de Bhróithe, A O'Faoláin; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Park, N; Pelassa, V; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Rovero, A C; Santander, M; Schlenstedt, S; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weiner, O M; Weinstein, A; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B

    2015-01-01

    The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is a ground-based array located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona and is one of the world's most sensitive gamma-ray instruments at energies of 85 GeV to $>$30 TeV. VERITAS has a wide scientific reach that includes the study of extragalactic and Galactic objects as well as the search for astrophysical signatures of dark matter and the measurement of cosmic rays. In this paper, we will summarize the current status of the VERITAS observatory and present some of the scientific highlights from the last two years, focusing in particular on those results shown at the 2015 ICRC in The Hague, Netherlands.

  6. 1999 NCCS Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jerome (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) is a high-performance scientific computing facility operated, maintained and managed by the Earth and Space Data Computing Division (ESDCD) of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Earth Sciences Directorate. The mission of the NCCS is to advance leading-edge science by providing the best people, computers, and data storage systems to NASA's Earth and space sciences programs and those of other U.S. Government agencies, universities, and private institutions. Among the many computationally demanding Earth science research efforts supported by the NCCS in Fiscal Year 1999 (FY99) are the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission, Earth gravitational model development efforts, the National Weather Service's North American Observing System program, Data Assimilation Office studies, a NASA-sponsored project at the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, a NASA-sponsored microgravity project conducted by researchers at the City University of New York and the University of Pennsylvania, the completion of a satellite-derived global climate data set, simulations of a new geodynamo model, and studies of Earth's torque. This document presents highlights of these research efforts and an overview of the NCCS, its facilities, and its people.

  7. Highlighting pitfalls in the Maxwell-Stefan modeling of water-alcohol mixture permeation across pervaporation membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Maxwell-Stefan (M-S) equations are widely used for modeling permeation of water-alcohol mixtures across microporous membranes in pervaporation and dehydration process applications. For binary mixtures, for example, the following set of assumptions is commonly invoked, either explicitly or

  8. A conceptual model of geological risk in the Ischia Island (Italy): highlights on volcanic history, seismicity and flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, Stefano; Cubellis, Elena; Iannuzzi, Raffaello; Luongo, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    During the last eight centuries the island of Ischia was hit by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and floods producing heavy damages and numerous fatalities. Since the last twenty century the Ischia population is grown very fast, nowadays more than 56.000 people live in the island and 4 million of people visit it during the year, thus this area is characterised as an high geological risk territory. The island is here presented as an interesting "laboratory" for volcanic, seismic and hydrogeological risks assessment, from which to draw lessons for planning in risk areas. Ischia is a volcanic field, formed by the succession of effusive and explosive eruptions which formed lavas, welded and loose pyroclastic rocks. The succession of rock layers, with different permeability, promotes, during heavy rainfall, the formation of flows with high kinetic energy, which can produce devastating landslides. In this context, the remarkable development of settlements in the island, occurred in recent times, and the lack of planning that bring attention to the vulnerability of the area, have produced an exponential risk increase. Eruptions, earthquakes, flooding occurred in the island of Ischia in the past, have produced a wealth literature about catastrophic natural events. In general, the accounts of the events were recorded by various means, such as: newspaper, property disputes, historical and sociological analysis, poetic or artistic works, scientific analysis. As regard volcanism, earthquakes, tsunamis, there are myths, legends, historical documents, archaeological findings and results of recent surveys. Documented descriptions of historical eruptive events are only available for the last eruption of 1301-1302, while there are records for eruptive events in the early centuries of the Christian Age. More comprehensive accounts are available about historical seismicity. Information and documentations are available since the 1228 earthquake. However, more detailed and useful

  9. Relationship Marketing results: proposition of a cognitive mapping model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná Futino Barreto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This research sought to develop a cognitive model that expresses how marketing professionals understand the relationship between the constructs that define relationship marketing (RM. It also tried to understand, using the obtained model, how objectives in this field are achieved. Design/methodology/approach – Through cognitive mapping, we traced 35 individual mental maps, highlighting how each respondent understands the interactions between RM elements. Based on the views of these individuals, we established an aggregate mental map. Theoretical foundation – The topic is based on a literature review that explores the RM concept and its main elements. Based on this review, we listed eleven main constructs. Findings – We established an aggregate mental map that represents the RM structural model. Model analysis identified that CLV is understood as the final result of RM. We also observed that the impact of most of the RM elements on CLV is brokered by loyalty. Personalization and quality, on the other hand, proved to be process input elements, and are the ones that most strongly impact others. Finally, we highlight that elements that punish customers are much less effective than elements that benefit them. Contributions - The model was able to insert core elements of RM, but absent from most formal models: CLV and customization. The analysis allowed us to understand the interactions between the RM elements and how the end result of RM (CLV is formed. This understanding improves knowledge on the subject and helps guide, assess and correct actions.

  10. Erythritol Availability in Bovine, Murine and Human Models Highlights a Potential Role for the Host Aldose Reductase during Brucella Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Barbier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythritol is the preferential carbon source for most brucellae, a group of facultative intracellular bacteria that cause a worldwide zoonosis. Since this polyol is abundant in genital organs of ruminants and swine, it is widely accepted that erythritol accounts at least in part for the characteristic genital tropism of brucellae. Nevertheless, proof of erythritol availability and essentiality during Brucella intracellular multiplication has remained elusive. To investigate this relationship, we compared ΔeryH (erythritol-sensitive and thus predicted to be attenuated if erythritol is present, ΔeryA (erythritol-tolerant but showing reduced growth if erythritol is a crucial nutrient and wild type B. abortus in various infection models. This reporting system indicated that erythritol was available but not required for B. abortus multiplication in bovine trophoblasts. However, mice and humans have been considered to lack erythritol, and we found that it was available but not required for B. abortus multiplication in human and murine trophoblastic and macrophage-like cells, and in mouse spleen and conceptus (fetus, placenta and envelopes. Using this animal model, we found that B. abortus infected cells and tissues contained aldose reductase, an enzyme that can account for the production of erythritol from pentose cycle precursors.

  11. Highlights from Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    In these two lectures I will chose some highlights from the Tevatron experiments (CDF/D0) and the Neutrino experiments and then discuss the future direction of physics at Fermilab after the Tevatron collider era.

  12. Highlights, predictions, and changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2012-11-15

    Recent literature highlights at Retrovirology are described. Predictions are made regarding "hot" retrovirology research trends for the coming year based on recent journal access statistics. Changes in Retrovirology editor and the frequency of the Retrovirology Prize are announced.

  13. NSI organization and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Fred

    1991-01-01

    The agenda of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) Users Working Group is given. The NSI project organization is laid out in view graph format. Also given are NSI highlights which are divided into three areas: administration, engineering, and operations.

  14. Interpreting Results from the Multinomial Logit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This article provides guidelines and illustrates practical steps necessary for an analysis of results from the multinomial logit model (MLM). The MLM is a popular model in the strategy literature because it allows researchers to examine strategic choices with multiple outcomes. However, there see...

  15. HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Straessner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC and the two multi-purpose detectors, ATLAS and CMS, have been operated successfully at record centre-of-mass energies of 7 ÷ 8TeV. This paper presents the main physics results from proton–proton collisions based on a total luminosity of 2 × 5 fb−1. The most recent results from Standard Model measurements, Standard Model and MSSM Higgs searches, as well as searches for supersymmetric and exotic particles are reported. Prospects for ongoing and future data taking are presented.

  16. Much damage for little advantage: Field studies and morphodynamic modelling highlight the environmental impact of an apparently minor coastal mismanagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, Roberta; Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Corradi, Nicola; Ferrari, Marco; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2011-09-01

    While coastal management activities have long been known to exert a strong influence on the health of marine ecosystems, neither scientists nor administrators have realized that small interventions may lead to disproportionately larger impacts. This study investigated the broad and long-lasting environmental consequences of the construction of an ill-planned, although small (only 12 m long) jetty for pleasure crafts on the hydrodynamic conditions and on the meadow of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica of an embayed cove in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). There, P. oceanica used to develop on a high (>1.5 m) matte (a lignified terrace causing seafloor elevation) in which the leaves reach the surface and form a compact natural barrier to waves in front of the beach. Such a so-called 'fringing reef' of P. oceanica is today recognized of high ecological value and specific conservation efforts are required. The construction of the jetty implied the cutting of the matte, which directly destroyed part of the fringing reef. In addition, meadow mapping and sedimentological analyses coupled with morphodynamic modelling showed that the ecosystem of the whole cove had been greatly altered by the jetty. We used the geometric planform approach, a proper tool in the study of headland-controlled embayment, both to characterise the present situation of Prelo cove and to simulate the original one, before the jetty was built. In the long term, such a small jetty completely altered the configuration and the hydrodynamic conditions of the whole cove, splitting the original pocket beach into two smaller ones and creating strong rip-currents flowing seaward along the jetty. These rip-currents enhanced erosion of residual shallow portions of the meadow and further modified the sedimentary fluxes in shallow waters. A century after the construction of the jetty, an irreversible environmental damage has occurred, as the slow growing rate of P. oceanica implies that the high matte terrace

  17. Contrasting results from molecular and pedigree-based population diversity measures in captive zebra highlight challenges facing genetic management of zoo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideyuki; Ogden, Rob; Langenhorst, Tanya; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2017-01-01

    Zoo conservation breeding programs manage the retention of population genetic diversity through analysis of pedigree records. The range of demographic and genetic indices determined through pedigree analysis programs allows the conservation of diversity to be monitored relative to the particular founder population for a species. Such approaches are based on a number of well-documented founder assumptions, however without knowledge of actual molecular genetic diversity there is a risk that pedigree-based measures will be misinterpreted and population genetic diversity misunderstood. We examined the genetic diversity of the captive populations of Grevy's zebra, Hartmann's mountain zebra and plains zebra in Japan and the United Kingdom through analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Very low nucleotide variability was observed in Grevy's zebra. The results were evaluated with respect to current and historic diversity in the wild, and indicate that low genetic diversity in the captive population is likely a result of low founder diversity, which in turn suggests relatively low wild genetic diversity prior to recent population declines. Comparison of molecular genetic diversity measures with analogous diversity indices generated from the studbook data for Grevy's zebra and Hartmann's mountain zebra show contrasting patterns, with Grevy's zebra displaying markedly less molecular diversity than mountain zebra, despite studbook analysis indicating that the Grevy's zebra population has substantially more founders, greater effective population size, lower mean kinship, and has suffered less loss of gene diversity. These findings emphasize the need to validate theoretical estimates of genetic diversity in captive breeding programs with empirical molecular genetic data. Zoo Biol. 36:87-94, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The results of a survey highlighting issues with feedback on medical training in the United Kingdom and how a Smartphone App could provide a solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Thomas G; Hood, Gill; Farrell, Tom

    2015-11-06

    Feedback drives learning in medical education. Healthcare Supervision Logbook (HSL) is a Smartphone App developed at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals for providing feedback on medical training, from both a trainee's and a supervisor's perspective. In order to establish a mandate for the role of HSL in clinical practice, a large survey was carried out. Two surveys (one for doctors undertaking specialty training and a second for consultants supervising their training) were designed. The survey for doctors-in-training was distributed to all specialty trainees in the South and West localities of the Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber UK region. The survey for supervisors was distributed to all consultants involved in educational and clinical supervision of specialty trainees at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals. The results confirm that specialty trainees provide feedback on their training infrequently-66 % do so only annually. 96 % of the specialty trainees owned a Smartphone and 45 % said that they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide daily feedback on the clinical and educational supervision they receive. Consultant supervisors do not receive regular feedback on the educational and clinical supervision they provide to trainees-56 % said they never received such feedback and 33 % said it was only on an annual basis. 86 % of consultants surveyed owned a Smartphone and 41 % said they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide feedback on the performance of trainees they were supervising. Feedback on medical training is recorded by specialty trainees infrequently and consultants providing educational and clinical supervision often do not receive any feedback on their performance in this area. HSL is a simple, quick and efficient way to collect and collate feedback on medical training to improve this situation. Good support and education needs to be provided when implementing this new technology.

  19. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  20. Performance results of HESP physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanumolu, Anantha; Thirupathi, Sivarani; Jones, Damien; Giridhar, Sunetra; Grobler, Deon; Jakobsson, Robert

    2017-02-01

    As a continuation to the published work on model based calibration technique with HESP(Hanle Echelle Spectrograph) as a case study, in this paper we present the performance results of the technique. We also describe how the open parameters were chosen in the model for optimization, the glass data accuracy and handling the discrepancies. It is observed through simulations that the discrepancies in glass data can be identified but not quantifiable. So having an accurate glass data is important which is possible to obtain from the glass manufacturers. The model's performance in various aspects is presented using the ThAr calibration frames from HESP during its pre-shipment tests. Accuracy of model predictions and its wave length calibration comparison with conventional empirical fitting, the behaviour of open parameters in optimization, model's ability to track instrumental drifts in the spectrum and the double fibres performance were discussed. It is observed that the optimized model is able to predict to a high accuracy the drifts in the spectrum from environmental fluctuations. It is also observed that the pattern in the spectral drifts across the 2D spectrum which vary from image to image is predictable with the optimized model. We will also discuss the possible science cases where the model can contribute.

  1. Neutrino Experiments Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H T

    2001-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first section presents the highlights on the goals of neutrino physics, status of the current neutrino experiments and future directions and program. The second section describes the theme, program and research efforts for the TEXONO Collaboration among scientists from Taiwan and China.

  2. ATLAS Outreach Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Cheatham, Susan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS outreach team is very active, promoting particle physics to a broad range of audiences including physicists, general public, policy makers, students and teachers, and media. A selection of current outreach activities and new projects will be presented. Recent highlights include the new ATLAS public website and ATLAS Open Data, the very recent public release of 1 fb-1 of ATLAS data.

  3. Highlights, predictions, and changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent literature highlights at Retrovirology are described. Predictions are made regarding “hot” retrovirology research trends for the coming year based on recent journal access statistics. Changes in Retrovirology editor and the frequency of the Retrovirology Prize are announced.

  4. Highlights, predictions, and changes

    OpenAIRE

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recent literature highlights at Retrovirology are described. Predictions are made regarding “hot” retrovirology research trends for the coming year based on recent journal access statistics. Changes in Retrovirology editor and the frequency of the Retrovirology Prize are announced.

  5. Modeling Malaysia's Energy System: Some Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The current dynamic and fragile world energy environment necessitates the development of new energy model that solely caters to analyze Malaysia’s energy scenarios. Approach: The model is a network flow model that traces the flow of energy carriers from its sources (import and mining through some conversion and transformation processes for the production of energy products to final destinations (energy demand sectors. The integration to the economic sectors is done exogeneously by specifying the annual sectoral energy demand levels. The model in turn optimizes the energy variables for a specified objective function to meet those demands. Results: By minimizing the inter temporal petroleum product imports for the crude oil system the annual extraction level of Tapis blend is projected at 579600 barrels per day. The aggregate demand for petroleum products is projected to grow at 2.1% year-1 while motor gasoline and diesel constitute 42 and 38% of the petroleum products demands mix respectively over the 5 year planning period. Petroleum products import is expected to grow at 6.0% year-1. Conclusion: The preliminary results indicate that the model performs as expected. Thus other types of energy carriers such as natural gas, coal and biomass will be added to the energy system for the overall development of Malaysia energy model.

  6. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  7. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  8. Modelling rainfall erosion resulting from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Peter

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion leads to agricultural productivity decline and contributes to water quality decline. The current widely used models for determining soil erosion for management purposes in agriculture focus on long term (~20 years) average annual soil loss and are not well suited to determining variations that occur over short timespans and as a result of climate change. Soil loss resulting from rainfall erosion is directly dependent on the product of runoff and sediment concentration both of which are likely to be influenced by climate change. This presentation demonstrates the capacity of models like the USLE, USLE-M and WEPP to predict variations in runoff and erosion associated with rainfall events eroding bare fallow plots in the USA with a view to modelling rainfall erosion in areas subject to climate change.

  9. Simulation Modeling of Radio Direction Finding Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pelikan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available It is sometimes difficult to determine analytically error probabilities of direction finding results for evaluating algorithms of practical interest. Probalistic simulation models are described in this paper that can be to study error performance of new direction finding systems or to geographical modifications of existing configurations.

  10. ESO Highlights in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As is now the tradition, the European Southern Observatory looks back at the exciting moments of last year. 2008 was in several aspects an exceptionally good year. Over the year, ESO's telescopes provided data for more than 700 scientific publications in refereed journals, making ESO the most productive ground-based observatory in the world. ESO PR Highlights 2008 ESO PR Photo 01a/09 The image above is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2008. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2008 page. Austria signed the agreement to join the other 13 ESO member states (ESO 11/08 and 20/08), while the year marked the 10th anniversary of first light for ESO's "perfect science machine", the Very Large Telescope (ESO 16/08 and 17/08). The ALMA project, for which ESO is the European partner, had a major milestone in December, as the observatory was equipped with its first antenna (ESO 49/08). Also the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope impressed this year with some very impressive and publicly visible results. Highlights came in many fields: Astronomers for instance used the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to discover and image a probable giant planet long sought around the star Beta Pictoris (ESO 42/08). This is now the eighth extrasolar planet to have been imaged since the VLT imaged the first extrasolar planet in 2004 (three of eight were imaged with VLT). The VLT also enabled three students to confirm the nature of a unique planet (ESO 45/08). This extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is a planet about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. The world's foremost planet-hunting instrument, HARPS, located at ESO's La Silla observatory, scored a new first, finding a system of three super-Earths around a star (ESO 19/08). Based on the complete HARPS sample, astronomers now think that one Sun-like star out of three harbours short orbit, low

  11. FY 2016 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-23

    This fact sheet summarizes the research highlights for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) for Fiscal Year 2106. Topics covered include additive manufacturing for the wind industry, biomass-based chemicals substitutions, carbon fiber manufacturing facility siting, geothermal power plant turbines, hydrogen refueling stations, hydropower turbines, LEDs and lighting, light-duty automotive lithium-ion cells, magnetocaloric refrigeration, silicon carbide power electronics for variable frequency motor drives, solar photovoltaics, and wide bandgap semiconductor opportunities in power electronics.

  12. Clinical highlights from Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouke T. Annema

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article contains highlights and a selection of the scientific advances from the Clinical Assembly that were presented at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The most relevant topics for clinicians will be discussed, covering a wide range of areas including interventional pulmonology, rehabilitation and chronic care, thoracic imaging, diffuse and parenchymal lung diseases, and general practice and primary care. In this comprehensive review, exciting novel data will be discussed and put into perspective.

  13. Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H T K

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of neutrino physics research, with highlights on the physics goals, results and interpretations of the current neutrino experiments and future directions and program. It is not meant to be a comprehensive account or detailed review article. Interested readers can pursue the details via the listed references.

  14. The Danish national passenger modelModel specification and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Hansen, Christian Overgaard

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of the new Danish National Passenger model and provides on this basis a general discussion of large-scale model design, cost-damping and model validation. The paper aims at providing three main contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, at the general level......, the paper provides a description of a large-scale forecast model with a discussion of the linkage between population synthesis, demand and assignment. Secondly, the paper gives specific attention to model specification and in particular choice of functional form and cost-damping. Specifically we suggest...... a family of logarithmic spline functions and illustrate how it is applied in the model. Thirdly and finally, we evaluate model sensitivity and performance by evaluating the distance distribution and elasticities. In the paper we present results where the spline-function is compared with more traditional...

  15. CMS standard model Higgs boson results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Abia Pablo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012 CMS announced the discovery of a new boson with properties resembling those of the long-sought Higgs boson. The analysis of the proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb−1 at √s = 7 TeV and 19.6 fb−1 at √s = 8 TeV, confirm the Higgs-like nature of the new boson, with a signal strength associated with vector bosons and fermions consistent with the expectations for a standard model (SM Higgs boson, and spin-parity clearly favouring the scalar nature of the new boson. In this note I review the updated results of the CMS experiment.

  16. Revisiting Runoff Model Calibration: Airborne Snow Observatory Results Allow Improved Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, B. J.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Deterministic snow accumulation and ablation simulation models are widely used by runoff managers throughout the world to predict runoff quantities and timing. Model fitting is typically based on matching modeled runoff volumes and timing with observed flow time series at a few points in the basin. In recent decades, sparse networks of point measurements of the mountain snowpacks have been available to compare with modeled snowpack, but the comparability of results from a snow sensor or course to model polygons of 5 to 50 sq. km is suspect. However, snowpack extent, depth, and derived snow water equivalent have been produced by the NASA/JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) mission for spring of 20013 and 2014 in the Tuolumne River basin above Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. These high-resolution snowpack data have exposed the weakness in a model calibration based on runoff alone. The U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) calibration that was based on 30-years of inflow to Hetch Hetchy produces reasonable inflow results, but modeled spatial snowpack location and water quantity diverged significantly from the weekly measurements made by ASO during the two ablation seasons. The reason is that the PRMS model has many flow paths, storages, and water transfer equations, and a calibrated outflow time series can be right for many wrong reasons. The addition of a detailed knowledge of snow extent and water content constrains the model so that it is a better representation of the actual watershed hydrology. The mechanics of recalibrating PRMS to the ASO measurements will be described, and comparisons in observed versus modeled flow for both a small subbasin and the entire Hetch Hetchy basin will be shown. The recalibrated model provided a bitter fit to the snowmelt recession, a key factor for water managers as they balance declining inflows with demand for power generation and ecosystem releases during the final months of snow melt runoff.

  17. Modeling Malaysia's Energy System: Some Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The current dynamic and fragile world energy environment necessitates the development of new energy model that solely caters to analyze Malaysias energy scenarios. Approach: The model is a network flow model that traces the flow of energy carriers from its sources (import and mining) through some conversion and transformation processes for the production of energy products to final destinations (energy demand sectors). The integration to the economic sectors is done exogene...

  18. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan

  19. Highlight detection for video content analysis through double filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghua; Chen, Hexin; Chen, Mianshu

    2005-07-01

    Highlight detection is a form of video summarization techniques aiming at including the most expressive or attracting parts in the video. Most video highlights selection research work has been performed on sports video, detecting certain objects or events such as goals in soccer video, touch down in football and others. In this paper, we present a highlight detection method for film video. Highlight section in a film video is not like that in sports video that usually has certain objects or events. The methods to determine a highlight part in a film video can exhibit as three aspects: (a) locating obvious audio event, (b) detecting expressive visual content around the obvious audio location, (c) selecting the preferred portion of the extracted audio-visual highlight segments. We define a double filters model to detect the potential highlights in video. First obvious audio location is determined through filtering the obvious audio features, and then we perform the potential visual salience detection around the potential audio highlight location. Finally the production from the audio-visual double filters is compared with a preference threshold to determine the final highlights. The user study results indicate that the double filters detection approach is an effective method for highlight detection for video content analysis.

  20. Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 14th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2010: `The Standard Model of the Universe: Theory and Observations'

    CERN Document Server

    de Vega, H J; Sanchez, N G

    2010-01-01

    The Chalonge 14th Paris Cosmology Colloquium was held on 22-24 July 2010 in Paris Observatory on the Standard Model of the Universe: News from WMAP7, BICEP, QUAD, SPT, AMI, ACT, Planck, QUIJOTE and Herschel; dark matter (DM) searches and galactic observations; related theory and simulations. %aiming synthesis, progress and clarification. P Biermann, D Boyanovsky, A Cooray, C Destri, H de Vega, G Gilmore, S Gottlober, E Komatsu, S McGaugh, A Lasenby, R Rebolo, P Salucci, N Sanchez and A Tikhonov present here their highlights of the Colloquium. Inflection points emerged: LambdaWDM (Warm DM) emerges impressively over LambdaCDM whose galactic scale problems are ever-increasing. Summary and conclusions by H. J. de Vega, M. C. Falvella and N. G. Sanchez stress among other points: (i) Primordial CMB gaussianity is confirmed. Inflation effective theory predicts a tensor to scalar ratio 0.05-0.04 at reach/border line of next CMB observations, early fast-roll inflation provides lowest multipoles depression. SZ amplitud...

  1. Quantitative magnetospheric models: results and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Gombosi, T.; Csem Team

    Global magnetospheric models are indispensable tool that allow multi-point measurements to be put into global context Significant progress is achieved in global MHD modeling of magnetosphere structure and dynamics Medium resolution simulations confirm general topological pictures suggested by Dungey State of the art global models with adaptive grids allow performing simulations with highly resolved magnetopause and magnetotail current sheet Advanced high-resolution models are capable to reproduced transient phenomena such as FTEs associated with formation of flux ropes or plasma bubbles embedded into magnetopause and demonstrate generation of vortices at magnetospheric flanks On the other hand there is still controversy about the global state of the magnetosphere predicted by MHD models to the point of questioning the length of the magnetotail and the location of the reconnection sites within it For example for steady southwards IMF driving condition resistive MHD simulations produce steady configuration with almost stationary near-earth neutral line While there are plenty of observational evidences of periodic loading unloading cycle during long periods of southward IMF Successes and challenges in global modeling of magnetispheric dynamics will be addessed One of the major challenges is to quantify the interaction between large-scale global magnetospheric dynamics and microphysical processes in diffusion regions near reconnection sites Possible solutions to controversies will be discussed

  2. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Division's goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various Laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  3. ARGO-YBJ Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Di Sciascio, G

    2010-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a multipurpose detector exploiting the full-coverage approach at very high altitude. The apparatus is in stable data taking since November 2007 at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm$^2$). In this paper we report the main results in Gamma-Ray Astronomy and Cosmic Ray Physics after about 3 years of operations.

  4. Highlights of Astronomy, Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hucht, Karel

    2007-08-01

    Preface Karel A. van der Hucht; Part I. Invited Discourses: Part II. Joint Discussions: 1. Particle acceleration - from Solar System to AGN Marian Karlicky and John C. Brown; 2. Pulsar emission and related phenomena Werner Becker, Janusz A. Gil and Bronislaw Rudak; 3. Solar activity regions and magnetic structure Debi Prasad Choudhary and Michal Sobotka; 4. The ultraviolet universe: Stars from birth to death Ana I. Gomez de Castro and Martin A. Barstow; 5. Calibrating the top of the stellar M-L relationship Claus Leitherer, Anthony F. J. Moat and Joachim Puls; 6. Neutron stars and black holes in star clusters Frederic A. Rasio; 7. The Universe at z > 6 Daniel Schaerer and Andrea Ferrara; 8. Solar and stellar activity cycles Klaus G. Strassmeier and Alexander Kosovichev; 9. Supernovae: One millennium after SN 1006 P. Frank Winkler, Wolfgang Hillebrandt and Brian P. Schmidt; 10. Progress in planetary exploration missions Guy J. Consolmagno; 11. Pre-solar grains as astrophysical tools Anja C. Andersen and John C. Lattanzio; 12. Long wavelength astrophysics T. Joseph W. Lazio and Namir E. Kassim; 13. Exploiting large surveys for galactic astronomy Christopher J. Corbally, Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones, Sunetra Giridhar and Thomas H. Lloyd Evans; 14. Modeling dense stellar systems Alison I. Sills, Ladislav Subr and Simon F. Portegies Zwart; 15. New cosmology results from the Spitzer Space Telescope George Helou and David T. Frayer; 16. Nomenclature, precession and new models in fundamental astronomy Nicole Capitaine, Jan Vondrak & James L. Hilton; 17. Highlights of recent progress in seismology of the Sun and Sun-like stars John W. Leibacher and Michael J. Thompson; Part III. Special Sessions: SpS 1. Large astronomical facilities of the next decade Gerard F. Gilmore and Richard T. Schilizzi; SpS 2. Innovation in teaching and learning astronomy methods Rosa M. Ros and Jay M. Pasachoff; SpS 3. The Virtual Observatory in action: New science, new technology and next

  5. Sunrise Mission Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Riethmüller, Tino L

    2015-01-01

    Solar activity is controlled by the magnetic field, which also causes the variability of the solar irradiance that in turn is thought to influence the climate on Earth. The magnetic field manifests itself in the form of structures of different sizes, starting with sunspots (10-50 Mm) down to the smallest known magnetic features that often have spatial extents of 100 km or less. The study of the fine scale structure of the Sun's magnetic field has been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of the available observations. This has recently changed thanks to new space and ground-based telescopes. A significant step forward has been taken by the Sunrise observatory, built around the largest solar telescope to leave the ground, and containing two science instruments. Sunrise had two successful long-duration science flights on a stratospheric balloon in June 2009 (solar activity minimum) and in June 2013 (at a high activity level) and a number of scientific results have been obtained that have greatly advanced ...

  6. Modeling clicks beyond the first result page

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most modern web search engines yield a list of documents of a fixed length (usually 10) in response to a user query. The next ten search results are usually available in one click. These documents either replace the current result page or are appended to the end. Hence, in order to examine more

  7. Modeling clicks beyond the first result page

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most modern web search engines yield a list of documents of a fixed length (usually 10) in response to a user query. The next ten search results are usually available in one click. These documents either replace the current result page or are appended to the end. Hence, in order to examine more docu

  8. Engineering model development and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, John A.

    1993-08-01

    The correctability of the primary mirror spherical error in the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC) is sensitive to the precise alignment of the incoming aberrated beam onto the corrective elements. Articulating fold mirrors that provide +/- 1 milliradian of tilt in 2 axes are required to allow for alignment corrections in orbit as part of the fix for the Hubble space telescope. An engineering study was made by Itek Optical Systems and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to investigate replacement of fixed fold mirrors within the existing WF/PC optical bench with articulating mirrors. The study contract developed the base line requirements, established the suitability of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) actuators and evaluated several tilt mechanism concepts. Two engineering model articulating mirrors were produced to demonstrate the function of the tilt mechanism to provide +/- 1 milliradian of tilt, packaging within the space constraints and manufacturing techniques including the machining of the invar tilt mechanism and lightweight glass mirrors. The success of the engineering models led to the follow on design and fabrication of 3 flight mirrors that have been incorporated into the WF/PC to be placed into the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the servicing mission scheduled for late 1993.

  9. Highlights from BNL-RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Tannenbaum, M J

    2012-01-01

    Recent highlights from Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are reviewed and discussed. Topics include: Discovery of the strongly interacting Quark Gluon Plasma (sQGP) in 2005; RHIC machine operation in 2011 as well as latest achievements from the superconducting Magnet Division and the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. Highlights from QGP physics at RHIC include: comparison of new measurements of charged multiplicity in A+A collisions by ALICE at the LHC to previous RHIC measurements; Observation of the anti-alpha particle by the STAR experiment; Collective Flow, including the Triangular Flow discovery and the latest results on v3; the RHIC beam energy scan in search of the QCD critical point. The pioneering use at RHIC of hard-scattering as a probe of the sQGP will also be reviewed and the latest results presented including: jet-quenching via suppression of high pT particles and two particle correlations; new results on fragmentation functions using gamma...

  10. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2007 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report.

  11. Highlights in the study of exoplanet atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Adam S

    2014-09-18

    Exoplanets are now being discovered in profusion. To understand their character, however, we require spectral models and data. These elements of remote sensing can yield temperatures, compositions and even weather patterns, but only if significant improvements in both the parameter retrieval process and measurements are made. Despite heroic efforts to garner constraining data on exoplanet atmospheres and dynamics, reliable interpretation has frequently lagged behind ambition. I summarize the most productive, and at times novel, methods used to probe exoplanet atmospheres; highlight some of the most interesting results obtained; and suggest various broad theoretical topics in which further work could pay significant dividends.

  12. Highlights in the Study of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Exoplanets are now being discovered in profusion. However, to understand their character requires spectral models and data. These elements of remote sensing can yield temperatures, compositions, and even weather patterns, but only if significant improvements in both the parameter retrieval process and measurements are achieved. Despite heroic efforts to garner constraining data on exoplanet atmospheres and dynamics, reliable interpretation has oftimes lagged ambition. I summarize the most productive, and at times novel, methods employed to probe exoplanet atmospheres, highlight some of the most interesting results obtained, and suggest various broad theoretical topics in which further work could pay significant dividends.

  13. HIGHLIGHTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS¥//ZhaxiPuncogprayedwhilehisassistantsplacedneedlesintotheflamingstove.Hethenappliedneedlesto30-oddacupointsonthepa...

  14. Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    BELGIUM ITALY Coordonnateur AGARD VSL • Aeronautica Militare Etat-Major de la Force Airienne Ufficio del Delegato Nazionale all’AGARD Quartier Reine...past ten years. Medico /clinical aspects. - Physiology/psychophysiology aspects. * 33 *- Engineering/crash worthiness aspects. - Life support/escape...aspects. - Medico -legal/pathology aspects. It is anticipated that the audience will be operational staff, both general officers and field grade officers

  15. HIGHLIGHTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEGYI

    2002-01-01

    King Gesar is a focus of study in and outside China. Accomplished scholars include:——Alexandra David-Neel (1868-1969): A noted French expert in Oriental studies, Chinese and Tibetan studies in the 20th century, she visited Tibet and surrounding areas five times for survey. Her treatises and diaries related to the Orient, especially to Tibet and related areas, were translated into many languages and published repeatedly.——Ren Neiqiang (1894-1989): A noted geologist, an expert in ethnic groups and a pioneer in Tibetan studies. From 1939 to 1944, he published his Initial Introduction to "Tibetan Three Kingdoms" and "On the Three Kingdoms" in Border Government Affairs Forum and Kangdao Month.——R.A. Stein (1911-1999): He is held as the most successful Tibetan study worker in France in the 20th century. And he was one of the few who could do research in both Tibetan and Chinese. His contribution to the study of King Gesarfinds expression in his effort to translate the epic.——Wang Yinuan (1907-1998): A

  16. Microplasticity of MMC. Experimental results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, E. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Lormand, G. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Gobin, P.F. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Fougeres, R. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France))

    1993-11-01

    The microplastic behavior of several MMC is investigated by means of tension and compression tests. This behavior is assymetric : the proportional limit is higher in tension than in compression but the work hardening rate is higher in compression. These differences are analysed in terms of maxium of the Tresca's shear stress at the interface (proportional limit) and of the emission of dislocation loops during the cooling (work hardening rate). On another hand, a model is proposed to calculate the value of the yield stress, describing the composite as a material composed of three phases : inclusion, unaffected matrix and matrix surrounding the inclusion having a gradient in the density of the thermally induced dilocations. (orig.).

  17. Highlights in pathogenesis of vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ghada F; Gomaa, Amal Ha; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed Saleh

    2015-03-16

    Vitiligo is a common pigmentary disorder. Many studies across decades and all over the world have attempted to illustrate the pathogenesis behind it; however, the pathogenesis of vitiligo remains elusive. This review article, we present the findings behind the most and updated theories behind this psychologically debilitating and disfiguring disease. The discussion begun with the role of genetic predisposition followed by neural theory first proposed in the 1950s. We highlight the autoimmune hypothesis, followed by the reactive oxygen species model, zinc-α2-glycoprotein deficiency hypothesis, viral theory, intrinsic theory and biochemical, molecular and cellular alterations accounting for loss of functioning melanocytes in vitiligo. Many theories were elaborated to clarify vitiligo pathogenesis. It is a multifactorial disease involving the interplay of several factors. Future research is needed to clarify the interaction of these factors for better understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis and subsequent successful treatment.

  18. Highlights of DAMA/LIBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabei R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The DAMA project develops and uses new/improved low background scintillation detectors to investigate the Dark Matter (DM particle component(s in the galactic halo and rare processes deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS of the I.N.F.N.. Here some highlights of DAMA/LIBRA (Large sodium Iodide Bulk for Rare processes as a unique apparatus in direct DM investigation for its full sensitive mass, target material, intrinsic radio-purity, methodological approach and all the controls performed on the experimental parameters are outlined. The DAMA/LIBRA–phase1 and the former DAMA/NaI data (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton × yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles have reached a model-independent evidence at 9.3 σ C.L. for the presence of DM particles in the galactic halo exploiting the DM annual modulation signature with highly radio-pure NaI(Tl target. Some of the perspectives of the presently running DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 are summarised and the powerful tools offered by a model independent strategy of DM investigation are pointed out.

  19. Highlighting Impact and the Impact of Highlighting: PRB Editors' Suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Associate Editor Manolis Antonoyiannakis discusses the highlighting, as Editors' Suggestions, of a small percentage of the papers published each week. We highlight papers primarily for their importance and impact in their respective fields, or because we find them particularly interesting or elegant. It turns out that the additional layer of scrutiny involved in the selection of papers as Editors' Suggestions is associated with a significantly elevated and sustained citation impact.

  20. RESULTS OF INTERBANK EXCHANGE RATES FORECASTING USING STATE SPACE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of three alternative models for forecasting daily interbank exchange rate of U.S. dollar measured in Pak rupees. The simple ARIMA models and complex models such as GARCH-type models and a state space model are discussed and compared. Four different measures are used to evaluate the forecasting accuracy. The main result is the state space model provides the best performance among all the models.

  1. Challenges with space-time rainfall in urban hydrology highlighted with a semi-distributed model using C-band and X-band radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Rocha Paz, Igor; Ichiba, Abdellah; Skouri-Plakali, Ilektra; Lee, Jisun; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    250 m in space and 3.4 min in time. The obtained results suggest that a proper rainfall data re-normalisation is needed either when comparing gauged rainfall with the radar data, or when quantifying the impacts of space-time variability within hydrological modelling. Then, we used the semi-distributed hydrological model InfoWorks CS operated by Veolia over the Bièvre catchment (Paris region) with the same two types of rainfall data as inputs. We simulated six events and analysed the hydrographs resulted from simulations with both data types to show the impacts of initially different resolutions of rainfall fields over the same catchment, especially in respect to the small-scale variability not measured by the C-band radar data. These results encourage us not only to argue the use of higher resolution rainfall data, compare to that has been so claimed in the literature, but also to emphasise the important role of nonlinear geophysics' methods in taking reliable decisions.

  2. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure.

  3. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  4. Editor's Highlight: Screening ToxCast Prioritized Chemicals for PPARG Function in a Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Model of Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Briana; Doheny, Daniel L; Black, Michael B; Pendse, Salil N; Wetmore, Barbara A; Clewell, Rebecca A; Andersen, Melvin E; Deisenroth, Chad

    2017-01-01

    The developmental origins of obesity hypothesis posits a multifaceted contribution of factors to the fetal origins of obesity and metabolic disease. Adipocyte hyperplasia in gestation and early childhood may result in predisposition for obesity later in life. Rodent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that some chemicals may directly affect adipose progenitor cell differentiation, but the human relevance of these findings is unclear. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is the master regulator of adipogenesis. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) isolated from adipose tissue express endogenous isoforms of PPARG and represent a biologically relevant cell-type for evaluating activity of PPARG ligands. Here, a multi-endpoint approach based on a phenotypic adipogenesis assay was applied to screen a set of 60 chemical compounds identified in ToxCast Phase I as PPARG active (49) or inactive (11). Chemicals showing activity in the adipogenesis screen were further evaluated in a series of 4 orthogonal assays representing 7 different key events in PPARG-dependent adipogenesis, including gene transcription, protein expression, and adipokine secretion. An siRNA screen was also used to evaluate PPARG-dependence of the adipogenesis phenotype. A universal concentration-response design enabled inter-assay comparability and implementation of a weight-of-evidence approach for bioactivity classification. Collectively, a total of 14/49 (29%) prioritized chemicals were identified with moderate-to-strong activity for human adipogenesis. These results provide the first integrated screening approach of prioritized ToxCast chemicals in a human stem cell model of adipogenesis and provide insight into the capacity of PPARG-activating chemicals to modulate early life programming of adipose tissue.

  5. Editor’s Highlight: Screening ToxCast Prioritized Chemicals for PPARG Function in a Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Model of Adipogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Briana; Doheny, Daniel L.; Black, Michael B.; Pendse, Salil N.; Wetmore, Barbara A.; Clewell, Rebecca A.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Deisenroth, Chad

    2017-01-01

    The developmental origins of obesity hypothesis posits a multifaceted contribution of factors to the fetal origins of obesity and metabolic disease. Adipocyte hyperplasia in gestation and early childhood may result in predisposition for obesity later in life. Rodent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that some chemicals may directly affect adipose progenitor cell differentiation, but the human relevance of these findings is unclear. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is the master regulator of adipogenesis. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) isolated from adipose tissue express endogenous isoforms of PPARG and represent a biologically relevant cell-type for evaluating activity of PPARG ligands. Here, a multi-endpoint approach based on a phenotypic adipogenesis assay was applied to screen a set of 60 chemical compounds identified in ToxCast Phase I as PPARG active (49) or inactive (11). Chemicals showing activity in the adipogenesis screen were further evaluated in a series of 4 orthogonal assays representing 7 different key events in PPARG-dependent adipogenesis, including gene transcription, protein expression, and adipokine secretion. An siRNA screen was also used to evaluate PPARG-dependence of the adipogenesis phenotype. A universal concentration-response design enabled inter-assay comparability and implementation of a weight-of-evidence approach for bioactivity classification. Collectively, a total of 14/49 (29%) prioritized chemicals were identified with moderate-to-strong activity for human adipogenesis. These results provide the first integrated screening approach of prioritized ToxCast chemicals in a human stem cell model of adipogenesis and provide insight into the capacity of PPARG-activating chemicals to modulate early life programming of adipose tissue. PMID:27664422

  6. Highlights from the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz Maestre, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the status and some recent results of the CMS experiment at the LHC. The performance of the detector is assessed using a luminosity of $\\approx 5~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ recorded in the first part of the 2017 data-taking period. Run~2 physics studies use data collected at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $36~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. Highlights from studies in the Higgs sector are the first observation of its decay into tau leptons by a single experiment, the most precise measurement of its mass, $\\mathrm{m_H} = 125.26 \\pm 0.21~\\mathrm{GeV}$ and a first search for the $\\mathrm{H}\\to\\mathrm{b\\overline{b}}$ decay in a phase space region that is sensitive to the gluon-fusion production mechanism. In the electroweak sector, CMS provides the currently most precise measurement of the effective weak mixing angle at the LHC: $\\sin\\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff} = 0.23101\\pm 0.00052$, using an integrated luminosity of $\\approx 20~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at $\\sqr...

  7. Tourette syndrome research highlights 2015 [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Richards

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present selected highlights from research that appeared during 2015 on Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Topics include phenomenology, comorbidities, developmental course, genetics, animal models, neuroimaging, electrophysiology, pharmacology, and treatment. We briefly summarize articles whose results we believe may lead to new treatments, additional research or modifications in current models of TS.

  8. Southeast Alaska forests: inventory highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Campbell; Willem W.S. van Hees; Bert. Mead

    2004-01-01

    This publication presents highlights of a recent southeast Alaska inventory and analysis conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (USDA Forest Service). Southeast Alaska has about 22.9 million acres, of which two-thirds are vegetated. Almost 11 million acres are forest land and about 4 million acres have nonforest...

  9. Atmospheric Research 2016 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Divisions goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  10. A Model of DENV-3 Infection That Recapitulates Severe Disease and Highlights the Importance of IFN-γ in Host Resistance to Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadão, Deborah F.; Cisalpino, Daniel; Dias, Ana Carolina F.; Silveira, Kátia D.; Kangussu, Lucas M.; Ávila, Thiago V.; Bonfim, Maria Rosa Q.; Bonaventura, Daniela; Silva, Tarcília A.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; Rachid, Milene A.; Vieira, Leda Q.; Menezes, Gustavo B.; de Paula, Ana Maria; Atrasheuskaya, Alena; Ignatyev, George; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Souza, Danielle G.

