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Sample records for model results electronic

  1. Perpendicular Diffusion of Solar Energetic Particles: Model Results and Implications for Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R. Du Toit; Dresing, Nina; Engelbrecht, N. Eugene

    2017-03-01

    The processes responsible for the effective longitudinal transport of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are still not completely understood. We address this issue by simulating SEP electron propagation using a spatially 2D transport model that includes perpendicular diffusion. By implementing, as far as possible, the most reasonable estimates of the transport (diffusion) coefficients, we compare our results, in a qualitative manner, to recent observations at energies of 55–105 keV, focusing on the longitudinal distribution of the peak intensity, the maximum anisotropy, and the onset time. By using transport coefficients that are derived from first principles, we limit the number of free parameters in the model to (i) the probability of SEPs following diffusing magnetic field lines, quantified by a\\in [0,1], and (ii) the broadness of the Gaussian injection function. It is found that the model solutions are extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient and relatively insensitive to the form of the injection function as long as a reasonable value of a = 0.2 is used. We illustrate the effects of perpendicular diffusion on the model solutions and discuss the viability of this process as a dominant mechanism by which SEPs are transported in longitude. Lastly, we try to quantity the effectiveness of perpendicular diffusion as an interplay between the magnitude of the relevant diffusion coefficient and the SEP intensity gradient driving the diffusion process. It follows that perpendicular diffusion is extremely effective early in an SEP event when large intensity gradients are present, while the effectiveness quickly decreases with time thereafter.

  2. Free Energy of the Uniform Electron Gas: Testing Analytical Models against First Principle Results

    CERN Document Server

    Groth, Simon; Bonitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The uniform electron gas is a key model system in the description of matter, including dense plasmas and solid state systems. However, the simultaneous occurence of quantum, correlation, and thermal effects makes the theoretical description challenging. For these reasons, over the last half century many analytical approaches have been developed the accuracy of which has remained unclear. We have recently obtained the first \\textit{ab initio} data for the exchange correlation free energy of the uniform electron gas [T. Dornheim \\textit{et al.}, Phys.~Rev.~Lett.~\\textbf{117}, 156403 (2016)] which now provides the opportunity to assess the quality of the mentioned approaches and parametrizations. Particular emphasis is put on the warm dense matter regime, where we find significant discrepancies between the different approaches.

  3. Electronic sputtering of vitreous SiO{sub 2}: Experimental and modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulemonde, M., E-mail: toulemonde@ganil.fr [CIMAP (ENSICAEN, CEA, CNRS, Univ. Caen), Bd H. Becquerel, 14070 Caen (France); Assmann, W. [Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholzzentrum, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The irradiation of solids with swift heavy ions leads to pronounced surface and bulk effects controlled by the electronic energy loss of the projectiles. In contrast to the formation of ion tracks in bulk materials, the concomitant emission of atoms from the surface is much less investigated. Sputtering experiments with different ions ({sup 58}Ni, {sup 127}I and {sup 197}Au) at energies around 1.2 MeV/u were performed on vitreous SiO{sub 2} (a-SiO{sub 2}) in order to quantify the emission rates and compare them with data for crystalline SiO{sub 2} quartz. Stoichiometry of the sputtering process was verified by monitoring the thickness decreases of a thin SiO{sub 2} film deposited on a Si substrate. Angular distributions of the emitted atoms were measured by collecting sputtered atoms on arc-shaped Cu catcher foils. Subsequent analysis of the number of Si atoms deposited on the catcher foils was quantified by elastic recoil detection analysis providing differential as well as total sputtering yields. Compared to existing data for crystalline SiO{sub 2}, the total sputtering yields for vitreous SiO{sub 2} are by a factor of about five larger. Differences in the sputtering rate and track formation characteristics between amorphous and crystalline SiO{sub 2} are discussed within the frame of the inelastic thermal spike model.

  4. Charging dynamics of a polymer due to electron irradiation: A simultaneous scattering-transport model and preliminary results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Meng; Wang Fang; Liu Jing; Zhang Hai-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel numerical model and simulate preliminarily the charging process of a polymer subjected to electron irradiation of several 10 keV.The model includes the simultaneous processes of electron scattering and ambipolar transport and the influence of a self-consistent electric field on the scattering distribution of electrons.The dynamic spatial distribution of charges is obtained and validated by existing experimental data.Our simulations show that excess negative charges are concentrated near the edge of the electron range.However,the formed region of high charge density may extend to the surface and bottom of a kapton sample,due to the effects of the electric field on electron scattering and charge transport,respectively.Charge trapping is then demonstrated to significantly influence the charge motion.The charge distribution can be extended to the bottom as the trap density decreases.Charge accumulation is therefore balanced by the appearance and increase of leakage current.Accordingly,our model and numerical simulation provide a comprehensive insight into the charging dynamics of a polymer irradiated by electrons in the complex space environment.

  5. Theoretical modelling of X-ray production in thin films characterization with electron probe: Invariant embedding results

    CERN Document Server

    Heluani, S P

    2002-01-01

    Employing the invariant embedding principle, theoretical expressions for the detected characteristic X-ray intensities generated in electron probe microanalysis of thin films are obtained. Characteristic X-ray emission from the elements present in a solid is calculated from the probabilities of the backscattered and transmitted electron trajectories within the film and the substrate. The theoretical expressions mentioned provide for the possibility of developing procedures for microanalysis directly from the experimental results without making approaches for the estimation of the phi(rho z) function. The procedure used permits to calculate the recorded X-rays as a function of incident beam voltage and also as a function of the sample thickness. The method presented here gives the possibility of obtaining calibration curves for thin films and multi-layers. The results obtained are found to agree with experimental ones.

  6. Electron Distribution in the Galactic Disk - Results From a Non-Equilibrium Ionization Model of the ISM

    CERN Document Server

    de Avillez, M A; Breitschwerdt, D; Spitoni, E

    2012-01-01

    Using three-dimensional non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) hydrodynamical simulation of the interstellar medium (ISM), we study the electron density, $n_{e}$, in the Galactic disk and compare it with the values derived from dispersion measures towards pulsars with known distances located up to 200 pc on either side of the Galactic midplane. The simulation results, consistent with observations, can be summarized as follows: (i) the DMs in the simulated disk lie between the maximum and minimum observed values, (ii) the log derived from lines of sight crossing the simulated disk follows a Gaussian distribution centered at \\mu=-1.4 with a dispersion \\sigma=0.21, thus, the Galactic midplane =0.04\\pm 0.01$ cm$^{-3}$, (iii) the highest electron concentration by mass (up to 80%) is in the thermally unstable regime (200electrons have a clumpy distribution along the lines of sight.

  7. Results from Coupled Optical and Electrical Sentaurus TCAD Models of a Gallium Phosphide on Silicon Electron Carrier Selective Contact Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpert, Steven; Ghosh, Kunal; Wagner, Hannes; Bowden, Stuart; Honsberg, Christiana; Goodnick, Stephen; Bremner, Stephen; Green, Martin

    2014-06-09

    We report results from coupled optical and electrical Sentaurus TCAD models of a gallium phosphide (GaP) on silicon electron carrier selective contact (CSC) solar cell. Detailed analyses of current and voltage performance are presented for devices having substrate thicknesses of 10 μm, 50 μm, 100 μm and 150 μm, and with GaP/Si interfacial quality ranging from very poor to excellent. Ultimate potential performance was investigated using optical absorption profiles consistent with light trapping schemes of random pyramids with attached and detached rear reflector, and planar with an attached rear reflector. Results indicate Auger-limited open-circuit voltages up to 787 mV and efficiencies up to 26.7% may be possible for front-contacted devices.

  8. Modeling of power electronic systems with EMTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kwa-Sur; Dravid, Narayan V.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the potential impact of power electronics on power systems, there is need for a computer modeling/analysis tool to perform simulation studies on power systems with power electronic components as well as to educate engineering students about such systems. The modeling of the major power electronic components of the NASA Space Station Freedom Electric Power System is described along with ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and it is demonstrated that EMTP can serve as a very useful tool for teaching, design, analysis, and research in the area of power systems with power electronic components. EMTP modeling of power electronic circuits is described and simulation results are presented.

  9. Electron emission resulting from fast ion impact on thin metal foils: Implications of these data for development of track structure models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, R.D.; Drexler, C.G.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental information useful in improving and testing theoretical models of energy deposition and redistribution in particle-condensed phase media is discussed. An overview of information available from previous, and ongoing, studies of the electron emission from thin foils is presented and the need for doubly differential electron energy and angular distribution data stressed. Existing data are used to demonstrate that precisely known, and controllable, surface and bulk conditions of the condensed-phase media are required for experimental studies of this type. Work in progress and improvements planned for future studies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are outlined.

  10. Boltzmann-Electron Model in Aleph.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Thomas Patrick; Hooper, Russell

    2014-11-01

    We apply the Boltzmann-electron model in the electrostatic, particle-in-cell, finite- element code Aleph to a plasma sheath. By assuming a Boltzmann energy distribution for the electrons, the model eliminates the need to resolve the electron plasma fre- quency, and avoids the numerical "grid instability" that can cause unphysical heating of electrons. This allows much larger timesteps to be used than with kinetic electrons. Ions are treated with the standard PIC algorithm. The Boltzmann-electron model re- quires solution of a nonlinear Poisson equation, for which we use an iterative Newton solver (NOX) from the Trilinos Project. Results for the spatial variation of density and voltage in the plasma sheath agree well with an analytic model

  11. Modeling microwave/electron-cloud interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mattes, M; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the separate codes BI-RME and ECLOUD or PyECLOUD, we are developing a novel joint simulation tool, which models the combined effect of a charged particle beam and of microwaves on an electron cloud. Possible applications include the degradation of microwave transmission in tele-communication satellites by electron clouds; the microwave-transmission tecchniques being used in particle accelerators for the purpose of electroncloud diagnostics; the microwave emission by the electron cloud itself in the presence of a magnetic field; and the possible suppression of electron-cloud formation in an accelerator by injecting microwaves of suitable amplitude and frequency. A few early simulation results are presented.

  12. Electron-plasmon model in the electron liquid theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.Vavrukh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we propose an accurate approach to the description of the electron liquid model in the electron and plasmon terms. Our ideas in the present paper are close to the conception of the collective variables which was developed in the papers of Bohm and Pines. However we use another body of mathematics in the transition to the expanded space of variable particles and plasmons realized by the transition operator. It is evident that in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA, the model which consists of two interactive subsystems of electrons and plasmons is equivalent to the electron liquid model with Coulomb interaction.

  13. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  14. Trapped Electron Model 2 (TEM-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-25

    Ginet (AFRL and MIT/Lincoln Lab). We made extensive use of the IRBEM (formerly ONERA ) library of magnetic field models and field line tracing...several others. We are aware of other efforts to develop reanalysis models of the electron radiation belts. One effort, at ONERA (Office National...sensors on GPS and geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, the ONERA group has obtained promising results, including a first physics-based data

  15. Itinerant electron model and conductance of DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen QU; Da-wei KANG; Xu-tuan GAO; Shi-jie XIE

    2008-01-01

    DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) has recently caught the attention of chemists and physicists.A major reason for this interest is DNA's potential use in nanoelectronie devices,both as a template for assembling nanocireuits and as an element of such circuits.However,the electronic properties of the DNA molecule remain very controversial. Charge-transfer reactions and conductivity measurements show a large variety of possible electronic behavior,ranging from Anderson and bandgap insulators to effective molecular wires and induced superconductors.In this review article,we summarize the wide-ranging experimental and theoretical results of charge transport in DNA.An itinerant electron model is suggested and the effect of the density of itinerant electrons on the conductivity of DNA is studied.Calculations show that a DNA molecule may show conductivity from insulating to metallic,which explains the controversial and profuse electric characteristics of DNA to some extent.

  16. Electron emission at very low electron impact energy: experimental and Monte-Carlo results

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, M.; Jbara, O.; Puech, J.; Balcon, N.; Payan, D.

    2013-04-22

    The behaviour of electron emission under electron impact at very low energy is of great importance in many applications such as high energy physics, satellites, nuclear reactors, etc. However the question of the total electron reflectivity is still in discussion. Our experimental and theoretical studies show that the total reflectivity at very low energy is far from being an obvious fact. Moreover, our results show that the yield is close to zero and not equal to one for low energy incident electron.

  17. Power electronics system modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces control system design based softwares, SIMNON and MATLAB/SIMULINK, for power electronics system simulation. A complete power electronics system typically consists of a rectifier bridge along with its smoothing capacitor, an inverter, and a motor. The system components, featuring discrete or continuous, linear or nonlinear, are modeled in mathematical equations. Inverter control methods,such as pulse-width-modulation and hysteresis current control, are expressed in either computer algorithms or digital circuits. After describing component models and control methods, computer programs are then developed for complete systems simulation. Simulation results are mainly used for studying system performances, such as input and output current harmonics, torque ripples, and speed responses. Key computer programs and simulation results are demonstrated for educational purposes.

  18. Structural and electronic effects resulting from metal-flavin ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M J; Dowling, M G; Garafalo, A R; Brennan, T F

    1980-04-25

    The synthesis and physical properties of a model metalloflavin complex, [(10-methylisoalloxazine)-(NH3)4Ru](PF6)2 . 2H2O are reported. The structure of this stable, enantiomeric compound was elucidated by x-ray diffraction methods with a final unweighted R value of 0.054. Crystals belong to the triclinic space group P1 with unit cell dimensions: a = 9.631, b = 10.618, c = 13.216 A; alpha = 113.86, beta = 100.19, gamma = 94.12 degrees. Chelation of the metal ion to the flavin occurs at the N(5) and O(4) positions, with a short Ru-N(5) bond distance of 1.979 A. Steric and electronic factors induce a 9.9 degrees bend in the isoalloxazine ring system and a significant lengthening of the C(4a)-N(5) bond. The flavin absorption bands shift significantly toward lower energy on complexation and a new band occurs at 617 nm. These absorptions are pH-dependent and pK alpha values for the complex are 0.6 and 7.4. The spectra of this complex exhibit similarities to that of metallosemiquinone species and arguments are made that a significant amount of electron density is donated to the pi-system of the flavin. Proton NMR studies suggest enhanced electron density at the N(10) position, probably occurring through backbonding interactions. Cyclic voltametry studies are also consistent with substantial metal to ligand pi-electron donation, since it is significantly more difficult to reduce the coordinated flavin relative to the free ligand under the same conditions. Moreover, the complexed flavin accepts electrons in 1-electron rather than 2-electron steps. Spectroelectrochemical studies on the 1-electron reduced complex indicate a similarity with other M(II)-F1 species.

  19. The Electron Drift Instrument on Cluster: overview of first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paschmann

    Full Text Available EDI measures the drift velocity of artificially injected electron beams. From this drift velocity, the perpendicular electric field and the local magnetic field gradients can be deduced when employing different electron energies. The technique requires the injection of two electron beams at right angles to the magnetic field and the search for those directions within the plane that return the beams to their associated detectors after one or more gyrations. The drift velocity is then derived from the directions of the two beams and/or from the difference in their times-of-flight, measured via amplitude-modulation and coding of the emitted electron beams and correlation with the signal from the returning electrons. After careful adjustment of the control parameters, the beam recognition algorithms, and the onboard magnetometer calibrations during the commissioning phase, EDI is providing excellent data over a wide range of conditions. In this paper, we present first results in a variety of regions ranging from the polar cap, across the magnetopause, and well into the magnetosheath.

    Key words. Electron drift velocity (electric fields; plasma convection; instruments and techniques

  20. Preliminary Results on Compton Electrons in Silicon Drift Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conka-Nurdan, T.; Nurdan, K.; Laihem, K.; Walenta, A. H.; Fiorini, C.; Freisleben, B.; Hornel, N.; Pavel, N. A.; Struder, L.

    2004-10-01

    Silicon drift detectors (SDD) with on-chip electronics have found many applications in different fields. A detector system has recently been designed and built to study the electrons from Compton scatter events in such a detector. The reconstruction of the Compton electrons is a crucial issue for Compton imaging. The equipment consists of a monolithic array of 19 channel SDDs and an Anger camera. Photons emitted from a finely collimated source undergo Compton scattering within the SDD where the recoil electron is absorbed. The scattered photon is subsequently observed by photoelectric absorption in the second detector. The coincidence events are used to get the energy, position, and direction of the Compton electrons. Because the on-chip transistors provide the first stage amplification, the SDDs provide outstanding noise performance and fast shaping, so that very good energy resolution can be obtained even at room temperature. The drift detectors require a relatively low number of readout channels for large detector areas. Custom-designed analog and digital electronics provide fast readout of the SDDs. The equipment is designed such that the measurements can be done in all detector orientations and kinematical conditions. The first results obtained with this detector system will be presented in this paper.

  1. Electron impact ionization of tungsten ions in a statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, A. V.; Kadomtsev, M. B.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Shurygin, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical model for calculations of the electron impact ionization cross sections of multielectron ions is developed for the first time. The model is based on the idea of collective excitations of atomic electrons with the local plasma frequency, while the Thomas-Fermi model is used for atomic electrons density distribution. The electron impact ionization cross sections and related ionization rates of tungsten ions from W+ up to W63+ are calculated and then compared with the vast collection of modern experimental and modeling results. The reasonable correspondence between experimental and theoretical data demonstrates the universal nature of statistical approach to the description of atomic processes in multielectron systems.

  2. The electronic-commerce-oriented virtual merchandise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaocui; Lu, Dongming

    2004-03-01

    Electronic commerce has been the trend of commerce activities. Providing with Virtual Reality interface, electronic commerce has better expressing capacity and interaction means. But most of the applications of virtual reality technology in EC, 3D model is only the appearance description of merchandises. There is almost no information concerned with commerce information and interaction information. This resulted in disjunction of virtual model and commerce information. So we present Electronic Commerce oriented Virtual Merchandise Model (ECVMM), which combined a model with commerce information, interaction information and figure information of virtual merchandise. ECVMM with abundant information provides better support to information obtainment and communication in electronic commerce.

  3. Rotational nuclear models and electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya de Guerra, E.

    1986-05-01

    A review is made of the basic formalism involved in the application of nuclear rotational models to the problem of electron scattering from axially symmetric deformed nuclei. Emphasis is made on the use of electron scattering to extract information on the nature of the collective rotational model. In this respect, the interest of using polarized beam and target is discussed with the help of illustrative examples. Concerning the nuclear structure four rotational models are considered: Two microscopic models, namely the Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) and cranking models; and two collective models, the rigid rotor and the irrotational flow models. The problem of current conservation within the different models is also discussed.

  4. Monoenergetic electron parameters in a spheroid bubble model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Sattarian; Sh.Rahmatallahpur; T.Tohidi

    2013-01-01

    A reliable analytical expression for the potential of plasma waves with phase velocities near the speed of light is derived.The presented spheroid cavity model is more consistent than the previous spherical and ellipsoidal models and it explains the mono-energetic electron trajectory more accurately,especially at the relativistic region.The maximum energy of electrons is calculated and it is shown that the maximum energy of the spheroid model is less than that of the spherical model.The electron energy spectrum is also calculated and it is found that the energy distribution ratio of electrons △E/E for the spheroid model under the conditions reported here is half that of the spherical model and it is in good agreement with the experimental value in the same conditions.As a result,the quasi-mono-energetic electron output beam interacting with the laser plasma can be more appropriately described with this model.

  5. Modelling elliptically polarised Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, J R; Freund, H P; McNeil, B W J

    2016-01-01

    A model of a Free Electron Laser operating with an elliptically polarised undulator is presented. The equations describing the FEL interaction, including resonant harmonic radiation fields, are averaged over an undulator period and generate a generalised Bessel function scaling factor, similar to that of planar undulator FEL theory. Comparison between simulations of the averaged model with those of an unaveraged model show very good agreement in the linear regime. Two unexpected results were found. Firstly, an increased coupling to harmonics for elliptical rather than planar polarisarised undulators. Secondly, and thought to be unrelated to the undulator polarisation, a signficantly different evolution between the averaged and unaveraged simulations of the harmonic radiation evolution approaching FEL saturation.

  6. Modelling of electron beam absorption in complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Alexander; Bauereiß, Andreas; Körner, Carolin

    2014-02-01

    Computational modelling of processes that involve highly energetic electrons like electron beam melting, welding, drilling or electron beam lithography, to name but a few, requires information about the attenuation of the electron beam as it passes through the sample. Depth-dose curves as a function of electron energy, target material as well as local surface obliquity have to be provided in situ during the calculation. The most efficient way to address this issue is by employing mathematical expressions. Therefore, we propose an electron beam model based on a set of semi-empirical equations available from different published literature and on theoretical considerations. Particular stress is thereby put on accuracy and the range of validity of the theoretical approach by comparison with experimental data. Finally, we apply our model to powder-bed based additive manufacturing. The numerical results demonstrate that electron beam absorption and depth of penetration have a strong influence on the quality of the fabricated product.

  7. Results from Electron-Positron Collisions at BESIII

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, R E

    2016-01-01

    A selection of results from electron-positron collisions at BESIII are reviewed. The results presented here illustrate the wide range of physics topics that can be studied using the Beijing Electron Positron Collider~(BEPC). At low collision energies, the cross section for $e^+e^-\\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ provides much-needed input into theoretical calculations of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the reaction $e^+e^-\\to p\\bar{p}$ provides access to the electromagnetic form factors of the proton. In the charmonium region, a large sample of $\\psi^\\prime$ decays can be used to measure new decay modes of charmonium states. And at higher energies, BESIII is uniquely situated to explore questions concerning the still-unexplained $XYZ$ states.

  8. Electronic Education System Model-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllü, Fatih; Kuusik, Rein; Laanpere, Mart

    2015-01-01

    In this study we presented new EES Model-2 extended from EES model for more productive implementation in e-learning process design and modelling in higher education. The most updates were related to uppermost instructional layer. We updated learning processes object of the layer for adaptation of educational process for young and old people,…

  9. Electronic noise modeling in statistical iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyan; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2009-06-01

    We consider electronic noise modeling in tomographic image reconstruction when the measured signal is the sum of a Gaussian distributed electronic noise component and another random variable whose log-likelihood function satisfies a certain linearity condition. Examples of such likelihood functions include the Poisson distribution and an exponential dispersion (ED) model that can approximate the signal statistics in integration mode X-ray detectors. We formulate the image reconstruction problem as a maximum-likelihood estimation problem. Using an expectation-maximization approach, we demonstrate that a reconstruction algorithm can be obtained following a simple substitution rule from the one previously derived without electronic noise considerations. To illustrate the applicability of the substitution rule, we present examples of a fully iterative reconstruction algorithm and a sinogram smoothing algorithm both in transmission CT reconstruction when the measured signal contains additive electronic noise. Our simulation studies show the potential usefulness of accurate electronic noise modeling in low-dose CT applications.

  10. Status of Galileo interim radiation electron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EDP) were used to develop a new model of Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii.

  11. Theory and modeling of electron fishbones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, G.; Fusco, V.; Briguglio, S.; Fogaccia, G.; Zonca, F.; Wang, X.

    2016-10-01

    Internal kink instabilities exhibiting fishbone like behavior have been observed in a variety of experiments where a high energy electron population, generated by strong auxiliary heating and/or current drive systems, was present. After briefly reviewing the experimental evidences of energetic electrons driven fishbones, and the main results of linear and nonlinear theory of electron fishbones, the results of global, self-consistent, nonlinear hybrid MHD-Gyrokinetic simulations will be presented. To this purpose, the extended/hybrid MHD-Gyrokinetic code XHMGC will be used. Linear dynamics analysis will enlighten the effect of considering kinetic thermal ion compressibility and diamagnetic response, and kinetic thermal electrons compressibility, in addition to the energetic electron contribution. Nonlinear saturation and energetic electron transport will also be addressed, making extensive use of Hamiltonian mapping techniques, discussing both centrally peaked and off-axis peaked energetic electron profiles. It will be shown that centrally peaked energetic electron profiles are characterized by resonant excitation and nonlinear response of deeply trapped energetic electrons. On the other side, off-axis peaked energetic electron profiles are characterized by resonant excitation and nonlinear response of barely circulating energetic electrons which experience toroidal precession reversal of their motion.

  12. A kinetic model for runaway electrons in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Garcia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrodynamic models and measurements with satellites and incoherent scatter radars predict large field aligned current densities on one side of the auroral arcs. Different authors and different kinds of studies (experimental or modeling agree that the current density can reach up to hundreds of µA/m2. This large current density could be the cause of many phenomena such as tall red rays or triggering of unstable ion acoustic waves. In the present paper, we consider the issue of electrons moving through an ionospheric gas of positive ions and neutrals under the influence of a static electric field. We develop a kinetic model of collisions including electrons/electrons, electrons/ions and electrons/neutrals collisions. We use a Fokker-Planck approach to describe binary collisions between charged particles with a long-range interaction. We present the essential elements of this collision operator: the Langevin equation for electrons/ions and electrons/electrons collisions and the Monte-Carlo and null collision methods for electrons/neutrals collisions. A computational example is given illustrating the approach to equilibrium and the impact of the different terms (electrons/electrons and electrons/ions collisions on the one hand and electrons/neutrals collisions on the other hand. Then, a parallel electric field is applied in a new sample run. In this run, the electrons move in the z direction parallel to the electric field. The first results show that all the electron distribution functions are non-Maxwellian. Furthermore, runaway electrons can carry a significant part of the total current density, up to 20% of the total current density.

  13. Electron arc irradiation of the postmastectomy chest wall: clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, D K; Prows, J; Leavitt, D D; Egger, M J; Morgan, J G; Stewart, J R

    1997-01-01

    Since 1980 electron arc irradiation of the postmastectomy chest wall has been the preferred technique for patients with advanced breast cancer at our institution. Here we report the results of this technique in 140 consecutive patients treated from 1980 to 1993. Thoracic computerized tomography was used to determine internal mammary lymph node depth and chest wall thickness, and for computerized dosimetry calculations. Total doses of 45-50 Gy in 5 to 5 1/2 weeks were delivered to the chest wall and internal mammary lymph nodes via electron arc and, in most cases, supraclavicular and axillary nodes were treated with a matching photon field. Patients were assessed for acute and late radiation changes, local and distant control of disease, and survival. Patients had a minimum follow-up of 1 year after completion of radiation treatment, and a mean follow up interval of 49 months and a median of 33 months. All patients had advanced disease: T stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 represented 21%, 39%, 21% and 19% of the study population, with a mean number of positive axillary lymph nodes of 6.5 (range, 0-29). Analysis was performed according to adjuvant status (no residual disease, n = 90), residual disease (positive margin, n = 15, and primary radiation, n = 2), or recurrent disease (n = 33). Acute radiation reactions were generally mild and self limiting. A total of 26% of patients developed moist desquamation, and 32% had brisk erythema. Actuarial 5 year local-regional control, freedom from distant failure, and cause-specific survival was 91%, 64%, and 75% in the adjuvant group; 84%, 50%, and 53% in the residual disease group; and 63%, 34%, and 32% in the recurrent disease group, respectively. In univariate Cox regressions, the number of positive lymph nodes was predictive for local failure in the adjuvant group (P = 0.037). Chronic complications were minimal with 11% of patients having arm edema, 17% hyperpigmentation, and 13% telangectasia formation. These data demonstrate that

  14. Polaron Model of the Formation of Hydrated Electron States

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A computer simulation of the formation of photoexcited electrons in water is performed within the framework of a dynamic model. The obtained results are discussed in comparison with experimental data and theoretical estimates.

  15. Modeling ion sensing in molecular electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Caroline J.; Smeu, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.smeu@northwestern.edu; Ratner, Mark A., E-mail: ratner@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    We examine the ability of molecules to sense ions by measuring the change in molecular conductance in the presence of such charged species. The detection of protons (H{sup +}), alkali metal cations (M{sup +}), calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}), and hydronium ions (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) is considered. Density functional theory (DFT) is used within the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function framework (NEGF) to model electron transport properties of quinolinedithiol (QDT, C{sub 9}H{sub 7}NS{sub 2}), bridging Al electrodes. The geometry of the transport region is relaxed with DFT. The transport properties of the device are modeled with NEGF-DFT to determine if this device can distinguish among the M{sup +} + QDT species containing monovalent cations, where M{sup +} = H{sup +}, Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, or K{sup +}. Because of the asymmetry of QDT in between the two electrodes, both positive and negative biases are considered. The electron transmission function and conductance properties are simulated for electrode biases in the range from −0.5 V to 0.5 V at increments of 0.1 V. Scattering state analysis is used to determine the molecular orbitals that are the main contributors to the peaks in the transmission function near the Fermi level of the electrodes, and current-voltage relationships are obtained. The results show that QDT can be used as a proton detector by measuring transport through it and can conceivably act as a pH sensor in solutions. In addition, QDT may be able to distinguish among different monovalent species. This work suggests an approach to design modern molecular electronic conductance sensors with high sensitivity and specificity using well-established quantum chemistry.

  16. Multidisciplinary Modelling Tools for Power Electronic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad

    This thesis presents multidisciplinary modelling techniques in a Design For Reliability (DFR) approach for power electronic circuits. With increasing penetration of renewable energy systems, the demand for reliable power conversion systems is becoming critical. Since a large part of electricity...... in reliability assessment of power modules, a three-dimensional lumped thermal network is proposed to be used for fast, accurate and detailed temperature estimation of power module in dynamic operation and different boundary conditions. Since an important issue in the reliability of power electronics...... are generic and valid to be used in circuit simulators or any programing software. These models are important building blocks for the reliable design process or performance assessment of power electronic circuits. The models can save time and cost in power electronics packaging and power converter to evaluate...

  17. On the applicability of one- and many-electron quantum chemistry models for hydrated electron clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, László

    2016-04-21

    We evaluate the applicability of a hierarchy of quantum models in characterizing the binding energy of excess electrons to water clusters. In particular, we calculate the vertical detachment energy of an excess electron from water cluster anions with methods that include one-electron pseudopotential calculations, density functional theory(DFT) based calculations, and ab initio quantum chemistry using MP2 and eom-EA-CCSD levels of theory. The examined clusters range from the smallest cluster size (n = 2) up to nearly nanosize clusters with n = 1000 molecules. The examined cluster configurations are extracted from mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics trajectories of cluster anions with n = 1000 water molecules using two different one-electron pseudopotenial models. We find that while MP2 calculations with large diffuse basis set provide a reasonable description for the hydrated electron system, DFT methods should be used with precaution and only after careful benchmarking. Strictly tested one-electron psudopotentials can still be considered as reasonable alternatives to DFT methods, especially in large systems. The results of quantum chemistry calculations performed on configurations, that represent possible excess electron binding motifs in the clusters, appear to be consistent with the results using a cavitystructure preferring one-electron pseudopotential for the hydrated electron, while they are in sharp disagreement with the structural predictions of a non-cavity model.

  18. Two years results of electronic brachytherapy for basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ballester-Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The use of radiation therapy (RT for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC has been changing throughout the last century. Over the last decades, the use of radiotherapy has surged with the development of new techniques, applicators, and devices. In recent years, electronic brachytherapy (eBT devices that use small x-ray sources have been introduced as alternative to radionuclide dependence. Nowadays, several devices have been incorporated, with a few series reported, and with a short follow-up, due to the recent introduction of these systems. The purpose of this work is to describe the clinical results of our series after two years follow-up with a specific eBT system. Material and methods: This is a prospective single-center, non-randomized pilot study, to assess clinical results of electronic brachytherapy in basal cell carcinoma using the Esteya® system. In 2014, 40 patients with 60 lesions were treated. Patient follow-up on a regular basis was performed for a period of two years. Results: Twenty-six patients with 44 lesions achieved two years follow-up. A complete response was documented in 95.5% of cases. Toxicity was mild (G1 or G2 in all cases, caused by erythema, erosion, or alopecia. Cosmesis was excellent in 88.6% of cases, and good in the rest. Change in pigmentation was the most frequent cosmetic alteration. Conclusions : This work is special, since the equipment’s treatment voltage was 69.5 kV, and this is the first prospective study with long term follow-up with Esteya®. These preliminary report show excellent results with less toxicity and excellent cosmesis. While surgery has been the treatment of choice, certain patients might benefit from eBT treatment. These are elderly patients with comorbidities or undergoing anticoagulant treatment as well as those who simply refuse surgery or might have other contraindications.

  19. Forecasting relativistic electron flux using dynamic multiple regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-L. Wei

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forecast of high energy electron fluxes in the radiation belts is important because the exposure of modern spacecraft to high energy particles can result in significant damage to onboard systems. A comprehensive physical model of processes related to electron energisation that can be used for such a forecast has not yet been developed. In the present paper a systems identification approach is exploited to deduce a dynamic multiple regression model that can be used to predict the daily maximum of high energy electron fluxes at geosynchronous orbit from data. It is shown that the model developed provides reliable predictions.

  20. Test Results of the ALICE SDD Electronic Readout Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Anelli, G; Bonazzola, G C; Cavagnino, D; Cerello, P G; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Gandolfi, E; Giubellino, P; Masetti, M; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nouais, D; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F; Werbrouck, A E; Wheadon, R

    2000-01-01

    The first prototypes of the front-end electronics of the ALICE silicon driftdetectors have been designed and tested. The integrated circuits have been designed using state of the art technologies and, for the analog parts, with radiation-tolerantdesign techniques. In this paper, the test results of the building blocks of the PASCAL chip and the first prototype of the AMBRA chip are presented. The prototypes fully respect the ALICE requirements; owingto the use of deep-submicron technologies together with radiation-tolerant layout techniques, the prototypes have shown a toleranceto a radiation dose much higher than the one foreseen for the ALICE environment.(Abstract only available, full text to follow).

  1. Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J.

    1997-07-01

    Linus Pauling once said that a topic must satisfy two criteria before it can be taught to students. First, students must be able to assimilate the topic within a reasonable amount of time. Second, the topic must be relevant to the educational needs and interests of the students. Unfortunately, the standard general chemistry textbook presentation of "electronic structure theory", set as it is in the language of molecular orbitals, has a difficult time satisfying either criterion. Many of the quantum mechanical aspects of molecular orbitals are too difficult for most beginning students to appreciate, much less master, and the few applications that are presented in the typical textbook are too limited in scope to excite much student interest. This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, which we have developed and used for several years in general chemistry (G.P.S.) and organic chemistry (A.J.S.) courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions, and largely satisfies Pauling's two criteria. Students find electron density models easy to understand and use, and because these models are easily applied to a broad range of topics, they successfully convey to students the importance of electronic structure. In addition, when students finally learn about orbital concepts they are better prepared because they already have a well-developed three-dimensional picture of electronic structure to fall back on. We note in this regard that the types of models we use have found widespread, rigorous application in chemical research (1, 2), so students who understand and use electron density models do not need to "unlearn" anything before progressing to more advanced theories.

  2. A polaron model for electron transfer in globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuev, G N; Lakhno, V D

    1993-07-07

    Polaron models have been considered for the electron states in protein globules existing in a solvent. These models account for two fundamental effects, viz, polarization interaction of an electron with the conformational vibrations and the heterogeneity of the medium. Equations have been derived to determine the electron state in a protein globule. The parameters of this state show that it is an extended state with an energy of 2 eV. The electron transfer rate for cyt C self-exchange reaction has been calculated in the polaron model. Reorganization energy, tunneling matrix element and the rate constant have also been estimated. The results are compared with experimental data. The influence of model parameters on the significance of the data obtained has been studied. The potentialities of the model are discussed.

  3. Electron Correlation Models for Optical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, E. G.; O. E. Weigang, Jr.

    1968-01-01

    A two-system no-overlap model for rotatory strength is developed for electric-dipole forbidden as well as allowed transitions. General equations which allow for full utilization of symmetry in the chromophore and in the environment are obtained. The electron correlation terms are developed in full...

  4. Physics results from the first electron-proton collider HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeck, A. de

    1995-03-01

    After two years of experimenting at the new ep collider HERA many new results have been obtained. In this report we have presented results on interactions of high energy photons with matter, and showed that similar to hadronic interactions, hard scattering is observed in these collisions. The different photoproduction processes have been isolated, and a first attempt was made to measure the structure of the photon at HERA. A new region has been explored for deep inelastic scattering interactions. The proton structure is probed to very small values of Bjorken-x, showing a large increase of with decreasing x. Events with a large rapidity gap have been observed and are identified as diffractive scattering. The first electroweak results became available by studying the production of charged current events. Searches for new, exotic phenomena were made, but no evidence for the breakdown of the standard model has been found. (orig.)

  5. Template and Model Driven Development of Standardized Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Stefan; Chalopin, Claire; Denecke, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Digital patient modeling targets the integration of distributed patient data into one overarching model. For this integration process, both a theoretical standard-based model and information structures combined with concrete instructions in form of a lightweight development process of single standardized Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are needed. In this paper, we introduce such a process along side a standard-based architecture. It allows the modeling and implementation of EHRs in a lightweight Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) core. The approach is demonstrated and tested by a prototype implementation. The results show that the suggested approach is useful and facilitates the development of standardized EHRSs.

  6. Mathematical model I. Electron and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadre, Nitin Ramchandra

    2011-03-01

    The basic particle electron obeys various theories like electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and special relativity. Particle under different experimental conditions behaves differently, allowing us to observe different characteristics which become basis for these theories. In this paper, we have made an attempt to suggest a classical picture by studying the requirements of these three modern theories. The basic presumption is: There must be certain structural characteristics in a particle like electron which make it obey postulates of modern theories. As it is `difficult' to find structure of electron experimentally, we make a mathematical attempt. For a classical approach, we require well defined systems and we have studied a system with two charged particles, proton and electron in a hydrogen atom. An attempt has been made to give a model to describe electron as seen by the proton. We then discuss how the model can satisfy the requirements of the three modern theories in a classical manner. The paper discusses basic aspects of relativity and electrodynamics. However the focus of the paper is on quantum mechanics.

  7. Mathematical model I. Electron and quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Ramchandra Gadre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic particle electron obeys various theories like electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and special relativity. Particle under different experimental conditions behaves differently, allowing us to observe different characteristics which become basis for these theories. In this paper, we have made an attempt to suggest a classical picture by studying the requirements of these three modern theories. The basic presumption is: There must be certain structural characteristics in a particle like electron which make it obey postulates of modern theories. As it is ‘difficult’ to find structure of electron experimentally, we make a mathematical attempt. For a classical approach, we require well defined systems and we have studied a system with two charged particles, proton and electron in a hydrogen atom. An attempt has been made to give a model to describe electron as seen by the proton. We then discuss how the model can satisfy the requirements of the three modern theories in a classical manner. The paper discusses basic aspects of relativity and electrodynamics. However the focus of the paper is on quantum mechanics.

  8. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased ...... in the semiconductor industry. Circuit simulation proceeds by using Maxwell’s equations to create a mathematical model of the circuit. The boundary element method is then used to discretize the equations, and the variational form of the equations are then solved on the graph network....

  9. Exactly solvable models of strongly correlated electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    1994-01-01

    Systems of strongly correlated electrons are at the heart of recent developments in condensed matter theory. They have applications to phenomena like high-T c superconductivity and the fractional quantum hall effect. Analytical solutions to such models, though mainly limited to one spatial dimension, provide a complete and unambiguous picture of the dynamics involved. This volume is devoted to such solutions obtained using the Bethe Ansatz, and concentrates on the most important of such models, the Hubbard model. The reprints are complemented by reviews at the start of each chapter and an exte

  10. Modeling of high-speed electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kudrya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The theme of this publication is the modeling of electronic tools that operate in the frequency range from zero to terahertz and higher. Application of new concepts and technologies, including biotechnology and nanotechnology in the development of monolithic integrated circuits led to a backlog of technologies of projecting from technologies and experimental research and manufacturing. The aim of this work is to develop algorithms for analysis, reflecting not only topological as well as morphological properties of the object, that is designing within the framework of accounting EMI communicational  transmission of energy and information in the volume of the monolithic integrated circuit. Basic steps for constructing the algorithm. The object of design is presented in the form of basic elements, which can be combined with a communication structure. The object of design is presented in the form of basic elements, which can be combined with a communication structure. There are three types of matrix equations: component; component - communication structure; communication structure. Systems of equations are reduced to standardized descriptors of mathematical model by which to understand current of poles and voltage arcs whole set of basic elements. In this way obtained mathematical model that can be implemented in CAD nano and micro technology electronics. Conclusions. Mathematical models of analysis of high-speed digital and analog electronic means. The algorithm allows morphological optimization is to minimize the adverse effects outside the system of electromagnetic interaction between the components and communicator.

  11. New Results with the Opto-Electronic Oscillators (OEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S.; Maleki, L.

    1996-01-01

    A new class of oscillators based on photonic devices is presented. These opto-electronic oscillators (OEOs) generate microwave oscillation by converting continuous energy from a light source using a feedback circuit which includes a delay element, an electro-optic switch, and a photodetctor.

  12. Electronic circuits modeling using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Miona V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper artificial neural networks (ANN are applied to modeling of electronic circuits. ANNs are used for application of the black-box modeling concept in the time domain. Modeling process is described, so the topology of the ANN, the testing signal used for excitation, together with the complexity of ANN are considered. The procedure is first exemplified in modeling of resistive circuits. MOS transistor, as a four-terminal device, is modeled. Then nonlinear negative resistive characteristic is modeled in order to be used as a piece-wise linear resistor in Chua's circuit. Examples of modeling nonlinear dynamic circuits are given encompassing a variety of modeling problems. A nonlinear circuit containing quartz oscillator is considered for modeling. Verification of the concept is performed by verifying the ability of the model to generalize i.e. to create acceptable responses to excitations not used during training. Implementation of these models within a behavioral simulator is exemplified. Every model is implemented in realistic surrounding in order to show its interaction, and of course, its usage and purpose.

  13. Modelling the inelastic scattering of fast electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, L.J., E-mail: lja@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); D' Alfonso, A.J., E-mail: a.j@dalfonso.com.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    Imaging at atomic resolution based on the inelastic scattering of electrons has become firmly established in the last three decades. Harald Rose pioneered much of the early theoretical work on this topic, in particular emphasising the role of phase and the importance of a mixed dynamic form factor. In this paper we review how the modelling of inelastic scattering has subsequently developed and how numerical implementation has been achieved. A software package μSTEM is introduced, capable of simulating various imaging modes based on inelastic scattering in both scanning and conventional transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Harald Rose was a pioneer of important work on atomic resolution imaging using inelastic scattering. • We review how the modelling of inelastic scattering has subsequently developed and been applied. • A software package μSTEM is introduced, capable of simulating various inelastic imaging modes.

  14. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Sanyam, E-mail: bajaj.10@osu.edu; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M. [Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States); Khurgin, Jacob [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.

  15. Relativistic models for quasielastic electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meucci Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic models developed within the framework of the impulse approximation for quasielastic (QE electron scattering and successfully tested in comparison with electron-scattering data have been extended to neutrino-nucleus scattering. Different descriptions of final-state interactions (FSI in the inclusive scattering are compared. In the relativistic Green’s function (RGF model FSI are described consistently with the exclusive scattering using a complex optical potential. In the relativistic mean field (RMF model FSI are described by the same RMF potential which gives the bound states. The results of the models are compared for electron and neutrino scattering and, for neutrino scattering, with the recently measured charged-current QE (CCQE MiniBooNE cross sections.

  16. Kinetic modelling of runaway electrons in dynamic scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, A; Papp, G; Landreman, M; Fülöp, T

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of runaway-electron formation and decay processes are of prime interest for the safe operation of large tokamaks, and the dynamics of the runaway electrons during dynamical scenarios such as disruptions are of particular concern. In this paper, we present kinetic modelling of scenarios with time-dependent plasma parameters; in particular, we investigate hot-tail runaway generation during a rapid drop in plasma temperature. With the goal of studying runaway-electron generation with a self-consistent electric-field evolution, we also discuss the implementation of a conservative collision operator and demonstrate its properties. An operator for avalanche runaway-electron generation, which takes the energy dependence of the scattering cross section and the runaway distribution into account, is investigated. We show that the simpler avalanche model of Rosenbluth & Putvinskii [Nucl. Fusion 37, 1355 (1997)] can give very inaccurate results for the avalanche growth rate (either lower or hig...

  17. Determination of the vertical electron-density profile in ionospheric tomography: experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Mitchell

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the vertical electron-density profile is a fundamental problem in ionospheric tomography. Lack of near-horizontal ray paths limits the information available on the vertical profile, so that the resultant image of electron density is biased in a horizontal sense. The vertical profile is of great importance as it affects the authenticity of the entire tomographic image. A new method is described whereby the vertical profile is selected using relative total-electron-content measurements. The new reconstruction process has been developed from modelling studies. A range of background ionospheres, representing many possible peak heights, scale heights and electron densities are formed from a Chapman profile on the bottomside with a range of topside profiles. The iterative reconstruction process is performed on all of these background ionospheres and a numerical selection criterion employed to select the final image. The resulting tomographic images show excellent agreement in electron density when compared with independent verification provided by the EISCAT radar.

  18. USign--a security enhanced electronic consent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Xie, Mengjun; Bian, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Electronic consent becomes increasingly popular in the healthcare sector given the many benefits it provides. However, security concerns, e.g., how to verify the identity of a person who is remotely accessing the electronic consent system in a secure and user-friendly manner, also arise along with the popularity of electronic consent. Unfortunately, existing electronic consent systems do not pay sufficient attention to those issues. They mainly rely on conventional password based authentication to verify the identity of an electronic consent user, which is far from being sufficient given that identity theft threat is real and significant in reality. In this paper, we present a security enhanced electronic consent model called USign. USign enhances the identity protection and authentication for electronic consent systems by leveraging handwritten signatures everyone is familiar with and mobile computing technologies that are becoming ubiquitous. We developed a prototype of USign and conducted preliminary evaluation on accuracy and usability of signature verification. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed model.

  19. Results of an electronic mail survey on hormones and telangiectasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Stefano

    2005-02-01

    The relationship between the development of telangiectasias and hormonal intake has not been well studied and is empirically managed by phlebologists. To understand the behavior of the international phlebologic community regarding the treatment of leg telangiectasia in patients taking oral contraceptives or receiving postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Simple questions concerning the causal effects of hormones, their influence on treatment, and general behavior were asked by an electronic mail questionnaire sent to 131 phlebologists in my personal database. The 61 answers received show the existence of two opposite "parties" concerning the influence of hormones on telangiectasia: cause and treatment. Opposite opinions without any scientific basis underline the ignorance surrounding a subject that concerns 50% of our patients.

  20. Analysis of operating model of electronic invoice colombian Colombian electronic billing analysis of the operational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has been one of the first countries to introduce electronic billing process on a voluntary basis, from a traditional to a digital version. In this context, the article analyzes the electronic billing process implemented in Colombia and the advantages. Methodological research is applied, qualitative, descriptive and documentary; where the regulatory framework and the conceptualization of the model is identified; the process of adoption of electronic billing is analyzed, and finally the advantages and disadvantages of its implementation is analyzed. The findings indicate that the model applied in Colombia to issue an electronic billing in sending and receiving process, is not complex, but it requires a small adequate infrastructure and trained personnel to reach all sectors, especially the micro and business which is the largest business network in the country.

  1. Ionospheric topside models compared with experimental electron density profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Radicella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently an increasing number of topside electron density profiles has been made available to the scientific community on the Internet. These data are important for ionospheric modeling purposes, since the experimental information on the electron density above the ionosphere maximum of ionization is very scarce. The present work compares NeQuick and IRI models with the topside electron density profiles available in the databases of the ISIS2, IK19 and Cosmos 1809 satellites. Experimental electron content from the F2 peak up to satellite height and electron densities at fixed heights above the peak have been compared under a wide range of different conditions. The analysis performed points out the behavior of the models and the improvements needed to be assessed to have a better reproduction of the experimental results. NeQuick topside is a modified Epstein layer, with thickness parameter determined by an empirical relation. It appears that its performance is strongly affected by this parameter, indicating the need for improvements of its formulation. IRI topside is based on Booker's approach to consider two parts with constant height gradients. It appears that this formulation leads to an overestimation of the electron density in the upper part of the profiles, and overestimation of TEC.

  2. A Physical Model of Electron Radiation Belts of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzato, L.; Sicard-Piet, A.; Bourdarie, S.

    2012-04-01

    Radiation belts causes irreversible damages on on-board instruments materials. That's why for two decades, ONERA proposes studies about radiation belts of magnetized planets. First, in the 90's, the development of a physical model, named Salammbô, carried out a model of the radiation belts of the Earth. Then, for few years, analysis of the magnetosphere of Jupiter and in-situ data (Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo) allow to build a physical model of the radiation belts of Jupiter. Enrolling on the Cassini age and thanks to all information collected, this study permits to adapt Salammbô jovian radiation belts model to the case of Saturn environment. Indeed, some physical processes present in the kronian magnetosphere are similar to those present in the magnetosphere of Jupiter (radial diffusion; interaction of energetic electrons with rings, moons, atmosphere; synchrotron emission). However, some physical processes have to be added to the kronian model (compared to the jovian model) because of the particularity of the magnetosphere of Saturn: interaction of energetic electrons with neutral particles from Enceladus, and wave-particle interaction. This last physical process has been studied in details with the analysis of CASSINI/RPWS (Radio and Plasma Waves Science) data. The major importance of the wave particles interaction is now well known in the case of the radiation belts of the Earth but it is important to investigate on its role in the case of Saturn. So, importance of each physical process has been studied and analysis of Cassini MIMI-LEMMS and CAPS data allows to build a model boundary condition (at L = 6). Finally, results of this study lead to a kronian electrons radiation belts model including radial diffusion, interactions of energetic electrons with rings, moons and neutrals particles and wave-particle interaction (interactions of electrons with atmosphere particles and synchrotron emission are too weak to be taken into account in this model). Then, to

  3. Interpreting Results from the Multinomial Logit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This article provides guidelines and illustrates practical steps necessary for an analysis of results from the multinomial logit model (MLM). The MLM is a popular model in the strategy literature because it allows researchers to examine strategic choices with multiple outcomes. However, there see...

  4. Quantum Ising model coupled with conducting electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Yasufumi; Yonemitsu, Kenji [Institute for Molecular Science, 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced studies, 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    The effect of photo-doping on the quantum paraelectric SrTiO{sub 3} is studied by using the one-dimensional quantum Ising model, where the Ising spin describes the effective lattice polarization of an optical phonon. Two types of electron-phonon couplings are introduced through the modulation of transfer integral via lattice deformations. After the exact diagonalization and the perturbation studies, we find that photo-induced low-density carriers can drastically alter quantum fluctuations when the system locates near the quantum critical point between the quantum para- and ferro-electric phases.

  5. Quantum Ising model coupled with conducting electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yasufumi; Yonemitsu, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    The effect of photo-doping on the quantum paraelectric SrTiO3 is studied by using the one-dimensional quantum Ising model, where the Ising spin describes the effective lattice polarization of an optical phonon. Two types of electron-phonon couplings are introduced through the modulation of transfer integral via lattice deformations. After the exact diagonalization and the perturbation studies, we find that photo-induced low-density carriers can drastically alter quantum fluctuations when the system locates near the quantum critical point between the quantum para- and ferro-electric phases.

  6. Electron-gas clusters: the ultimate jellium model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, M.; Lipas, P. O.; Manninen, M.

    1995-12-01

    The local spin-density approximation is used to calculate ground- and isomeric-state geometries of jellium clusters with 2 to 22 electrons. The positive background charge of the model is completely deformable, both in shape and in density. The model has no input parameters. The resulting shapes of the clusters exhibit breaking of axial and inversion symmetries; in general the shapes are far from ellipsoidal. Those clusters which lack inversion symmetry are extremely soft against odd-multipole deformations. Some clusters can be interpreted as molecules built from magic clusters. The deformation produces a gap at the Fermi level. This results in a regular odd-even staggering of the total energy per electron and of the HOMO level. The strongly deformed 14-electron cluster is semimagic. Stable isomers are predicted. The splitting of the plasmon resonance due to deformation is estimated on a classical argument.

  7. First results of computerised tomographic angiography using electron beam tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, K.J.; Weisser, G.; Neff, K.W.; Mai, S.K.; Denk, S.; Georgi, M. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of electron beam tomography (EBT) with fast continuous volume scanning for CT angiography (CTA) in chest and abdomen. An Evolution XP EBT scanner with a new software version (12.34) was used. One hundred forty images per study can be acquired in 17 s using 3-mm collimation and overlapping image reconstruction. Study protocols for five different clinical applications of EBT CTA were established and evaluated. The EBT CTA technique was performed in 155 patients. High- and homogeneous density values were achieved along the whole course of the vessels; the mean density in the aorta was > 240 HU. Coeliac axis, superior and inferior mesenteric artery, renal and lumbar arteries were visualised in all cases. Maximum intensity projection and shaded surface display reconstruction demonstrated the relation between aneurysm and aortic branches very well due to an excellent resolution along the z-axis. In large scan volumes overlapping image reconstruction demonstrated better resolution along the z-axis than is available with helical CT. The EBT CTA technique proved to be very well suited excellent suitability for evaluation of pulmonary vessels. Compared with helical CT, EBT CTA offers a shorter scan time, which allows higher contrast enhancement in pulmonary vessels. The identification of intraluminal emboli and mural thrombi has improved. The EBT CTA technique is a very reliable tool for evaluation of aortic disease and pulmonary vessels. (orig.) With 3 figs., 9 refs.

  8. Model of electron pairs in electron-doped cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. J.; Khan, Shakeel

    2016-07-01

    In the order parameter of hole-doped cuprate superconductors in the pseudogap phase, two holes enter the order parameter from opposite sides and pass through various CuO2 cells jumping from one O2- to the other under the influence of magnetic field offered by the Cu2+ ions in that CuO2 cell and thus forming hole pairs. In the pseudogap phase of electron-doped cuprates, two electrons enter the order parameter at Cu2+ sites from opposite ends and pass from one Cu2+ site to the diagonally opposite Cu2+ site. Following this type of path, they are subjected to high magnetic fields from various Cu2+ ions in that cell. They do not travel from one Cu2+ site to the other along straight path but by helical path. As they pass through the diagonal, they face high to low to very high magnetic field. Therefore, frequency of helical motion and pitch goes on changing with the magnetic field. Just before reaching the Cu2+ ions at the exit points of all the cells, the pitch of the helical motion is enormously decreased and thus charge density at these sites is increased. So the velocity of electrons along the diagonal path is decreased. Consequently, transition temperature of electron-doped cuprates becomes less than that of hole-doped cuprates. Symmetry of the order parameter of the electron-doped cuprates has been found to be of 3dx2-y2 + iS type. It has been inferred that internal magnetic field inside the order parameter reconstructs the Fermi surface, which is requisite for superconductivity to take place. Electron pairs formed in the pseudogap phase are the precursors of superconducting order parameter when cooled below Tc.

  9. Two-Temperature Model of Nonequilibrium Electron Relaxation:. a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navinder

    The present paper is a review of the phenomena related to nonequilibrium electron relaxation in bulk and nano-scale metallic samples. The workable Two-Temperature Model (TTM) based on Boltzmann-Bloch-Peierls kinetic equation has been applied to study the ultra-fast (femto-second) electronic relaxation in various metallic systems. The advent of new ultra-fast (femto-second) laser technology and pump-probe spectroscopy has produced wealth of new results for micro- and nano-scale electronic technology. The aim of this paper is to clarify the TTM, conditions of its validity and nonvalidity, its modifications for nano-systems, to sum-up the progress, and to point out open problems in this field. We also give a phenomenological integro-differential equation for the kinetics of nondegenerate electrons that goes beyond the TTM.

  10. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  11. Functional models of power electronic components for system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kwa-Sur; Yang, Lifeng; Dravid, Narayan

    1991-01-01

    A novel approach to model power electronic circuits has been developed to facilitate simulation studies of system-level issues. The underlying concept for this approach is to develop an equivalent circuit, the functional model, that performs the same functions as the actual circuit but whose operation can be simulated by using larger time step size and the reduction in model complexity, the computation time required by a functional model is significantly shorter than that required by alternative approaches. The authors present this novel modeling approach and discuss the functional models of two major power electronic components, the DC/DC converter unit and the load converter, that are being considered by NASA for use in the Space Station Freedom electric power system. The validity of these models is established by comparing the simulation results with available experimental data and other simulation results obtained by using a more established modeling approach. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by incorporating these models into a power system model and simulating the system responses and interactions between components under various conditions.

  12. Kinetic modelling of runaway electrons in dynamic scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, A.; Embréus, O.; Papp, G.; Landreman, M.; Fülöp, T.

    2016-11-01

    Improved understanding of runaway-electron formation and decay processes are of prime interest for the safe operation of large tokamaks, and the dynamics of the runaway electrons during dynamical scenarios such as disruptions are of particular concern. In this paper, we present kinetic modelling of scenarios with time-dependent plasma parameters; in particular, we investigate hot-tail runaway generation during a rapid drop in plasma temperature. With the goal of studying runaway-electron generation with a self-consistent electric-field evolution, we also discuss the implementation of a collision operator that conserves momentum and energy and demonstrate its properties. An operator for avalanche runaway-electron generation, which takes the energy dependence of the scattering cross section and the runaway distribution into account, is investigated. We show that the simplified avalanche model of Rosenbluth and Putvinskii (1997 Nucl. Fusion 37 1355) can give inaccurate results for the avalanche growth rate (either lower or higher) for many parameters, especially when the average runaway energy is modest, such as during the initial phase of the avalanche multiplication. The developments presented pave the way for improved modelling of runaway-electron dynamics during disruptions or other dynamic events.

  13. Performance results of HESP physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanumolu, Anantha; Thirupathi, Sivarani; Jones, Damien; Giridhar, Sunetra; Grobler, Deon; Jakobsson, Robert

    2017-02-01

    As a continuation to the published work on model based calibration technique with HESP(Hanle Echelle Spectrograph) as a case study, in this paper we present the performance results of the technique. We also describe how the open parameters were chosen in the model for optimization, the glass data accuracy and handling the discrepancies. It is observed through simulations that the discrepancies in glass data can be identified but not quantifiable. So having an accurate glass data is important which is possible to obtain from the glass manufacturers. The model's performance in various aspects is presented using the ThAr calibration frames from HESP during its pre-shipment tests. Accuracy of model predictions and its wave length calibration comparison with conventional empirical fitting, the behaviour of open parameters in optimization, model's ability to track instrumental drifts in the spectrum and the double fibres performance were discussed. It is observed that the optimized model is able to predict to a high accuracy the drifts in the spectrum from environmental fluctuations. It is also observed that the pattern in the spectral drifts across the 2D spectrum which vary from image to image is predictable with the optimized model. We will also discuss the possible science cases where the model can contribute.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann Model for Electronic Structure Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, M; Succi, S

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new connection between density functional theory and kinetic theory has been proposed. In particular, it was shown that the Kohn-Sham (KS) equations can be reformulated as a macroscopic limit of the steady-state solution of a suitable single-particle kinetic equation. By using a discrete version of this new formalism, the exchange and correlation energies of simple atoms and the geometrical configuration of the methane molecule were calculated accurately. Here, we discuss the main ideas behind the lattice kinetic approach to electronic structure computations, offer some considerations for prospective extensions, and also show additional numerical results, namely the geometrical configuration of the water molecule.

  15. Modeling Malaysia's Energy System: Some Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The current dynamic and fragile world energy environment necessitates the development of new energy model that solely caters to analyze Malaysia’s energy scenarios. Approach: The model is a network flow model that traces the flow of energy carriers from its sources (import and mining through some conversion and transformation processes for the production of energy products to final destinations (energy demand sectors. The integration to the economic sectors is done exogeneously by specifying the annual sectoral energy demand levels. The model in turn optimizes the energy variables for a specified objective function to meet those demands. Results: By minimizing the inter temporal petroleum product imports for the crude oil system the annual extraction level of Tapis blend is projected at 579600 barrels per day. The aggregate demand for petroleum products is projected to grow at 2.1% year-1 while motor gasoline and diesel constitute 42 and 38% of the petroleum products demands mix respectively over the 5 year planning period. Petroleum products import is expected to grow at 6.0% year-1. Conclusion: The preliminary results indicate that the model performs as expected. Thus other types of energy carriers such as natural gas, coal and biomass will be added to the energy system for the overall development of Malaysia energy model.

  16. Experimental Results on Low Alpha Electron-Storage Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, D.; Hama, H.; Nadji, A.

    1996-04-01

    We report on experiments performed in two synchrotron light sources, UVSOR and Super-ACO, where the momentum compaction factor is reduced in order to reduce the bunch length. By controlling the second-order momentum compaction factor, UVSOR and Super-ACO have managed to reduce the first-order momentum compaction factor by a a factor of 100. At low current the resulting bunch lengths are less than 10 ps, a factor of 10 smaller than normal. Measurements of current-dependent bunch lengthening in UVSOR are presented, and the cause of the bunch lengthening is determined to be potential-well distortion. We also show that by operating with a negative momentum compaction factor, Super-ACO has achieved shorter bunch lengthening and higher peak currents than at positive momentum compaction.

  17. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  18. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  19. Characterization and Modeling of Power Electronics Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandjaoui Mohammed Nasser

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During the three decades spent, the advances of high voltage/current semiconductor technology directly affect the power electronics converter technology and its progress. The developments of power semiconductors led successively to the appearance of the elements such as the Thyristors, and become commercially available. The various semiconductor devices can be classified into the way they can be controlled, uncontrolled category such as the Diode when it’s on or off state is controlled by the power circuit, and second category is the fully controlled such as the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET, and this category can be included a new hybrid devices such as the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT, and the Gate Turn-off Thyristor (GTO. This paper describes the characteristics and modeling of several types of power semiconductor devices such as MOSFET, IGBT and GTO.

  20. Modelling rainfall erosion resulting from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Peter

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion leads to agricultural productivity decline and contributes to water quality decline. The current widely used models for determining soil erosion for management purposes in agriculture focus on long term (~20 years) average annual soil loss and are not well suited to determining variations that occur over short timespans and as a result of climate change. Soil loss resulting from rainfall erosion is directly dependent on the product of runoff and sediment concentration both of which are likely to be influenced by climate change. This presentation demonstrates the capacity of models like the USLE, USLE-M and WEPP to predict variations in runoff and erosion associated with rainfall events eroding bare fallow plots in the USA with a view to modelling rainfall erosion in areas subject to climate change.

  1. Simulation Modeling of Radio Direction Finding Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pelikan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available It is sometimes difficult to determine analytically error probabilities of direction finding results for evaluating algorithms of practical interest. Probalistic simulation models are described in this paper that can be to study error performance of new direction finding systems or to geographical modifications of existing configurations.

  2. Numerical Modeling of Microbial Fuel Cell Based on Redox Electron Mediator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nanqi Ren

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the behavior of redox electron mediator and its impact to power generation of microbial fuel cell ( MFC ) , this study carries out the numerical modeling of a typical two⁃chamber MFC based on assumption of interfacial electron transfer via redox electron mediator and acetate as sole electron donor. The model simulates the development of cell voltage, current, substrate concentration, redox electron mediator concentration, polarization and power density output under defined conditions. The results demonstrate that the developed models can fit the experimental results well on a qualitative basis, and concentration of electron reduced mediator plays a dominant role in electron transfer process, and the mass transfer may constitute the limiting step when its concentration is at a relatively low level. This study not only provides a better understanding of electron redox mediator behavior during power generation, but also suggests a strategy to improve electron transfer in the anode of MFC.

  3. A Model for Teaching Electronic Commerce Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard C. Woodard

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of information technology in an ever-changing world at universities presents a challenge. Are courses taught as concepts, while ignoring hands-on courses, leaving the hands-on classes to the technical colleges or trade schools? Does this produce the best employees for industry or give students the knowledge and skills necessary to function in a high-tech world? At GeorgiaCollege & StateUniversity (GC&SU a model was developed that combines both concepts and practical hands-on skill to meet this challenge. Using this model, a program was developed that consists of classroom lecture of concepts as well as practical hands-on exercises for mastering the knowledge and developing the skills necessary to succeed in the high-tech world of electronic commerce. The students become productive day one of a new job assignment. This solves the problem of students having the "book knowledge" but not knowing how to apply what has been learned.

  4. Progress on Analytical Modeling of Coherent Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Litvinenko, V.; Webb, S.

    2010-05-23

    We report recent progresses on analytical studies of Coherent Electron Cooling. The phase space electron beam distribution obtained from the 1D FEL amplifier is applied to an infinite electron plasma model and the electron density evolution inside the kicker is derived. We also investigate the velocity modulation in the modulator and obtain a closed form solution for the current density evolution for infinite homogeneous electron plasma.

  5. Microwave remediation of electronic circuitry waste and the resulting gaseous emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Rebecca L.

    The global community has become increasingly dependent on computer and electronic technology. As a result, society is faced with an increasing amount of obsolete equipment and electronic circuitry waste. Electronic waste is generally disposed of in landfills. While convenient, this action causes a substantial loss of finite resources and poses an environmental threat as the circuit board components breakdown and are exposed to the elements. Hazardous compounds such as lead, mercury and cadmium may leach from the circuitry and find their way into the groundwater supply. For this dissertation, a microwave waste remediation system was developed. The system was designed to remove the organic components from a wide variety of electronic circuitry. Upon additional heating of the resulting ash material in an industrial microwave, a glass and metal product can be recovered. Analysis of the metal reveals the presence of precious metals (gold, silver) that can be sold to provide a return on investment. a glass and metal product can be recovered. Analysis of the metal reveals the presence of precious metals (gold, silver) that can be sold to provide a return on investment. Gaseous organic compounds that were generated as a result of organic removal were treated in a microwave off gas system that effectively reduced the concentration of the products emitted by several orders of magnitude, and in some cases completely destroying the waste gas. Upon further heating in an industrial microwave, a glass and metal product were recovered. In order to better understand the effects of processing parameters on the efficiency of the off-gas system, a parametric study was developed. The study tested the microwave system at 3 flow rates (10, 30, and 50 ft 3/min) and three temperatures (400, 700 and 1000°C. In order to test the effects of microwave energy, the experiments were repeated using a conventional furnace. While microwave energy is widely used, the mechanisms of interaction with

  6. Modeling of an Electron Injector for the AWAKE Project

    CERN Document Server

    Mete, O; Apsimon, R; Burt, G; Doebert, S; Fiorito, R; Welsch, C

    2015-01-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations were performed by using PARMELA to characterise an electron injector with a booster linac for the AWAKE project in order to provide the baseline specifications required by the plasma wakefield experiments. Tolerances and errors were investigated. A 3 GHz travelling wave structure designed by using CST code. Particles were tracked by using the field maps acquired from these electromagnetic simulations. These results are pre- sented in comparison with the generic accelerating structure model within PARMELA.

  7. Two state electron model for geminate recombination of electron-ion pairs in liquid isooctane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukin, L.V., E-mail: lukin@binep.ac.ru [Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics (Branch), Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, P.O. Box 56, Moscow oblast 142432 (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, B.S. [Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics (Branch), Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, P.O. Box 56, Moscow oblast 142432 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-28

    Graphical abstract: M + n . h{nu} {yields} mobile electron {yields} trapped electron {yields} free charges. Research highlights: {yields} Electrons produced by ionization of liquid alkanes are trapped near positive ions. {yields} The recombination kinetics was expressed in terms of a trapped electron life time. {yields} Transient absorption after the ionizing pulse was analyzed for liquid isooctane. {yields} The life time of trapped electrons was found. - Abstract: Recombination kinetics of geminate electron-ion pairs is considered in the framework of the two state model for electron transport in liquid hydrocarbons. It is shown that the model well reproduces recent experimental data on the subpicosecond geminate recombination obtained in liquid isooctane. The life time of electrons in a localized state in isooctane is estimated to lie in the range between 0.14 ps and 0.57 ps at room temperature.

  8. Modeling Electronic Properties of Complex Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Karthik

    Complex oxides are a class of materials that have recently emerged as potential candidates for electronic applications owing to their interesting electronic properties. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a fundamental understanding of these electronic properties using a combination of first-principles approaches based on density functional theory (DFT), and Schr odinger-Poisson (SP) simulation (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.

  9. Electron microscopy and theoretical modeling of cochleates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarsekar, Kalpa; Ashtikar, Mukul; Thamm, Jana; Steiniger, Frank; Schacher, Felix; Fahr, Alfred; May, Sylvio

    2014-11-11

    Cochleates are self-assembled cylindrical condensates that consist of large rolled-up lipid bilayer sheets and represent a novel platform for oral and systemic delivery of therapeutically active medicinal agents. With few preceding investigations, the physical basis of cochleate formation has remained largely unexplored. We address the structure and stability of cochleates in a combined experimental/theoretical approach. Employing different electron microscopy methods, we provide evidence for cochleates consisting of phosphatidylserine and calcium to be hollow tubelike structures with a well-defined constant lamellar repeat distance and statistically varying inner and outer radii. To rationalize the relation between inner and outer radii, we propose a theoretical model. Based on the minimization of a phenomenological free energy expression containing a bending, adhesion, and frustration contribution, we predict the optimal tube dimensions of a cochleate and estimate ratios of material constants for cochleates consisting of phosphatidylserines with varied hydrocarbon chain structures. Knowing and understanding these ratios will ultimately benefit the successful formulation of cochleates for drug delivery applications.

  10. Application of transmission electron tomography for modeling the renal corpuscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Delfine; Shen, Sylvie; Chen, Xin-Ming; Pollock, Carol; Braet, Filip

    2013-11-01

    Structural alteration to the microanatomical organization of the glomerular filtration barrier results in proteinuria. Conventional transmission electron microscopy is an important diagnostic tool to assess the degree of ultrastructural damage of the corpusclar filtration unit. However, this approach lacks the ability to collect accurate stereological insights in a relative large tissue volume. Transmission electron tomography offers the ability to gather three-dimensional information with relative ease. Therefore, this contribution aims to highlight what electron tomography can bring to the pathologist in this challenging area of diagnostic practice. Kidney tissue was prepared for routine ultrastructural transmission electron microscopy investigation. Three-dimensional data stacks were automatically acquired by tilting semi-thin sections of 270 nm in an angular range of typically -60° to +60° with 1° increment. Subsequently, models of the filtration unit were produced by computer-assisted tracking of structures of interest. This short report illustrates the capability that transmission electron tomography can offer in the fine structure-function assessment of the porous fenestrated glomerular capillary endothelium, the underlying basement membrane and the podocyte filtration slits. Furthermore, this approach allows the generation of morphometric data about size, shape and volume alterations of the kidney's filtration barrier at the nanoscale.

  11. Geometry Modeling of an Electronic Expansion Valve Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张川; 马善伟; 陈江平; 陈芝久; 陈文勇; 王健

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposed that the flow characteristic of electronic expansion valve should be adapted to the evaporator superheat gain to refrigerant flow rate under different working conditions. Two native methods of geometry modeling of electronic expansion valve head were introduced. By analysis of them, some shortcoming was detected and a universal modeling method of electronic expansion valve head was put forward. Through this model, the flow characteristic of EEV and the influence factors can be investigated more deeply.

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF EXTRACELLULAR ELECTRON TRANSFER IN BIOFILMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Schenk, Jim; Ivory, Cornelius; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-09-12

    Electrochemically active biofilms have a unique form of respiration in which they utilize solid external materials as terminal electron acceptors for their metabolism. Currently, two primary mechanisms have been identified for long-range extracellular electron transfer (EET): a diffusion- and a conduction-based mechanism. Evidence in the literature suggests that some biofilms, particularly Shewanella oneidensis, produce the requisite components for both mechanisms. In this study, a generic model is presented that incorporates the diffusion- and the conduction-based mechanisms and allows electrochemically active biofilms to utilize both simultaneously. The model was applied to S. oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms using experimentally generated data found in the literature. Our simulation results show that 1) biofilms having both mechanisms available, especially if they can interact, may have a metabolic advantage over biofilms that can use only a single mechanism; 2) the thickness of G. sulfurreducens biofilms is likely not limited by conductivity; 3) accurate intrabiofilm diffusion coefficient values are critical for current generation predictions; and 4) the local biofilm potential and redox potential are two distinct parameters and cannot be assumed to have identical values. Finally, we determined that simulated cyclic and squarewave voltammetry based on our model are currently not capable of determining the specific percentages of extracellular electron transfer mechanisms in a biofilm. The developed model will be a critical tool for designing experiments to explain EET mechanisms.

  13. Modeling biofilms with dual extracellular electron transfer mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renslow, Ryan; Babauta, Jerome; Kuprat, Andrew; Schenk, Jim; Ivory, Cornelius; Fredrickson, Jim; Beyenal, Haluk

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemically active biofilms have a unique form of respiration in which they utilize solid external materials as terminal electron acceptors for their metabolism. Currently, two primary mechanisms have been identified for long-range extracellular electron transfer (EET): a diffusion- and a conduction-based mechanism. Evidence in the literature suggests that some biofilms, particularly Shewanella oneidensis, produce the requisite components for both mechanisms. In this study, a generic model is presented that incorporates the diffusion- and the conduction-based mechanisms and allows electrochemically active biofilms to utilize both simultaneously. The model was applied to S. oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms using experimentally generated data found in the literature. Our simulation results show that 1) biofilms having both mechanisms available, especially if they can interact, may have a metabolic advantage over biofilms that can use only a single mechanism; 2) the thickness of G. sulfurreducens biofilms is likely not limited by conductivity; 3) accurate intrabiofilm diffusion coefficient values are critical for current generation predictions; and 4) the local biofilm potential and redox potential are two distinct parameters and cannot be assumed to have identical values. Finally, we determined that simulated cyclic and squarewave voltammetry based on our model are currently not capable of determining the specific percentages of extracellular electron transfer mechanisms in a biofilm. The developed model will be a critical tool for designing experiments to explain EET mechanisms. PMID:24113651

  14. Quantitative model studies for interfaces in organic electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, J. Michael

    2016-11-01

    In organic light-emitting diodes and similar devices, organic semiconductors are typically contacted by metal electrodes. Because the resulting metal/organic interfaces have a large impact on the performance of these devices, their quantitative understanding is indispensable for the further rational development of organic electronics. A study by Kröger et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 113022) of an important single-crystal based model interface provides detailed insight into its geometric and electronic structure and delivers valuable benchmark data for computational studies. In view of the differences between typical surface-science model systems and real devices, a ‘materials gap’ is identified that needs to be addressed by future research to make the knowledge obtained from fundamental studies even more beneficial for real-world applications.

  15. Molecular Models for Conductance in Junctions and Electrochemical Electron Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazinani, Shobeir Khezr Seddigh

    This thesis develops molecular models for electron transport in molecular junctions and intra-molecular electron transfer. The goal is to identify molecular descriptors that afford a substantial simplification of these electronic processes. First, the connection between static molecular polarizability and the molecular conductance is examined. A correlation emerges whereby the measured conductance of a tunneling junction decreases as a function of the calculated molecular polarizability for several systems, a result consistent with the idea of a molecule as a polarizable dielectric. A model based on a macroscopic extension of the Clausius-Mossotti equation to the molecular domain and Simmon's tunneling model is developed to explain this correlation. Despite the simplicity of the theory, it paves the way for further experimental, conceptual and theoretical developments in the use of molecular descriptors to describe both conductance and electron transfer. Second, the conductance of several biologically relevant, weakly bonded, hydrogen-bonded systems is systematically investigated. While there is no correlation between hydrogen bond strength and conductance, the results indicate a relation between the conductance and atomic polarizability of the hydrogen bond acceptor atom. The relevance of these results to electron transfer in biological systems is discussed. Hydrogen production and oxidation using catalysts inspired by hydrogenases provides a more sustainable alternative to the use of precious metals. To understand electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of a collection of Fe and Ni mimics of hydrogenases, high-level density functional theory calculations are described. The results, based on a detailed analysis of the energies, charges and molecular orbitals of these metal complexes, indicate the importance of geometric constraints imposed by the ligand on molecular properties such as acidity and electrocatalytic activity. Based on model calculations of

  16. Variability of Protein Structure Models from Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Lyman; Terashi, Genki; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-03-02

    An increasing number of biomolecular structures are solved by electron microscopy (EM). However, the quality of structure models determined from EM maps vary substantially. To understand to what extent structure models are supported by information embedded in EM maps, we used two computational structure refinement methods to examine how much structures can be refined using a dataset of 49 maps with accompanying structure models. The extent of structure modification as well as the disagreement between refinement models produced by the two computational methods scaled inversely with the global and the local map resolutions. A general quantitative estimation of deviations of structures for particular map resolutions are provided. Our results indicate that the observed discrepancy between the deposited map and the refined models is due to the lack of structural information present in EM maps and thus these annotations must be used with caution for further applications.

  17. The Danish national passenger modelModel specification and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Hansen, Christian Overgaard

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of the new Danish National Passenger model and provides on this basis a general discussion of large-scale model design, cost-damping and model validation. The paper aims at providing three main contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, at the general level......, the paper provides a description of a large-scale forecast model with a discussion of the linkage between population synthesis, demand and assignment. Secondly, the paper gives specific attention to model specification and in particular choice of functional form and cost-damping. Specifically we suggest...... a family of logarithmic spline functions and illustrate how it is applied in the model. Thirdly and finally, we evaluate model sensitivity and performance by evaluating the distance distribution and elasticities. In the paper we present results where the spline-function is compared with more traditional...

  18. Piecewise-homogeneous model for electron side injection into linear plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovanov, A.A., E-mail: agolovanov256@gmail.com; Kostyukov, I.Yu., E-mail: kost@appl.sci-nnov.ru

    2016-09-01

    An analytical piecewise-homogeneous model for electron side injection into linear plasma waves is developed. The dynamics of transverse betatron oscillations are studied. Based on the characteristics of the transversal motion the longitudinal motion of electrons is described. The electron parameters for which the electron trapping and subsequent acceleration are possible are estimated. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulations in the scope of the piecewise-homogeneous model. The results predicted by this model are also compared to the results given by a more realistic inhomogeneous model. - Highlights: • A piecewise-homogeneous model of side injection into a linear wakefield is developed. • The dynamics of betatron oscillations in the focusing phase is analytically studied. • The area of parameters for electron trapping is determined. • The model is compared to a more realistic inhomogeneous model.

  19. Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jiao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy extraction efficiency of a free electron laser (FEL can be greatly increased using a tapered undulator and self-seeding. However, the extraction rate is limited by various effects that eventually lead to saturation of the peak intensity and power. To better understand these effects, we develop a model extending the Kroll-Morton-Rosenbluth, one-dimensional theory to include the physics of diffraction, optical guiding, and radially resolved particle trapping. The predictions of the model agree well with that of the GENESIS single-frequency numerical simulations. In particular, we discuss the evolution of the electron-radiation interaction along the tapered undulator and show that the decreasing of refractive guiding is the major cause of the efficiency reduction, particle detrapping, and then saturation of the radiation power. With this understanding, we develop a multidimensional optimization scheme based on GENESIS simulations to increase the energy extraction efficiency via an improved taper profile and variation in electron beam radius. We present optimization results for hard x-ray tapered FELs, and the dependence of the maximum extractable radiation power on various parameters of the initial electron beam, radiation field, and the undulator system. We also study the effect of the sideband growth in a tapered FEL. Such growth induces increased particle detrapping and thus decreased refractive guiding that together strongly limit the overall energy extraction efficiency.

  20. Two state electron model for geminate recombination of electron-ion pairs in liquid isooctane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, L. V.; Yakovlev, B. S.

    2011-04-01

    Recombination kinetics of geminate electron-ion pairs is considered in the framework of the two state model for electron transport in liquid hydrocarbons. It is shown that the model well reproduces recent experimental data on the subpicosecond geminate recombination obtained in liquid isooctane. The life time of electrons in a localized state in isooctane is estimated to lie in the range between 0.14 ps and 0.57 ps at room temperature.

  1. Teaching Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Power Electronics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of behavioral modeling of switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The methodology is oriented toward electrical engineering (EE) students at the undergraduate level, enrolled in courses such as "Power Electronics,"…

  2. Accountability Analysis of Electronic Commerce Protocols by Finite Automaton Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xiao-yao; Zhang Huan-guo

    2004-01-01

    The accountability of electronic commerce protocols is an important aspect to insures security of electronic transaction. This paper proposes to use Finite Automaton (FA) model as a new kind of framework to analyze the trans action protocols in the application of electronic commerce.

  3. CMS standard model Higgs boson results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Abia Pablo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012 CMS announced the discovery of a new boson with properties resembling those of the long-sought Higgs boson. The analysis of the proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb−1 at √s = 7 TeV and 19.6 fb−1 at √s = 8 TeV, confirm the Higgs-like nature of the new boson, with a signal strength associated with vector bosons and fermions consistent with the expectations for a standard model (SM Higgs boson, and spin-parity clearly favouring the scalar nature of the new boson. In this note I review the updated results of the CMS experiment.

  4. A reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport in solids and dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, M.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph; Santos, J. J.; Gremillet, L.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport based on the angular moments of the relativistic kinetic equation with a special closure is presented. It takes into account collective effects with the self-generated electromagnetic fields as well as collisional effects with the slowing down of the relativistic electrons by plasmons, bound and free electrons and their angular scattering on both ions and electrons. This model allows for fast computations of relativistic electron beam transport while describing their energy distribution evolution. Despite the loss of information concerning the angular distribution of the electron beam, the model reproduces analytical estimates in the academic case of a monodirectional and monoenergetic electron beam propagating through a warm and dense plasma and hybrid particle-in-cell simulation results in a realistic laser-generated electron beam transport case.

  5. VHDL Model of Electronic-Lock System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noga

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the design of an electronic-lock system which wascompleted as part of the Basic VHDL course in the Department of Controland Measurement Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics,Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic in co-operation withthe Department if Electronic Engineering, University of Hull, GreatBritain in the frame of TEMPUS project no. S_JEP/09468-95.

  6. Atmospheric ionization induced by precipitating electrons: Comparison of CRAC:EPII model with a parametrization model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonov, A. A.; Mishev, A. L.; Usoskin, I. G.

    2016-11-01

    Results of a comparison of a new model CRAC:EPII (Cosmic Ray Atmospheric Cascade: Electron Precipitation Induced Ionization) with a commonly used parametric model of atmospheric ionization is presented. The CRAC:EPII is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of precipitating electrons propagation and interaction with matter in the Earth's atmosphere. It explicitly considers energy deposit: ionization, pair production, Compton scattering, generation of Bremsstrahlung high energy photons, photo-ionization and annihilation of positrons, multiple scattering as physical processes accordingly. Propagation of precipitating electrons and their interactions with air is simulated with the GEANT4 simulation tool PLANETOCOSMICS code using NRLMSISE-00 atmospheric model. Ionization yields are computed and compared with a parametrization model for different energies of incident precipitating energetic electrons, using simulated fluxes of mono-energetic particles. A good agreement between the two models is achieved in the mesosphere but the contribution of Bremsstrahlung in the stratosphere, which is not accounted for in the parametric models, is found significant. As an example, we calculated profiles of the ion production rates in the middle and upper atmosphere (below 100 km) on the basis of balloon-born measured spectra of precipitating electrons for 30-October-2002 and 07-January-2004.

  7. First results of electron cyclotron emission measurements at the GDT magnetic mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Shalashov, A G; Gospodchikov, E D; Lubyako, L V; Yakovlev, D V; Bagryansky, P A

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of experiments on electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements at the fundamental harmonic recently performed at the axially symmetric magnetic mirror device GDT (Budker Institute, Novosibirsk). New ECE diagnostics is installed to facilitate the successful electron cyclotron resonance heating experiment and operates in the vicinity of the heating frequency of 54.5 GHz. Besides expected emission of thermal electrons, a clearly resolved non-thermal ECE is observed indicating the presence of suprathermal electrons driven by high-power microwave heating. The particulars of plasma emission are studied experimentally in a broad range of discharge scenarios.

  8. The Empowerment of Plasma Modeling by Fundamental Electron Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-09-01

    Modeling of low temperature plasmas addresses at least 3 goals - investigation of fundamental processes, analysis and optimization of current technologies, and prediction of performance of as yet unbuilt systems for new applications. The former modeling may be performed on somewhat idealized systems in simple gases, while the latter will likely address geometrically and electromagnetically intricate systems with complex gas mixtures, and now gases in contact with liquids. The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering data (FSD) required for these activities increases from the former to the latter, while the accuracy required of that data probably decreases. In each case, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSD. Modeling is, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSD in plasma modeling will be discussed from each of these three perspectives using results from multidimensional and global models. The fundamental studies will focus on modeling of inductively coupled plasmas sustained in Ar/Cl2 where the electron scattering from feed gases and their fragments ultimately determine gas temperatures. Examples of the optimization of current technologies will focus on modeling of remote plasma etching of Si and Si3N4 in Ar/NF3/N2/O2 mixtures. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids Work was supported by the US Dept. of Energy (DE-SC0001939), National Science Foundation (CHE-124752), and the Semiconductor Research Corp.

  9. Feynman Path Integral Approach to Electron Diffraction for One and Two Slits: Analytical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an analytic solution of the famous problem of diffraction and interference of electrons through one and two slits (for simplicity, only the one-dimensional case is considered). In addition to exact formulae, various approximations of the electron distribution are shown which facilitate the interpretation of the results.…

  10. Recent results from studies of electron beam phenomena in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Torsten; Banks, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines selected results from experiments, performed in 1980s, involving the ejection of beams of electrons from spacecraft. Special attention is given to the basic processes associated with the spacecraft charging, passive current collection, beam-atmosphere interactions, beam-plasma interactions, and neutral gas emission. Consideration is also given to future experiments on active electron beam ejections in space.

  11. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased...... the need for circuit simulators to evaluate potential designs before fabrication, as integrated circuit prototypes are expensive to build, and troubleshooting is difficult. In this report, we focus on the simulation of printed circuit boards (PCB’s) and interconnects both of which are of great importance...

  12. Revisiting Runoff Model Calibration: Airborne Snow Observatory Results Allow Improved Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, B. J.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Deterministic snow accumulation and ablation simulation models are widely used by runoff managers throughout the world to predict runoff quantities and timing. Model fitting is typically based on matching modeled runoff volumes and timing with observed flow time series at a few points in the basin. In recent decades, sparse networks of point measurements of the mountain snowpacks have been available to compare with modeled snowpack, but the comparability of results from a snow sensor or course to model polygons of 5 to 50 sq. km is suspect. However, snowpack extent, depth, and derived snow water equivalent have been produced by the NASA/JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) mission for spring of 20013 and 2014 in the Tuolumne River basin above Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. These high-resolution snowpack data have exposed the weakness in a model calibration based on runoff alone. The U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) calibration that was based on 30-years of inflow to Hetch Hetchy produces reasonable inflow results, but modeled spatial snowpack location and water quantity diverged significantly from the weekly measurements made by ASO during the two ablation seasons. The reason is that the PRMS model has many flow paths, storages, and water transfer equations, and a calibrated outflow time series can be right for many wrong reasons. The addition of a detailed knowledge of snow extent and water content constrains the model so that it is a better representation of the actual watershed hydrology. The mechanics of recalibrating PRMS to the ASO measurements will be described, and comparisons in observed versus modeled flow for both a small subbasin and the entire Hetch Hetchy basin will be shown. The recalibrated model provided a bitter fit to the snowmelt recession, a key factor for water managers as they balance declining inflows with demand for power generation and ecosystem releases during the final months of snow melt runoff.

  13. Molecular modeling and multiscaling issues for electronic material applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamoto, Nancy; Yuen, Matthew; Fan, Haibo

    Volume 1 : Molecular Modeling and Multiscaling Issues for Electronic Material Applications provides a snapshot on the progression of molecular modeling in the electronics industry and how molecular modeling is currently being used to understand material performance to solve relevant issues in this field. This book is intended to introduce the reader to the evolving role of molecular modeling, especially seen through the eyes of the IEEE community involved in material modeling for electronic applications.  Part I presents  the role that quantum mechanics can play in performance prediction, such as properties dependent upon electronic structure, but also shows examples how molecular models may be used in performance diagnostics, especially when chemistry is part of the performance issue.  Part II gives examples of large-scale atomistic methods in material failure and shows several examples of transitioning between grain boundary simulations (on the atomistic level)and large-scale models including an example ...

  14. Modeling Malaysia's Energy System: Some Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The current dynamic and fragile world energy environment necessitates the development of new energy model that solely caters to analyze Malaysias energy scenarios. Approach: The model is a network flow model that traces the flow of energy carriers from its sources (import and mining) through some conversion and transformation processes for the production of energy products to final destinations (energy demand sectors). The integration to the economic sectors is done exogene...

  15. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan

  16. A RELATIVISTIC QUASI-STATIC MODEL FOR ELECTRONS IN INTENSE LASER FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN BAO-ZHEN

    2001-01-01

    A relativistic quasi-static model for the motion of the electrons in relativistic laser fields is proposed. Using the model, the recent experimental results about the generation of the hot electrons in relativistic laser fields can be fit quite well and the important role of the rescattering can be shown clearly.

  17. Orbital Models and Electronic Structure Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderberg, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This tribute to the work by Carl Johan Ballhausen focuses on the emergence of quantitative means for the study of the electronic properties of complexes and molecules. Development, refinement and application of the orbital picture elucidated electric and magnetic features of ranges of molecules...

  18. Electron spin resonance dating of teeth from Western Brazilian megafauna - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Angela, E-mail: angela.kinoshita@usc.br [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Universidade Sagrado Coracao, Rua Irma Arminda 10-50, 17011-160 Bauru - Sao Paulo (Brazil); Jose, Flavio A. [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Sundaram, Dharani; Paixao, Jesus da S.; Soares, Isabella R.M. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Departamento de Geologia Geral, 78090-000 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Figueiredo, Ana Maria [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), 05422-970 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) was applied to determine ages of Haplomastodon teeth from Western Brazilian Megafauna. The Equivalent Doses (D{sub e}) of (1.3 {+-} 0.2)kGy, (800 {+-} 100)Gy and (140 {+-} 20)Gy were found and the software ROSY ESR dating was employed to convert D{sub e} in age, using isotope concentrations determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and other information, resulting in (500 {+-} 100)ka, (320 {+-} 50) and (90 {+-} 10)ka considering the Combination Uptake (CU) model for Uranium uptake, set as an Early Uptake (EU) for dentine and Linear Uptake (LU) for enamel. There are scarce reports about Pleistocene Megafauna in this area. This paper presents the first dating of megafauna tooth and this study could contribute to improve the knowledge about the paleoclimate and paleoenvironment of this region and prompt more investigations in this area.

  19. Simple predictive electron transport models applied to sawtoothing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Merle, A.; Sauter, O.; Goodman, T. P.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we introduce two simple transport models to evaluate the time evolution of electron temperature and density profiles during sawtooth cycles (i.e. over a sawtooth period time-scale). Since the aim of these simulations is to estimate reliable profiles within a short calculation time, two simplified ad-hoc models have been developed. The goal for these models is to rely on a few easy-to-check free parameters, such as the confinement time scaling factor and the profiles’ averaged scale-lengths. Due to the simplicity and short calculation time of the models, it is expected that these models can also be applied to real-time transport simulations. We show that it works well for Ohmic and EC heated L- and H-mode plasmas. The differences between these models are discussed and we show that their predictive capabilities are similar. Thus only one model is used to reproduce with simulations the results of sawtooth control experiments on the TCV tokamak. For the sawtooth pacing, the calculated time delays between the EC power off and sawtooth crash time agree well with the experimental results. The map of possible locking range is also well reproduced by the simulation.

  20. A new ONERA-CNES Slot Electron Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Sicart-Piet, A.; Boscher, D.; Lazaro, D.; Bourdarie, S.; G. Rolland

    2013-01-01

    A new model of electron flux in the Slot Region has been developed at ONERA. This model is based on several data sets, low altitudes data as POES or SAC-C measurements, but also data at higher altitudes as HEO1, HEO3, ICO and CRRES measurements. This model provides mean electron flux between L=2 and L=4 for energies between 0.1 MeV and 3 MeV. This model includes a confidence level which takes into account the dynamics of electron flux in the slot region.

  1. One-electron singular spectral features of the 1D Hubbard model at finite magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Čadež, T.

    2017-01-01

    The momentum, electronic density, spin density, and interaction dependences of the exponents that control the (k , ω)-plane singular features of the σ = ↑ , ↓ one-electron spectral functions of the 1D Hubbard model at finite magnetic field are studied. The usual half-filling concepts of one-electron lower Hubbard band and upper Hubbard band are defined in terms of the rotated electrons associated with the model Bethe-ansatz solution for all electronic density and spin density values and the whole finite repulsion range. Such rotated electrons are the link of the non-perturbative relation between the electrons and the pseudofermions. Our results further clarify the microscopic processes through which the pseudofermion dynamical theory accounts for the one-electron matrix elements between the ground state and excited energy eigenstates.

  2. Modeling Kleinian cosmology with electronic metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Figueiredo, David; Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Betrand; Moraes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the propagation of Klein-Gordon particles in flat background spacetime exhibiting discontinuous metric changes from a Lorentzian signature (-,+,+,+) to a Kleinian signature (-,+,+,-). A formal analogy with the propagation of electrons at a junction between an anisotropic semiconductor and an electronic metamaterial is presented. From that analogy, we study the dynamics of these particles falling onto planar boundary interfaces between these two families of media and show a mirror-like behavior for the particle flux. Finally, the case of a double junction of finite thickness is examined and the possibility of tunneling through it is discussed. A physical link between the metamaterial and the Kleinian slabs is found by calculating the time of flight of the respective traversing particles.

  3. Modeling Kleinian cosmology with electronic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, David; Gomes, Felipe A.; Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand; Moraes, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the propagation of Klein-Gordon particles in flat background spacetime exhibiting discontinuous metric changes from a Lorentzian signature (-,+,+,+) to a Kleinian signature (-,+,+,-) . A formal analogy with the propagation of electrons at a junction between an anisotropic semiconductor and an electronic metamaterial is presented. From that analogy, we study the dynamics of these particles falling onto planar boundary interfaces between these two families of media and show a mirror-like behavior for the particle flux. Finally, the case of a double junction of finite thickness is examined and the possibility of tunneling through it is discussed. A physical link between the metamaterial and the Kleinian slabs is found by calculating the time of flight of the respective traversing particles.

  4. Quantitative magnetospheric models: results and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Gombosi, T.; Csem Team

    Global magnetospheric models are indispensable tool that allow multi-point measurements to be put into global context Significant progress is achieved in global MHD modeling of magnetosphere structure and dynamics Medium resolution simulations confirm general topological pictures suggested by Dungey State of the art global models with adaptive grids allow performing simulations with highly resolved magnetopause and magnetotail current sheet Advanced high-resolution models are capable to reproduced transient phenomena such as FTEs associated with formation of flux ropes or plasma bubbles embedded into magnetopause and demonstrate generation of vortices at magnetospheric flanks On the other hand there is still controversy about the global state of the magnetosphere predicted by MHD models to the point of questioning the length of the magnetotail and the location of the reconnection sites within it For example for steady southwards IMF driving condition resistive MHD simulations produce steady configuration with almost stationary near-earth neutral line While there are plenty of observational evidences of periodic loading unloading cycle during long periods of southward IMF Successes and challenges in global modeling of magnetispheric dynamics will be addessed One of the major challenges is to quantify the interaction between large-scale global magnetospheric dynamics and microphysical processes in diffusion regions near reconnection sites Possible solutions to controversies will be discussed

  5. Electronic learning and constructivism: a model for nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Sasikarn; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Pohthong, Amnart

    2010-01-01

    Nurse educators are challenged to teach nursing students to become competent professionals, who have both in-depth knowledge and decision-making skills. The use of electronic learning methods has been found to facilitate the teaching-learning process in nursing education. Although learning theories are acknowledged as useful guides to design strategies and activities of learning, integration of these theories into technology-based courses appears limited. Constructivism is a theoretical paradigm that could prove to be effective in guiding the design of electronic learning experiences for the purpose of providing positive outcomes, such as the acquisition of knowledge and decision-making skills. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are to: describe electronic learning, present a brief overview of what is known about the outcomes of electronic learning, discuss constructivism theory, present a model for electronic learning using constructivism, and describe educators' roles emphasizing the utilization of the model in developing electronic learning experiences in nursing education.

  6. Power Electronic Packaging Design, Assembly Process, Reliability and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronic Packaging presents an in-depth overview of power electronic packaging design, assembly,reliability and modeling. Since there is a drastic difference between IC fabrication and power electronic packaging, the book systematically introduces typical power electronic packaging design, assembly, reliability and failure analysis and material selection so readers can clearly understand each task's unique characteristics. Power electronic packaging is one of the fastest growing segments in the power electronic industry, due to the rapid growth of power integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, especially for applications like portable, consumer, home, computing and automotive electronics. This book also covers how advances in both semiconductor content and power advanced package design have helped cause advances in power device capability in recent years. The author extrapolates the most recent trends in the book's areas of focus to highlight where further improvement in materials and techniques can d...

  7. An unconventional space-time model of electrons and its application to the many-electron problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hofer, Werner A

    2010-01-01

    We present a space-time model of extended electrons, which is formulated in terms of geometric algebra. Wave properties of the electron are referred to mass density oscillations. We provide a comprehensive and non-statistical interpretation of wavefunctions, referring them to mass density components and internal field components. It is shown that these wavefunctions comply with the Schr\\"odinger equation, for the free electron as well as for the electron in electrostatic and vector potentials. Spin-properties of the electron are referred to intrinsic field components and it is established that a measurement of spin in an external field yields exactly two possible results. It is found that the model also agrees with the results of standard theory concerning the hydrogen atom. Finally, we analyze many-electron systems and derive a set of coupled equations suitable to characterize the system without any reference to single electron states. It is found that this set of equations is a natural extension for spin-po...