    2012-01-01

    There are few animal models of dengue infection, especially in immunocompetent mice. Here, we describe alterations found in adult immunocompetent mice inoculated with an adapted Dengue virus (DENV-3) strain. Infection of mice with the adapted DENV-3 caused inoculum-dependent lethality that was preceded by several hematological and biochemical changes and increased virus dissemination, features consistent with severe disease manifestation in humans. IFN-γ expression increased after DENV-3 infection of WT mice and this was preceded by increase in expression of IL-12 and IL-18. In DENV-3-inoculated IFN-γ−/− mice, there was enhanced lethality, which was preceded by severe disease manifestation and virus replication. Lack of IFN-γ production was associated with diminished NO-synthase 2 (NOS2) expression and higher susceptibility of NOS2−/− mice to DENV-3 infection. Therefore, mechanisms of protection to DENV-3 infection rely on IFN-γ-NOS2-NO-dependent control of viral replication and of disease severity, a pathway showed to be relevant for resistance to DENV infection in other experimental and clinical settings. Thus, the model of DENV-3 infection in immunocompetent mice described here represents a significant advance in animal models of severe dengue disease and may provide an important tool to the elucidation of immunopathogenesis of disease and of protective mechanisms associated with infection. PMID:22666512

  11. A model of DENV-3 infection that recapitulates severe disease and highlights the importance of IFN-γ in host resistance to infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian V Costa

    Full Text Available There are few animal models of dengue infection, especially in immunocompetent mice. Here, we describe alterations found in adult immunocompetent mice inoculated with an adapted Dengue virus (DENV-3 strain. Infection of mice with the adapted DENV-3 caused inoculum-dependent lethality that was preceded by several hematological and biochemical changes and increased virus dissemination, features consistent with severe disease manifestation in humans. IFN-γ expression increased after DENV-3 infection of WT mice and this was preceded by increase in expression of IL-12 and IL-18. In DENV-3-inoculated IFN-γ(-/- mice, there was enhanced lethality, which was preceded by severe disease manifestation and virus replication. Lack of IFN-γ production was associated with diminished NO-synthase 2 (NOS2 expression and higher susceptibility of NOS2(-/- mice to DENV-3 infection. Therefore, mechanisms of protection to DENV-3 infection rely on IFN-γ-NOS2-NO-dependent control of viral replication and of disease severity, a pathway showed to be relevant for resistance to DENV infection in other experimental and clinical settings. Thus, the model of DENV-3 infection in immunocompetent mice described here represents a significant advance in animal models of severe dengue disease and may provide an important tool to the elucidation of immunopathogenesis of disease and of protective mechanisms associated with infection.

  12. A model of DENV-3 infection that recapitulates severe disease and highlights the importance of IFN-γ in host resistance to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vivian V; Fagundes, Caio T; Valadão, Deborah F; Cisalpino, Daniel; Dias, Ana Carolina F; Silveira, Kátia D; Kangussu, Lucas M; Ávila, Thiago V; Bonfim, Maria Rosa Q; Bonaventura, Daniela; Silva, Tarcília A; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Rachid, Milene A; Vieira, Leda Q; Menezes, Gustavo B; de Paula, Ana Maria; Atrasheuskaya, Alena; Ignatyev, George; Teixeira, Mauro M; Souza, Danielle G

    2012-01-01

    There are few animal models of dengue infection, especially in immunocompetent mice. Here, we describe alterations found in adult immunocompetent mice inoculated with an adapted Dengue virus (DENV-3) strain. Infection of mice with the adapted DENV-3 caused inoculum-dependent lethality that was preceded by several hematological and biochemical changes and increased virus dissemination, features consistent with severe disease manifestation in humans. IFN-γ expression increased after DENV-3 infection of WT mice and this was preceded by increase in expression of IL-12 and IL-18. In DENV-3-inoculated IFN-γ(-/-) mice, there was enhanced lethality, which was preceded by severe disease manifestation and virus replication. Lack of IFN-γ production was associated with diminished NO-synthase 2 (NOS2) expression and higher susceptibility of NOS2(-/-) mice to DENV-3 infection. Therefore, mechanisms of protection to DENV-3 infection rely on IFN-γ-NOS2-NO-dependent control of viral replication and of disease severity, a pathway showed to be relevant for resistance to DENV infection in other experimental and clinical settings. Thus, the model of DENV-3 infection in immunocompetent mice described here represents a significant advance in animal models of severe dengue disease and may provide an important tool to the elucidation of immunopathogenesis of disease and of protective mechanisms associated with infection.

  13. Combination of genetics and spatial modelling highlights the sensitivity of cod (Gadus morhua) population diversity in the North Sea to distributions of fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Michael R.; Culling, Mark A.; Crozier, Walter W.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving genetic diversity in animal populations is important for sustaining their ability to respond to environmental change. However, the “between-population” component of genetic diversity (biocomplexity) is threatened in many exploited populations, particularly marine fish, where harvest...... North Sea (Viking) unit by the more widespread (Dogger) unit, and its premature extinction under some spatial patterns of fishing. Fishery catch limits for cod are set at the scale of the whole North Sea without regard to such subpopulation dynamics. Our model offers a method to quantify adjustments...

  14. Some results regarding the comparison of the Earth's atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šegan S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine air densities derived from our realization of aeronomic atmosphere models based on accelerometer measurements from satellites in a low Earth's orbit (LEO. Using the adapted algorithms we derive comparison parameters. The first results concerning the adjustment of the aeronomic models to the total-density model are given.

  15. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  16. Optical highlighter molecules in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandeep Robert; Patterson, George H

    2012-02-01

    The development of advanced optical methods has played a key role in propelling progress in neurobiology. Genetically-encoded fluorescent molecules found in nature have enabled labeling of individual neurons to study their physiology and anatomy. Here we discuss the recent use of both native and synthetic optical highlighter proteins to address key problems in neurobiology, including questions relevant to synaptic function, neuroanatomy, and the organization of neural circuits.

  17. Highlights in pathogenesis of vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Ghada F. Mohammed; Gomaa, Amal HA; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is a common pigmentary disorder. Many studies across decades and all over the world have attempted to illustrate the pathogenesis behind it; however, the pathogenesis of vitiligo remains elusive. This review article, we present the findings behind the most and updated theories behind this psychologically debilitating and disfiguring disease. The discussion begun with the role of genetic predisposition followed by neural theory first proposed in the 1950s. We highlight the autoimmune ...

  18. The Effect of Bathymetric Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results 6. AUTHOR(S) Nathaniel Plant, Kacey L. Edwards, James M. Kaihatu, Jayaram Veeramony, Yuan-Huang L. Hsu...filtering on nearshore process model results Nathaniel G. Plant **, Kacey L Edwardsb, James M. Kaihatuc, Jayaram Veeramony b, Larry Hsu’’, K. Todd Holland...assimilation efforts that require this information. Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Nearshore process models are capable of predicting

  19. Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.

    1999-03-01

    A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

  20. Urinary peptidomics in a rodent model of diabetic nephropathy highlights epidermal growth factor as a biomarker for renal deterioration in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Boris B; Jenks, Sara J; Cronshaw, Andrew D; Lamont, Douglas J; Cairns, Carolynn; Manning, Jonathan R; Goddard, Jane; Webb, David J; Mullins, John J; Hughes, Jeremy; McLachlan, Stela; Strachan, Mark W J; Price, Jackie F; Conway, Bryan R

    2016-05-01

    Many diabetic patients suffer from declining renal function without developing albuminuria. To identify alternative biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy (DN) we performed urinary peptidomic analysis in a rodent model in which hyperglycemia and hypertension synergize to promote renal pathologic changes consistent with human DN. We identified 297 increased and 15 decreased peptides in the urine of rats with DN compared with controls, including peptides derived from proteins associated with DN and novel candidate biomarkers. We confirmed by ELISA that one of the parent proteins, urinary epidermal growth factor (uEGF), was more than 2-fold reduced in rats with DN in comparison with controls. To assess the clinical utility of uEGF we examined renal outcomes in 642 participants from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study who were normoalbuminuric and had preserved renal function at baseline. After adjustment for established renal risk factors, a lower uEGF to creatinine ratio was associated with new-onset estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73m(2) (odds ratio 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.90), rapid (over 5% per annum) decline in renal function (odds ratio 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.72) or the composite of both outcomes (odds ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.62). Thus, the utility of a low uEGF to creatinine ratio as a biomarker of progressive decline in renal function in normoalbuminuric patients should be assessed in additional populations.

  1. Results from a new Cocks-Ashby style porosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    A new porosity evolution model is described, along with preliminary results. The formulation makes use of a Cocks-Ashby style treatment of porosity kinetics that includes rate dependent flow in the mechanics of porosity growth. The porosity model is implemented in a framework that allows for a variety of strength models to be used for the matrix material, including ones with significant changes in rate sensitivity as a function of strain rate. Results of the effect of changing strain rate sensitivity on porosity evolution are shown. The overall constitutive model update involves the coupled solution of a system of nonlinear equations.

  2. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE HIGHLIGHTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights of ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  3. Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pattyn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models that are able to robustly simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison exercise for marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no effects of lateral buttressing. Unique steady state grounding line positions exist for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed, while hysteresis occurs across an overdeepened bed, and stable steady state grounding line positions only occur on the downward-sloping sections. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which does not resolve extensional stresses, do not reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line. For extensional-stress resolving "shelfy stream" models, differences between model results were mainly due to the choice of spatial discretization. Moving grid methods were found to be the most accurate at capturing grounding line evolution, since they track the grounding line explicitly. Adaptive mesh refinement can further improve accuracy, including fixed grid models that generally perform poorly at coarse resolution. Fixed grid models, with nested grid representations of the grounding line, are able to generate accurate steady state positions, but can be inaccurate over transients. Only one full-Stokes model was included in the intercomparison, and consequently the accuracy of shelfy stream models as approximations of full-Stokes models remains to be determined in detail, especially during transients.

  4. Updated Results for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Robert E.; Lai, David Y.; Delisi, Donald P.; Mellman, George R.

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an Inverse Model for inverting aircraft wake vortex data. The objective of the inverse modeling is to obtain estimates of the vortex circulation decay and crosswind vertical profiles, using time history measurements of the lateral and vertical position of aircraft vortices. The Inverse Model performs iterative forward model runs using estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Outputs from an Inverse Model run are the best estimates of the time history of the vortex circulation derived from the observed data, the vertical crosswind profile, and several vortex parameters. The forward model, named SHRAPA, used in this inverse modeling is a modified version of the Shear-APA model, and it is described in Section 2 of this document. Details of the Inverse Model are presented in Section 3. The Inverse Model was applied to lidar-observed vortex data at three airports: FAA acquired data from San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and Denver International Airport (DEN), and NASA acquired data from Memphis International Airport (MEM). The results are compared with observed data. This Inverse Model validation is documented in Section 4. A summary is given in Section 5. A user's guide for the inverse wake vortex model is presented in a separate NorthWest Research Associates technical report (Lai and Delisi, 2007a).

  5. Status and recent highlights from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Van Mulders, Petra Karel Ann

    2016-01-01

    The LHC Run-2 at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV started in 2015. This proceeding highlights some of the physics results based on the collision data collected by the CMS experiment in 2015. In addition, the status and readiness of the experiment for the collisions in 2016 are discussed with concrete examples on the object reconstruction performance.

  6. Generalised Chou-Yang model and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-e-Aleem [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Rashid, H. [Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Centre for High Energy Physics

    1996-12-31

    It is shown that most recent results of E710 and UA4/2 collaboration for the total cross section and {rho} together with earlier measurements give good agreement with measurements for the differential cross section at 546 and 1800 GeV within the framework of Generalised Chou-Yang model. These results are also compared with the predictions of other models. (author) 16 refs.

  7. Life cycle Prognostic Model Development and Initial Application Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, Brien; Hines, Wesley; Nam, Alan; Sharp, Michael; Upadhyaya, Belle [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2014-08-15

    In order to obtain more accurate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) estimates based on empirical modeling, a Lifecycle Prognostics algorithm was developed that integrates various prognostic models. These models can be categorized into three types based on the type of data they process. The application of multiple models takes advantage of the most useful information available as the system or component operates through its lifecycle. The Lifecycle Prognostics is applied to an impeller test bed, and the initial results serve as a proof of concept.

  8. Highlighting inconsistencies regarding metal biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robalds, Artis; Naja, Ghinwa Melodie; Klavins, Maris

    2016-03-01

    Thousands of articles have been devoted to examine different types of biosorbents and their use in cleaning polluted waters. An important objective of some studies has been the identification of the biosorption mechanisms. This type of investigation is not always performed, as it can only be done if scientists are aware of all mechanisms that, at least theoretically, control the removal of the target substances. Mistakes are often made, even in highly cited review articles, where biosorption mechanisms are named and/or grouped. The aim of this article is to highlight errors and inaccuracies as well as to discuss different classification systems of the biosorption mechanisms. This article serves as a guide, as well as a platform for discussion among researchers involved in the investigation of biosorbents, in an effort to avoid reproducing errors in subsequent articles.

  9. ESO PR Highlights in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Last year proved to be another exceptional year for the European organisation for ground-based astronomy. ESO should begin the New Year with two new member states: Spain (PR 05/06) and the Czech Republic (PR 52/06). ESO PR Highlights 2006 2006 was a year of renovation and revolution in the world of planets. A new Earth-like exoplanet has been discovered (PR 03/06) using a network of telescopes from all over the world (including the Danish 1.54-m one at ESO La Silla). It is not the only child of this fruitful year: thanks to the combined use of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and La Silla instruments, a surprising system of twin giant exoplanets was found (PR 29/06), and a trio of Neptune-like planets hosted by a nearby star were identified (PR 18/06). These results open new perspectives on the search for habitable zones and on the understanding of the mechanism of planet formation. The VISIR instrument on the VLT has been providing unique information to answer this last question, by supplying a high resolution view of a planet-forming disc (PR 36/06). There are not only new members in the planets' register: during the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union held in Prague (Czech Republic), it was decided that Pluto is not a planet anymore but a 'dwarf planet'. Whatever its status, Pluto still has a satellite, Charon, whose radius and density have been measured more accurately by observing a rare occultation from different sites, including Cerro Paranal (PR 02/06). The scientific community dedicated 2006 to the great physicist James Clerk Maxwell (it was the 175th anniversary of the birth): without his electromagnetic theory of light, none of the astonishing discoveries of modern physics could have been achieved. Nowadays we can look at distant galaxies in great detail: the GIRAFFE spectrograph on the VLT revealed that galaxies 6 billion years ago had the same amount of dark matter relative to stars than nowadays (PR 10/06), while SINFONI gave an

  10. Highlights on experimental neutrino physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Ernesto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: In the last years a remarkable progress was achieved in a deeper understanding of neutrino sector. Nowadays we know all mixing angles and mass splits which govern the neutrino oscillation phenomena. The parameters of neutrino mixing were measured by combining results of different experimental approaches including accelerator beams, nuclear reactors, radiative decays and astrophysical neutrinos. Nevertheless, there are open questions which can be viewed as key points to consolidate our knowledge on the intrinsic properties of neutrinos such as mass hierarchy and the existence of a CP violation in leptonic sector. To answer these questions and also to improve the precision of the already known mixing parameters, a series of huge experimental efforts are being set up, even in a world-wide scale in some cases. In this presentation I will review the current knowledge of the fundamental properties of neutrinos and the experimental scenario in which we expect, in a time frame of a decade, to find missing pieces in the leptonic sector. The findings can strengthen the foundations of the Standard Model as well as open very interesting paths for new physics. (author)

  11. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario...... of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological obser-vations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observa-tional data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced....... However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties...

  12. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely...... uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble......’ dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent...

  13. Mathematical Existence Results for the Doi-Edwards Polymer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupin, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present some mathematical results on the Doi-Edwards model describing the dynamics of flexible polymers in melts and concentrated solutions. This model, developed in the late 1970s, has been used and extensively tested in modeling and simulation of polymer flows. From a mathematical point of view, the Doi-Edwards model consists in a strong coupling between the Navier-Stokes equations and a highly nonlinear constitutive law. The aim of this article is to provide a rigorous proof of the well-posedness of the Doi-Edwards model, namely that it has a unique regular solution. We also prove, which is generally much more difficult for flows of viscoelastic type, that the solution is global in time in the two dimensional case, without any restriction on the smallness of the data.

  14. Modeling Results for the ITER Cryogenic Fore Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongsheng

    The work presented here is the analysis and modeling of the ITER-Cryogenic Fore Pump (CFP), also called Cryogenic Viscous Compressor (CVC). Unlike common cryopumps that are usually used to create and maintain vacuum, the cryogenic fore pump is designed for ITER to collect and compress hydrogen isotopes during the regeneration process of the torus cryopumps. Different from common cryopumps, the ITER-CFP works in the viscous flow regime. As a result, both adsorption boundary conditions and transport phenomena contribute unique features to the pump performance. In this report, the physical mechanisms of cryopumping are studied, especially the diffusion-adsorption process and these are coupled with the standard equations of species, momentum and energy balance, as well as the equation of state. Numerical models are developed, which include highly coupled non-linear conservation equations of species, momentum, and energy and equation of state. Thermal and kinetic properties are treated as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas fluid mixture. To solve such a set of equations, a novel numerical technique, identified as the Group-Member numerical technique is proposed. This document presents three numerical models: a transient model, a steady state model, and a hemisphere (or molecular flow) model. The first two models are developed based on analysis of the raw experimental data while the third model is developed as a preliminary study. The modeling results are compared with available experiment data for verification. The models can be used for cryopump design, and can also benefit problems, such as loss of vacuum in a cryomodule or cryogenic desublimation. The scientific and engineering investigation being done here builds connections between Mechanical Engineering and other disciplines, such as Chemical Engineering, Physics, and Chemistry.

  15. Comparison of NASCAP modelling results with lumped circuit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, D. B.; Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    Engineering design tools that can be used to predict the development of absolute and differential potentials by realistic spacecraft under geomagnetic substorm conditions are described. Two types of analyses are in use: (1) the NASCAP code, which computes quasistatic charging of geometrically complex objects with multiple surface materials in three dimensions; (2) lumped element equivalent circuit models that are used for analyses of particular spacecraft. The equivalent circuit models require very little computation time, however, they cannot account for effects, such as the formation of potential barriers, that are inherently multidimensional. Steady state potentials of structure and insulation are compared with those resulting from the equivalent circuit model.

  16. The East model: recent results and new progresses

    CERN Document Server

    Faggionato, Alessandra; Roberto, Cyril; Toninelli, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The East model is a particular one dimensional interacting particle system in which certain transitions are forbidden according to some constraints depending on the configuration of the system. As such it has received particular attention in the physics literature as a special case of a more general class of systems referred to as kinetically constrained models, which play a key role in explaining some features of the dynamics of glasses. In this paper we give an extensive overview of recent rigorous results concerning the equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of the East model together with some new improvements.

  17. Constraining hybrid inflation models with WMAP three-year results

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, A

    2006-01-01

    We reconsider the original model of quadratic hybrid inflation in light of the WMAP three-year results and study the possibility of obtaining a spectral index of primordial density perturbations, $n_s$, smaller than one from this model. The original hybrid inflation model naturally predicts $n_s\\geq1$ in the false vacuum dominated regime but it is also possible to have $n_s<1$ when the quadratic term dominates. We therefore investigate whether there is also an intermediate regime compatible with the latest constraints, where the scalar field value during the last 50 e-folds of inflation is less than the Planck scale.

  18. Size from Specular Highlights for Analyzing Droplet Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Westenberg, Michel A.; Grooten, Mart H. M.

    In mechanical engineering, heat-transfer models by dropwise condensation are under development. The condensation process is captured by taking many pictures, which show the formation of droplets, of which the size distribution and area coverage are of interest for model improvement. The current analysis method relies on manual measurements, which is time consuming. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically extract the positions and radii of the droplets from an image. Our method relies on specular highlights that are visible on the surfaces of the droplets. We show that these highlights can be reliably extracted, and that they provide sufficient information to infer the droplet size. The results obtained by our method compare favorably with those obtained by laborious and careful manual measurements. The processing time per image is reduced by two orders of magnitude.

  19. Recent MEG Results and Predictive SO(10) Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuyama, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Recent MEG results of a search for the lepton flavor violating (LFV) muon decay, $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$, show 3 events as the best value for the number of signals in the maximally likelihood fit. Although this result is still far from the evidence/discovery in statistical point of view, it might be a sign of a certain new physics beyond the Standard Model. As has been well-known, supersymmetric (SUSY) models can generate the $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ decay rate within the search reach of the MEG experiment. A certain class of SUSY grand unified theory (GUT) models such as the minimal SUSY SO(10) model (we call this class of models "predictive SO(10) models") can unambiguously determine fermion Yukawa coupling matrices, in particular, the neutrino Dirac Yukawa matrix. Based on the universal boundary conditions for soft SUSY breaking parameters at the GUT scale, we calculate the rate of the $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ process by using the completely determined Dirac Yukawa matrix in two examples of predictive SO(10) models. If we ...

  20. Summary of FY15 results of benchmark modeling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguello, J. Guadalupe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia is participating in the third phase of an is a contributing partner to a U.S.-German "Joint Project" entitled "Comparison of current constitutive models and simulation procedures on the basis of model calculations of the thermo-mechanical behavior and healing of rock salt." The first goal of the project is to check the ability of numerical modeling tools to correctly describe the relevant deformation phenomena in rock salt under various influences. Achieving this goal will lead to increased confidence in the results of numerical simulations related to the secure storage of radioactive wastes in rock salt, thereby enhancing the acceptance of the results. These results may ultimately be used to make various assertions regarding both the stability analysis of an underground repository in salt, during the operating phase, and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier against the release of harmful substances into the biosphere, in the post-operating phase.

  1. Highlights from H.E.S.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Ryan C. G.

    2017-01-01

    In this proceeding, we briefly highlight the contributions to the 6th International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy that were on behalf of the H.E.S.S. Collaboration, with particular focus given to those results shown publicly for the first time at this symposium. Many of these new results were made possible by the improved capabilities of the H.E.S.S. II telescope array, namely its increased sensitivity to γ-rays and lower energy threshold. Other important results capitalized on the very large datasets accumulated by H.E.S.S. I observations over the last 12 years. Prominent highlights cover a diverse range of topics and astronomical objects: the Galactic center, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, shell-type supernova remnants, γ-ray binaries, unidentified sources, flat-spectrum radio quasars, blazars, gamma-ray bursts, fast radio bursts, neutrino event follow-up, and Lorentz invariance violation.

  2. Standard Model physics results from ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dordevic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The most recent results of Standard Model physics studies in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV center-of-mass energy based on data recorded by ATLAS and CMS detectors during the LHC Run I are reviewed. This overview includes studies of vector boson production cross section and properties, results on V+jets production with light and heavy flavours, latest VBS and VBF results, measurement of diboson production with an emphasis on ATGC and QTGC searches, as well as results on inclusive jet cross sections with strong coupling constant measurement and PDF constraints. The outlined results are compared to the prediction of the Standard Model.

  3. ESO PR Highlights in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    2005 was the year of Physics. It was thus also in part the year of astronomy and this is clearly illustrated by the numerous breakthroughs that were achieved, in particular using ESO's telescopes. One of the highlights was without any doubt the confirmation of the first image of an exoplanet , around the star 2M1207 (see ESO PR 12/05). ESO's telescopes also found a Neptune-mass exoplanet around a small star ( PR 30/05) - a discovery that proves crucial in the census of other planetary systems, and imaged a tiny companion in the close vicinity of the star GQ Lupi, a very young object still surrounded by a disc, with an age between 100,000 and 2 million years ( PR 09/05). Moreover, using a new high-contrast adaptive optics camera on the VLT, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI, astronomers were able for the first time to image a companion 120 times fainter than its star , very near the star AB Doradus A. This companion appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be ( PR 02/05). ESO's telescopes proved very useful in helping to solve a 30-year old puzzle . Astronomers have for the first time observed the visible light from a short gamma-ray burst (GRB). Using the 1.5m Danish telescope at La Silla (Chile), they showed that these short, intense bursts of gamma-ray emission most likely originate from the violent collision of two merging neutron stars ( PR 26/05). Additional evidence came from witnessing another event with the VLT ( PR 32/05). Also in this field, astronomers found the farthest known gamma-ray burst with ESO's VLT, observing an object with a redshift 6.3, i.e. that is seen when the Universe was less than 900 million years old ( PR 22/05). On July 4, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface. For two days before and six days after, all major ESO telescopes have been observing the comet, in a coordinated fashion and in

  4. Value of the distant future: Model-independent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that the model-independent account of correlations in an interest rate process or a log-consumption growth process leads to declining long-term tails of discount curves. Under the assumption of an exponentially decaying memory in fluctuations of risk-free real interest rates, I derive the analytical expression for an apt value of the long run discount factor and provide a detailed comparison of the obtained result with the outcome of the benchmark risk-free interest rate models. Utilizing the standard consumption-based model with an isoelastic power utility of the representative economic agent, I derive the non-Markovian generalization of the Ramsey discounting formula. Obtained analytical results allowing simple calibration, may augment the rigorous cost-benefit and regulatory impact analysis of long-term environmental and infrastructure projects.

  5. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - II. Model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In the second part of this two-part article on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, we estimate the number of committed assets in water depth less than 1000 ft that are expected to be marginal over a 60-year time horizon. We compute the expected quantity and value of the production and gross revenue streams of the gulf's committed asset inventory circa. January 2007 using a probabilistic model framework. Cumulative hydrocarbon production from the producing inventory is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas. Marginal production from the committed asset inventory is expected to contribute 4.1% of total oil production and 5.4% of gas production. A meta-evaluation procedure is adapted to present the results of sensitivity analysis. Model results are discussed along with a description of the model framework and limitations of the analysis. (author)

  6. Exact results for car accidents in a traffic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    1998-07-01

    Within the framework of a recent model for car accidents on single-lane highway traffic, we study analytically the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. Exact results are obtained. Various scaling behaviours are observed. The linear dependence of the occurrence of car accidents on density is understood as the dominance of a single velocity in the distribution.

  7. Highlights of LHC experiments – Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, Dave; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The superb performance of the LHC accelerator in 2016, in both live time and peak luminosity, has provided a large data sample of collisions at 13 TeV. Excellent performances of the ATLAS and LHCb detectors, together with highly performant offline and analysis systems, mean that a wealth of results are already available from 13 TeV data. Selected highlights are reported here.

  8. Highlights in mechatronic design approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, Edwin; Stramigioli, Stefano; Zangh, Dan; Wei, Bin

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years a major change in the engineering process of mechatronics and robotics has taken place. In various design oriented laboratories around the world a shift can be recognised from a focus on analysis, simulation and modelling combined with outsourcing hardware design to the use of di

  9. Disjunctive questions, intonation, and highlighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Roelofsen; S. van Gool

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how intonation affects the interpretation of disjunctive questions. The semantic effect of a question is taken to be three-fold. First, it raises an issue. In the tradition of inquisitive semantics, we model this by assuming that a question proposes several possible updates of th

  10. Highlights in mechatronic design approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, Edwin Christian; Stramigioli, Stefano; Zangh, Dan; Wei, Bin

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years a major change in the engineering process of mechatronics and robotics has taken place. In various design oriented laboratories around the world a shift can be recognised from a focus on analysis, simulation and modelling combined with outsourcing hardware design to the use of

  11. Modeling Results For the ITER Cryogenic Fore Pump. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfotenhauer, John M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zhang, Dongsheng [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-03-31

    A numerical model characterizing the operation of a cryogenic fore-pump (CFP) for ITER has been developed at the University of Wisconsin – Madison during the period from March 15, 2011 through June 30, 2014. The purpose of the ITER-CFP is to separate hydrogen isotopes from helium gas, both making up the exhaust components from the ITER reactor. The model explicitly determines the amount of hydrogen that is captured by the supercritical-helium-cooled pump as a function of the inlet temperature of the supercritical helium, its flow rate, and the inlet conditions of the hydrogen gas flow. Furthermore the model computes the location and amount of hydrogen captured in the pump as a function of time. Throughout the model’s development, and as a calibration check for its results, it has been extensively compared with the measurements of a CFP prototype tested at Oak Ridge National Lab. The results of the model demonstrate that the quantity of captured hydrogen is very sensitive to the inlet temperature of the helium coolant on the outside of the cryopump. Furthermore, the model can be utilized to refine those tests, and suggests methods that could be incorporated in the testing to enhance the usefulness of the measured data.

  12. Assessment of Galileo modal test results for mathematical model verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubert, M.

    1984-01-01

    The modal test program for the Galileo Spacecraft was completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the summer of 1983. The multiple sine dwell method was used for the baseline test. The Galileo Spacecraft is a rather complex 2433 kg structure made of a central core on which seven major appendages representing 30 percent of the total mass are attached, resulting in a high modal density structure. The test revealed a strong nonlinearity in several major modes. This nonlinearity discovered in the course of the test necessitated running additional tests at the unusually high response levels of up to about 21 g. The high levels of response were required to obtain a model verification valid at the level of loads for which the spacecraft was designed. Because of the high modal density and the nonlinearity, correlation between the dynamic mathematical model and the test results becomes a difficult task. Significant changes in the pre-test analytical model are necessary to establish confidence in the upgraded analytical model used for the final load verification. This verification, using a test verified model, is required by NASA to fly the Galileo Spacecraft on the Shuttle/Centaur launch vehicle in 1986.

  13. Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-06-15

    Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the /sup 1///sub 5/-scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena.

  14. Physics highlights at ILC and CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukić, Strahinja

    2015-01-01

    In this lecture, the physics potential for the e+e- linear collider experiments ILC and CLIC is reviewed. The experimental conditions are compared to those at hadron colliders and their intrinsic value for precision experiments, complementary to the hadron colliders, is discussed. The detector concepts for ILC and CLIC are outlined in their most important aspects related to the precision physics. Highlights from the physics program and from the benchmark studies are given. It is shown that linear colliders are a promising tool, complementing the LHC in essential ways to test the Standard Model and to search for new physics.

  15. Selected Highlights from Precision Studies in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Hans Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Recent highlights on precision measurements in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector are presented: the production cross section of jets, W and Z bosons, multi-bosons and top quark pairs, as well as single top production. Furthermore, the production of W and Z bosons and top quarks in association with jets is discussed and compared to state-of-art theory calculations. The latest measurements of the top quark mass and other properties, together with Standard Model parameters, will be reviewed.

  16. Initial CGE Model Results Summary Exogenous and Endogenous Variables Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The following discussion presents initial results of tests of the most recent version of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of this is to test and assess the model’s behavioral properties. The test evaluated whether the predicted impacts are reasonable from a qualitative perspective. This issue is whether the predicted change, be it an increase or decrease in other model variables, is consistent with prior economic intuition and expectations about the predicted change. One of the purposes of this effort is to determine whether model changes are needed in order to improve its behavior qualitatively and quantitatively.

  17. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of canine histiocytic sarcoma: A spontaneous model for human histiocytic cancer identifies deletion of tumor suppressor genes and highlights influence of genetic background on tumor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadie Jerome

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histiocytic malignancies in both humans and dogs are rare and poorly understood. While canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS is uncommon in the general domestic dog population, there is a strikingly high incidence in a subset of breeds, suggesting heritable predisposition. Molecular cytogenetic profiling of canine HS in these breeds would serve to reveal recurrent DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs that are breed and/or tumor associated, as well as defining those shared with human HS. This process would identify evolutionarily conserved cytogenetic changes to highlight regions of particular importance to HS biology. Methods Using genome wide array comparative genomic hybridization we assessed CNAs in 104 spontaneously occurring HS from two breeds of dog exhibiting a particularly elevated incidence of this tumor, the Bernese Mountain Dog and Flat-Coated Retriever. Recurrent CNAs were evaluated further by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and loss of heterozygosity analyses. Statistical analyses were performed to identify CNAs associated with tumor location and breed. Results Almost all recurrent CNAs identified in this study were shared between the two breeds, suggesting that they are associated more with the cancer phenotype than with breed. A subset of recurrent genomic imbalances suggested involvement of known cancer associated genes in HS pathogenesis, including deletions of the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A/B, RB1 and PTEN. A small number of aberrations were unique to each breed, implying that they may contribute to the major differences in tumor location evident in these two breeds. The most highly recurrent canine CNAs revealed in this study are evolutionarily conserved with those reported in human histiocytic proliferations, suggesting that human and dog HS share a conserved pathogenesis. Conclusions The breed associated clinical features and DNA copy number aberrations exhibited by canine HS offer a valuable model

  18. Simulating lightning into the RAMS model: implementation and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a tailored version of a previously published methodology, designed to simulate lightning activity, implemented into the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS. The method gives the flash density at the resolution of the RAMS grid-scale allowing for a detailed analysis of the evolution of simulated lightning activity. The system is applied in detail to two case studies occurred over the Lazio Region, in Central Italy. Simulations are compared with the lightning activity detected by the LINET network. The cases refer to two thunderstorms of different intensity. Results show that the model predicts reasonably well both cases and that the lightning activity is well reproduced especially for the most intense case. However, there are errors in timing and positioning of the convection, whose magnitude depends on the case study, which mirrors in timing and positioning errors of the lightning distribution. To assess objectively the performance of the methodology, standard scores are presented for four additional case studies. Scores show the ability of the methodology to simulate the daily lightning activity for different spatial scales and for two different minimum thresholds of flash number density. The performance decreases at finer spatial scales and for higher thresholds. The comparison of simulated and observed lighting activity is an immediate and powerful tool to assess the model ability to reproduce the intensity and the evolution of the convection. This shows the importance of the use of computationally efficient lightning schemes, such as the one described in this paper, in forecast models.

  19. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  20. ESO PR Highlights in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Another great year went by for ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. From 1 January 2007, with the official joining of the Czech Republic, ESO has 13 member states, and since September, ESO has a new Director General, Tim de Zeeuw (ESO 03/07 and 38/07). Many scientific discoveries were made possible with ESO's telescopes. Arguably, the most important is the discovery of the first Earth-like planet in the habitable zone of a low-mass red dwarf (ESO 22/07). If there is water on this planet, then it should be liquid! ESO PR Highlights 2007 This is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2007. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2007 page. In our own Solar System also, astronomers made stunning breakthroughs with ESO's telescopes, observing the effect of the light from the Sun on an asteroid's rotation (ESO 11/07), describing in unprecedented detail the double asteroid Antiope (ESO 18/07), peering at the rings of Uranus (ESO 37/07), discovering a warm south pole on Neptune (ESO 41/07), showing a widespread and persistent morning drizzle of methane over the western foothills of Titan's major continent (ESO 47/07), and studying in the greatest details the wonderful Comet McNaught (ESO 05/07 and 07/07). In the study of objects slightly more massive than planets, the VLT found that brown dwarfs form in a similar manner to normal stars (ESO 24/07). The VLT made it also possible to measure the age of a fossil star that was clearly born at the dawn of time (ESO 23/07). Other discoveries included reconstructing the site of a flare on a solar-like star (ESO 53/07), catching a star smoking (ESO 34/07), revealing a reservoir of dust around an elderly star (ESO 43/07), uncovering a flat, nearly edge-on disc of silicates in the heart of the magnificent Ant Nebula (ESO 42/07), finding material around a star before it exploded (ESO 31/07), fingerprinting the Milky Way (ESO 15/07), revealing a rich

  1. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.; Hakim, V.; Pasquier, V.

    1993-11-01

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices.

  2. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M.R.; Pasquier, V. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Hakim, V. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-12-31

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices. (author).

  3. APPLYING LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL TO THE EXAMINATION RESULTS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary logistic regression model is used to analyze the school examination results(scores of 1002 students. The analysis is performed on the basis of the independent variables viz.gender, medium of instruction, type of schools, category of schools, board of examinations andlocation of schools, where scores or marks are assumed to be dependent variables. The odds ratioanalysis compares the scores obtained in two examinations viz. matriculation and highersecondary.

  4. Analytical results for a three-phase traffic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2003-10-01

    We study analytically a cellular automaton model, which is able to present three different traffic phases on a homogeneous highway. The characteristics displayed in the fundamental diagram can be well discerned by analyzing the evolution of density configurations. Analytical expressions for the traffic flow and shock speed are obtained. The synchronized flow in the intermediate-density region is the result of aggressive driving scheme and determined mainly by the stochastic noise.

  5. Tau and Charm physics highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Roudeau, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    In tau physics, we are at the frontier between the completion of the LEP program and the start of analyses from b-factories, which are expected to produce results in the coming years. Nice results from CLEO are steadily delivered in the meantime. For charm, impressive progress have been achieved by fixed target experiments in the search for CP violation and D^0 - \\bar D^0 oscillations. First results from b-factories demonstrate the power of these facilities in such areas. The novel measurement of the D* width by CLEO happens to be rather different from current expectations. The absence of a charm factory explains the lack or the very slow progress in the absolute scale determinations for charm decays.

  6. Touchstone Stars: Highlights from the Cool Stars 18 Splinter Session

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Andrew W; Boyajian, Tabetha; Gaidos, Eric; von Braun, Kaspar; Feiden, Gregory A; Metcalfe, Travis; Swift, Jonathan J; Curtis, Jason L; Deacon, Niall R; Filippazzo, Joseph C; Gillen, Ed; Hejazi, Neda; Newton, Elisabeth R

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary of the splinter session on "touchstone stars" -- stars with directly measured parameters -- that was organized as part of the Cool Stars 18 conference. We discuss several methods to precisely determine cool star properties such as masses and radii from eclipsing binaries, and radii and effective temperatures from interferometry. We highlight recent results in identifying and measuring parameters for touchstone stars, and ongoing efforts to use touchstone stars to determine parameters for other stars. We conclude by comparing the results of touchstone stars with cool star models, noting some unusual patterns in the differences.

  7. Challenges in validating model results for first year ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Eastwood, Steinar; Xie, Jiping; Aaboe, Signe; Bertino, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the quality of model results for the distribution of first year ice, a comparison with a product based on observations from satellite-borne instruments has been performed. Such a comparison is not straightforward due to the contrasting algorithms that are used in the model product and the remote sensing product. The implementation of the validation is discussed in light of the differences between this set of products, and validation results are presented. The model product is the daily updated 10-day forecast from the Arctic Monitoring and Forecasting Centre in CMEMS. The forecasts are produced with the assimilative ocean prediction system TOPAZ. Presently, observations of sea ice concentration and sea ice drift are introduced in the assimilation step, but data for sea ice thickness and ice age (or roughness) are not included. The model computes the age of the ice by recording and updating the time passed after ice formation as sea ice grows and deteriorates as it is advected inside the model domain. Ice that is younger than 365 days is classified as first year ice. The fraction of first-year ice is recorded as a tracer in each grid cell. The Ocean and Sea Ice Thematic Assembly Centre in CMEMS redistributes a daily product from the EUMETSAT OSI SAF of gridded sea ice conditions which include "ice type", a representation of the separation of regions between those infested by first year ice, and those infested by multi-year ice. The ice type is parameterized based on data for the gradient ratio GR(19,37) from SSMIS observations, and from the ASCAT backscatter parameter. This product also includes information on ambiguity in the processing of the remote sensing data, and the product's confidence level, which have a strong seasonal dependency.

  8. ALICE @ LHC: Status and Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Alberica

    2016-11-01

    ALICE is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. After a two-year long shutdown, the LHC restarted its physics programme in June 2015 with proton-proton collisions at √s = 13 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV, the highest centre-of-mass energy ever reached in laboratory. Recent results and future perspective for ALICE will be presented.

  9. Galactic Archaeology Highlights from RAVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordopatis, G.; RAVE Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) collected from 2003 to 2013 spectra for half a million low-mass stars of our galaxy. The information collected by the project helped to better understand the observed properties of the Milky Way outside the immediate Solar neighborhood and to unravel parts of the history of the evolution of the Galaxy. In this paper we make an overview of the results of RAVE and present some perspectives about future synergies of this project with the Gaia mission.

  10. 2011 Ground Testing Highlights Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Buchholz, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two tests supporting development of the launch abort system for the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle were run in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnel last year. The first test used a fully metric model to examine the stability and controllability of the Launch Abort Vehicle during potential abort scenarios for Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5. The aerodynamic effects of the Abort Motor and Attitude Control Motor plumes were simulated using high-pressure air flowing through independent paths. The aerodynamic effects of the proximity to the launch vehicle during the early moments of an abort were simulated with a remotely actuated Service Module that allowed the position relative to the Crew Module to be varied appropriately. The second test simulated the acoustic environment around the Launch Abort Vehicle caused by the plumes from the 400,000-pound thrust, solid-fueled Abort Motor. To obtain the proper acoustic characteristics of the hot rocket plumes for the flight vehicle, heated Helium was used. A custom Helium supply system was developed for the test consisting of 2 jumbo high-pressure Helium trailers, a twelve-tube accumulator, and a 13MW gas-fired heater borrowed from the Propulsion Simulation Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test provided fluctuating surface pressure measurements at over 200 points on the vehicle surface that have now been used to define the ground-testing requirements for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle.

  11. Results of Satellite Brightness Modeling Using Kringing Optimized Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, C.; Hejduk, M.

    At the 2005 AMOS conference, Kriging Optimized Interpolation (KOI) was presented as a tool to model satellite brightness as a function of phase angle and solar declination angle (J.M Okada and M.D. Hejduk). Since November 2005, this method has been used to support the tasking algorithm for all optical sensors in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The satellite brightness maps generated by the KOI program are compared to each sensor's ability to detect an object as a function of the brightness of the background sky and angular rate of the object. This will determine if the sensor can technically detect an object based on an explicit calculation of the object's probability of detection. In addition, recent upgrades at Ground-Based Electro Optical Deep Space Surveillance Sites (GEODSS) sites have increased the amount and quality of brightness data collected and therefore available for analysis. This in turn has provided enough data to study the modeling process in more detail in order to obtain the most accurate brightness prediction of satellites. Analysis of two years of brightness data gathered from optical sensors and modeled via KOI solutions are outlined in this paper. By comparison, geo-stationary objects (GEO) were tracked less than non-GEO objects but had higher density tracking in phase angle due to artifices of scheduling. A statistically-significant fit to a deterministic model was possible less than half the time in both GEO and non-GEO tracks, showing that a stochastic model must often be used alone to produce brightness results, but such results are nonetheless serviceable. Within the Kriging solution, the exponential variogram model was the most frequently employed in both GEO and non-GEO tracks, indicating that monotonic brightness variation with both phase and solar declination angle is common and testifying to the suitability to the application of regionalized variable theory to this particular problem. Finally, the average nugget value, or

  12. Titan Chemistry: Results From A Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric; West, R. A.; Friedson, A. J.; Oyafuso, F.

    2008-09-01

    We present results from a 3-dimesional global climate model of Titan's atmosphere and surface. This model, a modified version of NCAR's CAM-3 (Community Atmosphere Model), has been optimized for analysis of Titan's lower atmosphere and surface. With the inclusion of forcing from Saturn's gravitational tides, interaction from the surface, transfer of longwave and shortwave radiation, and parameterization of haze properties, constrained by Cassini observations, a dynamical field is generated, which serves to advect 14 long-lived species. The concentrations of these chemical tracers are also affected by 82 chemical reactions and the photolysis of 21 species, based on the Wilson and Atreya (2004) model, that provide sources and sinks for the advected species along with 23 additional non-advected radicals. In addition, the chemical contribution to haze conversion is parameterized along with the microphysical processes that serve to distribute haze opacity throughout the atmosphere. References Wilson, E.H. and S.K. Atreya, J. Geophys. Res., 109, E06002, 2004.