  8. Dynamic Characterization and Modeling of Potting Materials for Electronics Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vasant; Lee, Gilbert; Santiago, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    Prediction of survivability of encapsulated electronic components subject to impact relies on accurate modeling. Both static and dynamic characterization of encapsulation material is needed to generate a robust material model. Current focus is on potting materials to mitigate high rate loading on impact. In this effort, encapsulation scheme consists of layers of polymeric material Sylgard 184 and Triggerbond Epoxy-20-3001. Experiments conducted for characterization of materials include conventional tension and compression tests, Hopkinson bar, dynamic material analyzer (DMA) and a non-conventional accelerometer based resonance tests for obtaining high frequency data. For an ideal material, data can be fitted to Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model. A new temperature-time shift (TTS) macro was written to compare idealized temperature shift factor (WLF model) with experimental incremental shift factors. Deviations can be observed by comparison of experimental data with the model fit to determine the actual material behavior. Similarly, another macro written for obtaining Ogden model parameter from Hopkinson Bar tests indicates deviations from experimental high strain rate data. In this paper, experimental results for different materials used for mitigating impact, and ways to combine data from resonance, DMA and Hopkinson bar together with modeling refinements will be presented.

  9. RCCtrust: A Combined Trust Model for Electronic Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhang; Hua-Jun Chen; Xiao-Hong Jiang; Hao Sheng; Zhao-Hui Wu

    2009-01-01

    Previous trust models are mainly focused on reputational mechanism based on explicit trust ratings.However,the large amount of user-generated content and community context published on Web is often ignored.Without enough information,there are several problems with previous trust models:first,they cannot determine in which field one user trusts in another,so many models assume that trust exists in all fields.Second some models are not able to delineate the variation of trust SCales,therefore they regard each user trusts all his friends to the same extent.Third,since these models only focus on explicit trust ratings,so the trust matrix is very sparse.To Solve these problems,we present RCCtrust-a trust model which combines Reputation-,Content-and Context-based mechanisms to provide more accurate,fine-grained and efficient trust management for the electronic community.We extract trust-related information from user-generated content and community context from Web to extend reputation-based trust models. We introduce role-based and behavior-based reasoning functionalities to infer users'i nterests and category-specific trust relationships.Following the study in sociology, RCCtrust exploits similarities between pairs of users to depict difierentiated trust scales.The experimental results show that RCCtrust outperforin8 pure user similarity method and linear decay trust-aware technique in both accuracy and coverage for a Recommender System.

  10. Modeling electron fractionalization with unconventional Fock spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanera, Emilio

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that certain fractionally-charged quasiparticles can be modeled on D-dimensional lattices in terms of unconventional yet simple Fock algebras of creation and annihilation operators. These unconventional Fock algebras are derived from the usual fermionic algebra by taking roots (the square root, cubic root, etc) of the usual fermionic creation and annihilation operators. If the fermions carry non-Abelian charges, then this approach fractionalizes the Abelian charges only. In particular, the mth-root of a spinful fermion carries charge e/m and spin 1/2. Just like taking a root of a complex number, taking a root of a fermion yields a mildly non-unique result. As a consequence, there are several possible choices of quantum exchange statistics for fermion-root quasiparticles. These choices are tied to the dimensionality D=1,2,3,\\ldots of the lattice by basic physical considerations. One particular family of fermion-root quasiparticles is directly connected to the parafermion zero-energy modes expected to emerge in certain mesoscopic devices involving fractional quantum Hall states. Hence, as an application of potential mesoscopic interest, I investigate numerically the hybridization of Majorana and parafermion zero-energy edge modes caused by fractionalizing but charge-conserving tunneling.

  11. Peculiarities of designing Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpos– the aim ok this paper is to develop a Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model which could ensure the efficient integration of electronic government services in the local self-government level.Methodolog– the following analyses have been carried out in thirkpaper: theoretical-systematic; normative and conceptual comparative analysis of the researcha A method of modeling has also been applied.Finding– the scientific work analyzes the improvement opportunities of the models of electronic government services and their application alternatives in Lithuanian municipalities. The newly developed model of electronic government services that has been designed basng on the principle of integrating online expert consultation is primarily targeted at improvement of inside processes’ changes of an organization. Practicing the application of that model in the local self-government level starting with improvement of inside processes of an organization should help adapt more accurately and efficiently to the changing needs of the society while providing electronic government services, thus establishing a higher public value.Practical implication– the practical novelty of work is reflected not only through the integration opportunities’ assessment of the principle of online expert consultation services into the theoretical models of electronic government services that have already been developed by the scientists, but also on the basis of this principle there has been created a “Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model” in accordance with “E-Diamond” model basis and its practical application realization with the design of “The project of implementing the principle of online expert consultation on the model of electronic government services” for the future investigations.Originalit– the systematic, comparative analysis of the models of electronic government services carried out in the scientific

  12. Dynamic pricing models for electronic business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Narahari; C V L Raju; K Ravikumar; Sourabh Shah

    2005-04-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending upon the value these customers attribute to a product or service. Today’s digital economy is ready for dynamic pricing; however recent research has shown that the prices will have to be adjusted in fairly sophisticated ways, based on sound mathematical models, to derive the benefits of dynamic pricing. This article attempts to survey different models that have been used in dynamic pricing. We first motivate dynamic pricing and present underlying concepts, with several examples, and explain conditions under which dynamic pricing is likely to succeed. We then bring out the role of models in computing dynamic prices. The models surveyed include inventory-based models, data-driven models, auctions, and machine learning. We present a detailed example of an e-business market to show the use of reinforcement learning in dynamic pricing.

  13. Modeling nitrogen plasmas produced by intense electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, J. R.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.; Hinshelwood, D. D. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P. F. [Independent contractors for NRL through Engility, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia 22314 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    A new gas–chemistry model is presented to treat the breakdown of a nitrogen gas with pressures on the order of 1 Torr from intense electron beams with current densities on the order of 10 kA/cm{sup 2} and pulse durations on the order of 100 ns. For these parameter regimes, the gas transitions from a weakly ionized molecular state to a strongly ionized atomic state on the time scale of the beam pulse. The model is coupled to a 0D–circuit model using the rigid–beam approximation that can be driven by specifying the time and spatial profiles of the beam pulse. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the line–integrated electron density from experiments done using the Gamble II generator at the Naval Research Laboratory. It is found that the species are mostly in the ground and metastable states during the atomic phase, but that ionization proceeds predominantly through thermal ionization of optically allowed states with excitation energies close to the ionization limit.

  14. Teaching Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Power Electronics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of behavioral modeling of switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The methodology is oriented toward electrical engineering (EE) students at the undergraduate level, enrolled in courses such as "Power…

  15. Electron thermal transport barriers in RTP: experiment and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilham, A.M.R.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Cardozo, N. J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments in which very localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is scanned through the RTP plasma show sharp transitions, in which the electron temperature profile abruptly changes shape. The phenomenology-the profiles shapes, the sharp transitions-can be reproduced with a transport model which

  16. Temperature dependence of electronic heat capacity in Holstein model

    CERN Document Server

    Fialko, N S; Lakhno, V D

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of charge migration was modeled to calculate temperature dependencies of its thermodynamic equilibrium values such as energy and electronic heat capacity in homogeneous adenine fragments. The energy varies from nearly polaron one at T~0 to midpoint of the conductivity band at high temperatures. The peak on the graph of electronic heat capacity is observed at the polaron decay temperature.

  17. Teaching Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Power Electronics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of behavioral modeling of switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The methodology is oriented toward electrical engineering (EE) students at the undergraduate level, enrolled in courses such as "Power…

  18. Problem Resolution through Electronic Mail: A Five-Step Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgenett, Neal; Grandgenett, Don

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of electronic mail within the general resolution and management of administrative problems and emphasizes the need for careful attention to problem definition and clarity of language. Presents a research-based five-step model for the effective use of electronic mail based on experiences at the University of Nebraska at Omaha.…

  19. Modeling clicks beyond the first result page

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most modern web search engines yield a list of documents of a fixed length (usually 10) in response to a user query. The next ten search results are usually available in one click. These documents either replace the current result page or are appended to the end. Hence, in order to examine more

  20. Modeling clicks beyond the first result page

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most modern web search engines yield a list of documents of a fixed length (usually 10) in response to a user query. The next ten search results are usually available in one click. These documents either replace the current result page or are appended to the end. Hence, in order to examine more docu

  1. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angioni, C

    2001-10-01

    Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code

  2. Harmonic analysis of total electron contents time series: methodology and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri-Simkooei, A.R.; Asgari, J.

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to model regular variations of the ionosphere, the least-squares harmonic estimation is applied to the time series of the total electron contents (TEC) provided by the JPL analysis center. Multivariate and modulated harmonic estimation spectra are introduced and estimated for the serie

  3. Structure analysis of large argon clusters from gas-phase electron diffraction data: some recent results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, van de B.W.

    1999-01-01

    An up-to-date overview of recent developments in the structure elucidation of large ArN-clusters (103electron diffraction data, is given. Although a satisfactory model for N3000 had been found in 1996, the size range beyond N10,000 presents new and unexpected problems. T

  4. Blocking layer modeling for temperature analysis of electron transfer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blocking layer modeling for temperature analysis of electron transfer rate in quantum dot sensitized solar cells. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... of the quantum dots and free energy of system and finally the Marcus equation.

  5. Electronic Modeling and Design for Extreme Temperatures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing CAD tools, models and methodologies for electronics design for circuit operation in extreme environments with focus on very low temperatures...

  6. Engineering model development and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, John A.

    1993-08-01

    The correctability of the primary mirror spherical error in the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC) is sensitive to the precise alignment of the incoming aberrated beam onto the corrective elements. Articulating fold mirrors that provide +/- 1 milliradian of tilt in 2 axes are required to allow for alignment corrections in orbit as part of the fix for the Hubble space telescope. An engineering study was made by Itek Optical Systems and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to investigate replacement of fixed fold mirrors within the existing WF/PC optical bench with articulating mirrors. The study contract developed the base line requirements, established the suitability of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) actuators and evaluated several tilt mechanism concepts. Two engineering model articulating mirrors were produced to demonstrate the function of the tilt mechanism to provide +/- 1 milliradian of tilt, packaging within the space constraints and manufacturing techniques including the machining of the invar tilt mechanism and lightweight glass mirrors. The success of the engineering models led to the follow on design and fabrication of 3 flight mirrors that have been incorporated into the WF/PC to be placed into the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the servicing mission scheduled for late 1993.

  7. Final Report for "Modeling Electron Cloud Diagnostics for High-Intensity Proton Accelerators"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth A Veitzer

    2009-09-25

    Electron clouds in accelerators such as the ILC degrade beam quality and limit operating efficiency. The need to mitigate electron clouds has a direct impact on the design and operation of these accelerators, translating into increased cost and reduced performance. Diagnostic techniques for measuring electron clouds in accelerating cavities are needed to provide an assessment of electron cloud evolution and mitigation. Accurate numerical modeling of these diagnostics is needed to validate the experimental techniques. In this Phase I, we developed detailed numerical models of microwave propagation through electron clouds in accelerating cavities with geometries relevant to existing and future high-intensity proton accelerators such as Project X and the ILC. Our numerical techniques and simulation results from the Phase I showed that there was a high probability of success in measuring both the evolution of electron clouds and the effects of non-uniform electron density distributions in Phase II.

  8. Modelling and implementing electronic health records in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Knut; Rasmussen, Morten Bruun; Vingtoft, Søren;

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Health IT strategy points out that integration between electronic health records (EHR) systems has a high priority. This paper reporst reports new tendencies in modelling and integration platforms globally and how this is reflected in the natinal development.......The Danish Health IT strategy points out that integration between electronic health records (EHR) systems has a high priority. This paper reporst reports new tendencies in modelling and integration platforms globally and how this is reflected in the natinal development....

  9. Modelling and implementing electronic health records in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Knut; Rasmussen, Morten Bruun; Vingtoft, Søren

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Health IT strategy points out that integration between electronic health records (EHR) systems has a high priority. This paper reporst reports new tendencies in modelling and integration platforms globally and how this is reflected in the natinal development.......The Danish Health IT strategy points out that integration between electronic health records (EHR) systems has a high priority. This paper reporst reports new tendencies in modelling and integration platforms globally and how this is reflected in the natinal development....

  10. Peculiarities of designing Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tadas Limba

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – the aim ok this paper is to develop a Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model which could ensure the efficient integration of electronic government services in the local self-government level. Methodology - the following analyses have been carried out in thirkpaper: theoretical-systematic; normative and conceptual comparative analysis of the researcha A method of modeling has also been applied. Finding – the scientific work analyzes the improvement opportunities of...

  11. Modeling Electronic Circular Dichroism within the Polarizable Embedding Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Morten S; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Steinmann, Casper

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the key components needed to model single chromophore electronic circular dichroism (ECD) within the polarizable embedding (PE) approach. By relying on accurate forms of the embedding potential, where especially the inclusion of local field effects...... sampling. We show that a significant number of snapshots are needed to avoid artifacts in the calculated electronic circular dichroism parameters due to insufficient configurational sampling, thus highlighting the efficiency of the PE model....

  12. Microplasticity of MMC. Experimental results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, E. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Lormand, G. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Gobin, P.F. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Fougeres, R. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France))

    1993-11-01

    The microplastic behavior of several MMC is investigated by means of tension and compression tests. This behavior is assymetric : the proportional limit is higher in tension than in compression but the work hardening rate is higher in compression. These differences are analysed in terms of maxium of the Tresca's shear stress at the interface (proportional limit) and of the emission of dislocation loops during the cooling (work hardening rate). On another hand, a model is proposed to calculate the value of the yield stress, describing the composite as a material composed of three phases : inclusion, unaffected matrix and matrix surrounding the inclusion having a gradient in the density of the thermally induced dilocations. (orig.).

  13. Observation results of relativistic electrons detected by Fengyun-1 satellite and analysis of relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The space particle component detector on Fengyun-1 satellite which works at the sun-synchronous orbit of about 870 km altitude has detected relativistic electrons for a long time. In comparison with the SAMPEX satellite observations during 1999 -2004, the relativistic electron data from Fengyun-1 satellite from June 1999 to 2005 are used to analyze the relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events at the low earth orbit, and the possible correlation among REE events at the low earth orbit, high-speed solar wind and geomagnetic storms is discussed. The statistical result presents that 45 REE events are found in total during this time period, and the strong REE events with the maximum daily average flux > 400 cm?2·sr?1·s?1 occur mostly during the transition period from solar maximum to solar minimum. Among these 45 REE events, four strong REE events last a longer time period from 26- to 51-day and correlate closely with high speed solar wind and strong geo- magnetic storms. Meanwhile, several strong geomagnetic storms occur continu- ously before these REE events, and these continuous geomagnetic storms would be an important factor causing these long-lasting strong REE events. The correlation analysis for overall 45 events indicates that the strength of the REE events corre- lates with the solar wind speed and the strength of the geomagnetic storm, and the correlation for strong REE events is much stronger than that for weak REE events.

  14. Consistent multi-internal-temperature models for vibrational and electronic nonequilibrium in hypersonic nitrogen plasma flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, Aurélien, E-mail: aurelien.guy@onera.fr; Bourdon, Anne, E-mail: anne.bourdon@lpp.polytechnique.fr; Perrin, Marie-Yvonne, E-mail: marie-yvonne.perrin@ecp.fr [CNRS, UPR 288, Laboratoire d' Énergétique Moléculaire et Macroscopique, Combustion (EM2C), Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry (France)

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a state-to-state vibrational and electronic collisional model is developed to investigate nonequilibrium phenomena behind a shock wave in an ionized nitrogen flow. In the ionization dynamics behind the shock wave, the electron energy budget is of key importance and it is found that the main depletion term corresponds to the electronic excitation of N atoms, and conversely the major creation terms are the electron-vibration term at the beginning, then replaced by the electron ions elastic exchange term. Based on these results, a macroscopic multi-internal-temperature model for the vibration of N{sub 2} and the electronic levels of N atoms is derived with several groups of vibrational levels of N{sub 2} and electronic levels of N with their own internal temperatures to model the shape of the vibrational distribution of N{sub 2} and of the electronic excitation of N, respectively. In this model, energy and chemistry source terms are calculated self-consistently from the rate coefficients of the state-to-state database. For the shock wave condition studied, a good agreement is observed on the ionization dynamics as well as on the atomic bound-bound radiation between the state-to-state model and the macroscopic multi-internal temperature model with only one group of vibrational levels of N{sub 2} and two groups of electronic levels of N.

  15. Modelling low energy electron interactions for biomedical uses of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, M; Garcia, G [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Munoz, A; Oller, J C [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Complutense s.n., 28040 Madrid (Spain); Limao-Vieira, P [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Huerga, C; Tellez, M [Hospital Universitario La Paz, paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Hubin-Fraskin, M J [Department of Chemistry, University of Liege, 4000 Liege 1 (Belgium); Nixon, K; Brunger, M, E-mail: g.garcia@imaff.cfmac.csic.e [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Current radiation based medical applications in the field of radiotherapy, radio-diagnostic and radiation protection require modelling single particle interactions at the molecular level. Due to their relevance in radiation damage to biological systems, special attention should be paid to include the effect of low energy secondary electrons. In this study we present a single track simulation procedure for photons and electrons which is based on reliable experimental and theoretical cross section data and the energy loss distribution functions derived from our experiments. The effect of including secondary electron interactions in this model will be discussed.

  16. Modeling Deterministic Chaos Using Electronic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gotthans

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a note on systematic circuit synthesis methods for modeling the dynamical systems given by mathematical model. Both classical synthesis and integrator based method is demonstrated via the relatively complicated real physical systems with possible chaotic solution. A variety of the different active building blocks are utilized to make the final circuits as simple as possible while preserving easily measurable voltage-mode state variables. Brief experimental verification, i.e. oscilloscope screenshots, is presented. The observed attractors have some structural stability and good relationship to their numerically integrated counterparts.

  17. First results with the yin-yang type electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, P. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (JYFL), P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)]. E-mail: pekka.suominen@gmail.com; Ropponen, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (JYFL), P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2007-08-01

    Highly charged heavy-ion beams are often produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). The so-called conventional minimum-B ECRIS design includes two solenoid magnets and a multipole magnet (usually a hexapole). A minimum-B configuration can also be formed with 'yin-yang' ('baseball') type coils. Such a magnetic field configuration has been extensively tested in magnetic fusion experiments but not for the production of highly charged heavy ions. The application of the afore-mentioned coil structure to the production of multiply charged ion beams was studied. In this paper we present a design of a yin-yang type ion source known as the ARC-ECRIS and some preliminary experimental results. As a result of this work it was found that the ARC-ECRIS plasma is stable and capable of producing multiply charged ions. Many compromises were made in order to keep the costs of the prototype low. As a consequence, significant improvement can be expected in performance if the plasma size is increased and magnetic confinement is improved. At the end of this article an evolution model of the ARC-ECRIS and some future prospects are presented.

  18. Inclusive results for electron and photon scattering in the resonance region

    CERN Document Server

    Buss, O; Mosel, U; Alvarez-Ruso, L

    2008-01-01

    We present a model for electron scattering off nuclei and photon absorption in the resonance energy region (W <= 2 GeV). The elementary gamma/gamma* N-vertex is described using in-medium kinematics and up-to-date form factors for QE-scattering, pion-production form-factors and resonance helicity amplitudes of the MAID analysis. We find good agreement with inclusive data on electron scattering off Oxygen. For photon absorption in Carbon we find a large impact of the momentum dependent mean-field acting on initial- and final-state baryons.

  19. 76 FR 10529 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Protection From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access AGENCY: Federal Aviation... systems and networks may result in security vulnerabilities to the airplane's systems. The applicable...

  20. 76 FR 36863 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Protection From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access AGENCY: Federal Aviation... result in security vulnerabilities to the airplane's systems. The applicable airworthiness regulations do...

  1. Computer modeling of electron and proton transport in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Alexander N; Vershubskii, Alexey V

    2014-07-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes in biosphere, which provides production of organic substances from atmospheric CO2 and water at expense of solar energy. In this review, we contemplate computer models of oxygenic photosynthesis in the context of feedback regulation of photosynthetic electron transport in chloroplasts, the energy-transducing organelles of the plant cell. We start with a brief overview of electron and proton transport processes in chloroplasts coupled to ATP synthesis and consider basic regulatory mechanisms of oxygenic photosynthesis. General approaches to computer simulation of photosynthetic processes are considered, including the random walk models of plastoquinone diffusion in thylakoid membranes and deterministic approach to modeling electron transport in chloroplasts based on the mass action law. Then we focus on a kinetic model of oxygenic photosynthesis that includes key stages of the linear electron transport, alternative pathways of electron transfer around photosystem I (PSI), transmembrane proton transport and ATP synthesis in chloroplasts. This model includes different regulatory processes: pH-dependent control of the intersystem electron transport, down-regulation of photosystem II (PSII) activity (non-photochemical quenching), the light-induced activation of the Bassham-Benson-Calvin (BBC) cycle. The model correctly describes pH-dependent feedback control of electron transport in chloroplasts and adequately reproduces a variety of experimental data on induction events observed under different experimental conditions in intact chloroplasts (variations of CO2 and O2 concentrations in atmosphere), including a complex kinetics of P700 (primary electron donor in PSI) photooxidation, CO2 consumption in the BBC cycle, and photorespiration. Finally, we describe diffusion-controlled photosynthetic processes in chloroplasts within the framework of the model that takes into account complex architecture of

  2. Modelling the cosmic ray electron propagation in M 51

    CERN Document Server

    Mulcahy, D D; Beck, R; Mitra, D; Scaife, A M M

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic ray electrons (CREs) are a crucial part of the ISM and are observed via synchrotron emission. While much modelling has been carried out on the CRE distribution and propagation of the Milky Way, little has been done on normal external star-forming galaxies. Recent spectral data from a new generation of radio telescopes enable us to find more robust estimations of the CRE propagation. We model the synchrotron spectral index of M 51 using the time-dependent diffusion energy-loss equation and to compare the model results with the observed spectral index determined from recent low-frequency observations with LOFAR. This is the first time that this model for CRE propagation has been solved for a realistic distribution of CRE sources, which we derive from the observed star formation rate, in an external galaxy. The radial variation of the synchrotron spectral index and scale-length produced by the model are compared to recent LOFAR and older VLA observational data and also to new observations of M 51 at 325MH...

  3. STEADY-STATE MODEL OF SOLAR WIND ELECTRONS REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-20

    In a recent paper, Kim et al. put forth a steady-state model for the solar wind electrons. The model assumed local equilibrium between the halo electrons, characterized by an intermediate energy range, and the whistler-range fluctuations. The basic wave–particle interaction is assumed to be the cyclotron resonance. Similarly, it was assumed that a dynamical steady state is established between the highly energetic superhalo electrons and high-frequency Langmuir fluctuations. Comparisons with the measured solar wind electron velocity distribution function (VDF) during quiet times were also made, and reasonable agreements were obtained. In such a model, however, only the steady-state solution for the Fokker–Planck type of electron particle kinetic equation was considered. The present paper complements the previous analysis by considering both the steady-state particle and wave kinetic equations. It is shown that the model halo and superhalo electron VDFs, as well as the assumed wave intensity spectra for the whistler and Langmuir fluctuations, approximately satisfy the quasi-linear wave kinetic equations in an approximate sense, thus further validating the local equilibrium model constructed in the paper by Kim et al.

  4. Simulation Results of a Feedback Control System to Damp Electron Cloud Single-Bunch Transverse Instabilities in the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Secondo, R; Venturini, M; Fox, J D; Rivetta, C H; Höfle, W

    2011-01-01

    Transverse Single-Bunch Instabilities due to Electron Cloud effect are limiting the operation at high current of the SPS at CERN. Recently a high-bandwidth Feedback System has been proposed as a possible solution to stabilize the beam and is currently under study. We analyze the dynamics of the bunch actively damped with a simple model of the Feedback in the macro-particle code WARP, in order to investigate the limitations of the System such as the minimum amount of power required to maintain stability. We discuss the feedback model, report on simulation results and present our plans for further development of the numerical model.

  5. Modeling of electron-electron collisions for particle-in-cell simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea, D. d' ; Munz, C.D.; Schneider, R.

    2006-09-15

    The modeling of the physics of pulsed plasma thrusters requires the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for rarefied plasma flows where continuum assumptions fail. To tackle this challenging task, a cooperation between several institutes has been formed with the goal to develop a hybrid code based on Particle-In-Cell and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo techniques. These development activities are bundled in the project ''Numerische Simulation und Auslegung eines instationaeren gepulsten magnetoplasmadynamischen Triebwerks fuer eine Mondsonde'' which is funded by the Landesstiftung Baden-Wuerttemberg within the subject area ''Modellierung und Simulation auf Hochleistungscomputern''. In the frame of this project, the IHM is in charge to develop suitable physical-mathematical and numerical models to include charged particle collisions into the simulation. which can significantly affect the Parameters of such plasma devices. The intention of the present report is to introduce the Fokker-Planck approach for electron-electron interaction in Standard charged particle simulations. where the impact Parameter is usually large resulting in a small deflection angle. The theoretical and applicative framework is discussed in detail paying particular attention to the Particle-In-Cell approach in velocity space. a new technique which allows the self-consistent computation of the friction and diffusion coefficients arising from the Fokker-Planck treatment of collisions. These velocity-dependent coefficients thernselves are responsible for the change in velocity of the simulation particles, which is determined by the numerical solution of a Langevin-type equation. Simulation results for typical numerical experiments computed with the new developed Fokker-Planck solver are presented. demonstrating the quality. property and reliability of the applied numerical methods. (orig.)

  6. A Model for an Electronic Information Marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ge

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available As the information content on the Internet increases, the task of locating desired information and assessing its quality becomes increasingly difficult. This development causes users to be more willing to pay for information that is focused on specific issues, verifiable, and available upon request. Thus, the nature of the Internet opens up the opportunity for information trading. In this context, the Internet cannot only be used to close the transaction, but also to deliver the product - desired information - to the user. Early attempts to implement such business models have fallen short of expectations. In this paper, we discuss the limitations of such practices and present a modified business model for information trading, which uses a reverse auction approach together with a multiple-buyer price discovery process

  7. Electronic Warfare in Army Models - A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Improvement Program (AMIP), Joint (Army, AF, Marines) EW Center, and SAGA (Studies, Analysis, and Gaming Agency) of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to identify an...Virginia, January, 1973. 5. Catalog of Wargaming and Military Simulation Models, 7th Edition, SAGA 180-77, Studies, Analysis, and Gaming Agency, Organization...snow/sleet. It can simulate nighttime with full moon and twilight , smoke and dust as they affect the target acquisition capability of an RPV-type device

  8. A kinetic model of the electron-beam-pumped XeCl laser active medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boichenko, A.M.; Derzhiev, V.I.; Zhidkov, A.G.; Iakovlenko, S.I. (Institut Obshchei Fiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-02-01

    Kinetic models are developed for XeCl laser active media in different buffer gases (helium, neon, and argon) pumped by an electron beam. In the calculations of the generation characteristics, allowance is made for the effect of the cavity field on the photoinduced transitions. The numerical results on the efficiency are in good agreement with experiments on electron beams. 17 refs.

  9. A simple model for atomic layer doped field-effect transistor (ALD-FET) electronic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora R, M.E. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Unidad Aguascalientes. Juan de Montoro 207, Zona Centro, 20000 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Gaggero S, L.M. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Av. Preparatoria 301, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    We propose a simple potential model based on the Thomas-Fermi approximation to reproduce the main properties of the electronic structure of an atomic layer doped field effect transistor. Preliminary numerical results for a Si-based ALD-FET justify why bound electronic states are not observed in the experiment. (Author)

  10. Runaway electrons from a ‘beam-bulk’ model of streamer: application to TGFs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Bonaventura, Z.; Cinar, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    -energy electrons and ions. For a negative streamer discharge, we show how electrons are accelerated in the large electric field in the tip of the streamer and travel ahead of the streamer where they ionize the gas. In comparison to the results obtained with a classical fluid model for a negative streamer, the beam...

  11. Recent results from HADES on electron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Galatyuk, T; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Díaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gil, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Morinière, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y V; Zhou, P

    2009-01-01

    Systematic investigations of dilepton production are performed at the SIS accelerator of GSI with the HADES spectrometer. The goal of this program is a detailed understanding of di-electron emission from hadronic systems at moderate temperatures and densities. New results obtained in HADES experiments focussing on electron pair production in elementary collisions are reported here. They pave the way to a better understanding of the origin of the so-called excess pairs earlier on observed in heavy-ion collisions by the DLS collaboration and lately confirmed in two measurements of the HADES collaboration using C+C and Ar+KCl collisions. Results of these studies are discussed.

  12. Simulation and experimental results for the detection of conversion electrons with gas proportional scintillation counters

    CERN Document Server

    Rachinhas, P J B M; Lopes, J A M; Dias, T; Morgado, R E; Santos, J M; Stauffer, A D; Conde, C A N

    2000-01-01

    The application of gas proportional scintillation counters (GPSC) to the detection and identification of conversion electrons in the medium energy range is investigated. Experimental and Monte Carlo results are presented for the response of a xenon GPSC, filled at atmospheric pressure, to the decay of a sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd source. This source emits 88.0 keV gamma-rays, e sub L =84.6 keV and e sub K =62.5 keV conversion electrons, as well as fluorescence X-rays and Auger electrons. Good agreement is found between the measured and the calculated energy spectra. The response to higher-energy electrons is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, by considering a hypothetical GPSC filled with xenon at 10 atm and doped with the sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 sup m Xe metastable isotope. The calculated energy spectra for the absorption of the sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 sup m Xe 233.2 keV gamma-rays, e sub K =198.6 keV and e sub L =228.4 keV conversion electrons, as well as fluorescence X-rays and Auger electrons, are presented and discus...

  13. Secondary electron emission from a charged spherical dust particle due to electron incidence according to OML model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Y., E-mail: tomita@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Huang, Z.H.; Pan, Y.D. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Kawamura, G. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Yan, L.W. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Effect of secondary electron emission (SEE) current to dust charging and influence to forces on a dust particle are studied according to the orbital motion limited (OML) model. As higher electron temperature increases the SEE current, the negative dust charge decreases. As a result, the ion friction force on the dust particle decreases. The critical electron temperatures without the dust charge are 75.1, 70.3 and 55.9 eV for graphite and are 31.3, 30.4 and 27.1 eV for tungsten to the temperature ratio T{sub i}/T{sub e} = 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0, respectively. At the critical electron temperature, there is no ion scattering force but the ion absorption force remains finite.

  14. Ferromagnetism in Electronic Models for Manganites

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Jose; Hallberg, Karen; Dagotto, Elbio

    1996-01-01

    Ground state properties of the Kondo model for manganese oxides in one dimension are studied using numerical techniques. The large Hund coupling ($J_{H}$) limit is specially analyzed. A robust region of fully saturated ferromagnetism (FM) is identified at all densities. For open boundary conditions it is shown exactly that the ground state is FM at $J_{H} = \\infty$. Hole-spin phase separation competing with FM was also observed when a large exchange $J$ between the $Mn^{3+}$ ions is used. As ...

  15. Improving high-altitude emp modeling capabilities by using a non-equilibrium electron swarm model to monitor conduction electron evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusateri, Elise Noel

    abruptly. The objective of the PhD research is to mitigate this effect by integrating a conduction electron model into CHAP-LA which can calculate the conduction current based on a non-equilibrium electron distribution. We propose to use an electron swarm model to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in the EMP environment which is characterized by electric field and pressure. Swarm theory uses various collision frequencies and reaction rates to study how the electron distribution and the resultant transport coefficients change with time, ultimately reaching an equilibrium distribution. Validation of the swarm model we develop is a necessary step for completion of the thesis work. After validation, the swarm model is integrated in the air chemistry model CHAP-LA employs for conduction electron simulations. We test high altitude EMP simulations with the swarm model option in the air chemistry model to show improvements in the computational capability of CHAP-LA. A swarm model has been developed that is based on a previous swarm model developed by Higgins, Longmire and O'Dell 1973, hereinafter HLO. The code used for the swarm model calculation solves a system of coupled differential equations for electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, including the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are recalculated and compared to the previously reported empirical results given by HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford 2005. BOLSIG+ utilizes updated electron scattering cross sections that are defined over an expanded energy range found in the atomic and molecular cross section database published by Phelps in the Phelps Database 2014 on the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. 2012. The swarm model is also updated from the original HLO model by including

  16. Modelling and Simulation of a Synchronous Machine with Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the modeling and simulation of a synchronous machine with a power electronic interface in direct phase model. The implementation of a direct phase model of synchronous machines in MATLAB/SIMULINK is presented .The power electronic system associated with the synchronous machine...... is modelled in SIMULINK as well. The resulting model can more accurately represent non-idea situations such as non-symmetrical parameters of the electrical machines and unbalance conditions. The model may be used for both steady state and large-signal dynamic analysis. This is particularly useful...

  17. Modelling and Simulation of a Synchronous Machine with Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the modeling and simulation of a synchronous machine with a power electronic interface in direct phase model. The implementation of a direct phase model of synchronous machines in MATLAB/SIMULINK is presented .The power electronic system associated with the synchronous machine...... is modelled in SIMULINK as well. The resulting model can more accurately represent non-idea situations such as non-symmetrical parameters of the electrical machines and unbalance conditions. The model may be used for both steady state and large-signal dynamic analysis. This is particularly useful...

  18. Stability of Microtearing Modes and the Resulting Electron Thermal Transport in Tokamak Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, T.; Weiland, J.; Luo, L.; Kritz, A.; Pankin, A.

    2016-10-01

    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to understand how MTMs affect transport, and, consequently, the evolution of electron temperature in tokamak discharges, a reduced transport model for MTMs was developed for use in integrated predictive modeling studies. A unified fluid/kinetic approach was used to derive the nonlinear dispersion relation in order to advance the kinetic description and to include the nonlinear effects due to magnetic fluctuations. The dependence of the MTM real frequency and growth rate on radial and poloidal mode numbers (ky) , electron beta, collisionality, safety factor, magnetic shear, density gradient, temperature gradient, and curvature is examined in a numerical study. The magnetic fluctuation amplitude saturation level is computed for each flux surface using the nonlinear MTMs envelope equation. This level depends upon the most unstable eigenvalue as well as on the sidebands in the ky spectrum. The magnetic fluctuation levels are then used to compute electron thermal transport that is due to the presence of the unstable microtearing modes. Research supported in part by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science.

  19. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  20. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently-coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I-V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical convergence

  1. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano-electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-06-01

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano-scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano-transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano-electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I- V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical

  2. Modeling the customer in electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, M G; Khalid, H M

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews interface design of web pages for e-commerce. Different tasks in e-commerce are contrasted. A systems model is used to illustrate the information flow between three subsystems in e-commerce: store environment, customer, and web technology. A customer makes several decisions: to enter the store, to navigate, to purchase, to pay, and to keep the merchandize. This artificial environment must be designed so that it can support customer decision-making. To retain customers it must be pleasing and fun, and create a task with natural flow. Customers have different needs, competence and motivation, which affect decision-making. It may therefore be important to customize the design of the e-store environment. Future ergonomics research will have to investigate perceptual aspects, such as presentation of merchandize, and cognitive issues, such as product search and navigation, as well as decision making while considering various economic parameters. Five theories on e-commerce research are presented.

  3. Observation results of relativistic electrons detected by Fengyun-1 satellite and analysis of relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoChao; WANG Shidin

    2008-01-01

    The space particle component detector on Fengyun-1 satellite which works at the sun-synchronous orbit of about 870 km altitude has detected relativistic electrons for a long time.In comparison with the SAMPEX satellite observations during 1999--2004,the relativistic electron data from Fengyun-1 satellite from June 1999 to 2005 are used to analyze the relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events at the low earth orbit,and the possible correlation among REE events at the low earth orbit,high-speed solar wind and geomagnetic storms is discussed.The statistical result presents that 45 REE events are found in total during this time period,and the strong REE events with the maximum daily average flux > 400 cm-2.sr-1.s-1 occur mostly during the transition period from solar maximum to solar minimum.Among these 45 REE events,four strong REE events last a longer time period from 26- to 51-day and correlate closely with high speed solar wind and strong geo-magnetic storms.Meanwhile,several strong geomagnetic storms occur continu-ously before these REE events,and these continuous geomagnetic storms would be an important factor causing these long-lasting strong REE events.The correlation analysis for overall 45 events indicates that the strength of the REE events corre-lates with the solar wind speed and the strength of the geomagnetic storm,and the correlation for strong REE events is much stronger than that for weak REE events.

  4. Numerical modeling of electron-beam welding of dissimilar metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krektuleva, R. A.; Cherepanov, O. I.; Cherepanov, R. O.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is devoted to numerical modeling of heat transfer processes and estimation of thermal stresses in weld seams created by electron beam welding of heterogeneous metals. The mathematical model is based on a system of equations that includes the Lagrange's variational equation of theory of plasticity and variational equation of M. Biot's principle to simulate the heat transfer processes. The two-dimensional problems (plane strain and plane stress) are considered for estimation of thermal stresses in welds considering differences of mechanical properties of welded materials. The model is developed for simulation of temperature fields and stresses during electron beam welding.

  5. Modified binary encounter Bethe model for electron-impact ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, M; Indelicato, P; Santos, J P

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical expressions for ionization cross sections by electron impact based on the binary encounter Bethe (BEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, are proposed. The new modified BEB (MBEB) and its relativistic counterpart (MRBEB) expressions are simpler than the BEB (nonrelativistic and relativistic) expressions because they require only one atomic parameter, namely the binding energy of the electrons to be ionized, and use only one scaling term for the ionization of all sub-shells. The new models are used to calculate the K-, L- and M-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for several atoms with Z from 6 to 83. Comparisons with all, to the best of our knowledge, available experimental data show that this model is as good or better than other models, with less complexity.

  6. A conceptual model for assessing the impact of electronic procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Luitzen; Harink, Jeroen; Heijboer, Govert

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the development of a conceptual model for studying the direct and indirect impact of various forms of electronic procurement (EP) on a firm's integral purchasing (-related) costs. The model builds on existing classifications of purchasing-related costs and benefits a

  7. Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, J.G.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Volokhine, I.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for

  8. Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, J.G.; Slot, van der P.J.M.; Volokhine, I.V.; Verschuur, J.W.J.; Boller, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for exam

  9. Determination of the electronic structure of bilayer graphene from infrared spectroscopy results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L. M.; Li, Z. Q.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.; Hao, Z.; Martin, Michael C.

    2008-11-12

    We present an experimental study of the infrared conductivity, transmission, and reflection of a gated bilayer graphene and their theoretical analysis within the Slonczewski-Weiss-McClure (SWMc) model. The infrared response is shown to be governed by the interplay of the interband and the intraband transitions among the four bands of the bilayer. The position of the main conductivity peak at thecharge-neutrality point is determined by the interlayer tunneling frequency. The shift of this peak as a function of the gate voltage gives information about less known parameters of the SWMc model such as those responsible for the electron-hole and sublattice asymmetries. These parameter values are shown to be consistent with recent electronic structure calculations for the bilayer graphene and the SWMc parameters commonly used for the bulk graphite.

  10. Empirical model for electron impact ionization cross sections of neutral atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukder, M.R.; Bose, S. [Rajshahi Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronic Engineering (Bangladesh); Patoary, M.A.R.; Haque, A.K.F.; Uddin, M.A.; Basak, A.K. [Rajshahi Univ., Dept. of Physics (Bangladesh); Kando, M. [Shizuoka Univ., Graduate School of Electronic Science and Technology (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    A simple empirical formula is proposed for the rapid calculation of electron impact total ionization cross sections both for the open- and closed-shell neutral atoms considered in the range 1 {<=} Z {<=} 92 and the incident electron energies from threshold to about 10{sup 4} eV. The results of the present analysis are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. The proposed model provides a fast method for calculating fairly accurate electron impact total ionization cross sections of atoms. This model may be a prudent choice, for the practitioners in the field of applied sciences e.g. in plasma modeling, due to its simple inherent structure. (authors)

  11. Impact of Electronic Teaching Materials on Process of Education--Results of an Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhorec, Ján; Hašková, Alena; Munk, Michal

    2010-01-01

    In their paper the authors deal with the vital issues of creation and application of electronic teaching materials for natural science subjects teaching. They describe an experimental examination of qualitative impact of these aids on education. The authors present a part of research results, which they obtained in a major research focused on…

  12. First principles results of structural and electronic properties of ZnS clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D L Lalsare; Anjali Kshirsagar

    2012-12-01

    We present results of the study of ZnS (1 ≤ ≤ 9) clusters, using the density functional formalism and projector augmented wave method within the generalized gradient approximation. Along with the structural and electronic properties, nature of bonding and overall stability of clusters has been studied.

  13. BPM Electronics based on Compensated Diode Detectors – Results from development Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gasior, M; Steinhagen, RJ

    2012-01-01

    High resolution beam position monitor (BPM) electronics based on diode peak detectors is being developed for processing signals from button BPMs embedded into future LHC collimators. Its prototypes were measured in a laboratory as well as with beam signals from the collimator BPM installed on the SPS and with LHC BPMs. Results from these measurements are presented and discussed.

  14. Molecular modeling of inelastic electron transport in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Kula, Mathias; Luo, Yi

    2008-09-01

    A quantum chemical approach for the modeling of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of molecular junctions based on scattering theory is presented. Within a harmonic approximation, the proposed method allows us to calculate the electron-vibration coupling strength analytically, which makes it applicable to many different systems. The calculated inelastic electron transport spectra are often in very good agreement with their experimental counterparts, allowing the revelation of detailed information about molecular conformations inside the junction, molecule-metal contact structures, and intermolecular interaction that is largely inaccessible experimentally.

  15. Molecular modeling of inelastic electron transport in molecular junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Jun; Kula, Mathias; Luo Yi [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: luo@kth.se

    2008-09-17

    A quantum chemical approach for the modeling of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of molecular junctions based on scattering theory is presented. Within a harmonic approximation, the proposed method allows us to calculate the electron-vibration coupling strength analytically, which makes it applicable to many different systems. The calculated inelastic electron transport spectra are often in very good agreement with their experimental counterparts, allowing the revelation of detailed information about molecular conformations inside the junction, molecule-metal contact structures, and intermolecular interaction that is largely inaccessible experimentally.

  16. Two-parametric model of electron beam in computational dosimetry for radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazurik, V. M.; Lazurik, V. T.; Popov, G.; Zimek, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Computer simulation of irradiation process of various materials with electron beam (EB) can be applied to correct and control the performances of radiation processing installations. Electron beam energy measurements methods are described in the international standards. The obtained results of measurements can be extended by implementation computational dosimetry. Authors have developed the computational method for determination of EB energy on the base of two-parametric fitting of semi-empirical model for the depth dose distribution initiated by mono-energetic electron beam. The analysis of number experiments show that described method can effectively consider random displacements arising from the use of aluminum wedge with a continuous strip of dosimetric film and minimize the magnitude uncertainty value of the electron energy evaluation, calculated from the experimental data. Two-parametric fitting method is proposed for determination of the electron beam model parameters. These model parameters are as follow: E0 - energy mono-energetic and mono-directional electron source, X0 - the thickness of the aluminum layer, located in front of irradiated object. That allows obtain baseline data related to the characteristic of the electron beam, which can be later on applied for computer modeling of the irradiation process. Model parameters which are defined in the international standards (like Ep- the most probably energy and Rp - practical range) can be linked with characteristics of two-parametric model (E0, X0), which allows to simulate the electron irradiation process. The obtained data from semi-empirical model were checked together with the set of experimental results. The proposed two-parametric model for electron beam energy evaluation and estimation of accuracy for computational dosimetry methods on the base of developed model are discussed.

  17. The MICROSCOPE Inertial sensors and their flight models electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, Pierre; Boulanger, Damien; Liorzou, Françoise

    2012-07-01

    Dedicated space inertial sensors have been developed for the payload of the MICROSCOPE mission which scientific objective is the test of the universality of free fall at level better than 10-15. This accuracy requires the operation of four inertial sensors on board a specific drag-free satellite, exhibiting resolution of better than 1 femto-g for data integrating period over 20 orbits. Such an outstanding resolution requires the fine electrostatic servo-control of each sensor test mass motion, free of any perturbation along its six degrees of freedom. In addition to a very accurate geometrical sensor core, highly performing electronics architecture is necessary to provide the measurement of the weak electrostatic forces and torques applied to the mass. Capacitive sensing provides the linear and attitude motion of the mass with respect to gold coated electrodes silica parts. Charges are controlled on the electrodes all around the mass to generate adequate electrical field and so electrostatic pressures in order to maintain the mass motionless with respect to the instrument structure. Digital control laws are implemented to deal with both the instrument operation flexibility and the preservation of the weak position sensor noise. The flight model electronics units have been produced and tested. All characteristics have been verified as well as the thermal sensitivities. Description of these units and test results are presented in the paper. These electronics provide not only the scientific data for the General Relativity test but also the data for the satellite orbit and attitude control. The satellite is now under production for a launch in 2016.

  18. A proposed model of e-trust for electronic banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Yousefi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customer’s trust is the most important and one of the key factors of success in e-commerce. However, trust is the essential aspects of e-banking adoption and the main element for building long-term relationships with the bank's customers. So the purpose of this research is to investigate the factors influencing on customer′s trust in e-banking services and prioritize them. Therefore, designed questionnaire was distributed among 177 electronic service customers in number of banks in the city of Karaj, Iran. Likert quintuplet scales were used to measure the variables. After collecting the questionnaires, the data were analyzed by structural equation modeling (by using LISREL 8.5. The results revealed that quality of electronic services such as ease of use, privacy and security, individual characteristics of customers such as disposition to trust and features of bank such as reputation, size and dependence on government, have had the greatest effect on customer′s trust in e-banking services.

  19. Enhanced reliability of drift-diffusion approximation for electrons in fluid models for nonthermal plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Becker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Common fluid models used for the description of electron transport in nonthermal discharge plasmas are subject to substantial restrictions if the electron energy transport significantly influences the discharge behaviour. A drift-diffusion approach is presented which is based on a multiterm approximation of the electron velocity distribution function and overcomes some of these restrictions. It is validated using a benchmark model and applied for the analysis of argon discharge plasmas at low and atmospheric pressure. The results are compared to those of common drift-diffusion models as well as to experimental data. It is pointed out that fluid models are able to describe nonlocal phenomena caused by electron energy transport, if the energy transport is consistently described. Numerical difficulties that frequently occur when the conventional drift-diffusion model is consistently applied are avoided by the proposed method.

  20. An extended model for electron spin polarization in photosynthetic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, A.L.; Norris, J.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Thurnauer, M.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a general model for electron spin polarization which includes contributions from both CIDEP (chemically induced dynamic electron polarization) and CRP (correlated radical polarization). In this paper, we apply this model to sequential electron transfer in photosynthetic bacteria. Our model calculates the density matrix for the P{sup +}I{sup {minus}} radical pair and transfers the polarization as it develops to the P{sup +}Q{sup {minus}} radical pair. We illustrate several possible cases. One case is equivalent to CIDEP; no interactions are included on the secondary radical pair, P{sup +}Q{sup {minus}}. Another approximates CRPP by either increasing the transfer rate from P{sup +}I{sup {minus}} to P{sup +}Q{sup {minus}} or restricting interactions to the secondary radical pair, P{sup +}Q{sup {minus}}. Others allow interactions on both the primary and secondary radical pairs with various transfer rates. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Single-sphere model for solvent reorganization energy and its application to electron transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the authors give detailed deductions and develop the single-sphere model of solvent reorganization energy in electron transfer with point dipole approximation. At the level of DFT/6- 31++G**, the electron transfer between 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane and its anion has been investigated. Using the novel single-sphere model, the authors evaluate the solvent reorganization energy of this system, and the computational result proves rational in comparison with the experimental estimations.

  2. Monte Carlo modeling of cavity imaging in pure iron using back-scatter electron scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Gigax, Jonathan; Chen, Di; Garner, F. A.; Shao, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Backscattered electrons (BSE) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) can produce images of subsurface cavity distributions as a nondestructive characterization technique. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to understand the mechanism of void imaging and to identify key parameters in optimizing void resolution. The modeling explores an iron target of different thicknesses, electron beams of different energies, beam sizes, and scan pitch, evaluated for voids of different sizes and depths below the surface. The results show that the void image contrast is primarily caused by discontinuity of energy spectra of backscattered electrons, due to increased outward path lengths for those electrons which penetrate voids and are backscattered at deeper depths. Size resolution of voids at specific depths, and maximum detection depth of specific voids sizes are derived as a function of electron beam energy. The results are important for image optimization and data extraction.

  3. Model Checking Electronic Commerce Security Protocols Based on CTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO De-qin; ZHANG Huan-guo

    2005-01-01

    We present a model based on Computational Temporal Logic (CTL) methods for verifying security requirements of electronic commerce protocols. The model describes formally the authentication, confidentiality integrity,non-repudiation, denial of service and access control of the electronic commerce protocols. We illustrate as case study a variant of the Lu-Smolka protocol proposed by Lu-Smolka.Moreover, we have discovered two attacks that allow a dishonest user to purchase a good debiting the amount to another user. And also, we compared our work with relative research works and found that the formal way of this paper is more general to specify security protocols for E-Commerce.