  13. Why Does a Kronecker Model Result in Misleading Capacity Estimates?

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Sayeed, Akbar M

    2008-01-01

    Many recent works that study the performance of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems in practice assume a Kronecker model where the variances of the channel entries, upon decomposition on to the transmit and the receive eigen-bases, admit a separable form. Measurement campaigns, however, show that the Kronecker model results in poor estimates for capacity. Motivated by these observations, a channel model that does not impose a separable structure has been recently proposed and shown to fit the capacity of measured channels better. In this work, we show that this recently proposed modeling framework can be viewed as a natural consequence of channel decomposition on to its canonical coordinates, the transmit and/or the receive eigen-bases. Using tools from random matrix theory, we then establish the theoretical basis behind the Kronecker mismatch at the low- and the high-SNR extremes: 1) Sparsity of the dominant statistical degrees of freedom (DoF) in the true channel at the low-SNR extreme, and 2) Non-regul...

  14. Highlights from Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kimihiro

    2016-11-01

    Recent results from Super-Kamiokande experiment are reviewed in this paper; Neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the lepton sector are investigated via νμ → νe oscillation of the atmospheric neutrinos. The event rate, correlation with solar activity, energy spectrum of the solar neutrinos are measured via electron elastic scattering interactions. Neutrino emission from the WIMP annihilation at the center of the Sun are searched in the GeV energy regions. New project, SK-Gd project, to enhance anti-neutrino identification capability, has been approved inside the collaboration group.

  15. Highlights from Super-Kamiokande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results from Super-Kamiokande experiment are reviewed in this paper; Neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the lepton sector are investigated via νμ → νe oscillation of the atmospheric neutrinos. The event rate, correlation with solar activity, energy spectrum of the solar neutrinos are measured via electron elastic scattering interactions. Neutrino emission from the WIMP annihilation at the center of the Sun are searched in the GeV energy regions. New project, SK-Gd project, to enhance anti-neutrino identification capability, has been approved inside the collaboration group.

  16. New DNS and modeling results for turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Arne; El Khoury, George; Grundestam, Olof; Schlatter, Philipp; Brethouwer, Geert; Linne Flow Centre Team

    2013-11-01

    The near-wall region of turbulent pipe and channel flows (as well as zero-pressure gradient boundary layers) have been shown to exhibit a very high degree of similarity in terms of all statistical moments and many other features, while even the mean velocity profile in the two cases exhibits significant differences between in the outer region. The wake part of the profile, i.e. the deviation from the log-law, in the outer region is of substantially larger amplitude in pipe flow as compared to channel flow (although weaker than in boundary layer flow). This intriguing feature has been well known but has no simple explanation. Model predictions typically give identical results for the two flows. We have analyzed a new set of DNS for pipe and channel flows (el Khoury et al. 2013, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion) for friction Reynolds numbers up to 1000 and made comparing calculations with differential Reynolds stress models (DRSM). We have strong indications that the key factor behind the difference in mean velocity in the outer region can be coupled to differences in the turbulent diffusion in this region. This is also supported by DRSM results, where interesting differences are seen depending on the sophistication of modeling the turbulent diffusion coefficient.

  17. Some Results on Optimal Dividend Problem in Two Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaiqi Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compound Poisson risk model and the compound Poisson risk model perturbed by diffusion are considered in the presence of a dividend barrier with solvency constraints. Moreover, it extends the known result due to [1]. Ref. [1] finds the optimal dividend policy is of a barrier type for a jump-diffusion model with exponentially distributed jumps. In this paper, it turns out that there can be two different solutions depending on the model’s parameters. Furthermore, an interesting result is given: the proportional transaction cost has no effect on the dividend barrier. The objective of the corporation is to maximize the cumulative expected discounted dividends payout with solvency constraints before the time of ruin. It is well known that under some reasonable assumptions, optimal dividend strategy is a barrier strategy, i.e., there is a level b_{1}(b_{2} so that whenever surplus goes above the level b_{1}(b_{2}, the excess is paid out as dividends. However, the optimal level b_{1}(b_{2} may be unacceptably low from a solvency point of view. Therefore, some constraints should imposed on an insurance company such as to pay out dividends unless the surplus has reached a level b^{1}_{c}>b_{1}(b^2_{c}>b_{2} . We show that in this case a barrier strategy at b^{1}_{c}(b^2_{c} is optimal.

  18. Modeling results for the ITER cryogenic fore pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D. S.; Miller, F. K.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The cryogenic fore pump (CFP) is designed for ITER to collect and compress hydrogen isotopes during the regeneration process of torus cryopumps. Different from common cryopumps, the ITER-CFP works in the viscous flow regime. As a result, both adsorption boundary conditions and transport phenomena contribute unique features to the pump performance. In this report, the physical mechanisms of cryopumping are studied, especially the diffusion-adsorption process and these are coupled with standard equations of species, momentum and energy balance, as well as the equation of state. Numerical models are developed, which include highly coupled non-linear conservation equations of species, momentum and energy and equation of state. Thermal and kinetic properties are treated as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition. To solve such a set of equations, a novel numerical technique, identified as the Group-Member numerical technique is proposed. It is presented here a 1D numerical model. The results include comparison with the experimental data of pure hydrogen flow and a prediction for hydrogen flow with trace helium. An advanced 2D model and detailed explanation of the Group-Member technique are to be presented in following papers.

  19. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Gruber Cosmology Prize Lecture; Part II. Invited Discourses; Part III. Joint Discussions: 1. Dark matter in early-type galaxies Léon V. E. Koopmans and Tommaso Treu; 2. Diffuse light in galaxy clusters Magda Arnaboldi and Ortwin Gerhard; 3. Neutron stars - timing in extreme environments Tomaso Belloni, Mariano Méndez and Chengmin Zhang; 4. Progress in understanding the physics of Ap and related stars Margarida Cunha; 5. Modelling the Milky Way in the age of Gaia Annie C. Robin; 6. Time and astronomy Pascale Defraigne; 7. Astrophysical outflows and associated accretion phenomena Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex C. Raga; 8. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies Dong-Woo Kim and Silvia Pellegrini; 9. Are the fundamental constants varying with time? Paolo Molaro and Elisabeth Vangioni; 10. 3D views on cool stellar atmospheres - theory meets observation K. N. Nagendra, P. Bonifacio and H. G. Ludwig; 11. New advances in helio- and astero-seismology; 12. The first galaxies - theoretical predictions and observational clues; 13. Eta Carinae in the context of the most massive stars Theodore R. Gull and Augusto Damineli; 14. The ISM of galaxies in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre; 15. Magnetic fields in diffuse media Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex Lazarian; 16. IHY global campaign - whole heliosphere interval; Part IV. Special Sessions: SpS 1. IR and sub-mm spectroscopy - a new tool for studying stellar evolution Glenn Wahlgren, Hans Käufl and Florian Kerber; SpS 2. The international year of astronomy Pedro Russo, Catherine Cesarsky and Lars Lindberg Christensen; SpS 3. Astronomy in Antarctica in 2009 Michael G. Burton; SpS 4. Astronomy education between past and future J. P. De Greve; SpS 5. Accelerating the rate of astronomical discovery Ray P. Norris; SpS 6. Planetary systems as potential sites for life Régis Courtin, Alan Boss and Michel Mayor; SpS 7. Young stars, brown dwarfs, and protoplanetary disks Jane Gregorio

  20. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  1. Geochemical controls on shale groundwaters: Results of reaction path modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Damm, K.L.; VandenBrook, A.J.

    1989-03-01

    The EQ3NR/EQ6 geochemical modeling code was used to simulate the reaction of several shale mineralogies with different groundwater compositions in order to elucidate changes that may occur in both the groundwater compositions, and rock mineralogies and compositions under conditions which may be encountered in a high-level radioactive waste repository. Shales with primarily illitic or smectitic compositions were the focus of this study. The reactions were run at the ambient temperatures of the groundwaters and to temperatures as high as 250/degree/C, the approximate temperature maximum expected in a repository. All modeling assumed that equilibrium was achieved and treated the rock and water assemblage as a closed system. Graphite was used as a proxy mineral for organic matter in the shales. The results show that the presence of even a very small amount of reducing mineral has a large influence on the redox state of the groundwaters, and that either pyrite or graphite provides essentially the same results, with slight differences in dissolved C, Fe and S concentrations. The thermodynamic data base is inadequate at the present time to fully evaluate the speciation of dissolved carbon, due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for organic compounds. In the illitic cases the groundwaters resulting from interaction at elevated temperatures are acid, while the smectitic cases remain alkaline, although the final equilibrium mineral assemblages are quite similar. 10 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Facilitating pictorial comprehension with color highlighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougald, Brannan R; Wogalter, Michael S

    2014-09-01

    Pictorials can aid in communicating warning information, but viewers may not always correctly comprehend them. Two experiments focused on whether the use of relevant highlighting could benefit pictorial comprehension. A set of warning-related pictorials were manipulated according to three-color highlighting conditions: highlighting areas more relevant to correct comprehension, highlighting areas less relevant to comprehension, and no highlighting. Participants were asked to describe the purpose and meaning of each pictorial presented to them. The findings from both experiments indicate that comprehension of warning pictorials is higher for the relevant highlighting condition than the other two conditions. The highlighting of less relevant areas reduced comprehension compared to no highlighting. Use of appropriately placed highlighting could benefit the design of a complex symbol by pointing out pertinent areas to aid in determining its intended conceptual meaning.

  3. Multi-Model Combination techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajami, N K; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

    2005-04-11

    This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multi-model Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

  4. VNIR spectral modeling of Mars analogue rocks: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, L.; Roush, T.; Pedrazzi, G.; Sgavetti, M.

    Knowledge regarding the surface composition of Mars and other bodies of the inner solar system is fundamental to understanding of their origin, evolution, and internal structures. Technological improvements of remote sensors and associated implications for planetary studies have encouraged increased laboratory and field spectroscopy research to model the spectral behavior of terrestrial analogues for planetary surfaces. This approach has proven useful during Martian surface and orbital missions, and petrologic studies of Martian SNC meteorites. Thermal emission data were used to suggest two lithologies occurring on Mars surface: basalt with abundant plagioclase and clinopyroxene and andesite, dominated by plagioclase and volcanic glass [1,2]. Weathered basalt has been suggested as an alternative to the andesite interpretation [3,4]. Orbital VNIR spectral imaging data also suggest the crust is dominantly basaltic, chiefly feldspar and pyroxene [5,6]. A few outcrops of ancient crust have higher concentrations of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, and have been interpreted as cumulates [6]. Based upon these orbital observations future lander/rover missions can be expected to encounter particulate soils, rocks, and rock outcrops. Approaches to qualitative and quantitative analysis of remotely-acquired spectra have been successfully used to infer the presence and abundance of minerals and to discover compositionally associated spectral trends [7-9]. Both empirical [10] and mathematical [e.g. 11-13] methods have been applied, typically with full compositional knowledge, to chiefly particulate samples and as a result cannot be considered as objective techniques for predicting the compositional information, especially for understanding the spectral behavior of rocks. Extending the compositional modeling efforts to include more rocks and developing objective criteria in the modeling are the next required steps. This is the focus of the present investigation. We present results of

  5. ITER CS Model Coil and CS Insert Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Michael, P; Minervina, J; Radovinsky, A; Takayasu, M; Thome, R; Ando, T; Isono, T; Kato, T; Nakajima, H; Nishijima, G; Nunoya, Y; Sugimoto, M; Takahashi, Y; Tsuji, H; Bessette, D; Okuno, K; Ricci, M

    2000-09-07

    The Inner and Outer modules of the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) were built by US and Japanese home teams in collaboration with European and Russian teams to demonstrate the feasibility of a superconducting Central Solenoid for ITER and other large tokamak reactors. The CSMC mass is about 120 t, OD is about 3.6 m and the stored energy is 640 MJ at 46 kA and peak field of 13 T. Testing of the CSMC and the CS Insert took place at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from mid March until mid August 2000. This paper presents the main results of the tests performed.

  6. Results of the benchmark for blade structural models, part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekou, D.J.; Chortis, D.; Belen Fariñas, A.;

    2013-01-01

    Task 2.2 of the InnWind.Eu project. The benchmark is based on the reference wind turbine and the reference blade provided by DTU [1]. "Structural Concept developers/modelers" of WP2 were provided with the necessary input for a comparison numerical simulation run, upon definition of the reference blade......A benchmark on structural design methods for blades was performed within the InnWind.Eu project under WP2 “Lightweight Rotor” Task 2.2 “Lightweight structural design”. The present document is describes the results of the comparison simulation runs that were performed by the partners involved within...

  7. Model independent analysis of dark energy I: Supernova fitting result

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Y

    2004-01-01

    The nature of dark energy is a mystery to us. This paper uses the supernova data to explore the property of dark energy by some model independent methods. We first Talyor expanded the scale factor $a(t)$ to find out the deceleration parameter $q_0<0$. This result just invokes the Robertson-Walker metric. Then we discuss several different parameterizations used in the literature. We find that $\\Omega_{\\rm DE0}$ is almost less than -1 at $1\\sigma$ level. We also find that the transition redshift from deceleration phase to acceleration phase is $z_{\\rm T}\\sim 0.3$.

  8. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  9. Multi-Model Combination Techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajami, N; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

    2006-05-08

    This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multimodel Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

  10. Highlights and perspectives from the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Joel Nathan

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Large Hadron Collider provided proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy and achieved very high luminosity and reliablity. The performance of the CMS Experiment in this running period and a selection of recent physics results are presented. These include precision measurements and searches for new particles. The status and prospects for data-taking in 2017 and a brief summary of the highlights of the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) upgrade of the CMS detector are also presented.

  11. Highlights and Perspectives from the CMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Joel Nathan [Fermilab

    2017-09-09

    In 2016, the Large Hadron Collider provided proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy and achieved very high luminosity and reliability. The performance of the CMS Experiment in this running period and a selection of recent physics results are presented. These include precision measurements and searches for new particles. The status and prospects for data-taking in 2017 and a brief summary of the highlights of the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) upgrade of the CMS detector are also presented.

  12. Europa Imaging Highlights during GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    especially intriguing. The origin of this feature is unknown at present. Color, stereo, and high resolution images (to 65 meters per picture element) from Galileo's fifteenth orbit of Jupiter will offer new insights and resolve questions about its origin.5. Images of Agenor Linea (white arrow) and Thrace Macula (black arrow) with resolutions as high as 30 meters per picture element will be obtained during Galileo's sixteenth orbit of Jupiter. Agenor is an unusually bright lineament on Europa. Is the brightness due to new ice, and if so, does it represent recent activity? Could the dark region of Thrace Macula be a flow from ice volcanism?6. Images of Europa's south polar terrain obtained during Galileo's seventeenth orbit of Jupiter will offer insights into the processes which are active in this region. Is the ice crust thicker near Europa's poles than near the equator? The prominent dark line running from upper left to lower right through the center of this image is Astypalaea Linea. It is a fault about the length of the San Andreas fault in California and is the largest such fault known on Europa. Images with resolutions of 48 meters per picture element will be obtained to examine its geologic structure.7. This long lineament, Rhadamanthys Linea. is spotted with dark 'freckles'. Are these freckle features formed by icy volcanism? Is this an early form of a triple band? Stereo and high resolution (to 46 meters per picture element) obtained during Galileo's eighteenth orbit of Jupiter may indicate whether the lineament is the result of volcanic processes or is formed by other surface processes.8. During Galileo's nineteenth orbit of Jupiter, images of Europa will be taken with very low sun illuminations, similar to taking a picture at sunset or sunrise. The object will be to search for backlit plumes issuing from icy volcanic vents. Such plumes would be direct evidence of a liquid ocean beneath the ice. Resolutions will be as high as 40 meters per picture element. This

  13. Europa Imaging Highlights during GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    especially intriguing. The origin of this feature is unknown at present. Color, stereo, and high resolution images (to 65 meters per picture element) from Galileo's fifteenth orbit of Jupiter will offer new insights and resolve questions about its origin.5. Images of Agenor Linea (white arrow) and Thrace Macula (black arrow) with resolutions as high as 30 meters per picture element will be obtained during Galileo's sixteenth orbit of Jupiter. Agenor is an unusually bright lineament on Europa. Is the brightness due to new ice, and if so, does it represent recent activity? Could the dark region of Thrace Macula be a flow from ice volcanism?6. Images of Europa's south polar terrain obtained during Galileo's seventeenth orbit of Jupiter will offer insights into the processes which are active in this region. Is the ice crust thicker near Europa's poles than near the equator? The prominent dark line running from upper left to lower right through the center of this image is Astypalaea Linea. It is a fault about the length of the San Andreas fault in California and is the largest such fault known on Europa. Images with resolutions of 48 meters per picture element will be obtained to examine its geologic structure.7. This long lineament, Rhadamanthys Linea. is spotted with dark 'freckles'. Are these freckle features formed by icy volcanism? Is this an early form of a triple band? Stereo and high resolution (to 46 meters per picture element) obtained during Galileo's eighteenth orbit of Jupiter may indicate whether the lineament is the result of volcanic processes or is formed by other surface processes.8. During Galileo's nineteenth orbit of Jupiter, images of Europa will be taken with very low sun illuminations, similar to taking a picture at sunset or sunrise. The object will be to search for backlit plumes issuing from icy volcanic vents. Such plumes would be direct evidence of a liquid ocean beneath the ice. Resolutions will be as high as 40 meters per picture element. This

  14. Impact Flash Physics: Modeling and Comparisons With Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, E.; Stickle, A. M.; Ernst, C. M.; Schultz, P. H.; Mehta, N. L.; Brown, R. C.; Swaminathan, P. K.; Michaelis, C. H.; Erlandson, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    horizontal. High-speed radiometer measurements were made of the time-dependent impact flash at wavelengths of 350-1100 nm. We will present comparisons between these measurements and the output of APL's model. The results of this validation allow us to determine basic relationships between observed optical signatures and impact conditions.

  15. Subsea Permafrost Climate Modeling - Challenges and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehacke, C. B.; Stendel, M.; Marchenko, S. S.; Christensen, J. H.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Nicolsky, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations indicate that the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) releases methane, which stems from shallow hydrate seabed reservoirs. The total amount of carbon within the ESAS is so large that release of only a small fraction, for example via taliks, which are columns of unfrozen sediment within the permafrost, could impact distinctly the global climate. Therefore it is crucial to simulate the future fate of ESAS' subsea permafrost with regard to changing atmospheric and oceanic conditions. However only very few attempts to address the vulnerability of subsea permafrost have been made, instead most studies have focused on the evolution of permafrost since the Late Pleistocene ocean transgression, approximately 14000 years ago.In contrast to land permafrost modeling, any attempt to model the future fate of subsea permafrost needs to consider several additional factors, in particular the dependence of freezing temperature on water depth and salt content and the differences in ground heat flux depending on the seabed properties. Also the amount of unfrozen water in the sediment needs to be taken into account. Using a system of coupled ocean, atmosphere and permafrost models will allow us to capture the complexity of the different parts of the system and evaluate the relative importance of different processes. Here we present the first results of a novel approach by means of dedicated permafrost model simulations. These have been driven by conditions of the Laptev Sea region in East Siberia. By exploiting the ensemble approach, we will show how uncertainties in boundary conditions and applied forcing scenarios control the future fate of the sub sea permafrost.

  16. DARK STARS: IMPROVED MODELS AND FIRST PULSATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rindler-Daller, T.; Freese, K. [Department of Physics and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, McDonald Observatory and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Paxton, B. [Kavli Insitute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars (DSs). DSs, which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with previous models, which assumed polytropic interiors. There are some differences in the details, with positive implications for observability. We found that, in the mass range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al., are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of three to four, and more luminous by a factor of two. Our models also confirm previous results, according to which supermassive DSs are very well approximated by (n = 3)-polytropes. We also perform a first study of DS pulsations. Our DS models have pulsation modes with timescales ranging from less than a day to more than two years in their rest frames, at z ∼ 15, depending on DM particle mass and overtone number. Such pulsations may someday be used to identify bright, cool objects uniquely as DSs; if properly calibrated, they might, in principle, also supply novel standard candles for cosmological studies.

  17. Convergence results for a coarsening model using global linearization

    CERN Document Server

    Gallay, T; Gallay, Th.

    2002-01-01

    We study a coarsening model describing the dynamics of interfaces in the one-dimensional Allen-Cahn equation. Given a partition of the real line into intervals of length greater than one, the model consists in constantly eliminating the shortest interval of the partition by merging it with its two neighbors. We show that the mean-field equation for the time-dependent distribution of interval lengths can be explicitly solved using a global linearization transformation. This allows us to derive rigorous results on the long-time asymptotics of the solutions. If the average length of the intervals is finite, we prove that all distributions approach a uniquely determined self-similar solution. We also obtain global stability results for the family of self-similar profiles which correspond to distributions with infinite expectation. eliminating the shortest interval of the partition by merging it with its two neighbors. We show that the mean-field equation for the time-dependent distribution of interval lengths can...

  18. Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.

  19. Highlights from BNL and RHIC 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Tannenbaum, M J

    2015-01-01

    Highlights of news from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the period July 2013-June 2014 are presented. It was a busy year for news, most notably a U. S. Government shutdown for 16 days beginning October 1, 2013 due to the lack of an approved budget for FY2014. Even with this unusual government activity, the $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV Au+Au Run14 at RHIC was the best ever with integrated luminosity exceeding the sum of all previous runs. Additionally there was a brief He$^3$+Au run to continue the study of collective flow in small systems which was reinforced by new results presented on identified particle flow in d+Au. The other scientific highlights are also mostly concerned with ``soft (low $p_T$)'' physics complemented by the first preliminary results of reconstructed jets from hard-scattered partons in Au+Au collisions at RHIC . The measurements of transverse energy ($E_T$) spectra in p-p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions, which demonstrated last ye...

  20. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  1. Combination of Metabolomic and Proteomic Analysis Revealed Different Features among Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subspecies bulgaricus and lactis Strains While In Vivo Testing in the Model Organism Caenorhabditis elegans Highlighted Probiotic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zanni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus delbrueckii represents a technologically relevant member of lactic acid bacteria, since the two subspecies bulgaricus and lactis are widely associated with fermented dairy products. In the present work, we report the characterization of two commercial strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus, lactis and a novel strain previously isolated from a traditional fermented fresh cheese. A phenomic approach was performed by combining metabolomic and proteomic analysis of the three strains, which were subsequently supplemented as food source to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, with the final aim to evaluate their possible probiotic effects. Restriction analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the novel foodborne strain belonged to L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis. Proteomic and metabolomic approaches showed differences in folate, aminoacid and sugar metabolic pathways among the three strains. Moreover, evaluation of C. elegans lifespan, larval development, brood size, and bacterial colonization capacity demonstrated that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus diet exerted beneficial effects on nematodes. On the other hand, both L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains affected lifespan and larval development. We have characterized three strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and lactis highlighting their divergent origin. In particular, the two closely related isolates L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis display different galactose metabolic capabilities. Moreover, the L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus strain demonstrated potential probiotic features. Combination of omic platforms coupled with in vivo screening in the simple model organism C. elegans is a powerful tool to characterize industrially relevant bacterial isolates.

  2. Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.

  3. Position-sensitive transition edge sensor modeling and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammock, Christina E-mail: chammock@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Apodaca, Emmanuel; Bandler, Simon; Boyce, Kevin; Chervenak, Jay; Finkbeiner, Fred; Kelley, Richard; Lindeman, Mark; Porter, Scott; Saab, Tarek; Stahle, Caroline

    2004-03-11

    We report the latest design and experimental results for a Position-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST). The PoST is motivated by the desire to achieve a larger field-of-view without increasing the number of readout channels. A PoST consists of a one-dimensional array of X-ray absorbers connected on each end to a Transition Edge Sensor (TES). Position differentiation is achieved through a comparison of pulses between the two TESs and X-ray energy is inferred from a sum of the two signals. Optimizing such a device involves studying the available parameter space which includes device properties such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity as well as TES read-out circuitry parameters. We present results for different regimes of operation and the effects on energy resolution, throughput, and position differentiation. Results and implications from a non-linear model developed to study the saturation effects unique to PoSTs are also presented.

  4. Simulation and experimental results of optical and thermal modeling of gold nanoshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazanfari, Lida; Khosroshahi, Mohammad E., E-mail: khosrom@mie.utoronto.ca

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a generalized method for optical and thermal modeling of synthesized magneto-optical nanoshells (MNSs) for biomedical applications. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles with diameter of 9.5 ± 1.4 nm are fabricated using co-precipitation method and subsequently covered by a thin layer of gold to obtain 15.8 ± 3.5 nm MNSs. In this paper, simulations and detailed analysis are carried out for different nanoshell geometry to achieve a maximum heat power. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of MNSs are assessed using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–VIS spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Magnetic saturation of synthesized magnetite nanoparticles are reduced from 46.94 to 11.98 emu/g after coating with gold. The performance of the proposed optical–thermal modeling technique is verified by simulation and experimental results. - Highlights: • Proposing a generalized method for optical and thermal modeling of nanoshells • Verification of the proposed modeling technique by simulation and experimental results • Simulations for different nanoshell geometry to achieve a maximum heat power • Synthesis and characterization of magneto-optical nanoshells.

  5. Dark Stars: Improved Models and First Pulsation Results

    CERN Document Server

    Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Freese, Katherine; Winget, Donald E; Paxton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars. Dark stars (DSs), which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the Universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10^6 M_sun. While previous calculations were limited to polytropic interiors, our current calculations use MESA, a modern stellar evolution code to solve the equations of stellar structure. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with the basic results of previous models. There are some differences, however, in the details, with positive implications for observability of DSs. We found that, in the mass range of 10^4 - 10^5 M_sun, using MESA, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al.(2010), are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of 3...

  6. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  7. Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, M; Ferracin, P; Fessia, P; Gauthier, R; Giloux, C; Guinchard, M; Kircher, F; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Millot, J-F; Muñoz Garcia, J-E; Oberli, L; Perez, J-C; Pietrowicz, S; Rifflet, J-M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F; Todesco, E; Viret, P; Ziemianski, D

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.3.1 “Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed “. The report has four parts: “Design report for the dipole magnet”, “Dipole magnet structure tested in LN2”, “Nb3Sn strand procured for one dipole magnet” and “One test double pancake copper coil made”. The 4 report parts show that, although the magnet construction will be only completed by end 2014, all elements are present for a successful completion. Due to the importance of the project for the future of the participants and given the significant investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment to finish the project.

  8. Dipole model test with one superconducting coil: results analysed

    CERN Document Server

    Bajas, H; Benda, V; Berriaud, C; Bajko, M; Bottura, L; Caspi, S; Charrondiere, M; Clément, S; Datskov, V; Devaux, M; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Ferracin, P; Fessia, P; Gauthier, R; Giloux, C; Guinchard, M; Kircher, F; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Millot, J-F; Muñoz Garcia, J-E; Oberli, L; Perez, J-C; Pietrowicz, S; Rifflet, J-M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F; Todesco, E; Viret, P; Ziemianski, D

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.3.1 “Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed “. The report has four parts: “Design report for the dipole magnet”, “Dipole magnet structure tested in LN2”, “Nb3Sn strand procured for one dipole magnet” and “One test double pancake copper coil made”. The 4 report parts show that, although the magnet construction will be only completed by end 2014, all elements are present for a successful completion. Due to the importance of the project for the future of the participants and given the significant investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment to finish the project.

  9. Further Results on Dynamic Additive Hazard Rate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengcheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the proportional and additive hazard rate models have been investigated in the works. Nanda and Das (2011 introduced and studied the dynamic proportional (reversed hazard rate model. In this paper we study the dynamic additive hazard rate model, and investigate its aging properties for different aging classes. The closure of the model under some stochastic orders has also been investigated. Some examples are also given to illustrate different aging properties and stochastic comparisons of the model.

  10. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  11. Stereoscopic highlighting: 2D graph visualization on stereo displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Basak; Höllerer, Tobias; Kuchera-Morin, JoAnn; Forbes, Angus

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present a new technique and prototype graph visualization system, stereoscopic highlighting, to help answer accessibility and adjacency queries when interacting with a node-link diagram. Our technique utilizes stereoscopic depth to highlight regions of interest in a 2D graph by projecting these parts onto a plane closer to the viewpoint of the user. This technique aims to isolate and magnify specific portions of the graph that need to be explored in detail without resorting to other highlighting techniques like color or motion, which can then be reserved to encode other data attributes. This mechanism of stereoscopic highlighting also enables focus+context views by juxtaposing a detailed image of a region of interest with the overall graph, which is visualized at a further depth with correspondingly less detail. In order to validate our technique, we ran a controlled experiment with 16 subjects comparing static visual highlighting to stereoscopic highlighting on 2D and 3D graph layouts for a range of tasks. Our results show that while for most tasks the difference in performance between stereoscopic highlighting alone and static visual highlighting is not statistically significant, users performed better when both highlighting methods were used concurrently. In more complicated tasks, 3D layout with static visual highlighting outperformed 2D layouts with a single highlighting method. However, it did not outperform the 2D layout utilizing both highlighting techniques simultaneously. Based on these results, we conclude that stereoscopic highlighting is a promising technique that can significantly enhance graph visualizations for certain use cases.

  12. Using an Electronic Highlighter to Eliminate the Negative Effects of Pre-Existing, Inappropriate Highlighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gier, Vicki; Kreiner, David; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Herring, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether using an active learning technique, electronic highlighting, can eliminate the negative effects of pre-existing, poor highlighting on reading comprehension. Participants read passages containing no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, or inappropriate highlighting. We hypothesized…

  13. Mouse Model of Neurological Complications Resulting from Encephalitic Alphavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, Shannon E.; Smith, Jeanon; Koma, Takaaki; Miller, Magda M.; Yun, Nadezhda; Dineley, Kelly T.; Paessler, Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Symptomatic mice developed deficits in prepulse inhibition that lasted through 6 months post infection; these deficits were absent in asymptomatic or mock-infected groups. Accompanying prepulse inhibition deficits, symptomatic animals exhibited thalamus damage as visualized with H&E staining, as well as increased GFAP expression in the posterior complex of the thalamus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These histological changes and increased GFAP expression were absent in the asymptomatic and mock-infected animals, indicating that glial scarring could have contributed to the prepulse inhibition phenotype observed in the symptomatic animals. This model provides a tool to test mechanisms of and treatments for the neurological sequelae of viral encephalitis and begins to delineate potential explanations for the development of such sequelae post infection.

  14. A Duality Result for the Generalized Erlang Risk Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanpeng Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the generalized Erlang risk model and its dual model. By using a conditional measure-preserving correspondence between the two models, we derive an identity for two interesting conditional probabilities. Applications to the discounted joint density of the surplus prior to ruin and the deficit at ruin are also discussed.

  15. On the evaluation of box model results: the case of BOXURB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A

    2009-08-01

    In the present paper, the BOXURB model results, as they occurred in the Greater Area of Athens after model application on an hourly basis for the 10-year period 1995-2004, are evaluated both in time and space in the light of observed pollutant concentrations time series from 17 monitoring stations. The evaluation is performed at a total, monthly, daily and hourly scale. The analysis also includes evaluation of the model performance with regard to the meteorological parameters. Finally, the model is evaluated as an air quality forecasting and urban planning tool. Given the simplicity of the model and the complexity of the area topography, the model results are found to be in good agreement with the measured pollutant concentrations, especially in the heavy traffic stations. Therefore, the model can be used for regulatory purposes by authorities for time-efficient, simple and reliable estimation of air pollution levels within city boundaries.

  16. How modeling can reconcile apparently discrepant experimental results: the case of pacemaking in dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Drion

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are endowed with endogenous slow pacemaking properties. In recent years, many different groups have studied the basis for this phenomenon, often with conflicting conclusions. In particular, the role of a slowly-inactivating L-type calcium channel in the depolarizing phase between spikes is controversial, and the analysis of slow oscillatory potential (SOP recordings during the blockade of sodium channels has led to conflicting conclusions. Based on a minimal model of a dopaminergic neuron, our analysis suggests that the same experimental protocol may lead to drastically different observations in almost identical neurons. For example, complete L-type calcium channel blockade eliminates spontaneous firing or has almost no effect in two neurons differing by less than 1% in their maximal sodium conductance. The same prediction can be reproduced in a state of the art detailed model of a dopaminergic neuron. Some of these predictions are confirmed experimentally using single-cell recordings in brain slices. Our minimal model exhibits SOPs when sodium channels are blocked, these SOPs being uncorrelated with the spiking activity, as has been shown experimentally. We also show that block of a specific conductance (in this case, the SK conductance can have a different effect on these two oscillatory behaviors (pacemaking and SOPs, despite the fact that they have the same initiating mechanism. These results highlight the fact that computational approaches, besides their well known confirmatory and predictive interests in neurophysiology, may also be useful to resolve apparent discrepancies between experimental results.

  17. Final model independent result of DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)

    2013-12-15

    The results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton x yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles (i.e. adding a further 0.17 ton x yr exposure) are presented. The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 data give evidence for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target, at 7.5{sigma} C.L. Including also the first generation DAMA/NaI experiment (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton x yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles), the C.L. is 9.3{sigma} and the modulation amplitude of the single-hit events in the (2-6) keV energy interval is: (0.0112{+-}0.0012) cpd/kg/keV; the measured phase is (144{+-}7) days and the measured period is (0.998{+-}0.002) yr, values well in agreement with those expected for DM particles. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. (orig.)

  18. Infrared thermography for CFRP inspection: computational model and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Henrique C.; Zhang, Hai; Morioka, Karen; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; López, Fernando; Maldague, Xavier P. V.; Tarpani, José R.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) is a well-known Non-destructive Testing (NDT) technique. In the last decades, it has been widely applied in several fields including inspection of composite materials (CM), specially the fiber-reinforced polymer matrix ones. Consequently, it is important to develop and improve efficient NDT techniques to inspect and assess the quality of CM parts in order to warranty airworthiness and, at the same time, reduce costs of airline companies. In this paper, active IRT is used to inspect carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) at laminate with artificial inserts (built-in sample) placed on different layers prior to the manufacture. Two optical active IRT are used. The first is pulsed thermography (PT) which is the most widely utilized IRT technique. The second is a line-scan thermography (LST) technique: a dynamic technique, which can be employed for the inspection of materials by heating a component, line-by-line, while acquiring a series of thermograms with an infrared camera. It is especially suitable for inspection of large parts as well as complex shaped parts. A computational model developed using COMSOL Multiphysics® was used in order to simulate the inspections. Sequences obtained from PT and LST were processed using principal component thermography (PCT) for comparison. Results showed that it is possible to detect insertions of different sizes at different depths using both PT and LST IRT techniques.

  19. Spin-1 Ising model on tetrahedron recursive lattices: Exact results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the ferromagnetic spin-1 Ising model on the tetrahedron recursive lattices. An exact solution of the model is found in the framework of which it is shown that the critical temperatures of the second order phase transitions of the model are driven by a single equation simultaneously on all such lattices. It is also shown that this general equation for the critical temperatures is equivalent to the corresponding polynomial equation for the model on the tetrahedron recursive lattice with arbitrary given value of the coordination number. The explicit form of these polynomial equations is shown for the lattices with the coordination numbers z = 6, 9, and 12. In addition, it is shown that the thermodynamic properties of all possible physical phases of the model are also completely driven by the corresponding single equations simultaneously on all tetrahedron recursive lattices. In this respect, the spontaneous magnetization, the free energy, the entropy, and the specific heat of the model are studied in detail.

  20. Droplet Reaction and Evaporation of Agents Model (DREAM). Glass model results; Sand model plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, A.R.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Agent Fate Program is generating an extensive set of quality agent fate data which is being used to develop highly accurate secondary evaporation predictive models. Models are being developed that cover a wide range of traditional chemical warfare agents deposited onto surfaces routinely found o

  1. Electric transport in the Netherlands. Highlights 2012; Elektrisch vervoer in Nederland. Highlights 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Businesses, social and educational institutions and governmental institutes work together to accelerate electric transport and to discover and exploit economic opportunities. In 2012, many activities were carried out and results achieved, of which the highlights are presented in this brochure [Dutch] Bedrijfsleven, maatschappelijke- en kennisinstellingen en overheden werken samen aan versnelling van elektrisch vervoer en het ontdekken en benutten van economische kansen. In 2012 werden veel activiteiten uitgevoerd en resultaten geboekt, waarvan in deze brochure verslag wordt gedaan.

  2. AGILE Data Center and AGILE science highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittori, C. [ASI Science Data Center, ESRIN, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); INAF-OAR, Via Frascati 33, I00040 Monte Porzio Catone (RM) (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    AGILE is a scientific mission of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with INFN, INAF e CIFS participation, devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics. The satellite is in orbit since April 23rd, 2007. Gamma-ray astrophysics above 100 MeV is an exciting field of astronomical sciences that has received a strong impulse in recent years. Despite the small size and budget, AGILE produced several important scientific results, among which the unexpected discovery of strong and rapid gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula. This discovery won to the AGILE PI and the AGILE Team the prestigious Bruno Rossi Prize for 2012, an international recognition in the field of high energy astrophysics. We present here the AGILE data center main activities, and we give an overview of the AGILE scientific highlights after 5 years of operations.

  3. Research highlights: impacts of microplastics on plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Vivian S

    2016-02-01

    Each year, millions of metric tons of the plastic produced for food packaging, personal care products, fishing gear, and other human activities end up in lakes, rivers, and the ocean. The breakdown of these primary plastics in the environment results in microplastics, small fragments of plastic typically less than 1-5 mm in size. These synthetic particles have been detected in all of the world's oceans and also in many freshwater systems, accumulating in sediment, on shorelines, suspended in surface waters, and being ingested by plankton, fish, birds, and marine mammals. While the occurrence of plastics in surface waters has been surveyed in a number of studies, the impacts of microplastics on marine organisms are still being elucidated. This highlight features three recent publications that explore the interactions of microplastics with planktonic organisms to clarify the effects of these pollutants on some of the ocean's smallest and most important inhabitants.

  4. Highlights from the VERITAS AGN Observation Program

    CERN Document Server

    Benbow, Wystan

    2016-01-01

    The VERITAS array of four 12-m imaging atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes began full-scale operations in 2007, and is one of the world's most sensitive detectors of astrophysical very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma rays. Observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are a major focus of the VERITAS Collaboration, and more than 60 AGN, primarily blazars, are known to emit VHE photons. Approximately 4000 hours have been devoted to the VERITAS AGN observation program, resulting in 34 detections. Most of these detections are accompanied by contemporaneous, broadband observations, enabling a more detailed study of the underlying jet-powered processes. Recent highlights of the VERITAS AGN observation program are presented.

  5. Highlights from the VERITAS AGN Observation Program

    CERN Document Server

    Benbow, Wystan

    2015-01-01

    The VERITAS array of four 12-m imaging atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes began full-scale operations in 2007, and is one of the world's most sensitive detectors of astrophysical VHE (E>100 GeV) $\\gamma$-rays. Observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are a major focus of the VERITAS Collaboration, and more than 60 AGN, primarily blazars, are known to emit VHE photons. Approximately 3400 hours have been devoted to the VERITAS AGN observation program and roughly 160 AGN are already observed with the array, in most cases with the deepest VHE exposure to date. These observations have resulted in 34 detections, most of which are accompanied by contemporaneous, multi-wavelength observations, enabling a more detailed study of the underlying jet-powered processes. Recent highlights of the VERITAS AGN observation program, and the collaboration's long-term AGN observation strategy, are presented.

  6. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  7. Effect of geometry of rice kernels on drying modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geometry of rice grain is commonly represented by sphere, spheroid or ellipsoid shapes in the drying models. Models using simpler shapes are easy to solve mathematically, however, deviation from the true grain shape might lead to large errors in predictions of drying characteristics such as, moistur...

  8. Urban traffic noise assessment by combining measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.; Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A model based monitoring system is applied on a local scale in an urban area to obtain a better understanding of the traffic noise situation. The system consists of a scalable sensor network and an engineering model. A better understanding is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures,

  9. Periodic Integration: Further Results on Model Selection and Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers model selection and forecasting issues in two closely related models for nonstationary periodic autoregressive time series [PAR]. Periodically integrated seasonal time series [PIAR] need a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. On the other

  10. Photon science 2012. Highlights and annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Karen; Gehrke, Rainer; Gutt, Christian; Incoccia-Hermes, Lucia; Laarmann, Tim; Morgenroth, Wolfgang; Roehlsberger, Ralf; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst; Vainio, Ulla; Zimmermann, Martin von (eds.)

    2012-12-15

    The synchrotron-radiation research at DESY is reviewed. The following topics are dealt with: Research highlights, research platforms and outstations, light sources, new technologies and developments. (HSI)

  11. Results from modeling and simulation of chemical downstream etch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Vosen, S.R.; Shon, J.W.; Larson, R.S.; Fox, C.A.; Buchenauer

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes modeling work performed at Sandia in support of Chemical Downstream Etch (CDE) benchmark and tool development programs under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with SEMATECH. The Chemical Downstream Etch (CDE) Modeling Project supports SEMATECH Joint Development Projects (JDPs) with Matrix Integrated Systems, Applied Materials, and Astex Corporation in the development of new CDE reactors for wafer cleaning and stripping processes. These dry-etch reactors replace wet-etch steps in microelectronics fabrication, enabling compatibility with other process steps and reducing the use of hazardous chemicals. Models were developed at Sandia to simulate the gas flow, chemistry and transport in CDE reactors. These models address the essential components of the CDE system: a microwave source, a transport tube, a showerhead/gas inlet, and a downstream etch chamber. The models have been used in tandem to determine the evolution of reactive species throughout the system, and to make recommendations for process and tool optimization. A significant part of this task has been in the assembly of a reasonable set of chemical rate constants and species data necessary for successful use of the models. Often the kinetic parameters were uncertain or unknown. For this reason, a significant effort was placed on model validation to obtain industry confidence in the model predictions. Data for model validation were obtained from the Sandia Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) experiments, from the literature, from the CDE Benchmark Project (also part of the Sandia/SEMATECH CRADA), and from the JDP partners. The validated models were used to evaluate process behavior as a function of microwave-source operating parameters, transport-tube geometry, system pressure, and downstream chamber geometry. In addition, quantitative correlations were developed between CDE tool performance and operation set points.

  12. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2008 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report. The Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 613) is part of the Earth Sciences Division (Code 610), formerly the Earth Sun Exploration Division, under the Sciences and Exploration Directorate (Code 600) based at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In line with NASA s Exploration Initiative, the Laboratory executes a comprehensive research and technology development program dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmospheres of Earth and other planets. The research program is aimed at understanding the influence of solar variability on the Earth s climate; predicting the weather and climate of Earth; understanding the structure, dynamics, and radiative properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; understanding atmospheric chemistry, especially the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and advancing our understanding of physical properties of Earth s atmosphere. The research program identifies problems and requirements for atmospheric observations via satellite missions. Laboratory scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Laboratory members conduct field measurements for satellite data calibration and validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud-resolving models, and development of next-generation Earth system models. Interdisciplinary research is carried

  13. Novel ketone body therapy for managing Alzheimer's disease: An Editorial Highlight for Effects of a dietary ketone ester on hippocampal glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids in a 3xTgAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchowicz, Michelle A; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2017-03-15

    Read the highlighted article 'Effects of a dietary ketone ester on hippocampal glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids in a 3xTgAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease' on doi: 10.1111/jnc.13958.

  14. Wave-current interactions: model development and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, Clement; Lyard, Florent; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    The coastal area concentrates many uses that require integrated management based on diagnostic and predictive tools to understand and anticipate the future of pollution from land or sea, and learn more about natural hazards at sea or activity on the coast. The realistic modelling of coastal hydrodynamics needs to take into account various processes which interact, including tides, surges, and sea state (Wolf [2008]). These processes act at different spatial scales. Unstructured-grid models have shown the ability to satisfy these needs, given that a good mesh resolution criterion is used. We worked on adding a sea state forcing in a hydrodynamic circulation model. The sea state model is the unstructured version of WAVEWATCH III c (Tolman [2008]) (which version is developed at IFREMER, Brest (Ardhuin et al. [2010]) ), and the hydrodynamic model is the 2D barotropic module of the unstructured-grid finite element model T-UGOm (Le Bars et al. [2010]). We chose to use the radiation stress approach (Longuet-Higgins and Stewart [1964]) to represent the effect of surface waves (wind waves and swell) in the barotropic model, as previously done by Mastenbroek et al. [1993]and others. We present here some validation of the model against academic cases : a 2D plane beach (Haas and Warner [2009]) and a simple bathymetric step with analytic solution for waves (Ardhuin et al. [2008]). In a second part we present realistic application in the Ushant Sea during extreme event. References Ardhuin, F., N. Rascle, and K. Belibassakis, Explicit wave-averaged primitive equations using a generalized Lagrangian mean, Ocean Modelling, 20 (1), 35-60, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.001, 2008. Ardhuin, F., et al., Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part I: Definition, Calibration, and Validation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40 (9), 1917-1941, doi:10.1175/2010JPO4324.1, 2010. Haas, K. A., and J. C. Warner, Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and

  15. Guidelines for Effective Usage of Text Highlighting Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobelt, Hendrik; Oelke, Daniela; Kwon, Bum Chul; Schreck, Tobias; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Semi-automatic text analysis involves manual inspection of text. Often, different text annotations (like part-of-speech or named entities) are indicated by using distinctive text highlighting techniques. In typesetting there exist well-known formatting conventions, such as bold typeface, italics, or background coloring, that are useful for highlighting certain parts of a given text. Also, many advanced techniques for visualization and highlighting of text exist; yet, standard typesetting is common, and the effects of standard typesetting on the perception of text are not fully understood. As such, we surveyed and tested the effectiveness of common text highlighting techniques, both individually and in combination, to discover how to maximize pop-out effects while minimizing visual interference between techniques. To validate our findings, we conducted a series of crowdsourced experiments to determine: i) a ranking of nine commonly-used text highlighting techniques; ii) the degree of visual interference between pairs of text highlighting techniques; iii) the effectiveness of techniques for visual conjunctive search. Our results show that increasing font size works best as a single highlighting technique, and that there are significant visual interferences between some pairs of highlighting techniques. We discuss the pros and cons of different combinations as a design guideline to choose text highlighting techniques for text viewers.

  16. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....

  17. Review of the dWind Model Conceptual Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Gleason, Michael; Preus, Robert; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-09-16

    This presentation provides an overview of the dWind model, including its purpose, background, and current status. Baring-Gould presented this material as part of the September 2015 WINDExchange webinar.

  18. The influence of land cover roughness on the results of high resolution tsunami inundation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaiser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a local case study is presented in which detailed inundation simulations have been performed to support damage analysis and risk assessment related to the 2004 tsunami in Phang Nga and Phuket, Thailand. Besides tsunami sources, bathymetry and topography, bottom roughness induced by vegetation and built environment is considered to influence inundation characteristics, such as water depths or flow velocities and therefore attracts major attention in this work. Plenty of information available on the 2004 tsunami event, high-resolution satellite imagery and extensive field measurements to derive land cover information and forest stand parameters facilitated the generation of topographic datasets, land cover maps and site-specific Manning values for the most prominent land cover classes in the study areas. The numerical models ComMIT and Mike 21 FM were used to hindcast the observed tsunami inundation and to draw conclusions on the influence of land cover on inundation patterns. Results show a strong influence of dense vegetation on flow velocities, which were reduced by up to 50% by mangroves, while the inundation extent is influenced only to a lesser extent. In urban areas, the disregard of buildings in the model led to a significant overestimation of the inundation extent. Hence different approaches to consider buildings were used and analyzed in the model. The case study highlights the importance and quantifies the effects of considering land cover roughness in inundation simulations used for local risk assessment.

  19. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...

  20. The Animal Model Determines the Results of Aeromonas Virulence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alejandro; Saraceni, Paolo R.; Merino, Susana; Figueras, Antonio; Tomás, Juan M.; Novoa, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analyzed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1ΔvapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild-type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1ΔrmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the AH-1ΔwahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim) and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella). They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study demonstrates

  1. Results of the 2013 UT modeling benchmark obtained with models implemented in CIVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toullelan, Gwénaël; Raillon, Raphaële; Chatillon, Sylvain [CEA, LIST, 91191Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lonne, Sébastien [EXTENDE, Le Bergson, 15 Avenue Emile Baudot, 91300 MASSY (France)

    2014-02-18

    The 2013 Ultrasonic Testing (UT) modeling benchmark concerns direct echoes from side drilled holes (SDH), flat bottom holes (FBH) and corner echoes from backwall breaking artificial notches inspected with a matrix phased array probe. This communication presents the results obtained with the models implemented in the CIVA software: the pencilmodel is used to compute the field radiated by the probe, the Kirchhoff approximation is applied to predict the response of FBH and notches and the SOV (Separation Of Variables) model is used for the SDH responses. The comparison between simulated and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  2. Preliminary results of a three-dimensional radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hirok, W. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Clouds act as the primary modulator of the Earth`s radiation at the top of the atmosphere, within the atmospheric column, and at the Earth`s surface. They interact with both shortwave and longwave radiation, but it is primarily in the case of shortwave where most of the uncertainty lies because of the difficulties in treating scattered solar radiation. To understand cloud-radiative interactions, radiative transfer models portray clouds as plane-parallel homogeneous entities to ease the computational physics. Unfortunately, clouds are far from being homogeneous, and large differences between measurement and theory point to a stronger need to understand and model cloud macrophysical properties. In an attempt to better comprehend the role of cloud morphology on the 3-dimensional radiation field, a Monte Carlo model has been developed. This model can simulate broadband shortwave radiation fluxes while incorporating all of the major atmospheric constituents. The model is used to investigate the cloud absorption anomaly where cloud absorption measurements exceed theoretical estimates and to examine the efficacy of ERBE measurements and cloud field experiments. 3 figs.

  3. Reply: New results justify open discussion of alternative models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew; Stein, Seth; Weber, John; Engeln, Joseph; Mao, Aitlin; Dixon, Timothy

    A millennium ago, Jewish sages wrote that “the rivalry of scholars increases wisdom.” In contrast, Schweig et al. (Eos, this issue) demand that “great caution” be exercised in discussing alternatives to their model of high seismic hazard in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). We find this view surprising; we have no objection to their and their coworkers' extensive efforts promoting their model in a wide variety of public media, but see no reason not to explore a lower-hazard alternative based on both new data and reanalysis of data previously used to justify their model. In our view, the very purpose of collecting new data and reassessing existing data is to promote spirited testing and improvement of existing hypotheses. For New Madrid, such open reexamination seems scientifically appropriate, given the challenge of understanding intraplate earthquakes, and socially desirable because of the public policy implications.

  4. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...... is whether a bubble model with infinite variance can create the long swings, or persistence, which are observed in many macro variables. We say that a variable is persistent if its autoregressive coefficient ¿(n) of y(t) on y(t-1), is close to one. We show that the estimator of ¿(n) converges to ¿p...

  5. Transmission resonance Raman spectroscopy: experimental results versus theoretical model calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Alicia G; González Ureña, Ángel

    2012-10-01

    A laser spectroscopic technique is described that combines transmission and resonance-enhanced Raman inelastic scattering together with low laser power (view, a model for the Raman signal dependence on the sample thickness is also presented. Essentially, the model considers the sample to be homogeneous and describes the underlying physics using only three parameters: the Raman cross-section, the laser-radiation attenuation cross-section, and the Raman signal attenuation cross-section. The model was applied successfully to describe the sample-size dependence of the Raman signal in both β-carotene standards and carrot roots. The present technique could be useful for direct, fast, and nondestructive investigations in food quality control and analytical or physiological studies of animal and human tissues.

  6. Results on a Binding Neuron Model and Their Implications for Modified Hourglass Model for Neuronal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical models of single neuron like Hodgkin-Huxley point neuron or leaky integrate and fire neuron assume the influence of postsynaptic potentials to last till the neuron fires. Vidybida (2008 in a refreshing departure has proposed models for binding neurons in which the trace of an input is remembered only for a finite fixed period of time after which it is forgotten. The binding neurons conform to the behaviour of real neurons and are applicable in constructing fast recurrent networks for computer modeling. This paper develops explicitly several useful results for a binding neuron like the firing time distribution and other statistical characteristics. We also discuss the applicability of the developed results in constructing a modified hourglass network model in which there are interconnected neurons with excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs. Limited simulation results of the hourglass network are presented.

  7. Highlights from BNL-RHIC-2012

    CERN Document Server

    Tannenbaum, M J

    2013-01-01

    Recent highlights from Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are reviewed and discussed in the context of the discovery of the strongly interacting Quark Gluon Plasma (sQGP) at RHIC in 2005 as confirmed by results from the CERN-LHC Pb+Pb program. Outstanding RHIC machine operation in 2012 with 3-dimensional stochastic cooling and a new EBIS ion source enabled measurements with Cu+Au, U+U, for which multiplicity distributions are shown, as well as with polarized p-p collisions. Differences of the physics and goals of p-p versus A+A are discussed leading to a review of RHIC results on pi0 suppression in Au+Au collisions and comparison to LHC Pb+Pb results in the same range 5 30 GeV. Improved measurements of direct photon production and correlation with charged particles at RHIC are shown, including the absence of a low pT (thermal) photon enhancement in d+Au collisions. Attempts to understand the apparent equality of the energy loss of light and heavy quarks in the QGP by...

  8. Some vaccination strategies for the SEIR epidemic model. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a vaccination-based control strategy for a SEIR (susceptible plus infected plus infectious plus removed populations) propagation disease model. The model takes into account the total population amounts as a refrain for the illness transmission since its increase makes more difficult contacts among susceptible and infected. The control objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero.

  9. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  10. Results From Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, Kevin [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  11. Some Results On The Modelling Of TSS Manufacturing Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MÎNZU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling of a particular class of manufacturing lines, governed by a decentralised control strategy so that they balance themselves. Such lines are known as “bucket brigades” and also as “TSS lines”, after their first implementation, at Toyota, in the 70’s. A first study of their behaviour was based upon modelling as stochastic dynamic systems, which emphasised, in the frame of the so-called “Normative Model”, a sufficient condition for self-balancing, that means for autonomous functioning at a steady production rate (stationary behaviour. Under some particular conditions, a simulation analysis of TSS lines could be made on non-linear block diagrams, showing that the state trajectories are piecewise continuous in between occurrences of certain discrete events, which determine their discontinuity. TSS lines may therefore be modelled as hybrid dynamic systems, more specific, with autonomous switching and autonomous impulses (jumps. A stability analysis of such manufacturing lines is allowed by modelling them as hybrid dynamic systems with discontinuous motions.

  12. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauker, F. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Storch, H. von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2000-07-01

    A dynamical downscaling for the North Sea is presented. The numerical model used for the study is the coupled ice-ocean model OPYC. In a hindcast of the years 1979 to 1993 it was forced with atmospheric forcing of the ECMWF reanalysis. The models capability in simulating the observed mean state and variability in the North Sea is demonstrated by the hindcast. Two time scale ranges, from weekly to seasonal and the longer-than-seasonal time scales are investigated. Shorter time scales, for storm surges, are not captured by the model formulation. The main modes of variability of sea level, sea-surface circulation, sea-surface temperature, and sea-surface salinity are described and connections to atmospheric phenomena, like the NAO, are discussed. T106 ''time-slice'' simulations with a ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' horizon are used to estimate the effects of a changing climate on the shelf sea ''North Sea''. The ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' changes in the surface forcing are accompanied by changes in the lateral oceanic boundary conditions taken from a global coupled climate model. For ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' the time mean sea level increases up to 25 cm in the German Bight in the winter, where 15 cm are due to the surface forcing and 10 cm due to thermal expansion. This change is compared to the ''natural'' variability as simulated in the ECMWF integration and found to be not outside the range spanned by it. The variability of sea level on the weekly-to-seasonal time-scales is significantly reduced in the scenario integration. The variability on the longer-than-seasonal time-scales in the control and scenario runs is much smaller then in the ECMWF integration. This is traced back to the use of ''time-slice'' experiments. Discriminating between locally forced changes and changes induced at the lateral oceanic boundaries of the model in the circulation and

  13. A Dissipative Model for Hydrogen Storage: Existence and Regularity Results

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodaroli, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    We prove global existence of a solution to an initial and boundary value problem for a highly nonlinear PDE system. The problem arises from a termomechanical dissipative model describing hydrogen storage by use of metal hydrides. In order to treat the model from an analytical point of view, we formulate it as a phase transition phenomenon thanks to the introduction of a suitable phase variable. Continuum mechanics laws lead to an evolutionary problem involving three state variables: the temperature, the phase parameter and the pressure. The problem thus consists of three coupled partial differential equations combined with initial and boundary conditions. Existence and regularity of the solutions are here investigated by means of a time discretization-a priori estimate-passage to the limit procedure joined with compactness and monotonicity arguments.

  14. AGILE Highlights after Six Years in Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Pittori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AGILE is an ASI space mission in collaboration with INAF, INFN and CIFS, dedicated to the observation of the gamma-ray Universe in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV energy range, with simultaneous X-ray imaging capability in the 18-60 keV band. The AGILE satellite was launched on April 23rd, 2007, and produced several important scientic results, among which the unexpected discovery of strong ares from the Crab Nebula. This discovery won to the AGILE PI and the AGILE Team the Bruno Rossi Prize for 2012 by the High Energy Astrophysics division of the American Astronomical Society. Thanks to its sky monitoring capability and fast ground segment alert system, AGILE detected many Galactic and extragalactic sources: among other results AGILE discovered gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3, detected many bright blazars, discovered several new gamma-ray pulsars, and discovered emission up to 100 MeV from Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes. We present an overview of the main AGILE Data Center activities and the AGILE scientic highlights after 6 years of operations.

  15. Highlights from BNL and RHIC 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Tannenbaum, M J

    2016-01-01

    Highlights of news from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the period July 2014-June 2015 are presented. The news this year was mostly very positive. The major event at BNL was the startup and dedication of the new NSLS II, "the World's brightest Synchrotron Light Source". The operation of RHIC was outstanding with a polarized p+p run at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV with integrated luminosity that exceeded the sum of all previous p+p integrated luminosity at this $\\sqrt{s}$. For the first time at RHIC asymmetric p+Au and p+Al runs were made but the p+Al run caused damage in the PHENIX forward detectors from quenches that were inadequately shielded for this first p+A run. This was also the 10th anniversary of the 2005 announcement of the Perfect Liquid Quark Gluon Plasma at RHIC and a review is presented of the discoveries leading to this claim. A new result on net-charge fluctuations (with no particle identification) from PHENIX based on previous scans ov...

  16. Vaccination strategies for SEIR models using feedback linearization. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    A linearization-based feedback-control strategy for a SEIR epidemic model is discussed. The vaccination objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero. The disease controlpolicy is designed based on a feedback linearization technique which provides a general method to generate families of vaccination policies with sound technical background.

  17. Recent results in the NJL model with heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmann, T

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the interplay of chiral and heavy quark symmetries by using the NJL quark model. Heavy quarks with finite masses m(Q) as well as the limit m(Q) to infinity are studied. We found large corrections to the heavy mass scaling law for the pseudoscalar decay constant. The influence of external momenta on the shape parameters of the Isgur-Wise form factor is discussed.

  18. Blade element momentum modeling of inflow with shear in comparison with advanced model results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Riziotis, V.; Zahle, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    There seems to be a significant uncertainty in aerodynamic and aeroelastic simulations on megawatt turbines operating in inflow with considerable shear, in particular with the engineering blade element momentum (BEM) model, commonly implemented in the aeroelastic design codes used by industry....... Computations with advanced vortex and computational fluid dynamics models are used to provide improved insight into the complex flow phenomena and rotor aerodynamics caused by the sheared inflow. One consistent result from the advanced models is the variation of induced velocity as a function of azimuth when...... a higher power than in uniform flow. On the basis of the consistent azimuthal induction variations seen in the advanced model results, three different BEM implementation methods are discussed and tested in the same aeroelastic code. A full local BEM implementation on an elemental stream tube in both...

  19. The physical model of a terraced plot: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlotto, Chiara; D'Agostino, Vincenzo; Buzzanca, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Terrace building have been expanded in the 19th century because of the increased demographic pressure and the need to crop additional areas at steeper slopes. Terraces are also important to regulate the hydrological behavior of the hillslope. Few studies are available in literature on rainfall-runoff processes and flood risk mitigation in terraced areas. Bench terraces, reducing the terrain slope and the length of the overland flow, quantitatively control the runoff flow velocity, facilitating the drainage and thus leading to a reduction of soil erosion. The study of the hydrologic-hydraulic function of terraced slopes is essential in order to evaluate their possible use to cooperate for flood-risk mitigation also preserving the landscape value. This research aims to better focus the times of the hydrological response, which are determined by a hillslope plot bounded by a dry-stone wall, considering both the overland flow and the groundwater. A physical model, characterized by a quasi-real scale, has been built to reproduce the behavior of a 3% outward sloped terrace at bare soil condition. The model consists of a steel metal box (1 m large, 3.3 m long, 2 m high) containing the hillslope terrain. The terrain is equipped with two piezometers, 9 TDR sensors measuring the volumetric water content, a surface spillway at the head releasing the steady discharge under test, a scale at the wall base to measure the outflowing discharge. The experiments deal with different initial moisture condition (non-saturated and saturated), and discharges of 19.5, 12.0 and 5.0 l/min. Each experiment has been replicated, conducting a total number of 12 tests. The volumetric water content analysis produced by the 9 TDR sensors was able to provide a quite satisfactory representation of the soil moisture during the runs. Then, different lag times at the outlet since the inflow initiation were measured both for runoff and groundwater. Moreover, the time of depletion and the piezometer

  20. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus cycles and dissolved oxygen in the Zhujiang Estuary Ⅱ. Model results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Weibing; Wong Lai-Ah; Xu Dongfeng

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the ecosystem-based water quality model was applied to the Pearl River (Zhujiang) Estuary. The model results successfully represent the distribution trend of nutrients and dissolved oxygen both in the horizontal and vertical planes during the flood season, and it shows that the model has taken into consideration the key part of the dynamical, chemical and biological processes existing in the Zhujiang Estuary. The further studies illustrate that nitrogen is in plenty while phosphorus and light limit the phytoplankton biomass in the Zhujiang Estuary during the flood season.

  1. Exact results in modeling planetary atmospheres-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelkowski, J. [Institut fuer Atmosphaere und Umwelt, J.W. Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt, Campus Riedberg, Altenhoferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)], E-mail: Pelkowski@meteor.uni-frankfurt.de; Chevallier, L. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Laboratoire LUTH, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon cedex (France); Rutily, B. [Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CNRS, UMR 5574, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (France); Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, F-69007 Lyon (France); Titaud, O. [Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMI 2807 CNRS-UChile, Blanco Encalada 2120 - 7 Piso, Casilla 170 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile)

    2008-01-15

    We apply the semi-gray model of our previous paper to the particular case of the Earth's atmosphere, in order to illustrate quantitatively the inverse problem associated with the direct problem we dealt with before. From given climatological values of the atmosphere's spherical albedo and transmittance for visible radiation, the single-scattering albedo and the optical thickness in the visible are inferred, while the infrared optical thickness is deduced for given global average surface temperature. Eventually, temperature distributions in terms of the infrared optical depth will be shown for a terrestrial atmosphere assumed to be semi-gray and, locally, in radiative and thermodynamic equilibrium.

  2. Exact results in modeling planetary atmospheres-I. Gray atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, L. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Laboratoire LUTH, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon cedex (France)]. E-mail: loic.chevallier@obspm.fr; Pelkowski, J. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik, J.W. Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt, Robert Mayer Strasse 1, D-60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Rutily, B. [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, F-69000 (France) and Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, F-69622 (France) and Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andre, Saint-Genis Laval cedex, F-69561 (France) and CNRS, UMR 5574; Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2007-04-15

    An exact model is proposed for a gray, isotropically scattering planetary atmosphere in radiative equilibrium. The slab is illuminated on one side by a collimated beam and is bounded on the other side by an emitting and partially reflecting ground. We provide expressions for the incident and reflected fluxes on both boundary surfaces, as well as the temperature of the ground and the temperature distribution in the atmosphere, assuming the latter to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Tables and curves of the temperature distribution are included for various values of the optical thickness. Finally, semi-infinite atmospheres illuminated from the outside or by sources at infinity is dealt with.

  3. Delta-tilde interpretation of standard linear mixed model results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per Bruun; Amorim, Isabel de Sousa; Kuznetsova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    effects relative to the residual error and to choose the proper effect size measure. For multi-attribute bar plots of F-statistics this amounts, in balanced settings, to a simple transformation of the bar heights to get them transformed into depicting what can be seen as approximately the average pairwise...... for factors with differences in number of levels. For mixed models, where in general the relevant error terms for the fixed effects are not the pure residual error, it is suggested to base the d-prime-like interpretation on the residual error. The methods are illustrated on a multifactorial sensory profile...... inherently challenging effect size measure estimates in ANOVA settings....

  4. Status and recent highlights from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Wengler, Thorsten; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After a brief introduction the start-up of the ATLAS detector for 2016 data taking will be described, as well as its current status and performance, before discussing a selection of recent physics highlights.

  5. PBT assessment and prioritization by PBT Index and consensus modeling: comparison of screening results from structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The limited availability of comprehensive data for Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity (PBT) of chemicals is a serious hindrance to the assignment of compounds to the categories of PBT and vPvB; REACH regulation requires authorization for the use of such chemicals, and additionally plans for safer alternatives. In the context of screening and priority-setting tools for PBT-assessment, the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-INSUBRIA), new software tool for the development and validation of multiple linear regression QSAR models, offers a new holistic approach for the identification of chemicals with cumulative PBT properties directly from their molecular structure. In this study the Insubria PBT Index in QSARINS is applied to the screening and prioritization of various data sets, containing a large variety of chemicals of heterogeneous molecular structure, previously screened by various authors by different methods, for their potential PBT behavior. Particular attention is devoted to the model Applicability Domain, using different approaches such as Descriptor Range, Leverage, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the modeling molecular descriptors, in order to discriminate between interpolated and extrapolated predictions. The results of this screening, which is based only on the molecular structure features and is not dependent on single threshold values for P, B and T, are compared with those obtained by the on-line US-EPA PBT Profiler. Good agreement between the various approaches is found, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in priority-setting studies. The main discrepancies are highlighted and commented on. Moreover, a priority list containing the most hazardous compounds identified in agreement between the two tools is drafted. The PBT Index, implemented in QSARINS, which was demonstrated to be a practical, precautionary and reliable screening tool for PBT-behavior directly from the molecular structure, can be

  6. Large Deviation Results for Generalized Compound Negative Binomial Risk Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan-chao Kong; Chen Shen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we extend and improve some results of the large deviation for random sums of random variables.Let {Xn;n≥1} be a sequence of non-negative,independent and identically distributed random variables with common heavy-tailed distribution function F and finite mean μ∈R+,{N(n);n≥0} be a sequence of negative binomial distributed random variables with a parameter p ∈(0,1),n≥0,let {M(n);n≥0} be a Poisson process with intensity λ0.Suppose {N(n);n≥0},{Xn;n≥1} and {M(n);n≥0} are mutually results.These results can be applied to certain problems in insurance and finance.

  7. Theoretical Modeling of ISO Results on Planetary Nebula NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M.; Federman, S. R.; Dalgarno, A.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    1999-04-01

    We present a thermal and chemical model of the neutral envelope of planetary nebula NGC 7027. In our model, the neutral envelope is composed of a thin dense shell of constant density and an outer stellar wind region with the usual inverse-square law density profile. The thermal and chemical structure is calculated with the assumption that the incident radiation field on the inner surface equals 0.5×105 times Draine's fit to the average interstellar far-ultraviolet field. The rate coefficient for H2 formation on grains is assumed to be 1/5 the usual value to take into account the lower dust-gas mass ratio in the neutral envelope of NGC 7027. The calculated temperature in the dense shell decreases from 3000 to under 200 K. Once the temperature drops to 200 K, we assume that it remains at 200 K until the outer edge of the dense shell is reached, so that the observed intensities of CO J=16-15, 15-14, and 14-13 lines can be reproduced. The 200 K temperature can be interpreted as the average temperature of the shocked gas just behind the forward shock front in the framework of the interacting stellar wind theory. We calculate the intensities of the molecular far-infrared rotational lines by using a revised version of the escape probability formalism. The theoretical intensities for rotational lines of CO (from J=29-28 to J=14-13), CH+, OH, and CH are shown to be in good agreement with ISO observations. The H2 rovibrational line intensities are also calculated and are in agreement with available observations.

  8. Combining forming results via weld models to powerful numerical assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kose, K.; Rietman, Bert

    2004-01-01

    Forming simulations generally give satisfying results with respect to thinning, stresses, changed material properties and, with a proper springback calculation, the geometric form. The joining of parts by means of welding yields an extra change of the material properties and the residual stresses.

  9. Combining forming results via weld models to powerful numerical assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kose, K.; Rietman, B.

    2004-01-01

    Forming simulations generally give satisfying results with respect to thinning, stresses, changed material properties and, with a proper springback calculation, the geometric form. The joining of parts by means of welding yields an extra change of the material properties and the residual stresses. W

  10. Spatialised fate factors for nitrate in catchments: modelling approach and implication for LCA results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset-Mens, Claudine; Anibar, Lamiaa; Durand, Patrick; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2006-08-15

    The challenge for environmental assessment tools, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is to provide a holistic picture of the environmental impacts of a given system, while being relevant both at a global scale, i.e., for global impact categories such as climate change, and at a smaller scale, i.e., for regional impact categories such as aquatic eutrophication. To this end, the environmental mechanisms between emission and impact should be taken into account. For eutrophication in particular, which is one of the main impacts of farming systems, the fate factor of eutrophying pollutants in catchments, and particularly of nitrate, reflects one of these important and complex environmental mechanisms. We define this fate factor as: the ratio of the amount of nitrate at the outlet of the catchment over the nitrate emitted from the catchment's soils. In LCA, this fate factor is most often assumed equal to 1, while the observed fate factor is generally less than 1. A generic approach for estimating the range of variation of nitrate fate factors in a region of intensive agriculture was proposed. This approach was based on the analysis of different catchment scenarios combining different catchment types and different effective rainfalls. The evolution over time of the nitrate fate factor as well as the steady state fate factor for each catchment scenario was obtained using the INCA simulation model. In line with the general LCA model, the implications of the steady state fate factors for nitrate were investigated for the eutrophication impact result in the framework of an LCA of pig production. A sensitivity analysis to the fraction of nitrate lost as N(2)O was presented for the climate change impact category. This study highlighted the difference between the observed fate factor at a given time, which aggregates both storage and transformation processes and a "steady state fate factor", specific to the system considered. The range of steady state fate factors obtained for

  11. Ionospheric Poynting Flux and Joule Heating Modeling Challenge: Latest Results and New Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Knipp, D. J.; Zheng, Y.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Newell, P. T.; Weimer, D. R.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Wang, W.

    2014-12-01

    Poynting Flux and Joule Heating in the ionosphere - latest results from the challenge and updates at the CCMC. With the addition of satellite tracking and display features in the online analysis tool and at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), we are now able to obtain Poynting flux and Joule heating values from a wide variety of ionospheric models. In addition to Poynting fluxes derived from electric and magnetic field measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites for a recent modeling challenge, we can now use a Poynting Flux model derived from FAST satellite observations for comparison. Poynting Fluxes are also correlated using Ovation Prime maps of precipitation patterns during the same time periods to assess how "typical" the events in the challenge are.

  12. Modeling Framework and Results to Inform Charging Infrastructure Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market is experiencing rapid growth with dozens of battery electric (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) models already available and billions of dollars being invested by automotive manufacturers in the PEV space. Electric range is increasing thanks to larger and more advanced batteries and significant infrastructure investments are being made to enable higher power fast charging. Costs are falling and PEVs are becoming more competitive with conventional vehicles. Moreover, new technologies such as connectivity and automation hold the promise of enhancing the value proposition of PEVs. This presentation outlines a suite of projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office to conduct assessments of the economic value and charging infrastructure requirements of the evolving PEV market. Individual assessments include national evaluations of PEV economic value (assuming 73M PEVs on the road in 2035), national analysis of charging infrastructure requirements (with community and corridor level resolution), and case studies of PEV ownership in Columbus, OH and Massachusetts.

  13. Standard Model Higgs results from ATLAS and CMS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221190; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The properties of the Higgs boson particle were measured with the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC at the centre-of-mass energies 7 TeV and 8 TeV. The combined data samples of the ATLAS and CMS experiments were used for the measurements of the Higgs boson mass and couplings. Furthermore, the CP and spin analysis done separately with the CMS and ATLAS experiments are described. Moreover, first results of the Higgs boson cross section at the centre-of-mass energy 13 TeV in the channels H->ZZ->4leptons and H->gamma+gamma with the ATLAS detector are presented.

  14. Stress Resultant Based Elasto-Viscoplastic Thick Shell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Woelke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents enhancement introduced to the elasto-viscoplastic shell formulation, which serves as a theoretical base for the finite element code EPSA (Elasto-Plastic Shell Analysis [1–3]. The shell equations used in EPSA are modified to account for transverse shear deformation, which is important in the analysis of thick plates and shells, as well as composite laminates. Transverse shear forces calculated from transverse shear strains are introduced into a rate-dependent yield function, which is similar to Iliushin's yield surface expressed in terms of stress resultants and stress couples [12]. The hardening rule defined by Bieniek and Funaro [4], which allows for representation of the Bauschinger effect on a moment-curvature plane, was previously adopted in EPSA and is used here in the same form. Viscoplastic strain rates are calculated, taking into account the transverse shears. Only non-layered shells are considered in this work.

  15. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  16. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Evangelia [Queen Mary, University of London; Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Weber, William J [ORNL; Seaton, M [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Todorov, I T [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki; Dove, Martin T [Queen Mary, University of London; Trachenko, Kostya [Queen Mary, University of London

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  17. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, E., E-mail: zarkadoulae@ornl.gov [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Devanathan, R. [Nuclear Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Weber, W. J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Scientific Computing Department, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nordlund, K. [University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Dove, M. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Trachenko, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1–0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  18. First results from the International Urban Energy Balance Model Comparison: Model Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, M.; Grimmond, S.; Best, M.

    2009-04-01

    A great variety of urban energy balance models has been developed. These vary in complexity from simple schemes that represent the city as a slab, through those which model various facets (i.e. road, walls and roof) to more complex urban forms (including street canyons with intersections) and features (such as vegetation cover and anthropogenic heat fluxes). Some schemes also incorporate detailed representations of momentum and energy fluxes distributed throughout various layers of the urban canopy layer. The models each differ in the parameters they require to describe the site and the in demands they make on computational processing power. Many of these models have been evaluated using observational datasets but to date, no controlled comparisons have been conducted. Urban surface energy balance models provide a means to predict the energy exchange processes which influence factors such as urban temperature, humidity, atmospheric stability and winds. These all need to be modelled accurately to capture features such as the urban heat island effect and to provide key information for dispersion and air quality modelling. A comparison of the various models available will assist in improving current and future models and will assist in formulating research priorities for future observational campaigns within urban areas. In this presentation we will summarise the initial results of this international urban energy balance model comparison. In particular, the relative performance of the models involved will be compared based on their degree of complexity. These results will inform us on ways in which we can improve the modelling of air quality within, and climate impacts of, global megacities. The methodology employed in conducting this comparison followed that used in PILPS (the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes) which is also endorsed by the GEWEX Global Land Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) panel. In all cases, models were run

  19. PICASSO VISION instrument design, engineering model test results, and flight model development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsilä, Antti; Holmlund, Christer; Mannila, Rami; Näkki, Ismo; Ojanen, Harri J.; Akujärvi, Altti; Saari, Heikki; Fussen, Didier; Pieroux, Didier; Demoulin, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    PICASSO - A PICo-satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations is an ESA project led by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, in collaboration with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Clyde Space Ltd. (UK) and Centre Spatial de Liège (BE). The test campaign for the engineering model of the PICASSO VISION instrument, a miniaturized nanosatellite spectral imager, has been successfully completed. The test results look very promising. The proto-flight model of VISION has also been successfully integrated and it is waiting for the final integration to the satellite platform.

  20. Modelling combustion reactions for gas flaring and its resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saheed Ismail

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flaring of associated petroleum gas is an age long environmental concern which remains unabated. Flaring of gas maybe a very efficient combustion process especially steam/air assisted flare and more economical than utilization in some oil fields. However, it has serious implications for the environment. This study considered different reaction types and operating conditions for gas flaring. Six combustion equations were generated using the mass balance concept with varying air and combustion efficiency. These equations were coded with a computer program using 12 natural gas samples of different chemical composition and origin to predict the pattern of emission species from gas flaring. The effect of key parameters on the emission output is also shown. CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 are the anticipated non-hydrocarbon emissions of environmental concern. Results show that the quantity and pattern of these chemical species depended on percentage excess/deficiency of stoichiometric air, natural gas type, reaction type, carbon mass content, impurities, combustion efficiency of the flare system etc. These emissions degrade the environment and human life, so knowing the emission types, pattern and flaring conditions that this study predicts is of paramount importance to governments, environmental agencies and the oil and gas industry.

  1. Modelling of a water plasma flow: I. Basic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KotalIk, Pavel [INP Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-06-21

    One-fluid MHD equations are numerically solved for an axisymmetric flow of thermal water plasma inside and outside a discharge chamber of a plasma torch with water vortex stabilization of electric arc. Comparisons with experimental data and previous calculations are given. For arc currents of 300-600 A, the respective temperatures and velocities in the range 16 700-26 400 K and 2300-6900 m s{sup -1} are obtained at the centre of the nozzle exit. The flow velocity on axis increases by 1-2 km s{sup -1} in the 5 mm long nozzle. Ohmic heating and radiative losses are two competitive processes influencing most the plasma temperature and velocity. The radiative losses represent 39% to 46% of the torch power of 69-174 kW when optical thickness of 3 mm is assumed for the plasma column. In front of the cathode, inside the discharge chamber, a recirculation zone is predicted and discussed. Effects of the temperature dependence of the plasma viscosity and sound velocity and of the optical thickness are examined. It is shown that the results such as waviness of the Mach number isolines are direct consequences of these dependences. Different lengths of 55 and 60 mm of the water vortex stabilized part of the electric arc do not substantially influence the plasma temperature and velocity at the nozzle exit.

  2. Cluster recent highlights in magnetospheric physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C. Philippe; Laakso, Harri; Goldstein, Mevlyn; Masson, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    After more than 15 years in space, the Cluster mission is continuing to deliver groundbreaking results, thanks to its ability to move the four spacecraft with respect to each other, according to the science topic to be studied. The main goal of the Cluster mission, made of four identical spacecraft carrying each 11 complementary instruments, is to study in three dimensions the key plasma processes at work in the main regions of the Earth's environment: solar wind and bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail, and auroral zone. During the course of the mission, the relative distance between the four spacecraft has been varied more than 55 times from a few km up to 36000 km to address the various scientific objectives. The smallest distance achieved between two Cluster spacecraft was 3.1 km in December 2015, about 50 times smaller than planned at the beginning of the mission. The rate of change of separation distances has accelerated in the last few years with the Guest Investigator programme that allowed scientists in the community to propose special science programmes requiring a new spacecraft constellation. We will present recent science highlights obtained such as solar wind reconnection and bifurcated current sheet development, multi-altitude measurements of field aligned currents, reconnection efficiency in accelerating particles and effect of cold ions, motion of X-lines, speed and direction of tail reconnection events, flux transfer events evolution, new method to find magnetic nulls outside the Cluster tetrahedron, interplanetary shock waves very quick damping and origin of theta auroras. We will also present the distribution of data through the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS), and the Cluster Science Archive (CSA). CSA was implemented to provide, for the first time for a plasma physics mission, a permanent and public archive of all the high-resolution data from all instruments.

  3. Simulating an infection growth model in certain healthy metabolic pathways of Homo sapiens for highlighting their role in Type I Diabetes mellitus using fire-spread strategy, feedbacks and sensitivities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Tagore

    Full Text Available Disease Systems Biology is an area of life sciences, which is not very well understood to date. Analyzing infections and their spread in healthy metabolite networks can be one of the focussed areas in this regard. We have proposed a theory based on the classical forest fire model for analyzing the path of infection spread in healthy metabolic pathways. The theory suggests that when fire erupts in a forest, it spreads, and the surrounding trees also catch fire. Similarly, when we consider a metabolic network, the infection caused in the metabolites of the network spreads like a fire. We have constructed a simulation model which is used to study the infection caused in the metabolic networks from the start of infection, to spread and ultimately combating it. For implementation, we have used two approaches, first, based on quantitative strategies using ordinary differential equations and second, using graph-theory based properties. Furthermore, we are using certain probabilistic scores to complete this task and for interpreting the harm caused in the network, given by a 'critical value' to check whether the infection can be cured or not. We have tested our simulation model on metabolic pathways involved in Type I Diabetes mellitus in Homo sapiens. For validating our results biologically, we have used sensitivity analysis, both local and global, as well as for identifying the role of feedbacks in spreading infection in metabolic pathways. Moreover, information in literature has also been used to validate the results. The metabolic network datasets have been collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG.

  4. Simulating an infection growth model in certain healthy metabolic pathways of Homo sapiens for highlighting their role in Type I Diabetes mellitus using fire-spread strategy, feedbacks and sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagore, Somnath; De, Rajat K

    2013-01-01

    Disease Systems Biology is an area of life sciences, which is not very well understood to date. Analyzing infections and their spread in healthy metabolite networks can be one of the focussed areas in this regard. We have proposed a theory based on the classical forest fire model for analyzing the path of infection spread in healthy metabolic pathways. The theory suggests that when fire erupts in a forest, it spreads, and the surrounding trees also catch fire. Similarly, when we consider a metabolic network, the infection caused in the metabolites of the network spreads like a fire. We have constructed a simulation model which is used to study the infection caused in the metabolic networks from the start of infection, to spread and ultimately combating it. For implementation, we have used two approaches, first, based on quantitative strategies using ordinary differential equations and second, using graph-theory based properties. Furthermore, we are using certain probabilistic scores to complete this task and for interpreting the harm caused in the network, given by a 'critical value' to check whether the infection can be cured or not. We have tested our simulation model on metabolic pathways involved in Type I Diabetes mellitus in Homo sapiens. For validating our results biologically, we have used sensitivity analysis, both local and global, as well as for identifying the role of feedbacks in spreading infection in metabolic pathways. Moreover, information in literature has also been used to validate the results. The metabolic network datasets have been collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG).

  5. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newberg Lee A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results.

  6. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Lee A

    2009-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results. PMID:19589158

  7. Implementing the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) in a general circulation model: Methodologies and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N.; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Schneider, E. K.; Shukla, J.; Kinter, J. L., III; Hou, Y.-T.; Albertazzi, E.

    1989-01-01

    The Simple Biosphere MOdel (SiB) of Sellers et al., (1986) was designed to simulate the interactions between the Earth's land surface and the atmosphere by treating the vegetation explicitly and relistically, thereby incorporating biophysical controls on the exchanges of radiation, momentum, sensible and latent heat between the two systems. The steps taken to implement SiB in a modified version of the National Meteorological Center's spectral GCM are described. The coupled model (SiB-GCM) was used with a conventional hydrological model (Ctl-GCM) to produce summer and winter simulations. The same GCM was used with a conventional hydrological model (Ctl-GCM) to produce comparable 'control' summer and winter variations. It was found that SiB-GCM produced a more realistic partitioning of energy at the land surface than Ctl-GCM. Generally, SiB-GCM produced more sensible heat flux and less latent heat flux over vegetated land than did Ctl-GCM and this resulted in the development of a much deeper daytime planetary boundary and reduced precipitation rates over the continents in SiB-GCM. In the summer simulation, the 200 mb jet stream and the wind speed at 850 mb were slightly weakened in the SiB-GCM relative to the Ctl-GCM results and equivalent analyses from observations.

  8. South-central Alaska forests: inventory highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Campbell; Willem W.S. van Hees; Bert. Mead

    2005-01-01

    This publication presents highlights of a recent south-central Alaska inventory conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (USDA Forest Service). South-central Alaska has about 18.5 million acres, of which one-fifth (4 million acres) is forested. Species diversity is greatest in closed and open Sitka spruce forests, spruce...

  9. Palliativedrugs.com therapeutic highlights: gabapentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twycross Robert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second in a series of highlights drawn from the www.palliativedrugs.com website. The website provides free access to the Palliative Care Formulary, a monthly newsletter and a bulletin board for advice to be given and received. With almost 10,000 professional members it is the largest palliative care resource of its kind.

  10. Research highlights: printing the future of microfabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Peter; Murray, Coleman; Kim, Donghyuk; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-05-07

    In this issue we highlight emerging microfabrication approaches suitable for microfluidic systems with a focus on "additive manufacturing" processes (i.e. printing). In parallel with the now-wider availability of low cost consumer-grade 3D printers (as evidenced by at least three brands of 3D printers for sale in a recent visit to an electronics store in Akihabara, Tokyo), commercial-grade 3D printers are ramping to higher and higher resolution with new capabilities, such as printing of multiple materials of different transparency, and with different mechanical and electrical properties. We highlight new work showing that 3D printing (stereolithography approaches in particular) has now risen as a viable technology to print whole microfluidic devices. Printing on 2D surfaces such as paper is an everyday experience, and has been used widely in analytical chemistry for printing conductive materials on paper strips for glucose and other electrochemical sensors. We highlight recent work using electrodes printed on paper for digital microfluidic droplet actuation. Finally, we highlight recent work in which printing of membrane-bound droplets that interconnect through bilayer membranes may open up an entirely new approach to microfluidic manufacturing of soft devices that mimic physiological systems.

  11. Brookhaven highlights - Brookhaven National Laboratory 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report highlights research conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the following areas: alternating gradient synchrotron; physics; biology; national synchrotron light source; department of applied science; medical; chemistry; department of advanced technology; reactor; safety and environmental protection; instrumentation; and computing and communications.

  12. Teaching Literature to Highlight Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnaan, Ram A.

    1989-01-01

    A second-year elective course for graduate social work students in which twentieth-century novels are used to highlight social issues is described. The relationships between art and social realities and literature's usefulness for social policy analysis are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  13. LibTech Highlights from ALA Midwinter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hane, Paula J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite lower attendance than in the past and blustery, cold weather, the American Library Association's Midwinter Meeting in Denver in January offered lots of news from industry vendors and lots of opportunities to discuss important issues and trends. In this report, the author highlights some of the most important product announcements with a…

  14. Brookhaven highlights, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Highlights are given for the research areas of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. These areas include high energy physics, physics and chemistry, life sciences, applied energy science (energy and environment, and nuclear energy), and support activities (including mathematics, instrumentation, reactors, and safety). (GHT)

  15. Lithospheric deformation and mantle/crust coupling related to slab roll-back and tearing processes: the role of magma-related rheological weakening highlighted by 3D numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, Armel; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Sternai, Pietro; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    Active convergent margins are the locus of various large-scale lithospheric processes including subduction, back-arc opening, lithospheric delamination, slab tearing and break-off. Coexistence of such processes results in a complex lithospheric deformation pattern through the rheological stratification of the overriding lithosphere. In this context, another major feature is the development of an intense arc- and back-arc-related magmatism whose effects on lithospheric deformation by rheological weakening are largely unknown. Quantifying this magma-related weakening effect and integrating the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction system is however challenging because of the large number of physico-chemical processes involved (e.g. heat advection, dehydration of subducted material, partial melting of the mantle wedge). We present here a set of 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical experiments to assess the role of low-viscosity magmatic phases on lithospheric deformation associated with coeval oceanic and continental subduction, followed by slab retreat and tearing processes. Results in terms of crustal kinematics, patterns of lithospheric deformation and distribution and composition of magmatic phases are then compared to a natural example displaying a similar geodynamical evolution: the eastern Mediterranean subduction zone. Our modeling results suggest that the asthenospheric flow controls the ascending trajectories of mantle-derived magmatic sources developed in the mantle wedge in response to dehydration of oceanic slab. Once stored at the base of the overriding continental crust, low-viscosity mantle- and crustal-derived magmatic phases allow to decrease the lithospheric strength. This weakening then enhances the propagation of localized extensional and strike-slip deformation in response to slab roll-back and extrusion tectonics respectively. In addition, we show that storage of large amounts of low-viscosity magmas

  16. The response of an equatorial ocean to simple wind stress patterns. I - Model formulation and analytic results. II - Numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    A time-dependent, primitive equation, beta plane model that is two-dimensional in the horizontal has been developed to model wind-driven equatorial ocean circulation. A simple vertical structure consisting of two layers above the thermocline with the same constant density permits a steady-state undercurrent in the model. An analytical study of the linear dynamics of the model suggests that the addition of inertial effects is needed to simulate the undercurrent properly. Also, both linear and nonlinear dynamics of the model are investigated numerically. Such nonlinear response to wind stress as a strong eastward equatorial undercurrent and an intense eastward 'countercurrent' at three deg N are noted in the numerical results.