  4. Major results of the electron cyclotron heating experiment in the PDX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsuan, H.; Bol, K.; Bowen, N.; Boyd, D.; Cavallo, A.; Dimits, A.; Doane, J.; Elder, G.; Goldman, M.; Grek, B.

    1984-07-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) experiments on PDX have been carried out with two 60 GHz pulsed gyrotrons each yielding up to approximately 100 kW. The ECH system used two waveguide runs each about 30 meters long. One run included 5 bends and the other, 7 bends. Predetermined waveguide modes were transmitted. The electron cyclotron waves were launched in narrow beams from both the high field and the low field sides of the plasma torus. The major new physics results are: (1) efficient central electron heating for both ohmic and neutral beam heated target plasmas; (2) alteration of MHD behavior using ECH; (3) identification of the trapped electron population with ECH; and (4) signature of velocity-space time evolution during ECH. In the best heating results obtained, Thomson scattering data indicated a central temperature increase from less than or equal to 1.5 keV to greater than or equal to 2.5 keV. This occurred with an average density of about 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and approximately 80 kW outside-launch ordinary-mode heating.

  5. Electron-scale reduced fluid models with gyroviscous effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Tassi, E.

    2017-08-01

    Reduced fluid models for collisionless plasmas including electron inertia and finite Larmor radius corrections are derived for scales ranging from the ion to the electron gyroradii. Based either on pressure balance or on the incompressibility of the electron fluid, they respectively capture kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) or whistler waves (WWs), and can provide suitable tools for reconnection and turbulence studies. Both isothermal regimes and Landau fluid closures permitting anisotropic pressure fluctuations are considered. For small values of the electron beta parameter e$ , a perturbative computation of the gyroviscous force valid at scales comparable to the electron inertial length is performed at order e)$ , which requires second-order contributions in a scale expansion. Comparisons with kinetic theory are performed in the linear regime. The spectrum of transverse magnetic fluctuations for strong and weak turbulence energy cascades is also phenomenologically predicted for both types of waves. In the case of moderate ion to electron temperature ratio, a new regime of KAW turbulence at scales smaller than the electron inertial length is obtained, where the magnetic energy spectrum decays like \\bot -13/3$ , thus faster than the \\bot -11/3$ spectrum of WW turbulence.

  6. Secondary Electron Emission from Solid Hydrogen and Deuterium Resulting from Incidence of keV Electrons and Hydrogen Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.

    1977-01-01

    are small, in contrast to what is expected for insulating materials. One explanation is that the secondary electrons lose energy inside the target material by exciting vibrational and rotational states of the molecules, so that the number of electrons that may escape as secondary electrons is rather small....... The losses to molecular states will be largest for hydrogen, so that the SEE coefficients are smallest for solid hydrogen, as was observed. For the incidence of ions, the values of δ for the different molecular ions agree when the number of secondary electrons per incident atom is plotted versus the velocity...

  7. Neutrino-Electron Scattering and the Little Higgs Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Na; YUE Chong-Xing; LI Xu-Xin

    2011-01-01

    The neutrino-electron scattering process is sensitive to the standard model (SM) and the new physics beyond the SM.We calculate the corrections of the littlest Higgs model and the SU(3) simple group model to the vee scattering cross section.Using the LSND experimental measured values,we obtain the bounds on the relevant free parameters,which might be compatible with those from the electroweak precision data.Neutrino-electron scattering is a simple and purely leptonic weak interaction process that can play an important role to perform precision tests of the standard model (SM) and probe various kinds of new physics models beyond the SM.[1-3] Thus,this process provides an ideal tool for electroweak studies.%The neutrino-electron scattering process is sensitive to the standard model (SM) and the new physics beyond the SM. We calculate the corrections of the littlest Higgs model and the SU(3) simple group model to the vee scattering cross section. Using the LSND experimental measured values, we obtain the bounds on the relevant free parameters, which might be compatible with those from the electroweak precision data.

  8. A predictive standard model for heavy electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yifeng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Curro, N J [UC DAVIS; Fisk, Z [UC DAVIS; Pines, D [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01

    We propose a predictive standard model for heavy electron systems based on a detailed phenomenological two-fluid description of existing experimental data. It leads to a new phase diagram that replaces the Doniach picture, describes the emergent anomalous scaling behavior of the heavy electron (Kondo) liquid measured below the lattice coherence temperature, T*, seen by many different experimental probes, that marks the onset of collective hybridization, and enables one to obtain important information on quantum criticality and the superconducting/antiferromagnetic states at low temperatures. Because T* is {approx} J{sup 2} {rho}/2, the nearest neighbor RKKY interaction, a knowledge of the single-ion Kondo coupling, J, to the background conduction electron density of states, {rho}, makes it possible to predict Kondo liquid behavior, and to estimate its maximum superconducting transition temperature in both existing and newly discovered heavy electron families.

  9. RESULTS OF INTERBANK EXCHANGE RATES FORECASTING USING STATE SPACE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of three alternative models for forecasting daily interbank exchange rate of U.S. dollar measured in Pak rupees. The simple ARIMA models and complex models such as GARCH-type models and a state space model are discussed and compared. Four different measures are used to evaluate the forecasting accuracy. The main result is the state space model provides the best performance among all the models.

  10. Gyrokinetic modelling of stationary electron and impurity profiles in tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Skyman, Andreas; Tegnered, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Particle transport due to Ion Temperature Gradient/Trapped Electron (ITG/TE) mode turbulence is investigated using the gyrokinetic code GENE. Both a reduced quasilinear (QL) treatment and nonlinear (NL) simulations are performed for typical tokamak parameters corresponding to ITG dominated turbulence. A selfconsistent treatment is used, where the stationary local profiles are calculated corresponding to zero particle flux simultaneously for electrons and trace impurities. The scaling of the stationary profiles with magnetic shear, safety factor, electron-to-ion temperature ratio, collisionality, toroidal sheared rotation, triangularity, and elongation is investigated. In addition, the effect of different main ion mass on the zero flux condition is discussed. The electron density gradient can significantly affect the stationary impurity profile scaling. It is therefore expected, that a selfconsistent treatment will yield results more comparable to experimental results for parameter scans where the stationary b...

  11. Localized Electron Trap Modification as a Result of Space Weather Exposure in Highly Disordered Insulating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0064 TR-2017-0064 LOCALIZED ELECTRON TRAP MODIFICATION AS A RESULT OF SPACE WEATHER EXPOSURE IN HIGHLY DISORDERED... foreign nationals. Copies may be obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). AFRL-RV-PS-TR-2017-0064 HAS...AFRL Battlespace Environment Division This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange , and its

  12. Electronic market models for decision support systems on the Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢勇; 王红卫; 费奇

    2004-01-01

    With the prevalence of the Web, most decision-makers are likely to use the Web to support their decision-making. Web-based technologies are leading a major stream of researching decision support systems (DSS). We propose a formal definition and a conceptual framework for Web-based open DSS (WODSS). The formal definition gives an overall view of WODSS, and the conceptual framework based on browser/broker/server computing mode employs the electronic market to mediate decision-makers and providers, and facilitate sharing and reusing of decision resources. We also develop an admitting model, a trading model and a competing model of electronic market in WODSS based on market theory in economics. These models reveal the key mechanisms that drive WODSS operate efficiently.

  13. Understanding the management of electronic test result notifications in the outpatient setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Hardeep

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notifying clinicians about abnormal test results through electronic health record (EHR -based "alert" notifications may not always lead to timely follow-up of patients. We sought to understand barriers, facilitators, and potential interventions for safe and effective management of abnormal test result delivery via electronic alerts. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of six 6-8 member focus groups (N = 44 at two large, geographically dispersed Veterans Affairs facilities. Participants included full-time primary care providers, and personnel representing diagnostic services (radiology, laboratory and information technology. We asked participants to discuss barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving timely management and follow-up of abnormal test result notifications and encouraged them to consider technological issues, as well as broader, human-factor-related aspects of EHR use such as organizational, personnel, and workflow. Results Providers reported receiving a large number of alerts containing information unrelated to abnormal test results, many of which were believed to be unnecessary. Some providers also reported lacking proficiency in use of certain EHR features that would enable them to manage alerts more efficiently. Suggestions for improvement included improving display and tracking processes for critical alerts in the EHR, redesigning clinical workflow, and streamlining policies and procedures related to test result notification. Conclusion Providers perceive several challenges for fail-safe electronic communication and tracking of abnormal test results. A multi-dimensional approach that addresses technology as well as the many non-technological factors we elicited is essential to design interventions to reduce missed test results in EHRs.

  14. Electron percolation in realistic models of carbon nanotube networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Louis-Philippe; Villeneuve, Jérémie; Rochefort, Alain

    2015-09-01

    The influence of penetrable and curved carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the charge percolation in three-dimensional disordered CNT networks have been studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. By considering carbon nanotubes as solid objects but where the overlap between their electron cloud can be controlled, we observed that the structural characteristics of networks containing lower aspect ratio CNT are highly sensitive to the degree of penetration between crossed nanotubes. Following our efficient strategy to displace CNT to different positions to create more realistic statistical models, we conclude that the connectivity between objects increases with the hard-core/soft-shell radii ratio. In contrast, the presence of curved CNT in the random networks leads to an increasing percolation threshold and to a decreasing electrical conductivity at saturation. The waviness of CNT decreases the effective distance between the nanotube extremities, hence reducing their connectivity and degrading their electrical properties. We present the results of our simulation in terms of thickness of the CNT network from which simple structural parameters such as the volume fraction or the carbon nanotube density can be accurately evaluated with our more realistic models.

  15. Python framework for kinetic modeling of electronically excited reaction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboncoeur, John; Parsey, Guy; Guclu, Yaman; Christlieb, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    The use of plasma energy to enhance and control the chemical reactions during combustion, a technology referred to as ``plasma assisted combustion'' (PAC), can result in a variety of beneficial effects: e.g. stable lean operation, pollution reduction, and wider range of p-T operating conditions. While experimental evidence abounds, theoretical understanding of PAC is at best incomplete, and numerical tools still lack in reliable predictive capabilities. In the context of a joint experimental-numerical effort at Michigan State University, we present here an open-source modular Python framework dedicated to the dynamic optimization of non-equilibrium PAC systems. Multiple sources of experimental reaction data, e.g. reaction rates, cross-sections and oscillator strengths, are used in order to quantify the effect of data uncertainty and limiting assumptions. A collisional-radiative model (CRM) is implemented to organize reactions by importance and as a potential means of measuring a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), when coupled to optical emission spectroscopy data. Finally, we explore scaling laws in PAC parameter space using a kinetic global model (KGM) accelerated with CRM optimized reaction sequences and sparse stiff integrators.

  16. Fuse Modeling for Reliability Study of Power Electronics Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive modeling approach on reliability of fuses used in power electronic circuits. When fuses are subjected to current pulses, cyclic temperature stress is introduced to the fuse element and will wear out the component. Furthermore, the fuse may be used in a large...

  17. An Emerging Model for Student Feedback: Electronic Distributed Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunk-Chavez, Beth; Arrigucci, Annette

    2012-01-01

    In this article we address several issues and challenges that the evaluation of writing presents individual instructors and composition programs as a whole. We present electronic distributed evaluation, or EDE, as an emerging model for feedback on student writing and describe how it was integrated into our program's course redesign. Because the…

  18. Toward a generic model of trust for electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, YH; Thoen, W

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a generic model of trust for electronic commerce consisting of two basic components, party trust and control trust, based on the concept that trust in a transaction with another party combines trust in the other parry and trust in the control mechanisms that ensure the successful

  19. Fuse Modeling for Reliability Study of Power Electronics Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive modeling approach on reliability of fuses used in power electronic circuits. When fuses are subjected to current pulses, cyclic temperature stress is introduced to the fuse element and will wear out the component. Furthermore, the fuse may be used in a large...

  20. High power electronics package: from modeling to implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Kregting, R.; Ye, H.; Driel, W. van; Gielen, A.W.J.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Power electronics, such as high power RF components and high power LEDs, requires the combination of robust and reliable package structures, materials, and processes to guarantee their functional performance and lifetime. We started with the thermal and thermal-mechanical modeling of such component

  1. Dimers of Azurin as model systems for electron transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, Thyra Estrid de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of crosslinked complexes of the blue copper protein azurin by means of spectroscopic techniques such as Uv-Vis and NMR as well as by X-ray crystallography. These non-physiological dimers serve as model systems for interprotein electron transfer (ET) and allow

  2. Toward a generic model of trust for electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, YH; Thoen, W

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a generic model of trust for electronic commerce consisting of two basic components, party trust and control trust, based on the concept that trust in a transaction with another party combines trust in the other parry and trust in the control mechanisms that ensure the successful

  3. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  4. Optimization Model for Environmental Stress Screening of Electronic Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Environmental stress screening (ESS) is a technological process to reduce the costly early field failure ofelectronic components. This paper builds an optimization model for ESS of electronic components to obtain the optimalESS duration. The failure phenomena of ESS are modeled by mix ed distribution, and optimal ESS duration is definedby maximizing life-cycle cost savings under the condition of meeting reliability requirement.

  5. Model for nonlinear behavior in the self-amplified spontaneous-emission free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsky, S.

    2004-06-01

    We introduce a simplified model for the saturation of a self-amplified spontaneous-emission free-electron laser. Within this model, we determine the effect of nonlinearity upon the statistical properties of the output radiation. Comparing our results with the computer simulations of Saldin, Schneidmiller, and Yurkov [The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000)], we find that the model provides a good description of the average intensity, field correlation function, and coherence time, but underestimates the intensity fluctuation. Asymmetric spectral broadening phenomena are not included in the model.

  6. The Jupiter ONERA Electron (JOE) and Jupiter ONERA Proton (JOP) specification models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdarie, , S.; Sicard-Piet, A.

    2008-09-01

    The use of recent improvement in the understanding of the Jovian radiation belt structure has allowed to develop a more accurate engineering model of the Jovian electron and proton radiation belts. The basic idea was to combine the results of the Salammbô code when available (for proton and electron species) with the Divine and Garret model 1983 and/or with GIRE. The advantage of such an approach was that the resulting model is global in term of spatial and energy coverage, is optimised inside Europa orbit (the Divine and Garret model is not accurate inside Io orbit due to poor in-situ data there - note that inside Io is the region where ionizing radiation fluxes are maximum) and take advantage of the two models. The resulting JOE-JOP models will be presented, pro and cons will be listed and commented. Finally future plans to upgrade these models will be given.

  7. A new parametrizable model of molecular electronic structure

    CERN Document Server

    Laikov, Dimitri N

    2011-01-01

    A new electronic structure model is developed in which the ground state energy of a molecular system is given by a Hartree-Fock-like expression with parametrized one- and two-electron integrals over an extended (minimal + polarization) set of orthogonalized atom-centered basis functions, the variational equations being solved formally within the minimal basis but the effect of polarization functions being included in the spirit of second-order perturbation theory. It is designed to yield good dipole polarizabilities and improved intermolecular potentials with dispersion terms. The molecular integrals include up to three-center one-electron and two-center two-electron terms, all in simple analytical forms. A method to extract the effective one-electron Hamiltonian of nonlocal-exchange Kohn-Sham theory from the coupled-cluster one-electron density matrix is designed and used to get its matrix representation in a molecule-intrinsic minimal basis as an input to the paramtrization procedure -- making a direct link...

  8. Development of electron thermal transport model in DIII-D discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, T.; Pankin, A. Y.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A. H.; Halpern, F. D.; Callen, J. D.

    2008-11-01

    The electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas is investigated with predictive integrated modeling simulations using a choice of different electron thermal transport models. Two models for transport driven by Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) modes are considered: (1) the ETG part of the GLF23 transport model; and (2) the Horton model for the the electromagnetic part of the ETG anomalous transport [1]. These models are combined with the paleoclassical model [2] for electron thermal transport. ASTRA predictive simulation results obtained using these models are compared with one another and compared with experimental data from DIII-D H-mode discharges in an effort to discriminate among the models. It is found that the electromagnetic limit of the Horton model is important near the magnetic axis where the ETG mode in the GLF23 model is below threshold. The paleoclassical model is found to be needed to produce the observed edge pedestal in the DIII-D simulations. [1] W. Horton, B. G. Hong, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Fluids 31, 2971 (1988). [2] J. D. Callen, Nucl. Fusion 45, 1120 (2005).

  9. Non-Maxwellian electron distributions resulting from direct laser acceleration in near-critical plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Toncian, T; McCary, E; Meadows, A; Arefiev, A V; Blakeney, J; Serratto, K; Kuk, D; Chester, C; Roycroft, R; Gao, L; Fu, H; Yan, X Q; Schreiber, J; Pomerantz, I; Bernstein, A; Quevedo, H; Dyer, G; Ditmire, T; Hegelich, B M

    2015-01-01

    The irradiation of few nm thick targets by a finite-contrast high-intensity short-pulse laser results in a strong pre-expansion of these targets at the arrival time of the main pulse. The targets decompress to near and lower than critical densities plasmas extending over few micrometers, i.e. multiple wavelengths. The interaction of the main pulse with such a highly localized but inhomogeneous target leads to the generation of a short channel and further self-focusing of the laser beam. Experiments at the GHOST laser system at UT Austin using such targets measured non-Maxwellian, peaked electron distribution with large bunch charge and high electron density in the laser propagation direction. These results are reproduced in 2D PIC simulations using the EPOCH code, identifying Direct Laser Acceleration (DLA) as the responsible mechanism. This is the first time that DLA has been observed to produce peaked spectra as opposed to broad, maxwellian spectra observed in earlier experiments. This high-density electron...

  10. Band electron spectrum and thermodynamic properties of the pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ya.Farenyuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels is considered. Generalization of dynamic mean-field method for systems with correlated hopping was applied to the investigation of the model. Electron spectra, electron concentrations, average values of pseudospins and grand canonical potential were calculated within the alloy-analogy approximation. Electron spectrum and dependencies of the electron concentrations on chemical potential were obtained. It was shown that in the alloy-analogy approximation, the model possesses the first order phase transition to ferromagnetic state with the change of chemical potential and the second order phase transition with the change of temperature.

  11. Treatment of Electronic Energy Level Transition and Ionization Following the Particle-Based Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Lewis, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A new method of treating electronic energy level transitions as well as linking ionization to electronic energy levels is proposed following the particle-based chemistry model of Bird. Although the use of electronic energy levels and ionization reactions in DSMC are not new ideas, the current method of selecting what level to transition to, how to reproduce transition rates, and the linking of the electronic energy levels to ionization are, to the author s knowledge, novel concepts. The resulting equilibrium temperatures are shown to remain constant, and the electronic energy level distributions are shown to reproduce the Boltzmann distribution. The electronic energy level transition rates and ionization rates due to electron impacts are shown to reproduce theoretical and measured rates. The rates due to heavy particle impacts, while not as favorable as the electron impact rates, compare favorably to values from the literature. Thus, these new extensions to the particle-based chemistry model of Bird provide an accurate method for predicting electronic energy level transition and ionization rates in gases.

  12. Beyond frontier molecular orbital theory: a systematic electron transfer model (ETM) for polar bimolecular organic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Katharine J; Johnson, Richard P

    2013-03-01

    Polar bimolecular reactions often begin as charge-transfer complexes and may proceed with a high degree of electron transfer character. Frontier molecular orbital (FMO) theory is predicated in part on this concept. We have developed an electron transfer model (ETM) in which we systematically transfer one electron between reactants and then use density functional methods to model the resultant radical or radical ion intermediates. Sites of higher reactivity are revealed by a composite spin density map (SDM) of odd electron character on the electron density surface, assuming that a new two-electron bond would occur preferentially at these sites. ETM correctly predicts regio- and stereoselectivity for a broad array of reactions, including Diels-Alder, dipolar and ketene cycloadditions, Birch reduction, many types of nucleophilic additions, and electrophilic addition to aromatic rings and polyenes. Conformational analysis of radical ions is often necessary to predict reaction stereochemistry. The electronic and geometric changes due to one-electron oxidation or reduction parallel the reaction coordinate for electrophilic or nucleophilic addition, respectively. The effect is more dramatic for one-electron reduction.

  13. First results from the six-axis electron spectrometer on ISEE-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A survey, using results from the first 25 orbits of ISEE-1, was made of some aspects of electrons in the dawn magnetosheath. There are indications that the flow of plasma is not uniformly turbulent over this region. The electron heat flux is observed to be directed away from the shock and to have an average value of about twice the interplanetary heat flux. Many magnetopause crossings were observed and usually resemble abrupt transitions from one well-defined plasma state to another. The ejection of plasma from flux tubes convected up against the magnetopause is observed for about half the time, and its thickness and dependance on the solar wind Mach number agrees with theoretical predictions. A full traversal of the whole forward hemisphere of the magnetosheath is required to fully confirm these deductions.

  14. Electron impact excitation of the states of Mg, Ca and Sr atoms: Complete experiment results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sachin Saxena; Kshamata Muktavat; Rajesh Srivastava

    2004-11-01

    We have used non-relativistic and relativistic distorted wave approximation methods to study the excitation of the 1 states of magnesium ( = 3), calcium ( = 4) and strontium ( = 5) from the ground 1 state. Calculations have been performed for the complete set of parameters $(, \\tilde{L}_{\\bot}^{+}, \\tilde{L}_{\\bot}^{-}, \\tilde{}^{+}, \\tilde{}^{-})$. The results are presented for electron impact energies of 20 and 40 eV. We compare our results obtained from both the non-relativistic and relativistic methods with each other. Good agreement is found on comparison and the importance of relativistic effects is also explored.

  15. Electron Transport through Models for Small-World Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Lazarus; Novotny, Mark

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the quantum transport of (spinless) electrons through simplified models related to small-world nanomaterials. We employ a tight-binding Hamiltonian, and obtain the transmission coefficient from a matrix solution of the associated time-independent Schrödinger Equation. The system studied corresponds to d=1 semi-infinite input and output leads, connected to a `blob' of N atoms. We first present exact results for N inter-connected atoms, a fully-connected graph. The exact solution, for any N, is given both for symmetric and non-symmetric connections between the `blob' and the input/output. We then present numerical results obtained by removing some of the connections within the N-site `blob', thereby approaching transport through a small-world nanomaterial [1-4]. [1] S. Caliskan, M.A. Novotny, and J.I. Cerd'a, J. Appl. Phys., 102, 013707 (2007). [2] M.A. Novotny et al., J. Appl. Phys., 97, 10B309 (2005). [3] M.A. Novotny and S.M. Wheeler, Braz. J. Physics 34, 395 (2004). [4] J. Yancey, M.A. Novotny, and S.R. Gwaltney, 2008 March Meeting presentation.

  16. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  17. Transformer Model in Wide Frequency Bandwidth for Power Electronics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gonzalez-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the smart grids leads to new challenges on the power electronics equipment and power transformers. The use of power electronic transformer presents several advantages, but new problems related with the application of high frequency voltage and current components come across. Thus, an accurate knowledge of the transformer behavior in a wide frequency range is mandatory. A novel modeling procedure to relate the transformer physical behavior and its frequency response by means of electrical parameters is presented. Its usability is demonstrated by an example where a power transformer is used as filter and voltage reducer in an AC-DC-AC converter.

  18. Hopping electron model with geometrical frustration: kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Takamichi

    2016-09-01

    The hopping electron model on the Kagome lattice was investigated by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, and the non-equilibrium nature of the system was studied. We have numerically confirmed that aging phenomena are present in the autocorrelation function C ({t,tW )} of the electron system on the Kagome lattice, which is a geometrically frustrated lattice without any disorder. The waiting-time distributions p(τ ) of hopping electrons of the system on Kagome lattice has been also studied. It is confirmed that the profile of p (τ ) obtained at lower temperatures obeys the power-law behavior, which is a characteristic feature of continuous time random walk of electrons. These features were also compared with the characteristics of the Coulomb glass model, used as a model of disordered thin films and doped semiconductors. This work represents an advance in the understanding of the dynamics of geometrically frustrated systems and will serve as a basis for further studies of these physical systems.

  19. Modeling laser-driven electron acceleration using WARP with Fourier decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, P., E-mail: patrick.lee@u-psud.fr [LPGP, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Audet, T.L. [LPGP, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Lehe, R.; Vay, J.-L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Maynard, G.; Cros, B. [LPGP, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-09-01

    WARP is used with the recent implementation of the Fourier decomposition algorithm to model laser-driven electron acceleration in plasmas. Simulations were carried out to analyze the experimental results obtained on ionization-induced injection in a gas cell. The simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones, confirming the ability of the code to take into account the physics of electron injection and reduce calculation time. We present a detailed analysis of the laser propagation, the plasma wave generation and the electron beam dynamics.

  20. Analog electronic model of the lobster pyloric central pattern generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovskii, A [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Brugioni, S [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata Largo E. Fermi 6 50125 Florence (Italy); Levi, R [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Rabinovich, M [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Selverston, A [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Abarbane, H D I [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    An electronic circuit intended to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of a simplified 3-cell model of the pyloric central pattern generator in California spiny lobster stomato gastric ganglion is presented. The model employs the synaptic phase locked loop (SPLL) concept where the frequency of oscillations of a postsynaptic cell is mainly controlled by the synaptic current which depends on the phase shift between the oscillations. The theoretical study showed that the system has a stable steady state with correct phase shifts between the oscillations and that this regime is stable when the frequency of the pacemaker cell is varied over a wide range. The main bifurcations in the system were studied analytically, in computer simulations, and in experiments with the electronic circuit. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with the expectations of the theoretical model.

  1. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  2. AMORPHOUS SILICON ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE MODELING AND BASIC ELECTRO-PHYSICAL PARAMETERS CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Golodenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The amorphous semiconductor has any unique processing characteristics and it is perspective material for electronic engineering. However, we have not authentic information about they atomic structure and it is essential knot for execution calculation they electronic states and electro physical properties. The author's methods give to us decision such problem. This method allowed to calculation the amorphous silicon modeling cluster atomics Cartesian coordinates, determined spectrum and density its electronic states and calculation the basics electro physical properties of the modeling cluster. At that determined numerical means of the energy gap, energy Fermi, electron concentration inside valence and conduction band for modeling cluster. The find results provides real ability for purposeful control to type and amorphous semiconductor charge carriers concentration and else provides relation between atomic construction and other amorphous substance physical properties, for example, heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility and other thermodynamic sizes.

  3. Input Parameters for Models of Energetic Electrons Fluxes at the Geostationary Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. I. Degtyarev; G.V. Popov; B. S. Xue; S.E. Chudnenko

    2005-01-01

    The results of cross-correlation analysis between electrons fluxes (with energies of > 0.6 MeV,> 2.0MeV and > 4.0MeV), geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters are shown in the paper. It is determined that the electron fluxes are controlled not only by the geomagnetic indices, but also by the solar wind parameters, and the solar wind velocity demonstrates the best relation with the electron fluxes.Numerical value of the relation efficiency of external parameters with the highly energetic electrons fluxes shows a periodicity. It is presented here the preliminary results of daily averaged electrons fluxes forecast for a day ahead on the basis of the model of neuron networks.

  4. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  5. Modeling power electronics and interfacing energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the application of mathematical and engineering tools for modeling, simulation and control oriented for energy systems, power electronics and renewable energy. This book builds on the background knowledge of electrical circuits, control of dc/dc converters and inverters, energy conversion and power electronics. The book shows readers how to apply computational methods for multi-domain simulation of energy systems and power electronics engineering problems. Each chapter has a brief introduction on the theoretical background, a description of the problems to be solved, and objectives to be achieved. Block diagrams, electrical circuits, mathematical analysis or computer code are covered. Each chapter concludes with discussions on what should be learned, suggestions for further studies and even some experimental work.

  6. Improving CASINO performance for models with large number of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, L; Alfe, D; Hood, R Q; Tanqueray, D

    2009-05-13

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations have at their core algorithms based on statistical ensembles of multidimensional random walkers which are straightforward to use on parallel computers. Nevertheless some computations have reached the limit of the memory resources for models with more than 1000 electrons because of the need to store a large amount of electronic orbitals related data. Besides that, for systems with large number of electrons, it is interesting to study if the evolution of one configuration of random walkers can be done faster in parallel. We present a comparative study of two ways to solve these problems: (1) distributed orbital data done with MPI or Unix inter-process communication tools, (2) second level parallelism for configuration computation.

  7. Analysis of the IMAGE RPI electron density data and CHAMP plasmasphere electron density reconstructions with focus on plasmasphere modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzen, T.; Feltens, J.; Jakowski, N.; Galkin, I.; Reinisch, B.; Zandbergen, R.

    2016-09-01

    The electron density of the topside ionosphere and the plasmasphere contributes essentially to the overall Total Electron Content (TEC) budget affecting Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals. The plasmasphere can cause half or even more of the GNSS range error budget due to ionospheric propagation errors. This paper presents a comparative study of different plasmasphere and topside ionosphere data aiming at establishing an appropriate database for plasmasphere modelling. We analyze electron density profiles along the geomagnetic field lines derived from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite/Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) records of remote plasma sounding with radio waves. We compare these RPI profiles with 2D reconstructions of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere electron density derived from GNSS based TEC measurements onboard the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite. Most of the coincidences between IMAGE profiles and CHAMP reconstructions are detected in the region with L-shell between 2 and 5. In general the CHAMP reconstructed electron densities are below the IMAGE profile densities, with median of the CHAMP minus IMAGE residuals around -588 cm-3. Additionally, a comparison is made with electron densities derived from passive radio wave RPI measurements onboard the IMAGE satellite. Over the available 2001-2005 period of IMAGE measurements, the considered combined data from the active and passive RPI operations cover the region within a latitude range of ±60°N, all longitudes, and an L-shell ranging from 1.2 to 15. In the coincidence regions (mainly 2 ⩽ L ⩽ 4), we check the agreement between available active and passive RPI data. The comparison shows that the measurements are well correlated, with a median residual of ∼52 cm-3. The RMS and STD values of the relative residuals are around 22% and 21% respectively. In summary, the results encourage the application of IMAGE RPI data for

  8. Preliminary Electric Field Results From A Multiple Balloon Campaign to Study Relativistic Electron Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Kokorowski, M.; Holzworth, R. H.; Sample, J. G.; McCarthy, M. P.; Smith, D. M.; Parks, G. K.; Millan, R. M.; Woodger, L.; Reddell, B. D.; Lay, E.; Bale, S. D.; Pulupa, M.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Lin, R. P.; Moraal, H.; Stoker, P.; Hughes, A. R.; Collier, A. B.

    2005-05-01

    The MINIS balloon campaign was successfully conducted in January 2005 to investigate relativistic electron loss mechanisms. Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding the variability of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. Balloon-based experiments directly measure precipitation and thus provide a method for quantifying losses, while the nearly stationary platform allows for the separation of temporal and spatial variations. A new class of precipitation event, characterized by extremely hard spectra, short durations, and complex temporal structure, occurring in the evening to midnight sector, was discovered by the INTERBOA balloon in 1996 and studied further by the MAXIS balloon in 2000. The MINIS campaign provided the first opportunities for multi-point measurements of electron precipitation up to MeV energies, including simultaneous measurements at different longitudes and at near-conjugate locations. Two balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer for measuring the bremsstrahlung produced as electrons precipitate into the atmosphere, were launched from Churchill, Manitoba at 0850 UT on 21 January 2005 and 0140 UT on 25 January 2005. Four balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer, a Z-axis search coil magnetometer, and a 3-axis electric field instrument providing DC electric field and VLF measurements in 3 frequency bands, were launched from the South African Antarctic Station (SANAE IV). The Southern launches took place at 1400 UT on 17 January, 1309 UT on 19 January, 2115 UT on 20 January, and 0950 UT on 24 January 2005. In this paper, we present the preliminary results from the MINIS South electric field instrumentation. We have good DC and VLF electric field data from all payloads, and the payload rotation mechanism worked in all four as well. The campaign began with two large solar flares. In the post-flare environment, some very magnetospherically active periods are included in our data, with strong and

  9. Preliminary X-ray Results From A Multiple Balloon Campaign to Study Relativistic Electron Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, J. G.; Kokorowski, M.; Millan, R. M.; McCarthy, M.; Holzworth, R. H.; Bering, E. A.; Parks, G. K.; Woodger, L.; Reddell, B. D.; Lay, E.; Pulupa, M.; Bale, S.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Lin, R. P.; Moraal, H.; Stoker, P.; Hughes, A. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Smith, D. M.

    2005-05-01

    The MINIS balloon campaign was successfully conducted in January 2005 to investigate relativistic electron loss mechanisms. Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding the variability of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. Balloon-based experiments directly measure precipitation and thus provide a method for quantifying losses, while the nearly stationary platform allows for the separation of temporal and spatial variations. A new class of precipitation event, characterized by extremely hard spectra, short durations, and complex temporal structure, occurring in the evening to midnight sector, was discovered by the INTERBOA balloon in 1996 and studied further by the MAXIS balloon in 2000. The MINIS campaign provided the first opportunities for multi-point measurements of electron precipitation up to MeV energies, including simultaneous measurements at different longitudes and at near-conjugate locations. Two balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer for measuring the bremsstrahlung produced as electrons precipitate into the atmosphere, were launched from Churchill, Manitoba at 0850 UT on 21 January 2005 and 0140 UT on 25 January 2005. Four balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer, a Z-axis search coil magnetometer, and a 3-axis electric field instrument providing DC electric field and VLF measurements in 3 frequency bands, were launched from the South African Antarctic Station (SANAE IV). The Southern launches took place at 1400 UT on 17 January, 1309 UT on 19 January, 2115 UT on 20 January, and 0950 UT on 24 January 24 2005. In this paper, we present the preliminary results from the MINIS North and South X-ray data. The first and second Southern payloads observed a rarely-seen phenomenon: gamma-ray line emission from nuclear interactions of solar protons in the Earth's atmosphere. When the solar particles abated, there were numerous opportunities for simultaneous observations of MeV precipitation from multiple

  10. Implementing and optimising an Electronic Library of Health Care in Belgium: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, K; Vander Stichele, R H; Simons, E; Geens, S; Goedhuys, J; Aertgeerts, B

    2007-01-01

    Health care practitioners are expected to incorporate results from the best available, scientific information into their daily clinical decision-making process. Useful formats of evidence for practitioners include selected reviews, abstracts in which research results are discussed, "quick answer", evidence-based website including for example diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms, drugs prescription and non-drug therapy. An increasing amount of practitioners has access to the World Wide Web, either at home or at the office. However, easy and cheap access to objective and high quality research results is limited. Many practitioners lack the skills to efficiently navigate complicated medical databases. In 2003 an 'Electronic Library of Health Care' was introduced in Belgium. The main goal of the electronic library is to provide a gateway to scientific evidence to Belgian health care practitioners from different disciplines. This paper presents the results of a pilot project to implement the library in the field. It also describes recent developments and adjustments that increased the efficacy of this gateway to evidence.

  11. Multi-dimensional Vlasov simulations and modeling of trapped-electron-driven filamentation of electron plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R. L., E-mail: berger5@llnl.gov; Cohen, B. I. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Brunner, S., E-mail: stephan.brunner@epfl.ch [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confédération Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CRPP-PPB, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Banks, J. W. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, AE 301, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Winjum, B. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Kinetic simulations of two-dimensional finite-amplitude electron plasma waves are performed in a one-wavelength long system. A systematic study of the most unstable linear sideband mode, in particular its growth rate γ and wavenumber k{sub y}, is carried out by scanning the amplitude and wavenumber of the initial wave. Simulation results are compared with numerical and analytical solutions to a two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger model [H. A. Rose and L. Yin, Phys. Plasmas 15, 042311 (2008)] and to the reduced model by Kruer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)] generalized to two dimensions.

  12. Short-Range Correlation Models in Electronic Structure Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Matthew Bryant

    Correlation methods within electronic structure theory focus on recovering the exact electron-electron interaction from the mean-field reference. For most chemical systems, including dynamic correlation, the correlation of the movement of electrons proves to be sufficient, yet exact methods for capturing dynamic correlation inherently scale polynomially with system size despite the locality of the electron cusp. This work explores a new family of methods for enhancing the locality of dynamic correlation methodologies with an aim toward improving accuracy and scalability. The introduction of range-separation into ab initio wavefunction methods produces short-range correlation methodologies, which can be supplemented with much faster approximate methods for long-range interactions. First, I examine attenuation of second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) in the aug-cc-pVDZ basis. MP2 treats electron correlation at low computational cost, but suffers from basis set superposition error (BSSE) and fundamental inaccuracies in long-range contributions. The cost differential between complete basis set (CBS) and small basis MP2 restricts system sizes where BSSE can be removed. Range-separation of MP2 could yield more tractable and/or accurate forms for short- and long-range correlation. Retaining only short-range contributions proves to be effective for MP2 in the small aug-cc-pVDZ (aDZ) basis. Using one range-separation parameter within either the complementary error function (erfc) or a sum of two error functions (terfc), superior behavior is obtained versus both MP2/aDZ and MP2/CBS for inter- and intra-molecular test sets. Attenuation of the long-range helps to cancel both BSSE and intrinsic MP2 errors. Direct scaling of the MP2 correlation energy (SMP2) proves useful as well. The resulting SMP2/aDZ, MP2(erfc, aDZ), and MP2(terfc, aDZ) methods perform far better than MP2/aDZ across systems with hydrogen-bonding, dispersion, and mixed interactions at a

  13. Power electronic converters modeling and control with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Seddik; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Modern power electronic converters are involved in a very broad spectrum of applications: switched-mode power supplies, electrical-machine-motion-control, active power filters, distributed power generation, flexible AC transmission systems, renewable energy conversion systems and vehicular technology, among them. Power Electronics Converters Modeling and Control teaches the reader how to analyze and model the behavior of converters and so to improve their design and control. Dealing with a set of confirmed algorithms specifically developed for use with power converters, this text is in two parts: models and control methods. The first is a detailed exposition of the most usual power converter models: ·        switched and averaged models; ·        small/large-signal models; and ·        time/frequency models. The second focuses on three groups of control methods: ·        linear control approaches normally associated with power converters; ·        resonant controllers b...

  14. New results for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the MINOS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Justin; /University Coll. London; Whitehead, Lisa; /Brookhaven

    2010-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment situated along Fermilab's high-intensity NuMI neutrino beam. MINOS has completed an updated search for muon neutrino to electron neutrino transitions, observation of which would indicate a non-zero value for the neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The present 7 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target data set represents more than double the exposure used in the previous analysis. The new result and its implications are presented.

  15. New results for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the MINOS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Lisa [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Building 510E, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Evans, Justin [Physics building, University College London, Gower Street, London - WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment situated along Fermilab's high-intensity NuMI neutrino beam. MINOS has completed an updated search for muon neutrino to electron neutrino transitions, observation of which would indicate a nonzero value for the neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The present 7x10{sup 20} protons-on-target data set represents more than double the exposure used in the previous analysis. The new result and its implications are presented. (author)

  16. Multiscale modelling of charge transport in organic electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny

    2010-03-01

    Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors is controlled by a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. In this presentation we will show how a set of computational methods, namely molecular modelling methods to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport can be used to reproduce experimental charge mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Using case studies, we will show how such simulations can explain the relative values of electron and hole mobility and the effects of grain size, side chains and polymer molecular weight on charge mobility. Although currently applied to material systems of relatively high symmetry or well defined structure, this approach can be developed to address more complex systems such as multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers.

  17. Electron affinities of uracil: microsolvation effects and polarizable continuum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melicherčík, Miroslav; Pašteka, Lukáš F; Neogrády, Pavel; Urban, Miroslav

    2012-03-08

    We present adiabatic electron affinities (AEAs) and the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of the uracil molecule interacting with one to five water molecules. Credibility of MP2 and DFT/B3LYP calculations is supported by comparison with available benchmark CCSD(T) data. AEAs and VDEs obtained by MP2 and DFT/B3LYP methods copy trends of benchmark CCSD(T) results for the free uracil and uracil-water complexes in the gas phase being by 0.20 - 0.28 eV higher than CCSD(T) values depending on the particular structure of the complex. AEAs and VDEs from MP2 are underestimated by 0.09-0.15 eV. For the free uracil and uracil-(H(2)O)(n) (n = 1,2,3,5) complexes, we also consider the polarizable continuum model (PCM) and discuss the importance of the microsolvation when combined with PCM. AEAs and VDEs of uracil and uracil-water complexes enhance rapidly with increasing relative dielectric constant (ε) of the solvent. Highest AEAs and VDEs of the U(H(2)O)(5) complexes from B3LYP with ε = 78.4 are 2.03 and 2.81 eV, respectively, utilizing the correction from CCSD(T). Specific structural features of the microsolvated uracil-(H(2)O)(n) complexes and their anions are preserved also upon considering PCM in calculations of AEAs and VDEs.

  18. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  19. Modeling Crabbing Dynamics in an Electron-Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilla, Alejandro [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Univ. de Guanajuato (DCI-UG), Leon (Mexico); Morozov, Vasiliy S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Satogata, Todd J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Delayen, Jean R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A local crabbing scheme requires π/2 (mod π) horizontal betatron phase advances from an interaction point (IP) to the crab cavities on each side of it. However, realistic phase advances generated by sets of quadrupoles, or Final Focusing Blocks (FFB), between the crab cavities located in the expanded beam regions and the IP differ slightly from π/2. To understand the effect of crabbing on the beam dynamics in this case, a simple model of the optics of the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) including local crabbing was developed using linear matrices and then studied numerically over multiple turns (1000 passes) of both electron and proton bunches. The same model was applied to both local and global crabbing schemes to determine the linear-order dynamical effects of the synchro-betatron coupling induced by crabbing.

  20. MODEL PSEUDOPOTENTIAL OF THE ELECTRON - NEGATIVE ION INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.Rudavskii

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalization of the Anderson model to describe the states of electronegative impurities in liquid-metal alloys is the main aim of the present paper. The effects of the random inner field on the charge impurity states is accounted for selfconsistently. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of hamiltonian parameters has been carried out. The limits of the proposed model applicability to a description of real systems are considered. Especially, the case of the oxygen impurity in liquid sodium is studied. The modelling of the proper electron-ionic interaction potential is the main goal of the paper. The parameters of the proposed pseudopotential are analyzed in detail. The comparison with other model potentials have been carried out. Resistivity of liquid sodium containing the oxygen impurities is calculated with utilizing the form-factor of the proposed model potential. Dependence of the resistivity on impurity concentration and on the charge states is received.

  1. Accurate model of electron beam profiles with emittance effects for pierce guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Peng; Wang, Guangqiang; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Dongyang; Li, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    Accurate prediction of electron beam profile is one of the key objectives of electron optics, and the basis for design of the practical electron gun. In this paper, an improved model describing electron beam in Pierce gun with both space charge effects and emittance effects is proposed. The theory developed by Cutler and Hines is still applied for the accelerating region of the Pierce gun, while the motion equations of the electron beams in the anode aperture and drift tunnel are improved by modifying electron optics theory with emittance. As a result, a more universal and accurate formula of the focal length of the lens for the electron beam with both effects is derived for the anode aperture with finite dimension, and a modified universal spread curve considering beam emittance is introduced in drift tunnel region. Based on these improved motion equations of the electron beam, beam profiles with space charge effects and emittance effects can be theoretically predicted, which are subsequently approved to agree well with the experimentally measured ones. The developed model here is helpful to design more applicable Pierce guns at high frequencies.

  2. Electric Dipole Moments of Neutron and Electron in Supersymmetric Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Mayumi; Kadoyoshi, Tomoko; Sugamoto, Akio; Oshimo, Noriyuki

    1997-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of the neutron and the electron are reviewed within the framework of the supersymmetric standard model (SSM) based on grand unified theories coupled to N=1 supergravity. Taking into account one-loop and two-loop contributions to the EDMs, we explore SSM parameter space consistent with experiments and discuss predicted values for the EDMs. Implications of baryon asymmetry of our universe for the EDMs are also discussed.

  3. Structural investigations of self-assembled monolayers for organic electronics: results from X-ray reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khassanov, Artoem; Steinrück, Hans-Georg; Schmaltz, Thomas; Magerl, Andreas; Halik, Marcus

    2015-07-21

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been established as crucial interlayers and electronically active layers in organic electronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaics (OPVs), organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), and nonvolatile memories (NVMs). The use of self-assembling functionalized organic molecules is beneficial due to mainly three advantages compared with common thin film deposition approaches. (1) Molecular self-assembly occurs with surface selectivity, determined by the interaction between the functional anchor group of the organic molecules and the target surface. (2) The film thickness of the resulting layers is perfectly controllable on the angstrom scale, due to the self-terminating film formation to only a single molecular layer. And finally, (3) the wide variability in the chemical structure of such molecules enables different SAM functionalities for devices, ranging from electrical insulation to charge storage to charge transport. The SAM approach can be further expanded by employing several functionalized molecules to create mixed SAMs with consequently mixed properties. The function of SAMs in devices depends not only on the chemical structure of the molecules but also on their final arrangement and orientation on the surface. A reliable and nondestructive in-depth characterization of SAMs on nonconductive oxide surfaces is still challenging because of the very small thickness and the impracticality of methods such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In this Account, we illustrate how X-ray reflectivity (XRR) provides analytical access to major questions of SAM composition, morphology, and even formation by means of investigations of pure and mixed SAMs based on phosphonic acids (PAs) of various chain structures on flat alumina (AlOx) surfaces. XRR is an analytical method that provides access to spatially averaged structural depth profiles over a relatively

  4. MODELING OF ELECTRONIC GASOLINE INJECTION PROCESSES IN TWO STROKE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hraivoronskyi, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic provision of the processes developed mode, occurring in ignition fuel system with electronically controlled two stroke engine with positive ignition are given. Fuel injection process’ calculation results for the case of placing fuel injector into intake system presented.

  5. Doping-dependent magnetization plateaus of a coupled spin-electron chain: exact results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strečka, Jozef; Čisárová, Jana

    2016-10-01

    A coupled spin-electron chain composed of localized Ising spins and mobile electrons is exactly solved in an external magnetic field within the transfer-matrix method. The ground-state phase diagram involves in total seven different ground states, which differ in the number of mobile electrons per unit cell and the respective spin arrangements. A rigorous analysis of the low-temperature magnetization process reveals doping-dependent magnetization plateaus, which may be tuned through the density of mobile electrons. It is demonstrated that the fractional value of the electron density is responsible for an enhanced magnetocaloric effect due to an annealed bond disorder of the mobile electrons.

  6. Monte Carlo model for electron degradation in xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Mukundan, Vrinda

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a Monte Carlo model for studying the local degradation of electrons in the energy range 9-10000 eV in xenon gas. Analytically fitted form of electron impact cross sections for elastic and various inelastic processes are fed as input data to the model. Two dimensional numerical yield spectrum, which gives information on the number of energy loss events occurring in a particular energy interval, is obtained as output of the model. Numerical yield spectrum is fitted analytically, thus obtaining analytical yield spectrum. The analytical yield spectrum can be used to calculate electron fluxes, which can be further employed for the calculation of volume production rates. Using yield spectrum, mean energy per ion pair and efficiencies of inelastic processes are calculated. The value for mean energy per ion pair for Xe is 22 eV at 10 keV. Ionization dominates for incident energies greater than 50 eV and is found to have an efficiency of 65% at 10 keV. The efficiency for the excitation process is 30%...

  7. Monte Carlo model for electron degradation in methane

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Anil

    2015-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for degradation of 1-10,000 eV electrons in an atmosphere of methane. The electron impact cross sections for CH4 are compiled and analytical representations of these cross sections are used as input to the model.model.Yield spectra, which provides information about the number of inelastic events that have taken place in each energy bin, is used to calculate the yield (or population) of various inelastic processes. The numerical yield spectra, obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations, is represented analytically, thus generating the Analytical Yield Spectra (AYS). AYS is employed to obtain the mean energy per ion pair and efficiencies of various inelastic processes.Mean energy per ion pair for neutral CH4 is found to be 26 (27.8) eV at 10 (0.1) keV. Efficiency calculation showed that ionization is the dominant process at energies >50 eV, for which more than 50% of the incident electron energy is used. Above 25 eV, dissociation has an efficiency of 27%. Below 10 eV, vibrational e...