  17. Pre-accidental situations highlighted by RECUPERARE method and data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matahri, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    RECUPERARE method has been developed for operating feedback analysis and built on the French Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) principles. It is used to study the causes of human errors or technical failures occurred in French PWRs and the recovery process of events. Based on an event classification (6 categories) model according to the nature of the link between failure and recovery, the identified and recorded data are: the causes of the defects (technical, human, organizational) and the context in which they appear; the factors of the recovery performance (depending on technical and organizational aspects); a chronological analysis, designed to collect delays between failures and their detection/recovery for each event. About 3600 events reported in French PWRs (1997-2003) had been reviewed through this model. Initially, the weight of factors and the most important factors, which influenced the detection and recovery delay, are defined. For this purpose, the regression Partial Least Square (PLS) is used. Then, to link RECUPERARE results with pre-accidental data, conditional probabilities of events linked between them by a cause and effect relationship are calculated. For this, the Bayesian method with the Bayesian network is built with the PLS obtained results and applied. This constitutes a first approach to take into account in HRA the human and organizational factors highlighted by operating feedback. (author)

  18. Some results from 1/8-scale Shuttle model vibration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, L. D.; Leadbetter, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Highlights of experimental and analytical vibration studies of a 1/8-scale structural dynamic model of the Space Shuttle are presented. The Space Shuttle is a launch vehicle with elements assembled in an asymmetric manner. Responses of the assembled vehicle are characterized by directional coupling and high modal density at low frequencies. Effects of distortion of structure near element interfaces are shown to be significant and predictable with highly detailed mathematical models. Acquisition of modal data by single-point random excitation is shown to be viable for these complex structures. Element studies reveal large liquid-structure interactions and a wide range of structural damping.

  19. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    A series of Moon Village Workshops were organised at ESTEC and at ILEWG community events in 2015 and 2016. They gathered a multi-disciplinary group of professionals from all around the world to discuss their ideas about the concept of a Moon Village, the vision of ESA's Director General (DG) Jan Woerner of a permanent lunar base within the next decades [1]. Three working groups focused on 1) Moon Habitat Design; 2) science and technology potentials of the Moon Village, and 3) engaging stake-holders [2-3]. Their results and recommendations are presented in this abstract. The Moon Habitat Design group identified that the lunar base design is strongly driven by the lunar environment, which is characterized by high radiation, meteoroids, abrasive dust particles, low gravity and vacuum. The base location is recommended to be near the poles to provide optimized illumination conditions for power generation, permanent communication to Earth, moderate temperature gradients at the surface and interesting subjects to scientific investigations. The abundance of nearby available resources, especially ice at the dark bottoms of craters, can be exploited in terms of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The identified infrastructural requirements include a navigation, data- & commlink network, storage facilities and sustainable use of resources. This involves a high degree of recycling, closed-loop life support and use of 3D-printing technology, which are all technologies with great potential for terrestrial spin-off applications. For the site planning of the Moon Village, proven ideas from urban planning on Earth should be taken into account. A couple of principles, which could improve the quality of a long-term living milieu on the Moon, are creating spacious environments, visibility between interior and exterior spaces, areas with flora, such as gardens and greenhouses, establishing a sustainable community and creating social places for astronauts to interact and relax. The

  20. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  1. Theoretical investigations on model ternary polypeptides using genetic algorithm-Some new results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Vinita [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Bakhshi, A.K., E-mail: akbakhshi2000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2011-04-28

    Graphical abstract: Model ternary polypeptide chains consisting of glycine, alanine and serine amino acids as repeat units in anti-parallel {beta}-pleated sheet conformation have been theoretically investigated and designed using the genetic algorithm. The optimum solution or the polypeptide chain being searched for using the algorithm is the one having minimum band gap and maximum electronic delocalization in the polypeptide chain. The effects of (i) change of basis set from minimal to double zeta, (ii) change in secondary structure from {beta}-pleated to {alpha}-helical, (iii) presence of solvation shell, and (iv) binding of ions such as H{sup +} and Li{sup +} to the peptide group on the resulting optimum solution as well as on electronic structure and conduction properties of polypeptides have been investigated taking the ab initio Hartree-Fock crystal orbital results as input. The band gap value was also found to decrease in presence of a solvation shell, in presence of cations in the vicinity of the polypeptide chain as well as with the use of an improved basis set. Highlights: {yields} GA has been used for theoretical tailoring of aperiodic ternary polypeptides. {yields} Band gap of polypeptide chain decreases in presence of solvation shell. {yields} Band gap decreases in presence of cations in the vicinity of the chain. {yields} H{sup +} ion acts as a strong electron acceptor than Li{sup +} ion due to smaller size. - Abstract: Using genetic algorithm (GA) model ternary polypeptides containing glycine, alanine and serine in {beta}-pleated conformation have been theoretically investigated. In designing, the criterion to attain the optimum solution at the end of GA run is minimum band gap and maximum delocalization in the polypeptide chain. Ab initio results obtained using Clementi's minimal basis set are used as input. Effects of (i) change of basis set from minimal to double zeta, (ii) change in secondary structure from {beta}-pleated to {alpha

  2. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  3. [A target-highlighting method in multispectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin-jun; Lin, Qi-zhong; Li, Ming-xiao; Wang, Li-ming; Tian, Qing-jiu

    2009-04-01

    In order to highlight target in multispectral remote sensing and overcome the human error caused by threshold, a new method is proposed here. Image of target similarity is firstly calculated by spectral energy level matching (SEM) algorithm and as a band added to original image; Then, band normalization is performed on the new image to reduce the effects caused by the order of magnitude in different bands; Finally, a false color image that highlights the target is made by RGB composed of the first three bands (3, 2, 1) in MNF transformation. Results from the experiment of highlighting the main rock-type tuffaceous siltstone in Hatu area, Xinjiang province, China show that (1) the new method can highlight target for the increment of target's information and weights during the process of transformation by adding a band representing target's similarity to the original image. Therefore, it overcomes the shortcomings existing in the common transformations on space information-although different objects corresponding to special information space are distinguished, targets the authors wanted can not be highlighted yet; (2) The new method can distinguish more objects than original maximum noise fraction (MNF) transformation because it unifies the tone for the same object's type by suppressing none target information using SEM method; (3) In addition to highlighting tuffaceous siltstone in the study area, the new method can be used widely in other fields such as soil, concrete, altered mineral etc.

  4. Trends and highlights of VCI 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This report attempts to summarize the presentations given at this conference. Topics related to R&D of gaseous and solid state detectors clearly point to several trends in particle physics instrumentation. More established techniques are represented by reports on recent experiments and facilities which can be considered the highlights in this research field. The extension of these techniques to space, arctic ice and deep sea are opening new frontiers of particle physics.

  5. Large-scale features of Pliocene climate: results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Haywood

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate and environments of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (3.264 to 3.025 Ma have been extensively studied. Whilst numerical models have shed light on the nature of climate at the time, uncertainties in their predictions have not been systematically examined. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project quantifies uncertainties in model outputs through a co-ordinated multi-model and multi-model/data intercomparison. Whilst commonalities in model outputs for the Pliocene are evident, we show substantial variation in the sensitivity of models to the implementation of Pliocene boundary conditions. Models appear able to reproduce many regional changes in temperature reconstructed from geological proxies. However, data/model comparison highlights the potential for models to underestimate polar amplification. To assert this conclusion with greater confidence, limitations in the time-averaged proxy data currently available must be addressed. Sensitivity tests exploring the "known unknowns" in modelling Pliocene climate specifically relevant to the high-latitudes are also essential (e.g. palaeogeography, gateways, orbital forcing and trace gasses. Estimates of longer-term sensitivity to CO2 (also known as Earth System Sensitivity; ESS, suggest that ESS is greater than Climate Sensitivity (CS, and that the ratio of ESS to CS is between 1 and 2, with a best estimate of 1.5.

  6. Large-scale features of Pliocene climate: results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Haywood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate and environments of the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.264 to 3.025 Ma have been extensively studied. Whilst numerical models have shed light on the nature of climate at the time, uncertainties in their predictions have not been systematically examined. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project quantifies uncertainties in model outputs through a coordinated multi-model and multi-model/data intercomparison. Whilst commonalities in model outputs for the Pliocene are clearly evident, we show substantial variation in the sensitivity of models to the implementation of Pliocene boundary conditions. Models appear able to reproduce many regional changes in temperature reconstructed from geological proxies. However, data/model comparison highlights that models potentially underestimate polar amplification. To assert this conclusion with greater confidence, limitations in the time-averaged proxy data currently available must be addressed. Furthermore, sensitivity tests exploring the known unknowns in modelling Pliocene climate specifically relevant to the high latitudes are essential (e.g. palaeogeography, gateways, orbital forcing and trace gasses. Estimates of longer-term sensitivity to CO2 (also known as Earth System Sensitivity; ESS, support previous work suggesting that ESS is greater than Climate Sensitivity (CS, and suggest that the ratio of ESS to CS is between 1 and 2, with a "best" estimate of 1.5.

  7. Highlighting the Vulnerabilities of Online Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith T Khrais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the growing use of the Internet and developing advanced technology systems globally, there has been an apparent increase in the usage of online banking system across the world, accompanied by widespread incidents of fraud and attack. This paper gives a simple description of the online banking mechanism and the nature of the attacks that involved in the process of conducting an online transaction through a computer, along with the security models and measures that can be used to block the threats.

  8. Large-Scale Features of Pliocene Climate: Results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, A. M.; Hill, D.J.; Dolan, A. M.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Bragg, F.; Chan, W.-L.; Chandler, M. A.; Contoux, C.; Dowsett, H. J.; Jost, A.; Kamae, Y.; Lohmann, G.; Lunt, D. J.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Pickering, S. J.; Ramstein, G.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Salzmann, U.; Sohl, L.; Stepanek, C.; Ueda, H.; Yan, Q.; Zhang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Climate and environments of the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.264 to 3.025 Ma) have been extensively studied.Whilst numerical models have shed light on the nature of climate at the time, uncertainties in their predictions have not been systematically examined. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project quantifies uncertainties in model outputs through a coordinated multi-model and multi-mode data intercomparison. Whilst commonalities in model outputs for the Pliocene are clearly evident, we show substantial variation in the sensitivity of models to the implementation of Pliocene boundary conditions. Models appear able to reproduce many regional changes in temperature reconstructed from geological proxies. However, data model comparison highlights that models potentially underestimate polar amplification. To assert this conclusion with greater confidence, limitations in the time-averaged proxy data currently available must be addressed. Furthermore, sensitivity tests exploring the known unknowns in modelling Pliocene climate specifically relevant to the high latitudes are essential (e.g. palaeogeography, gateways, orbital forcing and trace gasses). Estimates of longer-term sensitivity to CO2 (also known as Earth System Sensitivity; ESS), support previous work suggesting that ESS is greater than Climate Sensitivity (CS), and suggest that the ratio of ESS to CS is between 1 and 2, with a "best" estimate of 1.5.

  9. Highlights fra Tour de ledelse 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt Larsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Co-creation, ledelse af generation Y, HRM-begrebets udvikling og mellemlederen som organisationens nye helt. Det skortede ikke på spændende aktuelle temaer og indspark, da verdens største ledelseskonference – Academy of Management – løb af stablen tidligere på måneden i Florida, USA. CBS-professo......-professor Henrik Holt Larsen var med på første række for at opsnappe nye trends og landvindinger inden for HRM og god ledelse af virksomhedens menneskelige ressourcer. Her er hans highlights fra den storstilede konference....

  10. Towards more accurate isoscapes encouraging results from wine, water and marijuana data/model and model/model comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Cerling, T.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how the biosphere responds to change it at the heart of biogeochemistry, ecology, and other Earth sciences. The dramatic increase in human population and technological capacity over the past 200 years or so has resulted in numerous, simultaneous changes to biosphere structure and function. This, then, has lead to increased urgency in the scientific community to try to understand how systems have already responded to these changes, and how they might do so in the future. Since all biospheric processes exhibit some patchiness or patterns over space, as well as time, we believe that understanding the dynamic interactions between natural systems and human technological manipulations can be improved if these systems are studied in an explicitly spatial context. We present here results of some of our efforts to model the spatial variation in the stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) of plants over large spatial extents, and how these spatial model predictions compare to spatially explicit data. Stable isotopes trace and record ecological processes and as such, if modeled correctly over Earth's surface allow us insights into changes in biosphere states and processes across spatial scales. The data-model comparisons show good agreement, in spite of the remaining uncertainties (e.g., plant source water isotopic composition). For example, inter-annual changes in climate are recorded in wine stable isotope ratios. Also, a much simpler model of leaf water enrichment driven with spatially continuous global rasters of precipitation and climate normals largely agrees with complex GCM modeling that includes leaf water δ18O. Our results suggest that modeling plant stable isotope ratios across large spatial extents may be done with reasonable accuracy, including over time. These spatial maps, or isoscapes, can now be utilized to help understand spatially distributed data, as well as to help guide future studies designed to understand ecological change across

  11. Highlighting Astyanax Species Diversity through DNA Barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos Alexandre Miranda; de Melo, Filipe Augusto Gonçalves; Bertaco, Vinicius de Araújo; de Astarloa, Juan M. Díaz; Rosso, Juan J.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been used extensively to solve taxonomic questions and identify new species. Neotropical fishes are found in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, with a large number of species yet to be described, many of which are very difficult to identify. Characidae is the most species-rich family of the Characiformes, and many of its genera are affected by taxonomic uncertainties, including the widely-distributed, species-rich genus Astyanax. In this study, we present an extensive analysis of Astyanax covering almost its entire area of occurrence, based on DNA barcoding. The use of different approaches (ABGD, GMYC and BIN) to the clustering of the sequences revealed ample consistency in the results obtained by the initial cutoff value of 2% divergence for putative species in the Neighbor-Joining analysis using the Kimura-2-parameter model. The results indicate the existence of five Astyanax lineages. Some groups, such as that composed by the trans-Andean forms, are mostly composed of well-defined species, and in others a number of nominal species are clustered together, hampering the delimitation of species, which in many cases proved impossible. The results confirm the extreme complexity of the systematics of the genus Astyanax and show that DNA barcoding can be an useful tool to address these complexes questions. PMID:27992537

  12. ASCO highlights podcast: head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlano, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A critical review of the head and neck cancer research highlights of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting 2016, held in June 2016 in Chicago, is presented in this podcast. Considering the most interesting and practice-changing trials reported at the meeting, the key trial comparing gemcitabine plus cisplatin against 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) plus cisplatin in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is highlighted. The GORTEC2007-02 trial comparing induction docetaxel/platinum/5-FU followed by cetuximab-radiotherapy against concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for N2b/c-N3 non operated stage III-IV squamous cell cancer of the head and neck is also discussed. An overview of the research reported using immunotherapy in head and neck cancer is also given, considering maturing data and particularly in relapsing patients, where response rates, though low, are better than with current therapies, and the responses are long lasting. Future developments are also considered, again with a focus on immunotherapy, but also considering combination with radiotherapy and chemoradiation.

  13. Research highlights: digital assays on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyuk; Wei, Qingshan; Kong, Janay Elise; Ozcan, Aydogan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2015-01-07

    The ability to break up a volume of fluid into smaller pieces that are confined or separated to prevent molecular communication/transport is a key capability intrinsic to microfluidic systems. This capability has been used to develop or implement digital versions of traditional molecular analysis assays, including digital PCR and digital immunoassays/ELISA. In these digital versions, the concentration of the target analyte is in a range such that, when sampled into smaller fluid volumes, either a single molecule or no molecule may be present. Subsequent amplification is sensitive enough to obtain a digital readout of the presence of these target molecules. Advantages of such approaches that are claimed include quantification without calibration and robustness to variations in reaction conditions or times because the digital readout is less sensitive to absolute signal intensity levels. Weaknesses of digital approaches include a lower dynamic range of concentrations over which the assay is sensitive, which depends on the total volume that can be analyzed. We highlight recent efforts to expand the dynamic range of digital assays based on exploiting reaction/diffusion phenomena. A side-by-side study that evaluates the strengths of digital assays reveals that the majority of these claims are supported, with specific caveats. Finally, we highlight approaches to apply digital assays to analyze new types of reactions, including the active transport of protons across membranes by ATPases at the single protein level - perhaps opening up new biophysical understanding and screening opportunities, similar to widely deployed single-molecule ion channel analysis.

  14. Astonishing the wild pigs highlights of technology

    CERN Document Server

    Trueb, Lucien F; Stuber, Fred A

    2015-01-01

    A hydraulic machine for astonishing wild pigs was one of the many technological highlights the author encountered in the course of his career as a research scientist and science writer. Writing a book about them, never taking more (or less) than two printed pages for each of 146 subjects was a very special challenge. The book covers fundamentally important achievements of technology that directly impacted mankind or even profoundly changed it. Many of those highlights are quite new, at least one of them (power generation by nuclear fusion) is not available yet. But particularly ingenious things dating way back were also included, as they are the base of our technical civilization Good examples are ceramics as well as copper, bronze and iron; whole periods of history have been named for the latter three. The analog computer of Antikythera used for stellar navigation was made some 2100 years ago, gunpowder was used in China as early as 1044 A.D., the astronomical clock in the Strasburg cathedral was built in th...

  15. Highlighting material structure with transmission electron diffraction correlation coefficient maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ákos K; Rauch, Edgar F; Lábár, János L

    2016-04-01

    Correlation coefficient maps are constructed by computing the differences between neighboring diffraction patterns collected in a transmission electron microscope in scanning mode. The maps are shown to highlight material structural features like grain boundaries, second phase particles or dislocations. The inclination of the inner crystal interfaces are directly deduced from the resulting contrast.

  16. Highlighting Text as a Study Strategy: Beyond Attentional Focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Reinhard W.; And Others

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether the strategy of differentiating main and supporting ideas with different colored highlighter pens resulted in greater use of schema building and increased recall of information by students and whether the benefits of text marking come at the time of encoding or at the time of review. Sixty-six…

  17. Introducing Open Highlights: Highlighting Open Access Research from PLOS and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    PLOS Biology announces a new article type, Open Highlights, which uses a recent research article to nucleate a short synthesis of up to ten related research articles from other PLOS journals and from the wider Open Access corpus.

  18. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    2000-01-01

    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  19. Testing of Subgrid—Scale Stress Models by Using Results from Direct Numerical SImulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongruiGONG

    1998-01-01

    The most commonly used dynamic subgrid models,Germano's model and dynamic kinetic energy model,and their base models-the Smagorinsky model and the kinetic energy model,were tested using results from direct numerical simulations of various turbulent flows.In germano's dynamic model,the model coefficient was treated as a constant within the test filter,This treatment is conceptually inconsistent.An iteration procedure was proposed to calculate the model coefficient and an improved correlation coefficient was found.

  20. Physical Sciences 2007 Science & Technology Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2008-04-07

    The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007.

  1. ARGO-YBJ: Status and Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Di Sciascio, G

    2012-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is in stable data taking since November 2007 at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm$^2$). ARGO-YBJ is facing open problems in Cosmic Ray (CR) physics in different ways. The search for CR sources is carried out by the observation of TeV gamma-ray sources both galactic and extra-galactic. The CR spectrum, composition and anisotropy are measured in a wide energy range (TeV - PeV) thus overlapping for the first time direct measurements. In this paper we summarize the current status of the experiment and describe some of the scientific highlights since 2007.

  2. Research highlights: microfluidics meets big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Peter; Weaver, Westbrook M; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Owsley, Keegan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-03-07

    In this issue we highlight a collection of recent work in which microfluidic parallelization and automation have been employed to address the increasing need for large amounts of quantitative data concerning cellular function--from correlating microRNA levels to protein expression, increasing the throughput and reducing the noise when studying protein dynamics in single-cells, and understanding how signal dynamics encodes information. The painstaking dissection of cellular pathways one protein at a time appears to be coming to an end, leading to more rapid discoveries which will inevitably translate to better cellular control--in producing useful gene products and treating disease at the individual cell level. From these studies it is also clear that development of large scale mutant or fusion libraries, automation of microscopy, image analysis, and data extraction will be key components as microfluidics contributes its strengths to aid systems biology moving forward.

  3. Highlights from NuFact05

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Landua, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    The 7th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Superbeams was held in Frascati in June 2005 with nearly 200 participants. The most recent progress in the design of future neutrino facilities was described, including novel ideas in detectors, and many issues were raised. The International Scoping Study (ISS) for a future Neutrino Facility which would incorporate a Neutrino Factory and/or a high intensity Neutrino Superbeam was launched at that occasion. Built upon previous studies in the USA, Europe and Japan, it will aim to i) define the physics case and a baseline design for such a facility including the related neutrino detection systems, ii) identify the required research and development programme and iii) perform comparisons with other options such as beta beams. The highlights of the meeting and the upcoming studies will be presented.

  4. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Kampert, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes some highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory that were presented at the ICRC 2011 in Beijing. The cumulative exposure has grown by more than 60% since the previous ICRC to above 21000 km^2 sr yr. Besides giving important updates on the energy spectrum, mass composition, arrival directions, and photon- and neutrino upper limits, we present first measurements of the energy spectrum down to 3 x 10^{17} eV, first distributions of the shower maximum, X_max, together with new surface detector related observables sensitive to X_max, and we present first measurements of the p-air cross section at ~ 10^{18} eV. Serendipity observations such as of atmospheric phenomena showing time evolutions of elves extend the breadth of the astrophysics research program.

  5. Comparison of solid highlighter materials for thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genest, M.; Forsyth, D.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: marc.genest@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; Maldague, X. [Univ. Laval, Electrical and Computing Engienering Dept., Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Bare metal surfaces are difficult to inspect with flash thermography due to the high reflectivity and low emissivity of metal surfaces. Often black paint is used to prepare these surfaces for inspection. The additional time required to apply, dry, and then remove paint after inspection can be a significant barrier to using thermographic inspection techniques in these applications. This paper examines the use of solid 'highlighter' materials instead of paint to provide desirable surface characteristics and ease of use. Both positive pressure and vacuum methods were used to apply a variety of materials to metal test specimens, which were then inspected with a commercial pulsed flash thermography system. A vacuum-applied black latex material provided surface performance close to that of black paint without the extra burden of paint application and removal. (author)

  6. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  7. Constraining performance assessment models with tracer test results: a comparison between two conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Sean A.; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    Tracer tests are conducted to ascertain solute transport parameters of a single rock feature over a 5-m transport pathway. Two different conceptualizations of double-porosity solute transport provide estimates of the tracer breakthrough curves. One of the conceptualizations (single-rate) employs a single effective diffusion coefficient in a matrix with infinite penetration depth. However, the tracer retention between different flow paths can vary as the ratio of flow-wetted surface to flow rate differs between the path lines. The other conceptualization (multirate) employs a continuous distribution of multiple diffusion rate coefficients in a matrix with variable, yet finite, capacity. Application of these two models with the parameters estimated on the tracer test breakthrough curves produces transport results that differ by orders of magnitude in peak concentration and time to peak concentration at the performance assessment (PA) time and length scales (100,000 years and 1,000 m). These differences are examined by calculating the time limits for the diffusive capacity to act as an infinite medium. These limits are compared across both conceptual models and also against characteristic times for diffusion at both the tracer test and PA scales. Additionally, the differences between the models are examined by re-estimating parameters for the multirate model from the traditional double-porosity model results at the PA scale. Results indicate that for each model the amount of the diffusive capacity that acts as an infinite medium over the specified time scale explains the differences between the model results and that tracer tests alone cannot provide reliable estimates of transport parameters for the PA scale. Results of Monte Carlo runs of the transport models with varying travel times and path lengths show consistent results between models and suggest that the variation in flow-wetted surface to flow rate along path lines is insignificant relative to variability in

  8. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center project accomplishments: highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) has invested more than $20M since 2008 to put cutting-edge climate science research in the hands of resource managers across the Nation. With NCCWSC support, more than 25 cooperative research initiatives led by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers and technical staff are advancing our understanding of habitats and species to provide guidance to managers in the face of a changing climate. Projects focus on quantifying and predicting interactions between climate, habitats, species, and other natural resources such as water. Spatial scales of the projects range from the continent of North America, to a regional scale such as the Pacific Northwest United States, to a landscape scale such as the Florida Everglades. Time scales range from the outset of the 20th century to the end of the 21st century. Projects often lead to workshops, presentations, publications and the creation of new websites, computer models, and data visualization tools. Partnership-building is also a key focus of the NCCWSC-supported projects. New and on-going cooperative partnerships have been forged and strengthened with resource managers and scientists at Federal, tribal, state, local, academic, and non-governmental organizations. USGS scientists work closely with resource managers to produce timely and relevant results that can assist managers and policy makers in current resource management decisions. This fact sheet highlights accomplishments of five NCCWSC projects.

  9. Highlighting landslides and other geomorphological features using sediment connectivity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Giulia; Crema, Stefano; Cavalli, Marco; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Landslide identification is usually made through interpreting geomorphological features in the field or with remote sensing imagery. In recent years, airborne laser scanning (LiDAR) has enhanced the potentiality of geomorphological investigations by providing a detailed and diffuse representation of the land surface. The development of algorithms for geomorphological analysis based on LiDAR derived high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) is increasing. Among them, the sediment connectivity index (IC) has been used to quantify sediment dynamics in alpine catchments. In this work, maps of the sediment connectivity index are used for detecting geomorphological features and processes not exclusively related to water-laden processes or debris flows. The test area is located in the upper Passer Valley in South Tyrol (Italy). Here a 4 km2 Deep-seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DGSD) with several secondary phenomena has been studied for years. The connectivity index was applied to a well-known study area in order to evaluate its effectiveness as an interpretative layer to assist geomorphological analysis. Results were cross checked with evidence previously identified by means of in situ investigations, photointerpretation and monitoring data. IC was applied to a 2.5 m LiDAR derived DTM using two different scenarios in order to test their effectiveness: i) IC derived on the hydrologically correct DTM; ii) IC derived on the original DTM. In the resulting maps a cluster of low-connectivity areas appears as the deformation of the DGSD induce a convexity in the central part of the phenomenon. The double crests, product of the sagging of the landslide, are extremely evident since in those areas the flow directions diverge from the general drainage pattern, which is directed towards the valley river. In the crown area a rock-slab that shows clear evidence of incumbent detachment is clearly highlighted since the maps emphasize the presence of traction trenches and

  10. Model validation: Issues regarding comparisons of point measurements and high-resolution modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Anne D.; Skagseth, Øystein; Skogen, Morten D.

    2016-10-01

    In this study we compare a high resolution model of waters on the Norwegian Shelf with hydrographic observations obtained during 2009 at Ingøy, a fixed coastal station off northwestern Norway operated by the Institute of Marine Research. The observations comprise snapshots from Ingøy every two weeks, whereas the model represents an average over a certain volume and is continuous in time. We suggest that bias is the best way to compare the modeled and observed times series, while acknowledging the short-term variability (within a day) it is recommended to use the modeled range to estimate an acceptable deviation between single points in the series. Using the suggested method we conclude that an acceptable deviation between the modeled and observed surface temperatures at Ingøy is 0.6 °C. With such an acceptance level the model is correct in 27 out of 33 points for the time series considered.

  11. Comparison of Statistical Multifragmentation Model simulations with Canonical Thermodynamical Model results: a few representative cases

    CERN Document Server

    Botvina, A; Gupta, S Das; Mishustin, I

    2008-01-01

    The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) has been widely used to explain experimental data of intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. A later entrant in the field is the canonical thermodynamic model (CTM) which is also being used to fit experimental data. The basic physics of both the models is the same, namely that fragments are produced according to their statistical weights in the available phase space. However, they are based on different statistical ensembles, and the methods of calculation are different: while the SMM uses Monte-Carlo simulations, the CTM solves recursion relations. In this paper we compare the predictions of the two models for a few representative cases.

  12. Regression mixture models : Does modeling the covariance between independent variables and latent classes improve the results?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, A.E.; Vermunt, J.K.; Van Horn, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Regression mixture models are increasingly used as an exploratory approach to identify heterogeneity in the effects of a predictor on an outcome. In this simulation study, we tested the effects of violating an implicit assumption often made in these models; that is, independent variables in the

  13. Modeling drifting snow in Antarctica with a regional climate model: 2. Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model study of the impact of drifting snow on the lower atmosphere, surface snow characteristics, and surface mass balance of Antarctica. We use the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.1/ANT with a high horizontal resolution (27 km), equipped with a drifting snow routine

  14. Modeling drifting snow in Antarctica with a regional climate model: 2. Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model study of the impact of drifting snow on the lower atmosphere, surface snow characteristics, and surface mass balance of Antarctica. We use the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.1/ANT with a high horizontal resolution (27 km), equipped with a drifting snow routine

  15. In Silico Model for Developmental Toxicity: How to Use QSAR Models and Interpret Their Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Marco; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Kulkarni, Sunil; Barton-Maclaren, Tara S; Benfenati, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Modeling developmental toxicity has been a challenge for (Q)SAR model developers due to the complexity of the endpoint. Recently, some new in silico methods have been developed introducing the possibility to evaluate the integration of existing methods by taking advantage of various modeling perspectives. It is important that the model user is aware of the underlying basis of the different models in general, as well as the considerations and assumptions relative to the specific predictions that are obtained from these different models for the same chemical. The evaluation on the predictions needs to be done on a case-by-case basis, checking the analogs (possibly using structural, physicochemical, and toxicological information); for this purpose, the assessment of the applicability domain of the models provides further confidence in the model prediction. In this chapter, we present some examples illustrating an approach to combine human-based rules and statistical methods to support the prediction of developmental toxicity; we also discuss assumptions and uncertainties of the methodology.

  16. Highlights and Conclusions of the Unidata OGC Interoperability Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, B.; Davis, E.; Rew, R.; Caron, J.; Nativi, S.; Yang, W.; Falke, S.; Woolf, A.; Tandy, J.

    2007-12-01

    At the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) Technical Committee meetings, Unidata hosted a special Interoperability Day workshop to address the use of web services via standard interfaces for accessing a broad range of environmental data. These interfaces include: WCS (Web Coverage Service), WFS (Web Feature Service, SOS (Sensor Observation Service, CS-W/ebRIM (Catalog Service for the Web / electronic business Registry Information Model) for providing access to data currently served via THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services), OPeNDAP (Open source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol), netCDF-CF (network Common Data Form - Climate and Forecast conventions) and IDD/LDM (Internet Data Distribution / Local Data Manager) technologies. The primary data served includes weather, climate and ocean data from the community sometimes referred to as Fluid Earth Sciences (FES). An international set of representatives from industry, government, and academia, spanning many geosciences disciplines participated actively in the workshop and are committed to continued collaboration. The overall objective for the day was to come up with practical and concrete ideas for how to deliver various classes of FES data via web services through the standard interfaces. The primary focus was on gridded datasets (e.g., forecast model output) and station/observation/point datasets (e.g. the observational data collected at weather stations, ocean buoys, river gaging stations. As time allowed, other categories (profile/trajectory, swath, radial, unstructured grids) were addressed. The main objective was to come up with a realistic plan for dealing with gridded and station/observation/point datasets. Then the remaining categories can be addressed incrementally. This presentation summarizes the highlights of the Interoperability Day and the resulting plans for future implementation and testing.

  17. Highlights from past and future physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Daisy Yuhas

    2009-01-01

    A two-day symposium was held at CERN on 3 and 4 December in celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Proton Synchrotron and the twentieth anniversary of LEP. The symposium, entitled “From the Proton Synchrotron to the Large Hadron Collider- 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics”, included a series of seminars reflecting on the past fifty years in particle physics and an exhibition highlighting CERN’s research over this period.   Lyn Evans, LHC project leader, addressing the audience gathered in the Main Auditorium during the symposium that celebrated the 50 years of the PS and the 20 years of LEP.  The events were well attended on both days. Thursday’s reception, to which the Director-General invited everyone working at CERN, attracted over 1200 people. The seminars drew about 500 people to the Main Auditorium and the Council Chamber each day, with at least as many on-line attendees. The symposium speakers, including thirteen No...

  18. LHC Highlights, from dream to reality

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The idea of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was born in the early 1980s. Although LEP (CERN’s previous large accelerator) was still under construction at that time, scientists were already starting to think about re-using the 27-kilometre ring for an even more powerful machine. Turning this ambitious scientific plan into reality proved to be an immensely complex task. Civil engineering work, state-of-the-art technologies, a new approach to data storage and analysis: many people worked hard for many years to accomplish all this.   Here are some of the highlights: 1984. A symposium organized in Lausanne, Switzerland, is the official starting point for the LHC. LHC prototype of the two beam pipes (1992). 1989. The first embryonic collaborations begin. 1992. A meeting in Evian, France, marks the beginning of the LHC experiments. 1994. The CERN Council approves the construction of the LHC accelerator. 1995. Japan becomes an Observer of CERN and announces a financial contribution to ...

  19. Recent results of searches for beyond Standard Model physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Serkin, Leonid; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Recent results of searches for beyond Standard Model physics in ATLAS are presented, with particular focus on searches for new phenomena in high jet multiplicity final states. No significant excess are observed and limits are set on several signal models.

  20. The Potential Impact of Preventive HIV Vaccines in China: Results and Benefits of a Multi-Province Modeling Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Thomas; Guo, Wei; Stover, John; Wu, Zunyou; Kaufman, Joan; Schneider, Kammerle; Liu, Li; Feng, Liao; Schwartländer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    China’s commitment to implementing established and emerging HIV/AIDS prevention and control strategies has led to substantial gains in terms of access to antiretroviral treatment and prevention services, but the evolving and multifaceted HIV/AIDS epidemic in China highlights the challenges of maintaining that response. This study presents modeling results exploring the potential impact of HIV vaccines in the Chinese context at varying efficacy and coverage rates, while further exploring the potential implications of vaccination programs aimed at reaching populations at highest risk of HIV infection. A preventive HIV vaccine would add a powerful tool to China’s response, even if not 100% efficacious or available to the full population. PMID:26344945

  1. Active Reading Procedures for Moderating the Effects of Poor Highlighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gier, Vicki S.; Herring, Daniel; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Kreiner, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated two active reading techniques intended to eliminate the negative effect on reading comprehension of preexisting, inappropriate highlighting. College students read passages in three highlighting conditions: no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, and inappropriate highlighting. In Experiment 1, 30 students read the passages while…

  2. The MARINA model (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs): Model description and results for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin

    2016-08-15

    Chinese agriculture has been developing fast towards industrial food production systems that discharge nutrient-rich wastewater into rivers. As a result, nutrient export by rivers has been increasing, resulting in coastal water pollution. We developed a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs (MARINA) for China. The MARINA Nutrient Model quantifies river export of nutrients by source at the sub-basin scale as a function of human activities on land. MARINA is a downscaled version for China of the Global NEWS-2 (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model with an improved approach for nutrient losses from animal production and population. We use the model to quantify dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) export by six large rivers draining into the Bohai Gulf (Yellow, Hai, Liao), Yellow Sea (Yangtze, Huai) and South China Sea (Pearl) in 1970, 2000 and 2050. We addressed uncertainties in the MARINA Nutrient model. Between 1970 and 2000 river export of dissolved N and P increased by a factor of 2-8 depending on sea and nutrient form. Thus, the risk for coastal eutrophication increased. Direct losses of manure to rivers contribute to 60-78% of nutrient inputs to the Bohai Gulf and 20-74% of nutrient inputs to the other seas in 2000. Sewage is an important source of dissolved inorganic P, and synthetic fertilizers of dissolved inorganic N. Over half of the nutrients exported by the Yangtze and Pearl rivers originated from human activities in downstream and middlestream sub-basins. The Yellow River exported up to 70% of dissolved inorganic N and P from downstream sub-basins and of dissolved organic N and P from middlestream sub-basins. Rivers draining into the Bohai Gulf are drier, and thus transport fewer nutrients. For the future we calculate further increases in river export of nutrients. The MARINA Nutrient model quantifies the main sources of coastal water pollution for sub-basins. This information can contribute to formulation of

  3. The Evaluation Model About the Result of Enterprise Technological Innovation Based on DAGF Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LikeMao; ZigangZhang

    2004-01-01

    Based on DAGF Algorithm, an evaluation model about the result of enterprise's technological innovation is proposed. Furthermore, establishment of its system of evaluation indicators and DAGF Algorithm are discussed in detail. Besides, the result of the case shows that the model is fit for evaluation of the result of enterprise's technological innovation.

  4. Review on optical constants of Titan aerosols: Experimental results and modeling/observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassé, Coralie; Muñoz, Olga; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François

    2014-05-01

    During the last years many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of optical constants of Titan aerosols. Indeed, the determination of the optical constants of these particles is essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and to scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Titan's radiative balance and climate. The study of optical properties is also crucial to analyze and to better interpret many of Titan's observational data, in particular those acquired during the Cassini-Huygens mission. One way to determine Titan aerosols optical constant is to measure the optical constants of analogues of Titan complex organic material synthesized in the laboratory, usually named Titan's tholins (Sagan and Khare, 1979). But the optical constants depend on the chemical composition, the size and the shape of particles (Raulin et al., 2012). Those three parameters result from the experimental conditions such as energy source, gas mixing ratio, gas pressure, flow rate and irradiation time (Cable et al., 2012). Besides the determination of the refractive index in the laboratory, there are others methods using theoretical models or observational data. Nevertheless, theoretical models are based on laboratory data or/and observational data. The visible - near infrared spectral region of optical constants has been widely studied with laboratory analogues. Comparison of the obtained results suggest that tholins synthesized by Tran et al. (2003) and Majhoub et al. (2012) are the best representative of Titan aerosols with regards to their refractive indexes in this spectral region. The mid-infrared spectral range has been studied only by Imanaka et al. (2012) and slightly by Tran et al. (2003). In that spectral range, Titan tholins do not exhibit the features displayed by Kim and Courtin (2013) from Titan's observations. For spectral region of wavelengths smaller than 0.20µm or higher than 25µm, only the data from Khare et al. (1984) are

  5. Mars geologic mapping program: Review and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David H.

    1991-06-01

    The Mars Geologic Mapping (MGM) Program was introduced by NASA in 1987 as a new initiative in the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program. The overall purpose of the program is to support research on topical science problems that address specific questions. Among the objectives of the project are: (1) to produce highly detailed geologic maps that will greatly increase the knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolutionary history of Mars; (2) to define areas of special interest for possible future investigation by planned missions (Mars Observer, Mars Sample Return); and (3) to maintain the interest of the planetary community in the development of new concepts and the re-evaluation of Martian geology as new data in usable form become available. Some interesting highlights of the geologic mapping indicate that multiple flood episodes occurred at different times during the Hesperian Period in both Kasei and Maja Valles. Studies of small channels in the Memnonia, Mangala, and Tharsis regions show that fluvial events appear to have occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters from Mangala Valles may have seeped into surficial materials with the subsequent development of numerous sapping channels and debris flows; this suggests that the ancient highland terrain consists of relatively unconsolidated materials. Multiple layers were observed for the first time in the ridged plains lava flows covering large areas of Lunae Planum; some wrinkle ridges in this area are associated with grabens and collapse volcanic units at Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae indicates that the units may have been emplaced by gravity-driven pyroclastic flows. Unlike the north polar layered deposits, those in the south polar region show no angular unconformities or evidence of faulting and folding. Water ice in the south polar layered deposits may be protected

  6. Mars geologic mapping program: Review and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David H.

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Geologic Mapping (MGM) Program was introduced by NASA in 1987 as a new initiative in the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program. The overall purpose of the program is to support research on topical science problems that address specific questions. Among the objectives of the project are: (1) to produce highly detailed geologic maps that will greatly increase the knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolutionary history of Mars; (2) to define areas of special interest for possible future investigation by planned missions (Mars Observer, Mars Sample Return); and (3) to maintain the interest of the planetary community in the development of new concepts and the re-evaluation of Martian geology as new data in usable form become available. Some interesting highlights of the geologic mapping indicate that multiple flood episodes occurred at different times during the Hesperian Period in both Kasei and Maja Valles. Studies of small channels in the Memnonia, Mangala, and Tharsis regions show that fluvial events appear to have occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters from Mangala Valles may have seeped into surficial materials with the subsequent development of numerous sapping channels and debris flows; this suggests that the ancient highland terrain consists of relatively unconsolidated materials. Multiple layers were observed for the first time in the ridged plains lava flows covering large areas of Lunae Planum; some wrinkle ridges in this area are associated with grabens and collapse volcanic units at Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae indicates that the units may have been emplaced by gravity-driven pyroclastic flows. Unlike the north polar layered deposits, those in the south polar region show no angular unconformities or evidence of faulting and folding. Water ice in the south polar layered deposits may be protected

  7. A highlight of recent advances in immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG DeXian

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the 60th anniversary of SCIENCE CHINA,six research groups of overseas and domestic Chinese immunologists published a series of review articles (SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences,2010,53(2):157-158),which highlighted recent advances and their contributions to immunology.Wang YaYa in Prof.Cheng GenHong's group,who discovered the function of TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and other signal molecules in Toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated signaling pathway and innate immunity [1],reviewed TRAF-mediated regulation of immune and inflammatory responses [2].TRAF family consists of six mammalian members (TRAF1,TRAF2,TRAF3,TRAF4,TRAF5,and TRAF6) and participates in signal transduction of a large number of receptor families such as TNF receptor family (TNFR) and TLR-interleukin-1 receptor (TLR-IL-1R)family.Upon receptor-mediated activation,TRAFs are directly or indirectly recruited to the intracellular domains of these receptors and subsequently combine with other signaling molecules to activate the inhibitor of IκB kinase (IKK) complex,TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK)-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and the inducible Iκ B kinase (IKK-i),ultimately leading to activation of transcription factors,such as NF-κB,interferon-regulatory factor (IRF),to induce immune or inflammatory responses.In the past few years,immunologists have demonstrated the central role of TRAFs in inflammation,innate immunity.

  8. Evaluation model for the implementation results of mine law based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tao; Li, Xu

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the implementation results of mine safety production law, the evaluation model based on neural network is presented. In this model, 63 indicators which can describe the mine law effectively are proposed. The evaluation system is developed by using the model and the 63 indicators. The evaluation results show that the proposed method has high accuracy. We can effectively estimate the score of one mine for its carrying out the safety law. The estimate results are of scientific credibility and impartiality.

  9. Modeling chemistry in and above snow at Summit, Greenland – Part 1: Model description and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun-lit snow is increasingly recognized as a chemical reactor that plays an active role in uptake, transformation, and release of atmospheric trace gases. Snow is known to influence boundary layer air on a local scale, and given the large global surface coverage of snow may also be significant on regional and global scales.

    We present a new detailed one-dimensional snow chemistry module that has been coupled to the 1-D atmospheric boundary layer model MISTRA, we refer to the coupled model as MISTRA-SNOW. The new 1-D snow module, which is dynamically coupled to the overlaying atmospheric model, includes heat transport in the snowpack, molecular diffusion, and wind pumping of gases in the interstitial air. The model includes gas phase photochemistry and chemical reactions both in the interstitial air and the atmosphere. Heterogeneous and multiphase chemistry on atmospheric aerosol is considered explicitly. The chemical interaction of interstitial air with snow grains is simulated assuming chemistry in a liquid (aqueous layer on the grain surface. The model was used to investigate snow as the source of nitrogen oxides (NOx and gas phase reactive bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer in the remote snow covered Arctic (over the Greenland ice sheet as well as to investigate the link between halogen cycling and ozone depletion that has been observed in interstitial air. The model is validated using data taken 10 June–13 June, 2008 as part of the Greenland Summit Halogen-HOx experiment (GSHOX. The model predicts that reactions involving bromide and nitrate impurities in the surface snow at Summit can sustain atmospheric NO and BrO mixing ratios measured at Summit during this period.

  10. Ranking Highlights in Personal Videos by Analyzing Edited Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Farhadi, Ali; Chen, Tseng-Hung; Seitz, Steve

    2016-11-01

    We present a fully automatic system for ranking domain-specific highlights in unconstrained personal videos by analyzing online edited videos. A novel latent linear ranking model is proposed to handle noisy training data harvested online. Specifically, given a targeted domain such as "surfing," our system mines the YouTube database to find pairs of raw and their corresponding edited videos. Leveraging the assumption that an edited video is more likely to contain highlights than the trimmed parts of the raw video, we obtain pair-wise ranking constraints to train our model. The learning task is challenging due to the amount of noise and variation in the mined data. Hence, a latent loss function is incorporated to mitigate the issues caused by the noise. We efficiently learn the latent model on a large number of videos (about 870 min in total) using a novel EM-like procedure. Our latent ranking model outperforms its classification counterpart and is fairly competitive compared with a fully supervised ranking system that requires labels from Amazon Mechanical Turk. We further show that a state-of-the-art audio feature mel-frequency cepstral coefficients is inferior to a state-of-the-art visual feature. By combining both audio-visual features, we obtain the best performance in dog activity, surfing, skating, and viral video domains. Finally, we show that impressive highlights can be detected without additional human supervision for seven domains (i.e., skating, surfing, skiing, gymnastics, parkour, dog activity, and viral video) in unconstrained personal videos.

  11. Cassini's Grand Finale and Recent Science Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda J.

    2017-06-01

    After almost 13 years in Saturn orbit, the Cassini-Huygens mission has entered its final year of data collection. Cassini will return its final bits of unique data on 15 September 2017 as it plunges into Saturn’s atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements.Since early 2016 Cassini’s orbital inclination was slowly increased towards its final inclination. In November Cassini transitioned to a series of 20 orbits with periapses just outside Saturn's F ring that included some of the closest flybys of the tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring.Cassini's final close flyby of Titan in April 2017 propelled it across Saturn’s main rings and into its final orbits. Cassini's Grand Finale began in April 2017 and is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini is repeatedly diving between the innermost ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to explore this region.These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles' composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on Saturn's interior structure and mass distribution in the rings. Probing the magnetic field will give insight into the nature of the magnetic dynamo and the true rotation rate of Saturn's interior. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer will sniff the exosphere and upper atmosphere and examine water-based molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer will sample particle composition from different parts of the main rings.Recent science highlights and science objectives from Cassini’s final orbits will be discussed.This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California

  12. THE CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE COMPOSITE MATERIALS HARDNESS WITH THEORETICAL RESULTS OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Maria PASARE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is about of the Hays-Kendall theoretical model of testing the microhardness of the composites materials of NiP/SiC type. We used an indenter to establish the microhardness of the composite and different types of loads. The microhardness can be interpreted using a theoretical model Hays-Kendall and the Kick model.

  13. Advanced fuel cycle cost estimation model and its cost estimation results for three nuclear fuel cycles using a dynamic model in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungki, E-mail: sgkim1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Wonil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Saerom; Gao, Ruxing [University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajungro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Sungsig, E-mail: ssbang@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Business and Technology Management, 291 Deahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The nuclear fuel cycle cost using a new cost estimation model was analyzed. • The material flows of three nuclear fuel cycle options were calculated. • The generation cost of once-through was estimated to be 66.88 mills/kW h. • The generation cost of pyro-SFR recycling was estimated to be 78.06 mills/kW h. • The reactor cost was identified as the main cost driver of pyro-SFR recycling. - Abstract: The present study analyzes advanced nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation models such as the different discount rate model and its cost estimation results. To do so, an analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle cost of three options (direct disposal (once through), PWR–MOX (Mixed OXide fuel), and Pyro-SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)) from the viewpoint of economic sense, focusing on the cost estimation model, was conducted using a dynamic model. From an analysis of the fuel cycle cost estimation results, it was found that some cost gap exists between the traditional same discount rate model and the advanced different discount rate model. However, this gap does not change the priority of the nuclear fuel cycle option from the viewpoint of economics. In addition, the fuel cycle costs of OT (Once-Through) and Pyro-SFR recycling based on the most likely value using a probabilistic cost estimation except for reactor costs were calculated to be 8.75 mills/kW h and 8.30 mills/kW h, respectively. Namely, the Pyro-SFR recycling option was more economical than the direct disposal option. However, if the reactor cost is considered, the economic sense in the generation cost between the two options (direct disposal vs. Pyro-SFR recycling) can be changed because of the high reactor cost of an SFR.

  14. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humada, Ali M.; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M.; Ahmed, Mushtaq N.

    2016-01-01

    A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions. PMID:27035575

  15. Highlights from COMPASS in hadron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Since Quantum Choromdynamics allows for gluon self-coupling, quarks and gluons cannot be observed as free particles, but only their bound states, the hadrons. This so-called confinement phenomenon is responsible for $98\\%$ of the mass in the visible universe. The measurement of the hadron excitation spectra therefore gives valuable input for theory and phenomenology to quantitatively understand this phenomenon. One simple model to describe hadrons is the Constituent Quark Model (CQM), which knows two types of hadrons: mesons, consisting of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which are made out of three quarks. More advanced models, which are inspired by QCD as well as calculations within Lattice QCD predict the existence of other types of hadrons, which may be e.g. described solely by gluonic excitations (glueballs) or mixed quark and gluon excitations (hybrids). In order to search for such states, the COMPASS experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN has collected large data sets, which allow to ...

  16. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  17. Extension of Some Classical Results on Ruin Probability to Delayed Renewal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Su; Tao Jiang; Qi-he Tang

    2002-01-01

    Embrechts and Veraverbeke[2] investigated the renewal risk model and gave a tail equivalence relationship of the ruin probabilities ψ(x) under the assumption that the claim size is heavy-tailed, which is regarded as a classical result in the context of extremal value theory. In this note we extend this result to the delayed renewal risk model.

  18. Behavioral Change as a Result of Videotaped Playback: An Examination of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Don; Ripple, Richard E.

    The literature on the behavior effects of videotaped playback reveals that little theoretical formulation has been offered to explain the positive results which have been reported. Two theoretical models are considered in regard to these results. The first, a reinforcement model, suggests that some behaviors are reinforced positively and some…

  19. Structure-activity relationship of nerve-highlighting fluorophores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer L Gibbs

    Full Text Available Nerve damage is a major morbidity associated with numerous surgical interventions. Yet, nerve visualization continues to challenge even the most experienced surgeons. A nerve-specific fluorescent contrast agent, especially one with near-infrared (NIR absorption and emission, would be of immediate benefit to patients and surgeons. Currently, there are only three classes of small molecule organic fluorophores that penetrate the blood nerve barrier and bind to nerve tissue when administered systemically. Of these three classes, the distyrylbenzenes (DSBs are particularly attractive for further study. Although not presently in the NIR range, DSB fluorophores highlight all nerve tissue in mice, rats, and pigs after intravenous administration. The purpose of the current study was to define the pharmacophore responsible for nerve-specific uptake and retention, which would enable future molecules to be optimized for NIR optical properties. Structural analogs of the DSB class of small molecules were synthesized using combinatorial solid phase synthesis and commercially available building blocks, which yielded more than 200 unique DSB fluorophores. The nerve-specific properties of all DSB analogs were quantified using an ex vivo nerve-specific fluorescence assay on pig and human sciatic nerve. Results were used to perform quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR modeling and to define the nerve-specific pharmacophore. All DSB analogs with positive ex vivo fluorescence were tested for in vivo nerve specificity in mice to assess the effect of biodistribution and clearance on nerve fluorescence signal. Two new DSB fluorophores with the highest nerve to muscle ratio were tested in pigs to confirm scalability.

  20. Conceptual Incoherence as a Result of the use of Multiple Historical Models in School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas M.; Hagberg, Mariana

    2010-08-01

    This paper explores the occurrence of conceptual incoherence in upper secondary school textbooks resulting from the use of multiple historical models. Swedish biology and chemistry textbooks, as well as a selection of books from English speaking countries, were examined. The purpose of the study was to identify which models are used to represent the phenomenon of gene function in textbooks and to investigate how these models relate to historical scientific models and subject matter contexts. Models constructed for specific use in textbooks were identified using concept mapping. The data were further analyzed by content analysis. The study shows that several different historical models are used in parallel in textbooks to describe gene function. Certain historical models were used more often then others and the most recent scientific views were rarely referred to in the textbooks. Hybrid models were used frequently, i.e. most of the models in the textbooks consisted of a number of components of several historical models. Since the various historical models were developed as part of different scientific frameworks, hybrid models exhibit conceptual incoherence, which may be a source of confusion for students. Furthermore, the use of different historical models was linked to particular subject contexts in the textbooks studied. The results from Swedish and international textbooks were similar, indicating the general applicability of our conclusions.

  1. Coated Particle and Deep Burn Fuels Monthly Highlights December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for November 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/323, was distributed to program participants on December 9, 2010. The final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Core Design Optimization in the HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) Pebble Bed Design (INL), (c) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU (transuranic elements) Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing (ORNL); (4) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling (ORNL).

  2. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SCALED HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK MIXING - CFD MODELING SENSITIVITY STUDY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JACKSON VL

    2011-08-31

    The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

  3. Highlights from Compass in hadron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-06-01

    Since Quantum Choromdynamics allows for gluon self-coupling, quarks and gluons cannot be observed as free particles, but only their bound states, the hadrons. This so-called confinement phenomenon is responsible for 98% of the mass in the visible universe. Measurement of the hadron excitation spectra therefore gives valuable input for theory and phenomenology to quantitatively understand this phenomenon. One simple model to describe hadrons is the Constituent Quark Model (CQM), which knows two types of hadrons: mesons consisting of a quark and an antiquark and baryons, which are made of three quarks. More advanced models, which are inspired by QCD as well as calculations within Lattice QCD, predict the existence of other types of hadrons, which may be, e.g., described solely by gluonic excitations (glueballs) or mixed quark and gluon excitations (hybrids). In order to search for such states, the Compass experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN has collected large data sets, which allow to study the light-quark meson and baryon spectra with unmatched precision. The overview shown here focuses on the light meson sector, presenting a detailed Partial-Wave Analysis of the processes: π- p → π-π+π- p and π- p → π-π0π0 p. A new state, the a1(1420) with JPC = 1++, is observed. Its Breit-Wigner parameters are found to be in the ranges: m = 1412 - 1422MeV/c2 and Γ = 130 - 150MeV/c2. In the same analysis, a signal in a wave with JPC = 1- + is observed. A resonant origin of this signal would not be explicable within the CQM. In addition to this possibility of an exotic state, possible non-resonant origin of this signal is discussed.

  4. Automatic Segmentation and Inpainting of Specular Highlights for Endoscopic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive medical procedures have become increasingly common in today's healthcare practice. Images taken during such procedures largely show tissues of human organs, such as the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. These surfaces usually have a glossy appearance showing specular highlights. For many visual analysis algorithms, these distinct and bright visual features can become a significant source of error. In this article, we propose two methods to address this problem: (a a segmentation method based on nonlinear filtering and colour image thresholding and (b an efficient inpainting method. The inpainting algorithm eliminates the negative effect of specular highlights on other image analysis algorithms and also gives a visually pleasing result. The methods compare favourably to the existing approaches reported for endoscopic imaging. Furthermore, in contrast to the existing approaches, the proposed segmentation method is applicable to the widely used sequential RGB image acquisition systems.

  5. Strongly interacting matter at RHIC: experimental highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Okorokov, V A

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results obtained at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be discussed. Investigations of different nucleus-nucleus collisions in recent years focus on two main tasks, namely, the detailed study of sQGP properties and the exploration of the QCD phase diagram. Results at top RHIC energy provide important information about event shapes as well as transport and thermodynamic properties of the hot medium for various flavors. Heavy-ion collisions are a unique tool for the study of topological properties of theory. Experimental results obtained for discrete QCD symmetries at finite temperatures are discussed. These results confirm indirectly the topologically non-trivial structure of the QCD vacuum. Most results obtained during phase-I of the RHIC beam energy scan (BES) program show smooth behavior vs initial energy. However, certain results suggest the transition in the domain of dominance of hadronic degrees of freedom at center-of-mass energies between 10-20 GeV. Future developments...

  6. Seeking for the rational basis of the Median Model: the optimal combination of multi-model ensemble results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riccio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach for the statistical analysis of multi-model ensemble results. The models considered here are operational long-range transport and dispersion models, also used for the real-time simulation of pollutant dispersion or the accidental release of radioactive nuclides.

    We first introduce the theoretical basis (with its roots sinking into the Bayes theorem and then apply this approach to the analysis of model results obtained during the ETEX-1 exercise. We recover some interesting results, supporting the heuristic approach called "median model", originally introduced in Galmarini et al. (2004a, b.

    This approach also provides a way to systematically reduce (and quantify model uncertainties, thus supporting the decision-making process and/or regulatory-purpose activities in a very effective manner.

  7. Seeking for the rational basis of the median model: the optimal combination of multi-model ensemble results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riccio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach for the statistical analysis of multi-model ensemble results. The models considered here are operational long-range transport and dispersion models, also used for the real-time simulation of pollutant dispersion or the accidental release of radioactive nuclides.

    We first introduce the theoretical basis (with its roots sinking into the Bayes theorem and then apply this approach to the analysis of model results obtained during the ETEX-1 exercise. We recover some interesting results, supporting the heuristic approach called "median model", originally introduced in Galmarini et al. (2004a, b.

    This approach also provides a way to systematically reduce (and quantify model uncertainties, thus supporting the decision-making process and/or regulatory-purpose activities in a very effective manner.

  8. Preliminary Results of the first European Source Apportionment intercomparison for Receptor and Chemical Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belis, Claudio A.; Pernigotti, Denise; Pirovano, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Source Apportionment (SA) is the identification of ambient air pollution sources and the quantification of their contribution to pollution levels. This task can be accomplished using different approaches: chemical transport models and receptor models. Receptor models are derived from measurements and therefore are considered as a reference for primary sources urban background levels. Chemical transport model have better estimation of the secondary pollutants (inorganic) and are capable to provide gridded results with high time resolution. Assessing the performance of SA model results is essential to guarantee reliable information on source contributions to be used for the reporting to the Commission and in the development of pollution abatement strategies. This is the first intercomparison ever designed to test both receptor oriented models (or receptor models) and chemical transport models (or source oriented models) using a comprehensive method based on model quality indicators and pre-established criteria. The target pollutant of this exercise, organised in the frame of FAIRMODE WG 3, is PM10. Both receptor models and chemical transport models present good performances when evaluated against their respective references. Both types of models demonstrate quite satisfactory capabilities to estimate the yearly source contributions while the estimation of the source contributions at the daily level (time series) is more critical. Chemical transport models showed a tendency to underestimate the contribution of some single sources when compared to receptor models. For receptor models the most critical source category is industry. This is probably due to the variety of single sources with different characteristics that belong to this category. Dust is the most problematic source for Chemical Transport Models, likely due to the poor information about this kind of source in the emission inventories, particularly concerning road dust re-suspension, and consequently the

  9. Numerical modelling of radon-222 entry into houses: An outline of techniques and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool for studies of soil gas and radon-222 entry into houses. It is the purpose of this paper to review some main techniques and results. In the past, modelling has focused on Darcy flow of soil gas (driven by indoor–outdoor pressure differences) and combined...... diffusive and advective transport of radon. Models of different complexity have been used. The simpler ones are finite-difference models with one or two spatial dimensions. The more complex models allow for full three-dimensional and time dependency. Advanced features include: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy......, fractures, moisture, non-uniform soil temperature, non-Darcy flow of gas, and flow caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Numerical models can be used to estimate the importance of specific factors for radon entry. Models are also helpful when results obtained in special laboratory or test structure...

  10. Parallel Path Magnet Motor: Development of the Theoretical Model and Analysis of Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirba, I.; Kleperis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical and numerical modelling is performed for the linear actuator of a parallel path magnet motor. In the model based on finite-element analysis, the 3D problem is reduced to a 2D problem, which is sufficiently precise in a design aspect and allows modelling the principle of a parallel path motor. The paper also describes a relevant numerical model and gives comparison with experimental results. The numerical model includes all geometrical and physical characteristics of the motor components. The magnetic flux density and magnetic force are simulated using FEMM 4.2 software. An experimental model has also been developed and verified for the core of switchable magnetic flux linear actuator and motor. The results of experiments are compared with those of theoretical/analytical and numerical modelling.

  11. Comparison of fully coupled hydroelastic computation and segmented model test results for slamming and whipping loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hyun Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis of slamming and whipping using a fully coupled hydroelastic model. The coupled model uses a 3-D Rankine panel method, a 1-D or 3-D finite element method, and a 2-D Generalized Wagner Model (GWM, which are strongly coupled in time domain. First, the GWM is validated against results of a free drop test of wedges. Second, the fully coupled method is validated against model test results for a 10,000 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU containership. Slamming pressures and whipping responses to regular waves are compared. A spatial distribution of local slamming forces is measured using 14 force sensors in the model test, and it is compared with the integration of the pressure distribution by the computation. Furthermore, the pressure is decomposed into the added mass, impact, and hydrostatic components, in the computational results. The validity and characteristics of the numerical model are discussed.

  12. Comparison between InfoWorks hydraulic results and a physical model of an urban drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Shucksmith, James; Saul, Adrian J; Shepherd, Will

    2013-01-01

    Urban drainage systems are frequently analysed using hydraulic modelling software packages such as InfoWorks CS or MIKE-Urban. The use of such modelling tools allows the evaluation of sewer capacity and the likelihood and impact of pluvial flood events. Models can also be used to plan major investments such as increasing storage capacity or the implementation of sustainable urban drainage systems. In spite of their widespread use, when applied to flooding the results of hydraulic models are rarely compared with field or laboratory (i.e. physical modelling) data. This is largely due to the time and expense required to collect reliable empirical data sets. This paper describes a laboratory facility which will enable an urban flood model to be verified and generic approaches to be built. Results are presented from the first phase of testing, which compares the sub-surface hydraulic performance of a physical scale model of a sewer network in Yorkshire, UK, with downscaled results from a calibrated 1D InfoWorks hydraulic model of the site. A variety of real rainfall events measured in the catchment over a period of 15 months (April 2008-June 2009) have been both hydraulically modelled and reproduced in the physical model. In most cases a comparison of flow hydrographs generated in both hydraulic and physical models shows good agreement in terms of velocities which pass through the system.

  13. Empirical Evaluation of the Proposed eXSCRUM Model-Results of a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Agile models promote fast development. XP and Scrum are the most widely used agile models. This paper investigates the phases of XP and Scrum models in order to identify their potentials and drawbacks. XP model has certain drawbacks, such as not suitable for maintenance projects and poor performance for medium and large-scale development projects. Scrum model has certain limitations, such as lacked in engineering practices. Since, both XP and Scrum models contain good features and strengths but still there are improvement possibilities in these models. Majority of the software development companies are reluctant to switch from traditional methodologies to agile methodologies for development of industrial projects. A fine integration, of software management of the Scrum model and engineering practices of XP model, is very much required to accumulate the strengths and remove the limitations of both models. This is achieved by proposing an eXScrum model. The proposed model is validated by conducting a controlled case study. The results of case study show that the proposed integrated eXScrum model enriches the potentials of both XP and Scrum models and eliminates their drawbacks.

  14. Patient Decisions to Receive Secondary Pharmacogenomic Findings and Development of a Multidisciplinary Practice Model to Integrate Results Into Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, J Kevin; Shealy, Amy; Schreiber, Allison; Coleridge, Marissa; Noss, Ryan; Natowicz, Marvin; Moran, Rocio; Moss, Timothy; Erwin, Angelika; Eng, Charis

    2017-07-27

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) has the potential of identifying secondary findings that are predictive of poor pharmacotherapy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate patients' wishes regarding the reporting of secondary pharmacogenomic findings. WES results (n = 106 patients) were retrospectively reviewed to determine the number of patients electing to receive secondary pharmacogenomic results. Phenotypes were assigned based on Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines. The percent of patients with a predicted phenotype associated with a gene-based CPIC dosing recommendation was determined. Ninety-nine patients (93.4%) elected to receive secondary pharmacogenomic findings. For each gene-drug pair analyzed, the number of patients with an actionable phenotype ranged from two (2%) to 43 patients (43.4%). Combining all gene-drug pairs, 84 unique patients (84.8%) had an actionable phenotype. A prospective multidisciplinary practice model was developed for integrating secondary pharmacogenomic findings into clinical practice. Our model highlights a unique collaboration between physician-geneticists, pharmacists, and genetic counselors. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. Highlights from the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a multipurpose detector exploiting the full coverage approach at very high altitude. The apparatus, in stable data taking since November 2007 with an energy threshold of a few hundreds of GeV and a duty-cycle of about 90 %, is located at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm2). A number of interesting results are available in Cosmic Ray Physics and in Gamma Ray Astronomy after the first 3 years of stable data taking. In this paper Gamma-Ray Astronomy results are summarized.

  16. Highlights of Resonance Measurements With HADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epple Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to give a basic overview of the latest results regarding the production of resonances in different collision systems. The results were extracted from experimental data collected with HADES that is a multipurpose detector located at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt. The main points discussed here are: the properties of the strange resonances Λ(1405 and Σ(1385, the role of Δ’s as a source of pions in the final state, the production dynamics reflected in form of differential cross sections, and the role of the ϕ meson as a source for K− particles.

  17. Updating Finite Element Model of a Wind Turbine Blade Section Using Experimental Modal Analysis Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luczak, Marcin; Manzato, Simone; Peeters, Bart;

    2014-01-01

    of model parameters was selected for the model updating process. Design of experiment and response surface method was implemented to find values of model parameters yielding results closest to the experimental. The updated finite element model is producing results more consistent with the measurement...... is to validate finite element model of the modified wind turbine blade section mounted in the flexible support structure accordingly to the experimental results. Bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled unidirectional layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Dynamic test and simulations...... were performed on a section of a full scale wind turbine blade provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and the discrepancies are assessed by natural frequency difference and modal assurance criterion. Based on sensitivity analysis, set...

  18. FY2015 ceramic fuels development annual highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-22

    Key challenges for the Advanced Fuels Campaign are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Ceramic fuel development activities for fiscal year 2015 fell within the areas of 1) National and International Technical Integration, 2) Advanced Accident Tolerant Ceramic Fuel Development, 3) Advanced Techniques and Reference Materials Development, and 4) Fabrication of Enriched Ceramic Fuels. High uranium density fuels were the focus of the ceramic fuels efforts. Accomplishments for FY15 primarily reflect the prioritization of identification and assessment of new ceramic fuels for light water reactors which have enhanced accident tolerance while also maintaining or improving normal operation performance, and exploration of advanced post irradiation examination techniques which will support more efficient testing and qualification of new fuel systems.

  19. FY2016 Ceramic Fuels Development Annual Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Key challenges for the Advanced Fuels Campaign are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Ceramic fuel development activities for fiscal year 2016 fell within the areas of 1) National and International Technical Integration, 2) Advanced Accident Tolerant Ceramic Fuel Development, 3) Advanced Techniques and Reference Materials Development, and 4) Fabrication of Enriched Ceramic Fuels. High uranium density fuels were the focus of the ceramic fuels efforts. Accomplishments for FY16 primarily reflect the prioritization of identification and assessment of new ceramic fuels for light water reactors which have enhanced accident tolerance while also maintaining or improving normal operation performance, and exploration of advanced post irradiation examination techniques which will support more efficient testing and qualification of new fuel systems.

  20. Tevatron accelerator physics and operation highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Valishev, A

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the Tevatron collider demonstrated continuous growth over the course of Run II, with the peak luminosity reaching 4\\times1032 cm-2 s-1, and the weekly integration rate exceeding 70 pb-1. This report presents a review of the most important advances that contributed to this performance improvement, including beam dynamics modeling, precision optics measurements and stability control, implementation of collimation during low-beta squeeze. Algorithms employed for optimization of the luminosity integration are presented and the lessons learned from high-luminosity operation are discussed. Studies of novel accelerator physics concepts at the Tevatron are described, such as the collimation techniques using crystal collimator and hollow electron beam, and compensation of beam-beam effects.

  1. A new procedure to built a model covariance matrix: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzaghi, R.; Marotta, A. M.; Splendore, R.; Borghi, A.

    2012-04-01

    In order to validate the results of geophysical models a common procedure is to compare model predictions with observations by means of statistical tests. A limit of this approach is the lack of a covariance matrix associated to model results, that may frustrate the achievement of a confident statistical significance of the results. Trying to overcome this limit, we have implemented a new procedure to build a model covariance matrix that could allow a more reliable statistical analysis. This procedure has been developed in the frame of the thermo-mechanical model described in Splendore et al. (2010), that predicts the present-day crustal velocity field in the Tyrrhenian due to Africa-Eurasia convergence and to lateral rheological heterogeneities of the lithosphere. Modelled tectonic velocity field has been compared to the available surface velocity field based on GPS observation, determining the best fit model and the degree of fitting, through the use of a χ2 test. Once we have identified the key models parameters and defined their appropriate ranges of variability, we have run 100 different models for 100 sets of randomly values of the parameters extracted within the corresponding interval, obtaining a stack of 100 velocity fields. Then, we calculated variance and empirical covariance for the stack of results, taking into account also cross-correlation, obtaining a positive defined, diagonal matrix that represents the covariance matrix of the model. This empirical approach allows us to define a more robust statistical analysis with respect the classic approach. Reference Splendore, Marotta, Barzaghi, Borghi and Cannizzaro, 2010. Block model versus thermomechanical model: new insights on the present-day regional deformation in the surroundings of the Calabrian Arc. In: Spalla, Marotta and Gosso (Eds) Advances in Interpretation of Geological Processes: Refinement of Multi scale Data and Integration in Numerical Modelling. Geological Society, London, Special

  2. Evaluating Direct Radiative Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Atmospheric Dynamics with Aquaplanet and Regional Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ö.; Tegen, I.; Quaas, J.

    2015-12-01

    Effects of absorbing aerosol on atmospheric dynamics are usually investigated with help of general circulation models or also regional models that represent the atmospheric system as realistic as possible. Reducing the complexity of models used to study the effects of absorbing aerosol on atmospheric dynamics helps to understand underlying mechanisms. In this study, by using ECHAM6 General Circulation Model (GCM) in an Aquaplanet setting and using simplified aerosol climatology, an initial idealization step has been taken. The analysis only considers direct radiative effects, furthering the reduction of complex model results. The simulations include cases including aerosol radiative forcing, no aerosol forcing, coarse mode aerosol forcing only (as approximation for mineral dust forcing) and forcing with increased aerosol absorption. The results showed that increased absorption affects cloud cover mainly in subtropics. Hadley circulation is found to be weakened in the increased absorption case. To compare the results of the idealized model with a more realistic model setting, the results of the regional model COSMO-MUSCAT that includes interactive mineral dust aerosol and considers the effects of dust radiative forcing are also analyzed. The regional model computes the atmospheric circulation for the year 2007 twice, including the feedback of dust and excluding the dust aerosol forcing. It is investigated to which extent the atmospheric response to the dust forcing agrees with the simplified Aquaplanet results. As expected, in the regional model mineral dust causes an increase in the temperature right above the dust layer while reducing the temperature close to the surface. In both models the presence of aerosol forcing leads to increased specific humidity, close to ITCZ. Notwithstanding the difference magnitudes, comparisons of the global aquaplanet and the regional model showed similar patterns. Further detailed comparisons will be presented.

  3. Gaia challenging performances verification: combination of spacecraft models and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecale, Eric; Faye, Frédéric; Chassat, François

    2016-08-01

    To achieve the ambitious scientific objectives of the Gaia mission, extremely stringent performance requirements have been given to the spacecraft contractor (Airbus Defence and Space). For a set of those key-performance requirements (e.g. end-of-mission parallax, maximum detectable magnitude, maximum sky density or attitude control system stability), this paper describes how they are engineered during the whole spacecraft development process, with a focus on the end-to-end performance verification. As far as possible, performances are usually verified by end-to-end tests onground (i.e. before launch). However, the challenging Gaia requirements are not verifiable by such a strategy, principally because no test facility exists to reproduce the expected flight conditions. The Gaia performance verification strategy is therefore based on a mix between analyses (based on spacecraft models) and tests (used to directly feed the models or to correlate them). Emphasis is placed on how to maximize the test contribution to performance verification while keeping the test feasible within an affordable effort. In particular, the paper highlights the contribution of the Gaia Payload Module Thermal Vacuum test to the performance verification before launch. Eventually, an overview of the in-flight payload calibration and in-flight performance verification is provided.

  4. Mutualism-parasitism paradigm synthesized from results of root-endophyte models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandyam, Keerthi G; Jumpponen, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Plant tissues host a variety of fungi. One important group is the dark septate endophytes (DSEs) that colonize plant roots and form characteristic intracellular structures - melanized hyphae and microsclerotia. The DSE associations are common and frequently observed in various biomes and plant taxa. Reviews suggest that the proportion of plant species colonized by DSE equal that colonized by AM and microscopic studies show that the proportion of the root system colonized by fungi DSE can equal, or even exceed, the colonization by AM fungi. Despite the high frequency and suspected ecological importance, the effects of DSE colonization on plant growth and performance have remained unclear. Here, we draw from over a decade of experimentation with the obscure DSE symbiosis and synthesize across large bodies of published and unpublished data from Arabidopsis thaliana and Allium porrum model systems as well as from experiments that use native plants to better resolve the host responses to DSE colonization. The data indicate similar distribution of host responses in model and native plant studies, validating the use of model plants for tractable dissection of DSE symbioses. The available data also permit empirical testing of the environmental modulation of host responses to DSE colonization and refining the "mutualism-parasitism-continuum" paradigm for DSE symbioses. These data highlight the context dependency of the DSE symbioses: not only plant species but also ecotypes vary in their responses to populations of conspecific DSE fungi - environmental conditions further shift the host responses similar to those predicted based on the mutualism-parasitism-continuum paradigm. The model systems provide several established avenues of inquiry that permit more detailed molecular and functional dissection of fungal endophyte symbioses, identifying thus likely mechanisms that may underlie the observed host responses to endophyte colonization.

  5. Mutualism-parasitism paradigm synthesized from results of root-endophyte models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi Gomatam Mandyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissues host a variety of fungi. One important group is the dark septate endophytes (DSE that colonize plant roots and form characteristic intracellular structures – melanized hyphae and microsclerotia. The DSE associations are common and frequently observed in various biomes and plant taxa. Reviews suggest that the proportion of plant species colonized by DSE equal that colonized by AM and microscopic studies show that the proportion of the root system colonized by fungi DSE can equal, or even exceed, the colonization by AM fungi. Despite the high frequency and suspected ecological importance, the effects of DSE colonization on plant growth and performance have remained unclear. Here, we draw from over a decade of experimentation with the obscure DSE symbiosis and synthesize across large bodies of published and unpublished data from Arabidopsis thaliana and Allium porrum model systems as well as from experiments that use native plants to better resolve the host responses to DSE colonization. The data indicate similar distribution of host responses in model and native plant studies, validating the use of model plants for tractable dissection of DSE symbioses. The available data also permit empirical testing of the environmental modulation of host responses to DSE colonization and refining the mutualism-parasitism-continuum paradigm for DSE symbioses. These data highlight the context dependency of the DSE symbioses: not only plant species but also ecotypes vary in their responses to populations of conspecific DSE fungi – environmental conditions further shift the host responses similar to those predicted based on the mutualism-parasitism-continuum paradigm. The model systems provide several established avenues of inquiry that permit more detailed molecular and functional dissection of fungal endophyte symbioses, identifying thus likely mechanisms that may underlie the observed host responses to endophyte colonization.

  6. Menopause: highlighting the effects of resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, R D; Prestes, J; Pereira, G B; Shiguemoto, G E; Perez, S E A

    2010-11-01

    The increase in lifespan and in the proportion of elderly women has increased the focus on menopause induced physiological alterations. These modifications are associated with the elevated risk of several pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fat liver disease, among others. Because of estrogen levels decline, many tissue and organs (muscular, bone, adipose tissue and liver) are affected. Additionally, body composition suffers important modifications. In this sense, there is a growing body of concern in understanding the physiological mechanisms involved and establishing strategies to prevent and reverse the effects of menopause. The hormone reposition therapy, diet and physical exercise have been recommended. Among the diverse exercise modalities, resistance training is not commonly used as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of menopause. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze the physiological alterations on several organs and systems induced by menopause and ovariectomy (experimental model to reproduce menopause), as well as, to study the effects of resistance training in preventing and reverting these modifications. In conclusion, resistance training promotes beneficial effects on several organs and systems, mainly, on muscular, bone and adipose tissue, allowing for a better quality of life in this population.

  7. Models of convection-driven tectonic plates - A comparison of methods and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.; Gable, Carl W.; Weinstein, Stuart A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent numerical studies of convection in the earth's mantle have included various features of plate tectonics. This paper describes three methods of modeling plates: through material properties, through force balance, and through a thin power-law sheet approximation. The results obtained are compared using each method on a series of simple calculations. From these results, scaling relations between the different parameterizations are developed. While each method produces different degrees of deformation within the surface plate, the surface heat flux and average plate velocity agree to within a few percent. The main results are not dependent upon the plate modeling method and herefore are representative of the physical system modeled.

  8. Recent highlights from ARGO-YBJ

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for 5 years at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm^2). With a duty-cycle greater than 86% the detector collected about 5 X 10^{11} events in a wide energy range, from few hundreds GeV up to the PeV. A number of open problems in cosmic ray physics has been faced exploiting different analyses. In this paper we summarize the latest results in gamma-ray astronomy and in cosmic ray physics

  9. Recent highlights from ARGO-YBJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sciascio, Di; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for more than 5 years at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.L, 606 g/cm2 ). With a duty-cycle of about 87% the detector collected more than 5×1011 events in a wide energy range, from few hundreds GeV up to 10 PeV. A number of open problems in cosmic ray physics has been faced exploiting different analyses. In this talk we summarize the latest physics results obtained in gamma-ray astronomy and in cosmic ray physics.

  10. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: comparison of model to human participant results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. It also demonstrates that upta...... the cotton-phthalate system will be challenging until data on partition coefficients are quantified for other combinations of SVOCs, fabric materials and environmental conditions....

  11. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    . The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density Sigma(Md), the dust optical extinction A(V), and the starlight intensity heating the bulk......We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling...... of the dust, parametrized by U-min. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31...

  12. Admission Laboratory Results to Enhance Prediction Models of Postdischarge Outcomes in Cardiac Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Michael; Fry, Donald E; Hannan, Edward L; Naessens, James M; Whitman, Kay; Reband, Agnes; Qian, Feng; Schindler, Joseph; Sonneborn, Mark; Roland, Jaclyn; Hyde, Linda; Dennison, Barbara A

    Predictive modeling for postdischarge outcomes of inpatient care has been suboptimal. This study evaluated whether admission numerical laboratory data added to administrative models from New York and Minnesota hospitals would enhance the prediction accuracy for 90-day postdischarge deaths without readmission (PD-90) and 90-day readmissions (RA-90) following inpatient care for cardiac patients. Risk-adjustment models for the prediction of PD-90 and RA-90 were designed for acute myocardial infarction, percutaneous cardiac intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, and congestive heart failure. Models were derived from hospital claims data and were then enhanced with admission laboratory predictive results. Case-level discrimination, goodness of fit, and calibration were used to compare administrative models (ADM) and laboratory predictive models (LAB). LAB models for the prediction of PD-90 were modestly enhanced over ADM, but negligible benefit was seen for RA-90. A consistent predictor of PD-90 and RA-90 was prolonged length of stay outliers from the index hospitalization.

  13. GENERAL APROACH TO MODELING NONLINEAR AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY DEPENDENT HYSTERESIS EFFECTS BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the rubber parts’ properties is gaining in importance in the current simulation models of multi-body simulation. One application example is a multi-body simulation of the washing machine movement. Inside the washing machine, there are different force transmission elements, which consist completely or partly of rubber. Rubber parts or, generally, elastomers usually have amplitude-dependant and frequency-dependent force transmission properties. Rheological models are used to describe these properties. A method for characterization of the amplitude and frequency dependence of such a rheological model is presented within this paper. Within this method, the used rheological model can be reduced or expanded in order to illustrate various non-linear effects. An original result is given with the automated parameter identification. It is fully implemented in Matlab. Such identified rheological models are intended for subsequent implementation in a multi-body model. This allows a significant enhancement of the overall model quality.

  14. Results and Comparison from the SAM Linear Fresnel Technology Performance Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the new Linear Fresnel technology performance model in NREL's System Advisor Model. The model predicts the financial and technical performance of direct-steam-generation Linear Fresnel power plants, and can be used to analyze a range of system configurations. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation and motivation, and provides extensive discussion of the model performance and financial results. The Linear Fresnel technology is also compared to other concentrating solar power technologies in both qualitative and quantitative measures. The Linear Fresnel model - developed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute - provides users with the ability to model a variety of solar field layouts, fossil backup configurations, thermal receiver designs, and steam generation conditions. This flexibility aims to encompass current market solutions for the DSG Linear Fresnel technology, which is seeing increasing exposure in fossil plant augmentation and stand-alone power generation applications.

  15. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antivcic, T; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bardenet, R; Baeuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Belletoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blumer, H; Bohacova, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceicao, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Diaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Foerster, N; Fox, B D; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Frohlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; Garcia, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gomez; Vitale, P F Gomez; Goncalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Homola, P; Hoerandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovsky, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kegl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; d, J Knapp; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kroemer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leao, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopez, R; Aguera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martinez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masias; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micanovic, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostafa, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Muller, G; Munchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novzka, L; Oehlschlager, J; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Preda, T; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Frias, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Ruhle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sanchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovanek, P; Schroeder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Straub, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijarvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Susa, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Tacscuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tome, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Galicia, J F Valdes; Valino, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cardenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vazquez, J R; Vazquez, R A; Veberic, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villasenor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. Our current exposure reaches nearly 40,000 km$^2$ str and provides us with an unprecedented quality data set. The performance and stability of the detectors and their enhancements are described. Data analyses have led to a number of major breakthroughs. Among these we discuss the energy spectrum and the searches for large-scale anisotropies. We present analyses of our X$_{max}$ data and show how it can be interpreted in terms of mass composition. We also describe some new analyses that extract mass sensitive parameters from the 100% duty cycle SD data. A coherent interpretation of all these recent results opens new directions. The consequences regarding the cosmic ray composition and the properties of UHECR sources are briefly discussed.

  16. STS-107 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 9 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The primary activities of flight day 9 are spaceborne experiments. The video shows a commercial experiment on roses, a partial view of Africa from Libya to the Horn of Africa through the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment), and the FAST (Facility for Absorption and Surface Tension) experiment. The STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) international student experiments are shown. The preliminary results of these experiments on the effects of microgravity on silkworms, spiders, crystal growth, fish embryos, carpenter bees, and ants are discussed. The video includes a view of southern Spain and the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Integrating Domain Knowledge Differences into Modeling User Clicks on Search Result Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanam, S.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Computational cognitive models developed so far do not incorporate any effect of individual differences in domain knowledge of users in predicting user clicks on search result pages. We address this problem using a cognitive model of information search which enables us to use two semantic spaces

  18. Modelling of water potential and water uptake rate of tomato plants in the greenhouse: preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, G.T.; Schouwink, H.E.; Gieling, Th.H.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented which predicts water potential and water uptake rate of greenhouse tomato plants using transpiration rate as input. The model assumes that water uptake is the resultant of water potential and hydraulic resistance, and that water potential is linearly related to water con

  19. The European Integrated Tokamak Modelling (ITM) effort: achievements and first physics results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. Falchetto,; Coster, D.; Coelho, R.; Scott, B. D.; Figini, L.; Kalupin, D.; Nardon, E.; Nowak, S.; L.L. Alves,; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; João P.S. Bizarro,; C. Boulbe,; Dinklage, A.; Farina, D.; B. Faugeras,; Ferreira, J.; Figueiredo, A.; Huynh, P.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Jonsson, T.; H.-J. Klingshirn,; Konz, C.; Kus, A.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Pereverzev, G.; M. Owsiak,; Poli, E.; Peysson, Y.; R. Reimer,; Signoret, J.; Sauter, O.; Stankiewicz, R.; Strand, P.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Westerhof, E.; T. Zok,; Zwingmann, W.; ITM-TF contributors,; ASDEX Upgrade team,; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2014-01-01

    A selection of achievements and first physics results are presented of the European Integrated Tokamak Modelling Task Force (EFDA ITM-TF) simulation framework, which aims to provide a standardized platform and an integrated modelling suite of validated numerical codes for the simulation and

  20. Conceptual Incoherence as a Result of the Use of Multiple Historical Models in School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas M.; Hagberg, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the occurrence of conceptual incoherence in upper secondary school textbooks resulting from the use of multiple historical models. Swedish biology and chemistry textbooks, as well as a selection of books from English speaking countries, were examined. The purpose of the study was to identify which models are used to represent…

  1. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Laman: Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data supporting the "Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions" manuscript are distribution and abundance of Pacific ocean perch from RACEBase,...

  2. Results of a modeling workshop concerning development of the Beluga coal resource in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a modeling workshop concerning development of the Beluga coal resource in Alaska. The workshop was facilitated by the AEA Group...

  3. Removal of arsenic from wastewaters by cryptocrystalline magnesite: complimenting experimental results with modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Cleaner Production Removal of arsenic from wastewaters by cryptocrystalline magnesite: complimenting experimental results with modelling Vhahangwele Masindi W. Mugera Gitari Keywords: Arsenic Mine leachates Cryptocrystalline...

  4. Experimental and modelling results of a parallel-plate based active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Rowe, A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic...

  5. Highlights from the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With an understanding of the energy response of the anti-neutrino detectors, the Daya Bay collaboration presents new results using gadolinium-neutron capture: sin2 2θ13 = 0.108 ± 0.028 and |Δmee2| = 2.55−0.18+0.21 × 10−3 eV2 with only the distortion information of the neutrino energy spectrum shape, and sin2 2θ13 = 0.090−0.009+0.008 and |Δmee2| = 2.59−0.20+0.19 10−3 eV2 with both the shape and event rate information. It is also demonstrated that a clean inverse beta decay sample can be extracted using hydrogen-neutron capture, which is now being used for neutrino oscillation measurement. The supernova online trigger is designed and implemented, which can provide about 100% efficiency for all SN1987A-scale supernova bursts within the Milky Way.