  8. Pseudomonas pellicle in disinfectant testing: electron microscopy, pellicle removal, and effect on test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, E C; Rutala, W A; Carson, J L; Alfano, E M

    1989-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 is a required organism in the Association of Official Analytical Chemists use-dilution method for disinfectant efficacy testing. When grown in a liquid medium, P. aeruginosa produces a dense mat or pellicle at the broth/air interface. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the pellicle by scanning electron microscopy, to evaluate three pellicle removal methods, and to determine the effect of pellicle fragments on disinfectant efficacy test results. The efficacies of three methods of pellicle removal (decanting, vacuum suction, and filtration) were assessed by quantifying cell numbers on penicylinders. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists use-dilution method was used to determine whether pellicle fragments in the tubes used to inoculate penicylinders affected test results. Scanning electron micrographs showed the pellicle to be a dense mass of intact, interlacing cells at least 10 microns thick. No significant differences in pellicle removal methods were observed, and the presence of pellicle fragments usually increased the number of positive tubes in the use-dilution method significantly. Images PMID:2497711

  9. Atmospheric ionization induced by precipitating electrons: Comparison of CRAC:EPII model with parametrization model

    CERN Document Server

    Artamonov, A A; Usoskin, I G

    2016-01-01

    A new model CRAC:EPII (Cosmic Ray Atmospheric Cascade: Electron Precipitation Induced Ionization) is presented. The CRAC:EPII is based on Monte Carlo simulation of precipitating electrons propagation and interaction with matter in the Earth atmosphere. It explicitly considers energy deposit: ionization, pair production, Compton scattering, generation of Bremsstrahlung high energy photons, photo-ionization and annihilation of positrons, multiple scattering as physical processes accordingly. The propagation of precipitating electrons and their interactions with atmospheric molecules is carried out with the GEANT4 simulation tool PLANETOCOSMICS code using NRLMSISE 00 atmospheric model. The ionization yields is compared with an analytical parametrization for various energies of incident precipitating electron, using a flux of mono-energetic particles. A good agreement between the two models is achieved. Subsequently, on the basis of balloon-born measured spectra of precipitating electrons at 30.10.2002 and 07.01....

  10. Correlation effects on the energy spectra of quantum dot electrons with harmonic model interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The low-lying excitation energy spectra of two, three and five quantum dot electrons with harmonic model interactions in a large magnetic field are calculated by the Hartree-Fock(HF) methods. Correlation effects on the energy level structures are investigated by comparing the HF results with the exact ones. It is found that the pure collective excitations(center-of-mass mode quanta) existing in the exact energy spectra do not appear in the HF energy spectra. The degeneracies of energy levels are also related to the correlation interactions, especially in the energy spectrum of two electrons. In the cases of more than two electrons, as the electron-electron interaction strength is increased the HF energy levels exhibit more complex crossings than the exact ones.

  11. Two-Temperature Model of non-equilibrium electron relaxation: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Navinder

    2007-01-01

    The present paper is a review of the phenomena related to non-equilibrium electron relaxation in bulk and nano-scale metallic samples. The workable Two-Temperature Model (TTM) based on Boltzmann-Bloch-Peierls (BBP) kinetic equation has been applied to study the ultra-fast(femto-second) electronic relaxation in various metallic systems. The advent of new ultra-fast (femto-second) laser technology and pump-probe spectroscopy has produced wealth of new results for micro and nano-scale electronic...

  12. Two-Temperature Model of non-equilibrium electron relaxation: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Navinder

    2007-01-01

    The present paper is a review of the phenomena related to non-equilibrium electron relaxation in bulk and nano-scale metallic samples. The workable Two-Temperature Model (TTM) based on Boltzmann-Bloch-Peierls (BBP) kinetic equation has been applied to study the ultra-fast(femto-second) electronic relaxation in various metallic systems. The advent of new ultra-fast (femto-second) laser technology and pump-probe spectroscopy has produced wealth of new results for micro and nano-scale electronic...

  13. Techniques, tools and best practices for ligand electron-density analysis and results from their application to deposited crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozharski, Edwin; Weichenberger, Christian X; Rupp, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    As a result of substantial instrumental automation and the continuing improvement of software, crystallographic studies of biomolecules are conducted by non-experts in increasing numbers. While improved validation almost ensures that major mistakes in the protein part of structure models are exceedingly rare, in ligand-protein complex structures, which in general are most interesting to the scientist, ambiguous ligand electron density is often difficult to interpret and the modelled ligands are generally more difficult to properly validate. Here, (i) the primary technical reasons and potential human factors leading to problems in ligand structure models are presented; (ii) the most common categories of building errors or overinterpretation are classified; (iii) a few instructive and specific examples are discussed in detail, including an electron-density-based analysis of ligand structures that do not contain any ligands; (iv) means of avoiding such mistakes are suggested and the implications for database validity are discussed and (v) a user-friendly software tool that allows non-expert users to conveniently inspect ligand density is provided.

  14. Effective Model for Massless Dirac Electrons on a Surface of Weak Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Takashi; Takane, Yositake

    2014-12-01

    In a typical situation, gapless surface states of a three-dimensional (3D) weak topological insulator (WTI) appear only on the sides, leaving the top and bottom surfaces gapped. To describe massless Dirac electrons emergent on such side surfaces of a WTI, a two-dimensional (2D) model consisting of a series of one-dimensional helical channels is usually employed. However, an explicit derivation of such a model from a 3D bulk Hamiltonian has been lacking. Here, we explicitly derive an effective 2D model for the WTI surface states starting from the Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian for the bulk WTI and establish a firm basis for the hitherto hypothesized 2D model. We show that the resulting 2D model accurately reproduces the excitation spectrum of surface Dirac electrons determined by the 3D model. We also show that the 2D model is applicable to a side surface with atomic steps.

  15. Computational electronics semiclassical and quantum device modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Vasileska, Dragica; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Starting with the simplest semiclassical approaches and ending with the description of complex fully quantum-mechanical methods for quantum transport analysis of state-of-the-art devices, Computational Electronics: Semiclassical and Quantum Device Modeling and Simulation provides a comprehensive overview of the essential techniques and methods for effectively analyzing transport in semiconductor devices. With the transistor reaching its limits and new device designs and paradigms of operation being explored, this timely resource delivers the simulation methods needed to properly model state-of

  16. Modeling of humidity-related reliability in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Reliability of electronics that operate outdoor is strongly affected by environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Fluctuations of these parameters can lead to water condensation inside enclosures. Therefore, modelling of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed...... to predict humidity-related reliability of a printed circuit board (PCB) located in a cabinet by combining structural reliability methods and non-linear diffusion models. This framework can, thus, be used for reliability prediction from a climatic point-of-view. The proposed numerical approach is then tested...

  17. Modeling the relativistic runaway electron avalanche and the feedback mechanism with GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Skeltved, Alexander Broberg; Carlson, Brant; Gjesteland, Thomas; Celestin, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first study that uses the GEometry ANd Tracking 4 (GEANT4) toolkit to do quantitative comparisons with other modelling results related to the production of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) and high-energy particle emission from thunderstorms. We will study the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA) and the relativistic feedback process, as well as the production of bremsstrahlung photons from Runaway Electrons (REs). The Monte Carlo (MC) simulations take into account the effects of electron ionisation, electron by electron (M{\\o}ller) and electron by positron (Bhabha) scattering as well as the bremsstrahlung process and pair-production, in the $250$ eV$-100$ GeV energy range. Our results indicate that the multiplication of electrons during the development of RREAs and under the influence of feedback, are consistent with previous estimates. This is important to validate GEANT4 as a tool to model RREAs and feedback in homogeneous electric fields. We also determine the ratio o...

  18. Some results regarding the comparison of the Earth's atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šegan S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine air densities derived from our realization of aeronomic atmosphere models based on accelerometer measurements from satellites in a low Earth's orbit (LEO. Using the adapted algorithms we derive comparison parameters. The first results concerning the adjustment of the aeronomic models to the total-density model are given.

  19. First results of FGLD gas detector with multi-channel self-triggering readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Louis; De Oliveira, R; Watts, D

    2007-01-01

    Following the successful demonstration of a proof-of-concept FGLD detector, work has been done to find a multi-channel readout electronics capable of obtaining the position information from its 3-axis geometry and suitable for medical imaging applications. The IDEAS GP3 and GP5 chips were selected for testing because they are sensitive to the range of input charge collected on the FGLD and because they are self-triggering. Preliminary tests in which both the GP3 and GP5 were connected to the ground layer of the FGLD has yielded promising results. Signals can be seen in the analysis software and some initial results of the charge sharing between strips is presented. Furthermore, both chips were subjected to forced discharging. Only a few input channels localized about the discharge were destroyed in the GP3 whereas the GP5 continued to function normally after repeated discharges.

  20. A Monte Carlo model of hot electron trapping and detrapping in SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamocsai, R. L.; Porod, W.

    1991-02-01

    High-field stressing and oxide degradation of SiO2 are studied using a microscopic model of electron heating and charge trapping and detrapping. Hot electrons lead to a charge buildup in the oxide according to the dynamic trapping-detrapping model by Nissan-Cohen and co-workers [Y. Nissan-Cohen, J. Shappir, D. Frohman-Bentchkowsky, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2252 (1985)]. Detrapping events are modeled as trap-to-band impact ionization processes initiated by high energy conduction electrons. The detailed electronic distribution function obtained from Monte Carlo transport simulations is utilized for the determination of the detrapping rates. We apply our microscopic model to the calculation of the flat-band voltage shift in silicon dioxide as a function of the electric field, and we show that our model is able to reproduce the experimental results. We also compare these results to the predictions of the empirical trapping-detrapping model which assumes a heuristic detrapping cross section. Our microscopic theory accounts for the nonlocal nature of impact ionization which leads to a dark space close to the injecting cathode, which is unaccounted for in the empirical model.

  1. Gamma and electron spectroscopy of transfermium isotopes at Dubna: Results and plans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Yeremin; O Malyshev; A Popeko; A Lopez-Martens; K Hauschild; O Dorvaux; S Saro; D Pantelica; S Mullin

    2010-07-01

    Detailed spectroscopic information of excited nuclear states in deformed transfermium nuclei is scarce. Most of the information available today has been obtained from investigations of fine-structure -decay. Although decay gives access to hindrance factors and lifetimes which are strongly correlated to shell/subshell closures and the presence of isomers, only the combined use of and conversion electron spectroscopy allows the precise determination of excitation energy, spin and parity of nuclear levels. In the years 2004–2009 using the GABRIELA set-up [Hauschild et al, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A560, 388 (2006)] at the focal plane of VASSILISSA separator [Malyshev et al, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A440, 86 (2000); A516, 529 (2004)] experiments with the aim of and electron spectroscopy of the isotopes from Fm to Lr, formed by complete fusion reactions with accelerated heavy ions were performed. In the following, the pre- liminary results of decay studies using - and - coincidences at the focal plane of the VASSILISSA recoil separator are presented. Accumulated experience allowed us to perform ion optical calculations and to design the new experimental set-up, which will collect the base and best parameters of the existing separators and complex detector systems used at the focal planes of these installations. In the near future it is planned to study neutron-rich isotopes of the Rf–Sg in the `hot’ fusion reactions with 22Ne incident projectiles and 242Pu, 243Am and 248Cm targets.

  2. The Effect of Bathymetric Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results 6. AUTHOR(S) Nathaniel Plant, Kacey L. Edwards, James M. Kaihatu, Jayaram Veeramony, Yuan-Huang L. Hsu...filtering on nearshore process model results Nathaniel G. Plant **, Kacey L Edwardsb, James M. Kaihatuc, Jayaram Veeramony b, Larry Hsu’’, K. Todd Holland...assimilation efforts that require this information. Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Nearshore process models are capable of predicting

  3. Modeling a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope Focusing Column - Lessons Learned in Electron Optics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Jody; Gregory, Don; Gaskin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses work done to assess the design of a focusing column in a miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for use in-situ on the Moon-in particular for mineralogical analysis. The MSFC beam column design uses purely electrostatic fields for focusing, because of the severe constraints on mass and electrical power consumption imposed by the goals of lunar exploration and of spaceflight in general. The resolution of an SEM ultimately depends on the size of the focused spot of the scanning beam probe, for which the stated goal here is a diameter of 10 nanometers. Optical aberrations are the main challenge to this performance goal, because they blur the ideal geometrical optical image of the electron source, effectively widening the ideal spot size of the beam probe. In the present work the optical aberrations of the mini SEM focusing column were assessed using direct tracing of non-paraxial rays, as opposed to mathematical estimates of aberrations based on paraxial ray-traces. The geometrical ray-tracing employed here is completely analogous to ray-tracing as conventionally understood in the realm of photon optics, with the major difference being that in electron optics the lens is simply a smoothly varying electric field in vacuum, formed by precisely machined electrodes. Ray-tracing in this context, therefore, relies upon a model of the electrostatic field inside the focusing column to provide the mathematical description of the "lens" being traced. This work relied fundamentally on the boundary element method (BEM) for this electric field model. In carrying out this research the authors discovered that higher accuracy in the field model was essential if aberrations were to be reliably assessed using direct ray-tracing. This led to some work in testing alternative techniques for modeling the electrostatic field. Ultimately, the necessary accuracy was attained using a BEM

  4. Analytical modeling of multi-layered Printed Circuit Board dedicated to electronic component thermal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier-Vinard, Eric; Laraqi, Najib; Dia, Cheikh-Tidiane; Nguyen, Minh-Nhat; Bissuel, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Electronic components are continuously getting smaller and embedding more and more powered functions which exacerbate the temperature rise in component/board interconnect areas. For still air conditions, the heat spreading of the component power is mainly done through the surrounding metallic planes of its electronic board. Their design optimization is henceforth mandatory to control the temperature and to preserve component reliability. To allow the electronic designer to early analyze the limits of the power dissipation of miniaturized devices, an analytical model of a multi-layered electronic board was established with the purpose to assess the validity of conventional board modeling approach. For decades, numerous authors have been promoting a homogenous single layer model that summed up the layers of the board using effective orthotropic thermal properties. The derived compact model depends on thermal properties approximation which is commonly based on parallel conduction model given a linear rule of mixture. The work presents the thermal behavior comparison of a detailed multi-layer representation to its deducted compact model for an extensive set of variable parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, effective thermal conductivities calculation models, number of trace layers, trace coverage or source size. The results highlight the fact that the conventional practices for PCB modeling can dramatically underestimate source temperatures when their size is getting very small.

  5. Multiscale modeling of femtosecond laser irradiation on copper film with electron thermal conductivity from ab initio calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    By combining ab initio quantum mechanics calculation and Drude model, electron temperature and lattice temperature dependent electron thermal conductivity is calculated and implemented into a multiscale model of laser material interaction, which couples the classical molecular dynamics and two-temperature model. The results indicated that the electron thermal conductivity obtained from ab initio calculation leads to faster thermal diffusion than that using the electron thermal conductivity from empirical determination, which further induces deeper melting region, larger number of density waves travelling inside the copper film and more various speeds of atomic clusters ablated from the irradiated film surface.

  6. Double strand breaks in DNA resulting from double-electron-emission events

    CERN Document Server

    Surdutovich, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A mechanism of double strand breaking (DSB) in DNA due to the action of two electrons is considered. These are the electrons produced in the vicinity of DNA molecules due to ionization of water molecules with a consecutive emission of two electrons, making such a mechanism possible. This effect qualitatively solves a puzzle of large yields of DSBs following irradiation of DNA molecules. The transport of secondary electrons, including the additional electrons, is studied in relation to the assessment of radiation damage due to incident ions. This work is a stage in the inclusion of Auger mechanism and like effects into the multiscale approach to ion-beam cancer therapy.

  7. Modeling the relativistic runaway electron avalanche and the feedback mechanism with GEANT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeltved, Alexander Broberg; Østgaard, Nikolai; Carlson, Brant; Gjesteland, Thomas; Celestin, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first study that uses the GEometry ANd Tracking 4 (GEANT4) toolkit to do quantitative comparisons with other modeling results related to the production of terrestrial gamma ray flashes and high-energy particle emission from thunderstorms. We will study the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) and the relativistic feedback process, as well as the production of bremsstrahlung photons from runaway electrons. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the effects of electron ionization, electron by electron (Møller), and electron by positron (Bhabha) scattering as well as the bremsstrahlung process and pair production, in the 250 eV to 100 GeV energy range. Our results indicate that the multiplication of electrons during the development of RREAs and under the influence of feedback are consistent with previous estimates. This is important to validate GEANT4 as a tool to model RREAs and feedback in homogeneous electric fields. We also determine the ratio of bremsstrahlung photons to energetic electrons Nγ/Ne. We then show that the ratio has a dependence on the electric field, which can be expressed by the avalanche time τ(E) and the bremsstrahlung coefficient α(ε). In addition, we present comparisons of GEANT4 simulations performed with a “standard” and a “low-energy” physics list both validated in the 1 keV to 100 GeV energy range. This comparison shows that the choice of physics list used in GEANT4 simulations has a significant effect on the results. Key Points Testing the feedback mechanism with GEANT4 Validating the GEANT4 programming toolkit Study the ratio of bremsstrahlung photons to electrons at TGF source altitude PMID:26167437

  8. Modeling and Simulation of DC Power Electronics Systems Using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    For the efficiency and simplicity of electric systems, the dc based power electronics systems are widely used in variety applications such as electric vehicles, ships, aircrafts and also in homes. In these systems, there could be a number of dynamic interactions between loads and other dc...... based on the state-space averaging and generalized averaging, these also have limitations to show the same results as with the non-linear time domain simulations. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling....... Through this method, the required computation time and CPU memory for large dc power electronics systems can be reduced. Besides, the achieved results show the same results as with the non-linear time domain simulation, but with the faster simulation time which is beneficial in a large network....

  9. Electron distribution in polar heterojunctions within a realistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Nguyen Thanh, E-mail: thanhtienctu@gmail.com [College of Natural Science, Can Tho University, 3-2 Road, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Thao, Dinh Nhu [Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, College of Education, Hue University, 34 Le Loi Street, Hue City (Viet Nam); Thao, Pham Thi Bich [College of Natural Science, Can Tho University, 3-2 Road, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Quang, Doan Nhat [Institute of Physics, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 10 Dao Tan Street, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-12-15

    We present a theoretical study of the electron distribution, i.e., two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in polar heterojunctions (HJs) within a realistic model. The 2DEG is confined along the growth direction by a triangular quantum well with a finite potential barrier and a bent band figured by all confinement sources. Therein, interface polarization charges take a double role: they induce a confining potential and, furthermore, they can make some change in other confinements, e.g., in the Hartree potential from ionized impurities and 2DEG. Confinement by positive interface polarization charges is necessary for the ground state of 2DEG existing at a high sheet density. The 2DEG bulk density is found to be increased in the barrier, so that the scattering occurring in this layer (from interface polarization charges and alloy disorder) becomes paramount in a polar modulation-doped HJ.

  10. Electron distribution in polar heterojunctions within a realistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Nguyen Thanh; Thao, Dinh Nhu; Thao, Pham Thi Bich; Quang, Doan Nhat

    2015-12-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electron distribution, i.e., two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in polar heterojunctions (HJs) within a realistic model. The 2DEG is confined along the growth direction by a triangular quantum well with a finite potential barrier and a bent band figured by all confinement sources. Therein, interface polarization charges take a double role: they induce a confining potential and, furthermore, they can make some change in other confinements, e.g., in the Hartree potential from ionized impurities and 2DEG. Confinement by positive interface polarization charges is necessary for the ground state of 2DEG existing at a high sheet density. The 2DEG bulk density is found to be increased in the barrier, so that the scattering occurring in this layer (from interface polarization charges and alloy disorder) becomes paramount in a polar modulation-doped HJ.

  11. Electron electric dipole moment in Inverse Seesaw models

    CERN Document Server

    Abada, Asmaa

    2016-01-01

    We consider the contribution of sterile neutrinos to the electric dipole moment of charged leptons in the most minimal realisation of the Inverse Seesaw mechanism, in which the Standard Model is extended by two right-handed neutrinos and two sterile fermion states. Our study shows that the two pairs of (heavy) pseudo-Dirac mass eigenstates can give significant contributions to the electron electric dipole moment, lying close to future experimental sensitivity if their masses are above the electroweak scale. The major contribution comes from two-loop diagrams with pseudo-Dirac neutrino states running in the loops. In our analysis we further discuss the possibility of having a successful leptogenesis in this framework, compatible with a large electron electric dipole moment.

  12. Electronic Commerce Success Model: A Search for Multiple Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Achjari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempts to develop and examine framework of e-commerce success. In order to obtain comprehensive and robust measures, the framework accomodates key factors that are identified in the literature concerning the success of electronic commerce. The structural model comprises of four exogenous variables (Internal Driver, Internal Impediment, External Driver and Exgternal Impediment and one endogenous variable (Electornic Commerce Success eith 24 observed variables. The study that was administered within large Australian companies using questionaire survey concluded that benefits for both internal organization and external parties from the use of e-commerce were the main factor tro predict perceived and/or expected success of electronic commerce.

  13. Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.

    1999-03-01

    A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

  14. Test beam results of a low-pressure micro-strip gas chamber with a secondary-electron emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, S.; Anderson, D.F.; Zimmerman, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Sbarra, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Salomon, M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-10-01

    We present recent results, from a beam test, on the angular dependence of the efficiency and the distribution of the signals on the anode strips of a low-pressure microstrip gas chamber with a thick CsI layer as a secondary-electron emitter. New results of CVD diamond films as secondary-electron emitters are discussed.

  15. Strain and High Temperature Superconductivity: Unexpected Results from Direct Electronic Structure Measurements in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Cloetta, D.; Mitrovic, S.; Onellion, M.; Xi, X.; Margaritondo, G.; Pavuna, D.

    2003-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals very surprising strain-induced effects on the electronic band dispersion of epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4-δ thin films. In strained films we measure a band that crosses the Fermi level (EF) well before the Brillouin zone boundary. This is in contrast to the flat band reported in unstrained single crystals and in our unstrained films, as well as in contrast to the band flattening predicted by band structure calculations for in-plane compressive strain. In spite of the density of states reduction near EF, the critical temperature increases in strained films with respect to unstrained samples. These results require a radical departure from commonly accepted notions about strain effects on high temperature superconductors, with possible general repercussions on superconductivity theory.

  16. Results from a new Cocks-Ashby style porosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    A new porosity evolution model is described, along with preliminary results. The formulation makes use of a Cocks-Ashby style treatment of porosity kinetics that includes rate dependent flow in the mechanics of porosity growth. The porosity model is implemented in a framework that allows for a variety of strength models to be used for the matrix material, including ones with significant changes in rate sensitivity as a function of strain rate. Results of the effect of changing strain rate sensitivity on porosity evolution are shown. The overall constitutive model update involves the coupled solution of a system of nonlinear equations.

  17. Modeling micro-porous surfaces for secondary electron emission control to suppress multipactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, J. M.; Coutu, R. A.; Lake, R.; Laurvick, T.; Back, T.; Fairchild, S.

    2017-08-01

    This work seeks to understand how the topography of a surface can be engineered to control secondary electron emission (SEE) for multipactor suppression. Two unique, semi-empirical models for the secondary electron yield (SEY) of a micro-porous surface are derived and compared. The first model is based on a two-dimensional (2D) pore geometry. The second model is based on a three-dimensional (3D) pore geometry. The SEY of both models is shown to depend on two categories of surface parameters: chemistry and topography. An important parameter in these models is the probability of electron emissions to escape the surface pores. This probability is shown by both models to depend exclusively on the aspect ratio of the pore (the ratio of the pore height to the pore diameter). The increased accuracy of the 3D model (compared to the 2D model) results in lower electron escape probabilities with the greatest reductions occurring for aspect ratios less than two. In order to validate these models, a variety of micro-porous gold surfaces were designed and fabricated using photolithography and electroplating processes. The use of an additive metal-deposition process (instead of the more commonly used subtractive metal-etch process) provided geometrically ideal pores which were necessary to accurately assess the 2D and 3D models. Comparison of the experimentally measured SEY data with model predictions from both the 2D and 3D models illustrates the improved accuracy of the 3D model. For a micro-porous gold surface consisting of pores with aspect ratios of two and a 50% pore density, the 3D model predicts that the maximum total SEY will be one. This provides optimal engineered surface design objectives to pursue for multipactor suppression using gold surfaces.

  18. Modeling of electron time variations in the radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. W.; Teague, M. J.; Schofield, N. J.; Vette, J. I.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the temporal variation in the trapped electron population of the inner and outer radiation zones is presented. Techniques presently used for modeling these zones are discussed and their deficiencies identified. An intermediate region is indicated between the zones in which the present modeling techniques are inadequate due to the magnitude and frequency of magnetic storms. Future trends are examined, and it is suggested that modeling of individual magnetic storms may be required in certain L bands. An analysis of seven magnetic storms is presented, establishing the independence of the depletion time of the storm flux and the storm magnitude. Provisional correlation between the storm magnitude and the Dst index is demonstrated.

  19. Theory of coherent molecule to surface electron injection: An analytical model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramakrishna; T Seideman; F Willig; V May

    2009-09-01

    Electron transfer from a molecular level to empty continuum levels of a substrate is described theoretically. Using a quasicontinuum approach to model the substrate, analytical expressions pertaining to the time-dependent probability among the various levels of the substrate is presented along with its extension to coherently excited molecular vibrational modes. Hidden time scales and dynamics are revealed in the analysis and possible experiments to observe the new results are suggested. We note the applicability of the model to the description of a variety of other phenomena that are formally similar to the electron injection problem, although pertaining to different physics.

  20. Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pattyn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models that are able to robustly simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison exercise for marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no effects of lateral buttressing. Unique steady state grounding line positions exist for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed, while hysteresis occurs across an overdeepened bed, and stable steady state grounding line positions only occur on the downward-sloping sections. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which does not resolve extensional stresses, do not reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line. For extensional-stress resolving "shelfy stream" models, differences between model results were mainly due to the choice of spatial discretization. Moving grid methods were found to be the most accurate at capturing grounding line evolution, since they track the grounding line explicitly. Adaptive mesh refinement can further improve accuracy, including fixed grid models that generally perform poorly at coarse resolution. Fixed grid models, with nested grid representations of the grounding line, are able to generate accurate steady state positions, but can be inaccurate over transients. Only one full-Stokes model was included in the intercomparison, and consequently the accuracy of shelfy stream models as approximations of full-Stokes models remains to be determined in detail, especially during transients.

  1. Approaches to modelling irradiation-induced processes in transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Stephen T; Lebedeva, Irina V; Popov, Andrey M; Bichoutskaia, Elena

    2013-08-07

    The recent progress in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has given rise to the possibility of in situ observations of nanostructure transformations and chemical reactions induced by electron irradiation. In this article we briefly summarise experimental observations and discuss in detail atomistic modelling of irradiation-induced processes in HRTEM, as well as mechanisms of such processes recognised due to modelling. Accurate molecular dynamics (MD) techniques based on first principles or tight-binding models are employed in the analysis of single irradiation-induced events, and classical MD simulations are combined with a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate continuous irradiation of nanomaterials. It has been shown that sulphur-terminated graphene nanoribbons are formed inside carbon nanotubes as a result of an irradiation-selective chemical reaction. The process of fullerene formation in HRTEM during continuous electron irradiation of a small graphene flake has been simulated, and mechanisms driving this transformation analysed.

  2. Modelling electron distributions within ESA's Gaia satellite CCD pixels to mitigate radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Seabroke, G M; Burt, D; Robbins, M S

    2009-01-01

    The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2012. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will achieve its unprecedented positional accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. At L2, protons cause displacement damage in the silicon of CCDs. The resulting traps capture and emit electrons from passing charge packets in the CCD pixel, distorting the image PSF and biasing its centroid. Microscopic models of Gaia's CCDs are being developed to simulate this effect. The key to calculating the probability of an electron being captured by a trap is the 3D electron density within each CCD pixel. However, this has not been physically modelled for the Gaia CCD pixels. In Seabroke, Holland & Cropper (2008), the first paper of this series, we motivated the need for such specialised 3D device modelling and outlined how its future resu...

  3. Development of a model electronic Hamiltonian for understanding electronic relaxation dynamics of [Fe(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} through molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iuchi, Satoru; Koga, Nobuaki [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    A model electronic Hamiltonian of [Fe(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}, which was recently refined for use in molecular dynamics simulations, is reviewed with some additional results. In particular, the quality of the refined model Hamiltonian is examined in terms of the vibrational frequencies and solvation structures of the lowest singlet and quintet states.

  4. Analysing green supply chain management practices in Brazil's electrical/electronics industry using interpretive structural modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Mathiyazhagan, K.

    2013-01-01

    that exists between GSCM practices with regard to their adoption within Brazilian electrical/electronic industry with the help of interpretive structural modelling (ISM). From the results, we infer that cooperation with customers for eco-design practice is driving other practices, and this practice acts...

  5. EFFICENCY OF PHOTOACTIVATED DISINFECTION ON EXPERIMENTAL BIOFILM - SCANING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Filipov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoactivated disinfection is a new antimicrobial method for root canal disinfection, based on photodynamic therapy.Purpose: The goal of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial effect of photoactivated disinfection on experimental biofilm from Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, through scanning electron microscopy.Material and Methods: Freshly extracted, one root teeth were prepared with a sequence of rotary nickel-titanium files (ProTaper ; Dentsply ; Mailefer , irrigated, the external root canal surfaces isolated with nail polish and autoclaved. After the incubation with the experimental biofilm, the root canals were filled with photosensitizer - Toluidine Blue – 0,01% and irradiated with Foto San(CMS Dental, 630 nm, 2000mW/cm2 for 30 seconds.SEM was performed on the coronal, middle and apical third of the root canal, for evaluation of the results.Results and discussion: In the range of 600 to 8000, SEM showed significant reduction of microorganisms from the canal system. A large increase in microorganisms was observed, showing a disturbance in the cell membrane, as effect from the activation of chromophore with the laser and the penetration of the photosensitizer in dental tubules. In the apical third single microorganisms were observed. This may due to decreased penetration of the photosensitizer, incomplete pervasion of MB in the biofilm or insufficient oxygenation.Conclusion: FAD has the potential to be a good alternative and addition to the conventional root canal disinfection methods.SEM is a precise method for endodontic treatment result evaluation.

  6. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mswon@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project.

  7. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project.

  8. Results of a content analysis of electronic messages (email sent between patients and their physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittig Dean F

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Email is the most important mechanism introduced since the telephone for developing interpersonal relationships. This study was designed to provide insight into how patients are using email to request information or services from their healthcare providers. Methods Following IRB approval, we reviewed all electronic mail (e-mail messages sent between five study clinicians and their patients over a one-month period. We used a previously described taxonomy of patient requests to categorize all patient requests contained in the messages. We measured message volume, frequency, length and response time for all messages sent to and received by these clinicians. Results On average the 5 physicians involved in this study received 40 messages per month, each containing approximately 139 words. Replies sent by the physicians contained 39 words on average and 59.4% of them were sent within 24 hours. Patients averaged 1 request per message. Requests for information on medications or treatments, specific symptoms or diseases, and requests for actions regarding medications or treatments accounted for 75% of all requests. Physicians fulfilled 80.2% of all these requests. Upon comparison of these data to that obtained from traditional office visits, it appears that the potential exists for email encounters to substitute for some percentage of office visits. Conclusion Electronic messaging is an important method for physicians and patients to communicate and further develop their relationship. While many physicians worry that either the number or length of messages from their patients will overwhelm them, there is no evidence to support this. In fact, the evidence suggests that many patient requests, formerly made over the telephone or during office visits, can be addressed via email thus potentially saving both patients and physicians time.

  9. Modeling and Control of a teletruck using electronic load sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Iversen, Asger Malte; Jensen, Mads Schmidt;

    2010-01-01

    system is most commonly controlled using a hydro-mechanical control scheme called Hydraulic Load Sensing (HLS). However, with the demands for increased efficiency and controllability the HLS solutions are reaching their limits. Motivated by availability of electronic controllable fluid power...... the controller design for the ELS system, a complete model of the teletruck’s articulated arm and fluid power system is developed. To show the feasibility, a preliminary control structure for the ELS system is developed. The controller is tested on the machine, validating that features such as pump pressure...

  10. An experimental electronic model for a neuronal cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Cantón, I.; Rangel-López, A.; Martel-Gallegos, G.; Zarazúa, S.; Vertiz-Hérnandez, A.

    2014-04-01

    Over the last two decades, the study of information transmission in living beings has acquired great relevance, because it regulates and conducts the functioning of all of the organs in the body. In information transmission pathways, the neuron plays an important role in that it receives, transmits, and processes electrical signals from different parts of the human body; these signals are transmitted as electrical impulses called action potentials, and they transmit information from one neuron to another. In this work, and with the aim of developing experiments for teaching biological processes, we implemented an electronic circuit of the neuron cell device and its mathematical model based on piecewise linear functions.

  11. Confocal Microscopy for Modeling Electron Microbeam Irradiation of Skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John H.; Chrisler, William B.; Wang, Xihai; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2011-08-01

    For radiation exposures employing targeted sources such as particle microbeams, the deposition of energy and dose will depend on the spatial heterogeneity of the spample. Although cell structural variations are relatively minor for two-dimensional cell cultures, they can vary significantly for fully differential tissues. Employing high-resolution confocal microscopy, we have determined the spatial distribution, size, and shape of epidermal kerantinocyte nuclei for the full-thickness EpiDerm skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). Application of these data to claculate the microdosimetry and microdistribution of energy deposition by an electron microbeam is discussed.

  12. Updated Results for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Robert E.; Lai, David Y.; Delisi, Donald P.; Mellman, George R.

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an Inverse Model for inverting aircraft wake vortex data. The objective of the inverse modeling is to obtain estimates of the vortex circulation decay and crosswind vertical profiles, using time history measurements of the lateral and vertical position of aircraft vortices. The Inverse Model performs iterative forward model runs using estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Outputs from an Inverse Model run are the best estimates of the time history of the vortex circulation derived from the observed data, the vertical crosswind profile, and several vortex parameters. The forward model, named SHRAPA, used in this inverse modeling is a modified version of the Shear-APA model, and it is described in Section 2 of this document. Details of the Inverse Model are presented in Section 3. The Inverse Model was applied to lidar-observed vortex data at three airports: FAA acquired data from San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and Denver International Airport (DEN), and NASA acquired data from Memphis International Airport (MEM). The results are compared with observed data. This Inverse Model validation is documented in Section 4. A summary is given in Section 5. A user's guide for the inverse wake vortex model is presented in a separate NorthWest Research Associates technical report (Lai and Delisi, 2007a).

  13. s-wave threshold in electron attachment - Results in 2-C4F6 and CFCl3 at ultra-low electron energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.; Ajello, J. M.; Orient, O. J.

    1984-01-01

    Electron attachment lineshapes and cross sections are reported for the processes 2-C4F6(-)/2-C4F6 and Cl(-)/CFCl3 at electron energies of 0-120 and 0-140 meV, and at resolutions of 6 and 7 meV (FWHM), respectively. As in previous measurements in CCl4 and SF6, the results show resolution-limited narrow structure in the cross section at electron energies below 15 meV. This structure arises from the divergence of the s-wave cross section in the limit of zero electron energy. Comparisons are given with swarm-measured results, and with collisional ionization (high-Rydberg attachment) data in this energy range.

  14. Electronic Detection of Delayed Test Result Follow-Up in Patients with Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ashley N D; Murphy, Daniel R; Al-Mutairi, Aymer; Sittig, Dean F; Wei, Li; Russo, Elise; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-07-01

    Delays in following up abnormal test results are a common problem in outpatient settings. Surveillance systems that use trigger tools to identify delayed follow-up can help reduce missed opportunities in care. To develop and test an electronic health record (EHR)-based trigger algorithm to identify instances of delayed follow-up of abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) results in patients being treated for hypothyroidism. We developed an algorithm using structured EHR data to identify patients with hypothyroidism who had delayed follow-up (>60 days) after an abnormal TSH. We then retrospectively applied the algorithm to a large EHR data warehouse within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), on patient records from two large VA networks for the period from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011. Identified records were reviewed to confirm the presence of delays in follow-up. During the study period, 645,555 patients were seen in the outpatient setting within the two networks. Of 293,554 patients with at least one TSH test result, the trigger identified 1250 patients on treatment for hypothyroidism with elevated TSH. Of these patients, 271 were flagged as potentially having delayed follow-up of their test result. Chart reviews confirmed delays in 163 of the 271 flagged patients (PPV = 60.1%). An automated trigger algorithm applied to records in a large EHR data warehouse identified patients with hypothyroidism with potential delays in thyroid function test results follow-up. Future prospective application of the TSH trigger algorithm can be used by clinical teams as a surveillance and quality improvement technique to monitor and improve follow-up.

  15. Electronic Processes at Organic−Organic Interfaces: Insight from Modeling and Implications for Opto-electronic Devices †

    KAUST Repository

    Beljonne, David

    2011-02-08

    We report on the recent progress achieved in modeling the electronic processes that take place at interfaces between π-conjugated materials in organic opto-electronic devices. First, we provide a critical overview of the current computational techniques used to assess the morphology of organic: organic heterojunctions; we highlight the compromises that are necessary to handle large systems and multiple time scales while preserving the atomistic details required for subsequent computations of the electronic and optical properties. We then review some recent theoretical advances in describing the ground-state electronic structure at heterojunctions between donor and acceptor materials and highlight the role played by charge-transfer and long-range polarization effects. Finally, we discuss the modeling of the excited-state electronic structure at organic:organic interfaces, which is a key aspect in the understanding of the dynamics of photoinduced electron-transfer processes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. What Factors Determine the Use of an Electronic Test Result Acknowledgement System? - A Qualitative Study Across Two EDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julie; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I; Georgiou, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic medical record-based test results management interventions hold the potential to reduce errors in the test result follow-up process. However, ensuring the adaptability of such systems to the clinical environment has proven challenging. The aim of this study was to explore how contextual factors can influence senior emergency physicians' experience and perceived impacts of an electronic result acknowledgement system across two Emergency Departments. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews relating to physician test result acknowledgement processes before and after system implementation were conducted with 14 senior Emergency Physicians across two Australian metropolitan teaching hospitals. Perceived impacts of the electronic test result acknowledgement system on test result endorsement varied in terms of: changes to workflow, impacts on patient safety; and changes to documentation practices. Existing work practices and the departmental staffing mix and roles play a part in determining the nature of change that an electronic result acknowledgement system is likely to produce.

  17. Generalised Chou-Yang model and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-e-Aleem [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Rashid, H. [Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Centre for High Energy Physics

    1996-12-31

    It is shown that most recent results of E710 and UA4/2 collaboration for the total cross section and {rho} together with earlier measurements give good agreement with measurements for the differential cross section at 546 and 1800 GeV within the framework of Generalised Chou-Yang model. These results are also compared with the predictions of other models. (author) 16 refs.

  18. Model operator approach to the Lamb shift calculations in relativistic many-electron atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Shabaev, V M; Yerokhin, V A

    2013-01-01

    A model operator approach to calculations of the QED corrections to energy levels in relativistic many-electron atomic systems is developed. The model Lamb shift operator is represented by a sum of local and nonlocal potentials which are defined using the results of ab initio calculations of the diagonal and nondiagonal matrix elements of the one-loop QED operator with H-like wave functions. The model operator can be easily included in any calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by comparison of the model QED operator results for the Lamb shifts in many-electron atoms and ions with exact QED calculations.

  19. The electron beam deposition of titanium on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and the resulting enhanced biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheol-Min; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Keung N; Ha, Yoon; Kuh, Sung-Uk

    2010-05-01

    The surface of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) was coated with a pure titanium (Ti) layer using an electron beam (e-beam) deposition method in order to enhance its biocompatibility and adhesion to bone tissue. The e-beam deposition method was a low-temperature coating process that formed a dense, uniform and well crystallized Ti layer without deteriorating the characteristics of the PEEK implant. The Ti coating layer strongly adhered to the substrate and remarkably enhanced its wettability. The Ti-coated samples were evaluated in terms of their in vitro cellular behaviors and in vivo osteointegration, and the results were compared to a pure PEEK substrate. The level of proliferation of the cells (MC3T3-E1) was measured using a methoxyphenyl tetrazolium salt (MTS) assay and more than doubled after the Ti coating. The differentiation level of cells was measured using the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and also doubled. Furthermore, the in vivo animal tests showed that the Ti-coated PEEK implants had a much higher bone-in-contact (BIC) ratio than the pure PEEK implants. These in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the e-beam deposited Ti coating significantly improved the potential of PEEK for hard tissue applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Life cycle Prognostic Model Development and Initial Application Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, Brien; Hines, Wesley; Nam, Alan; Sharp, Michael; Upadhyaya, Belle [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2014-08-15

    In order to obtain more accurate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) estimates based on empirical modeling, a Lifecycle Prognostics algorithm was developed that integrates various prognostic models. These models can be categorized into three types based on the type of data they process. The application of multiple models takes advantage of the most useful information available as the system or component operates through its lifecycle. The Lifecycle Prognostics is applied to an impeller test bed, and the initial results serve as a proof of concept.

  1. Model-based Adjustment of Droplet Characteristic for 3D Electronic Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge in 3D electronic printing is the print resolution and accuracy. In this paper, a typical mode - lumped element modeling method (LEM - is adopted to simulate the droplet jetting characteristic. This modeling method can quickly get the droplet velocity and volume with a high accuracy. Experimental results show that LEM has a simpler structure with the sufficient simulation and prediction accuracy.

  2. Atomistic modeling of electron relaxation effect on femtosecond laser-induced thermoelastic response of gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Q. L.; Tian, X. G.; Lu, T. J.

    2012-07-01

    The thermoelastic response of thin gold films induced by femtosecond laser irradiation is numerically simulated using a modified combined two-temperature model (TTM) and molecular dynamics (MD) method, with focus placed upon the influence of the electron relaxation effect. The validity of the numerical approach is checked against existing experimental results. While the electron relaxation effect is found negligible when the laser duration is much longer than the electron thermal relaxation time, it becomes significant if the laser duration matches the electron relaxation time, especially when the former is much shorter than the latter. The characteristics of thermo-mechanical interaction in the thin film are analyzed, and the influence of temperature-dependent material properties upon the thermoelastic response of the film quantified.

  3. Neutrinoless double positron decay and positron emitting electron capture in the interacting boson model

    CERN Document Server

    Barea, J; Iachello, F

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay is of fundamental importance for determining the neutrino mass. Although double electron ($\\beta^-\\beta^-$) decay is the most promising mode, in very recent years interest in double positron ($\\beta^+\\beta^+$) decay, positron emitting electron capture ($EC\\beta^+$), and double electron capture ($ECEC$) has been renewed. We present here results of a calculation of nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double-$\\beta^+$ decay and positron emitting electron capture within the framework of the microscopic interacting boson model (IBM-2) for $^{58}$Ni, $^{64}$Zn, $^{78}$Kr, $^{96}$Ru, $^{106}$Cd, $^{124}$Xe, $^{130}$Ba, and $^{136}$Ce decay. By combining these with a calculation of phase space factors we calculate expected half-lives.

  4. Protein folding: the optically induced electronic excitations model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeknic-Dugic, J [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nis (Serbia)], E-mail: jjeknic@pmf.ni.ac.yu

    2009-07-15

    The large-molecules conformational transitions problem (the 'protein folding problem') is an open issue of vivid current science research work of fundamental importance for a number of modern science disciplines as well as for nanotechnology. Here, we elaborate the recently proposed quantum-decoherence-based approach to the issue. First, we emphasize a need for detecting the elementary quantum mechanical processes (whose combinations may give a proper description of the realistic experimental situations) and then we design such a model. As distinct from the standard approach that deals with the conformation system, we investigate the optically induced transitions in the molecule electrons system that, in effect, may give rise to a conformation change in the molecule. Our conclusion is that such a model may describe the comparatively slow conformational transitions.

  5. The Dismantling of the Japanese Model in Consumer Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens; Holm Olesen, Michael; Kjær, Jonas

    This paper addresses an issue of great importance for the future organization of the consumerelectronics industry: the "battle" of control over component-based digitization. We are now witnessing the dismantling of the Japanese Model that has prevailed in consumer electronicsover the past 30 year...... technology. Aframework is developed to explain the reluctance of most of the large consumer electronicsgiants in developing/adopting this new technology.Key words: Consumer electronics, Industrial dynamics, Open InnovationJEL Codes: L6, L68, O32......This paper addresses an issue of great importance for the future organization of the consumerelectronics industry: the "battle" of control over component-based digitization. We are now witnessing the dismantling of the Japanese Model that has prevailed in consumer electronicsover the past 30 years...

  6. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimley, Brian, E-mail: brian.plimley@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  7. Effects of model approximations for electron, hole, and photon transport in swift heavy ion tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymzhanov, R. A.; Medvedev, N. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The event-by-event Monte Carlo code, TREKIS, was recently developed to describe excitation of the electron subsystems of solids in the nanometric vicinity of a trajectory of a nonrelativistic swift heavy ion (SHI) decelerated in the electronic stopping regime. The complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism was applied in the used cross sections to account for collective response of a matter to excitation. Using this model we investigate effects of the basic assumptions on the modeled kinetics of the electronic subsystem which ultimately determine parameters of an excited material in an SHI track. In particular, (a) effects of different momentum dependencies of the CDF on scattering of projectiles on the electron subsystem are investigated. The 'effective one-band' approximation for target electrons produces good coincidence of the calculated electron mean free paths with those obtained in experiments in metals. (b) Effects of collective response of a lattice appeared to dominate in randomization of electron motion. We study how sensitive these effects are to the target temperature. We also compare results of applications of different model forms of (quasi-) elastic cross sections in simulations of the ion track kinetics, e.g. those calculated taking into account optical phonons in the CDF form vs. Mott's atomic cross sections. (c) It is demonstrated that the kinetics of valence holes significantly affects redistribution of the excess electronic energy in the vicinity of an SHI trajectory as well as its conversion into lattice excitation in dielectrics and semiconductors. (d) It is also shown that induced transport of photons originated from radiative decay of core holes brings the excess energy faster and farther away from the track core, however, the amount of this energy is relatively small.

  8. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimley, Brian; Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong; Vetter, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  9. Reliable modeling of the electronic spectra of realistic uranium complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecmer, Paweł; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; de Jong, Wibe A.; Visscher, Lucas

    2013-07-01

    We present an EOMCCSD (equation of motion coupled cluster with singles and doubles) study of excited states of the small [UO2]2+ and [UO2]+ model systems as well as the larger UVIO2(saldien) complex. In addition, the triples contribution within the EOMCCSDT and CR-EOMCCSD(T) (completely renormalized EOMCCSD with non-iterative triples) approaches for the [UO2]2+ and [UO2]+ systems as well as the active-space variant of the CR-EOMCCSD(T) method—CR-EOMCCSd(t)—for the UVIO2(saldien) molecule are investigated. The coupled cluster data were employed as benchmark to choose the "best" appropriate exchange-correlation functional for subsequent time-dependent density functional (TD-DFT) studies on the transition energies for closed-shell species. Furthermore, the influence of the saldien ligands on the electronic structure and excitation energies of the [UO2]+ molecule is discussed. The electronic excitations as well as their oscillator dipole strengths modeled with TD-DFT approach using the CAM-B3LYP exchange-correlation functional for the [UVO2(saldien)]- with explicit inclusion of two dimethyl sulfoxide molecules are in good agreement with the experimental data of Takao et al. [Inorg. Chem. 49, 2349 (2010), 10.1021/ic902225f].

  10. Time domain simulation and modeling of power electronic circuits. Development of a simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, O.

    1993-08-01

    This thesis presents the results of a study on the topic: Time domain modeling and simulation of power electronic circuits. The objectives of the presented work have been to improve and expand the simulation program KREAN. This also included search for, development and implementation of models suited for analysis of power electronic circuits. The main contribution of the work is the improved KREAN program itself and the models created for the program. Further, the work has led to this thesis which is a documentation of the applied methods. The thesis shows how to create a power electronic simulation tool and how to meet the special problems encountered in power electronic circuits. Among the major improvements of KREAN are: Better methods for solution of nonlinear algebraic equations. Major modifications have been implemented in the modified Newton iteration method. The old method suffered from insufficient control of the iteration error. Improved efficiency, accuracy and robustness of the breakpoint detection methods (breakpoints are time instants of discontinuous behavior in models). A new linear circuit now replaces the nonlinear modules at each stage in the iteration. The old one could give serious errors in the results and was not applicable after introduction of voltage response terminals. Several new models have been implemented as KREAN modules. Together with the old basic ones, they form a powerful set for simulation of power electronics. The thesis describes the applied methods, the implemented models and also presents results from study of the accuracy and efficiency of the program. The applied methods in the program are stated to be good enough for most simulation purposes. 100 refs., 93 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2012-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions∕s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms∕charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV∕u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

  12. Computational studies of model disordered and strongly correlated electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Sonika

    The theory of non-interacting electrons in perfect crystals was completed soon after the advent of quantum mechanics. Though capable of describing electron behaviour in most simple solid state physics systems, this approach falls woefully short of describing condensed matter systems of interest today, and designing the quantum devices of the future. The reason is that nature is never free of disorder, and emergent properties arising from interactions can be clearly seen in the pure, low-dimensional materials that can be engineered today. In this thesis, I address some salient problems in disordered and correlated electronic systems using modern numerical techniques like sparse matrix diagonalization, density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), and large disorder renormalization group (LDRG) methods. The pioneering work of P. W. Anderson, in 1958, led to an understanding of how an electron can stop diffusing and become localized in a region of space when a crystal is sufficiently disordered. Thus disorder can lead to metal-insulator transitions, for instance, in doped semiconductors. Theoretical research on the Anderson disorder model since then has mostly focused on the localization-delocalization phase transition. The localized phase in itself was not thought to exhibit any interesting physics. Our work has uncovered a new singularity in the disorder-averaged inverse participation ratio of wavefunctions within the localized phase, arising from resonant states. The effects of system size, dimension and disorder distribution on the singularity have been studied. A novel wavefunction-based LDRG technique has been designed for the Anderson model which captures the singular behaviour. While localization is well established for a single electron in a disordered potential, the situation is less clear in the case of many interacting particles. Most studies of a many-body localized phase are restricted to a system which is isolated from its environment. Such a condition

  13. Multi-Information Model for PCB-Based ElectronicsProduct Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春泉; 周德俭; 余涛

    2004-01-01

    Most electronics products use PCB to carry electronic circuits. This paper classifies information contained in PCB-based electronic circuits into several models: geometry model, physics model, performance model and function model. Based on this classification, a multi-information model of product is established. A composite model of product is also created based on object-orientation and characteristics of the product. The model includes a 3D geometry model, a physics model with integrated information that can be divided into microscopic and macroscopic information, a generalized performance model and a function model that are from top to bottom. Finally, a multi-unit analysis is briefly discussed.