  6. User's guide to Model Viewer, a program for three-dimensional visualization of ground-water model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul A.; Winston, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    Model Viewer is a computer program that displays the results of three-dimensional groundwater models. Scalar data (such as hydraulic head or solute concentration) may be displayed as a solid or a set of isosurfaces, using a red-to-blue color spectrum to represent a range of scalar values. Vector data (such as velocity or specific discharge) are represented by lines oriented to the vector direction and scaled to the vector magnitude. Model Viewer can also display pathlines, cells or nodes that represent model features such as streams and wells, and auxiliary graphic objects such as grid lines and coordinate axes. Users may crop the model grid in different orientations to examine the interior structure of the data. For transient simulations, Model Viewer can animate the time evolution of the simulated quantities. The current version (1.0) of Model Viewer runs on Microsoft Windows 95, 98, NT and 2000 operating systems, and supports the following models: MODFLOW-2000, MODFLOW-2000 with the Ground-Water Transport Process, MODFLOW-96, MOC3D (Version 3.5), MODPATH, MT3DMS, and SUTRA (Version 2D3D.1). Model Viewer is designed to directly read input and output files from these models, thus minimizing the need for additional postprocessing. This report provides an overview of Model Viewer. Complete instructions on how to use the software are provided in the on-line help pages.

  7. Updating the CHAOS series of field models using Swarm data and resulting candidate models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    th order spline representation with knot points spaced at 0.5 year intervals. The resulting field model is able to consistently fit data from six independent low Earth orbit satellites: Oersted, CHAMP, SAC-C and the three Swarm satellites. As an example, we present comparisons of the excellent model......Ten months of data from ESA's Swarm mission, together with recent ground observatory monthly means, are used to update the CHAOS series of geomagnetic field models with a focus on time-changes of the core field. As for previous CHAOS field models quiet-time, night-side, data selection criteria...

  8. The comparison of measured impedance of the bladder tissue with the computational modeling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad keshtkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The electrical impedance spectroscopy technique can be used to measure the electrical impedance of the human bladder tissue, for differentiating pathological changes in the urothelium. Methods: In this study, the electrical impedance spectroscopy technique and then, a numerical technique, finite element analysis (FEA were used to model the electrical properties of this tissue to predict the impedance spectrum of the normal and malignant areas of this organ. Results: After determining and comparing the modeled data with the experimental results, it is believed that there are some factors that may affect the measurement results. Thus, the effect of inflammation, edema, changes in the applied pressure over the probe and the distensible property of the bladder tissue were considered. Furthermore, the current distribution inside the human bladder tissue was modeled in normal and malignant cases using the FEA. This model results showed that very little of the current actually flows through the urothelium and much of the injected current flows through the connective tissue beneath the urothelium. Conclusion: The results of the models do not explain the measurements results. In conclusion, there are many factors, which may account for discrepancies between the measured and modeled data.

  9. New Results on Robust Model Predictive Control for Time-Delay Systems with Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of model predictive control for a class of nonlinear systems subject to state delays and input constraints. The time-varying delay is considered with both upper and lower bounds. A new model is proposed to approximate the delay. And the uncertainty is polytopic type. For the state-feedback MPC design objective, we formulate an optimization problem. Under model transformation, a new model predictive controller is designed such that the robust asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed. Finally, the applicability of the presented results are demonstrated by a practical example.

  10. Theoretical results on the tandem junction solar cell based on its Ebers-Moll transistor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, C.; Vaughn, J.; Baraona, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional theoretical model of the tandem junction solar cell (TJC) with base resistivity greater than about 1 ohm-cm and under low level injection has been derived. This model extends a previously published conceptual model which treats the TJC as an npn transistor. The model gives theoretical expressions for each of the Ebers-Moll type currents of the illuminated TJC and allows for the calculation of the spectral response, I(sc), V(oc), FF and eta under variation of one or more of the geometrical and material parameters and 1MeV electron fluence. Results of computer calculations based on this model are presented and discussed. These results indicate that for space applications, both a high beginning of life efficiency, greater than 15% AM0, and a high radiation tolerance can be achieved only with thin (less than 50 microns) TJC's with high base resistivity (greater than 10 ohm-cm).

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISO 9001 CERTIFICATION MATURITY AND EFQM BUSINESS EXCELLENCE MODEL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Fonseca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This exploratory research evaluates if there a relationship between the number of years since an organization has achieved ISO 9001 certification and the highest level of recognition received by the same organization with the EFQM Business Excellence Model.Methodology/Approach: After state of the art review a detailed comparison between both models was made. Fifty two Portuguese organizations were considered and Correlation coefficient Spearman Rho was used to investigate the possible relationships.Findings: Conclusion is that there is indeed a moderate positive correlation between these two variables, the higher the number of years of ISO 9001 certification, the higher the results of the organization EFQM model evaluation and recognition. This supports the assumption that ISO 9001 International Standard by incorporating many of the principles present in the EFQM Business Excellence Model is consistent with this model and can be considered as a step towards that direction.Research Limitation/implication: Due to the dynamic nature of these models that might change over time and the possible time delays between implementation and results, more in-depth studies like experimental design or a longitudinal quasi-experimental design could be used to confirm the results of this investigation.Originality/Value of paper: This research gives additional insights on conjunct studies of both models. The use of external evaluation results carried out by the independent EFQM assessors minimizes the possible bias of previous studies accessing the value of ISO 9001 certification.

  12. Highlights of the SM Physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Haijun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This talk shows the recent highlights of the SM physics from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC. It includes the precision measurements of diboson, triboson, vector boson scattering, and indirect search for new physics via anomalous triple/quartic gauge boson couplings etc. Some latest results from LHC Run2 @ 13 TeV will also be presented. The talk was invited to present at the 5th KIAS Workshop on Particle Physics and Cosmology in Seoul on November 9-13, 2015.

  13. Highlights from PHENIX-I: initial state and early times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We will review the latest physics developments from PHENIX concentrating on cold nuclear matter effects, the initial state for heavy-ion collisions, and probes of the earliest stages of the hot-dense medium created in those collisions. Recent physics results from p + p and d + Au collisions; and from direct photons, quarkonia and low-mass vector mesons in A+A collisions will be highlighted. Insights from these measurements into the characteristics of the initial state and about the earliest times in heavy-ion collisions will be discussed.

  14. Early Results from a Multi-Thermal Model for the Cooling of Post-Flare Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, K. K.; Warren, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a multi-thermal model for the cooling of post-flare loops. The model consists of an arcade of many nested loops that reconnect and begin cooling at slightly different times, and have different cooling profiles because of the different loop lengths across the arcade. Cooling due to both conductive and radiative processes is taken into account. The free parameters in the model include initial temperature and density in the loop, loop width and the initial loop length. The results from the model are then compared to TRACE and SXT observations. Our many-loop model does a much better job of predicting the SXT and TRACE light curves than a similar model with only one loop.

  15. NACA 0012 benchmark model experimental flutter results with unsteady pressure distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Bennett, Robert M.; Durham, Michael H.; Silva, Walter A.

    1992-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Division at NASA Langley Research Center has started a wind tunnel activity referred to as the Benchmark Models Program. The primary objective of the program is to acquire measured dynamic instability and corresponding pressure data that will be useful for developing and evaluating aeroelastic type CFD codes currently in use or under development. The program is a multi-year activity that will involve testing of several different models to investigate various aeroelastic phenomena. This paper describes results obtained from a second wind tunnel test of the first model in the Benchmark Models Program. This first model consisted of a rigid semispan wing having a rectangular planform and a NACA 0012 airfoil shape which was mounted on a flexible two degree-of-freedom mount system. Experimental flutter boundaries and corresponding unsteady pressure distribution data acquired over two model chords located at the 60 and 95 percent span stations are presented.

  16. Environmental Model Interoperability Enabled by Open Geospatial Standards - Results of a Feasibility Study (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K. K.; Yang, C.; Huang, Q.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of high-speed research networks such as the US National Lambda Rail and the GÉANT network, scalable on-demand commodity computing resources provided by public and private "cloud" computing systems, and increasing demand for rapid access to the products of environmental models for both research and public policy development contribute to a growing need for the evaluation and development of environmental modeling systems that distribute processing, storage, and data delivery capabilities between network connected systems. In an effort to address the feasibility of developing a standards-based distributed modeling system in which model execution systems are physically separate from data storage and delivery systems, the research project presented in this paper developed a distributed dust forecasting system in which two nested atmospheric dust models are executed at George Mason University (GMU, in Fairfax, VA) while data and model output processing services are hosted at the University of New Mexico (UNM, in Albuquerque, NM). Exchange of model initialization and boundary condition parameters between the servers at UNM and the model execution systems at GMU is accomplished through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Coverage Services (WCS) and Web Feature Services (WFS) while model outputs are pushed from GMU systems back to UNM using a REST web service interface. In addition to OGC and non-OGC web services for exchange between UNM and GMU, the servers at UNM also provide access to the input meteorological model products, intermediate and final dust model outputs, and other products derived from model outputs through OGC WCS, WFS, and OGC Web Map Services (WMS). The performance of the nested versus non-nested models is assessed in this research, with the results of the performance analysis providing the core content of the produced feasibility study. System integration diagram illustrating the storage and service platforms hosted at the Earth Data

  17. A Nuclear Interaction Model for Understanding Results of Single Event Testing with High Energy Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, William X.; ONeill, Pat; Nicholson, Leonard L.

    2000-01-01

    An internuclear cascade and evaporation model has been adapted to estimate the LET spectrum generated during testing with 200 MeV protons. The model-generated heavy ion LET spectrum is compared to the heavy ion LET spectrum seen on orbit. This comparison is the basis for predicting single event failure rates from heavy ions using results from a single proton test. Of equal importance, this spectra comparison also establishes an estimate of the risk of encountering a failure mode on orbit that was not detected during proton testing. Verification of the general results of the model is presented based on experiments, individual part test results, and flight data. Acceptance of this model and its estimate of remaining risk opens the hardware verification philosophy to the consideration of radiation testing with high energy protons at the board and box level instead of the more standard method of individual part testing with low energy heavy ions.

  18. A Tower Model for Lightning Overvoltage Studies Based on the Result of an FDTD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Taku

    This paper describes a method for deriving a transmission tower model for EMTP lightning overvoltage studies from a numerical electromagnetic simulation result obtained by the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method. The FDTD simulation carried out in this paper takes into account the following items which have been ignored or over-simplified in previously-presented simulations: (i) resistivity of the ground soil; (ii) arms, major slant elements, and foundations of the tower; (iii) development speed of the lightning return stroke. For validation purpose a pulse test of a 500-kV transmission tower is simulated, and a comparison with the measured result shows that the present FDTD simulation gives a sufficiently accurate result. Using this validated FDTD-based simulation method the insulator-string voltages of a tower for a lightning stroke are calculated, and based on the simulation result the parameter values of the proposed tower model for EMTP studies are determined in a systematic way. Since previously-presented models include trial-and-error process in the parameter determination, it can be said that the proposed model is more general in this regard. As an illustrative example, the 500-kV transmission tower mentioned above is modeled, and it is shown that the derived model closely reproduces the FDTD simulation result.

  19. Construction of an extended library of adult male 3D models: rationale and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Bremaud, M.; Desbrée, A.; Farah, J.; Huet, C.; Franck, D.

    2011-12-01

    In order to best cover the possible extent of heights and weights of male adults the construction of 25 whole body 3D models has been undertaken. Such a library is thought to be useful to specify the uncertainties and relevance of dosimetry calculations carried out with models representing individuals of average body heights and weights. Representative 3D models of Caucasian body types are selected in a commercial database according to their height and weight, and 3D models of the skeleton and internal organs are designed using another commercial dataset. A review of the literature enabled one to fix volume or mass target values for the skeleton, soft organs, skin and fat content of the selected individuals. The composition of the remainder tissue is fixed so that the weight of the voxel models equals the weight of the selected individuals. After mesh and NURBS modelling, volume adjustment of the selected body shapes and additional voxel-based work, 25 voxel models with 109 identified organs or tissue are obtained. Radiation transport calculations are carried out with some of the developed models to illustrate potential uses. The following points are discussed throughout this paper: justification of the fixed or obtained models' features regarding available and relevant literature data; workflow and strategy for major modelling steps; advantages and drawbacks of the obtained library as compared with other works. The construction hypotheses are explained and justified in detail since future calculation results obtained with this library will depend on them.

  20. A Method of Removing Reflected Highlight on Images Based on Polarimetric Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanchao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of removing reflected highlight is proposed on polarimetric imaging. Polarization images (0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° and the reflection angle are required in this reflected light removal algorithm. This method is based on the physical model of reflection and refraction, and no additional image processing algorithm is necessary in this algorithm. Compared to traditional polarization method with single polarizer, restricted observation angle of Brewster is not demanded and multiple reflection areas of different polarization orientations can be removed simultaneously. Experimental results, respectively, demonstrate the features of this reflected light removal algorithm, and it can be considered very suitable in polarization remote sensing.

  1. DBSolve Optimum: a software package for kinetic modeling which allows dynamic visualization of simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizzatkulov Nail M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology research and applications require creation, validation, extensive usage of mathematical models and visualization of simulation results by end-users. Our goal is to develop novel method for visualization of simulation results and implement it in simulation software package equipped with the sophisticated mathematical and computational techniques for model development, verification and parameter fitting. Results We present mathematical simulation workbench DBSolve Optimum which is significantly improved and extended successor of well known simulation software DBSolve5. Concept of "dynamic visualization" of simulation results has been developed and implemented in DBSolve Optimum. In framework of the concept graphical objects representing metabolite concentrations and reactions change their volume and shape in accordance to simulation results. This technique is applied to visualize both kinetic response of the model and dependence of its steady state on parameter. The use of the dynamic visualization is illustrated with kinetic model of the Krebs cycle. Conclusion DBSolve Optimum is a user friendly simulation software package that enables to simplify the construction, verification, analysis and visualization of kinetic models. Dynamic visualization tool implemented in the software allows user to animate simulation results and, thereby, present them in more comprehensible mode. DBSolve Optimum and built-in dynamic visualization module is free for both academic and commercial use. It can be downloaded directly from http://www.insysbio.ru.

  2. Assessing the agricultural costs of climate change: Combining results from crop and economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    simultaneously. The paper will briefly discuss some examples of the direct embedding of results from plant growth models in economic models.

  3. Exact results for spin dynamics and fractionalization in the Kitaev Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, G; Mandal, Saptarshi; Shankar, R

    2007-06-15

    We present certain exact analytical results for dynamical spin correlation functions in the Kitaev Model. It is the first result of its kind in nontrivial quantum spin models. The result is also novel: in spite of the presence of gapless propagating Majorana fermion excitations, dynamical two spin correlation functions are identically zero beyond nearest neighbor separation. This shows existence of a gapless but short range spin liquid. An unusual, all energy scale fractionalization of a spin-flip quanta, into two infinitely massive pi fluxes and a dynamical Majorana fermion, is shown to occur. As the Kitaev Model exemplifies topological quantum computation, our result presents new insights into qubit dynamics and generation of topological excitations.

  4. Modeling of displacement damage in silicon carbide detectors resulting from neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsandi, Behrooz

    There is considerable interest in developing a power monitor system for Generation IV reactors (for instance GT-MHR). A new type of semiconductor radiation detector is under development based on silicon carbide (SiC) technology for these reactors. SiC has been selected as the semiconductor material due to its superior thermal-electrical-neutronic properties. Compared to Si, SiC is a radiation hard material; however, like Si, the properties of SiC are changed by irradiation by a large fluence of energetic neutrons, as a consequence of displacement damage, and that irradiation decreases the life-time of detectors. Predictions of displacement damage and the concomitant radiation effects are important for deciding where the SiC detectors should be placed. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop computer simulation methods to estimate the number of various defects created in SiC detectors, because of neutron irradiation, and predict at what positions of a reactor, SiC detectors could monitor the neutron flux with high reliability. The simulation modeling includes several well-known---and commercial---codes (MCNP5, TRIM, MARLOWE and VASP), and two kinetic Monte Carlo codes written by the author (MCASIC and DCRSIC). My dissertation will highlight the displacement damage that may happen in SiC detectors located in available positions in the OSURR, GT-MHR and IRIS. As extra modeling output data, the count rates of SiC for the specified locations are calculated. A conclusion of this thesis is SiC detectors that are placed in the thermal neutron region of a graphite moderator-reflector reactor have a chance to survive at least one reactor refueling cycle, while their count rates are acceptably high.

  5. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    Full Text Available The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS. In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines.In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification.Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  6. Transient Exposure to Ethanol during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Defects in Neuronal Differentiation: An Alternative Model System to Study FASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pujades, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Background The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification. Conclusion Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development. PMID:25383948

  7. Empirical Results of Modeling EUR/RON Exchange Rate using ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH, TARCH and PARCH models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea – Cristina PETRICĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study consists in examining the changes in the volatility of daily returns of EUR/RON exchange rate using on the one hand symmetric GARCH models (ARCH and GARCH and on the other hand the asymmetric GARCH models (EGARCH, TARCH and PARCH, since the conditional variance is time-varying. The analysis takes into account daily quotations of EUR/RON exchange rate over the period of 04th January 1999 to 13th June 2016. Thus, we are modeling heteroscedasticity by applying different specifications of GARCH models followed by looking for significant parameters and low information criteria (minimum Akaike Information Criterion. All models are estimated using the maximum likelihood method under the assumption of several distributions of the innovation terms such as: Normal (Gaussian distribution, Student’s t distribution, Generalized Error distribution (GED, Student’s with fixed df. Distribution, and GED with fixed parameter distribution. The predominant models turned out to be EGARCH and PARCH models, and the empirical results point out that the best model for estimating daily returns of EUR/RON exchange rate is EGARCH(2,1 with Asymmetric order 2 under the assumption of Student’s t distributed innovation terms. This can be explained by the fact that in case of EGARCH model, the restriction regarding the positivity of the conditional variance is automatically satisfied.

  8. Satellite data for systematic validation of wave model results in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Arno; Staneva, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    The Black Sea is with regard to the availability of traditional in situ wave measurements recorded by usual waverider buoys a data sparse semi-enclosed sea. The only possibility for systematic validations of wave model results in such a regional area is the use of satellite data. In the frame of the COPERNICUS Marine Evolution System for the Black Sea that requires wave predictions, the third-generation spectral wave model WAM is used. The operational system is demonstrated based on four years' systematic comparisons with satellite data. The aim of this investigation was to answer two questions. Is the wave model able to provide a reliable description of the wave conditions in the Black Sea and are the satellite measurements suitable for validation purposes on such a regional scale ? Detailed comparisons between measured data and computed model results for the Black Sea including yearly statistics have been done for about 300 satellite overflights per year. The results discussed the different verification schemes needed to review the forecasting skills of the operational system. The good agreement between measured and modeled data supports the expectation that the wave model provides reasonable results and that the satellite data is of good quality and offer an appropriate validation alternative to buoy measurements. This is the required step towards further use of those satellite data for assimilation into the wave fields to improve the wave predictions. Additional support for the good quality of the wave predictions is provided by comparisons between ADCP measurements that are available for a short time period in February 2012 and the corresponding model results at a location near the Bulgarian coast in the western Black Sea. Sensitivity tests with different wave model options and different driving wind fields have been done which identify the appropriate model configuration that provides the best wave predictions. In addition to the comparisons between measured

  9. A computer model to forecast wetland vegetation changes resulting from restoration and protection in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jenneke M.; Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.; Carter, Jacoby; Broussard, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    The coastal wetlands of Louisiana are a unique ecosystem that supports a diversity of wildlife as well as a diverse community of commercial interests of both local and national importance. The state of Louisiana has established a 5-year cycle of scientific investigation to provide up-to-date information to guide future legislation and regulation aimed at preserving this critical ecosystem. Here we report on a model that projects changes in plant community distribution and composition in response to environmental conditions. This model is linked to a suite of other models and requires input from those that simulate the hydrology and morphology of coastal Louisiana. Collectively, these models are used to assess how alternative management plans may affect the wetland ecosystem through explicit spatial modeling of the physical and biological processes affected by proposed modifications to the ecosystem. We have also taken the opportunity to advance the state-of-the-art in wetland plant community modeling by using a model that is more species-based in its description of plant communities instead of one based on aggregated community types such as brackish marsh and saline marsh. The resulting model provides an increased level of ecological detail about how wetland communities are expected to respond. In addition, the output from this model provides critical inputs for estimating the effects of management on higher trophic level species though a more complete description of the shifts in habitat.

  10. Updating Finite Element Model of a Wind Turbine Blade Section Using Experimental Modal Analysis Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Luczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents selected results and aspects of the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research oriented for the experimental and numerical study of the structural dynamics of a bend-twist coupled full scale section of a wind turbine blade structure. The main goal of the conducted research is to validate finite element model of the modified wind turbine blade section mounted in the flexible support structure accordingly to the experimental results. Bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled unidirectional layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Dynamic test and simulations were performed on a section of a full scale wind turbine blade provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and the discrepancies are assessed by natural frequency difference and modal assurance criterion. Based on sensitivity analysis, set of model parameters was selected for the model updating process. Design of experiment and response surface method was implemented to find values of model parameters yielding results closest to the experimental. The updated finite element model is producing results more consistent with the measurement outcomes.

  11. SModelS: A Tool for Making Systematic Use of Simplified Models Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Wolfgang; SModelS Group.

    2016-10-01

    We present an automated software tool ”SModelS” to systematically confront theories Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) with experimental data. The tool consists of a general procedure to decompose such BSM theories into their Simplified Models Spectra (SMS). In addition, SModelS features a database containing the majority of the published SMS results of CMS and ATLAS. These results consist of the 95% confidence level upper limits on signal production cross sections. The two components together allow us to quickly confront any BSM model with LHC results. As a show-case example we will briefly discuss an application of our procedure to a specific supersymmetric model. It is one of our ongoing efforts to extend the framework to include also efficiency maps produced either by the experimental collaborations, by efforts performed within the phenomenological groups, or possibly also by ourselves. While the current implementation can handle null results only, it is our ultimate goal to build the Next Standard Model in a bottom-up fashion from both negative and positive results of several experiments. The implementation is open source, written in python, and available from http://smodels.hephy.at.

  12. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Phase 1 and 2: Testing and Modeling Results; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; LaCava, W.; Link, H.; McNiff, B.

    2012-05-01

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) investigates root causes of wind turbine gearbox premature failures and validates design assumptions that affect gearbox reliability using a combined testing and modeling approach. Knowledge gained from the testing and modeling of the GRC gearboxes builds an understanding of how the selected loads and events translate into internal responses of three-point mounted gearboxes. This paper presents some testing and modeling results of the GRC research during Phase 1 and 2. Non-torque loads from the rotor including shaft bending and thrust, traditionally assumed to be uncoupled with gearbox, affect gear and bearing loads and resulting gearbox responses. Bearing clearance increases bearing loads and causes cyclic loading, which could contribute to a reduced bearing life. Including flexibilities of key drivetrain subcomponents is important in order to reproduce the measured gearbox response during the tests using modeling approaches.

  13. Results of recent Pacific-Arctic ice-ocean modeling studies at the Naval Postgraduate School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaclyn Clement Kinney; Wieslaw Maslowski

    2008-01-01

    Summary of results from a high - resolution pan - Arctic ice -'ocean model are presented for the northern North Pacific, Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas.The main focus is on the mean circulation, communication from the Gulf of Alaska across the Bering Sea into the western Arctic Ocean and on mesoscale eddy activity within several important ecosystems. Model results from 1979 -2004 are compared to observations whenever possible. The high spatial model resolution at 1/12o (or~9 -km) in the horizontal and 45 levels in the vertical direction allows for representation of eddies with diameters as small as 36 km. However, we believe that upcoming new model integrations at even higher resolution will allow us to resolve even smaller eddies. This is especially important at the highest latitudes where the Rossby radius of deformation is as small as 10 km or less.

  14. Soil gas and radon entry into a simple test structure: Comparison of experimental and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1994-01-01

    A radon test structure has been established at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of soil gas entry rates, pressure couplings and radon depletion. The experimental results have been compared with results obtained from measured soil parameters and a two......-dimensional steady-state numerical model of Darcy flow and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. For most probe locations, the calculated values of the pressure couplings and the radon depletion agree well with the measured values, thus verifying important elements of the Darcy flow approximation......, and the ability of the model to treat combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. However, the model gives an underestimation of the soil gas entry rate. Even if it is assumed that the soil has a permeability equal to the highest of the measured values, the model underestimates the soil gas entry rate...

  15. A Calibration of the Wierzbicki-Xue Damage Model Using Charpy Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage models are frequently used to predict fractures in large deformation problems such as penetration of a projectile into a target. Though many damage models have been proposed so far, coefficients of each model have been provided for only a few materials. In this study, the coefficients of the Wierzbicki-Xue (2005 damage model for tungsten heavy alloy (DX2HCMF are determined using the Charpy impact test. The Wierzbicki-Xue fracture criterion is implemented into NET3D code in which a node-split algorithm is built in. By comparing the energy absorbed in the Charpy test with the results of finite element analysis, the fracture model coefficients are determined.

  16. Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The highlights of the measurements of top quark production in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector are presented. The inclusive measurements of the top-pair production cross section have reached high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. The differential cross section measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers. Measurements of the single top quark production cross section are presented in the t-channel and s-channel, and with associated production with a W boson. For the t-channel production, results on the ratio between top quark and antitop quark production cross sections and differential measurements are also included.

  17. Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions for the Pliocene (Plio-QUMP): Initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J.O.; Collins, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.; Hunter, S.J.; Lunt, D.J.; Pickering, S.J.; Pound, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP; ~. 3.3 to 3.0. Ma BP) provides an excellent opportunity to test the ability of climate models to reproduce warm climate states, thereby assessing our confidence in model predictions. To do this it is necessary to relate the uncertainty in model simulations of mPWP climate to uncertainties in projections of future climate change. The uncertainties introduced by the model can be estimated through the use of a Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE). Developing on the UK Met Office Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) Project, this paper presents the results from an initial investigation using the end members of a PPE in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model (HadCM3) running with appropriate mPWP boundary conditions. Prior work has shown that the unperturbed version of HadCM3 may underestimate mPWP sea surface temperatures at higher latitudes. Initial results indicate that neither the low sensitivity nor the high sensitivity simulations produce unequivocally improved mPWP climatology relative to the standard. Whilst the high sensitivity simulation was able to reconcile up to 6 ??C of the data/model mismatch in sea surface temperatures in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (relative to the standard simulation), it did not produce a better prediction of global vegetation than the standard simulation. Overall the low sensitivity simulation was degraded compared to the standard and high sensitivity simulations in all aspects of the data/model comparison. The results have shown that a PPE has the potential to explore weaknesses in mPWP modelling simulations which have been identified by geological proxies, but that a 'best fit' simulation will more likely come from a full ensemble in which simulations that contain the strengths of the two end member simulations shown here are combined. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Coupling Landform Evolution and Soil Pedogenesis - Initial Results From the SSSPAM5D Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgoose, G. R.; Welivitiya, W. D. D. P.; Hancock, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of soil on a dynamic landform is a crucial next step in landscape evolution modelling. Some attempts have been taken such as MILESD by Vanwalleghem et al. to develop a first model which is capable of simultaneously evolving both the soil profile and the landform. In previous work we have presented physically based models for soil pedogenesis, mARM and SSSPAM. In this study we present the results of coupling a landform evolution model with our SSSPAM5D soil pedogenesis model. In previous work the SSSPAM5D soil evolution model was used to identify trends of the soil profile evolution on a static landform. Two pedogenetic processes, namely (1) armouring due to erosion, and (2) physical and chemical weathering were used in those simulations to evolve the soil profile. By incorporating elevation changes (due to erosion and deposition) we have advanced the SSSPAM5D modelling framework into the realm of landscape evolution. Simulations have been run using elevation and soil grading data of the engineered landform (spoil heap) at the Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results obtained for the coupled landform-soil evolution simulations predict the erosion of high slope areas, development of rudimentary channel networks in the landform and deposition of sediments in lowland areas, and qualitatively consistent with landform evolution models on their own. Examination of the soil profile characteristics revealed that hill crests are weathering dominated and tend to develop a thick soil layer. The steeper hillslopes at the edge of the landform are erosion dominated with shallow soils while the foot slopes are deposition dominated with thick soil layers. The simulation results of our coupled landform and soil evolution model provide qualitatively correct and timely characterization of the soil evolution on a dynamic landscape. Finally we will compare the characteristics of erosion and deposition predicted by the coupled landform-soil SSSPAM

  19. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Above Deck Water Sound Suppression Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janice D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) program test matrix was designed to determine the acoustic reduction for the Liftoff acoustics (LOA) environment with an above deck water sound suppression system. The scale model test can be used to quantify the effectiveness of the water suppression system as well as optimize the systems necessary for the LOA noise reduction. Several water flow rates were tested to determine which rate provides the greatest acoustic reductions. Preliminary results are presented.

  20. Modelling global freshwater resources using WaterGAP 2.2 - model overview, selected results and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Adam, Linda; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Güntner, Andreas; Kynast, Ellen; Portmann, Felix T.; Riedel, Claudia; Schneider, Christoph; Song, Qi; Wattenbach, Martin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    The estimation of global freshwater flows and storages and their dynamics is essential for the assessment of historical and future water availability both for mankind and ecosystems. WaterGAP 2 is a state-of-the-art water model covering the entire global land area (except Antarctica) on a 0.5° by 0.5° grid. WaterGAP consists of a set of water use models and a hydrological model. Five global water use models representing the sectors irrigation, domestic water demand, manufacturing industries, livestock farming and cooling of thermal power plants inform the sub-model GWSWUSE which calculates net water abstractions distinguishing surface water and groundwater sources. Water flows and storages are simulated by the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM). WGHM is calibrated against measured discharge for basins covering around 50 % of global land area. Since the original development of WaterGAP in the late 1990s, new input data and refined process algorithms have led to a significant improvement of the results. We present the current version WaterGAP 2.2 including selected results (e.g. discharge seasonality, water storage) and the global water balance for the time period 1971-2000. In addition, some examples of the application of WaterGAP output, e.g. within the GRACE community and for global environmental assessments are shown, reflecting the importance of global hydrology modeling in our globalized world.

  1. The use of the k - {epsilon} turbulence model within the Rossby Centre regional ocean climate model: parameterization development and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Meier, H.E. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden). Rossby Centre

    2000-09-01

    As mixing plays a dominant role for the physics of an estuary like the Baltic Sea (seasonal heat storage, mixing in channels, deep water mixing), different mixing parameterizations for use in 3D Baltic Sea models are discussed and compared. For this purpose two different OGCMs of the Baltic Sea are utilized. Within the Swedish regional climate modeling program, SWECLIM, a 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea has been coupled with an improved version of the two-equation k - {epsilon} turbulence model with corrected dissipation term, flux boundary conditions to include the effect of a turbulence enhanced layer due to breaking surface gravity waves and a parameterization for breaking internal waves. Results of multi-year simulations are compared with observations. The seasonal thermocline is simulated satisfactory and erosion of the halocline is avoided. Unsolved problems are discussed. To replace the controversial equation for dissipation the performance of a hierarchy of k-models has been tested and compared with the k - {epsilon} model. In addition, it is shown that the results of the mixing parameterization depend very much on the choice of the ocean model. Finally, the impact of two mixing parameterizations on Baltic Sea climate is investigated. In this case the sensitivity of mean SST, vertical temperature and salinity profiles, ice season and seasonal cycle of heat fluxes is quite large.

  2. A chemical energy approach of avascular tumor growth: multiscale modeling and qualitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzoglou, Pantelis; Dassios, George; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Kourea, Helen P; Vrahatis, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    In the present manuscript we propose a lattice free multiscale model for avascular tumor growth that takes into account the biochemical environment, mitosis, necrosis, cellular signaling and cellular mechanics. This model extends analogous approaches by assuming a function that incorporates the biochemical energy level of the tumor cells and a mechanism that simulates the behavior of cancer stem cells. Numerical simulations of the model are used to investigate the morphology of the tumor at the avascular phase. The obtained results show similar characteristics with those observed in clinical data in the case of the Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) of the breast.

  3. [DESCRIPTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM PROCESSING USING AN INFORMATION MODEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Nabokov, N L; Rogovanov, D Yu; Khankevich, Yu R

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes to apply the informational modeling of correlation matrix developed by I.L. Myznikov in early 1990s in neurophysiological investigations, such as electroencephalogram recording and analysis, coherence description of signals from electrodes on the head surface. The authors demonstrate information models built using the data from studies of inert gas inhalation by healthy human subjects. In the opinion of the authors, information models provide an opportunity to describe physiological processes with a high level of generalization. The procedure of presenting the EEG results holds great promise for the broad application.

  4. An Enhanced Box-Wing Solar Radiation pressure model for BDS and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qunhe; Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Guo, Rui; Shang, Lin; Tang, Chengpan; Shao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure forces are the largest non-gravitational perturbations acting on GNSS satellites, which is difficult to be accurately modeled due to the complicated and changing satellite attitude and unknown surface material characteristics. By the end of 2015, there are more than 50 stations of the Multi-GNSS Experiment(MGEX) set-up by the IGS. The simple box-plate model relies on coarse assumptions about the dimensions and optical properties of the satellite due to lack of more detailed information. So, a physical model based on BOX-WING model is developed, which is more sophisticated and more detailed physical structure has been taken into account, then calculating pressure forces according to the geometric relations between light rays and surfaces. All the MGEX stations and IGS core stations had been processed for precise orbit determination tests with GPS and BDS observations. Calculation range covers all the two kinds of Eclipsing and non-eclipsing periods in 2015, and we adopted the un-differential observation mode and more accurate values of satellite phase centers. At first, we tried nine parameters model, and then eliminated the parameters with strong correlation between them, came into being five parameters of the model. Five parameters were estimated, such as solar scale, y-bias, three material coefficients of solar panel, x-axis and z-axis panels. Initial results showed that, in the period of yaw-steering mode, use of Enhanced ADBOXW model results in small improvement for IGSO and MEO satellites, and the Root-Mean-Square(RMS) error value of one-day arc orbit decreased by about 10%~30% except for C08 and C14. The new model mainly improved the along track acceleration, up to 30% while in the radial track was not obvious. The Satellite Laser Ranging(SLR) validation showed, however, that this model had higher prediction accuracy in the period of orbit-normal mode, compared to GFZ multi-GNSS orbit products, as well with relative post

  5. Comparison of multi-ħω shell-model results with MCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenne J. P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A multi-channel algebraic scattering (MCAS method has been used to obtain spectra of a number of light-mass nuclei, which are treated as a two-cluster system, here specifically a nucleon plus nucleus. To date, collective models have been used to specify the interactions between the nucleon and low-lying states of the nucleus that form the compound. For the case of the carbon isotopes, these studies have been complemented by sufficiently complex and complete shell-model calculations. Comparisons with the multi-ħω shell-model results provide new insights into the validity of those from MCAS.

  6. Spatial resolution effect on the simulated results of watershed scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Ane; Antiguedad, Iñaki; Brito, David; Jauch, Eduardo; Neves, Ramiro; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, José Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Numerical models are useful tools for water resources planning, development and management. Currently, their use is being spread and more complex modeling systems are being employed for these purposes. The adding of complexity allows the simulation of water quality related processes. Nevertheless, this implies a considerable increase on the computational requirements, which usually is compensated on the models by a decrease on their spatial resolution. The spatial resolution of the models is known to affect the simulation of hydrological processes and therefore, also the nutrient exportation and cycling processes. However, the implication of the spatial resolution on the simulated results is rarely assessed. In this study, we examine the effect of the change in the grid size on the integrated and distributed results of the Alegria River watershed model (Basque Country, Northern Spain). Variables such as discharge, water table level, relative water content of soils, nitrogen exportation and denitrification are analyzed in order to quantify the uncertainty involved in the spatial discretization of the watershed scale models. This is an aspect that needs to be carefully considered when numerical models are employed in watershed management studies or quality programs.

  7. A mathematical model and simulation results of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride thin films from SiH4-NH3-N2-Ar mixture, an important application in modern materials science. Our multiphysics model describes gas dynamics, chemical physics, plasma physics and electrodynamics. The PECVD technology is inherently multiscale, from macroscale processes in the chemical reactor to atomic-scale surface chemistry. Our macroscale model is based on Navier-Stokes equations for a transient laminar flow of a compressible chemically reacting gas mixture, together with the mass transfer and energy balance equations, Poisson equation for electric potential, electrons and ions balance equations. The chemical kinetics model includes 24 species and 58 reactions: 37 in the gas phase and 21 on the surface. A deposition model consists of three stages: adsorption to the surface, diffusion along the surface and embedding of products into the substrate. A new model has been validated on experimental results obtained with the "Plasmalab System 100" reactor. We present the mathematical model and simulation results investigating the influence of flow rate and source gas proportion on silicon nitride film growth rate and chemical composition.

  8. Women in evolution - highlighting the changing face of evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, Maren; Otto, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The face of science has changed. Women now feature alongside men at the forefront of many fields, and this is particularly true in evolutionary biology. This special issue celebrates the outstanding achievements and contributions of women in evolutionary biology, by highlighting a sample of their research and accomplishments. In addition to original research contributions, this collection of articles contains personal reflections to provide perspective and advice on succeeding as a woman in science. By showcasing the diversity and research excellence of women and drawing on their experiences, we wish to enhance the visibility of female scientists and provide inspiration as well as role models. These are exciting times for evolutionary biology, and the field is richer and stronger for the diversity of voices contributing to the field.

  9. Highlights from the 2013 national cancer research institute conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Cancer research is a multifaceted endeavour that incorporates not only a myriad of techniques and specialties but also encompasses a huge range of disease types. The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK partnership comprising 21 charity and government funders of cancer research along with the Association of British Pharmaceutical Industry. Each year, the NCRI hosts the largest cancer meeting in the UK; bringing together members of the UK cancer research community, research leaders from around the world, health professionals, service users, research funders, and industry to discuss the latest findings in cancer research from a wide range of disciplines. The 2013 NCRI Conference attracted over 1700 delegates and 150 speakers from 15 different countries. The conference programme covered a large range of topic areas including prevention, screening, model systems, the provision of information, survivorship, and end-of-life care. This conference report gives an overview of the plenary sessions at the conference as well as highlights from the parallel sessions.

  10. Method for evaluating prediction models that apply the results of randomized trials to individual patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattan Michael W

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The clinical significance of a treatment effect demonstrated in a randomized trial is typically assessed by reference to differences in event rates at the group level. An alternative is to make individualized predictions for each patient based on a prediction model. This approach is growing in popularity, particularly for cancer. Despite its intuitive advantages, it remains plausible that some prediction models may do more harm than good. Here we present a novel method for determining whether predictions from a model should be used to apply the results of a randomized trial to individual patients, as opposed to using group level results. Methods We propose applying the prediction model to a data set from a randomized trial and examining the results of patients for whom the treatment arm recommended by a prediction model is congruent with allocation. These results are compared with the strategy of treating all patients through use of a net benefit function that incorporates both the number of patients treated and the outcome. We examined models developed using data sets regarding adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer and Dutasteride for benign prostatic hypertrophy. Results For adjuvant chemotherapy, we found that patients who would opt for chemotherapy even for small risk reductions, and, conversely, those who would require a very large risk reduction, would on average be harmed by using a prediction model; those with intermediate preferences would on average benefit by allowing such information to help their decision making. Use of prediction could, at worst, lead to the equivalent of an additional death or recurrence per 143 patients; at best it could lead to the equivalent of a reduction in the number of treatments of 25% without an increase in event rates. In the Dutasteride case, where the average benefit of treatment is more modest, there is a small benefit of prediction modelling, equivalent to a reduction of

  11. Exploring the uncertainties of early detection results: model-based interpretation of mayo lung project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Barbara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mayo Lung Project (MLP, a randomized controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening conducted between 1971 and 1986 among male smokers aged 45 or above, demonstrated an increase in lung cancer survival since the time of diagnosis, but no reduction in lung cancer mortality. Whether this result necessarily indicates a lack of mortality benefit for screening remains controversial. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed outcome, including over-diagnosis, screening sensitivity, and population heterogeneity (initial difference in lung cancer risks between the two trial arms. This study is intended to provide model-based testing for some of these important arguments. Method Using a micro-simulation model, the MISCAN-lung model, we explore the possible influence of screening sensitivity, systematic error, over-diagnosis and population heterogeneity. Results Calibrating screening sensitivity, systematic error, or over-diagnosis does not noticeably improve the fit of the model, whereas calibrating population heterogeneity helps the model predict lung cancer incidence better. Conclusions Our conclusion is that the hypothesized imperfection in screening sensitivity, systematic error, and over-diagnosis do not in themselves explain the observed trial results. Model fit improvement achieved by accounting for population heterogeneity suggests a higher risk of cancer incidence in the intervention group as compared with the control group.

  12. Proposed Schematics and Modeling Results for a Lunar Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Chullen, Cinda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a Pressure Garment System (PGS) and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen (O2) subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. This paper baselines a detailed schematic of the CSSE PLSS to provide a basis for current and future CSSE PLSS development efforts. Both context diagrams and detailed schematics describe the hardware components and overall functions for all three of the PLSS subsystems. Additionally, PLSS functions are presented for multiple operational scenarios as follows: 1) Nominal Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Mode; 2) Umbilical Modes; a) No Recharge, b) With Recharge; 3) Decompression Sickness (DCS) Treatment Mode; 4) Buddy Mode; 5) Secondary O2 Modes; a) Helmet Purge; b) Suit Purge; c) Operational; and 5) PLSS Removed Umbilical Mode. A performance modeling effort is being performed to provide a preliminary confirmation of this layout and the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the PLSS is presented. The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. Modeling approaches and assumptions are discussed as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are included that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  13. Modelled and Observed Diurnal SST Signals: "SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M." Project Preliminary Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob; LeBorgne, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some of the preliminary results from the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). During this phase...... of the project, the focus is on the regional extend of diurnal variability. Particularly, extensive sensitivity tests regarding the definition of SSTfound fields show that using only quality 5 SEVIRI data results in warmer foundation fields SSTfound while there is an added ∼0.2 K variability when using multi...... Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) is applied. Preliminary results show that the initial temperature profiles may give a warmer start-up in the model while the light extinction scheme is a controlling factor for the amplitude and vertical extend of the daily signal....

  14. Robustness of life cycle assessment results : influence of data variation and modelling choices on results for beverage packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of product and service systems throughout their life cycles. However, it can happen that LCAs for the same product have different and even conflicting outcomes. LCA results need to be robust and

  15. Action versus result-oriented schemes in a grassland agroecosystem: a dynamic modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Doyen, Luc; Tichit, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Effects of agri-environment schemes (AES) on biodiversity remain controversial. While most AES are action-oriented, result-oriented and habitat-oriented schemes have recently been proposed as a solution to improve AES efficiency. The objective of this study was to compare action-oriented, habitat-oriented and result-oriented schemes in terms of ecological and productive performance as well as in terms of management flexibility. We developed a dynamic modelling approach based on the viable control framework to carry out a long term assessment of the three schemes in a grassland agroecosystem. The model explicitly links grazed grassland dynamics to bird population dynamics. It is applied to lapwing conservation in wet grasslands in France. We ran the model to assess the three AES scenarios. The model revealed the grazing strategies respecting ecological and productive constraints specific to each scheme. Grazing strategies were assessed by both their ecological and productive performance. The viable control approach made it possible to obtain the whole set of viable grazing strategies and therefore to quantify the management flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem. Our results showed that habitat and result-oriented scenarios led to much higher ecological performance than the action-oriented one. Differences in both ecological and productive performance between the habitat and result-oriented scenarios were limited. Flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem in the result-oriented scenario was much higher than in that of habitat-oriented scenario. Our model confirms the higher flexibility as well as the better ecological and productive performance of result-oriented schemes. A larger use of result-oriented schemes in conservation may also allow farmers to adapt their management to local conditions and to climatic variations.

  16. Action versus result-oriented schemes in a grassland agroecosystem: a dynamic modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Sabatier

    Full Text Available Effects of agri-environment schemes (AES on biodiversity remain controversial. While most AES are action-oriented, result-oriented and habitat-oriented schemes have recently been proposed as a solution to improve AES efficiency. The objective of this study was to compare action-oriented, habitat-oriented and result-oriented schemes in terms of ecological and productive performance as well as in terms of management flexibility. We developed a dynamic modelling approach based on the viable control framework to carry out a long term assessment of the three schemes in a grassland agroecosystem. The model explicitly links grazed grassland dynamics to bird population dynamics. It is applied to lapwing conservation in wet grasslands in France. We ran the model to assess the three AES scenarios. The model revealed the grazing strategies respecting ecological and productive constraints specific to each scheme. Grazing strategies were assessed by both their ecological and productive performance. The viable control approach made it possible to obtain the whole set of viable grazing strategies and therefore to quantify the management flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem. Our results showed that habitat and result-oriented scenarios led to much higher ecological performance than the action-oriented one. Differences in both ecological and productive performance between the habitat and result-oriented scenarios were limited. Flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem in the result-oriented scenario was much higher than in that of habitat-oriented scenario. Our model confirms the higher flexibility as well as the better ecological and productive performance of result-oriented schemes. A larger use of result-oriented schemes in conservation may also allow farmers to adapt their management to local conditions and to climatic variations.

  17. The comparison of the results of numerical modeling and physical model experiment on laser polarization sensing of droplet clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, A. A.; Bryukhanova, V. V.; Samokhvalov, I. V.; Stykon, A. P.

    2014-11-01

    The task of laser sensing of droplet clouds by coaxial lidar is considered. Lidar return due to single scattering is formed in the volume bounded by the radiation pattern of the transmitter, while the double-scattering is determined by a receiving system field of view. The volume of the scattering medium exceeding a receiving system field of view forms the signal higher scattering orders ( < 2). The results of the numerical modeling of the distribution (in the recording plane) polarization characteristics of lidar signal from droplet clouds in the double scattering approximation in comparison with the results of the physical model experiment simulating sounding of a droplet cloud are discussed in this paper.

  18. Lattice Hamiltonian approach to the Schwinger model. Further results from the strong coupling expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szyniszewski, Marcin [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). NoWNano DTC; Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Kujawa-Cichy, Agnieszka [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Theortische Physik

    2014-10-15

    We employ exact diagonalization with strong coupling expansion to the massless and massive Schwinger model. New results are presented for the ground state energy and scalar mass gap in the massless model, which improve the precision to nearly 10{sup -9}%. We also investigate the chiral condensate and compare our calculations to previous results available in the literature. Oscillations of the chiral condensate which are present while increasing the expansion order are also studied and are shown to be directly linked to the presence of flux loops in the system.

  19. New Results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Kravitz, B.

    2013-12-01

    . SRM using stratospheric aerosols would reduce ozone and enhance surface UV-B radiation, but the details depend on the size distribution of the aerosols, and the complex interaction between upwelling of ozone-poor air in the tropics, suppression of the NOx cycle, and increases of surface area density. While GeoMIP has improved confidence in the expected climate effects of geoengineering in several key areas, it has also highlighted several important research gaps, such as the effects on terrestrial net primary productivity and the importance of the CO2 physiological effect in determining the hydrologic cycle response to geoengineering. Future efforts will endeavor to address these gaps, as well as encourage cooperation with the chemistry modeling communities, the impact assessment communities (including on agriculture and ecosystems), and other groups interested in model output. We are organizing new GeoMIP experiments that address the suggestion that SRM be implemented by marine cloud brightening, and are proposing that GeoMIP be an integral part of the design of the CMIP6 project.

  20. Development of in vitro models for investigating spatially fractionated irradiation: physics and biological results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockhuys, S; Vanhoecke, B; Paelinck, L; Bracke, M; DeWagter, C

    2009-03-01

    We present different in vitro experimental models which allow us to evaluate the effect of spatially fractionated dose distributions on metabolic activity. We irradiated a monolayer of MCF-7/6 human breast cancer cells with a steep and a smooth 6 MV x-ray dose gradient. In the steep gradient model, we irradiated the cells with three separate small fields. We also developed two smooth gradient models. In the first model, the cells are cultured in a T25 flask and irradiated with a smooth dose gradient over the length of the flask, while in the second one, the cells are cultured in a 96-well plate and also irradiated over the length of the plate. In an attempt to correlate the spatially fractionated dose distributions with metabolic activity, the effect of irradiation was evaluated by means of the MTT assay. This assay is used to determine the metabolic activity by measuring the amount of formazan formed after the conversion of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) by cellular dehydrogenases. The results obtained with our different models suggest a dose-specific effect on metabolic activity, characterized by an increased formazan optical density occurring in the dose range 1.0-4.0 Gy in the steep dose gradient model and in the dose ranges 4.2-6.5 Gy and 2.3-5.1 Gy in the two smooth dose gradient models. The corresponding times for maximal formazan accumulation were 5-7 days in the steep dose gradient model and day 9-13 and day 9-11 in the smooth dose gradient models. Altogether, our results suggest that the MTT assay may be used as a biological dose-response meter to monitor the radiotherapeutic effectiveness.

  1. Development of in vitro models for investigating spatially fractionated irradiation: physics and biological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blockhuys, S; Vanhoecke, B; Bracke, M [Laboratory Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Paelinck, L; De Wagter, C [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: Stephanie.Blockhuys@ugent.be

    2009-03-21

    We present different in vitro experimental models which allow us to evaluate the effect of spatially fractionated dose distributions on metabolic activity. We irradiated a monolayer of MCF-7/6 human breast cancer cells with a steep and a smooth 6 MV x-ray dose gradient. In the steep gradient model, we irradiated the cells with three separate small fields. We also developed two smooth gradient models. In the first model, the cells are cultured in a T25 flask and irradiated with a smooth dose gradient over the length of the flask, while in the second one, the cells are cultured in a 96-well plate and also irradiated over the length of the plate. In an attempt to correlate the spatially fractionated dose distributions with metabolic activity, the effect of irradiation was evaluated by means of the MTT assay. This assay is used to determine the metabolic activity by measuring the amount of formazan formed after the conversion of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) by cellular dehydrogenases. The results obtained with our different models suggest a dose-specific effect on metabolic activity, characterized by an increased formazan optical density occurring in the dose range 1.0-4.0 Gy in the steep dose gradient model and in the dose ranges 4.2-6.5 Gy and 2.3-5.1 Gy in the two smooth dose gradient models. The corresponding times for maximal formazan accumulation were 5-7 days in the steep dose gradient model and day 9-13 and day 9-11 in the smooth dose gradient models. Altogether, our results suggest that the MTT assay may be used as a biological dose-response meter to monitor the radiotherapeutic effectiveness.

  2. Application of a computationally efficient method to approximate gap model results with a probabilistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherstjanoi, M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Lischke, H.

    2014-07-01

    To be able to simulate climate change effects on forest dynamics over the whole of Switzerland, we adapted the second-generation DGVM (dynamic global vegetation model) LPJ-GUESS (Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator) to the Alpine environment. We modified model functions, tuned model parameters, and implemented new tree species to represent the potential natural vegetation of Alpine landscapes. Furthermore, we increased the computational efficiency of the model to enable area-covering simulations in a fine resolution (1 km) sufficient for the complex topography of the Alps, which resulted in more than 32 000 simulation grid cells. To this aim, we applied the recently developed method GAPPARD (approximating GAP model results with a Probabilistic Approach to account for stand Replacing Disturbances) (Scherstjanoi et al., 2013) to LPJ-GUESS. GAPPARD derives mean output values from a combination of simulation runs without disturbances and a patch age distribution defined by the disturbance frequency. With this computationally efficient method, which increased the model's speed by approximately the factor 8, we were able to faster detect the shortcomings of LPJ-GUESS functions and parameters. We used the adapted LPJ-GUESS together with GAPPARD to assess the influence of one climate change scenario on dynamics of tree species composition and biomass throughout the 21st century in Switzerland. To allow for comparison with the original model, we additionally simulated forest dynamics along a north-south transect through Switzerland. The results from this transect confirmed the high value of the GAPPARD method despite some limitations towards extreme climatic events. It allowed for the first time to obtain area-wide, detailed high-resolution LPJ-GUESS simulation results for a large part of the Alpine region.

  3. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    physiological plant model, in the case of lettuce (since the leaf metabolic model predominates), the developed model was verified with the carbon consumption of plant, as input. The model predicts the biomass production (as output) with respect to the quantum of light absorbed by the plant. The obtained result was found satisfying for the first initiation in the physiological plant modelling.

  4. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI: methodology and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bulatewicz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI. This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  5. Modeling of Na airglow emission and first results on the nocturnal variation at midlatitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, T.; Sunil Krishna, M. V.; Singh, Vir

    2015-12-01

    A model for sodium airglow emission is developed by incorporating all the known reaction mechanisms. The neutral, ionic, and photochemical mechanisms are successfully implemented into this model. The values of reaction rate coefficients are based upon the theoretical calculations as well as from experimental observations. The densities of major species are calculated using the continuity equations, whereas for the minor, intermediating, and short-lived species steady state approximation method is used. The modeled results are validated with the rocket, lidar, and photometer observations for a branching ratio of 0.04 for the production of Na(2P) in the reaction NaO + O → Na(2P, 2S). The inputs have been obtained from other physics-based models and ground- and satellite-based observations to give the combined volume emission rate (VER) of Na airglow between 80 and 110 km altitude. In the present study, the model is used to understand the nocturnal variation of Na VER during the solstice conditions. The model results suggest a variation of peak emission layer between 85 and 90 km during summer solstice condition, indicating a lower value of peak emission rate during summer solstice. The emission rates bear a strong correlation with the O3 density during summer solstice, whereas the magnitude of VER follows the Na density during winter solstice. The altitude of peak VER shows an upward shift of 5 km during winter solstice.

  6. Comparison of TS and ANN Models with the Results of Emission Scenarios in Rainfall Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babaei Hessar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Precipitation is one of the most important and sensitive parameters of the tropical climate that influence the catchments hydrological regime. The prediction of rainfall is vital for strategic planning and water resources management. Despite its importance, statistical rainfall forecasting, especially for long-term, has been proven to be a great challenge due to the dynamic nature of climate phenomena and random fluctuations involved in the process. Various methods, such as time series and artificial neural network models, have been proposed to predict the level of rainfall. But there is not enough attention to global warming and climate change issues. The main aim of this study is to investigate the conformity of artificial neural network and time series models with climate scenarios. Materials and Methods: For this study, 50 years of daily rainfall data (1961 to 2010 of the synoptic station of Urmia, Tabriz and Khoy was investigated. Data was obtained from Meteorological Organization of Iran. In the present study, the results of two Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Time Seri (TS methods were compared with the result of the Emission Scenarios (A2 & B1. HadCM3 model in LARS-WG software was used to generate rainfall for the next 18 years (2011-2029. The results of models were compared with climate scenarios over the next 18 years in the three synoptic stations located in the basin of the Lake Urmia. At the first stage, the best model of time series method was selected. The precipitation was estimated for the next 18 years using these models. For the same period, precipitation was forecast using artificial neural networks. Finally, the results of two models were compared with data generated under two scenarios (B1 and A2 in LARS-WG. Results and Discussion: Different order of AR, MA and ARMA was examined to select the best model of TS The results show that AR(1 was suitable for Tabriz and Khoy stations .In the Urmia station MA(1 was

  7.  Functional Results-Oriented Healthcare Leadership: A Novel Leadership Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Said Al-Touby

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This article modifies the traditional functional leadership model to accommodate contemporary needs in healthcare leadership based on two findings. First, the article argues that it is important that the ideal healthcare leadership emphasizes the outcomes of the patient care more than processes and structures used to deliver such care; and secondly, that the leadership must strive to attain effectiveness of their care provision and not merely targeting the attractive option of efficient operations. Based on these premises, the paper reviews the traditional Functional Leadership Model and the three elements that define the type of leadership an organization has namely, the tasks, the individuals, and the team. The article argues that concentrating on any one of these elements is not ideal and proposes adding a new element to the model to construct a novel Functional Result-Oriented healthcare leadership model. The recommended Functional-Results Oriented leadership model embosses the results element on top of the other three elements so that every effort on healthcare leadership is directed towards attaining excellent patient outcomes.

  8. Conversion of IVA Human Computer Model to EVA Use and Evaluation and Comparison of the Result to Existing EVA Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, George S.; Williams, Jermaine C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methods, rationale, and comparative results of the conversion of an intravehicular (IVA) 3D human computer model (HCM) to extravehicular (EVA) use and compares the converted model to an existing model on another computer platform. The task of accurately modeling a spacesuited human figure in software is daunting: the suit restricts the human's joint range of motion (ROM) and does not have joints collocated with human joints. The modeling of the variety of materials needed to construct a space suit (e. g. metal bearings, rigid fiberglass torso, flexible cloth limbs and rubber coated gloves) attached to a human figure is currently out of reach of desktop computer hardware and software. Therefore a simplified approach was taken. The HCM's body parts were enlarged and the joint ROM was restricted to match the existing spacesuit model. This basic approach could be used to model other restrictive environments in industry such as chemical or fire protective clothing. In summary, the approach provides a moderate fidelity, usable tool which will run on current notebook computers.

  9. Latest results from the EU project AVATAR: Aerodynamic modelling of 10 MW wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers O. Ceyhan, J. G.; Boorsma, K.; Gonzalez, A.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the most recent results from the EU project AVATAR in which aerodynamic models are improved and validated for wind turbines on a scale of 10 MW and more. Measurements on a DU 00-W-212 airfoil are presented which have been taken in the pressurized DNW-HDG wind tunnel up to a Re...... results from 3D rotor models where a comparison is made between results from vortex wake methods and BEM methods at yawed conditions....... showed an unexpected large scatter which eventually was reduced by paying even more attention to grid independency and domain size in relation to grid topology. Moreover calculations are presented on flow devices (leading and trailing edge flaps and vortex generators). Finally results are shown between...

  10. A Comparison of Results From NASA's Meteoroid Engineering Model to the LDEF Cratering Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, S.; Moorhead, A.; Cooke, W. J.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has provided an extensive record of the meteoroid environment in Low Earth Orbit. LDEF's combination of fixed orientation, large collecting area, and long lifetime imposes constraints on the absolute flux of potentially hazardous meteoroids. The relative impact rate on each of LDEF's fourteen surfaces arises from the underlying velocity distribution and directionality of the meteoroid environment. For the first time, we model the meteoroid environment encountered by LDEF over its operational lifetime using NASA's Meteoroid Engineering Model Release 2 (MEMR2) and compare the model results with the observed craters of potentially hazardous meteoroids (i.e. crater diameters larger than approximately 0.6 mm). We discuss the extent to which the observations and model agree and how the impact rates across all of the LDEF surfaces may suggest improvements to the underlying assumptions that go into future versions of MEM.

  11. Evidence for Symplectic Symmetry in Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Results for Light Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytrych, Tomas; Sviratcheva, Kristina D.; Bahri, Chairul; Draayer, Jerry P.; /Louisiana State U.; Vary, James P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

    2007-04-24

    Clear evidence for symplectic symmetry in low-lying states of {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O is reported. Eigenstates of {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O, determined within the framework of the no-core shell model using the JISP16 NN realistic interaction, typically project at the 85-90% level onto a few of the most deformed symplectic basis states that span only a small fraction of the full model space. The results are nearly independent of whether the bare or renormalized effective interactions are used in the analysis. The outcome confirms Elliott's SU(3) model which underpins the symplectic scheme, and above all, points to the relevance of a symplectic no-core shell model that can reproduce experimental B(E2) values without effective charges as well as deformed spatial modes associated with clustering phenomena in nuclei.

  12. Model unspecific search in CMS. Results at 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Hebbeker, Thomas; Knutzen, Simon; Lieb, Jonas; Meyer, Arnd; Pook, Tobias; Roemer, Jonas [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the year 2012, CMS collected a total data set of approximately 20 fb{sup -1} in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV. Dedicated searches for physics beyond the standard model are commonly designed with the signatures of a given theoretical model in mind. While this approach allows for an optimised sensitivity to the sought-after signal, it may cause unexpected phenomena to be overlooked. In a complementary approach, the Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC) analyses CMS data in a general way. Depending on the reconstructed final state objects (e.g. electrons), collision events are sorted into classes. In each of the classes, the distributions of selected kinematic variables are compared to standard model simulation. An automated statistical analysis is performed to quantify the agreement between data and prediction. In this talk, the analysis concept is introduced and selected results of the analysis of the 2012 CMS data set are presented.

  13. Comparison of measurements and model results for airborne sulphur and nitrogen components with kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaug, J.; Iversen, T.; Pedersen, U. (Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Lillestroem (Norway). Chemical Coordinating Centre of EMEP)

    1993-04-01

    Comparisons have been made between calculations from the Lagrangian model for acid deposition at Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West (MSC-W) of EMEP and measurements at EMEP sites. Annual averages of aerosol sulphate, sulphate in precipitation and nitrate in precipitation were calculated and compared for selected sites. Site selection was based on data completeness and on results from EMEP interlaboratory exercises. The comparison for sulphates in precipitation and air led to a model underestimation in the north and model overestimation in a belt through the major source regions in central Europe. The comparisons also indicate irregularities at some sites which may be due to influence from local sources, or the data quality, although this is not substantiated. The model estimates of nitrate in precipitation compare well with the measurements, although some characteristic differences occur also for this component. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Model On DROID Response With Imperfect Trapping Tested On Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, R. A.; Kozorezov, A. G.; Verhoeve, P.; Martin, D. D. E.; Wigmore, J. K.; Venn, R.

    2009-12-01

    The DROID (Distributed Read-Out Imaging Detector) is being developed to overcome the limitation in sensitive area with the use of single STJ's (Superconducting Tunnel Junctions). The DROID configuration allows the reconstruction of the position of the photon absorption and therefore it can replace a number of single STJ's in a detector array. We present a 2D model which describes the response of DROIDs with partial trapping in the STJs. The model describes diffusion of quasiparticles (qps) and imperfect confinement via exchange of qps between the absorber and STJ. It incorporates possible diffusion mismatch between absorber and STJ, possible asymmetry between the STJs as well as between the base and top electrodes of the STJs, and photon absorption in the absorber or base or top film of the STJ. Dedicated experiments have been conducted to test the different aspects of the model. We find a good agreement between the model and experimental results.

  15. Preliminary mixed-layer model results for FIRE marine stratocumulus IFO conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, R.; Nicholls, S.

    1990-01-01

    Some preliminary results from the Turton and Nicholls mixed layer model using typical FIRE boundary conditions are presented. The model includes entrainment and drizzle parametrizations as well as interactive long and shortwave radiation schemes. A constraint on the integrated turbulent kinetic energy balance ensures that the model remains energetically consistent at all times. The preliminary runs were used to identify the potentially important terms in the heat and moisture budgets of the cloud layer, and to assess the anticipated diurnal variability. These are compared with typical observations from the C130. Sensitivity studies also revealed the remarkable stability of these cloud sheets: a number of negative feedback mechanisms appear to operate to maintain the cloud over an extended time period. These are also discussed. The degree to which such a modelling approach can be used to explain observed features, the specification of boundary conditions and problems of interpretation in non-horizontally uniform conditions is also raised.

  16. Global Monthly CO2 Flux Inversion Based on Results of Terrestrial Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F.; Chen, J.; Peters, W.; Krol, M.

    2008-12-01

    Most of our understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 has come from inverse studies of atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. However, the number of currently available observation stations and our ability to simulate the diurnal planetary boundary layer evolution over continental regions essentially limit the number of regions that can be reliably inverted globally, especially over continental areas. In order to overcome these restrictions, a nested inverse modeling system was developed based on the Bayesian principle for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Inverse modeling was conducted in monthly steps using CO2 concentration measurements of 5 years (2000 - 2005) with the following two models: (a) An atmospheric transport model (TM5) is used to generate the transport matrix where the diurnal variation n of atmospheric CO2 concentration is considered to enhance the use of the afternoon-hour average CO2 concentration measurements over the continental sites. (b) A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model (BEPS) is used to produce hourly step carbon fluxes, which could minimize the limitation due to our inability to solve the inverse problem in a high resolution, as the background of our inversion. We will present our recent results achieved through a combination of the bottom-up modeling with BEPS and the top-down modeling based on TM5 driven by offline meteorological fields generated by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMFW).

  17. The interface free energy: Comparison of accurate Monte Carlo results for the 3D Ising model with effective interface models

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Panero, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We provide accurate Monte Carlo results for the free energy of interfaces with periodic boundary conditions in the 3D Ising model. We study a large range of inverse temperatures, allowing to control corrections to scaling. In addition to square interfaces, we study rectangular interfaces for a large range of aspect ratios u=L_1/L_2. Our numerical results are compared with predictions of effective interface models. This comparison verifies clearly the effective Nambu-Goto model up to two-loop order. Our data also allow us to obtain the estimates T_c sigma^-1/2=1.235(2), m_0++ sigma^-1/2=3.037(16) and R_+=f_+ sigma_0^2 =0.387(2), which are more precise than previous ones.

  18. Comparison of results of experimental research with numerical calculations of a model one-sided seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Damian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+ has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.

  19. Comparative Results on 3D Navigation of Quadrotor using two Nonlinear Model based Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Y.; Siguerdidjane, H.; Bestaoui, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Recently the quadrotors are being increasingly employed in both military and civilian areas where a broad range of nonlinear flight control techniques are successfully implemented. With this advancement, it has become necessary to investigate the efficiency of these flight controllers by studying theirs features and compare their performance. In this paper, the control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) quadrotor, using two different approaches, is presented. The first controller is Nonlinear PID (NLPID) whilst the second one is Nonlinear Internal Model Control (NLIMC) that are used for the stabilization as well as for the 3D trajectory tracking. The numerical simulations have shown satisfactory results using nominal system model or disturbed model for both of them. The obtained results are analyzed with respect to several criteria for the sake of comparison.

  20. The Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model: A brief review and some recent results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebhan Anton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model is given, which is a top-down holographic model of low-energy QCD with chiral quarks derived from type-IIA superstring theory. The main predictions of the model, in particular concerning meson spectra, the gluon condensate, the QCD string tension, the mass of the η′ and of baryons are discussed and compared quantitatively with available experimental and/or lattice results. Then some recent results of potential interest to the physics program at the future FAIR facility are presented: The spectrum of glueballs and their decay rates into pions, and the phase diagram of QCD at finite temperature, density, and magnetic field strength.

  1. Extending positive C-LASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Brewe, Eric; de la Garza, Jorge; Kramer, Laird H

    2013-01-01

    We report on a multi year study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (C-LASS) in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed improved attitudes from pre to post course. Cohen's d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d = 0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26 to 0.64). These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.

  2. Influence of Different Modeling Strategies for CFRP on Finite Element Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xueshu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation is used to predict the behavior and response of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP. Sometimes zero thickness of interface layer is introduced into the numerical model to investigate the inter-layer behavior like delamination. To investigate the influence of critical volume-type defect like void, usually appeared in matrix rich region at the interface between layers, on mechanical properties of CFRP, numerical models with different interface thickness were created and tensile property and three-point bending simulation results were compared to experimental ones. It is found that accurate result is obtained with increasing of the interface thickness and up to 20% that of layer thickness is recommended to model the matrix rich region.

  3. Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX): Overview and Summary of the Second and Third Workshop Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Q; Schaake, J; Andreassian, V; Franks, S; Gupta, H V; Gusev, Y M; Habets, F; Hall, A; Hay, L; Hogue, T; Huang, M; Leavesley, G; Liang, X; Nasonova, O N; Noilhan, J; Oudin, L; Sorooshian, S; Wagener, T; Wood, E F

    2005-02-10

    Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) is an international project aimed to develop enhanced techniques for the a priori estimation of parameters in hydrologic models and in land surface parameterization schemes of atmospheric models. MOPEX science strategy involves three major steps: data preparation, a priori parameter estimation methodology development, and demonstration of parameter transferability. A comprehensive MOPEX database has been developed that contains historical hydrometeorological data and land surface characteristics data for many hydrologic basins in the United States and in other countries. This database is continuing to be expanded to include more basins in all parts of the world. A number of international MOPEX workshops have been convened to bring together interested hydrologists and land surface modelers from all over world to exchange knowledge and experience in developing a priori parameter estimation techniques. This paper describes the results from the second and third MOPEX workshops. The specific objective of those workshops is to examine the state of a priori parameter estimation techniques and how they can be potentially improved with observations from well-monitored hydrologic basins. Participants of these MOPEX workshops were given data for 12 basins in the Southeastern United States and were asked to carry out a series of numerical experiments using a priori parameters as well as calibrated parameters developed for their respective hydrologic models. Eight different models have carried all out the required numerical experiments and the results from those models have been assembled for analysis in this paper. This paper presents an overview of the MOPEX experiment design. The experimental results are analyzed and the important lessons from the two workshops are discussed. Finally, a discussion of further work and future strategy is given.

  4. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model. Comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, R.; Dameris, M.; Schnadt, C. [and others

    2000-01-01

    An interactively coupled climate-chemistry model which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks is presented. This is the first model, which interactively combines a general circulation model based on primitive equations with a rather complex model of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and which is computational efficient enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. The applied model version extends from the Earth's surface up to 10 hPa with a relatively high number (39) of vertical levels. We present the results of a present-day (1990) simulation and compare it to available observations. We focus on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. The current model version ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM can realistically reproduce stratospheric dynamics in the Arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to formerly applied model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their interhemispheric differences are reproduced. The consideration of the chemistry feedback on dynamics results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapor concentrations, i.e., the simulated meriodional water vapor gradient in the stratosphere is realistic. The present model version constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic trace gas emissions, and the future evolution of the ozone layer. (orig.)

  5. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model. Comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, R.; Dameris, M.; Schnadt, C. [and others

    2000-01-01

    An interactively coupled climate-chemistry model which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks is presented. This is the first model, which interactively combines a general circulation model based on primitive equations with a rather complex model of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and which is computational efficient enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. The applied model version extends from the Earth's surface up to 10 hPa with a relatively high number (39) of vertical levels. We present the results of a present-day (1990) simulation and compare it to available observations. We focus on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. The current model version ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM can realistically reproduce stratospheric dynamics in the Arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to formerly applied model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their interhemispheric differences are reproduced. The consideration of the chemistry feedback on dynamics results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapor concentrations, i.e., the simulated meriodional water vapor gradient in the stratosphere is realistic. The present model version constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic trace gas emissions, and the future evolution of the ozone layer. (orig.)

  6. Optimal Geoid Modelling to determine the Mean Ocean Circulation - Project Overview and early Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher, Thomas; Knudsen, Per; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Gruber, Thomas; Maximenko, Nikolai; Pie, Nadege; Siegismund, Frank; Stammer, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    The ESA project GOCE-OGMOC (Optimal Geoid Modelling based on GOCE and GRACE third-party mission data and merging with altimetric sea surface data to optimally determine Ocean Circulation) examines the influence of the satellite missions GRACE and in particular GOCE in ocean modelling applications. The project goal is an improved processing of satellite and ground data for the preparation and combination of gravity and altimetry data on the way to an optimal MDT solution. Explicitly, the two main objectives are (i) to enhance the GRACE error modelling and optimally combine GOCE and GRACE [and optionally terrestrial/altimetric data] and (ii) to integrate the optimal Earth gravity field model with MSS and drifter information to derive a state-of-the art MDT including an error assessment. The main work packages referring to (i) are the characterization of geoid model errors, the identification of GRACE error sources, the revision of GRACE error models, the optimization of weighting schemes for the participating data sets and finally the estimation of an optimally combined gravity field model. In this context, also the leakage of terrestrial data into coastal regions shall be investigated, as leakage is not only a problem for the gravity field model itself, but is also mirrored in a derived MDT solution. Related to (ii) the tasks are the revision of MSS error covariances, the assessment of the mean circulation using drifter data sets and the computation of an optimal geodetic MDT as well as a so called state-of-the-art MDT, which combines the geodetic MDT with drifter mean circulation data. This paper presents an overview over the project results with focus on the geodetic results part.

  7. Polarized antiquark distributions from chiral quark-soliton model summary of the results

    CERN Document Server

    Göke, K; Polyakov, M V; Urbano, D

    2000-01-01

    In these short notes we present a parametrization of the results obtained in the chiral quark-soliton model for polarized antiquark distributions $\\Delta\\bar u$, $\\Delta\\bar d$ and $\\Delta\\bar s$ at a low normalization point around mu=0.6 GeV.

  8. Social approval of the community assessment model for odor dispersal: results from a citizen survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, John C; Grudens-Schuck, Nancy; Harmon, Jay D; Hoff, Steve J

    2012-08-01

    Odors emitted from US Midwest hog production facilities present farmers, residents, and state regulatory agencies with a set of complex challenges. To predict odor exposure from multiple swine production sources simultaneously, and to determine siting recommendations for proposed new or enlarged hog facilities, researchers at Iowa State University designed the community assessment model for odor dispersion (CAM). A three-county citizen survey conducted in Iowa examined the level of hypothetical social acceptance of the modeling process, and level of trust in CAM results. While 69 % of respondents approved of modeling as a way to determine the most socially appropriate location for production sites, only 35 % would trust the results if potential odor exposure from a new facility were proposed to be built near their home. We analyzed approval of the CAM model, and level of trust, across a number of demographic, attitudinal, and belief factors regarding environmental quality and the hog industry. Overall, trust in CAM was uneven and varied across respondents. Those residents who would not trust CAM tended to be more concerned with environmental quality and less inclined to believe that the hog industry is critically important economically. Those who would not trust CAM results also had significantly more direct experience with odors. Findings point to predominantly positive, yet equivocal acceptance of CAM results among the citizenry, which is not unexpected given conflict typical of siting decisions in industry and waste disposal arenas. Recommendations are offered regarding the interaction of trust, beliefs and attitudes and the utility of CAM.

  9. Modeling of contact mechanics and friction limit surfaces for soft fingers in robotics, with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xydas, N.; Kao, I.

    1999-09-01

    A new theory in contact mechanics for modeling of soft fingers is proposed to define the relationship between the normal force and the radius of contact for soft fingers by considering general soft-finger materials, including linearly and nonlinearly elastic materials. The results show that the radius of contact is proportional to the normal force raised to the power of {gamma}, which ranges from 0 to 1/3. This new theory subsumes the Hertzian contact model for linear elastic materials, where {gamma} = 1/3. Experiments are conducted to validate the theory using artificial soft fingers made of various materials such as rubber and silicone. Results for human fingers are also compared. This theory provides a basis for numerically constructing friction limit surfaces. The numerical friction limit surface can be approximated by an ellipse, with the major and minor axes as the maximum friction force and the maximum moment with respect to the normal axis of contact, respectively. Combining the results of the contact-mechanics model with the contact-pressure distribution, the normalized friction limit surface can be derived for anthropomorphic soft fingers. The results of the contact-mechanics model and the pressure distribution for soft fingers facilitate the construction of numerical friction limit surfaces, and will enable us to analyze and simulate contact behaviors of grasping and manipulation in robotics.

  10. From sub-source to source: Interpreting results of biological trace investigations using probabilistic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, W.T.; Kokshoorn, B.; Maaskant-van Wijk, P.A.; de Zoete, J.

    2015-01-01

    The current method of reporting a putative cell type is based on a non-probabilistic assessment of test results by the forensic practitioner. Additionally, the association between donor and cell type in mixed DNA profiles can be exceedingly complex. We present a probabilistic model for interpretatio

  11. Results from the beam test of the engineering model of the GLAST large area telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto e Silva, E. do E-mail: eduardo@slac.stanford.edu; Anthony, P.; Arnold, R.; Arrighi, H.; Bloom, E.; Baughman, B.; Bogart, J.; Bosted, P.; Bumala, B.; Chekhtman, A.; Cotton, N.; Crider, A.; Dobbs-Dixon, I.; Djannati-Atai, A.; Dubois, R.; Engovatov, D.; Espigat, P.; Evans, J.L.; Fieguth, T.; Flath, D.; Frigaard, M.; Giebels, B.; Gillespie, S.; Godfrey, G.; Grove, J.E.; Handa, T.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hernando, J.; Hicks, M.; Hirayama, M.; Johnson, W.N.; Johnson, R.; Kamae, T.; Kroeger, W.; Lauben, D.; Lin, Y.C.; Lindner, T.; Michelson, P.; Moiseev, A.; Nikolaou, M.; Nolan, P.; Odian, A.; Ohsugi, T.; Ormes, J.; Paliaga, G.; Parkinson, P. Saz; Phlips, B.; Ritz, S.; Rock, S.; Russel, J.J.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Silvis, J.; Szalata, Z.; Terrier, R.; Thompson, D.J.; Tournear, D.M.; Waite, A.P.; Wallace, J.; Williams, S.; Williamson, R.; Winker, G

    2001-11-21

    This paper describes the results of a beam test using the Engineering Model of the GLAST Large Area Telescope, which was installed in a beam of positrons, hadrons and tagged photons at SLAC. The performance of the four subsystems, Anti Coincidence Detector, Silicon Tracker, Calorimeter and Data Acquisition will be described.

  12. An example of model result correction to study the impact of climate change on electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parey, S.; Galloy, G.; Nogaj, M.

    2012-04-01

    Climate is changing and temperature evolutions are thought to impact electricity consumption in the future. In order to estimate these possible shifts, climate model results for two future periods: 2050 and 2100 are considered. However, the use of the electricity consumption forecast model with climate model outputs for the current period give unrealistic results compared to forecasts made with observations. As a matter of fact, consumption is forecasted using a taylor-designed mean of French temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary for the model results to be as close as possible to this observed mean. The first studies had been made using the so-called "delta method", which consists in adding future changes to the observations. This however supposes that there is no variance change, which is not necessarily valid. Thus, in a second step, the percentile correction method has been used, firstly considering the whole annual distribution. This is however not satisfactory, as the seasonal distributions remain too much biased. Thus, the correction had to be applied on a monthly basis. The method and results of the correction will be presented for this example of France.

  13. Pb-16Li/water interaction: Experimental results and preliminary modelling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampichetti, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.ciampichetti@enea.it [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugno (Italy); Ricapito, Italo [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Forgione, Nicola; Pesetti, Alessio [Università di Pisa, DIMNP, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 2, 56122 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between pressurised water and liquid Pb16Li. • The free volume is more impacting than the water enthalpy in determining the pressure evolution of the system. • If a large quantity of water is injected in Pb16Li the temperature increase is very high. • The pressure trends computed by the SIMMER code show a quite good agreement with the experimental data. • From the results some recommendations about the WCLL blanket design can be derived. -- Abstract: The Water Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket is based on the eutectic liquid alloy Pb16Li as breeder material and neutron multiplier, and pressurised water as coolant. The liquid breeder flows at few mm/s in the blanket module while the pressurised water is circulated inside double-wall tubes. In spite of the adoption of double-wall tubes for the coolant, the probability of a water large leak because of a tube rupture accident cannot be considered negligible. As a consequence, the Pb16Li/water interaction due to a large break in one or more cooling tubes still remains one of the biggest concerns for this blanket concept. This paper reports the results of three experimental tests on Pb16Li/water interaction carried out at ENEA-Brasimone operating the LIFUS 5 facility. Water was injected into the reaction tank, containing Pb16Li at 330 °C, at a pressure of 155 bar with different values of sub-cooling and with different free volumes in the reaction system. In addition, post test analyses with SIMMER III code are presented in order to compare the pressure evolution measured during the experiments with that calculated by the code.

  14. V-SUIT Model Validation Using PLSS 1.0 Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthoff, Claas

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic portable life support system (PLSS) simulation software Virtual Space Suit (V-SUIT) has been under development at the Technische Universitat Munchen since 2011 as a spin-off from the Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) project. The MATLAB(trademark)-based V-SUIT simulates space suit portable life support systems and their interaction with a detailed and also dynamic human model, as well as the dynamic external environment of a space suit moving on a planetary surface. To demonstrate the feasibility of a large, system level simulation like V-SUIT, a model of NASA's PLSS 1.0 prototype was created. This prototype was run through an extensive series of tests in 2011. Since the test setup was heavily instrumented, it produced a wealth of data making it ideal for model validation. The implemented model includes all components of the PLSS in both the ventilation and thermal loops. The major components are modeled in greater detail, while smaller and ancillary components are low fidelity black box models. The major components include the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) CO2 removal system, the Primary and Secondary Oxygen Assembly (POS/SOA), the Pressure Garment System Volume Simulator (PGSVS), the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS), the heat exchanger between the ventilation and thermal loops, the Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and finally the Liquid Cooling Garment Simulator (LCGS). Using the created model, dynamic simulations were performed using same test points also used during PLSS 1.0 testing. The results of the simulation were then compared to the test data with special focus on absolute values during the steady state phases and dynamic behavior during the transition between test points. Quantified simulation results are presented that demonstrate which areas of the V-SUIT model are in need of further refinement and those that are sufficiently close to the test results. Finally, lessons learned from the modelling and validation process are given in combination

  15. Comparing Simulation Results with Traditional PRA Model on a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhegang Ma; Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    A previous study used RELAP and RAVEN to conduct a boiling water reactor station black-out (SBO) case study in a simulation based environment to show the capabilities of the risk-informed safety margin characterization methodology. This report compares the RELAP/RAVEN simulation results with traditional PRA model results. The RELAP/RAVEN simulation run results were reviewed for their input parameters and output results. The input parameters for each simulation run include various timing information such as diesel generator or offsite power recovery time, Safety Relief Valve stuck open time, High Pressure Core Injection or Reactor Core Isolation Cooling fail to run time, extended core cooling operation time, depressurization delay time, and firewater injection time. The output results include the maximum fuel clad temperature, the outcome, and the simulation end time. A traditional SBO PRA model in this report contains four event trees that are linked together with the transferring feature in SAPHIRE software. Unlike the usual Level 1 PRA quantification process in which only core damage sequences are quantified, this report quantifies all SBO sequences, whether they are core damage sequences or success (i.e., non core damage) sequences, in order to provide a full comparison with the simulation results. Three different approaches were used to solve event tree top events and quantify the SBO sequences: “W” process flag, default process flag without proper adjustment, and default process flag with adjustment to account for the success branch probabilities. Without post-processing, the first two approaches yield incorrect results with a total conditional probability greater than 1.0. The last approach accounts for the success branch probabilities and provides correct conditional sequence probabilities that are to be used for comparison. To better compare the results from the PRA model and the simulation runs, a simplified SBO event tree was developed with only four

  16. Implementing a continuum of care model for older people - results from a Swedish case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Duner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a need for integrated care and smooth collaboration between care-providing organisations and professions to create a continuum of care for frail older people. However, collaboration between organisations and professions is often problematic. The aim of this study was to examine the process of implementing a new continuum of care model in a complex organisational context, and illuminate some of the challenges involved. The introduced model strived to connect three organisations responsible for delivering health and social care to older people: the regional hospital, primary health care and municipal eldercare.Methods: The actions of the actors involved in the process of implementing the model were understood to be shaped by the actors' understanding, commitment and ability. This article is based on 44 qualitative interviews performed on four occasions with 26 key actors at three organisational levels within these three organisations.Results and conclusions: The results point to the importance of paying regard to the different cultures of the organisations when implementing a new model. The role of upper management emerged as very important. Furthermore, to be accepted, the model has to be experienced as effectively dealing with real problems in the everyday practice of the actors in the organisations, from the bottom to the top.

  17. Implementing a continuum of care model for older people - results from a Swedish case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Duner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a need for integrated care and smooth collaboration between care-providing organisations and professions to create a continuum of care for frail older people. However, collaboration between organisations and professions is often problematic. The aim of this study was to examine the process of implementing a new continuum of care model in a complex organisational context, and illuminate some of the challenges involved. The introduced model strived to connect three organisations responsible for delivering health and social care to older people: the regional hospital, primary health care and municipal eldercare. Methods: The actions of the actors involved in the process of implementing the model were understood to be shaped by the actors' understanding, commitment and ability. This article is based on 44 qualitative interviews performed on four occasions with 26 key actors at three organisational levels within these three organisations. Results and conclusions: The results point to the importance of paying regard to the different cultures of the organisations when implementing a new model. The role of upper management emerged as very important. Furthermore, to be accepted, the model has to be experienced as effectively dealing with real problems in the everyday practice of the actors in the organisations, from the bottom to the top.

  18. Europa's surface composition from near-infrared observations: A comparison of results from linear mixture modeling and radiative transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, James H.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Dalton, J. Bradley

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative estimates of the abundance of surface materials and of water ice particle grain sizes at five widely separated locations on the surface of Europa have been obtained by two independent methods in order to search for possible discrepancies that may be attributed to differences in the methods employed. Results of radiative transfer (RT) compositional modeling (also known as intimate mixture modeling) from two prior studies are here employed without modification. Areal (or "checkerboard") mixture modeling, also known as linear mixture (LM) modeling, was performed to allow direct comparisons. The failure to model scattering processes (whose effects may be strongly nonlinear) in the LM approach is recognized as a potential source of errors. RT modeling accounts for nonlinear spectral responses due to scattering but is subject to other uncertainties. By comparing abundance estimates for H2SO4 · nH2O and water ice, obtained through both methods as applied to identical spectra, we may gain some insight into the importance of "volume scattering" effects for investigations of Europa's surface composition. We find that both methods return similar abundances for each location analyzed; linear correlation coefficients of ≥ 0.98 are found between the derived H2SO4 · nH2O and water ice abundances returned by both methods. We thus find no evidence of a significant influence of volume scattering on the compositional solutions obtained by LM modeling for these locations. Some differences in the results obtained for water ice grain sizes are attributed to the limited selection of candidate materials allowed in the RT investigations.

  19. Determination of mechanical properties from depth-sensing indentation data and results of finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaenkova, M. G.; Perlovich, Yu A.; Krymskaya, O. A.; Zhuk, D. I.

    2016-04-01

    3D finite element model of indentation process with Berkovich tip was created. Using this model with different type of test materials, several series of calculations were made. These calculations lead to determination of material behavior features during indentation. Relations between material properties and its behavior during instrumented indentation were used for construction of dimensionless functions required for development the calculation algorithm, suitable to determine mechanical properties of materials by results of the depth-sensing indentation. Results of mechanical properties determination using elaborated algorithm for AISI 1020 steel grade were compared to properties obtained with standard compression tests. These two results differ by less than 10% for yield stress that evidence of a good accuracy of the proposed technique.

  20. MESSOC capabilities and results. [Model for Estimating Space Station Opertions Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert

    1990-01-01

    MESSOC (Model for Estimating Space Station Operations Costs) is the result of a multi-year effort by NASA to understand and model the mature operations cost of Space Station Freedom. This paper focuses on MESSOC's ability to contribute to life-cycle cost analyses through its logistics equations and databases. Together, these afford MESSOC the capability to project not only annual logistics costs for a variety of Space Station scenarios, but critical non-cost logistics results such as annual Station maintenance crewhours, upweight/downweight, and on-orbit sparing availability as well. MESSOC results using current logistics databases and baseline scenario have already shown important implications for on-orbit maintenance approaches, space transportation systems, and international operations cost sharing.