  14. Long-term results of intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy for nonmetastatic locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingtai; Che, Xu; Zhang, Jianwei; Huang, Huang; Zhao, Dongbing; Tian, Yantao; Li, Yexiong; Feng, Qinfu; Zhang, Zhihui; Jiang, Qinglong; Zhang, Shuisheng; Tang, Xiaolong; Huang, Xianghui; Chu, Yunmian; Zhang, Jianghu; Sun, Yuemin; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Chengfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To assess prognostic benefits of intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and evaluate optimal adjuvant treatment after IOERT. A retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data was conducted at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China National Cancer Center. Two hundred forty-seven consecutive patients with nonmetastatic LAPC who underwent IOERT between January 2008 and May 2015 were identified and included in the study. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from the day of IOERT. Prognostic factors were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year actuarial survival rates were 40%, 14%, and 7.2%, respectively, with a median OS of 9.0 months. On multivariate analysis, an IOERT applicator diameter < 6 cm (hazards ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47–0.97), no intraoperative interstitial sustained-release 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.32–0.66), and receipt of postoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy (HR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04–0.25) were significantly associated with improved OS. Pain relief after IOERT was achieved in 111 of the 117 patients, with complete remission in 74 and partial remission in 37. Postoperative complications rate and mortality were 14.0% and 0.4%, respectively. Nonmetastatic LAPC patients with smaller size tumors could achieve positive long-term survival outcomes with a treatment strategy incorporating IOERT and postoperative adjuvant treatment. Chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy might be a recommended adjuvant treatment strategy for well-selected cases. Intraoperative interstitial sustained-release 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy should not be recommended for patients with nonmetastatic LAPC. PMID:27661028

  15. An Examination of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Ionospheric Electron Density Profile: Data Quality Criteria and Comparisons with the IRI Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Feng Yang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the properties of ionospheric electron density profiling retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements. Two parameters, namely, the gradient and fluctuation of the topside electron density profile, serve as indicators to quantitatively describe the data quality of the retrieved electron density profile. On the basis of 8 month data (June 2006 - January 2007, we find that on average 93% of the electron density profiles have upper electron density gradients and electron density fluctuations smaller than -0.02 #/m3/m and 0.2, respectively, which can be treated as good data for further analysis. The same results are also achieved for the peak height of the electron density. After removing the questionable data, we compare the general behaviors of the electron density between FORMOSAT-3 and the IRI model. It is found that the global distributions of the peak height and the peak electron density for the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data are generally consistent with those for the IRI model. However, a significant difference between their scale heights of the topside electron density profiles is found. It suggests that the shape of the topside electron density profile in the IRI model should be revised accordingly such that it more closely resembles the real situation.

  16. First results from the new RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T; Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Aihara, T; Tamura, M; Uchiyama, A; Okuno, H; Kusaka, K; Kidera, M; Ikezawa, E; Fujimaki, M; Sato, Y; Watanabe, Y; Komiyama, M; Kase, M; Goto, A; Kamigaito, O; Yano, Y

    2010-02-01

    The next generation heavy ion accelerator facility, such as the RIKEN radio isotope (RI) beam factory, requires an intense beam of high charged heavy ions. In the past decade, performance of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources has been dramatically improved with increasing the magnetic field and rf frequency to enhance the density and confinement time of plasma. Furthermore, the effects of the key parameters (magnetic field configuration, gas pressure, etc.) on the ECR plasma have been revealed. Such basic studies give us how to optimize the ion source structure. Based on these studies and modern superconducting (SC) technology, we successfully constructed the new 28 GHz SC-ECRIS, which has a flexible magnetic field configuration to enlarge the ECR zone and to optimize the field gradient at ECR point. Using it, we investigated the effect of ECR zone size, magnetic field configuration, and biased disk on the beam intensity of the highly charged heavy ions with 18 GHz microwaves. In this article, we present the structure of the ion source and first experimental results with 18 GHz microwave in detail.

  17. Characteristics of wastes from electric and electronic equipment in Greece: results of a field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Perkoulidis, George; Papadopoulos, Agis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Tsatsarelis, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    The lifespan of electric and electronic equipment is becoming shorter and the amount of related waste is increasing. This study aimed to contribute to the knowledge about qualitative and quantitative characteristics of such wastes in Greece. Specifically, results are presented from a field survey, which took place in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, during the year 2002. The survey was conducted with suitable questionnaires in department stores and in households of various municipalities. Household appliances were grouped as follows: (A) large (refrigerator, freezer, washing machine, clothes dryer, electric cooker, microwave oven, electric heater), (B) small (vacuum cleaner, electric iron, hair dryer), (C) information technology and telecommunication equipment (PC, laptop, printer, phone) and (D) consumer equipment (radio, TV, video, DVD, console). The analysis indicated that the lifespan of all new goods is gradually reducing (apart from refrigerators, for which the lifespan was surprisingly found to be increasing) and provided linearized functions for predicting the lifespan, according to the year of manufacture, for certain large appliances.

  18. Current and future delivery of diagnostic electron microscopy in the UK: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Tracey; Furness, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) remains essential to delivering several specialist areas of diagnosis, especially the interpretation of native renal biopsies. However, there is anecdotal evidence of EM units struggling to survive, for a variety of reasons. The authors sought to obtain objective evidence of the extent and the causes of this problem. An online survey was undertaken of Fellows of the Royal College of Pathologists who use EM in diagnosis. A significant number of EM units anticipate having to close and hence outsource their EM work in the coming years. Yet most existing units are working to full capacity and would be unable to take on the substantial amounts of extra work implied by other units outsourcing their needs. Equipment and staffing are identified by most EM units as the major barriers to growth and are also the main reasons cited for units facing potential closure. In the current financial climate it seems unlikely that units will be willing to make the large investment in equipment and staff needed to take on extra work, unless they can be reasonably confident of an acceptable financial return as a result of increased external referral rates. The case is thus made for a degree of national coordination of the future provision of this specialist service, possibly through the National Commissioning Group or the new National Commissioning Board. Without this, the future of diagnostic EM services in the UK is uncertain. Its failure would pose a threat to good patient care.

  19. Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: combined ab initio and model study

    CERN Document Server

    Petreska, Irina; Pejov, Ljupco; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2015-01-01

    Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that confirmation dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previ...

  20. Modeling of beam-target interaction during pulsed electron beam ablation of graphite: Case of melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muddassir; Henda, Redhouane

    2017-02-01

    A one-dimensional thermal model based on a two-stage heat conduction equation is employed to investigate the ablation of graphite target during nanosecond pulsed electron beam ablation. This comprehensive model accounts for the complex physical phenomena comprised of target heating, melting and vaporization upon irradiation with a polyenergetic electron beam. Melting and vaporization effects induced during ablation are taken into account by introducing moving phase boundaries. Phase transition induced during ablation is considered through the temperature dependent thermodynamic properties of graphite. The effect of electron beam efficiency, power density, and accelerating voltage on ablation is analyzed. For an electron beam operating at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV and efficiency of 0.6, the model findings show that the target surface temperature can reach up to 7500 K at the end of the pulse. The surface begins to melt within 25 ns from the pulse start. For the same process conditions, the estimated ablation depth and ablated mass per unit area are about 0.60 μm and 1.05 μg/mm2, respectively. Model results indicate that ablation takes place primarily in the regime of normal vaporization from the surface. The results obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV and efficiency factor of 0.6 are satisfactorily in good accordance with available experimental data in the literature.

  1. Can electronic search engines optimize screening of search results in systematic reviews: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Tammy J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most electronic search efforts directed at identifying primary studies for inclusion in systematic reviews rely on the optimal Boolean search features of search interfaces such as DIALOG® and Ovid™. Our objective is to test the ability of an Ultraseek® search engine to rank MEDLINE® records of the included studies of Cochrane reviews within the top half of all the records retrieved by the Boolean MEDLINE search used by the reviewers. Methods Collections were created using the MEDLINE bibliographic records of included and excluded studies listed in the review and all records retrieved by the MEDLINE search. Records were converted to individual HTML files. Collections of records were indexed and searched through a statistical search engine, Ultraseek, using review-specific search terms. Our data sources, systematic reviews published in the Cochrane library, were included if they reported using at least one phase of the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy (HSSS, provided citations for both included and excluded studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a binary outcome measure. Reviews were selected if they yielded between 1000–6000 records when the MEDLINE search strategy was replicated. Results Nine Cochrane reviews were included. Included studies within the Cochrane reviews were found within the first 500 retrieved studies more often than would be expected by chance. Across all reviews, recall of included studies into the top 500 was 0.70. There was no statistically significant difference in ranking when comparing included studies with just the subset of excluded studies listed as excluded in the published review. Conclusion The relevance ranking provided by the search engine was better than expected by chance and shows promise for the preliminary evaluation of large results from Boolean searches. A statistical search engine does not appear to be able to make fine discriminations concerning the relevance of

  2. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario...... of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological obser-vations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observa-tional data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced....... However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties...

  3. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely...... uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble......’ dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent...

  4. Mathematical Existence Results for the Doi-Edwards Polymer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupin, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present some mathematical results on the Doi-Edwards model describing the dynamics of flexible polymers in melts and concentrated solutions. This model, developed in the late 1970s, has been used and extensively tested in modeling and simulation of polymer flows. From a mathematical point of view, the Doi-Edwards model consists in a strong coupling between the Navier-Stokes equations and a highly nonlinear constitutive law. The aim of this article is to provide a rigorous proof of the well-posedness of the Doi-Edwards model, namely that it has a unique regular solution. We also prove, which is generally much more difficult for flows of viscoelastic type, that the solution is global in time in the two dimensional case, without any restriction on the smallness of the data.

  5. Observations of bidirectional electrons in the distant tail lobes: GEOTAIL results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Nishida, A.; Mukai, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Saito, Y.; Matsuno, Y.; Kokubun, S.; Pulkkinen, T. I.

    ISEE-3 demonstrated the relatively frequent occurrence of low-energy (50 ∼ 500 eV) electron flux enhancements within the distant magnetotail lobes. These electrons were found to be “bidirectional” in the sense that intensities were highest parallel (and antiparallel) to the lobe magnetic field lines. It was concluded that these electrons must enter the tail lobes along open field lines at the distant magnetopause and that this population would constitute the source for polar rain electrons at low altitudes in the polar cap regions. Similar plasma electron features have been found using the Low Energy Particle (LEP) sensor system onboard the GEOTAIL spacecraft. Remarkably close correspondences of low-energy (≲ 2 keV) ion tailward flow enhancements are found to occur when bidirectional electron fluxes suddenly intensify. Such ion plasma measurements were not available with ISEE-3 and, thus, a new aspect of solar wind entry and overall plasma dynamics is revealed by these GEOTAIL measurements in the distant tail. Other ISTP data (e.g., IMP-8 and CANOPUS) are used to analyze selected periods.

  6. Results of Ionospheric Heating Experiments Involving an Enhancement in Electron Density in the High Latitude Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Wu, Jian; Xu, Zhengwen

    2016-09-01

    Observations are presented of the phenomenon of the enhancement in electron density and temperature that is caused by a powerful pump wave at a frequency near the fifth gyrofrequency. The observations show that the apparent enhancement in electron density extending over a wide altitude range and the enhancement in electron temperature around the reflection altitude occur as a function of pump frequency. Additionally, the plasma line spectra show unusual behavior as a function of pump frequency. In conclusion, the upper hybrid wave resonance excited by the pump wave plays a dominating role and leads to the enhancement in electron temperature at the upper hybrid altitude. The phenomenon of apparent enhancement in electron density does not correspond to the true enhancement in electron density, this may be due to some mechanism that preferentially involves the plasma transport process and leads to the strong backscatter of radar wave along the magnetic line, which remains to be determined. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40831062)

  7. Modeling Results for the ITER Cryogenic Fore Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongsheng

    The work presented here is the analysis and modeling of the ITER-Cryogenic Fore Pump (CFP), also called Cryogenic Viscous Compressor (CVC). Unlike common cryopumps that are usually used to create and maintain vacuum, the cryogenic fore pump is designed for ITER to collect and compress hydrogen isotopes during the regeneration process of the torus cryopumps. Different from common cryopumps, the ITER-CFP works in the viscous flow regime. As a result, both adsorption boundary conditions and transport phenomena contribute unique features to the pump performance. In this report, the physical mechanisms of cryopumping are studied, especially the diffusion-adsorption process and these are coupled with the standard equations of species, momentum and energy balance, as well as the equation of state. Numerical models are developed, which include highly coupled non-linear conservation equations of species, momentum, and energy and equation of state. Thermal and kinetic properties are treated as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas fluid mixture. To solve such a set of equations, a novel numerical technique, identified as the Group-Member numerical technique is proposed. This document presents three numerical models: a transient model, a steady state model, and a hemisphere (or molecular flow) model. The first two models are developed based on analysis of the raw experimental data while the third model is developed as a preliminary study. The modeling results are compared with available experiment data for verification. The models can be used for cryopump design, and can also benefit problems, such as loss of vacuum in a cryomodule or cryogenic desublimation. The scientific and engineering investigation being done here builds connections between Mechanical Engineering and other disciplines, such as Chemical Engineering, Physics, and Chemistry.

  8. Comparison of NASCAP modelling results with lumped circuit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, D. B.; Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    Engineering design tools that can be used to predict the development of absolute and differential potentials by realistic spacecraft under geomagnetic substorm conditions are described. Two types of analyses are in use: (1) the NASCAP code, which computes quasistatic charging of geometrically complex objects with multiple surface materials in three dimensions; (2) lumped element equivalent circuit models that are used for analyses of particular spacecraft. The equivalent circuit models require very little computation time, however, they cannot account for effects, such as the formation of potential barriers, that are inherently multidimensional. Steady state potentials of structure and insulation are compared with those resulting from the equivalent circuit model.

  9. The East model: recent results and new progresses

    CERN Document Server

    Faggionato, Alessandra; Roberto, Cyril; Toninelli, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The East model is a particular one dimensional interacting particle system in which certain transitions are forbidden according to some constraints depending on the configuration of the system. As such it has received particular attention in the physics literature as a special case of a more general class of systems referred to as kinetically constrained models, which play a key role in explaining some features of the dynamics of glasses. In this paper we give an extensive overview of recent rigorous results concerning the equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of the East model together with some new improvements.

  10. Constraining hybrid inflation models with WMAP three-year results

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, A

    2006-01-01

    We reconsider the original model of quadratic hybrid inflation in light of the WMAP three-year results and study the possibility of obtaining a spectral index of primordial density perturbations, $n_s$, smaller than one from this model. The original hybrid inflation model naturally predicts $n_s\\geq1$ in the false vacuum dominated regime but it is also possible to have $n_s<1$ when the quadratic term dominates. We therefore investigate whether there is also an intermediate regime compatible with the latest constraints, where the scalar field value during the last 50 e-folds of inflation is less than the Planck scale.

  11. Recent MEG Results and Predictive SO(10) Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuyama, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Recent MEG results of a search for the lepton flavor violating (LFV) muon decay, $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$, show 3 events as the best value for the number of signals in the maximally likelihood fit. Although this result is still far from the evidence/discovery in statistical point of view, it might be a sign of a certain new physics beyond the Standard Model. As has been well-known, supersymmetric (SUSY) models can generate the $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ decay rate within the search reach of the MEG experiment. A certain class of SUSY grand unified theory (GUT) models such as the minimal SUSY SO(10) model (we call this class of models "predictive SO(10) models") can unambiguously determine fermion Yukawa coupling matrices, in particular, the neutrino Dirac Yukawa matrix. Based on the universal boundary conditions for soft SUSY breaking parameters at the GUT scale, we calculate the rate of the $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ process by using the completely determined Dirac Yukawa matrix in two examples of predictive SO(10) models. If we ...

  12. Atomistic modeling of electronic structure and transport in disordered nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharche, Neerav

    As the Si-CMOS technology approaches the end of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the semiconductor industry faces a formidable challenge to continue the transistor scaling according to Moore's law. To continue the scaling of classical devices, alternative channel materials such as SiGe, carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and III-V based materials are being investigated along with novel 3D device geometries. Researchers are also investigating radically new quantum computing devices, which are expected to perform calculations faster than the existing classical Si-CMOS based structures. Atomic scale disorders such as interface roughness, alloy randomness, non-uniform strain, and dopant fluctuations are routinely present in the experimental realization of such devices. These disorders now play an increasingly important role in determining the electronic structure and transport properties as device sizes enter the nanometer regime. This work employs the atomistic tight-binding technique, which is ideally suited for modeling systems with local disorders on an atomic scale. High-precision multi-million atom electronic structure calculations of (111) Si surface quantum wells and (100) SiGe/Si/SiGe heterostructure quantum wells are performed to investigate the modulation of valley splitting induced by atomic scale disorders. The calculations presented here resolve the existing discrepancies between theoretically predicted and experimentally measured valley splitting, which is an important design parameter in quantum computing devices. Supercell calculations and the zone-unfolding method are used to compute the bandstructures of inhomogeneous nanowires made of AlGaAs and SiGe and their connection with the transmission coefficients computed using non-equilibrium Green's function method is established. A unified picture of alloy nanowires emerges, in which the nanodevice (transmission) and nanomaterials (bandstructure) viewpoints complement each other

  13. Summary of FY15 results of benchmark modeling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguello, J. Guadalupe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia is participating in the third phase of an is a contributing partner to a U.S.-German "Joint Project" entitled "Comparison of current constitutive models and simulation procedures on the basis of model calculations of the thermo-mechanical behavior and healing of rock salt." The first goal of the project is to check the ability of numerical modeling tools to correctly describe the relevant deformation phenomena in rock salt under various influences. Achieving this goal will lead to increased confidence in the results of numerical simulations related to the secure storage of radioactive wastes in rock salt, thereby enhancing the acceptance of the results. These results may ultimately be used to make various assertions regarding both the stability analysis of an underground repository in salt, during the operating phase, and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier against the release of harmful substances into the biosphere, in the post-operating phase.

  14. Standard Model physics results from ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dordevic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The most recent results of Standard Model physics studies in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV center-of-mass energy based on data recorded by ATLAS and CMS detectors during the LHC Run I are reviewed. This overview includes studies of vector boson production cross section and properties, results on V+jets production with light and heavy flavours, latest VBS and VBF results, measurement of diboson production with an emphasis on ATGC and QTGC searches, as well as results on inclusive jet cross sections with strong coupling constant measurement and PDF constraints. The outlined results are compared to the prediction of the Standard Model.

  15. Monte Carlo modeling of ion beam induced secondary electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, U., E-mail: uhuh@vols.utk.edu [Biochemistry & Cellular & Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0840 (United States); Cho, W. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 (United States); Joy, D.C. [Biochemistry & Cellular & Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0840 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Ion induced secondary electrons (iSE) can produce high-resolution images ranging from a few eV to 100 keV over a wide range of materials. The interpretation of such images requires knowledge of the secondary electron yields (iSE δ) for each of the elements and materials present and as a function of the incident beam energy. Experimental data for helium ions are currently limited to 40 elements and six compounds while other ions are not well represented. To overcome this limitation, we propose a simple procedure based on the comprehensive work of Berger et al. Here we show that between the energy range of 10–100 keV the Berger et al. data for elements and compounds can be accurately represented by a single universal curve. The agreement between the limited experimental data that is available and the predictive model is good, and has been found to provide reliable yield data for a wide range of elements and compounds. - Highlights: • The Universal ASTAR Yield Curve was derived from data recently published by NIST. • IONiSE incorporated with the Curve will predict iSE yield for elements and compounds. • This approach can also handle other ion beams by changing basic scattering profile.

  16. A Model of Electron-Positron Pair Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The elementary electron-positron pair formation process is consideredin terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory, with specialattention to the conservation of energy, spin, and electric charge.The theory leads to a wave-packet photon model of narrow line widthand needle-radiation properties, not being available from conventionalquantum electrodynamics which is based on Maxwell's equations. Themodel appears to be consistent with the observed pair productionprocess, in which the created electron and positron form two raysthat start within a very small region and have original directionsalong the path of the incoming photon. Conservation of angular momentum requires the photon to possess a spin, as given by the present theory but not by the conventional one. The nonzero electric field divergence further gives rise to a local intrinsic electric charge density within the photon body, whereas there is a vanishing total charge of the latter. This may explain the observed fact that the photon decays on account of the impact from an external electric field. Such a behaviour should not become possible for a photon having zero local electric charge density.

  17. Model of Improving Customer Loyalty in Electronic Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Attafar

    2011-12-01

    Today, due to the growth and diversity of e-commerce technologies, the number of virtual stores is exponentially increasing and this has created new challenges in business. Therefore, improving customer loyalty is critically important for sustaining success of electronic stores. In this regard, an attempt has been made to propose an appropriate model for improving loyalty of customers in electronic stores. The study population includes faculty and students of Yazd University who have had experience of buying books from online bookstores. Due to non-normal distribution of data, nonparametric methods (sign test, Mann-Whitney, Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis have been used for data analysis. Findings imply that 21 components have been extracted in three general categories, i.e. customer service, design and trust influence e-loyalty, which explain totally 70% of the structure of factors influencing e-loyalty in online bookstores. Findings indicate that from the viewpoint of faculty and students of Yazd University, indicators related to "trust" have the highest influence on improving e-loyalty.

  18. Model of Improving Customer Loyalty in Electronic Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Atafar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, due to the growth and diversity of e-commerce technologies, the number of virtual stores is exponentially increasing and this has created new challenges in business. Therefore, improving customer loyalty is critically important for sustaining success of electronic stores. In this regard, an attempt has been made to propose an appropriate model for improving loyalty of customers in electronic stores. The study population includes faculty and students of Yazd University who have had experience of buying books from online bookstores. Due to non-normal distribution of data, nonparametric methods (sign test, Mann-Whitney, Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis have been used for data analysis. Findings imply that 21 components have been extracted in three general categories, i.e. customer service, design and trust influence e-loyalty, which explain totally 70% of the structure of factors influencing e-loyalty in online bookstores. Findings indicate that from the viewpoint of faculty and students of Yazd University, indicators related to "trust" have the highest influence on improving e-loyalty.

  19. A deterministic partial differential equation model for dose calculation in electron radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclous, R; Dubroca, B [CELIA and IMB Laboratories, Bordeaux University, 33405 Talence (France); Frank, M, E-mail: duclous@celia.u-bordeaux1.f, E-mail: dubroca@celia.u-bordeaux1.f, E-mail: frank@mathcces.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Mathematics and Center for Computational Engineering Science, RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 2, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-07

    High-energy ionizing radiation is a prominent modality for the treatment of many cancers. The approaches to electron dose calculation can be categorized into semi-empirical models (e.g. Fermi-Eyges, convolution-superposition) and probabilistic methods (e.g. Monte Carlo). A third approach to dose calculation has only recently attracted attention in the medical physics community. This approach is based on the deterministic kinetic equations of radiative transfer. We derive a macroscopic partial differential equation model for electron transport in tissue. This model involves an angular closure in the phase space. It is exact for the free streaming and the isotropic regime. We solve it numerically by a newly developed HLLC scheme based on Berthon et al (2007 J. Sci. Comput. 31 347-89) that exactly preserves the key properties of the analytical solution on the discrete level. We discuss several test cases taken from the medical physics literature. A test case with an academic Henyey-Greenstein scattering kernel is considered. We compare our model to a benchmark discrete ordinate solution. A simplified model of electron interactions with tissue is employed to compute the dose of an electron beam in a water phantom, and a case of irradiation of the vertebral column. Here our model is compared to the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. In the academic example, the fluences computed with the new model and a benchmark result differ by less than 1%. The depths at half maximum differ by less than 0.6%. In the two comparisons with Monte Carlo, our model gives qualitatively reasonable dose distributions. Due to the crude interaction model, these so far do not have the accuracy needed in clinical practice. However, the new model has a computational cost that is less than one-tenth of the cost of a Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, simulations can be set up in a similar way as a Monte Carlo simulation. If more detailed effects such as coupled electron-photon transport, bremsstrahlung

  20. A deterministic partial differential equation model for dose calculation in electron radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclous, R.; Dubroca, B.; Frank, M.

    2010-07-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is a prominent modality for the treatment of many cancers. The approaches to electron dose calculation can be categorized into semi-empirical models (e.g. Fermi-Eyges, convolution-superposition) and probabilistic methods (e.g. Monte Carlo). A third approach to dose calculation has only recently attracted attention in the medical physics community. This approach is based on the deterministic kinetic equations of radiative transfer. We derive a macroscopic partial differential equation model for electron transport in tissue. This model involves an angular closure in the phase space. It is exact for the free streaming and the isotropic regime. We solve it numerically by a newly developed HLLC scheme based on Berthon et al (2007 J. Sci. Comput. 31 347-89) that exactly preserves the key properties of the analytical solution on the discrete level. We discuss several test cases taken from the medical physics literature. A test case with an academic Henyey-Greenstein scattering kernel is considered. We compare our model to a benchmark discrete ordinate solution. A simplified model of electron interactions with tissue is employed to compute the dose of an electron beam in a water phantom, and a case of irradiation of the vertebral column. Here our model is compared to the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. In the academic example, the fluences computed with the new model and a benchmark result differ by less than 1%. The depths at half maximum differ by less than 0.6%. In the two comparisons with Monte Carlo, our model gives qualitatively reasonable dose distributions. Due to the crude interaction model, these so far do not have the accuracy needed in clinical practice. However, the new model has a computational cost that is less than one-tenth of the cost of a Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, simulations can be set up in a similar way as a Monte Carlo simulation. If more detailed effects such as coupled electron-photon transport, bremsstrahlung

  1. Modeling particle-induced electron emission in a simplified plasma Test Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliano, Paul N.; Boyd, Iain D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-03-21

    Particle-induced electron emission (PIE) is modeled in a simplified, well-characterized plasma Test Cell operated at UCLA. In order for PIE to be a useful model in this environment, its governing equations are first reduced to lower-order models which can be implemented in a direct simulation Monte Carlo and Particle-in-Cell framework. These reduced-order models are described in full and presented as semi-empirical models. The models are implemented to analyze the interaction of low- and high-energy ({approx}1-2 keV) xenon ions and atoms with the stainless steel electrodes of the Test Cell in order to gain insight into the emission and transport of secondary electrons. Furthermore, there is a lack of data for xenon-stainless steel atom- and ion-surface interactions for similar environments. Using experimental data as a reference, both total yields and emitted electron energy distribution functions can be deduced by observing sensitivities of current collection results to these numerical models and their parameters.

  2. Results of a 5-Week Schedule of Modern Total Skin Electron Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Stephen Lloyd, E-mail: stephen.morris@gstt.nhs.uk [St Johns Institute of Dermatology, Guys and St Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom); McGovern, Mark; Bayne, Sally; Wain, Mary; Child, Fiona; Whittaker, Sean [St Johns Institute of Dermatology, Guys and St Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of a 5-week schedule of total skin electron beam radiation therapy (TSEB) for mycosis fungoides (MF). Methods: Over 5 years, 41 patients with confirmed MF were treated with a modern TSEB technique delivering 30 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks to the whole skin surface. Data were collected prospectively and entered into the skin tumor unit research database. Skin modified skin weighted assessment tool score data were collected to determine response, duration of response, survival, and toxicity. The outcomes were analyzed according to the patient's stage before TSEB, prognostic factors, and adjuvant treatments. Results: Seventeen patients were stage 1B, 19 were stage IIB, 3 were stage III, and 2 were stage IV. The overall response rate was 95%, with a complete response rate of 51%. Seventy-six percent of patients had relapsed at median follow-up of 18 months. The median time to relapse was 12 months, to systemic therapy was 15 months, and to modified skin weighted assessment tool progression above baseline was 44 months. The complete response rate was 59% in stage IB and 47% in stage IIB patients. The median time to skin relapse was longer in stage IB compared with stage IIB, 18 months versus 9 months. The median time to systemic therapy was longer in stage IB compared with stage IIB, >56 months versus 8 months. The median overall survival was 35 months: >56 months for stage IB, 25 months for stage IIB, 46 months for stage III, and 23.5 months for stage IV. Fifteen patients received adjuvant psoralen + ultraviolet A treatment with no difference seen in the time to relapse. Conclusions: This 5-week schedule of TSEB for MF has a high response rate with comparable duration of response to other regimens. Future studies are needed to find adjuvant and combination treatments to improve the duration of response.

  3. Complications after Surgical Procedures in Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices: Results of a Prospective Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Katia Regina; Albertini, Caio Marcos de Moraes; Crevelari, Elizabeth Sartori; de Carvalho, Eduardo Infante Januzzi; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Costa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complications after surgical procedures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) are an emerging problem due to an increasing number of such procedures and aging of the population, which consequently increases the frequency of comorbidities. Objective: To identify the rates of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmissions, and evaluate the risk factors for the occurrence of these events. Methods: Prospective and unicentric study that included all individuals undergoing CIED surgical procedures from February to August 2011. The patients were distributed by type of procedure into the following groups: initial implantations (cohort 1), generator exchange (cohort 2), and lead-related procedures (cohort 3). The outcomes were evaluated by an independent committee. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the risk factors, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results: A total of 713 patients were included in the study and distributed as follows: 333 in cohort 1, 304 in cohort 2, and 76 in cohort 3. Postoperative complications were detected in 7.5%, 1.6%, and 11.8% of the patients in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p = 0.014). During a 6-month follow-up, there were 58 (8.1%) deaths and 75 (10.5%) hospital readmissions. Predictors of hospital readmission included the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2), functional class III­-IV (OR = 1.8), and warfarin administration (OR = 1.9). Predictors of mortality included age over 80 years (OR = 2.4), ventricular dysfunction (OR = 2.2), functional class III-IV (OR = 3.3), and warfarin administration (OR = 2.3). Conclusions: Postoperative complications, hospital readmissions, and deaths occurred frequently and were strongly related to the type of procedure performed, type of CIED, and severity of the patient's underlying heart disease. PMID:27579544

  4. [Morbidity and drug consumption. Comparison of results between the National Health Survey and electronic medical records].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Rabanaque-Hernández, M José

    2014-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of disease and drug consumption obtained by using the National Health Survey (NHS) with the information provided by the electronic medical records (EMR) in primary health care and the Pharmaceutical Consumption Registry in Aragon (Farmasalud) in the adult population in the province of Zaragoza. A cross-sectional study was performed to compare the prevalence of diseases in the NHS-2006 and in the EMR. The prevalence of drug consumption was obtained from the NHS-2006 and Farmasalud. Estimations using each database were compared with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and the results were stratified by gender and age groups. The comparability of the databases was tested. According to the NHS, a total of 81.8% of the adults in the province of Zaragoza visited a physician in 2006. According to the EMR, 61.4% of adults visited a primary care physician. The most prevalent disease in both databases was hypertension (NHS: 21.5%, 95% CI: 19.4-23.9; EMR: 21.6%, 95% CI: 21.3-21.8). The greatest differences between the NHS and EMR was observed in the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and other mental illnesses (NHS: 10.9%; EMR: 26.6%). The most widely consumed drugs were analgesics The prevalence of drug consumption differed in the two databases, with the greatest differences being found in pain medication (NHS: 23.3%; Farmasalud: 63.8%) and antibiotics (NHS: 3.4%; Farmasalud: 41.7%). These differences persisted after we stratified by gender and were especially important in the group aged more than 75 years. The prevalence of morbidity and drug consumption differed depending on the database employed. The use of different databases is recommended to estimate real prevalences. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. An improved and fully implicit multi-group non-local electron transport model and its validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijoy, C. D.; Mishra, V.; Chaurasia, S.

    2017-09-01

    The combined effect of thermal flux inhibition and non-local electron heat flux in the radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulation of laser-driven systems can be accurately predicted by using non-local electron transport (NLET) models. These models can avoid commonly used space and time-independent ad-hoc flux-limiting procedures. However, the use of classical electron collision frequency in these models is rigorously valid for high temperature non-degenerate plasmas. In laser-driven systems, the electron thermal energy transport is important in regions between the critical density and ablation surface where the plasma is partially degenerate. Therefore, an improved model for electron collision frequency in this regime is required to accurately predict the thermal energy transport. Previously, we have reported an improved single group non-local electron transport model by using a wide-range electron collision frequency model valid from warm-dense matter (WDM) to fully ionized plasmas. In this work, we have extended this idea into a two-dimensional multi-group non-local electron transport (MG-NLET) model. Moreover, we have used a fully implicit numerical integration scheme in which the models for multi-group thermal radiation transport, laser absorption, electron-ion thermal energy relaxation and ion heat conduction are included in a single step. The performance of this improved MG-NLET model has been assessed by comparing the simulated foil trajectories with the reported experimental data for laser-driven plastic foils. The results indicate that the improved model yields results that are in better agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  7. Finite Element Models for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Umesh

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) is a member of an emerging class of direct manufacturing processes known as solid freeform fabrication (SFF); another member of the class is the laser deposition process. Successful application of the EBF3 process requires precise control of a number of process parameters such as the EB power, speed, and metal feed rate in order to ensure thermal management; good fusion between the substrate and the first layer and between successive layers; minimize part distortion and residual stresses; and control the microstructure of the finished product. This is the only effort thus far that has addressed computer simulation of the EBF3 process. The models developed in this effort can assist in reducing the number of trials in the laboratory or on the shop floor while making high-quality parts. With some modifications, their use can be further extended to the simulation of laser, TIG (tungsten inert gas), and other deposition processes. A solid mechanics-based finite element code, ABAQUS, was chosen as the primary engine in developing these models whereas a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, Fluent, was used in a support role. Several innovative concepts were developed, some of which are highlighted below. These concepts were implemented in a number of new computer models either in the form of stand-alone programs or as user subroutines for ABAQUS and Fluent codes. A database of thermo-physical, mechanical, fluid, and metallurgical properties of stainless steel 304 was developed. Computing models for Gaussian and raster modes of the electron beam heat input were developed. Also, new schemes were devised to account for the heat sink effect during the deposition process. These innovations, and others, lead to improved models for thermal management and prediction of transient/residual stresses and distortions. Two approaches for the prediction of microstructure were pursued. The first was an empirical approach involving the

  8. Relationship Marketing results: proposition of a cognitive mapping model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná Futino Barreto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This research sought to develop a cognitive model that expresses how marketing professionals understand the relationship between the constructs that define relationship marketing (RM. It also tried to understand, using the obtained model, how objectives in this field are achieved. Design/methodology/approach – Through cognitive mapping, we traced 35 individual mental maps, highlighting how each respondent understands the interactions between RM elements. Based on the views of these individuals, we established an aggregate mental map. Theoretical foundation – The topic is based on a literature review that explores the RM concept and its main elements. Based on this review, we listed eleven main constructs. Findings – We established an aggregate mental map that represents the RM structural model. Model analysis identified that CLV is understood as the final result of RM. We also observed that the impact of most of the RM elements on CLV is brokered by loyalty. Personalization and quality, on the other hand, proved to be process input elements, and are the ones that most strongly impact others. Finally, we highlight that elements that punish customers are much less effective than elements that benefit them. Contributions - The model was able to insert core elements of RM, but absent from most formal models: CLV and customization. The analysis allowed us to understand the interactions between the RM elements and how the end result of RM (CLV is formed. This understanding improves knowledge on the subject and helps guide, assess and correct actions.

  9. QSAR modeling of estrogenic alkylphenols using bulk and electronic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad range of structurally diverse alkylphenols has been found to be considerably potential estrogenic agents in combating estrogen-linked pathologies, but their mechanism of action in mimicking responses of endogenous hormones is still to be understood. The present work explores pharmacophore signals of some varied alkylphenols and predicts estrogenic activities through generated linear relations implementing theoretical molecular modeling techniques. The binding affinity to estrogen receptor of alkylphenols has been modeled investigating large data set of whole molecular and atomic descriptors. Univariate and multivariate relationships were estimated using correlation analysis and statistical significance of the generated relations assessed. The predictive ability of the generated models was further verified using ′Leave-One-Out′ cross validation. The relationships with molecular properties could be developed with a maximum correlation exceeding 94%, with explained variance as high as 87% and cross-validated variances> 0.8. It was inferred that increased molecular bulk, enhanced molecular ionization potential, presence of electron donating groups in para position and branched chain terminal atoms might have influence on binding affinity to the receptor.

  10. Model-based optimization of tapered free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Mak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy extraction efficiency is a figure of merit for a free-electron laser (FEL. It can be enhanced by the technique of undulator tapering, which enables the sustained growth of radiation power beyond the initial saturation point. In the development of a single-pass x-ray FEL, it is important to exploit the full potential of this technique and optimize the taper profile a_{w}(z. Our approach to the optimization is based on the theoretical model by Kroll, Morton, and Rosenbluth, whereby the taper profile a_{w}(z is not a predetermined function (such as linear or exponential but is determined by the physics of a resonant particle. For further enhancement of the energy extraction efficiency, we propose a modification to the model, which involves manipulations of the resonant particle’s phase. Using the numerical simulation code GENESIS, we apply our model-based optimization methods to a case of the future FEL at the MAX IV Laboratory (Lund, Sweden, as well as a case of the LCLS-II facility (Stanford, USA.

  11. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  12. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Evangelia [Queen Mary, University of London; Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Weber, William J [ORNL; Seaton, M [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Todorov, I T [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki; Dove, Martin T [Queen Mary, University of London; Trachenko, Kostya [Queen Mary, University of London

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  13. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, E., E-mail: zarkadoulae@ornl.gov [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Devanathan, R. [Nuclear Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Weber, W. J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Scientific Computing Department, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nordlund, K. [University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Dove, M. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Trachenko, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1–0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  14. Three-Dimensional Electron Optics Model Developed for Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional traveling-wave tube (TWT) electron beam optics model including periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This accurate model allows a TWT designer to develop a focusing structure while reducing the expensive and time-consuming task of building the TWT and hot-testing it (with the electron beam). In addition, the model allows, for the first time, an investigation of the effect on TWT operation of the important azimuthally asymmetric features of the focusing stack. The TWT is a vacuum device that amplifies signals by transferring energy from an electron beam to a radiofrequency (RF) signal. A critically important component is the focusing structure, which keeps the electron beam from diverging and intercepting the RF slow wave circuit. Such an interception can result in excessive circuit heating and decreased efficiency, whereas excessive growth in the beam diameter can lead to backward wave oscillations and premature saturation, indicating a serious reduction in tube performance. The most commonly used focusing structure is the PPM stack, which consists of a sequence of cylindrical iron pole pieces and opposite-polarity magnets. Typically, two-dimensional electron optics codes are used in the design of magnetic focusing devices. In general, these codes track the beam from the gun downstream by solving equations of motion for the electron beam in static-electric and magnetic fields in an azimuthally symmetric structure. Because these two-dimensional codes cannot adequately simulate a number of important effects, the simulation code MAFIA (solution of Maxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm) was used at Glenn to develop a three-dimensional electron optics model. First, a PPM stack was modeled in three dimensions. Then, the fields obtained using the magnetostatic solver were loaded into a particle-in-cell solver where the fully three-dimensional behavior of the beam

  15. Value of the distant future: Model-independent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that the model-independent account of correlations in an interest rate process or a log-consumption growth process leads to declining long-term tails of discount curves. Under the assumption of an exponentially decaying memory in fluctuations of risk-free real interest rates, I derive the analytical expression for an apt value of the long run discount factor and provide a detailed comparison of the obtained result with the outcome of the benchmark risk-free interest rate models. Utilizing the standard consumption-based model with an isoelastic power utility of the representative economic agent, I derive the non-Markovian generalization of the Ramsey discounting formula. Obtained analytical results allowing simple calibration, may augment the rigorous cost-benefit and regulatory impact analysis of long-term environmental and infrastructure projects.

  16. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - II. Model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In the second part of this two-part article on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, we estimate the number of committed assets in water depth less than 1000 ft that are expected to be marginal over a 60-year time horizon. We compute the expected quantity and value of the production and gross revenue streams of the gulf's committed asset inventory circa. January 2007 using a probabilistic model framework. Cumulative hydrocarbon production from the producing inventory is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas. Marginal production from the committed asset inventory is expected to contribute 4.1% of total oil production and 5.4% of gas production. A meta-evaluation procedure is adapted to present the results of sensitivity analysis. Model results are discussed along with a description of the model framework and limitations of the analysis. (author)

  17. Modeling of outpatient prescribing process in iran: a gateway toward electronic prescribing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of electronic prescribing system can overcome many problems of the paper prescribing system, and provide numerous opportunities of more effective and advantageous prescribing. Successful implementation of such a system requires complete and deep understanding of work content, human force, and workflow of paper prescribing. The current study was designed in order to model the current business process of outpatient prescribing in Iran and clarify different actions during this process. In order to describe the prescribing process and the system features in Iran, the methodology of business process modeling and analysis was used in the present study. The results of the process documentation were analyzed using a conceptual model of workflow elements and the technique of modeling "As-Is" business processes. Analysis of the current (as-is) prescribing process demonstrated that Iran stood at the first levels of sophistication in graduated levels of electronic prescribing, namely electronic prescription reference, and that there were problematic areas including bottlenecks, redundant and duplicated work, concentration of decision nodes, and communicative weaknesses among stakeholders of the process. Using information technology in some activities of medication prescription in Iran has not eliminated the dependence of the stakeholders on paper-based documents and prescriptions. Therefore, it is necessary to implement proper system programming in order to support change management and solve the problems in the existing prescribing process. To this end, a suitable basis should be provided for reorganization and improvement of the prescribing process for the future electronic systems.

  18. Construction of reduced transport model by gyro-kinetic simulation with kinetic electrons in helical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Nakata, M.; Nunami, M.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.

    2016-10-01

    A reduced model of the turbulent ion heat diffusivity is proposed by the gyrokinetic simulation code (GKV-X) with the adiabatic electrons for the high-Ti Large Helical Device discharge. The plasma parameter region of the short poloidal wavelength is studied, where the ion temperature gradient mode becomes unstable. The ion heat diffusivity by the nonlinear simulation with the kinetic electrons is found to be several times larger than the simulation results using the adiabatic electrons in the radial region 0.46 ion energy flux. The model of the turbulent diffusivity is derived as the function of the squared electrostatic potential fluctuation and the squared zonal flow potential. Next, the squared electrostatic potential fluctuation is approximated with the mixing length estimate. The squared zonal flow potential fluctuation is shown as the linear zonal flow response function. The reduced model of the turbulent diffusivity is derived as the function of the physical parameters by the linear GKV-X simulation with the kinetic electrons. This reduced model is applied to the transport code with the same procedure as.

  19. Interpretable Predictive Models for Knowledge Discovery from Home-Care Electronic Health Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie L. Westra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this methodological study was to compare methods of developing predictive rules that are parsimonious and clinically interpretable from electronic health record (EHR home visit data, contrasting logistic regression with three data mining classification models. We address three problems commonly encountered in EHRs: the value of including clinically important variables with little variance, handling imbalanced datasets, and ease of interpretation of the resulting predictive models. Logistic regression and three classification models using Ripper, decision trees, and Support Vector Machines were applied to a case study for one outcome of improvement in oral medication management. Predictive rules for logistic regression, Ripper, and decision trees are reported and results compared using F-measures for data mining models and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for all models. The rules generated by the three classification models provide potentially novel insights into mining EHRs beyond those provided by standard logistic regression, and suggest steps for further study.

  20. Exact results for car accidents in a traffic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    1998-07-01

    Within the framework of a recent model for car accidents on single-lane highway traffic, we study analytically the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. Exact results are obtained. Various scaling behaviours are observed. The linear dependence of the occurrence of car accidents on density is understood as the dominance of a single velocity in the distribution.

  1. Theoretical results on the tandem junction solar cell based on its Ebers-Moll transistor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, C.; Vaughn, J.; Baraona, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional theoretical model of the tandem junction solar cell (TJC) with base resistivity greater than about 1 ohm-cm and under low level injection has been derived. This model extends a previously published conceptual model which treats the TJC as an npn transistor. The model gives theoretical expressions for each of the Ebers-Moll type currents of the illuminated TJC and allows for the calculation of the spectral response, I(sc), V(oc), FF and eta under variation of one or more of the geometrical and material parameters and 1MeV electron fluence. Results of computer calculations based on this model are presented and discussed. These results indicate that for space applications, both a high beginning of life efficiency, greater than 15% AM0, and a high radiation tolerance can be achieved only with thin (less than 50 microns) TJC's with high base resistivity (greater than 10 ohm-cm).

  2. Evaluation of angular scattering models for electron-neutral collisions in Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J. F. J.; Pitchford, L. C.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; van Dijk, J.

    2016-10-01

    In Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport through a neutral background gas, simplifying assumptions related to the shape of the angular distribution of electron-neutral scattering cross sections are usually made. This is mainly because full sets of differential scattering cross sections are rarely available. In this work simple models for angular scattering are compared to results from the recent quantum calculations of Zatsarinny and Bartschat for differential scattering cross sections (DCS’s) from zero to 200 eV in argon. These simple models represent in various ways an approach to forward scattering with increasing electron energy. The simple models are then used in Monte Carlo simulations of range, straggling, and backscatter of electrons emitted from a surface into a volume filled with a neutral gas. It is shown that the assumptions of isotropic elastic scattering and of forward scattering for the inelastic collision process yield results within a few percent of those calculated using the DCS’s of Zatsarinny and Bartschat. The quantities which were held constant in these comparisons are the elastic momentum transfer and total inelastic cross sections.

  3. Analytical model of electron transport characteristics for 4H-SiC material and devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    lü Hong-Liang; Zhang Yi-Men; Zhang Yu-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Based on 4H-SiC material parameters, three different analytical expressions are used to characterize the electron mobility as the function of electric field. The first model is based on simple saturation of the steady-state drift velocity with electric field (conventional three-parameter model for silicon). The second GaAs-based mobility model partially reflects the peak velocity in high electric fields. The third multi-parameter model proposed in this paper is more realistic since it well reproduces the drift velocity-field characteristics obtained by Monte Carlo calculations, revealing the peak drift velocity with subsequent saturation at higher electric fields. Thus, the drift velocity model presented in this paper is much better for device simulation. In this paper, the influence of mobility model on DC characteristics of 4H-SiC MESFET is calculated and the better accordance with the experimental results is presented with multi-parameter model.

  4. Modeling Results For the ITER Cryogenic Fore Pump. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfotenhauer, John M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zhang, Dongsheng [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-03-31

    A numerical model characterizing the operation of a cryogenic fore-pump (CFP) for ITER has been developed at the University of Wisconsin – Madison during the period from March 15, 2011 through June 30, 2014. The purpose of the ITER-CFP is to separate hydrogen isotopes from helium gas, both making up the exhaust components from the ITER reactor. The model explicitly determines the amount of hydrogen that is captured by the supercritical-helium-cooled pump as a function of the inlet temperature of the supercritical helium, its flow rate, and the inlet conditions of the hydrogen gas flow. Furthermore the model computes the location and amount of hydrogen captured in the pump as a function of time. Throughout the model’s development, and as a calibration check for its results, it has been extensively compared with the measurements of a CFP prototype tested at Oak Ridge National Lab. The results of the model demonstrate that the quantity of captured hydrogen is very sensitive to the inlet temperature of the helium coolant on the outside of the cryopump. Furthermore, the model can be utilized to refine those tests, and suggests methods that could be incorporated in the testing to enhance the usefulness of the measured data.

  5. Assessment of Galileo modal test results for mathematical model verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubert, M.

    1984-01-01

    The modal test program for the Galileo Spacecraft was completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the summer of 1983. The multiple sine dwell method was used for the baseline test. The Galileo Spacecraft is a rather complex 2433 kg structure made of a central core on which seven major appendages representing 30 percent of the total mass are attached, resulting in a high modal density structure. The test revealed a strong nonlinearity in several major modes. This nonlinearity discovered in the course of the test necessitated running additional tests at the unusually high response levels of up to about 21 g. The high levels of response were required to obtain a model verification valid at the level of loads for which the spacecraft was designed. Because of the high modal density and the nonlinearity, correlation between the dynamic mathematical model and the test results becomes a difficult task. Significant changes in the pre-test analytical model are necessary to establish confidence in the upgraded analytical model used for the final load verification. This verification, using a test verified model, is required by NASA to fly the Galileo Spacecraft on the Shuttle/Centaur launch vehicle in 1986.

  6. Electronic structure and exchange interactions in V-15 magnetic molecules: LDA+U results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukhvalov, D.W.; Dobrovitski, V.V.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Lichtenstein, A.I.; Harmon, B.N.; Kogerler, P.

    2004-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets of the type V-15(K-6[V15As6O42(H2O)].8H(2)O) have attracted a great deal of attention recently, being promising systems for studying low-temperature spin-relaxation and quantum-spin tunneling. To understand in detail the internal magnetic and electronic structure, and the

  7. 3-D Parallel Simulation Model of Continuous Beam-Electron Cloud Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghalam, Ali F; Decyk, Viktor K; Huang Cheng Kun; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Mori, Warren; Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank

    2005-01-01

    A 3D Particle-In-Cell model for continuous modeling of beam and electron cloud interaction in a circular accelerator is presented. A simple model for lattice structure, mainly the Quadruple and dipole magnets and chromaticity have been added to a plasma PIC code, QuickPIC, used extensively to model plasma wakefield acceleration concept. The code utilizes parallel processing techniques with domain decomposition in both longitudinal and transverse domains to overcome the massive computational costs of continuously modeling the beam-cloud interaction. Through parallel modeling, we have been able to simulate long-term beam propagation in the presence of electron cloud in many existing and future circular machines around the world. The exact dipole lattice structure has been added to the code and the simulation results for CERN-SPS and LHC with the new lattice structure have been studied. Also the simulation results are compared to the results from the two macro-particle modeling for strong head-tail instability. ...

  8. Teacher Evaluation System through the 360 Degree Model and the Electronic Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Obando Freire

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Models for teacher evaluation should be in line with advances in science and technology, and constitute the most effective means for professional development of university teachers. This paper aims to analyze the 360 degree model, emphasizing the use of management platforms. A literature review on the subject of study was conducted. The model allows evaluating teachers according to four dimensions: self-assessment, assessment by students, peer assessment and teacher’s electronic portfolios. It is concluded that a systematic and comprehensive evaluation results in teacher’s development, which benefits higher education students.

  9. Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-06-15

    Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the /sup 1///sub 5/-scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena.

  10. Theoretical analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2001-10-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) is applied to analyze the electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12. To accomplish this two model systems were considered: CN-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (dicyanocobinamide, DCC) and imidazole-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (cyanocobalamin, ImCC). For both models 30 lowest excited states were calculated together with transition dipole moments. When the results of TD-DFT calculations were directly compared with experiment it was found that the theoretical values systematically overestimate experimental data by approximately 0.5 eV. The uniform adjustment of the calculated transition energies allowed detailed analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models. All absorption bands in spectral range 2.0-5.0 eV were readily assigned. In particular, TD-DFT calculations were able to explain the origin of the shift of the lowest absorption band caused by replacement of the-CN axial ligand by imidazole.

  11. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  12. A Massless-Point-Charge Model for the Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available “It is rather remarkable that the modern concept of electrodynamics is not quite 100 years old and yet still does not rest firmly upon uniformly accepted theoretical foun- dations. Maxwell’s theory of the electromagnetic field is firmly ensconced in modern physics, to be sure, but the details of how charged particles are to be coupled to this field remain somewhat uncertain, despite the enormous advances in quantum electrody- namics over the past 45 years. Our theories remain mathematically ill-posed and mired in conceptual ambiguities which quantum mechanics has only moved to another arena rather than resolve. Fundamentally, we still do not understand just what is a charged particle” [1, p.367]. As a partial answer to the preceeding quote, this paper presents a new model for the electron that combines the seminal work of Puthoff [2] with the theory of the Planck vacuum (PV [3], the basic idea for the model following from [2] with the PV theory adding some important details.

  13. A Massless-Point-Charge Model for the Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "It is rather remarkable that the modern concept of electrodynamics is not quite 100 years old and yet still does not rest firmly upon uniformly accepted theoretical foundations. Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field is firmly ensconced in modern physics, to be sure, but the details of how charged particles are to be coupled to this field remain somewhat uncertain, despite the enormous advances in quantum electrodynamics over the past 45 years. Our theories remain mathematically ill-posed and mired in conceptual ambiguities which quantum mechanics has only moved to another arena rather than resolve. Fundamentally, we still do not understand just what is a charged particle" (Grandy W.T. Jr. Relativistic quantum mechanics of leptons and fields. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht-London, 1991, p.367. As a partial answer to the preceeding quote, this paper presents a new model for the electron that combines the seminal work of Puthoff with the theory of the Planck vacuum (PV, the basic idea for the model following from Puthoff with the PV theory adding some important details.

  14. Does electronic clinical microbiology results reporting influence medical decision making: a pre- and post-interview study of medical specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloembergen Peter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians view the accuracy of test results and the turnaround time as the two most important service aspects of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Because of the time needed for the culturing of infectious agents, final hardcopy culture results will often be available too late to have a significant impact on early antimicrobial therapy decisions, vital in infectious disease management. The clinical microbiologist therefore reports to the clinician clinically relevant preliminary results at any moment during the diagnostic process, mostly by telephone. Telephone reporting is error prone, however. Electronic reporting of culture results instead of reporting on paper may shorten the turnaround time and may ensure correct communication of results. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the implementation of electronic reporting of final microbiology results on medical decision making. Methods In a pre- and post-interview study using a semi-structured design we asked medical specialists in our hospital about their use and appreciation of clinical microbiology results reporting before and after the implementation of an electronic reporting system. Results Electronic reporting was highly appreciated by all interviewed clinicians. Major advantages were reduction of hardcopy handling and the possibility to review results in relation to other patient data. Use and meaning of microbiology reports differ significantly between medical specialties. Most clinicians need preliminary results for therapy decisions quickly. Therefore, after the implementation of electronic reporting, telephone consultation between clinician and microbiologist remained the key means of communication. Conclusions Overall, electronic reporting increased the workflow efficiency of the medical specialists, but did not have an impact on their decision-making.

  15. Initial CGE Model Results Summary Exogenous and Endogenous Variables Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The following discussion presents initial results of tests of the most recent version of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of this is to test and assess the model’s behavioral properties. The test evaluated whether the predicted impacts are reasonable from a qualitative perspective. This issue is whether the predicted change, be it an increase or decrease in other model variables, is consistent with prior economic intuition and expectations about the predicted change. One of the purposes of this effort is to determine whether model changes are needed in order to improve its behavior qualitatively and quantitatively.

  16. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of electron capacitance for Geobacter in sedimentary environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D; Lovley, Derek R; Mahadevan, R

    2010-03-01

    In situ stimulation of the metabolic activity of Geobacter species through acetate amendment has been shown to be a promising bioremediation strategy to reduce and immobilize hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] as insoluble U(IV). Although Geobacter species are reducing U(VI), they primarily grow via Fe(III) reduction. Unfortunately, the biogeochemistry and the physiology of simultaneous reduction of multiple metals are still poorly understood. A detailed model is therefore required to better understand the pathways leading to U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction by Geobacter species. Based on recent experimental evidence of temporary electron capacitors in Geobacter we propose a novel kinetic model that physically distinguishes planktonic cells into electron-loaded and -unloaded states. Incorporation of an electron load-unload cycle into the model provides insight into U(VI) reduction efficiency, and elucidates the relationship between U(VI)- and Fe(III)-reducing activity and further explains the correlation of high U(VI) removal with high fractions of planktonic cells in subsurface environments. Global sensitivity analysis was used to determine the level of importance of geochemical and microbial processes controlling Geobacter growth and U(VI) reduction, suggesting that the electron load-unload cycle and the resulting repartition of the microbes between aqueous and attached phases are critical for U(VI) reduction. As compared with conventional Monod modeling approaches without inclusion of the electron capacitance, the new model attempts to incorporate a novel cellular mechanism that has a significant impact on the outcome of in situ bioremediation.

  17. Electron Beam Melting and Refining of Metals: Computational Modeling and Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katia Vutova; Veliko Donchev

    2013-01-01

    ..., instrument engineering, electronics, etc. A time-dependent 3D axis-symmetrical heat model for simulation of thermal transfer in metal ingots solidified in a water-cooled crucible at electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) is developed...

  18. A revised model for electron dosimetry in the human small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, N U; Poston, J W

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the absorbed dose was calculated to the small intestine (SI) wall of an adult human from electrons in its lumen contents. The effects on dose due to variations in the lumen radius and wall-thickness also were studied. The SI model was based on values gleaned from anatomic and histologic reviews of the adult human SI. Histologic and radiological analyses of the SI suggested the microscopic intricacy of this walled organ could be avoided for dosimetric purposes and a set of concentric cylinders could be used to model the SI. The model was input into the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) version 4A computational package, which was used to simulate energy deposition in the SI by electrons of fifty discrete energies ranging 10-500 keV. The source electrons as well as all resulting particles, such as knock-on electrons, bremsstrahlung, and electrons created from bremsstrahlung interactions, were transported until the particle energies fell below the 1 keV low-energy cutoff. Detailed physics treatments for secondary photons were made. With a reasonable number of histories, appropriate variance reduction techniques were used to improve the precision of the Monte Carlo calculations. The model used very small tally regions, which ranged in thickness from 0.5 microm to 200 microm depending on the electron energy studied and tally location in the wall. Relative errors associated with these calculations were maintained at less than 5%. The large number of tally results across the wall for each of the energies studied enabled the construction of the energy-specific depth dose curves in the wall. Each of these curves was consistent with the anticipated energy deposition pattern. These curves showed that only a small fraction of the energy absorbed at the contents-mucus interface reaches the stem cell layers because the cells are located deep in the mucosa. This fraction was found to vary from 1.66 x 10(-6) to 1.21 x 10(-1) over the energy range 10-500 keV. These

  19. Simulating lightning into the RAMS model: implementation and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a tailored version of a previously published methodology, designed to simulate lightning activity, implemented into the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS. The method gives the flash density at the resolution of the RAMS grid-scale allowing for a detailed analysis of the evolution of simulated lightning activity. The system is applied in detail to two case studies occurred over the Lazio Region, in Central Italy. Simulations are compared with the lightning activity detected by the LINET network. The cases refer to two thunderstorms of different intensity. Results show that the model predicts reasonably well both cases and that the lightning activity is well reproduced especially for the most intense case. However, there are errors in timing and positioning of the convection, whose magnitude depends on the case study, which mirrors in timing and positioning errors of the lightning distribution. To assess objectively the performance of the methodology, standard scores are presented for four additional case studies. Scores show the ability of the methodology to simulate the daily lightning activity for different spatial scales and for two different minimum thresholds of flash number density. The performance decreases at finer spatial scales and for higher thresholds. The comparison of simulated and observed lighting activity is an immediate and powerful tool to assess the model ability to reproduce the intensity and the evolution of the convection. This shows the importance of the use of computationally efficient lightning schemes, such as the one described in this paper, in forecast models.

  20. Front end electronics and first results of the ALICE V0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoccarato, Y., E-mail: y.zoccarato@ipnl.in2p3.f [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Tromeur, W. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Aguilar, S.; Alfaro, R.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Anzo, A.; Belmont, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Combaret, C. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Contreras, G. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508 Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cuautle, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria. Delg. Coyoacan, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ducroux, L. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gonzalez Trueba, L.; Grabski, V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Grossiord, J.-Y. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Herrera Corral, G. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508 Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-01-21

    This paper gives a detailed description of the acquisition and trigger electronics especially designed for the V0 detector of ALICE at LHC. A short presentation of the detector itself is given before the description of the Front End Electronics (FEE) system, which is completely embedded within the LHC environment as far as acquisition (DAQ), trigger (CTP), and detector control (DCS) are concerned. It is able to detect on-line coincident events and to achieve charge (with a precision of 0.6 pC) and time measurements (with a precision of 100 ps). It deploys quite a simple architecture. It is however totally programmable and fully non-standard in discriminating events coming from Beam-Beam interaction and Beam-Gas background. Finally, raw data collected from the first LHC colliding beams illustrate the performance of the system.

  1. Investigation of superelastic electron scattering by laser-excited Ba - Experimental procedures and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Fineman, M. A.; Poe, R. T.; Csanak, G.; Jensen, S. W.

    1983-01-01

    Differential (in angle) electron scattering experiments on laser-excited Ba-138 1P were carried out at 30- and 100-eV impact energies. The laser light was linearly polarized and located in the scattering plane. The superelastic scattering signal was measured as a function of polarization direction of the laser light with respect to the scattering plane. It was found at low electron scattering angles that the superelastic scattering signal was asymmetric to reflection of the polarization vector with respect to the scattering plane. This is in contradiction with theoretical predictions. An attempt was made to pinpoint the reason for this observation, and a detailed investigation of the influence of experimental conditions on the superelastic scattering was undertaken. No explanation for the asymmetry has as yet been found.

  2. Beam test results for the upgraded LHCb RICH opto-electronic readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Carniti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is devoted to high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics by studying the decays of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Two RICH detectors are currently installed and operating successfully, providing a crucial role in the particle identification system of the LHCb experiment. Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity, extending its potential for discovery and study of new phenomena. Both the RICH detectors will be upgraded and the entire opto-electronic system has been redesigned in order to cope with the new specifications, namely higher readout rates, and increased occupancies. The new photodetectors, readout electronics, mechanical assembly and cooling system have reached the final phase of development and their performance was thoroughly and successfully validated during several beam test sessions in 2014 and 2015 at the SPS facility at CERN. Details of the test setup and perf...

  3. Radiation testing campaign results for understanding the suitability of FPGAs in detector electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citterio, M., E-mail: mauro.citterio@mi.infn.it [INFN Milan, Milan (Italy); Camplani, A. [INFN Milan, Milan (Italy); Cannon, M. [Brigham Young University, Provo (United States); Chen, H.; Chen, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Deng, B.; Liu, C. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States); Meroni, C. [INFN Milan, Milan (Italy); Kierstead, J.; Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Wirthlin, M. [Brigham Young University, Provo (United States); Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States)

    2016-07-11

    SRAM based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have been rarely used in High Energy Physics (HEP) due to their sensitivity to radiation. The last generation of commercial FPGAs based on 28 nm feature size and on Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technologies are more tolerant to radiation to the level that their use in front-end electronics is now feasible. FPGAs provide re-programmability, high-speed computation and fast data transmission through the embedded serial transceivers. They could replace custom application specific integrated circuits in front end electronics in locations with moderate radiation field. The use of a FPGA in HEP experiments is only limited by our ability to mitigate single event effects induced by the high energy hadrons present in the radiation field. - Highlights: • Radiation campaign on Xilinx Kintex 7 FPGAs. • Use of FPGAs in high energy physics. • Evaluation of configuration RAM and block RAM parameters after irradiation.

  4. Electrons on the HDice target: Results and analysis of test runs at JLab in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Michael; Bass, Christopher; D' Angelo, Annalisa; Deur, Alexandre; Hanretty, Charles; Ho, Dao; Kageya, Tsuneo; Laine, Vivien; Peng, Peng; Sandorfi, Andrew; Wei, Xiangdong; Whisnant, Charles

    2014-06-01

    During the Jefferson Labaratory E06-101 (g14) experiment \\cite{g14} utilizing photons on solid HD and performed in Hall B, two opportunities arose for targets to be subjected to multi-GeV electron beams in week-long campaigns of dose accumulation and NMR polarization measurements. This was in preparation for conditionally approved electron experiments after the 12 GeV JLab upgrade\\cite{trans}. Besides the important thermal effects, evidence consistent with screening of the NMR and with decay of the target polarization was observed during bombardment and for a time afterwards. The solid hydrogens have been the subject of previous radiation damage studies, both for possible polarized DT fusion\\cite{Forrest97} and for production of dynamically polarized nuclear targets\\cite{Radtke04}. We synthesize all this information into an overall picture that can guide on-going development of the HDice target system for future use.

  5. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power.

  6. Radiation testing campaign results for understanding the suitability of FPGAs in detector electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, M.; Camplani, A.; Cannon, M.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Deng, B.; Liu, C.; Meroni, C.; Kierstead, J.; Takai, H.; Wirthlin, M.; Ye, J.

    2016-07-01

    SRAM based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have been rarely used in High Energy Physics (HEP) due to their sensitivity to radiation. The last generation of commercial FPGAs based on 28 nm feature size and on Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technologies are more tolerant to radiation to the level that their use in front-end electronics is now feasible. FPGAs provide re-programmability, high-speed computation and fast data transmission through the embedded serial transceivers. They could replace custom application specific integrated circuits in front end electronics in locations with moderate radiation field. The use of a FPGA in HEP experiments is only limited by our ability to mitigate single event effects induced by the high energy hadrons present in the radiation field.

  7. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  8. Solvent Effects on Simple Electron Transfer Reactions. A Comparison of Results for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Electroanalytical Chemistry Department of Chemistry University of California . Davis, CA 95616 \\ JUN2 0 1989 May 1, 1989 C2 E Reproduction in whole or in...0541 Davis, CA 95616 . O 0 Office of Naval Research 800 N. Quincy Arlington, VA 22217-5000 Prepared for Publication in: Journal of Electroanalytical ... Chemistry 1& A (U fm M Solvent effects on the rate constants for both homogeneous and hetero- geneous electron transfer reactions have been analyzed on

  9. Unified fluid model analysis and benchmark study for electron transport in gas and liquid analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, N. A.; Cocks, D. G.; Boyle, G. J.; Dujko, S.; White, R. D.

    2017-07-01

    The interaction of plasmas with liquids requires an understanding of charged particle transport in both the gaseous and liquid phases. In this study we present a generalized fluid-equation framework to describe bulk electron transport in both gaseous and non-polar liquid environments under non-hydrodynamic non-equilibrium conditions. The framework includes liquid structural effects through appropriate inclusion of coherent scattering effects and adaption of swarm data to account for the modification to the scattering environment present in such systems. In the limit of low-densities it reduces to the traditional gas-phase fluid-equation model. Using a higher-order fluid model (four moments), it is shown that by applying steady state electron swarm data in both the gaseous and liquid phases, to close the system of equations and evaluate collisional rates, an improvement in macroscopic electron transport results over popular existing assumptions used. The failure of the local mean energy approximation in fluid models to accurately describe complex spatial oscillatory structures in both the gaseous and liquid phases is discussed in terms of the spatial variation of the electron distribution function itself.

  10. Modeling High Altitude EMP using a Non-Equilibrium Electron Swarm Model to Monitor Conduction Electron Evolution (LA-UR-15-26151)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusateri, E. N.; Morris, H. E.; Nelson, E.; Ji, W.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events in the atmosphere are important physical phenomena that occur through both man-made and natural processes, such as lightning, and can be disruptive to surrounding electrical systems. Due to the disruptive nature of EMP, it is important to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation with computational models. In EMP, low-energy conduction electrons are produced from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. These conduction electrons continue to interact with the surrounding air and alter the EMP waveform. Many EMP simulation codes use an equilibrium ohmic model for computing the conduction current. The equilibrium model works well when the equilibration time is short compared to the rise time or duration of the EMP. However, at high altitude, the conduction electron equilibration time can be comparable to or longer than the rise time or duration of the EMP. This matters, for example, when calculating the EMP propagating upward toward a satellite. In these scenarios, the equilibrium ionization rate becomes very large for even a modest electric field. The ohmic model produces an unphysically large number of conduction electrons that prematurely and abruptly short the EMP in the simulation code. An electron swarm model, which simulates the time evolution of conduction electrons, can be used to overcome the limitations exhibited by the equilibrium ohmic model. We have developed and validated an electron swarm model in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure previously in Pusateri et al. (2015). This swarm model has been integrated into CHAP-LA, a state-of-the-art EMP code developed by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory, which previously calculated conduction current using an ohmic model. We demonstrate the EMP damping behavior caused by the ohmic model at high altitudes and show improvements on high altitude EMP modeling obtained by employing the swarm model.

  11. Theoretical investigations on model ternary polypeptides using genetic algorithm—Some new results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vinita; Bakhshi, A. K.

    2011-04-01

    Using genetic algorithm (GA) model ternary polypeptides containing glycine, alanine and serine in β-pleated conformation have been theoretically investigated. In designing, the criterion to attain the optimum solution at the end of GA run is minimum band gap and maximum delocalization in the polypeptide chain. Ab initio results obtained using Clementi's minimal basis set are used as input. Effects of (i) change of basis set from minimal to double zeta, (ii) change in secondary structure from β-pleated to α-helical, (iii) presence of solvation shell and (iv) binding of H + and Li + ions to peptide group on the resulting solution as well as on electronic structure and conduction properties of polypeptides are investigated. A comparison is drawn between results obtained for the two cationic adducts. The protonated adduct is expected to withdraw more negative charge from the polypeptide chain due to smaller size of H + and is found to have high electron affinity compared to Li + adduct.

  12. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.; Hakim, V.; Pasquier, V.

    1993-11-01

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices.

  13. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M.R.; Pasquier, V. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Hakim, V. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-12-31

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices. (author).

  14. APPLYING LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL TO THE EXAMINATION RESULTS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary logistic regression model is used to analyze the school examination results(scores of 1002 students. The analysis is performed on the basis of the independent variables viz.gender, medium of instruction, type of schools, category of schools, board of examinations andlocation of schools, where scores or marks are assumed to be dependent variables. The odds ratioanalysis compares the scores obtained in two examinations viz. matriculation and highersecondary.

  15. Analytical results for a three-phase traffic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2003-10-01

    We study analytically a cellular automaton model, which is able to present three different traffic phases on a homogeneous highway. The characteristics displayed in the fundamental diagram can be well discerned by analyzing the evolution of density configurations. Analytical expressions for the traffic flow and shock speed are obtained. The synchronized flow in the intermediate-density region is the result of aggressive driving scheme and determined mainly by the stochastic noise.

  16. Analytical thermal modelling of multilayered active embedded chips into high density electronic board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier-Vinard Eric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent Printed Wiring Board embedding technology is an attractive packaging alternative that allows a very high degree of miniaturization by stacking multiple layers of embedded chips. This disruptive technology will further increase the thermal management challenges by concentrating heat dissipation at the heart of the organic substrate structure. In order to allow the electronic designer to early analyze the limits of the power dissipation, depending on the embedded chip location inside the board, as well as the thermal interactions with other buried chips or surface mounted electronic components, an analytical thermal modelling approach was established. The presented work describes the comparison of the analytical model results with the numerical models of various embedded chips configurations. The thermal behaviour predictions of the analytical model, found to be within ±10% of relative error, demonstrate its relevance for modelling high density electronic board. Besides the approach promotes a practical solution to study the potential gain to conduct a part of heat flow from the components towards a set of localized cooled board pads.

  17. A new version of the NeQuick ionosphere electron density model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, B.; Coïsson, P.; Radicella, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    NeQuick is a three-dimensional and time dependent ionospheric electron density model developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy and at the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. It is a quick-run model particularly tailored for trans-ionospheric applications that allows one to calculate the electron concentration at any given location in the ionosphere and thus the total electron content (TEC) along any ground-to-satellite ray-path by means of numerical integration. Taking advantage of the increasing amount of available data, the model formulation is continuously updated to improve NeQuick capabilities to provide representations of the ionosphere at global scales. Recently, major changes have been introduced in the model topside formulation and important modifications have also been introduced in the bottomside description. In addition, specific revisions have been applied to the computer package associated to NeQuick in order to improve its computational efficiency. It has therefore been considered appropriate to finalize all the model developments in a new version of the NeQuick. In the present work the main features of NeQuick 2 are illustrated and some results related to validation tests are reported.

  18. An Improved Model for Operational Specification of the Electron Density Structure up to Geosynchronous Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    tracking of spacecraft as part of space surveillance programmes; the use of space-based synthetic aperture radars (SAR) to carry out remote sensing of...Profiler (TSMP) and the TSMP-assisted Digisonde (TaD) model b) To validate the results using ISR and topside electron density profiles, GNSS TEC and...derived from ground-based GNSS receivers ............................ 20  2.3 Comparison with data from Malvern ISR

  19. Doping Dependent Charge Transfer Gap and Realistic Electronic Model of n-type Cuprate Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, T.

    2010-05-03

    Based on the analysis of the measurement data of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and optics, we show that the charge transfer gap is significantly smaller than the optical one and is reduced by doping in electron doped cuprate superconductors. This leads to a strong charge fluctuation between the Zhang-Rice singlet and the upper Hubbard bands. The basic model for describing this system is a hybridized two-band t-J model. In the symmetric limit where the corresponding intra- and inter-band hopping integrals are equal to each other, this two-band model is equivalent to the Hubbard model with an antiferromagnetic exchange interaction (i.e. the t-U-J model). The mean-field result of the t-U-J model gives a good account for the doping evolution of the Fermi surface and the staggered magnetization.

  20. Research on modeling of heat source for electron beam welding fusion-solidification zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yajun; Fu Pengfei; Guan Yongjun; Lu Zhijun; Wei Yintao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the common heat source model of point and linear heat source in the numerical simulation of electron beam welding (EBW) were summarized and introduced.The combined point-linear heat source model was brought forward and to simulate the welding temperature fields of EBW and predicting the weld shape.The model parameters were put forward and regulated in the combined model,which included the ratio of point heat source to linear heat source Qpr and the distribution of linear heat source Lr.Based on the combined model,the welding temperature fields of EBW were investigated.The results show that the predicted weld shapes are conformable to those of the actual,the temperature fields are reasonable and correct by simulating with combined point-linear heat source model and the typical weld shapes are gained.

  1. Multi-band model of quantum electron devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Mehmet Burcin

    Wigner function equations for multi-band quantum devices are presented in this presentation. These quantum transport equations are derived from the equations of motion of non-equilibrium Green's function with the generalized Kadanoff Baym ansatz, and the multi-band k.p Hamiltonian including the spin-orbit interaction. The results are applied to a two-band resonant inter-band tunneling structure. A Wigner function representation is developed for the quantum transport theory of the conduction band electrons in Rashba effect resonant tunneling structures with a phonon bath. In narrow band gap heterostructures, spin splitting occurs mainly as a result of inversion asymmetry in the spatial dependence of the potential or as a result of external electric field. This "zero magnetic field spin splitting" is due to the Rashba term in the effective mass Hamiltonian. A theoretical study of the spin-dependent resonant tunneling structure based on multi-band non-equilibrium Green's functions is also presented in this work. Again, the quantum transport equations are derived using multiband non-equilibrium Green's function formulation in generalized Kadanoff-Baym ansatz. Finally, numerical results are presented based on the multi-band Wigner-Poisson code. This code is able to simulate multi-band resonant tunneling structures.

  2. The dissemination of the results of scientific research in the era of electronic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, P. W. J. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the extended text of a lecture presented during an "on-invitation" symposium: " Future Trends in Spectroscopy", organized on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the founding of Spectrochimica Acta. This symposium was held under the auspices of the Pontificia Academia Scientiarum in the Casina Pio Quattro in Vatican City. The lecture considers the future of scientific publishing primarily from the point of view of the actual behaviour of authors, editors, reviewers, publishers, and readers. In this scope the author discusses (a) aims and format of scientific publications, (b) new approaches to conventional scientific publishing, i.e., in "hardcopy journal format", (c) the implications of desktop publishing (DTP) and camera-ready copy (CRC) for author, editor, reviewer, and publisher, and (d) the truly electronic publication, i.e., a publication on an electronic medium, such as a diskette, which does not only contain text and graphics, but also executable programs, source codes, data files, and parameter sets. The paper includes a tutorial discussion of issues such as word processors, scientific word processors, DTP, WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) versus ML (Markup Language), procedural markup versus descriptive markup, text versus graphics, and standard generalized markup language (SGML). As to conventional scientific publishing the author concludes that the "DTP-CRC approach" is not a viable alternative. The most promising appears an approach in which the author produces the "author's primary electronic manuscript" (APEM) in ASCII format with graphics in a format such as Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) without procedural markup but with a minimum of descriptive markup, for example, in SGML codes. The "APEM-SGML approach" is considered (i) to provide for a balanced distribution of tasks among authors, editors, reviewers, and publishers, (ii) to eliminate the necessity of rekeying documents, and (iii) to give publishers additional "handles

  3. First results of electron temperature measurements by the use of multi-pass Thomson scattering system in GAMMA 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M., E-mail: yosikawa@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Nagasu, K.; Shimamura, Y.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Minami, T. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A multi-pass Thomson scattering (TS) has the advantage of enhancing scattered signals. We constructed a multi-pass TS system for a polarisation-based system and an image relaying system modelled on the GAMMA 10 TS system. We undertook Raman scattering experiments both for the multi-pass setting and for checking the optical components. Moreover, we applied the system to the electron temperature measurements in the GAMMA 10 plasma for the first time. The integrated scattering signal was magnified by approximately three times by using the multi-pass TS system with four passes. The electron temperature measurement accuracy is improved by using this multi-pass system.

  4. Modeling Photovoltaic Module-Level Power Electronics in the System Advisor Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    Module-level power electronics, such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules, are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software. This paper extends the work completed at NREL that provided recommendations to model the performance of distributed power electronics in NREL’s popular PVWatts calculator [1], to provide similar guidelines for modeling these technologies in NREL's more complex System Advisor Model (SAM). Module-level power electronics - such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules-- are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software.

  5. First principles based multiparadigm modeling of electronic structures and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai

    enabling the tunability of CBO. We predict that Na further improves the CBO through electrostatically elevating the valence levels to decrease the CBO, explaining the observed essential role of Na for high performance. Moreover we find that K leads to a dramatic decrease in the CBO to 0.05 eV, much better than Na. We suggest that the efficiency of CIGS devices might be improved substantially by tuning the ratio of Na to K, with the improved phase stability of Na balancing phase instability from K. All these defects reduce interfacial stability slightly, but not significantly. A number of exotic structures have been formed through high pressure chemistry, but applications have been hindered by difficulties in recovering the high pressure phase to ambient conditions (i.e., one atmosphere and room temperature). Here we use dispersion-corrected DFT (PBE-ulg flavor) to predict that above 60 GPa the most stable form of N2O (the laughing gas in its molecular form) is a 1D polymer with an all-nitrogen backbone analogous to cis-polyacetylene in which alternate N are bonded (ionic covalent) to O. The analogous trans-polymer is only 0.03-0.10 eV/molecular unit less stable. Upon relaxation to ambient conditions both polymers relax below 14 GPa to the same stable non-planar trans-polymer, accompanied by possible electronic structure transitions. The predicted phonon spectrum and dissociation kinetics validate the stability of this trans-poly-NNO at ambient conditions, which has potential applications as a new type of conducting polymer with all-nitrogen chains and as a high-energy oxidizer for rocket propulsion. This work illustrates in silico materials discovery particularly in the realm of extreme conditions. Modeling non-adiabatic electron dynamics has been a long-standing challenge for computational chemistry and materials science, and the eFF method presents a cost-efficient alternative. However, due to the deficiency of FSG representation, eFF is limited to low-Z elements with

  6. Challenges in validating model results for first year ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Eastwood, Steinar; Xie, Jiping; Aaboe, Signe; Bertino, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the quality of model results for the distribution of first year ice, a comparison with a product based on observations from satellite-borne instruments has been performed. Such a comparison is not straightforward due to the contrasting algorithms that are used in the model product and the remote sensing product. The implementation of the validation is discussed in light of the differences between this set of products, and validation results are presented. The model product is the daily updated 10-day forecast from the Arctic Monitoring and Forecasting Centre in CMEMS. The forecasts are produced with the assimilative ocean prediction system TOPAZ. Presently, observations of sea ice concentration and sea ice drift are introduced in the assimilation step, but data for sea ice thickness and ice age (or roughness) are not included. The model computes the age of the ice by recording and updating the time passed after ice formation as sea ice grows and deteriorates as it is advected inside the model domain. Ice that is younger than 365 days is classified as first year ice. The fraction of first-year ice is recorded as a tracer in each grid cell. The Ocean and Sea Ice Thematic Assembly Centre in CMEMS redistributes a daily product from the EUMETSAT OSI SAF of gridded sea ice conditions which include "ice type", a representation of the separation of regions between those infested by first year ice, and those infested by multi-year ice. The ice type is parameterized based on data for the gradient ratio GR(19,37) from SSMIS observations, and from the ASCAT backscatter parameter. This product also includes information on ambiguity in the processing of the remote sensing data, and the product's confidence level, which have a strong seasonal dependency.

  7. Modeling the Earth's radiation belts. A review of quantitative data based electron and proton models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vette, J. I.; Teague, M. J.; Sawyer, D. M.; Chan, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of quantitative models of the trapped radiation belts is traced to show how the knowledge of the various features has developed, or been clarified, by performing the required analysis and synthesis. The Starfish electron injection introduced problems in the time behavior of the inner zone, but this residue decayed away, and a good model of this depletion now exists. The outer zone electrons were handled statistically by a log normal distribution such that above 5 Earth radii there are no long term changes over the solar cycle. The transition region between the two zones presents the most difficulty, therefore the behavior of individual substorms as well as long term changes must be studied. The latest corrections to the electron environment based on new data are outlined. The proton models have evolved to the point where the solar cycle effect at low altitudes is included. Trends for new models are discussed; the feasibility of predicting substorm injections and solar wind high-speed streams make the modeling of individual events a topical activity.

  8. Modeling the Earth's radiation belts. A review of quantitative data based electron and proton models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vette, J. I.; Teague, M. J.; Sawyer, D. M.; Chan, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of quantitative models of the trapped radiation belts is traced to show how the knowledge of the various features has developed, or been clarified, by performing the required analysis and synthesis. The Starfish electron injection introduced problems in the time behavior of the inner zone, but this residue decayed away, and a good model of this depletion now exists. The outer zone electrons were handled statistically by a log normal distribution such that above 5 Earth radii there are no long term changes over the solar cycle. The transition region between the two zones presents the most difficulty, therefore the behavior of individual substorms as well as long term changes must be studied. The latest corrections to the electron environment based on new data are outlined. The proton models have evolved to the point where the solar cycle effect at low altitudes is included. Trends for new models are discussed; the feasibility of predicting substorm injections and solar wind high-speed streams make the modeling of individual events a topical activity.

  9. Electronic structure of vitamin B12 within the framework of the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Zafer; Mayda, Selma; Bulut, Nejat

    2015-03-01

    We study the electronic structure of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine C63H88CoN14O14P) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. Here, our purpose is to understand the many-body effects originating from the transition-metal impurity. In this approach, the cobalt 3 d orbitals are treated as the impurity states placed in a semiconductor host which consists of the rest of the molecule. The parameters of the resulting effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock approximation for the electronic structure of the molecule. The quantum Monte Carlo technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective Haldane-Anderson model for vitamin B12. We find that new states form inside the semiconductor gap due to the on-site Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3 d orbitals and that these states become the highest occupied molecular orbitals. In addition, we present results on the charge distribution and spin correlations around the Co atom. We compare the results of this approach with those obtained by the density-functional theory calculations.

  10. Results of Satellite Brightness Modeling Using Kringing Optimized Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, C.; Hejduk, M.

    At the 2005 AMOS conference, Kriging Optimized Interpolation (KOI) was presented as a tool to model satellite brightness as a function of phase angle and solar declination angle (J.M Okada and M.D. Hejduk). Since November 2005, this method has been used to support the tasking algorithm for all optical sensors in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The satellite brightness maps generated by the KOI program are compared to each sensor's ability to detect an object as a function of the brightness of the background sky and angular rate of the object. This will determine if the sensor can technically detect an object based on an explicit calculation of the object's probability of detection. In addition, recent upgrades at Ground-Based Electro Optical Deep Space Surveillance Sites (GEODSS) sites have increased the amount and quality of brightness data collected and therefore available for analysis. This in turn has provided enough data to study the modeling process in more detail in order to obtain the most accurate brightness prediction of satellites. Analysis of two years of brightness data gathered from optical sensors and modeled via KOI solutions are outlined in this paper. By comparison, geo-stationary objects (GEO) were tracked less than non-GEO objects but had higher density tracking in phase angle due to artifices of scheduling. A statistically-significant fit to a deterministic model was possible less than half the time in both GEO and non-GEO tracks, showing that a stochastic model must often be used alone to produce brightness results, but such results are nonetheless serviceable. Within the Kriging solution, the exponential variogram model was the most frequently employed in both GEO and non-GEO tracks, indicating that monotonic brightness variation with both phase and solar declination angle is common and testifying to the suitability to the application of regionalized variable theory to this particular problem. Finally, the average nugget value, or

  11. Small signal gain based on analytic models of thin intense electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Elliott, C.; McVey, Brian; Schmitt, Mark

    1991-07-01

    We develop the free electron laser theory of the effective energy distribution and the small signal gain for a thin electron beam. The assumption of thinness allows us to treat various transverse locations and electron beam trajectory angles as introducing phase shifts that have the same effect as those introduced by a change in energy of the electron. These ideas extend previous work of Colson et al., Dattoli et al., Scharlemann, and others in five important ways. The first is the ability to treat electron beams with three different classes of matching or symmetry conditions: (i) electron beams with separate betatron matching in each plane. (ii) those with aspect ratio matching, and (iii) crossed matched beams. Manifestations of these symmetries include elliptical cross-sections and electron beams that have modulated spatial profiles. For these we derive analytical expressions for effective energy distributions. Second, two emittance parameters for the electron beam are shown to consolidate into a single parameter that describes most of the energy variation of the effective energy distributions. Thus, the effective energy distribution for a 1:4 ribbon electron beam is nearly equivalent to a distribution for a beam of circular cross-section. Third, these calculations extend to energy distributions, angular distributions, and spatial distributions that all follow Gaussian profiles. Fourth, this model incorporates the description of the incident Gaussian optical beam and the above electron beam dynamics into a single influence function kernel. Emittance, energy spread, diffraction, and gain may be interpreted as limiting the length over which the bunching contributions of the propagating electric fields downstream are important. Fifth, three-dimensional profiles of the optical fields are computed. This work is complementary to the recent work of Yu, Krinsky and Gluckstern in that ours always describes the transition from low gain to high gain for a thin beam and not

  12. Optical modeling of plasma-deposited ZnO films: Electron scattering at different length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoops, Harm C. M., E-mail: H.C.M.Knoops@tue.nl; Loo, Bas W. H. van de; Smit, Sjoerd; Ponomarev, Mikhail V.; Weber, Jan-Willem; Sharma, Kashish [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kessels, Wilhelmus M. M.; Creatore, Mariadriana, E-mail: M.Creatore@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands and Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    In this work, an optical modeling study on electron scattering mechanisms in plasma-deposited ZnO layers is presented. Because various applications of ZnO films pose a limit on the electron carrier density due to its effect on the film transmittance, higher electron mobility values are generally preferred instead. Hence, insights into the electron scattering contributions affecting the carrier mobility are required. In optical models, the Drude oscillator is adopted to represent the free-electron contribution and the obtained optical mobility can be then correlated with the macroscopic material properties. However, the influence of scattering phenomena on the optical mobility depends on the considered range of photon energy. For example, the grain-boundary scattering is generally not probed by means of optical measurements and the ionized-impurity scattering contribution decreases toward higher photon energies. To understand this frequency dependence and quantify contributions from different scattering phenomena to the mobility, several case studies were analyzed in this work by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The obtained electrical parameters were compared to the results inferred by Hall measurements. For intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO), the in-grain mobility was obtained by fitting reflection data with a normal Drude model in the IR range. For Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO), besides a normal Drude fit in the IR range, an Extended Drude fit in the UV-vis range could be used to obtain the in-grain mobility. Scattering mechanisms for a thickness series of Al:ZnO films were discerned using the more intuitive parameter “scattering frequency” instead of the parameter “mobility”. The interaction distance concept was introduced to give a physical interpretation to the frequency dependence of the scattering frequency. This physical interpretation furthermore allows the prediction of which Drude models can be used in a specific

  13. Titan Chemistry: Results From A Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric; West, R. A.; Friedson, A. J.; Oyafuso, F.

    2008-09-01

    We present results from a 3-dimesional global climate model of Titan's atmosphere and surface. This model, a modified version of NCAR's CAM-3 (Community Atmosphere Model), has been optimized for analysis of Titan's lower atmosphere and surface. With the inclusion of forcing from Saturn's gravitational tides, interaction from the surface, transfer of longwave and shortwave radiation, and parameterization of haze properties, constrained by Cassini observations, a dynamical field is generated, which serves to advect 14 long-lived species. The concentrations of these chemical tracers are also affected by 82 chemical reactions and the photolysis of 21 species, based on the Wilson and Atreya (2004) model, that provide sources and sinks for the advected species along with 23 additional non-advected radicals. In addition, the chemical contribution to haze conversion is parameterized along with the microphysical processes that serve to distribute haze opacity throughout the atmosphere. References Wilson, E.H. and S.K. Atreya, J. Geophys. Res., 109, E06002, 2004.

  14. Why Does a Kronecker Model Result in Misleading Capacity Estimates?

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Sayeed, Akbar M

    2008-01-01

    Many recent works that study the performance of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems in practice assume a Kronecker model where the variances of the channel entries, upon decomposition on to the transmit and the receive eigen-bases, admit a separable form. Measurement campaigns, however, show that the Kronecker model results in poor estimates for capacity. Motivated by these observations, a channel model that does not impose a separable structure has been recently proposed and shown to fit the capacity of measured channels better. In this work, we show that this recently proposed modeling framework can be viewed as a natural consequence of channel decomposition on to its canonical coordinates, the transmit and/or the receive eigen-bases. Using tools from random matrix theory, we then establish the theoretical basis behind the Kronecker mismatch at the low- and the high-SNR extremes: 1) Sparsity of the dominant statistical degrees of freedom (DoF) in the true channel at the low-SNR extreme, and 2) Non-regul...

  15. New DNS and modeling results for turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Arne; El Khoury, George; Grundestam, Olof; Schlatter, Philipp; Brethouwer, Geert; Linne Flow Centre Team

    2013-11-01

    The near-wall region of turbulent pipe and channel flows (as well as zero-pressure gradient boundary layers) have been shown to exhibit a very high degree of similarity in terms of all statistical moments and many other features, while even the mean velocity profile in the two cases exhibits significant differences between in the outer region. The wake part of the profile, i.e. the deviation from the log-law, in the outer region is of substantially larger amplitude in pipe flow as compared to channel flow (although weaker than in boundary layer flow). This intriguing feature has been well known but has no simple explanation. Model predictions typically give identical results for the two flows. We have analyzed a new set of DNS for pipe and channel flows (el Khoury et al. 2013, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion) for friction Reynolds numbers up to 1000 and made comparing calculations with differential Reynolds stress models (DRSM). We have strong indications that the key factor behind the difference in mean velocity in the outer region can be coupled to differences in the turbulent diffusion in this region. This is also supported by DRSM results, where interesting differences are seen depending on the sophistication of modeling the turbulent diffusion coefficient.

  16. Some Results on Optimal Dividend Problem in Two Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaiqi Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compound Poisson risk model and the compound Poisson risk model perturbed by diffusion are considered in the presence of a dividend barrier with solvency constraints. Moreover, it extends the known result due to [1]. Ref. [1] finds the optimal dividend policy is of a barrier type for a jump-diffusion model with exponentially distributed jumps. In this paper, it turns out that there can be two different solutions depending on the model’s parameters. Furthermore, an interesting result is given: the proportional transaction cost has no effect on the dividend barrier. The objective of the corporation is to maximize the cumulative expected discounted dividends payout with solvency constraints before the time of ruin. It is well known that under some reasonable assumptions, optimal dividend strategy is a barrier strategy, i.e., there is a level b_{1}(b_{2} so that whenever surplus goes above the level b_{1}(b_{2}, the excess is paid out as dividends. However, the optimal level b_{1}(b_{2} may be unacceptably low from a solvency point of view. Therefore, some constraints should imposed on an insurance company such as to pay out dividends unless the surplus has reached a level b^{1}_{c}>b_{1}(b^2_{c}>b_{2} . We show that in this case a barrier strategy at b^{1}_{c}(b^2_{c} is optimal.

  17. Modeling results for the ITER cryogenic fore pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D. S.; Miller, F. K.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The cryogenic fore pump (CFP) is designed for ITER to collect and compress hydrogen isotopes during the regeneration process of torus cryopumps. Different from common cryopumps, the ITER-CFP works in the viscous flow regime. As a result, both adsorption boundary conditions and transport phenomena contribute unique features to the pump performance. In this report, the physical mechanisms of cryopumping are studied, especially the diffusion-adsorption process and these are coupled with standard equations of species, momentum and energy balance, as well as the equation of state. Numerical models are developed, which include highly coupled non-linear conservation equations of species, momentum and energy and equation of state. Thermal and kinetic properties are treated as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition. To solve such a set of equations, a novel numerical technique, identified as the Group-Member numerical technique is proposed. It is presented here a 1D numerical model. The results include comparison with the experimental data of pure hydrogen flow and a prediction for hydrogen flow with trace helium. An advanced 2D model and detailed explanation of the Group-Member technique are to be presented in following papers.

  18. REFLECTIONS ON THE TWO-STATE ELECTRON TRANSFER MODEL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunschwig, B.S.

    2000-01-12

    There is general agreement that the two most important factors determining electron transfer rates in solution are the degree of electronic interaction between the donor and acceptor sites, and the changes in the nuclear configurations of the donor, acceptor, and surrounding medium that occur upon the gain or loss of an electron Ll-51. The electronic interaction of the sites will be very weak, and the electron transfer slow, when the sites are far apart or their interaction is symmetry or spin forbidden. Since electron motion is much faster than nuclear motion, energy conservation requires that, prior to the actual electron transfer, the nuclear configurations of the reactants and the surrounding medium adjust from their equilibrium values to a configuration (generally) intermediate between that of the reactants and products. In the case of electron transfer between , two metal complexes in a polar solvent, the nuclear configuration changes involve adjustments in the metal-ligand and intraligand bond lengths and angles, and changes in the orientations of the surrounding solvent molecules. In common with ordinary chemical reactions, an electron transfer reaction can then be described in terms of the motion of the system on an energy surface from the reactant equilibrium configuration (initial state) to the product equilibrium configuration (final state) via the activated complex (transition state) configuration.

  19. Note: Upgrade of electron cyclotron emission imaging system and preliminary results on HL-2A tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M., E-mail: jiangm@swip.ac.cn; Shi, Z. B.; Zhong, W. L.; Chen, W.; Liu, Z. T.; Ding, X. T.; Yang, Q. W.; Zhang, B. Y.; Shi, P. W.; Liu, Y.; Fu, B. Z.; Xu, Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Yang, Z. C. [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The electron cyclotron emission imaging system on the HL-2A tokamak has been upgraded to 24 (poloidally) × 16 (radially) channels based on the previous 24 × 8 array. The measurement region can be flexibly shifted due to the independence of the two local oscillator sources, and the field of view can be adjusted easily by changing the position of the zoom lenses. The temporal resolution is about 2.5 μs and the achievable spatial resolution is 1 cm. After laboratory calibration, it was installed on HL-2A tokamak in 2014, and the local 2D mode structures of MHD activities were obtained for the first time.

  20. Experimental and theoretical results on electron emission in collisions between He targets and dressed Liq+ (q = 1, 2) projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregenal, D.; Monti, J. M.; Fiol, J.; Fainstein, P. D.; Rivarola, R. D.; Bernardi, G.; Suárez, S.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the electron emission in collisions between He atoms and L{{i}^{q+}} (q = 1, 2) projectiles at intermediate to high incident energies. We report on measured absolute values of double-differential cross-sections, as a function of the emitted electron energy and angle, at a collision energy of 440 keV u-1. The different contributions from target ionization, projectile ionization, and simultaneous target-projectile ionization are calculated with the quantum-mechanical continuum distorted wave and continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state models, and with classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations. There is an overall good agreement of the calculations with the experimental data for electron emission cross-sections.

  1. Plasmaspheric electron densities: the importance in modelling radiation belts and in SSA operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, János; Jorgensen, Anders; Koronczay, Dávid; Ferencz, Csaba; Hamar, Dániel; Steinbach, Péter; Clilverd, Mark; Rodger, Craig; Juhász, Lilla; Sannikov, Dmitry; Cherneva, Nina

    2016-04-01

    The Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer Network (AWDANet, Lichtenberger et al., J. Geophys. Res., 113, 2008, A12201, doi:10.1029/2008JA013467) is able to detect and analyze whistlers in quasi-realtime and can provide equatorial electron density data. The plasmaspheric electron densities are key parameters for plasmasphere models in Space Weather related investigations, particularly in modeling charged particle accelerations and losses in Radiation Belts. The global AWDANet detects millions of whistlers in a year. The network operates since early 2002 with automatic whistler detector capability and it has been recently completed with automatic analyzer capability in PLASMON (http://plasmon.elte.hu, Lichtenberger et al., Space Weather Space Clim. 3 2013, A23 DOI: 10.1051/swsc/2013045.) Eu FP7-Space project. It is based on a recently developed whistler inversion model (Lichtenberger, J. J. Geophys. Res., 114, 2009, A07222, doi:10.1029/2008JA013799), that opened the way for an automated process of whistler analysis, not only for single whistler events but for complex analysis of multiple-path propagation whistler groups. The network operates in quasi real-time mode since mid-2014, fifteen stations provide equatorial electron densities that are used as inputs for a data assimilative plasmasphere model but they can also be used directly in space weather research and models. We have started to process the archive data collected by AWDANet stations since 2002 and in this paper we present the results of quasi-real-time and off-line runs processing whistlers from quiet and disturb periods. The equatorial electron densities obtained by whistler inversion are fed into the assimilative model of the plasmasphere providing a global view of the region for processed the periods

  2. A model for ion-acoustic solitary waves with streaming non-Maxwellian electrons in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid Hussain, Shah; Nouman Sarwar, Qureshi Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Solitons are nonlinear solitary structures and are integral part of space plasmas. Such nonlinear structures, accompanied by streaming electrons are frequently observed by various satellites in different regions of near Earth plasmas such as Earth's bow shock, magnetopause, auroral zone, etc. In this paper, we present a fluid model consisting streaming non-Maxwellian electrons along the magnetic field and derived the Sagdeev potential for fully nonlinear fluid equations. We found that compressive solitons can be developed in such a plasma. The results from our model can be used to interpret solitary structures in space plasmas when there is streaming electron obeying the non-Maxwellian distributions

  3. A stochastic study of electron transfer kinetics in nano-particulate photocatalysis: a comparison of the quasi-equilibrium approximation with a random walking model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshun; Zhao, Xiujian; Yu, Jiaguo; Fujishima, Akira; Nakata, Kazuya

    2016-11-23

    In the photocatalysis of porous nano-crystalline materials, the transfer of electrons to O2 plays an important role, which includes the electron transport to photocatalytic active centers and successive interfacial transfer to O2. The slowest of them will determine the overall speed of electron transfer in the photocatalysis reaction. Considering the photocatalysis of porous nano-crystalline TiO2 as an example, although some experimental results have shown that the electron kinetics are limited by the interfacial transfer, we still lack the depth of understanding the microscopic mechanism from a theoretical viewpoint. In the present research, a stochastic quasi-equilibrium (QE) theoretical model and a stochastic random walking (RW) model were established to discuss the electron transport and electron interfacial transfer by taking the electron multi-trapping transport and electron interfacial transfer from the photocatalytic active centers to O2 into consideration. By carefully investigating the effect of the electron Fermi level (EF) and the photocatalytic center number on electron transport, we showed that the time taken for an electron to transport to a photocatalytic center predicated by the stochastic RW model was much lower than that predicted by the stochastic QE model, indicating that the electrons cannot reach a QE state during their transport to photocatalytic centers. The stochastic QE model predicted that the electron kinetics of a real photocatalysis for porous nano-crystalline TiO2 should be limited by electron transport, whereas the stochastic RW model showed that the electron kinetics of a real photocatalysis can be limited by the interfacial transfer. Our simulation results show that the stochastic RW model was more in line with the real electron kinetics that have been observed in experiments, therefore it is concluded that the photoinduced electrons cannot reach a QE state before transferring to O2.

  4. Results on the Coherent Interaction of High Energy Electrons and Photons in Oriented Single Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Y V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Van Rens, B; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, Erik; Uggerhøj, U; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2005-01-01

    The CERN-NA-59 experiment examined a wide range of electromagnetic processes for multi-GeV electrons and photons interacting with oriented single crystals. The various types of crystals and their orientations were used for producing photon beams and for converting and measuring their polarisation. The radiation emitted by 178 GeV unpolarised electrons incident on a 1.5 cm thick Si crystal oriented in the Coherent Bremsstrahlung (CB) and the String-of-Strings (SOS) modes was used to obtain multi-GeV linearly polarised photon beams. A new crystal polarimetry technique was established for measuring the linear polarisation of the photon beam. The polarimeter is based on the dependence of the Coherent Pair Production (CPP) cross section in oriented single crystals on the direction of the photon polarisation with respect to the crystal plane. Both a 1 mm thick single crystal of Germanium and a 4 mm thick multi-tile set of synthetic Diamond crystals were used as analyzers of the linear polarisation. A birefringence ...

  5. Front-end Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM). Results of Prototype Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Ryan C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Keller, Daniel T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) deploys unattended monitoring systems to provide continuous monitoring of nuclear material within safeguarded facilities around the world. As the number of unattended monitoring instruments increases, the IAEA is challenged to become more efficient in the implementation of those systems. In 2010, the IAEA initiated the Front-End Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM) project with the goals of greater flexibility in the interfaces to various sensors and data acquisition systems, and improved capabilities for remotely located sensors (e.g., where sensor and front-end electronics might be separated by tens of meters). In consultation with the IAEA, a technical evaluation of a candidate FEUM device produced by a commercial vendor has been performed. This evaluation assessed the device against the IAEA’s original technical specifications and a broad range of important parameters that include sensor types, cable lengths and types, industrial electromagnetic noise that can degrade signals from remotely located detectors, and high radiation fields. Testing data, interpretation, findings and recommendations are provided.

  6. The identification of black carbon particles with the analytical scanning electron microscope. Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffyn-Egli, P. [MicroChem, Geochemistry Consultants, East Jeddore, Nova Scotia (Canada); Potter, T.M.; Leonard, J.D.; Pocklington, R. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1997-04-09

    Combustion of fossil fuel and vegetation produces large quantities of black carbon particles (BCP) which are dispersed by winds over large areas. Once deposited in the sediment, BCP constitute an historic record of anthropogenic activities and wildfires. For BCP to be significant environmental indicators, it is necessary to determine their source as precisely as possible. A method has been developed to differentiate BCP from other carbonaceous particles, and to assign them to coal, oil, or biomass combustion using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an elemental detector (Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope, ASEM). BCP were identified in the ASEM as particles with an O/C atomic ratio of less than 0.15. Morphology (shape and surface texture) and trace element content (S and Cl) were used to classify BCP according to source using samples of known origin (oil, coal and wood fly-ash) and marine sediment samples from Halifax Inlet, which has undergone progressive urbanisation and industrialization over the last 250 years. The method is applicable to a wide size range of BCP and complete isolation of the BCP from the rest of the sample is not necessary

  7. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  8. Geochemical controls on shale groundwaters: Results of reaction path modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Damm, K.L.; VandenBrook, A.J.

    1989-03-01

    The EQ3NR/EQ6 geochemical modeling code was used to simulate the reaction of several shale mineralogies with different groundwater compositions in order to elucidate changes that may occur in both the groundwater compositions, and rock mineralogies and compositions under conditions which may be encountered in a high-level radioactive waste repository. Shales with primarily illitic or smectitic compositions were the focus of this study. The reactions were run at the ambient temperatures of the groundwaters and to temperatures as high as 250/degree/C, the approximate temperature maximum expected in a repository. All modeling assumed that equilibrium was achieved and treated the rock and water assemblage as a closed system. Graphite was used as a proxy mineral for organic matter in the shales. The results show that the presence of even a very small amount of reducing mineral has a large influence on the redox state of the groundwaters, and that either pyrite or graphite provides essentially the same results, with slight differences in dissolved C, Fe and S concentrations. The thermodynamic data base is inadequate at the present time to fully evaluate the speciation of dissolved carbon, due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for organic compounds. In the illitic cases the groundwaters resulting from interaction at elevated temperatures are acid, while the smectitic cases remain alkaline, although the final equilibrium mineral assemblages are quite similar. 10 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Multi-Model Combination techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajami, N K; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

    2005-04-11

    This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multi-model Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

  10. Model of single-electron performance of micropixel avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sadygov, Z; Akhmedov, G; Akhmedov, F; Khorev, S; Mukhtarov, R; Sadigov, A; Sidelev, A; Titov, A; Zerrouk, F; Zhezher, V

    2014-01-01

    An approximate iterative model of avalanche process in a pixel of micropixel avalanche photodiode initiated by a single photoelectron is presented. The model describes development of the avalanche process in time, taking into account change of electric field within the depleted region caused by internal discharge and external recharge currents. Conclusions obtained as a result of modelling are compared with experimental data. Simulations show that typical durations of the front and rear edges of the discharge current have the same magnitude of less than 50 ps. The front of the external recharge current has the same duration, however duration of the rear edge depends on value of the quenching micro-resistor. It was found that effective capacitance of the pixel calculated as the slope of linear dependence of the pulse charge on bias voltage exceeds its real capacitance by a factor of two.

  11. 76 FR 72087 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    .... A47CE to include the new model DA- 40NG with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 Aircraft Diesel Engine (ADE... the effects of the aircraft supplied power and data failures on the engine control system, and the... Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine. 1. Electronic Engine Control a. For electronic...

  12. VNIR spectral modeling of Mars analogue rocks: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, L.; Roush, T.; Pedrazzi, G.; Sgavetti, M.

    Knowledge regarding the surface composition of Mars and other bodies of the inner solar system is fundamental to understanding of their origin, evolution, and internal structures. Technological improvements of remote sensors and associated implications for planetary studies have encouraged increased laboratory and field spectroscopy research to model the spectral behavior of terrestrial analogues for planetary surfaces. This approach has proven useful during Martian surface and orbital missions, and petrologic studies of Martian SNC meteorites. Thermal emission data were used to suggest two lithologies occurring on Mars surface: basalt with abundant plagioclase and clinopyroxene and andesite, dominated by plagioclase and volcanic glass [1,2]. Weathered basalt has been suggested as an alternative to the andesite interpretation [3,4]. Orbital VNIR spectral imaging data also suggest the crust is dominantly basaltic, chiefly feldspar and pyroxene [5,6]. A few outcrops of ancient crust have higher concentrations of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, and have been interpreted as cumulates [6]. Based upon these orbital observations future lander/rover missions can be expected to encounter particulate soils, rocks, and rock outcrops. Approaches to qualitative and quantitative analysis of remotely-acquired spectra have been successfully used to infer the presence and abundance of minerals and to discover compositionally associated spectral trends [7-9]. Both empirical [10] and mathematical [e.g. 11-13] methods have been applied, typically with full compositional knowledge, to chiefly particulate samples and as a result cannot be considered as objective techniques for predicting the compositional information, especially for understanding the spectral behavior of rocks. Extending the compositional modeling efforts to include more rocks and developing objective criteria in the modeling are the next required steps. This is the focus of the present investigation. We present results of

  13. Electron Beam Melting and Refining of Metals: Computational Modeling and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veliko Donchev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling offers an opportunity for a better understanding and investigation of thermal transfer mechanisms. It can be used for the optimization of the electron beam melting process and for obtaining new materials with improved characteristics that have many applications in the power industry, medicine, instrument engineering, electronics, etc. A time-dependent 3D axis-symmetrical heat model for simulation of thermal transfer in metal ingots solidified in a water-cooled crucible at electron beam melting and refining (EBMR is developed. The model predicts the change in the temperature field in the casting ingot during the interaction of the beam with the material. A modified Pismen-Rekford numerical scheme to discretize the analytical model is developed. These equation systems, describing the thermal processes and main characteristics of the developed numerical method, are presented. In order to optimize the technological regimes, different criteria for better refinement and obtaining dendrite crystal structures are proposed. Analytical problems of mathematical optimization are formulated, discretized and heuristically solved by cluster methods. Using important for the practice simulation results, suggestions can be made for EBMR technology optimization. The proposed tool is important and useful for studying, control, optimization of EBMR process parameters and improving of the quality of the newly produced materials.

  14. Electron Beam Melting and Refining of Metals: Computational Modeling and Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutova, Katia; Donchev, Veliko

    2013-10-18

    Computational modeling offers an opportunity for a better understanding and investigation of thermal transfer mechanisms. It can be used for the optimization of the electron beam melting process and for obtaining new materials with improved characteristics that have many applications in the power industry, medicine, instrument engineering, electronics, etc. A time-dependent 3D axis-symmetrical heat model for simulation of thermal transfer in metal ingots solidified in a water-cooled crucible at electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) is developed. The model predicts the change in the temperature field in the casting ingot during the interaction of the beam with the material. A modified Pismen-Rekford numerical scheme to discretize the analytical model is developed. These equation systems, describing the thermal processes and main characteristics of the developed numerical method, are presented. In order to optimize the technological regimes, different criteria for better refinement and obtaining dendrite crystal structures are proposed. Analytical problems of mathematical optimization are formulated, discretized and heuristically solved by cluster methods. Using important for the practice simulation results, suggestions can be made for EBMR technology optimization. The proposed tool is important and useful for studying, control, optimization of EBMR process parameters and improving of the quality of the newly produced materials.

  15. Developing Argumentation Strategies in Electronic Dialogs: Is Modeling Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayweg-Paus, Elisabeth; Macagno, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    The study presented here examines how interacting with a more capable interlocutor influences use of argumentation strategies in electronic discourse. To address this question, 54 young adolescents participating in an intervention centered on electronic peer dialogs were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control condition. In both…

  16. ITER CS Model Coil and CS Insert Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Michael, P; Minervina, J; Radovinsky, A; Takayasu, M; Thome, R; Ando, T; Isono, T; Kato, T; Nakajima, H; Nishijima, G; Nunoya, Y; Sugimoto, M; Takahashi, Y; Tsuji, H; Bessette, D; Okuno, K; Ricci, M

    2000-09-07

    The Inner and Outer modules of the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) were built by US and Japanese home teams in collaboration with European and Russian teams to demonstrate the feasibility of a superconducting Central Solenoid for ITER and other large tokamak reactors. The CSMC mass is about 120 t, OD is about 3.6 m and the stored energy is 640 MJ at 46 kA and peak field of 13 T. Testing of the CSMC and the CS Insert took place at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from mid March until mid August 2000. This paper presents the main results of the tests performed.

  17. Results of the benchmark for blade structural models, part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekou, D.J.; Chortis, D.; Belen Fariñas, A.;

    2013-01-01

    Task 2.2 of the InnWind.Eu project. The benchmark is based on the reference wind turbine and the reference blade provided by DTU [1]. "Structural Concept developers/modelers" of WP2 were provided with the necessary input for a comparison numerical simulation run, upon definition of the reference blade......A benchmark on structural design methods for blades was performed within the InnWind.Eu project under WP2 “Lightweight Rotor” Task 2.2 “Lightweight structural design”. The present document is describes the results of the comparison simulation runs that were performed by the partners involved within...

  18. Model independent analysis of dark energy I: Supernova fitting result

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Y

    2004-01-01

    The nature of dark energy is a mystery to us. This paper uses the supernova data to explore the property of dark energy by some model independent methods. We first Talyor expanded the scale factor $a(t)$ to find out the deceleration parameter $q_0<0$. This result just invokes the Robertson-Walker metric. Then we discuss several different parameterizations used in the literature. We find that $\\Omega_{\\rm DE0}$ is almost less than -1 at $1\\sigma$ level. We also find that the transition redshift from deceleration phase to acceleration phase is $z_{\\rm T}\\sim 0.3$.

  19. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  20. Numerical study of electron beam welded butt joints with the GTN model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haoyun; Schmauder, Siegfried; Weber, Ulrich

    2012-08-01

    The fracture behavior of S355NL electron beam welded steel joints is investigated experimentally and numerically. The simulation of crack propagation in an electron beam welded steel joint was performed with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model. A parameter study of the GTN model was adopted which reveals the influence of parameters on the material behavior of notched round and compact tension specimens. Based on the combined method of metallographic investigations and numerical calibration, the GTN parameters were fixed. The same parameters were used to predict the ductile fracture of compact tension specimens with the initial crack located at different locations. Good match can be found between the numerical and experimental results in the form of force versus Crack Opening Displacement as well as fracture resistance curves.

  1. Modeling of a planar FEL amplifier with a sheet relativistic electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, N S; Peskov, N Yu; Arzhannikov, A V; Sinitsky, S L

    2002-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the modeling of a 75 GHz planar FEL-amplifier. This amplifier is driven by a sheet electron beam (1 MeV, 2 kA) produced by the U-3 accelerator (BINP). Different approaches based on non-averaged self-consistent system of equations as well as the averaged equations were used for the description of interaction between the electron beam and the TEM-mode of the planar waveguide. Both methods demonstrated similar results with maximum gains 24-25 db, corresponding to an output power of about 250-300 MW and an efficiency of 14-17%. The 2-D version of the PIC-code KARAT was used for additional modeling. KARAT-based simulations demonstrated a maximum gain up to 22 db, output power 160-170 MW and an efficiency of 9%. The reduction of gain can be explained by the space-charge effects.

  2. Recent results from extreme ultraviolet lithography patterned mask inspection for 11 nm half-pitch generation using projection electron microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Iida, Susumu; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Murakami, Takeshi; Suematsu, Kenichi; Terao, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is a promising technique for 1X nm half-pitch (hp) generation lithography. The inspection of patterned EUVL masks is one of the main issues that must be addressed during mask fabrication for manufacture of devices with 11 nm hp feature sizes. We have already designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics that have been integrated into a new inspection system called Model EBEYE-V30 (where "Model EBEYE" is an EBARA's model code) and this system seems quite promising for 16 nm hp generation EUVL patterned mask inspection. The defect inspection sensitivity of this system was evaluated via capture of an electron image that was generated at the mask by focusing the image through the projection optics onto a time-delay integration (TDI) image sensor. For increased throughput and higher defect detection sensitivity, a new electron-sensitive area image sensor with a high-speed data processing unit, a bright and stable electron source, and a simultaneous deflector for the image capture area that follows the mask scanning motion have been developed. Using a combination of synchronous deflection and mask scanning, the image can be integrated into both the fixed area image sensor and the TDI image sensor. We describe our experimental results for EUV patterned mask inspection using the above system. Elements have been developed for inspection tool integration and the designed specification has been verified. The system performance demonstrates the defect detectability required for 11 nm hp generation EUVL masks.

  3. A Simplified Model for Fast Optimization of Free-Electron Laser Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai; Deng, Haixiao

    2016-01-01

    A simplified theoretical model for free-electron laser oscillator (FELO) simulation which reserves the main physics is proposed. In stead of using traditional macro particles sampling method, the theoretical model takes advantages of low gain theory to calculate the optical power single-pass gain in the undulator analytically, and some reasonable approximations are made to simplify the calculation of power growth in the cavity. The theoretical analysis of single-pass gain, power growth, time-dependent laser profile evolution and cavity desynchronism are accomplished more efficiently. We present the results of infrared wavelength FELO and X-ray FELO with the new model. The results is checked by simulation with GENESIS and OPC which demonstrates the validity of the theoretical model.

  4. Beyond the Standard Model – Searches with a Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Afanasev, O.K. Baker, K.B. Beard, G. Biallas, J. Boyce, M. Minarni, R. Ramdon, Michelle D. Shinn, P. Slocumb

    2010-02-01

    Much of the focus of Beyond the Standard Model physics searches is on the TeV scale, making use of hadron and lepton colliders. Additionally, however, there is the means to make these searches in different regions of parameter space using sub-electron volt photons from a Free Electron Laser, for example. We report on the experimental results of searches for opticalwavelength photons mixing with hypothetical hidden-sector paraphotons in the mass range between 10^-5 and 10^-2 electron volts for a mixing parameter greater than 10-7. We also report on the results of a sensitive search for scalar coupling of photons to light neutral bosons in the mass range of approximately 1.0 milli-electron volts and coupling strength greater than 10-6 GeV-1. These were generation-regeneration experiments using the “light shining through a wall” technique in which regenerated photons are searched for downstream of an optical barrier that separates it from an upstream generation region. The present results indicate no evidence for photon-paraphoton mixing or for scalar couplings of bosons to photons for the range of parameters investigated.

  5. Low-energy electron reflectivity from graphene: First-principles computations and approximate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feenstra, R.M., E-mail: feenstra@cmu.edu [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Widom, M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    A computational method is developed whereby the reflectivity of low-energy electrons from a surface can be obtained from a first-principles solution of the electronic structure of the system. The method is applied to multilayer graphene. Two bands of reflectivity minima are found, one at 0–8 eV and the other at 14–22 eV above the vacuum level. For a free-standing slab with n layers of graphene, each band contains n−1 zeroes in the reflectivity. Two additional image-potential type states form at the ends of the graphene slab, with energies just below the vacuum level, hence producing a total of 2n states. A tight-binding model is developed, with basis functions localized in the spaces between the graphene planes (and at the ends of the slab). The spectrum of states produced by the tight-binding model is found to be in good agreement with the zeros of reflectivity (i.e. transmission resonances) of the first-principles results. - Highlights: ► Developed method for simulation of low-energy electron reflectivity spectra. ► Reflectivity spectra of graphene are computed by a first-principles method. ► Comparison is made between results from first-principles and from a tight-binding model.

  6. Computational studies of suppression of microwave gas breakdown by crossed dc magnetic field using electron fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Guo, Lixin; Shu, Panpan

    2016-08-01

    The gas breakdown induced by a square microwave pulse with a crossed dc magnetic field is investigated using the electron fluid model, in which the accurate electron energy distribution functions are adopted. Simulation results show that at low gas pressures the dc magnetic field of a few tenths of a tesla can prolong the breakdown formation time by reducing the mean electron energy. With the gas pressure increasing, the higher dc magnetic field is required to suppress the microwave breakdown. The electric field along the microwave propagation direction generated due to the motion of electrons obviously increases with the dc magnetic field, but it is much less than the incident electric field. The breakdown predictions of the electron fluid model agree very well with the particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision simulations as well as the scaling law for the microwave gas breakdown.

  7. Electron impact excitation of N IV: calculations with the DARC code and a comparison with ICFT results

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, K M; Lawson, K D

    2016-01-01

    There have been discussions in the recent literature regarding the accuracy of the available electron impact excitation rates (equivalently effective collision strengths $\\Upsilon$) for transitions in Be-like ions. In the present paper we demonstrate, once again, that earlier results for $\\Upsilon$ are indeed overestimated (by up to four orders of magnitude), for over 40\\% of transitions and over a wide range of temperatures. To do this we have performed two sets of calculations for N~IV, with two different model sizes consisting of 166 and 238 fine-structure energy levels. As in our previous work, for the determination of atomic structure the GRASP (General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Package) is adopted and for the scattering calculations (the standard and parallelised versions of) the Dirac Atomic R-matrix Code ({\\sc darc}) are employed. Calculations for collision strengths and effective collision strengths have been performed over a wide range of energy (up to 45~Ryd) and temperature (up to 2.0$...

  8. A probabilistic model of the electron transport in films of nanocrystals arranged in a cubic lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegel, Ilka [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Scotognella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.scotognella@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology@PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nanocrystal (NC) films, starting from colloidal dispersion, is a very attractive topic in condensed matter physics community. NC films can be employed for transistors, light emitting diodes, lasers, and solar cells. For this reason the understanding of the film conductivity is of major importance. In this paper we describe a probabilistic model that allows the prediction of the conductivity of NC films, in this case of a cubic lattice of Lead Selenide or Cadmium Selenide NCs. The model is based on the hopping probability between NCs. The results are compared to experimental data reported in literature. - Highlights: • Colloidal nanocrystal (NC) film conductivity is a topic of major importance. • We present a probabilistic model to predict the electron conductivity in NC films. • The model is based on the hopping probability between NCs. • We found a good agreement between the model and data reported in literature.

  9. Modeling the effects of anode secondary electron emission on transmitted current in crossed-field diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Venkatesh; Vanderberg, Bo

    1996-11-01

    Recent experimental measurements of transmitted current in a crossed-field switch by Vanderberg and Eninger ( B. H. Vanderberg and J. E. Eninger, ``Space-charge limited current cut-off in crossed fields,'' presented at IEEE ICOPS'95, Madison, Wi. ) have shown that the measured values of transmitted current are significantly smaller than the theoretically predicted limit. The experiments also showed larger decrease in transmitted current for higher magnetic fields, implying an effect due to the higher angle of incidence of incident electrons (i.e., at values of B closer to B_H). Studies by Verboncoeur and Birdsall ( J. P. Verboncoeur and C. K. Birdsall. ``Rapid current transition in a crossed-field diode,'' Phys. Plasmas 3) 3, March 1996. have shown that even small amount ( < 1%) of over injection in a crossed-field diode near cut-off led to substantial decrease in transmitted current. In our current work, we show that the same effect can be triggered by the presence of secondary electron emission from the anode. This study models the dependence of emission upon incident electron angle and energy. Since the yield of secondary electrons increases with incident angle, this model follows the experimental results as B approaches B_Hull accurately. This work was supported in part by ONR under grant FD-N00014-90-J-1198

  10. Experimental modelling of the dipole magnet for the electron storage ring DELSY

    CERN Document Server

    Meshkov, I N; Syresin, E M

    2003-01-01

    In the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) the project of Dubna Electron Synchrotron (DELSY) with an electron energy of 1.2 GeV is developed. The electron storage ring in the DELSY project is planned to be created on the basis of magnetic elements, which were used earlier in the storage ring AmPS (NIKHEF, Amsterdam). The optics of the ring is necessary to be changed, its perimeter to be reduced approximately in one and a half time, the energy of electrons to be increased. The paper is devoted to the development of a modified dipole magnet of the storage ring. The preliminary estimation of geometry of the magnet pole is carried out by means of computer modelling using two- and three- dimensional codes of the magnetic field calculation SUPERFISH and RADIA. The experimental stand for the measurements of the dipole magnetic field is described. As the result of calculational and experimental modelling for the dipole magnet, the geometry of its poles was estimated, providing in the horizontal aperture +- 3...

  11. Constraints on Hidden Photon Models from Electron g-2 and Hydrogen Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, Motoi; Mishima, Go

    2012-01-01

    The hidden photon model is one of the simplest models which can explain the anomaly of the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g-2). The experimental constraints are studied in detail, which come from the electron g-2 and the hydrogen transition frequencies. The input parameters are set carefully in order to take dark photon contributions into account and to prevent the analysis from being self-inconsistent. It is shown that the new analysis provides a constraint severer by more than one order of magnitude than the previous result.

  12. Modelling and Improvement of Thermal Cycling in Power Electronics for Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the dynamical change of the thermal stress in the power devices is one of the major factors that have influences on the overall efficiency and reliability of power electronics. The main objective of this paper consists of identifying the main parameters that affect the thermal...... cycling of power devices in a motor drive application and modelling their impact on the thermal stress. The motor drive system together with the thermal cycling in the power semiconductors have been modelled, and after investigating the dynamic behavior of the system, adverse temperature swings...... thermal response of the power devices is validated through experimental results....

  13. Modelling and Improvement of Thermal Cycling in Power Electronics for Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    cycling of power devices in a motor drive application and modelling their impact on the thermal stress. The motor drive system together with the thermal cycling in the power semiconductors have been modelled, and after investigating the dynamic behavior of the system, adverse temperature swings......It is well known that the dynamical change of the thermal stress in the power devices is one of the major factors that have influences on the overall efficiency and reliability of power electronics. The main objective of this paper consists of identifying the main parameters that affect the thermal...... thermal response of the power devices is validated through experimental results....

  14. Model of multistep electron transfer in a single-mode polar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskov, S. V.; Yudanov, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    A mathematical model of multistep photoinduced electron transfer (PET) in a polar medium with a single relaxation time (Debye solvent) is developed. The model includes the polarization nonequilibrity formed in the vicinity of the donor-acceptor molecular system at the initial steps of photoreaction and its influence on the subsequent steps of PET. It is established that the results from numerical simulation of transient luminescence spectra of photoexcited donor-acceptor complexes (DAC) conform to calculated data obtained on the basis of the familiar experimental technique used to measure the relaxation function of solvent polarization in the vicinity of DAC in the picosecond and subpicosecond ranges.

  15. Multi-Model Combination Techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajami, N; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

    2006-05-08

    This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multimodel Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

  16. On the Harmonic Oscillator Model of Electron Delocalization (HOMED Index and its Application to Heteroatomic π-Electron Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kolczyńska

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The HOMA (Harmonic Oscillator Model of Aromaticity index, reformulated in 1993, has been very often applied to describe π-electron delocalization for mono- and polycyclic π-electron systems. However, different measures of π-electron delocalization were employed for the CC, CX, and XY bonds, and this index seems to be inappropriate for compounds containing heteroatoms. In order to describe properly various resonance effects (σ-π hyperconjugation, n-π conjugation, π-π conjugation, and aromaticity possible for heteroatomic π-electron systems, some modifications, based on the original HOMA idea, were proposed and tested for simple DFT structures containing C, N, and O atoms. An abbreviation HOMED was used for the modified index.

  17. Electromagnetic fields from pulsed electron beam experiments in space - Spacelab-2 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, R. I.; Reeves, G. D.; Banks, P. M.; Neubert, T.; Williamson, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    During the Spacelab-2 mission a small satellite carrying various plasma diagnostic instruments was released from the Shuttle to coorbit at distances up to 300 m. During a magnetic conjunction of the Shuttle and the satellite an electron beam modulated at 1.22 kHz was emitted from the Shuttle during a 7 min period. The spatial structure of the electromagnetic fields generated by the beam was observed from the satellite out to a distance of 153 m perpendicular to the beam. The magnetic field amplitude of the strongest harmonics were comparable to the amplitude of simultaneously observed whistlers, while the electric field amplitudes were estimated to 1-10 mV/m.

  18. Electronic screen media for persons with autism spectrum disorders: results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Howard C; Albert, Patti Ducoff

    2008-09-01

    Social and anecdotal reports suggest a predilection for visual media among individuals on the autism spectrum, yet no formal investigation has explored the extent of that use. Using a distributed questionnaire design, parents and caregivers report on time allotted toward media, including observable behaviors and communicative responses. More time was spent engaged with electronic screen media (ESM) than any other leisure activity. Television and movie viewing was more popular than computer usage. Across media platforms, animated programs were more highly preferred. Prevalent verbal and physical imitation was reported to occur during and following exposure to ESM. Clinical implications to strategically incorporate ESM into learning approaches for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are provided.

  19. First results of the 2.45 GHz Oshima electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@nc-toyama.ac.jp [National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 13 Hongo, Toyama 939-8630 (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M. [National Institute of Technology, Oshima College, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suouoshima, Oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Hitobo, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Uchida, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Muramatsu, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been constructed at Oshima College with a 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave source and permanent magnets employed as the main components. In addition, a solid-state power amplifier with a frequency range of 2.5–6.0 GHz was installed to study two-frequency plasma heating. Three solenoid coils were set up for adjusting the axial magnetic fields. Argon plasma generation and ion beam production have been conducted during the first year of operation. Ion current densities in the ECR plasma were measured using a biased disk. For 2.45 and 4.65 GHz two-frequency plasma heating, the ion density was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of 2.45 GHz single-frequency heating.

  20. Model unspecific search in CMS. Results at 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Hebbeker, Thomas; Knutzen, Simon; Lieb, Jonas; Meyer, Arnd; Pook, Tobias; Roemer, Jonas [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the year 2012, CMS collected a total data set of approximately 20 fb{sup -1} in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV. Dedicated searches for physics beyond the standard model are commonly designed with the signatures of a given theoretical model in mind. While this approach allows for an optimised sensitivity to the sought-after signal, it may cause unexpected phenomena to be overlooked. In a complementary approach, the Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC) analyses CMS data in a general way. Depending on the reconstructed final state objects (e.g. electrons), collision events are sorted into classes. In each of the classes, the distributions of selected kinematic variables are compared to standard model simulation. An automated statistical analysis is performed to quantify the agreement between data and prediction. In this talk, the analysis concept is introduced and selected results of the analysis of the 2012 CMS data set are presented.

  1. Impact Flash Physics: Modeling and Comparisons With Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, E.; Stickle, A. M.; Ernst, C. M.; Schultz, P. H.; Mehta, N. L.; Brown, R. C.; Swaminathan, P. K.; Michaelis, C. H.; Erlandson, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    horizontal. High-speed radiometer measurements were made of the time-dependent impact flash at wavelengths of 350-1100 nm. We will present comparisons between these measurements and the output of APL's model. The results of this validation allow us to determine basic relationships between observed optical signatures and impact conditions.

  2. Subsea Permafrost Climate Modeling - Challenges and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehacke, C. B.; Stendel, M.; Marchenko, S. S.; Christensen, J. H.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Nicolsky, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations indicate that the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) releases methane, which stems from shallow hydrate seabed reservoirs. The total amount of carbon within the ESAS is so large that release of only a small fraction, for example via taliks, which are columns of unfrozen sediment within the permafrost, could impact distinctly the global climate. Therefore it is crucial to simulate the future fate of ESAS' subsea permafrost with regard to changing atmospheric and oceanic conditions. However only very few attempts to address the vulnerability of subsea permafrost have been made, instead most studies have focused on the evolution of permafrost since the Late Pleistocene ocean transgression, approximately 14000 years ago.In contrast to land permafrost modeling, any attempt to model the future fate of subsea permafrost needs to consider several additional factors, in particular the dependence of freezing temperature on water depth and salt content and the differences in ground heat flux depending on the seabed properties. Also the amount of unfrozen water in the sediment needs to be taken into account. Using a system of coupled ocean, atmosphere and permafrost models will allow us to capture the complexity of the different parts of the system and evaluate the relative importance of different processes. Here we present the first results of a novel approach by means of dedicated permafrost model simulations. These have been driven by conditions of the Laptev Sea region in East Siberia. By exploiting the ensemble approach, we will show how uncertainties in boundary conditions and applied forcing scenarios control the future fate of the sub sea permafrost.

  3. DARK STARS: IMPROVED MODELS AND FIRST PULSATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rindler-Daller, T.; Freese, K. [Department of Physics and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, McDonald Observatory and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Paxton, B. [Kavli Insitute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars (DSs). DSs, which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with previous models, which assumed polytropic interiors. There are some differences in the details, with positive implications for observability. We found that, in the mass range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al., are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of three to four, and more luminous by a factor of two. Our models also confirm previous results, according to which supermassive DSs are very well approximated by (n = 3)-polytropes. We also perform a first study of DS pulsations. Our DS models have pulsation modes with timescales ranging from less than a day to more than two years in their rest frames, at z ∼ 15, depending on DM particle mass and overtone number. Such pulsations may someday be used to identify bright, cool objects uniquely as DSs; if properly calibrated, they might, in principle, also supply novel standard candles for cosmological studies.

  4. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal... transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system. The... The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller to...

  5. A model electronic Hamiltonian to study low-lying electronic states of [Fe(bpy)3]2+ in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuchi, Satoru

    2012-02-14

    A simple model electronic Hamiltonian to describe the potential energy surfaces of several low-lying d-d states of the [Fe(bpy)(3)](2+) complex is developed for use in molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. On the basis of a method proposed previously for first-row transition metal ions in aqueous solution, the model Hamiltonian is constructed using density functional theory calculations for the lowest singlet and quintet states. MD simulations are then carried out for the two spin states in aqueous solution in order to examine the performance of the model Hamiltonian. The simulation results indicate that the present model electronic Hamiltonian reasonably describes the potential energy surfaces of the two spin states of the aqueous [Fe(bpy)(3)](2+) system, while retaining sufficient simplicity for application in simulation studies on excited state dynamics.

  6. Convergence results for a coarsening model using global linearization

    CERN Document Server

    Gallay, T; Gallay, Th.

    2002-01-01

    We study a coarsening model describing the dynamics of interfaces in the one-dimensional Allen-Cahn equation. Given a partition of the real line into intervals of length greater than one, the model consists in constantly eliminating the shortest interval of the partition by merging it with its two neighbors. We show that the mean-field equation for the time-dependent distribution of interval lengths can be explicitly solved using a global linearization transformation. This allows us to derive rigorous results on the long-time asymptotics of the solutions. If the average length of the intervals is finite, we prove that all distributions approach a uniquely determined self-similar solution. We also obtain global stability results for the family of self-similar profiles which correspond to distributions with infinite expectation. eliminating the shortest interval of the partition by merging it with its two neighbors. We show that the mean-field equation for the time-dependent distribution of interval lengths can...

  7. Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.

  8. Application Developing of Virginia Handerson Model in Electronic Nursing Record (enr at Andi Makkasau Hospital Parepare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vony Polopadang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of Electronic Nursing Record (ENR is done to provide facilities for nurses to perform nursing care documentation via the computer software that will allow nurses, provide advantages in terms of effectiveness and increasing the time nurses visit patients. In this research, a model of nursing care documentation ie electronics based Electronic Nursing Record (ENR, the researchers conducted the development of models with 5 stages of model developmentPlomp namely, the initial assessment, planning, construction, implementation and evaluation. This study uses a mixed method design that is both quantitative and qualitative phases. Quantitative design is used to determine the readiness pengatahuan and nurses on the application of the model-based electronic documentation, as well as paper-based documentation quality comparison with electronics. Qualitative design used to obtain data on ENR models that can be applied in the hospital. The approach used in this study is a quantitative approach and qualitative methods of research and development (Research and Development / R & D. The population in this study were nurses hospitals AndiMakkasauParepare. The sampling technique used in this study correspond to the approach used every stage of research that is purposive sampling and total sampling. The results showed that the knowledge of nurses about nursing care documentation majority have a good category (97.5% and the readiness of nurses towards the implementation of EletronicNursing Record (ENR are largely in good keategori (58.5%, this shows that nurses in hospitals AndiMakkasauParepare have big capital and the conditions are ready for nursing care documentation melaksanankan-based technology that is Eletronic nursing Record (ENR. Then ENR has produced models that have been tested in the form of a computer program or application. Further comparison between the quality of the paper-based nursing care documentation with electronic-based nursing

  9. Developing Model of Electronic Nursing Record in Andi Makkasau Hospital Pare-Pare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vony Polopadang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of Electronic Nursing Record (ENR is done to provide facilities for nurses to perform nursing care documentation via the computer software that will allow nurses, provide advantages in terms of effectiveness and increasing the time nurses visit patients. In this research, a model of nursing care documentation ie electronics based Electronic Nursing Record (ENR, the researchers conducted the development of models with 5 stages of model developmentPlomp namely, the initial assessment, planning, construction, implementation and evaluation. This study uses a mixed method design that is both quantitative and qualitative phases. Quantitative design is used to determine the readiness pengatahuan and nurses on the application of the model-based electronic documentation, as well as paper-based documentation quality comparison with electronics. Qualitative design used to obtain data on ENR models that can be applied in the hospital. The approach used in this study is a quantitative approach and qualitative methods of research and development (Research and Development / R & D. The population in this study were nurses hospitals Andi Makkasau Parepare. The sampling technique used in this study correspond to the approach used every stage of research that is purposive sampling and total sampling. The results showed that the knowledge of nurses about nursing care documentation majority have a good category (97.5% and the readiness of nurses towards the implementation of Eletronic Nursing Record (ENR are largely in good keategori (58.5%, this shows that nurses in hospitals AndiMakkasauParepare have big capital and the conditions are ready for nursing care documentation melaksanankan-based technology that is Eletronic nursing Record (ENR. Then ENR has produced models that have been tested in the form of a computer program or application. Further comparison between the quality of the paper-based nursing care documentation with electronic-based nursing

  10. Multiscale examination and modeling of electron transport in nanoscale materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyai, Douglas R.

    For half a century the integrated circuits (ICs) that make up the heart of electronic devices have been steadily improving by shrinking at an exponential rate. However, as the current crop of ICs get smaller and the insulating layers involved become thinner, electrons leak through due to quantum mechanical tunneling. This is one of several issues which will bring an end to this incredible streak of exponential improvement of this type of transistor device, after which future improvements will have to come from employing fundamentally different transistor architecture rather than fine tuning and miniaturizing the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) in use today. Several new transistor designs, some designed and built here at Michigan Tech, involve electrons tunneling their way through arrays of nanoparticles. We use a multi-scale approach to model these devices and study their behavior. For investigating the tunneling characteristics of the individual junctions, we use a first-principles approach to model conduction between sub-nanometer gold particles. To estimate the change in energy due to the movement of individual electrons, we use the finite element method to calculate electrostatic capacitances. The kinetic Monte Carlo method allows us to use our knowledge of these details to simulate the dynamics of an entire device---sometimes consisting of hundreds of individual particles---and watch as a device 'turns on' and starts conducting an electric current. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and the closely related scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) are a family of powerful experimental techniques that allow for the probing and imaging of surfaces and molecules at atomic resolution. However, interpretation of the results often requires comparison with theoretical and computational models. We have developed a new method for calculating STM topographs and STS spectra. This method combines an established method for approximating the

  11. Slow electron energy balance for hybrid models of direct-current glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, S. I.; Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present the formulation of slow electron energy balance for hybrid models of direct current (DC) glow discharge. Electrons originating from non-local ionization (secondary) contribute significantly to the energy balance of slow electrons. An approach towards calculating effective energy brought by a secondary electron to the group of slow electrons by means of Coulomb collisions is suggested. The value of effective energy shows a considerable dependence on external parameters of a discharge, such as gas pressure, type, and geometric parameters. The slow electron energy balance was implemented into a simple hybrid model that uses analytical formulation for the description of non-local ionization by fast electrons. Simulations of short (without positive column) DC glow discharge in argon are carried out for a range of gas pressures. Comparison with experimental data showed generally good agreement in terms of current-voltage characteristics, electron density, and electron temperature. Simulations also capture the trend of increasing electron density with decreasing pressure observed in the experiment. Analysis shows that for considered conditions, the product of maximum electron density ne and electron temperature Te in negative glow is independent of gas pressure and depends on the gas type, cathode material, and discharge current. Decreasing gas pressure reduces the heating rate of slow electrons during Coulomb collisions with secondary electrons, which leads to lower values of Te and, in turn, higher maximum ne.

  12. Lessons learned from the introduction of an electronic safety net to enhance test result management in an Australian mothers' hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Lymer, Sharyn; Forster, Megan; Strachan, Michael; Graham, Sara; Hirst, Geof; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the implementation and impact of an electronic test result acknowledgement (RA) system in the Mater Mothers' Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. The Verdi application electronically records clinicians' acknowledgement of the review of results. Hospital data (August 2011-August 2012) were extracted to measure clinicians' acknowledgement practices. There were 27,354 inpatient test results for 6855 patients. All test results were acknowledged. 60% (95% CI 59% to 61%) of laboratory and 44% (95% CI 40% to 48%) of imaging results were acknowledged within 24 h. The median time between report availability and acknowledgement was 18.1 h for laboratory and 1 day 18 h for imaging results. The median time from when a result was first viewed to its acknowledgement was 7 min for laboratory and 1 min for imaging results. The longest recorded time to acknowledgement was 38 days. Electronic RA provides a safety net to enhance test result management.

  13. Incorporation of the electron energy equation into the hybrid Monte Carlo - fluid model for glow discharge: the applicability and reliability of the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylenceoglu, Ender; Rafatov, Ismail; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly

    2016-09-01

    A modification of the conventional hybrid Monte Carlo - fluid model for glow discharge, which incorporates the electron energy equation, is considered. In the proposed model electrons are separated into two groups, namely, high energetic fast and low energetic slow (bulk) electrons. Density profiles of ions, slow electrons, and meta-stable particles are determined from the solution of corresponding continuity equations. Fast electrons, which are responsible for ionization and excitation events in the discharge, are simulated by the Monte-Carlo method. The temperature profile for slow electrons is obtained from the solution of the energy balance equation. The transport (mobility and diffusion) coefficients as well as the reaction rates for slow electrons are determined as functions of the electron temperature. Test calculations are carried out for the direct current glow discharge in argon within two-dimensional geometry. Comparison of the computed results with those obtained from the conventional fluid and hybrid models and the experimental data is done, the applicability and reliability of the proposed model is studied in details.

  14. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  15. The INTERBALL-Tail ELECTRON experiment: initial results on the low-latitude boundary layer of the dawn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-A. Sauvaud

    Full Text Available The Toulouse electron spectrometer flown on the Russian project INTERBALL-Tail performs electron measurements from 10 to 26 000 eV over a 4 solid angle in a satellite rotation period. The INTERBALL-Tail probe was launched on 3 August 1995 together with a subsatellite into a 65° inclination orbit with an apogee of about 30 RE. The INTERBALL mission also includes a polar spacecraft launched in August 1996 for correlated studies of the outer magnetosphere and of the auroral regions. We present new observations concerning the low-latitude boundary layers (LLBL of the magnetosphere obtained near the dawn magnetic meridian. LLBL are encountered at the interface between two plasma regimes, the magnetosheath and the dayside extension of the plasma sheet. Unexpectedly, the radial extent of the region where LLBL electrons can be sporadically detected as plasma clouds can reach up to 5 RE inside the magnetopause. The LLBL core electrons have an average energy of the order of 100 eV and are systematically field-aligned and counterstreaming. As a trend, the temperature of the LLBL electrons increases with decreasing distance to Earth. Along the satellite orbit, the apparent time of occurrence of LLBL electrons can vary from about 5 to 20 min from one pass to another. An initial first comparison between electron- and magnetic-field measurements indicates that the LLBL clouds coincide with a strong increase in the magnetic field (by up to a factor of 2. The resulting strong magnetic field gradient can explain why the plasma-sheet electron flux in the keV range is strongly depressed in LLBL occurrence regions (up to a factor of sim10. We also show that LLBL electron encounters are related to field-aligned current structures and that wide LLBL correspond to northward interplanetary magnetic field. Evidence for LLBL/plasma-sheet electron leakage into the magnetosheath during southward IMF is also presented.

  16. Challenges of 4D(ata Model for Electronic Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan GHILIC-MICU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social evolution pyramid, built on the foundation of the ‘90s capitalist society, lead to the emergence of the informational society – years 1990 to 2005 – and knowledge society – years 2005 to 2020. The literature starts using a new concept, a new form of association – artificial intelligence society – foreseen to be established in the next time frame. All these developments of human society and translations or leaps (most of the times apparently timeless were, are and will be possible only due to the advancing information and communications technologies. The leap to Democracy 3.0, based on information and communication technologies prompts to a radical change in the majority of the classical concepts targeting society structure and the way it is guided and controlled. Thus, concepts become electronic concepts (or e-concepts through the use of new technologies. E-concepts keep the essence of the classical principles of liberty and democracy, adding a major aspect of the new way of communication and spreading ideas between people. The main problem is to quantify, analyze and foresee the way technological changes will influence not only the economic system, but also the daily life of the individual and the society. Unfortunately (or maybe fortunately, depending on the point of view, all these evolutions and technological and social developments are as many challenges for the governments of the world. In this paper we will highlight only four of the challenges facing the governments, grouped in a structured model with the following specific concepts: Big Data, Social Data, Linked Data and Mobile Data. This is an emerging paradigm of the information and communication technology supporting national and global eGovernment projects.

  17. Radiation Test Results on COTS and non-COTS Electronic Devices for NASA-JSC Space Flight Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allums, Kimberly K.; O'Neill, P. M.; Reddell, B. D.; Nguyen, K. V.; Bailey, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation reports the results of recent proton and heavy ion Single Event Effect (SEE) testing on a variety of COTS and non-COTs electronic devices and assemblies tested for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV).

  18. Multiscale Gyrokinetics for Rotating Tokamak Plasmas II: Reduced Models for Electron Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, I G

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the multiscale approch developed in [Abel et. al., Rep. Prog. Phys., in press] by exploiting the scale separation between ions and the electrons. The gyrokinetic equation is expanded in powers of the electron to ion mass ratio, which provides a rigorous method for deriving the reduced electron model. We prove that ion-scale electromagnetic turbulence cannot change the magnetic topology, and argue that to lowest order the magnetic field lies on fluctuating flux surfaces. These flux surfaces are used to construct magnetic coordinates, and in these coordinates a closed system of equations for the electron response to ion-scale turbulence is derived. All fast electron timescales have been eliminated from these equations. We also use these magnetic surfaces to construct transport equations for electrons and for electron heat in terms of the reduced electron model.

  19. Oswald-Kasper-Gaukler model for reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat-Pujol, F.; Werner, W. S. M.

    2011-05-01

    The Oswald-Kasper-Gaukler (OKG) model for elastic electron backscattering [J. Electr. Spectrosc. Rel. Phen.JESRAW0368-204810.1016/0368-2048(93)80019-I 61(1993)251] has been extended within the partial-intensity approach to take inelastic collisions into account. Analytical expressions have been derived for the path-length distribution and the partial intensities, achieving good agreement with results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations of these quantities. A criterion is given to predict the validity of the model for a given material, geometry, and kinetic energy. Experimental reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectra have been compared with REELS spectra calculated using the modified OKG model, obtaining good agreement between them. The proposed model is also applied in a quantitative analysis of experimental REELS. In all investigated cases, the single-scattering loss distributions retrieved from this analysis agree with results from previous analyses—based on MC calculations—within 5%. The presented model can therefore be employed in quantitative analyses of REELS of semi-infinite solids, while it is both numerically simpler and conceptually clearer than related approaches.

  20. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity