WorldWideScience

Sample records for model results display

  1. A Module for Graphical Display of Model Results with the CBP Toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-21

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to add enhanced graphical capabilities to display model results in the Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) Toolbox. Because Version 2.0 of the CBP Toolbox has just been released, the graphing enhancements described in this report have not yet been integrated into a new version of the Toolbox. Instead they have been tested using a standalone GoldSim model and, while they are substantially complete, may undergo further refinement before full implementation. Nevertheless, this report is issued to document the FY14 development efforts which will provide a basis for further development of the CBP Toolbox.

  2. New displaying models of bibliographic data and resources: cataloguing/resource description and search results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Trombone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The logical model outlined in Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records in 1998 has led to a theoretical reflection on the function of data and their organization into catalogues that hasn’t found stable effects in the representation of information yet. A consequence of the wide theoretical resonance of FRBR report was the review of regulatory codes and standards for electronic recording of bibliographic data. The first code that partly implements the FRBR model is the Italian one, published in 2009, the Italian cataloguing Rules: REICAT. The revision the Anglo-American cataloging rules has resulted in a new tool, based on the FRBR model and not set as a cataloging code: RDA. Resource Description and Access, released in 2010. To changing patterns of information models and contents’ media it has to add new information environment available to users, accustomed to using search engines as information retrieval tools, powerful and generalist.Today’s electronic catalogs are based on MARC formats for encoding of information, aimed at sharing and exchanging bibliographic records. However, the library data encoded in MARC exchange formats are invisible to search engines.Gradually, over the last few years, software modules devoted to cataloging have been differentiated from those for consultation, data visualization interfaces dedicated to users aimed to simplify the search mechanisms.One of the open issues relating to the new display systems concerns the selection and presentation of data. The sorting order is based on the criteria of relevance, which is based on scores that a software assigns to the record in relation to the weight or importance of the words entered in the search string.The new display systems of users ‘ searches, the discovery platforms that simultaneously query heterogeneous data bases for content and location, including also the OPACs, no longer use the languages of librarianship. The final display of search results

  3. New displaying models of bibliographic data and resources: cataloguing/resource description and search results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Trombone

    2014-05-01

    The paper here proposed analyzes different patterns of bibliographic data visualization that libraries’ OPACs and library service platforms begin to offer, focusing on three categories of innovations in displaying of cataloguing data: the data proposed by discovery tools or library service platforms, that transform and integrate information taken from the Integrated Library Systems with other collections accessible through libraries; the data derived from the cataloguing based on RDA started in some libraries; the displays of bibliographic data emulating the hierarchical organization among entities foreseen by FRBR.

  4. Interpretation and display of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It important to properly collect, code, clean and edit the data before interpreting and displaying the research results. Computers play a major role in different phases of research starting from conceptual, design and planning, data collection, data analysis and research publication phases. The main objective of data display is to summarize the characteristics of a data and to make the data more comprehensible and meaningful. Usually data is presented depending upon the type of data in different tables and graphs. This will enable not only to understand the data behaviour, but also useful in choosing the different statistical tests to be applied.

  5. Studies on Relevance, Ranking and Results Display

    CERN Document Server

    Gelernter, Judith; Carbonell, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study considers the extent to which users with the same query agree as to what is relevant, and how what is considered relevant may translate into a retrieval algorithm and results display. To combine user perceptions of relevance with algorithm rank and to present results, we created a prototype digital library of scholarly literature. We confine studies to one population of scientists (paleontologists), one domain of scholarly scientific articles (paleo-related), and a prototype system (PaleoLit) that we built for the purpose. Based on the principle that users do not pre-suppose answers to a given query but that they will recognize what they want when they see it, our system uses a rules-based algorithm to cluster results into fuzzy categories with three relevance levels. Our system matches at least 1/3 of our participants' relevancy ratings 87% of the time. Our subsequent usability study found that participants trusted our uncertainty labels but did not value our color-coded horizontal results layout ...

  6. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  7. Some procedures for displaying results from three-way methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Three-way Tucker analysis and CANDECOMP/PARAFAC are popular methods for the analysis of three-way data (data pertaining to three sets of entities). To interpret the results from these methods, one can, in addition to inspecting the component matrices and the core array, inspect visual representation

  8. Detailed CFD Modelling of Open Refrigerated Display Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dinis Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFDs modelling of air flow and heat transfer in an open refrigerated display cabinet (ORDC is performed in this study. The physical-mathematical model considers the flow through the internal ducts, across fans and evaporator, and includes the thermal response of food products. The air humidity effect and thermal radiation heat transfer between surfaces are taken into account. Experimental tests were performed to characterize the phenomena near physical extremities and to validate the numerical predictions of air temperature, relative humidity, and velocity. Numerical and experimental results comparison reveals the predictive capabilities of the computational model for the optimized conception and development of this type of equipments. Numerical predictions are used to propose geometrical and functional parametric studies that improve thermal performance of the ORDC and consequently food safety.

  9. Modeling LCD Displays with Local Backlight Dimming for Image Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Burini, Nino; Forchhammer, Søren

    2011-01-01

    (LCD) using light emitting diode (LED) backlight with local dimming, we present the essential considerations and guidelines for modeling the characteristics of displays with high dynamic range (HDR) and locally adjustable backlight segments. The representation of the image generated by the model can...... for evaluating the signal quality distortion related directly to digital signal processing, such as compression. However, the physical characteristics of the display device also pose a significant impact on the overall perception. In order to facilitate image quality assessment on modern liquid crystaldisplays...... the visual results produced by the model against respective images displayed on a real display with locally controlled backlight units....

  10. Modeling the subjective quality of highly contrasted videos displayed on LCD with local backlight dimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren; Pedersen, Jesper Melgaard

    2015-02-01

    Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage), and a contrast measure. The second analysis shows that modeling of leakage is necessary for objective quality assessment of sequences displayed with local backlight dimming.

  11. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  12. An Inventory Model for Special Display Goods with Seasonal Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hidefumi

    2010-10-01

    The present study discusses the retailer's optimal replenishment policy for seasonal products. The demand rate of seasonal merchandise such as clothes, sporting goods, children's toys and electrical home appearances tends to decrease with time after reaching its maximum value. In this study, we focus on "Special Display Goods", which are heaped up in end displays or special areas at retail stores. They are sold at a fast velocity when their quantity displayed is large, but are sold at a low velocity if the quantity becomes small. We develop the model with a finite time horizon (selling period) to determine the optimal replenishment policy, which maximizes the retailer's total profit. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical underpinnings of the proposed model.

  13. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  14. Modeling Power-Constrained Optimal Backlight Dimming for Color Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for modeling color liquid crystal displays (LCDs) having local light-emitting diode (LED) backlight with dimming capability. The proposed framework includes critical aspects like leakage, clipping, light diffusion and human perception of luminance and allows...

  15. Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012, 17 October). Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study. Presentation at the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, Helsinki, Finland.

  16. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays and the user`s prospective model of a system. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming and its use in expanding design choices from the operator`s perspective image. The contents of this paper focuses on the studies and how they are applicable to the safety of operating reactors.

  17. Modeling the Subjective Quality of Highly Contrasted Videos Displayed on LCD With Local Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated...... signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight......-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage...

  18. Thermal modeling of laser-addressed liquid-crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K. E.; Nkansah, M. A.

    1990-06-01

    Optical-absorption calculations and finite-element methods are used to calculate time-dependent temperature profiles in two contrasting laser-addressed liquid-crystal displays. It is shown that the presence of conducting electrode layers has a significant effect on the temperature profiles both by affecting the optical-absorption characteristics of the cell and the resulting thermal conductivity. It is shown that efficient optical absorption does not necessarily result in the best cell-addressing performance.

  19. Conversion of cDNA differential display results (DDRT-PCR into quantitative transcription profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmann Birger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression studies on non-model organisms require open-end strategies for transcription profiling. Gel-based analysis of cDNA fragments allows to detect alterations in gene expression for genes which have neither been sequenced yet nor are available in cDNA libraries. Commonly used protocols for gel-based transcript profiling are cDNA differential display (DDRT-PCR and cDNA-AFLP. Both methods have been used merely as qualitative gene discovery tools so far. Results We developed procedures for the conversion of cDNA Differential Display data into quantitative transcription profiles. Amplified cDNA fragments are separated on a DNA sequencer and detector signals are converted into virtual gel images suitable for semi-automatic analysis. Data processing consists of four steps: (i cDNA bands in lanes corresponding to samples treated with the same primer combination are matched in order to identify fragments originating from the same transcript, (ii intensity of bands is determined by densitometry, (iii densitometric values are normalized, and (iv intensity ratio is calculated for each pair of corresponding bands. Transcription profiles are represented by sets of intensity ratios (control vs. treatment for cDNA fragments defined by primer combination and DNA mobility. We demonstrated the procedure by analyzing DDRT-PCR data on the effect of secondary metabolites of oilseed rape Brassica napus on the transcriptome of the pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans. Conclusion We developed a data processing procedure for the quantitative analysis of amplified cDNA fragments separated by electrophoresis. The system utilizes common software and provides an open-end alternative to DNA microarray analysis of the transcriptome. It is expected to work equally well with DDRT-PCR and cDNA-AFLP data and be useful particularly in reseach on organisms for which microarray analysis is not available or economical.

  20. A DNA-based system for selecting and displaying the combined result of two input variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huajie; Wang, Jianbang; Song, S

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based technologies for biosensing or bio-regulation produce huge amounts of rich high-dimensional information. There is a consequent need for flexible means to combine diverse pieces of such information to form useful derivative outputs, and to display those immediately. Here we...... demonstrate this capability in a DNA-based system that takes two input numbers, represented in DNA strands, and returns the result of their multiplication, writing this as a number in a display. Unlike a conventional calculator, this system operates by selecting the result from a library of solutions rather...

  1. Modeling the leakage of LCD displays with local backlight for quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper M.

    2014-01-01

    The recent technique of local backlight dimming has a significant impact on the quality of images displayed with a LCD screen with LED local dimming. Therefore it represents a necessary step in the quality assessment chain, independently from the other processes applied to images. This paper...... on videos displayed on LCD TV with local backlight dimming viewed from a 0° and 15° angles. The subjective results are then compared objective data using different leakage models: constant over the whole display or horizontally varying and three leakage factor (no leakage, measured at 0° and 15...... investigates the modeling of one of the major spatial artifacts produced by local dimming: leakage. Leakage appears in dark areas when the backlight level is too high for LC cells to block sufficiently and the final displayed brightness is higher than it should. A subjective quality experiment was run...

  2. Flight Parameter Display System For The Mi-17 Helicopter – Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bęczkowski Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents flight tests of a newly developed Helmet-Mounted Flight Parameters Display System (SWPL. Presented system is designed to illustrate full piloting and navigational information, warning about emergency on the helicopter’s board and signaling on-board helicopter systems failures on the translucent display. The system is designed to work in day and night time conditions. In night time conditions, the system cooperates with night vision goggles applicable in Polish Air Force. The article presents the main components of the tested system, along with their purpose and function. It also describes in detail the methods of display implemented in the system and the amount of displayed information. The article discusses the required range and the actual course of the flight tests of that system. Tests were conducted on a Mi-17-1V helicopter. The results of the flight tests of the Helmet-Mounted Display System are given in conclusion, in particular regarding meeting the tactical and technical requirements of the system.

  3. Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012). Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study. In M. Specht, J. Multisilta, & M. Sharples (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning 2012 (pp. 232-235). October, 16-18, 2012,

  4. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-01-01

    .... We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic...

  5. Studies on fluid model for numerical simulation of gas discharges in color plasma displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng; LIU Chun-Liang

    2005-01-01

    The fluid models of gas discharge in alternating current plasma display panel (AC PDP) cell are discussed.From the Boltzmann equation, the hydrodynamic equations are derived, but this model consumes much computa tional time for simulation. The drift-diffusion approximation model and the local field approximation model are ob tained to simplify the numerical computation, and the approximation conditions of these two models are discussed in detail. The drift-diffusion approximation model gives more satisfactory result for PDP simulation, and the expression of energy balance equation is given completely in this model.

  6. A model for discrimination and prediction of mental workload of aircraft cockpit display interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zongmin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the ergonomic evaluation and optimization in the mental task design of the aircraft cockpit display interface, the experimental measurement and theoretical modeling of mental workload were carried out under flight simulation task conditions using the performance evaluation, subjective evaluation and physiological measurement methods. The experimental results show that with an increased mental workload, the detection accuracy of flight operation significantly reduced and the reaction time was significantly prolonged; the standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN significantly decreased, while the mean heart rate exhibited little change; the score of NASA_TLX scale significantly increased. On this basis, the indexes sensitive to mental workload were screened, and an integrated model for the discrimination and prediction of mental workload of aircraft cockpit display interface was established based on the Bayesian Fisher discrimination and classification method. The original validation and cross-validation methods were employed to test the accuracy of the results of discrimination and prediction of the integrated model, and the average prediction accuracies determined by these two methods are both higher than 85%. Meanwhile, the integrated model shows a higher accuracy in discrimination and prediction of mental workload compared with single indexes. The model proposed in this paper exhibits a satisfactory coincidence with the measured data and could accurately reflect the variation characteristics of the mental workload of aircraft cockpit display interface, thus providing a basis for the ergonomic evaluation and optimization design of the aircraft cockpit display interface in the future.

  7. A model for discrimination and prediction of mental workload of aircraft cockpit display interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zongmin; Zhuang Damin; Wanyan Xiaoru; Liu Chen; Zhuang Huan

    2014-01-01

    With respect to the ergonomic evaluation and optimization in the mental task design of the aircraft cockpit display interface, the experimental measurement and theoretical modeling of mental workload were carried out under flight simulation task conditions using the performance evaluation, subjective evaluation and physiological measurement methods. The experimental results show that with an increased mental workload, the detection accuracy of flight operation signifi-cantly reduced and the reaction time was significantly prolonged; the standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN) significantly decreased, while the mean heart rate exhibited little change;the score of NASA_TLX scale significantly increased. On this basis, the indexes sensitive to mental workload were screened, and an integrated model for the discrimination and prediction of mental workload of aircraft cockpit display interface was established based on the Bayesian Fisher discrimination and classification method. The original validation and cross-validation methods were employed to test the accuracy of the results of discrimination and prediction of the integrated model, and the average prediction accuracies determined by these two methods are both higher than 85%. Meanwhile, the integrated model shows a higher accuracy in discrimination and prediction of mental workload compared with single indexes. The model proposed in this paper exhibits a satisfactory coincidence with the measured data and could accurately reflect the variation characteristics of the mental work-load of aircraft cockpit display interface, thus providing a basis for the ergonomic evaluation and optimization design of the aircraft cockpit display interface in the future.

  8. Does a video displaying a stair climbing model increase stair use in a worksite setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, L; Van Hoecke, A-S; Octaef, A; Boen, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of improving the visibility of the stairwell and of displaying a video with a stair climbing model on climbing and descending stair use in a worksite setting. Intervention study. Three consecutive one-week intervention phases were implemented: (1) the visibility of the stairs was improved by the attachment of pictograms that indicated the stairwell; (2) a video showing a stair climbing model was sent to the employees by email; and (3) the same video was displayed on a television screen at the point-of-choice (POC) between the stairs and the elevator. The interventions took place in two buildings. The implementation of the interventions varied between these buildings and the sequence was reversed. Improving the visibility of the stairs increased both stair climbing (+6%) and descending stair use (+7%) compared with baseline. Sending the video by email yielded no additional effect on stair use. By contrast, displaying the video at the POC increased stair climbing in both buildings by 12.5% on average. One week after the intervention, the positive effects on stair climbing remained in one of the buildings, but not in the other. These findings suggest that improving the visibility of the stairwell and displaying a stair climbing model on a screen at the POC can result in a short-term increase in both climbing and descending stair use. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Display system software for the integration of an ADAGE 3000 programmable display generator into the solid modeling package C.A.D. software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R. J.; Lane, H. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A software system that integrates an ADAGE 3000 Programmable Display Generator into a C.A.D. software package known as the Solid Modeling Program is described. The Solid Modeling Program (SMP) is an interactive program that is used to model complex solid object through the composition of primitive geomeentities. In addition, SMP provides extensive facilities for model editing and display. The ADAGE 3000 Programmable Display Generator (PDG) is a color, raster scan, programmable display generator with a 32-bit bit-slice, bipolar microprocessor (BPS). The modularity of the system architecture and the width and speed of the system bus allow for additional co-processors in the system. These co-processors combine to provide efficient operations on and rendering of graphics entities. The resulting software system takes advantage of the graphics capabilities of the PDG in the operation of SMP by distributing its processing modules between the host and the PDG. Initially, the target host computer was a PRIME 850, which was later substituted with a VAX-11/785. Two versions of the software system were developed, a phase 1 and a phase 2. In phase 1, the ADAGE 3000 is used as a frame buffer. In phase II, SMP was functionally partitioned and some of its functions were implemented in the ADAGE 3000 by means of ADAGE's SOLID 3000 software package.

  10. A two-dimensional CFD model of a refrigerated display case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stribling, D.; Tassou, S.A. [Brunel Univ., Uxbridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Marriott, D. [Safeway Stores plc, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The discomfort caused by the cold air overspill from vertical refrigerated display cases in supermarkets is widely accepted as being a problem to customers. This, together with the adverse effect on case performance caused by heat and moisture transfer across the air curtain, suggests that there may be room for improvement in the design and fundamental operation of these display fixtures. This paper presents a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a vertical dairy display case that could be used in the design and optimization of such equipment. Comparisons are also made with experimentally obtained values of velocity and temperature measured around the case in order to assess the accuracy and viability of such a model. Parameters of the computer model, such as the size of the calculation grid, the turbulence model, and the discretization scheme, were also varied to determine their effect on the converged solution, and these results are presented. The CFD model showed good qualitative agreement with measured values and requires only fine tuning to make it quantitatively accurate.

  11. METHOD OF DISPLAYING AN EXECUTABLE BUSINESS PROCESS MODELS INTO PETRI NETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor G. Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Executable business process models, as well as programs, require evidence of a defect-free finish. The methods based on the formalism of Petri nets are widely used. A business process is a network of dishes, and its properties are set by the analysis of the properties of the network. The aim is to study the methods of displaying an executable business process model in a Petri net. Analysis of the properties of the resulting model allows us to prove a number of important properties: it is a network of free choice and clean without looping.

  12. Considerations involved in the display of finite element results using animation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwinn, K.W.; Koteras, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The presentation of results from complicated finite element analyses is as important and sometimes as difficult as the analysis itself. As the analyses become more systematically and physically complicated the presentation of vast quantities of data has become the limiting factor for understanding the results. This is due to limitations in the available display media with the additional difficulty of data transmission to the media itself. The use of thigh-end graphics devices is one useful means of interpreting the complex results from numerical analyses. Generation of animation sequences is another useful tool for examining results. In the past, movie film has served as the basis for generation of animation sequences. Processing and editing of film has proved to be a cumbersome process. Video is an alternative which eliminates some of the problems of film. However, computer animation and video must be carefully integrated if the high quality of the computer animation is to be preserved. This paper will discuss the various considerations which must be made when video is used as a basis for generation of animation sequences for numerical analyses. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Applying Ant Colony Algorithm and Neural Network Model to Color Deviation Defect Detection in Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Dar Lin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD has excellent properties such as lower voltage to start and less occupied space if comparing with traditional Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT. But screen flaw points and display color deviation defects on image display exist in TFT-LCD products. This research proposes a new automated visual inspection method to solve the problems. We first use multivariate Hotelling T2 statistic for integrating coordinates of color models to construct a T2 energy diagram for inspecting defects and controlling patterns in TFT-LCD display images. An Ant Colony based approach that integrates computer vision techniques is developed to detect the flaw point defects. Then, Back Propagation Network (BPN model is proposed to inspect small deviation defects of the LCD display colors. Experimental results show the proposed system can provide good effects and practicality.

  14. Colorimetric characterization of liquid crystal display using an improved two-stage model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wang; Haisong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ An improved two-stage model of colorimetric characterization for liquid crystal display (LCD) was proposed. The model included an S-shape nonlinear function with four coefficients for each channel to fit the Tone reproduction curve (TRC), and a linear transfer matrix with black-level correction. To compare with the simple model (SM), gain-offset-gain (GOG), S-curve and three-one-dimensional look-up tables (3-1D LUTs) models, an identical LCD was characterized and the color differences were calculated and summarized using the set of 7 × 7 × 7 digital-to-analog converter (DAC) triplets as test data. The experimental results showed that the model was outperformed in comparison with the GOG and SM ones, and near to that of the S-curve model and 3-1D LUTs method.

  15. Reducing Lag in Virtual Displays Using Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    time varying behavior. Kleinman [4] proposed an optimal control model for human performance in a closed loop. This model interprets human perception as a...Washington, D. C: NASA, 1963. 3. Arthur , Kevin W., Kellogg, S. Booth, Colin Ware, Evaluating 3D Task Performance for Fish Tank Virtual Worlds," ACM...of Describing Behavior," Human Factors, volume 19, number 4,1977. 13. Kozak, J. J., P. A. Hancock, E. J. Arthur , S. T. Chrysler, "Transfer of Training

  16. Modeling the Color Image and Video Quality on Liquid Crystal Displays with Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Objective image and video quality metrics focus mostly on the digital representation of the signal. However, the display characteristics are also essential for the overall Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we use a model of a backlight dimming system for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD...

  17. Modeling of magnetic material displaying magnetic aftereffect with slow decay rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, S., E-mail: shuogu@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States); Jin, Y.; Chen, P.; Yan, C.; Della Torre, E.; Bennett, L.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    For magnetic materials that display slow decay rates, the entire relaxation process cannot be observed experimentally within a reasonable time interval. While magnetic aftereffect behavior has been understood and analyzed quantitatively in general, the important parameters of magnetic materials with slow decay cannot be easily extracted. We present comprehensive experimental characterization of time, field, and temperature dependence of magnetic properties of a magnetic nanocomposite, which exhibits slow decay. Based on the measurement results and previously developed Preisach-Arrhenius model, we propose an analytical model that can predict the shape of the entire aftereffect curves at different temperatures with only the major hysteresis loop and one aftereffect curve at a specific holding field within the region of interest. The model is validated with both simulated data and measured data. This model allows the derivation of an analytical formula for the time variation of the magnetization based on a Gaussian distribution.

  18. RSAP - A Code for Display of Neutron Cross Section Data and SAMMY Fit Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayer, R.O.

    2001-02-02

    RSAP is a computer code for display of neutron cross section data and selected SAMMY output. SAMMY is a multilevel R-matrix code for fitting neutron time-of-flight cross-section data using Bayes' method. RSAP, which runs on the Digital Unix Alpha platform, reads ORELA Data Files (ODF) created by SAMMY and uses graphics routines from the PLPLOT package. In addition, RSAP can read data and/or computed values from ASCII files with a format specified by the user. Plot output may be displayed in an X window, sent to a postscript file (rsap.ps), or sent to a color postscript file (rsap.psc). Thirteen plot types are supported, allowing the user to display cross section data, transmission data, errors, theory, Bayes fits, and residuals in various combinations. In this document the designations theory and Bayes refer to the initial and final theoretical cross sections, respectively, as evaluated by SAMMY. Special plot types include Bayes/Data, Theory--Data, and Bayes--Data. Output from two SAMMY runs may be compared by plotting the ratios Theory2/Theory1 and Bayes2/Bayes1 or by plotting the differences (Theory2-Theory1) and (Bayes2-Bayes1).

  19. Quality Model of Foodstuff in a Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus

    2006-01-01

    as what is the optimal defrost scheme from food quality point of view are answered. This will serve as a prerequisite of designing of optimal control scheme for the commercial refrigeration system, aiming at optimizing a weighed cost function of both food quality and overall energy consumption of system....... happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor? This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as how the defrost temperature and duration influence the food temperature, thus the food quality, as well...

  20. Modeling and performance analyses of evaporators in frozen-food supermarket display cabinets at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getu, H.M.; Bansal, P.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents modeling and experimental analyses of evaporators in 'in situ' frozen-food display cabinets at low temperatures in the supermarket industry. Extensive experiments were conducted to measure store and display cabinet relative humidities and temperatures, and pressures, temperatures and mass flow rates of the refrigerant. The mathematical model adopts various empirical correlations of heat transfer coefficients and frost properties in a fin-tube heat exchanger in order to investigate the influence of indoor conditions on the performance of the display cabinets. The model is validated with the experimental data of 'in situ' cabinets. The model would be a good guide tool to the design engineers to evaluate the performance of supermarket display cabinet heat exchangers under various store conditions. (author)

  1. Examining the Effects of Displaying Clicker Voting Results on High School Students' Voting Behaviors, Discussion Processes, and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Ta; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Li, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' clicking behaviors, discussion processes, learning outcomes, and a prominent feature of clicker systems--the whole class' response results aggregated by clickers in real time. The results indicate that, while teaching Newton's laws of motion, displaying the real-time responses of the whole…

  2. A New Method of Multi-Scale Geologic Modeling and Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongliang Bai; Zhan Liu; Lanfa Liu; Roger Mason; Binghu Huang

    2014-01-01

    A new method of multi-scale modeling and display of geologic data is introduced to pro-vide information with appropriate detail levels for different types of research. The multi-scale display mode employs a model extending existing 2D methods into 3D space. Geologic models with different scales are organized by segmenting data into orthogonal blocks. A flow diagram illustrates an octree method for upscaling between blocks with different scales. Upscaling data from the smallest unit cells takes into account their average size and the Burgers vector when there are mismatches. A geocellular model of the Chengdao Reservoir of the Shengli Oilfield, China is taken as an illustrative case, showing that the methods proposed can construct a multi-scale geologic model correctly and display data from the multi-scale model effectively in 3D.

  3. A Monte-Carlo Model of Partially Trapped UV Radiation in a Plasma Display Panel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straaten, Trudy; Kushner, Mark J.

    1999-10-01

    Plasma Display Panels (PDPs) are being developed for large-area high-brightness flat panel displays. Color PDP cells generally use xenon gas mixtures to generate UV photons that are converted to visible light by phosphors. While the UV photons produced by Xe(6s'-5s5p6, 6s-5s5p6) are only in a quasi-optically thick regime due to the small dimensions (100s μms) of PDP cells, current models of PDPs do not explicitly address UV radiation transport other than by using radiation trapping factors. In this paper we report on results from a two-dimensional hybrid simulation of a PDP cell which models radiation transport using Monte Carlo (MC) photon transport and frequency redistribution algorithms. We examine the spectrum of UV photons incident on the phosphor and their escape probability. For typical operating conditions (400 Torr, 1-4% Xe mole fraction) there is significant frequency redistribution of resonance radiation due to absorption and subsequent re-emission at a different frequency within the lineshape. Significant line reversal occurs at Xe mole fractions of a few percent, the degree of which depends on PDP cell dimensions. The escape probability generally decreases during the current pulse due to additional quenching by electron impact processes.

  4. A nonlinear rheological model for the ultrasonically induced squeeze film effect in variable friction haptic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwon Joong

    2017-08-01

    A squeeze film induced by ultrasonic vibration between two solid surfaces in contact can dramatically reduce the friction between them. This phenomenon, so-called the squeeze film effect, has been utilized in variable friction tactile displays for texture rendering purposes. Such tactile displays can provoke a haptic sensation to a finger pad in a controllable way. A real-time adjustment of the coefficient of lateral friction between the human finger pad and the tactile display can be accomplished by modulating the vibration amplitude of the tactile panel. Therefore, driving a reliable friction model is a key step towards designing and controlling tactile displays utilizing the squeeze film effect. This paper derives a modified Herschel- Bulkley rheological model to express the lateral friction exerted on a human fingertip via an air squeeze film as a function of the operating parameters such as the driving voltage amplitude, the finger sliding speed, and the contact pressure. In contrast to the conventional Coulomb friction model, such a rheology model can account for the sliding velocity dependence. This modeling work may contribute to the optimal control of the ultrasonic variable friction tactile displays.

  5. Force Display and Bi-Lateral Master-Slave Control with an Internal Model under the Consideration of Human Cross-Over Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Nagakatsu; Nishizawa, Masanori; Itoh, Youichirou; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    Human behavior for controlling machines is quite adaptive but restrictive in gain, phase, frequency bandwidth and so on. It is often assumed by a cross-over model especially for compensatory tracking task. Force display system is increasingly important in robotics, remote manipulations, machine handling and etc. The control system design for force display and/or bi-lateral master-slave manipulator is not so easy because of gain limits, mechanical vibration, human-induced oscillation and others. Proposed is a control system design for force display and/or bi-lateral master-slave manipulator based on model-following control under the concept of human crossover model in compensatory tracking. Experimental results are also shown for an actual force display device designed by the proposed method.

  6. Mixed reality orthognathic surgical simulation by entity model manipulation and 3D-image display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonagayoshi, Tatsunari; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Fushima, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    In orthognathic surgery, the framing of 3D-surgical planning that considers the balance between the front and back positions and the symmetry of the jawbone, as well as the dental occlusion of teeth, is essential. In this study, a support system for orthodontic surgery to visualize the changes in the mandible and the occlusal condition and to determine the optimum position in mandibular osteotomy has been developed. By integrating the operating portion of a tooth model that is to determine the optimum occlusal position by manipulating the entity tooth model and the 3D-CT skeletal images (3D image display portion) that are simultaneously displayed in real-time, the determination of the mandibular position and posture in which the improvement of skeletal morphology and occlusal condition is considered, is possible. The realistic operation of the entity model and the virtual 3D image display enabled the construction of a surgical simulation system that involves augmented reality.

  7. Event displays and plots of latest results from ATLAS Higgs Search

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, collaboration

    2012-01-01

    On 4 July, 2012, the ATLAS experiment presented a preview of its updated results on the search for the Higgs Boson. The results were shown at a seminar held jointly at CERN and via video link at ICHEP 2012, the International Conference for High Energy Physics in Melbourne, Australia, where detailed analyses will be presented later this week. More information at http://atlas.cern

  8. TAC BRAWLER - An application of engagement simulation modeling to simulator visual system display requirements for air combat maneuvering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, R. M.; Hughes, R. G.; Lee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The TAC BRAWLER air combat simulation models both the acquisition and use of visual information by the pilot. It was used to provide the designers of manned simulators for air-to-air combat with information regarding the training implications of display system resolution, inherent target contrast, field of view, and transport delay. Various display designs were simulated, and the resulting quantitative and qualitative differences in engagements were considered indicators of possible mistraining. Display resolution was found to alter combats primarily through its effect on detection ranges; the 'pixel averaging' contrast management technique was shown to largely compensate for this problem. Transport delay significantly degrades pilot tracking ability, but the training impact of the effect is unclear.

  9. Genome-wide prediction, display and refinement of binding sites with information theory-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeder J Steven

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present Delila-genome, a software system for identification, visualization and analysis of protein binding sites in complete genome sequences. Binding sites are predicted by scanning genomic sequences with information theory-based (or user-defined weight matrices. Matrices are refined by adding experimentally-defined binding sites to published binding sites. Delila-Genome was used to examine the accuracy of individual information contents of binding sites detected with refined matrices as a measure of the strengths of the corresponding protein-nucleic acid interactions. The software can then be used to predict novel sites by rescanning the genome with the refined matrices. Results Parameters for genome scans are entered using a Java-based GUI interface and backend scripts in Perl. Multi-processor CPU load-sharing minimized the average response time for scans of different chromosomes. Scans of human genome assemblies required 4–6 hours for transcription factor binding sites and 10–19 hours for splice sites, respectively, on 24- and 3-node Mosix and Beowulf clusters. Individual binding sites are displayed either as high-resolution sequence walkers or in low-resolution custom tracks in the UCSC genome browser. For large datasets, we applied a data reduction strategy that limited displays of binding sites exceeding a threshold information content to specific chromosomal regions within or adjacent to genes. An HTML document is produced listing binding sites ranked by binding site strength or chromosomal location hyperlinked to the UCSC custom track, other annotation databases and binding site sequences. Post-genome scan tools parse binding site annotations of selected chromosome intervals and compare the results of genome scans using different weight matrices. Comparisons of multiple genome scans can display binding sites that are unique to each scan and identify sites with significantly altered binding strengths

  10. An implicit method for the nonlinear modelling and simulation of piezoceramic actuators displaying hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Timothy D.; Zimmerman, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments have shown that piezoceramic materials display a nonlinear relationship between the applied electric field and the actuation strain. This relationship also displays a substantial hysteresis upon reversal of the applied field. In this paper, piezoceramic actuator models are incorporated into the structural equations of motion to arrive at a set of nonlinear actively controlled structural equations of motion. A new implicit algorithm for determining the time history of the actively controlled structure is presented. The algorithm employs the trapezoidal rule for stepping the equations forward in time. The algorithm is compared to an explicit algorithm and is shown to provide greater numerical accuracy. In addition, the numerical stability and convergence characteristics are presented via example. The new algorithm displays convergence and stability properties that are comparable to the standard trapezoidal rule used for dynamic systems without hysteresis.

  11. A Framework for Realistic Modeling and Display of Object Surface Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Benjamin A.

    With advances in screen and video hardware technology, the type of content presented on computers has progressed from text and simple shapes to high-resolution photographs, photorealistic renderings, and high-definition video. At the same time, there have been significant advances in the area of content capture, with the development of devices and methods for creating rich digital representations of real-world objects. Unlike photo or video capture, which provide a fixed record of the light in a scene, these new technologies provide information on the underlying properties of the objects, allowing their appearance to be simulated for novel lighting and viewing conditions. These capabilities provide an opportunity to continue the computer display progression, from high-fidelity image presentations to digital surrogates that recreate the experience of directly viewing objects in the real world. In this dissertation, a framework was developed for representing objects with complex color, gloss, and texture properties and displaying them onscreen to appear as if they are part of the real-world environment. At its core, there is a conceptual shift from a traditional image-based display workflow to an object-based one. Instead of presenting the stored patterns of light from a scene, the objective is to reproduce the appearance attributes of a stored object by simulating its dynamic patterns of light for the real viewing and lighting geometry. This is accomplished using a computational approach where the physical light sources are modeled and the observer and display screen are actively tracked. Surface colors are calculated for the real spectral composition of the illumination with a custom multispectral rendering pipeline. In a set of experiments, the accuracy of color and gloss reproduction was evaluated by measuring the screen directly with a spectroradiometer. Gloss reproduction was assessed by comparing gonio measurements of the screen output to measurements of the

  12. A model for structure-based comparison of many categories in small-multiple displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, Johannes; Piringer, Harald; Berger, Wolfgang; Gröller, M Eduard

    2013-12-01

    Many application domains deal with multi-variate data that consist of both categorical and numerical information. Smallmultiple displays are a powerful concept for comparing such data by juxtaposition. For comparison by overlay or by explicit encoding of computed differences, however, a specification of references is necessary. In this paper, we present a formal model for defining semantically meaningful comparisons between many categories in a small-multiple display. Based on pivotized data that are hierarchically partitioned by the categories assigned to the x and y axis of the display, we propose two alternatives for structure-based comparison within this hierarchy. With an absolute reference specification, categories are compared to a fixed reference category. With a relative reference specification, in contrast, a semantic ordering of the categories is considered when comparing them either to the previous or subsequent category each. Both reference specifications can be defined at multiple levels of the hierarchy (including aggregated summaries), enabling a multitude of useful comparisons. We demonstrate the general applicability of our model in several application examples using different visualizations that compare data by overlay or explicit encoding of differences.

  13. Operator modeling in commerical aviation: Cognitive models, intelligent displays, and pilot's assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, T.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the goals of the National Aviation Safety/Automation program is to address the issue of human-centered automation in the cockpit. Human-centered automation is automation that, in the cockpit, enhances or assists the crew rather than replacing them. The Georgia Tech research program focused on this general theme, with emphasis on designing a computer-based pilot's assistant, intelligent (i.e, context-sensitive) displays, and an intelligent tutoring system for understanding and operating the autoflight system. In particular, the aids and displays were designed to enhance the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew in coordinating the autoflight system resources. The activities of this grant included: (1) an OFMspert to understand pilot navigation activities in a 727 class aircraft; (2) an extension of OFMspert to understand mode control in a glass cockpit, Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS); (3) the design of a training system to teach pilots about the vertical navigation portion of the flight management system -VNAV Tutor; and (4) a proof-of-concept display, using existing display technology, to facilitate mode awareness, particularly in situations in which controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) is a potential.

  14. Towards an optimal model for a bistable nematic liquid crystal display device

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.

    2013-03-13

    Bistable liquid crystal displays offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine a theoretical model of a possible bistable device, originally proposed by Cummings and Richardson (Euro J Appl Math 17:435-463 2006), and explore means by which it may be optimized, in terms of optical contrast, manufacturing considerations, switching field strength, and switching times. The compromises inherent in these conflicting design criteria are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  15. Evaluation of Visualization Tools for Computer Network Defense Analysts: Display Design, Methods, and Results for a User Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of Visualization Tools for Computer Network Defense Analysts: Display Design , Methods...participant completed several posttask questionnaires , including 1) a survey on usefulness and ease of use for each of the 3 displays, 2) an analysis survey ...on node representation, 3) an analysis survey on link representation, and 4) a posttask analysis preference survey . All questionnaires were

  16. Precision markup modeling and display in a global geo-spatial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartell, Zachary J.; Ribarsky, William; Faust, Nickolas L.

    2003-08-01

    A data organization, scalable structure, and multiresolution visualization approach is described for precision markup modeling in a global geospatial environment. The global environment supports interactive visual navigation from global overviews to details on the ground at the resolution of inches or less. This is a difference in scale of 10 orders of magnitude or more. To efficiently handle details over this range of scales while providing accurate placement of objects, a set of nested coordinate systems is used, which always refers, through a series of transformations, to the fundamental world coordinate system (with its origin at the center of the earth). This coordinate structure supports multi-resolution models of imagery, terrain, vector data, buildings, moving objects, and other geospatial data. Thus objects that are static or moving on the terrain can be displayed without inaccurate positioning or jumping due to coordinate round-off. Examples of high resolution images, 3D objects, and terrain-following annotations are shown.

  17. Analytical results for a three-phase traffic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2003-10-01

    We study analytically a cellular automaton model, which is able to present three different traffic phases on a homogeneous highway. The characteristics displayed in the fundamental diagram can be well discerned by analyzing the evolution of density configurations. Analytical expressions for the traffic flow and shock speed are obtained. The synchronized flow in the intermediate-density region is the result of aggressive driving scheme and determined mainly by the stochastic noise.

  18. Precise prediction of optical responses of liquid-crystal display products using a behavioral model of liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chansoo; Cho, Youngmin; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Jongbin; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2012-01-01

    We propose a precise circuit model to estimate transient optical responses of an active-matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD). Liquid crystal (LC) molecules in the pixel is behaviorally modeled by using the first-order system that is described by Verilog-A. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a pixel determine the accuracy of the dynamic responses. Measuring C-V characteristics is impossible because pixels are driven by switching transistors in the AMLCD. We propose a method to obtain the C-V data from natural optical responses. Estimated optical responses based on the C-V data extracted by our proposal show more accurate results than those based on C-V data obtained by using transmittance-voltage data. It is demonstrated that our behavioral model enables us to predict very accurate transient responses, which makes it possible to design LCD products with lower costs.

  19. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user`s perspective of the system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user`s perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user`s ``model of the world,`` in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more.

  20. Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2007-04-01

    eMagin Corporation has recently developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. AMOLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. The new OLED-XL devices gave the promise of improvements in usable lifetime over 6X what the standard full color, white, and green devices could provide. The US Army's RDECOM CERDEC NVESD performed life tests on several standard and OLED-XL panels from eMagin under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). Displays were tested at room temperature, utilizing eMagin's Design Reference Kit driver, allowing computer controlled optimization, brightness adjustment, and manual temperature compensation. The OLED Usable Lifetime Model, developed under a previous NVESD/eMagin SPIE paper presented at DSS 2005, has been adjusted based on the findings of these tests. The result is a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed.

  1. Phage Display Screening for Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Binding Peptides: Detection of Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Sclavons

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TNF-α is one of the most abundant cytokines produced in many inflammatory and autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis, chronic hepatitis C, or neurodegenerative diseases. These pathologies remain difficult to diagnose and consequently difficult to treat. The aim of this work is to offer a new diagnostic tool by seeking new molecular probes for medical imaging. The target-specific part of the probe consists here of heptameric peptides selected by the phage display technology for their affinity for TNF-α. Several affinity tests allowed isolating 2 peptides that showed the best binding capacity to TNF-α. Finally, the best peptide was synthesized in both linear and cyclic forms and tested on the histological sections of concanavalin-A-(ConA-treated mice liver. In this well-known hepatitis mouse model, the best results were obtained with the cyclic form of peptide 2, which allowed for the staining of inflamed areas in the liver. The cyclic form of peptide 2 (2C was, thus, covalently linked to iron oxide nanoparticles (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent and tested in the ConA-induced hepatitis mouse model. The vectorized nanoparticles allowed for the detection of inflammation as well as of the free peptide. These ex vivo results suggest that phage display-selected peptides can direct imaging contrast agents to inflammatory areas.

  2. Quantitative measurement of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic display considering the eye foveation model and edge information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hwan; Lee, Won Oh; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-05-15

    We propose a new method for measuring the degree of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic displays using a glasses-type of eye tracking device. Our study is novel in the following four ways: first, the circular area where a user's gaze position exists is defined based on the calculated gaze position and gaze estimation error. Within this circular area, the position where edge strength is maximized can be detected, and we determine this position as the gaze position that has a higher probability of being the correct one. Based on this gaze point, the eye foveation model is defined. Second, we quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the degree of eyestrain and the causal factors of visual fatigue, such as the degree of change of stereoscopic disparity (CSD), stereoscopic disparity (SD), frame cancellation effect (FCE), and edge component (EC) of the 3D stereoscopic display using the eye foveation model. Third, by comparing the eyestrain in conventional 3D video and experimental 3D sample video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to various factors and types of 3D video. Fourth, by comparing the eyestrain with or without the compensation of eye saccades movement in 3D video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to the types of eye movements in 3D video. Experimental results show that the degree of CSD causes more eyestrain than other factors.

  3. Quantitative Measurement of Eyestrain on 3D Stereoscopic Display Considering the Eye Foveation Model and Edge Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Heo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for measuring the degree of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic displays using a glasses-type of eye tracking device. Our study is novel in the following four ways: first, the circular area where a user’s gaze position exists is defined based on the calculated gaze position and gaze estimation error. Within this circular area, the position where edge strength is maximized can be detected, and we determine this position as the gaze position that has a higher probability of being the correct one. Based on this gaze point, the eye foveation model is defined. Second, we quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the degree of eyestrain and the causal factors of visual fatigue, such as the degree of change of stereoscopic disparity (CSD, stereoscopic disparity (SD, frame cancellation effect (FCE, and edge component (EC of the 3D stereoscopic display using the eye foveation model. Third, by comparing the eyestrain in conventional 3D video and experimental 3D sample video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to various factors and types of 3D video. Fourth, by comparing the eyestrain with or without the compensation of eye saccades movement in 3D video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to the types of eye movements in 3D video. Experimental results show that the degree of CSD causes more eyestrain than other factors.

  4. Modeling the Quality of Videos Displayed With Local Dimming Backlight at Different Peak White and Ambient Light Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Søgaard, Jacob; Bech, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness of a display) on the perceived quality of videos displayed using local backlight dimming. Two subjective tests providing quality evaluations are presented and analyzed. The analyses of variance show significant...... interactions of the factors peak white and ambient light with the perceived quality. Therefore, we proceed to predict the subjective quality grades with objective measures. The rendering of the frames on liquid crystal displays with light emitting diodes backlight at various ambient light and peak white levels...... is computed using a model of the display. Widely used objective quality metrics are applied based on the rendering models of the videos to predict the subjective evaluations. As these predictions are not satisfying, three machine learning methods are applied: partial least square regression, elastic net...

  5. Amblyopia treatment of adults with dichoptic training using the virtual reality oculus rift head mounted display: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žiak, Peter; Holm, Anders; Halička, Juraj; Mojžiš, Peter; Piñero, David P

    2017-06-28

    The gold standard treatments in amblyopia are penalizing therapies, such as patching or blurring vision with atropine that are aimed at forcing the use of the amblyopic eye. However, in the last years, new therapies are being developed and validated, such as dichoptic visual training, aimed at stimulating the amblyopic eye and eliminating the interocular supression. To evaluate the effect of dichoptic visual training using a virtual reality head mounted display in a sample of anisometropic amblyopic adults and to evaluate the potential usefulness of this option of treatment. A total of 17 subjects (10 men, 7 women) with a mean age of 31.2 years (range, 17-69 year) and anisometropic amblyopia were enrolled. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and stereoacuity (Stereo Randot graded circle test) changes were evaluated after 8 sessions (40 min per session) of dichoptic training with the computer game Diplopia Game (Vivid Vision) run in the Oculus Rift OC DK2 virtual reality head mounted display (Oculus VR). Mean BCVA in amblyopic eye improved significantly from a logMAR value of 0.58 ± 0.35 before training to a post-training value of 0.43 ± 0.38 (p virtual reality head mounted display seems to be an effective option of treatment in adults with anisometropic amblyopia. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm this preliminary evidence. Trial ID: ISRCTN62086471 . Date registered: 13/06/2017. Retrospectively registered.

  6. Modeling Of A Monocular, Full-Color, Laser-Scanning, Helmet-Mounted Display for Aviator Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    USAARL Report No. 2017-10 Modeling of a Monocular, Full-Color, Laser- Scanning, Helmet-Mounted Display for Aviator Situational Awareness By Thomas...Mounted Display for Aviator Situational Awareness N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Harding, Thomas H. Raatz, Maria E. Martin, John S. Rash, Clarence E. U.S...Huntsville, AL 35806-3302 PM Air Warrior, PEO Soldier Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. The modeling data and analysis presented in

  7. Assessing display variability in wild brown anoles Anolis sagrei using a mechanical lizard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. PARTAN, Peter OTOVIC, Virginia L. PRICE, Scott E. BROWN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Signals used for species identity ought to be highly stereotyped so as to facilitate immediate recognition by conspecifics. It is surprising therefore to find variability in putative species signature displays. The brown anole Anolis sagrei has a high degree of variability in its signature bobbing display. In this study we collected descriptive data on variability in the temporal structure of wild brown anole bobbing patterns, finding that no two displays analyzed had the same temporal structure, and we also tested whether wild brown anoles prefer the signature display over an alternate display pattern by using mechanical robot playbacks in the field. As a response metric we assessed whether or not the lizards showed social responses (pushup, dewlap extension, or head-nod in response to the robotic presentations. We found that the lizards responded slightly more to the signature than to the alternate pattern, providing support for the idea that despite the variability seen in displays, the signature pattern is meaningful to them. We tested two other independent variables: speed of the display and elevation of the robot during its display, neither of which was significant. Dewlap extensions were given predominantly by adult males and were more likely to be given in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season. Pushups and head-nods were given equally by males and a combined class of females and juveniles, and were not seasonal. Head-nods increased after the robot turned off, suggesting that they may be used in a conversational turn-taking style during communication [Current Zoology 57 (2: 140–152, 2011].

  8. Assessing display variability in wild brown anoles Anolis sagrei using a mechanical lizard model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah R.PARTAN; Peter OTOVIC; Virginia L.PRICE; Scott E.BROWN

    2011-01-01

    Signals used for species identity ought to be highly stereotyped so as to facilitate immediate recognition by conspecifics.It is surprising therefore to find variability in putative species signature displays.The brown anole Anolis sasrei has a high degree of variability in its signature bobbing display.In this study we collected descriptive data on variability in the temporal stiucture of wild brown anole bobbing patterns,finding that no two displays analyzed had the same temporal structure,and we also tested whether wild brown anoles prefer the signature display over an alternate display pattern by using mechanical robot playbacks in the field.As a response metric we assessed whether or not the lizards showed social responses(pushup,dewlap extension,or head-nod)in response to the robotic presentations.We found that the lizards responded slightly more to the signature than to the alternate pattern,providing support for the idea that despite the variability seen in displays,the signature pattern is meaningful to them.We tested two other independent variables:speed of the display and elevation of the robot during its display,neither of which was significant.Dewlap extensions were given predominantly by adult males and were more likely to be given in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season.Pushups and head-nods were given equally by males and a combined class of females and juveniles,and were not seasonal.Head-nods increased after the robot turned off,suggesting that they may be used in a conversational turn-taking style during communication.

  9. Interpreting Results from the Multinomial Logit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This article provides guidelines and illustrates practical steps necessary for an analysis of results from the multinomial logit model (MLM). The MLM is a popular model in the strategy literature because it allows researchers to examine strategic choices with multiple outcomes. However, there see...

  10. SMA-causing missense mutations in survival motor neuron (Smn) display a wide range of phenotypes when modeled in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Kavita; Wen, Ying; Gray, Kelsey M; Noto, John J; Patlolla, Akash R; Van Duyne, Gregory D; Matera, A Gregory

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in the human survival motor neuron 1 (SMN) gene are the primary cause of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a devastating neuromuscular disorder. SMN protein has a well-characterized role in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), core components of the spliceosome. Additional tissue-specific and global functions have been ascribed to SMN; however, their relevance to SMA pathology is poorly understood and controversial. Using Drosophila as a model system, we created an allelic series of twelve Smn missense mutations, originally identified in human SMA patients. We show that animals expressing these SMA-causing mutations display a broad range of phenotypic severities, similar to the human disease. Furthermore, specific interactions with other proteins known to be important for SMN's role in RNP assembly are conserved. Intragenic complementation analyses revealed that the three most severe mutations, all of which map to the YG box self-oligomerization domain of SMN, display a stronger phenotype than the null allele and behave in a dominant fashion. In support of this finding, the severe YG box mutants are defective in self-interaction assays, yet maintain their ability to heterodimerize with wild-type SMN. When expressed at high levels, wild-type SMN is able to suppress the activity of the mutant protein. These results suggest that certain SMN mutants can sequester the wild-type protein into inactive complexes. Molecular modeling of the SMN YG box dimer provides a structural basis for this dominant phenotype. These data demonstrate that important structural and functional features of the SMN YG box are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, emphasizing the importance of self-interaction to the proper functioning of SMN.

  11. SMA-causing missense mutations in survival motor neuron (Smn display a wide range of phenotypes when modeled in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Praveen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human survival motor neuron 1 (SMN gene are the primary cause of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, a devastating neuromuscular disorder. SMN protein has a well-characterized role in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs, core components of the spliceosome. Additional tissue-specific and global functions have been ascribed to SMN; however, their relevance to SMA pathology is poorly understood and controversial. Using Drosophila as a model system, we created an allelic series of twelve Smn missense mutations, originally identified in human SMA patients. We show that animals expressing these SMA-causing mutations display a broad range of phenotypic severities, similar to the human disease. Furthermore, specific interactions with other proteins known to be important for SMN's role in RNP assembly are conserved. Intragenic complementation analyses revealed that the three most severe mutations, all of which map to the YG box self-oligomerization domain of SMN, display a stronger phenotype than the null allele and behave in a dominant fashion. In support of this finding, the severe YG box mutants are defective in self-interaction assays, yet maintain their ability to heterodimerize with wild-type SMN. When expressed at high levels, wild-type SMN is able to suppress the activity of the mutant protein. These results suggest that certain SMN mutants can sequester the wild-type protein into inactive complexes. Molecular modeling of the SMN YG box dimer provides a structural basis for this dominant phenotype. These data demonstrate that important structural and functional features of the SMN YG box are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, emphasizing the importance of self-interaction to the proper functioning of SMN.

  12. Informing Architecture and Urban Modeling with Real-world Data on 3D Tangible Interfaces and Augmented Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Tore; Salim, Flora; Jaworski, Przemyslaw;

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of online and digital data in our world yields unprecedented opportunities for connecting physical and digital parametric models with live data input and feedback. Tangible interfaces and augmented displays provide theatrical settings for designers to visualize real-world data a...

  13. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  14. Performance results of HESP physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanumolu, Anantha; Thirupathi, Sivarani; Jones, Damien; Giridhar, Sunetra; Grobler, Deon; Jakobsson, Robert

    2017-02-01

    As a continuation to the published work on model based calibration technique with HESP(Hanle Echelle Spectrograph) as a case study, in this paper we present the performance results of the technique. We also describe how the open parameters were chosen in the model for optimization, the glass data accuracy and handling the discrepancies. It is observed through simulations that the discrepancies in glass data can be identified but not quantifiable. So having an accurate glass data is important which is possible to obtain from the glass manufacturers. The model's performance in various aspects is presented using the ThAr calibration frames from HESP during its pre-shipment tests. Accuracy of model predictions and its wave length calibration comparison with conventional empirical fitting, the behaviour of open parameters in optimization, model's ability to track instrumental drifts in the spectrum and the double fibres performance were discussed. It is observed that the optimized model is able to predict to a high accuracy the drifts in the spectrum from environmental fluctuations. It is also observed that the pattern in the spectral drifts across the 2D spectrum which vary from image to image is predictable with the optimized model. We will also discuss the possible science cases where the model can contribute.

  15. Study of Observer Variability in Modern Display Colorimetry: Comparison of CIE 2006 Model and 10° Standard Observer

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Blondé, Laurent; Le Callet, Patrick; Autrusseau, Florent; Stauder, Jürgen; Morvan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper compares CIE 2006 model predictions and the 1964 10° standard colorimetric observer with the average observer data from three distinct subgroups of 47 Stiles-Burch observers formed on the basis of observer ages. For two of these subgroups, the long-wave sensitive (x-) color matching functions obtained from the CIE06 model did not accurately predict the intra-group average observer functions. In terms of display color perception, the prediction error is refle...

  16. Modeling Malaysia's Energy System: Some Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The current dynamic and fragile world energy environment necessitates the development of new energy model that solely caters to analyze Malaysia’s energy scenarios. Approach: The model is a network flow model that traces the flow of energy carriers from its sources (import and mining through some conversion and transformation processes for the production of energy products to final destinations (energy demand sectors. The integration to the economic sectors is done exogeneously by specifying the annual sectoral energy demand levels. The model in turn optimizes the energy variables for a specified objective function to meet those demands. Results: By minimizing the inter temporal petroleum product imports for the crude oil system the annual extraction level of Tapis blend is projected at 579600 barrels per day. The aggregate demand for petroleum products is projected to grow at 2.1% year-1 while motor gasoline and diesel constitute 42 and 38% of the petroleum products demands mix respectively over the 5 year planning period. Petroleum products import is expected to grow at 6.0% year-1. Conclusion: The preliminary results indicate that the model performs as expected. Thus other types of energy carriers such as natural gas, coal and biomass will be added to the energy system for the overall development of Malaysia energy model.

  17. DISPLAY-2: a two-dimensional shallow layer model for dense gas dispersion including complex features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanos, A G; Bartzis, J G; Würtz, J; Papailiou, D D

    2003-04-25

    A two-dimensional shallow layer model has been developed to predict dense gas dispersion, under realistic conditions, including complex features such as two-phase releases, obstacles and inclined ground. The model attempts to predict the time and space evolution of the cloud formed after a release of a two-phase pollutant into the atmosphere. The air-pollutant mixture is assumed ideal. The cloud evolution is described mathematically through the Cartesian, two-dimensional, shallow layer conservation equations for mixture mass, mixture momentum in two horizontal directions, total pollutant mass fraction (vapor and liquid) and mixture internal energy. Liquid mass fraction is obtained assuming phase equilibrium. Account is taken in the conservation equations for liquid slip and eventual liquid rainout through the ground. Entrainment of ambient air is modeled via an entrainment velocity model, which takes into account the effects of ground friction, ground heat transfer and relative motion between cloud and surrounding atmosphere. The model additionally accounts for thin obstacles effects in three ways. First a stepwise description of the obstacle is generated, following the grid cell faces, taking into account the corresponding area blockage. Then obstacle drag on the passing cloud is modeled by adding flow resistance terms in the momentum equations. Finally the effect of extra vorticity generation and entrainment enhancement behind obstacles is modeled by adding locally into the entrainment formula without obstacles, a characteristic velocity scale defined from the obstacle pressure drop and the local cloud height.The present model predictions have been compared against theoretical results for constant volume and constant flux gravity currents. It was found that deviations of the predicted cloud footprint area change with time from the theoretical were acceptably small, if one models the frictional forces between cloud and ambient air, neglecting the Richardson

  18. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  19. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  20. Modelling rainfall erosion resulting from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Peter

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion leads to agricultural productivity decline and contributes to water quality decline. The current widely used models for determining soil erosion for management purposes in agriculture focus on long term (~20 years) average annual soil loss and are not well suited to determining variations that occur over short timespans and as a result of climate change. Soil loss resulting from rainfall erosion is directly dependent on the product of runoff and sediment concentration both of which are likely to be influenced by climate change. This presentation demonstrates the capacity of models like the USLE, USLE-M and WEPP to predict variations in runoff and erosion associated with rainfall events eroding bare fallow plots in the USA with a view to modelling rainfall erosion in areas subject to climate change.

  1. Simulation Modeling of Radio Direction Finding Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pelikan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available It is sometimes difficult to determine analytically error probabilities of direction finding results for evaluating algorithms of practical interest. Probalistic simulation models are described in this paper that can be to study error performance of new direction finding systems or to geographical modifications of existing configurations.

  2. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  3. Modeling the Quality of Videos Displayed With Local Dimming Backlight at Different Peak White and Ambient Light Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Sogaard, Jacob; Bech, Soren; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper Melgaard; Forchhammer, Soren

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the impact of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness of a display) on the perceived quality of videos displayed using local backlight dimming. Two subjective tests providing quality evaluations are presented and analyzed. The analyses of variance show significant interactions of the factors peak white and ambient light with the perceived quality. Therefore, we proceed to predict the subjective quality grades with objective measures. The rendering of the frames on liquid crystal displays with light emitting diodes backlight at various ambient light and peak white levels is computed using a model of the display. Widely used objective quality metrics are applied based on the rendering models of the videos to predict the subjective evaluations. As these predictions are not satisfying, three machine learning methods are applied: partial least square regression, elastic net, and support vector regression. The elastic net method obtains the best prediction accuracy with a spearman rank order correlation coefficient of 0.71, and two features are identified as having a major influence on the visual quality.

  4. Two-dimensional model of an AC plasma display panel cell in a neon-xenon mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeuf, J.P.; Pitchford, L.C. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    We present a 2-D fluid model of an AC plasma display panel cell. Plasma Display Panels (PDP) are flat display devices where the light of each picture element is emitted from a plasma created by an electric discharge. In the simplest electrode configuration, AC plasma display panels consist of two glass plates, each with parallel electrodes deposited on their surfaces. The electrodes are covered with a dielectric film above which a protective MgO layer is deposited. The plates are sealed together with their electrodes at right angles, and the cap between the plates is filled with a rare gas mixture. An electric discharge can be initiated in the gas cap by applying a voltage pulse between a line electrode and a column electrode. This discharge is transient due to the dielectric layers covering the electrode: the charges deposited on the dielectric surfaces induce in the gas cap a voltage which opposes the electrode voltage. Since the electrode voltage is AC (frequency in the 10-100 kHz range), a discharge is initiated each time the electrode voltage changes sign (the voltage across the dielectric layers adds to the electrode voltage when it changes sign). The {open_quotes}ON{close_quotes} state of a picture element is therefore a succession of transient discharges. In color displays, the UV light of the discharge is used to excite phosphors in the three fundamental colors (at least three discharge cells are used for one pixel of the screen). Neon-xenon or helium-xenon mixtures are generally used in color displays where photons emitted by excited atomic (147 nm) and molecular (150 nm and 173 nm) xenon are used to excite the phosphors.

  5. Projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  6. Cortical axons, isolated in channels, display activity-dependent signal modulation as a result of targeted stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Lewandowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian cortical axons are extremely thin processes that are difficult to study as a result of their small diameter: they are too narrow to patch while intact, and super-resolution microscopy is needed to resolve single axons. We present a method for studying axonal physiology by pairing a high-density microelectrode array with a microfluidic axonal isolation device, and use it to study activity-dependent modulation of axonal signal propagation evoked by stimulation near the soma. Up to three axonal branches from a single neuron, isolated in different channels, were recorded from simultaneously using 10-20 electrodes per channel. The axonal channels amplified spikes such that propagations of individual signals along tens of electrodes could easily be discerned with high signal to noise. Stimulation from 10 Hz up to 160 Hz demonstrated similar qualitative results from all of the cells studied: extracellular action potential characteristics changed drastically in response to stimulation. Spike height decreased, spike width increased, and latency increased, as a result of reduced propagation velocity, as the number of stimulations and the stimulation frequencies increased. Quantitatively, the strength of these changes manifested itself differently in cells at different frequencies of stimulation. Some cells’ signal fidelity fell to 80% already at 10 Hz, while others maintained 80% signal fidelity at 80 Hz. Differences in modulation by axonal branches of the same cell were also seen for many different stimulation frequencies, starting at 10 Hz. Potassium ion concentration changes altered the behavior of the cells causing propagation failures at lower concentrations and improving signal fidelity at higher concentrations.

  7. Effect of visual display height on modelled upper and lower cervical gravitational moment, muscle capacity and relative strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, L; Skoss, R; Burnett, A; Burgess-Limerick, R

    2009-02-01

    Head and neck posture is an important factor in neck pain related to computer use; however, the evidence for an optimal posture is unconvincing. This study measured the 3-D postures of 36 young adults during use of three different display heights. Cervical extensor muscle strain was estimated using modelled gravitational load moments and muscle capacities. The influence of more or less upper vs. lower cervical movement was also explored across a broad range of potential postures. Overall cervical extensor muscle capacity diminished away from a neutral posture whilst gravity moment increased with flexion. Overall cervical extensor muscle strain increased with head flexion but remained stable into head extension. Individual differences in the amount of upper and lower cervical movement had an important effect on strain, particularly for some muscles. Computer display height guidelines are an important component of ergonomics practice, yet the relative strain on neck extensor muscles as a function of display height has not been examined. The current findings provide more detailed biomechanical evidence that ergonomists can incorporate with usability and other evidence to determine appropriate display height recommendations.

  8. Primary clear cell renal carcinoma cells display minimal mitochondrial respiratory capacity resulting in pronounced sensitivity to glycolytic inhibition by 3-Bromopyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, H; Lindgren, D; Mandahl Forsberg, A; Mulder, H; Axelson, H; Johansson, M E

    2015-01-08

    Changes of cellular metabolism are an integral property of the malignant potential of most cancer cells. Already in the 1930s, Otto Warburg observed that tumor cells preferably utilize glycolysis and lactate fermentation for energy production, rather than the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation dominating in normal cells, a phenomenon today known as the Warburg effect. Even though many tumor types display a high degree of aerobic glycolysis, they still retain the activity of other energy-producing metabolic pathways. One exception seems to be the clear cell variant of renal cell carcinoma, ccRCC, where the activity of most other pathways than that of glycolysis has been shown to be reduced. This makes ccRCC a promising candidate for the use of glycolytic inhibitors in treatment of the disease. However, few studies have so far addressed this issue. In this report, we show a strikingly reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity of primary human ccRCC cells, resulting in enhanced sensitivity to glycolytic inhibition by 3-Bromopyruvate (3BrPA). This effect was largely absent in established ccRCC cell lines, a finding that highlights the importance of using biologically relevant models in the search for new candidate cancer therapies. 3BrPA markedly reduced ATP production in primary ccRCC cells, followed by cell death. Our data suggest that glycolytic inhibitors such as 3BrPA, that has been shown to be well tolerated in vivo, should be further analyzed for the possible development of selective treatment strategies for patients with ccRCC.

  9. Using GOMS models and hypertext to create representations of medical procedures for online display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugerty, Leo; Halgren, Shannon; Gosbee, John; Rudisill, Marianne

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated two methods to improve organization and presentation of computer-based medical procedures. A literature review suggested that the GOMS (goals, operators, methods, and selecton rules) model can assist in rigorous task analysis, which can then help generate initial design ideas for the human-computer interface. GOMS model are hierarchical in nature, so this study also investigated the effect of hierarchical, hypertext interfaces. We used a 2 x 2 between subjects design, including the following independent variables: procedure organization - GOMS model based vs. medical-textbook based; navigation type - hierarchical vs. linear (booklike). After naive subjects studies the online procedures, measures were taken of their memory for the content and the organization of the procedures. This design was repeated for two medical procedures. For one procedure, subjects who studied GOMS-based and hierarchical procedures remembered more about the procedures than other subjects. The results for the other procedure were less clear. However, data for both procedures showed a 'GOMSification effect'. That is, when asked to do a free recall of a procedure, subjects who had studies a textbook procedure often recalled key information in a location inconsistent with the procedure they actually studied, but consistent with the GOMS-based procedure.

  10. Display of the β-effect in the Black Sea Two-Layer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pavlushin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research is a continuation of a series of numerical experiments on modeling formation of wind currents and eddies in the Black Sea within the framework of a two-layer eddy-resolving model. The main attention is focused on studying the β-effect role. The stationary cyclonic wind is used as an external forcing and the bottom topography is not considered. It is shown that at the β-effect being taken into account, the Rossby waves propagating from east to west are observed both during the currents’ formation and at the statistical equilibrium mode when the mesoscale eddies are formed. In the integral flows’ field the waves are visually manifested in a form of the alternate large-scale cyclonic gyres and zones in which the meso-scale anti-cyclones are formed. This spatial pattern constantly propagates to the west that differs from the results of calculations using the constant Coriolis parameter when the spatially alternate cyclonic and anti-cyclonic vortices are formed, but hold a quasi-stationary position. The waves with the parameters of the Rossby wave first barotropic mode for the closed basin are most clearly pronounced. Interaction of the Rossby waves with large-scale circulation results in intensification of the of the currents’ hydrodynamic instability and in formation of the mesoscale eddies. Significant decrease of kinetic and available potential energy as compared to the values obtained at the constant Coriolis parameter is also a consequence of the eddy formation intensification.

  11. Model Identification for Control of Display Units in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff;

    in a supermarket refrigeration system. The grey-box modelling approach is adopted, using stochastic differential equations to define the dynamics of the model, combining prior knowledge of the physical system with data-driven modelling. Model identification is performed using the forward selection method...

  12. The Danish national passenger modelModel specification and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Hansen, Christian Overgaard

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of the new Danish National Passenger model and provides on this basis a general discussion of large-scale model design, cost-damping and model validation. The paper aims at providing three main contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, at the general level......, the paper provides a description of a large-scale forecast model with a discussion of the linkage between population synthesis, demand and assignment. Secondly, the paper gives specific attention to model specification and in particular choice of functional form and cost-damping. Specifically we suggest...... a family of logarithmic spline functions and illustrate how it is applied in the model. Thirdly and finally, we evaluate model sensitivity and performance by evaluating the distance distribution and elasticities. In the paper we present results where the spline-function is compared with more traditional...

  13. PBM: a software package to create, display and manipulate interactively models of small molecules and proteins on IBM-compatible PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrakis, A; Constantinides, C; Athanasiades, A; Hamodrakas, S J

    1995-04-01

    The PBM package was developed to create, display and conveniently manipulate protein and small molecule structures on IBM-compatible microcomputers. It consists of four modules: CREATE, SPHERE, RIBBON and CONVERT. CREATE includes commands to create or alter ('mutate') the primary and subsequently the tertiary structure of a given peptide or protein by defining phi and psi angles of residues at will, options to add, delete or alter atoms in a structure, utilities to choose easily between the most common rotamers of amino acid residue sidechains and options to analyse in various ways a protein conformation. SPHERE provides for an interactive manipulation of structures containing up to 2700 atoms which can belong up to six different molecules. All manipulations can be made with the use of an ordinary mouse, by choosing from a variety of pull-down menus. Three types of models can be implemented to display molecules on the computer screen or the plotter: skeletal, solid space-filling and wireframe space-filling models. RIBBON creates ribbon models of proteins and allows for a limited variety of interactive manipulations. CONVERT is a file converter, which is capable of converting files of atom coordinates of literally any format to Brookhaven Data Bank format files. The package produces very good results for protein molecules of reasonable sizes, both in terms of graphics quality and speed of operations, on an 80486 IBM PC-compatible machine equipped with a 1 MByte VGA display card and a colour VGA monitor, which is a recommended configuration.

  14. Three-dimensional surgical navigation model with TilePro display during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukimura, Osamu; Aron, Monish; Nakamoto, Masahiko; Shoji, Sunao; Abreu, Andre Luis de Castro; Matsugasumi, Toru; Berger, Andre; Desai, Mihir; Gill, Inderbir S

    2014-06-01

    Abstract To facilitate robotic nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) surgical navigation model that is displayed on the TilePro function of the da Vinci® surgeon console. Based on 3D transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies, we reconstructed a 3D model of the TRUS-visible, histologically confirmed "index" cancer lesion in 10 consecutive patients. Five key anatomic structures (prostate, image-visible biopsy-proven "index" cancer lesion, neurovascular bundles, urethra, and recorded biopsy trajectories) were image-fused and displayed onto the TilePro function of the robotic console. The 3D model facilitated careful surgical dissection in the vicinity of the biopsy-proven index lesion. Geographic location of the index lesion on the final histology report correlated with the software-created 3D model. Negative surgical margins were achieved in 90%, except for one case with extensive extra-prostate extension. At postoperative 3 months, prostate-specific antigen levels were undetectable (navigation model is presented.

  15. CMS standard model Higgs boson results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Abia Pablo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012 CMS announced the discovery of a new boson with properties resembling those of the long-sought Higgs boson. The analysis of the proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb−1 at √s = 7 TeV and 19.6 fb−1 at √s = 8 TeV, confirm the Higgs-like nature of the new boson, with a signal strength associated with vector bosons and fermions consistent with the expectations for a standard model (SM Higgs boson, and spin-parity clearly favouring the scalar nature of the new boson. In this note I review the updated results of the CMS experiment.

  16. Three-dimensional displays for natural hazards analysis, using classified Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data and large-scale digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are described for using Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data and digital elevation models for the display of natural hazard sites in a mountainous region of northwestern Montana, USA. Hazard zones can be easily identified on the three-dimensional images. Proximity of facilities such as highways and building locations to hazard sites can also be easily displayed. A temporal sequence of Landsat TM (or similar) satellite data sets could also be used to display landscape changes associated with dynamic natural hazard processes.

  17. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eadie

    Full Text Available From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction.A discreet observational audit was conducted 7-14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83 selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively.Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%. Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%.Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people's awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should pay particular attention to regulations

  18. Ionospheric Poynting Flux and Joule Heating Modeling Challenge: Latest Results and New Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Knipp, D. J.; Zheng, Y.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Newell, P. T.; Weimer, D. R.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Wang, W.

    2014-12-01

    Poynting Flux and Joule Heating in the ionosphere - latest results from the challenge and updates at the CCMC. With the addition of satellite tracking and display features in the online analysis tool and at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), we are now able to obtain Poynting flux and Joule heating values from a wide variety of ionospheric models. In addition to Poynting fluxes derived from electric and magnetic field measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites for a recent modeling challenge, we can now use a Poynting Flux model derived from FAST satellite observations for comparison. Poynting Fluxes are also correlated using Ovation Prime maps of precipitation patterns during the same time periods to assess how "typical" the events in the challenge are.

  19. Revisiting Runoff Model Calibration: Airborne Snow Observatory Results Allow Improved Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, B. J.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Deterministic snow accumulation and ablation simulation models are widely used by runoff managers throughout the world to predict runoff quantities and timing. Model fitting is typically based on matching modeled runoff volumes and timing with observed flow time series at a few points in the basin. In recent decades, sparse networks of point measurements of the mountain snowpacks have been available to compare with modeled snowpack, but the comparability of results from a snow sensor or course to model polygons of 5 to 50 sq. km is suspect. However, snowpack extent, depth, and derived snow water equivalent have been produced by the NASA/JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) mission for spring of 20013 and 2014 in the Tuolumne River basin above Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. These high-resolution snowpack data have exposed the weakness in a model calibration based on runoff alone. The U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) calibration that was based on 30-years of inflow to Hetch Hetchy produces reasonable inflow results, but modeled spatial snowpack location and water quantity diverged significantly from the weekly measurements made by ASO during the two ablation seasons. The reason is that the PRMS model has many flow paths, storages, and water transfer equations, and a calibrated outflow time series can be right for many wrong reasons. The addition of a detailed knowledge of snow extent and water content constrains the model so that it is a better representation of the actual watershed hydrology. The mechanics of recalibrating PRMS to the ASO measurements will be described, and comparisons in observed versus modeled flow for both a small subbasin and the entire Hetch Hetchy basin will be shown. The recalibrated model provided a bitter fit to the snowmelt recession, a key factor for water managers as they balance declining inflows with demand for power generation and ecosystem releases during the final months of snow melt runoff.

  20. Study of Observer Variability in Modern Display Colorimetry: An Analysis of CIE 2006 Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Blonde, Laurent; Le Callet, Patrick; Autrusseau, Florent; Stauder, Jürgen; Morvan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    International audience; CIE 2006 model presents a convenient framework for calculating the cone fundamentals, and thus the color matching functions, for various ages of an average observer. CIE 2006 model incorporates three major physiological factors affecting observer variability, namely optical densities for the ocular media absorption, macular pigment absorption, and visual pigments in the outer segments of the photoreceptors. However, it does not have a provision for a peak-wavelength sh...

  1. Trojan War displayed as a full annihilation-diffusion-reaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    The diffusive pair annihilation model with embedded topological domains and archaeological data is applied in an analysis of the hypothetical Trojan-Greek war during the late Bronze Age. Estimations of parameter are explicitly made for critical dynamics of the model. In particular, the 8-metre walls of Troy could be viewed as the effective shield that provided the technological difference between the two armies. Suggestively, the numbers in The Iliad are quite sound, being in accord with Lanchester's laws of warfare.

  2. Modeling Malaysia's Energy System: Some Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The current dynamic and fragile world energy environment necessitates the development of new energy model that solely caters to analyze Malaysias energy scenarios. Approach: The model is a network flow model that traces the flow of energy carriers from its sources (import and mining) through some conversion and transformation processes for the production of energy products to final destinations (energy demand sectors). The integration to the economic sectors is done exogene...

  3. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan

  4. Computational Modeling to Limit the Impact Displays and Indicator Lights Have on Habitable Volume Operational Lighting Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. A.; Brainard, G.; Salazar, G.; Johnston, S.; Schwing, B.; Litaker, H.; Kolomenski, A.; Venus, D.; Tran, K.; Hanifin, J.; Adolf, J.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has demonstrated an interest in improving astronaut health and performance through the installment of a new lighting countermeasure on the International Space Station. The Solid State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) system is designed to positively influence astronaut health by providing a daily change to light spectrum to improve circadian entrainment. Unfortunately, existing NASA standards and requirements define ambient light level requirements for crew sleep and other tasks, yet the number of light-emitting diode (LED) indicators and displays within a habitable volume is currently uncontrolled. Because each of these light sources has its own unique spectral properties, the additive lighting environment ends up becoming something different from what was planned or researched. Restricting the use of displays and indicators is not a solution because these systems provide beneficial feedback to the crew. The research team for this grant used computer-based computational modeling and real-world lighting mockups to document the impact that light sources other than the ambient lighting system contribute to the ambient spectral lighting environment. In particular, the team was focused on understanding the impacts of long-term tasks located in front of avionics or computer displays. The team also wanted to understand options for mitigating the changes to the ambient light spectrum in the interest of maintaining the performance of a lighting countermeasure. The project utilized a variety of physical and computer-based simulations to determine direct relationships between system implementation and light spectrum. Using real-world data, computer models were built in the commercially available optics analysis software Zemax Optics Studio(c). The team also built a mockup test facility that had the same volume and configuration as one of the Zemax models. The team collected over 1200 spectral irradiance measurements, each representing a different configuration of the mockup

  5. An inventory model of two-warehouse system with variable demand dependent on instantaneous displayed stock and marketing decisions via hybrid RCGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bhunia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single item deterministic inventory model with two separate warehouses called owned warehouse/show-room (OW and rented warehouse (RW is developed. The proposed model of this paper also considers a realistic assumption regarding the storage capacity of the rented warehouse. Demand is a function of selling price, advertisement of an item and displayed inventory level in OW. The stocks of RW are shipped to OW under bulk release pattern where shortages are not allowed. We discuss different scenarios of the proposed model to address relative size of stock dependency parameters and the capacity of owned warehouse. For each scenario, the corresponding problem is formulated as a constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming problem with three integer and two non-integer variables and a real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA is developed to solve the resulted problem. The proposed model of the paper is also examined using some numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed.

  6. Self-organized aerial displays of thousands of starlings : a model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildenbrandt, H.; Carere, C.; Hemelrijk, C. K.

    2010-01-01

    Through combining theoretical models and empirical data, complexity science has increased our understanding of social behavior of animals, in particular of social insects, primates, and fish. What are missing are studies of collective behavior of huge swarms of birds. Recently detailed empirical

  7. Quantitative magnetospheric models: results and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Gombosi, T.; Csem Team

    Global magnetospheric models are indispensable tool that allow multi-point measurements to be put into global context Significant progress is achieved in global MHD modeling of magnetosphere structure and dynamics Medium resolution simulations confirm general topological pictures suggested by Dungey State of the art global models with adaptive grids allow performing simulations with highly resolved magnetopause and magnetotail current sheet Advanced high-resolution models are capable to reproduced transient phenomena such as FTEs associated with formation of flux ropes or plasma bubbles embedded into magnetopause and demonstrate generation of vortices at magnetospheric flanks On the other hand there is still controversy about the global state of the magnetosphere predicted by MHD models to the point of questioning the length of the magnetotail and the location of the reconnection sites within it For example for steady southwards IMF driving condition resistive MHD simulations produce steady configuration with almost stationary near-earth neutral line While there are plenty of observational evidences of periodic loading unloading cycle during long periods of southward IMF Successes and challenges in global modeling of magnetispheric dynamics will be addessed One of the major challenges is to quantify the interaction between large-scale global magnetospheric dynamics and microphysical processes in diffusion regions near reconnection sites Possible solutions to controversies will be discussed

  8. A mouse model of Alzheimer's disease displays increased susceptibility to kindling and seizure-associated death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jianxiong; Jones, Nigel C; Bush, Ashley I; O'Brien, Terence J; Kwan, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are up to 10 times more likely to develop epilepsy than the age-matched general population. However, given that only a proportion of patients with AD develop epilepsy, it is likely that additional factors may be required for the epilepsy to emerge. This study aimed to better understand the relationship between AD pathology and seizure susceptibility. It also aimed to investigate a "two-hit" hypothesis for seizure susceptibility through amygdala kindling of rodent AD models. Aged AD mice (Tg2576 model) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent electrical amygdala kindling. Compared with WT mice, Tg2576 mice had significantly lower afterdischarge threshold. Significantly fewer stimulations were required for the Tg2576 mice to reach the first class V seizure. Higher death rate was observed with Tg2576 mice in the kindling group. Both sham and kindled Tg2576 animals had increased levels of sprouting in the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus compared with the WT counterparts. These findings support the "two-hit" hypothesis and represent a potentially novel research model to help better understand the relationship between AD pathology and epilepsy.

  9. User's guide to Model Viewer, a program for three-dimensional visualization of ground-water model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul A.; Winston, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    Model Viewer is a computer program that displays the results of three-dimensional groundwater models. Scalar data (such as hydraulic head or solute concentration) may be displayed as a solid or a set of isosurfaces, using a red-to-blue color spectrum to represent a range of scalar values. Vector data (such as velocity or specific discharge) are represented by lines oriented to the vector direction and scaled to the vector magnitude. Model Viewer can also display pathlines, cells or nodes that represent model features such as streams and wells, and auxiliary graphic objects such as grid lines and coordinate axes. Users may crop the model grid in different orientations to examine the interior structure of the data. For transient simulations, Model Viewer can animate the time evolution of the simulated quantities. The current version (1.0) of Model Viewer runs on Microsoft Windows 95, 98, NT and 2000 operating systems, and supports the following models: MODFLOW-2000, MODFLOW-2000 with the Ground-Water Transport Process, MODFLOW-96, MOC3D (Version 3.5), MODPATH, MT3DMS, and SUTRA (Version 2D3D.1). Model Viewer is designed to directly read input and output files from these models, thus minimizing the need for additional postprocessing. This report provides an overview of Model Viewer. Complete instructions on how to use the software are provided in the on-line help pages.

  10. A deterministic model for deteriorating items with displayed inventory level dependent demand rate incorporating marketing decisions with transportation cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bhunia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an inventory model, which considers the impact of marketing strategies such as pricing and advertising as well as the displayed inventory level on the demand rate of the system. In addition, the demand rate during the stock-out period differs from that during the stock-in period by a function varied on the waiting time up to the beginning of the next cycle. Shortage are allowed and partially backlogged. Here, the deterioration rate is assumed to follow the Weibull distribution. Considering all these factors with others, different scenarios of the system are investigated. To obtain the solutions of these cases and to illustrate the model, an example is considered. Finally, to study the effects of changes of different parameters of the system, sensitivity analyses have been carried out with respect to the different parameters of the system.

  11. Quality Model of Foodstuff in the Control of Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus

    2006-01-01

    as what is the optimal defrost scheme from food quality point of view are answered. This will serve as a prerequisite of designing of optimal control scheme for the commercial refrigeration system, aiming at optimizing a weighed cost function of both food quality and overall energy consumption of system....... happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor? This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as how the defrost temperature and duration influence the food temperature, thus the food quality, as well...

  12. Green tea polyphenol tailors cell adhesivity of RGD displaying surfaces: multicomponent models monitored optically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beatrix; Farkas, Eniko; Forgacs, Eniko; Saftics, Andras; Kovacs, Boglarka; Kurunczi, Sandor; Szekacs, Inna; Csampai, Antal; Bosze, Szilvia; Horvath, Robert

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of the anti-adhesive coating, poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) and its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) functionalized form, PLL-g-PEG-RGD, with the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) was in situ monitored. After, the kinetics of cellular adhesion on the EGCg exposed coatings were recorded in real-time. The employed plate-based waveguide biosensor is applicable to monitor small molecule binding and sensitive to sub-nanometer scale changes in cell membrane position and cell mass distribution; while detecting the signals of thousands of adhering cells. The combination of this remarkable sensitivity and throughput opens up new avenues in testing complicated models of cell-surface interactions. The systematic studies revealed that, despite the reported excellent antifouling properties of the coatings, EGCg strongly interacted with them, and affected their cell adhesivity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the differences between the effects of the fresh and oxidized EGCg solutions were first demonstrated. Using a semiempirical quantumchemical method we showed that EGCg binds to the PEG chains of PLL-g-PEG-RGD and effectively blocks the RGD sites by hydrogen bonds. The calculations supported the experimental finding that the binding is stronger for the oxidative products. Our work lead to a new model of polyphenol action on cell adhesion ligand accessibility and matrix rigidity.

  13. Green tea polyphenol tailors cell adhesivity of RGD displaying surfaces: multicomponent models monitored optically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beatrix; Farkas, Eniko; Forgacs, Eniko; Saftics, Andras; Kovacs, Boglarka; Kurunczi, Sandor; Szekacs, Inna; Csampai, Antal; Bosze, Szilvia; Horvath, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of the anti-adhesive coating, poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) and its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) functionalized form, PLL-g-PEG-RGD, with the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) was in situ monitored. After, the kinetics of cellular adhesion on the EGCg exposed coatings were recorded in real-time. The employed plate-based waveguide biosensor is applicable to monitor small molecule binding and sensitive to sub-nanometer scale changes in cell membrane position and cell mass distribution; while detecting the signals of thousands of adhering cells. The combination of this remarkable sensitivity and throughput opens up new avenues in testing complicated models of cell-surface interactions. The systematic studies revealed that, despite the reported excellent antifouling properties of the coatings, EGCg strongly interacted with them, and affected their cell adhesivity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the differences between the effects of the fresh and oxidized EGCg solutions were first demonstrated. Using a semiempirical quantumchemical method we showed that EGCg binds to the PEG chains of PLL-g-PEG-RGD and effectively blocks the RGD sites by hydrogen bonds. The calculations supported the experimental finding that the binding is stronger for the oxidative products. Our work lead to a new model of polyphenol action on cell adhesion ligand accessibility and matrix rigidity. PMID:28186133

  14. A multi-marker model for detecting chromosomal segments displaying QTL activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolphe, F.; Lefort, M. (INRA Centre de Recherches de Jouy en Josas (France))

    1993-08-01

    A statistical method is presented for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTLs), based on the linear model. Unlike methods able to detect a few well separated QTLs and to estimate their effects and positions, this method considers the genome as a whole and enables the detection of chromosomal segments involved in the differences between two homozygous lines, and their backcross, doubled haploid, or F[sub 2] progenies, for a quantitative trait. Genetic markers must be codominant, but missing markers are accepted, provided they are missing independently from the experiment. Asymptotic properties, which are of practical use, are developed. This method does not rely on strong genetic hypotheses, and thus does not permit any precise genetic analysis of the trait under study, but it does assess which regions of the genome are involved, whatever the complexity of the genetic determinism (number, effects and interactions among QTLs). Simultaneous use of several methods, including this one, should lead to better efficiency in QTL detection.

  15. 76 FR 17582 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Model BD-700-1A10 and BD-700-1A11 Airplanes, Head-Up Display (HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...-1A11 Airplanes, Head-Up Display (HUD) With Video Synthetic Vision System (SVS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) T00003NY, those aircraft models are known under the marketing designation of...

  16. 76 FR 17062 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Model BD-700-1A10 and BD-700-1A11 Airplanes, Head-Up Display (HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ...-1A11 Airplanes, Head-Up Display (HUD) With Video Synthetic Vision System (SVS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) T00003NY, those aircraft models are known under the marketing designation of...

  17. 76 FR 31223 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Model BD-700-1A10 and BD-700-1A11 Airplanes, Head-up Display (HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ...-1A11 Airplanes, Head-up Display (HUD) With Video Synthetic Vision System (SVS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... Per Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) T00003NY, those aircraft models are known under the marketing...

  18. Modeling clicks beyond the first result page

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most modern web search engines yield a list of documents of a fixed length (usually 10) in response to a user query. The next ten search results are usually available in one click. These documents either replace the current result page or are appended to the end. Hence, in order to examine more

  19. Modeling clicks beyond the first result page

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most modern web search engines yield a list of documents of a fixed length (usually 10) in response to a user query. The next ten search results are usually available in one click. These documents either replace the current result page or are appended to the end. Hence, in order to examine more docu

  20. Role of neuroinflammation in the emotional and cognitive alterations displayed by animal models of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eCastanon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of mood disorders and cognitive dysfunctions in addition to being a significant risk factor for important health complications such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Identifying the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these health issues is a major public health challenge. Based on recent findings, from studies conducted on animal models of obesity, it has been proposed that inflammatory processes may participate in both the peripheral and brain disorders associated with the obesity condition including the development of emotional and cognitive alterations. This is supported by the fact that obesity is characterized by peripheral low-grade inflammation, originating from increased adipose tissue mass and/or dysbiosis (changes in gut microbiota environment, both of which contribute to increased susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases. In this review, we provide converging evidence showing that obesity is associated with exacerbated neuroinflammation leading to dysfunction in vulnerable brain regions associated with mood regulation, learning and memory such as the hippocampus. These findings give new insights to the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of brain disorders in the context of obesity and provide valuable data for introducing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neuropsychiatric complications often reported in obese patients.

  1. Engineering model development and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, John A.

    1993-08-01

    The correctability of the primary mirror spherical error in the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC) is sensitive to the precise alignment of the incoming aberrated beam onto the corrective elements. Articulating fold mirrors that provide +/- 1 milliradian of tilt in 2 axes are required to allow for alignment corrections in orbit as part of the fix for the Hubble space telescope. An engineering study was made by Itek Optical Systems and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to investigate replacement of fixed fold mirrors within the existing WF/PC optical bench with articulating mirrors. The study contract developed the base line requirements, established the suitability of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) actuators and evaluated several tilt mechanism concepts. Two engineering model articulating mirrors were produced to demonstrate the function of the tilt mechanism to provide +/- 1 milliradian of tilt, packaging within the space constraints and manufacturing techniques including the machining of the invar tilt mechanism and lightweight glass mirrors. The success of the engineering models led to the follow on design and fabrication of 3 flight mirrors that have been incorporated into the WF/PC to be placed into the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the servicing mission scheduled for late 1993.

  2. Microplasticity of MMC. Experimental results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, E. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Lormand, G. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Gobin, P.F. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Fougeres, R. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France))

    1993-11-01

    The microplastic behavior of several MMC is investigated by means of tension and compression tests. This behavior is assymetric : the proportional limit is higher in tension than in compression but the work hardening rate is higher in compression. These differences are analysed in terms of maxium of the Tresca's shear stress at the interface (proportional limit) and of the emission of dislocation loops during the cooling (work hardening rate). On another hand, a model is proposed to calculate the value of the yield stress, describing the composite as a material composed of three phases : inclusion, unaffected matrix and matrix surrounding the inclusion having a gradient in the density of the thermally induced dilocations. (orig.).

  3. A Novel Thin Client Architecture with Hybrid Push-Pull Model, Adaptive Display Pre-Fetching and Graph Colouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalatha.M.R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of cloud computing has driven away the notion of having sophisticated hardware devices for performing computing intensive tasks. This feature is very essential for resource-constrained devices. In mobile cloud computing, it is sufficient that the device be a thin client i.e. which concentrates solely on providing a graphical user interface to the end-user and the processing is done in the cloud. We focus on adaptive display virtualization where the display updates are computed in advance using synchronization techniques and classifying the job as computationally intensive or not based on the complexity of the program and the interaction pattern. Based on application, the next possible key-press is identified and those particular frames are pre-fetched into the local buffer. Based on these two factors, a decision is then made whether to execute the job locally or in the cloud or whether we must take the next frame from the local buffer or pull it from server. Jobs requiring greater interaction are executed locally in the mobile to reduce interaction delay. If a job is to be executed in the cloud, then the results of the processing alone are sent via the network to the device. The parameters are varied in runtime based on network conditions and application parameters to minimise the interaction delay.

  4. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul kalam; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform display architecture to display multiple language digits and general mathematical expressions with higher accuracy and simplicity by using a 18-segment display, which is an improvement over the 16 segment display.

  5. Latest development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  6. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval, CMMR 2009, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in May 2009. The 25 revised full papers presented were specially reviewed and corrected for this proceedings...

  7. Virtual Auditory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    timbre , intensity, distance, room modeling, radio communication Virtual Environments Handbook Chapter 4 Virtual Auditory Displays Russell D... musical note “A” as a pure sinusoid, there will be 440 condensations and rarefactions per second. The distance between two adjacent condensations or...and complexity are pitch, loudness, and timbre respectively. This distinction between physical and perceptual measures of sound properties is an

  8. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E; Norcia, Anthony M

    2013-10-23

    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function ("gamma correction"). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications.

  9. RESULTS OF INTERBANK EXCHANGE RATES FORECASTING USING STATE SPACE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of three alternative models for forecasting daily interbank exchange rate of U.S. dollar measured in Pak rupees. The simple ARIMA models and complex models such as GARCH-type models and a state space model are discussed and compared. Four different measures are used to evaluate the forecasting accuracy. The main result is the state space model provides the best performance among all the models.

  10. White constancy method for mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Ji Young; Park, Hyun Hee; Jang, Seul Ki; Lee, Jae Hyang; Kim, Jong Ho; Yi, Ji Young; Lee, Min Woo

    2014-03-01

    In these days, consumer's needs for image quality of mobile devices are increasing as smartphone is widely used. For example, colors may be perceived differently when displayed contents under different illuminants. Displayed white in incandescent lamp is perceived as bluish, while same content in LED light is perceived as yellowish. When changed in perceived white under illuminant environment, image quality would be degraded. Objective of the proposed white constancy method is restricted to maintain consistent output colors regardless of the illuminants utilized. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers'perceptual constancy. Participants are asked to choose the displayed white in a variety of illuminants. Relationship between the illuminants and the selected colors with white are modeled by mapping function based on the results of human visual experiments. White constancy values for image control are determined on the predesigned functions. Experimental results indicate that propsed method yields better image quality by keeping the display white.

  11. Type 1 cannabinoid receptor ligands display functional selectivity in a cell culture model of striatal medium spiny projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprairie, Robert B; Bagher, Amina M; Kelly, Melanie E M; Dupré, Denis J; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M

    2014-09-05

    Modulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) activity has been touted as a potential means of treating addiction, anxiety, depression, and neurodegeneration. Different agonists of CB1 are known to evoke varied responses in vivo. Functional selectivity is the ligand-specific activation of certain signal transduction pathways at a receptor that can signal through multiple pathways. To understand cannabinoid-specific functional selectivity, different groups have examined the effect of individual cannabinoids on various signaling pathways in heterologous expression systems. In the current study, we compared the functional selectivity of six cannabinoids, including two endocannabinoids (2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA)), two synthetic cannabinoids (WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940), and two phytocannabinoids (cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) on arrestin2-, Gα(i/o)-, Gβγ-, Gα(s)-, and Gα(q)-mediated intracellular signaling in the mouse STHdh(Q7/Q7) cell culture model of striatal medium spiny projection neurons that endogenously express CB1. In this system, 2-AG, THC, and CP55,940 were more potent mediators of arrestin2 recruitment than other cannabinoids tested. 2-AG, AEA, and WIN55,212-2, enhanced Gα(i/o) and Gβγ signaling, with 2-AG and AEA treatment leading to increased total CB1 levels. 2-AG, AEA, THC, and WIN55,212-2 also activated Gα(q)-dependent pathways. CP55,940 and CBD both signaled through Gα(s). CP55,940, but not CBD, activated downstream Gα(s) pathways via CB1 targets. THC and CP55,940 promoted CB1 internalization and decreased CB1 protein levels over an 18-h period. These data demonstrate that individual cannabinoids display functional selectivity at CB1 leading to activation of distinct signaling pathways. To effectively match cannabinoids with therapeutic goals, these compounds must be screened for their signaling bias.

  12. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field/R and D high performance flat panel display technology (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / koseino flat panel display gijutsu no sogo kaihatsu kenkyu (daiichi nendo ) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    One of the subjects in technology supporting the highly information-oriented society which will develop and diversify toward the 21st century is the construction of high grade man/machine interface. For it, high precision/high luminance/energy saving/thin plane displays are strongly requested. This R and D is to indicate models of systematical development in the region of element technology individually existing in the Shikoku area by forming a regional consortium in the industry/universities/government. Creation of new industries by gathering display related enterprises is a first step in a plan to realize `Display Island Shikoku.` As a concrete target, with the use of high-tech diamond semiconducting technology, a development is conducted of the high performance flat panel display using the negative electron affinity (NEA) electron emitter which drastically solves the problems such as luminance, visibility angle and response speed, the subjects on the commercialized liquid crystal flat panel display. 16 refs., 45 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Mapping of epitopes for autoantibodies to the Type 1 diabetes autoantigen IA-2 by peptide phage display and molecular modelling: Overlap of antibody and T-cell determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Dromey, James; Weenink, Sarah M.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2004-01-01

    phage display and homology modeling to characterize the epitope of a monoclonal IA-2 Ab (96/3) from a human type 1 diabetic patient. This Ab competes for IA-2 binding with Abs from the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes and therefore binds a region close to common autoantibody epitopes. Alignment...

  14. Computational Modeling to Limit the Impact Displays and Indicator Lights Have on Habitable Volume Operational Lighting Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. A.; Salazar, G. A.; Brainard, G. C.; Litaker, H. L.; Hanifin, J.; Schwing, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Even with no ambient lighting system "on", the International Space Station glows at night. The glow is caused by indicator lamps and displays that are not included with the specification of the ambient lighting system. How does this impact efforts to improve the astronaut's lighting environment to promote more effective sleep patterns? Do the extra indicators and displays add enough light to change the spectrum of light the crew sees during the day as well? If spacecraft environments are specifically engineered to have an ambient lighting system that emits a spectrum promoting a healthy circadian response, is there a way control the impact? The goal of this project is to investigate how additional light sources, such as displays and indicators change the effective light spectrum of the architectural lighting system and how impacts can be mitigated.

  15. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  16. A display model for the TOU of PLATO: just a cool toy or a benchmark of opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Greggio, D.; Bergomi, M.; Biondi, F.; Farinato, J.; Farisato, G.; Magrin, D.; Lessio, L.; Marafatto, L.; Munari, M.; Pagano, I.; Ragazzoni, R.; Viotto, V.; Piazza, D.

    2016-07-01

    We produced a "toy-model" of one Telescope Optical Unit of PLATO, the Medium sized mission selected by ESA to fly in 2024. This is a six lenses dioptric very wide field camera with a window in front to take care of radiation impact on the first lens whose optical glass cannot be replaced with a radiation hardened one. The main aim of this project is just to produce a "cool" model for display purposes, in which one can "explore" the details of the inside through some openings in the tube, in order to visually inspect some of the fine details of the opto-mechanics. While its didactic and advertising role is out of doubt, during its construction we realized that some interesting outcome can be of some relevance for the project itself and that some findings could be useful, in order to assess the ability of producing with the same technology some (of course of much more modest quality) optical systems. In this context, we immediately dropped the option of producing the lenses with opaque material painted with a color resembling a refractive material (like blue for instance) and decided to actually produce them with transparent plastic. Furthermore the surfaces are then finely polished in order to give them basic optical properties. Such an optical system has only very coarsely the converging properties of the original nominal design for a number of reasons: the refractive indexes are not the nominal ones, the quality of the surfaces and their nominal values are only roughly, within a few percent, the targeted one, and the way the surfaces are built up makes them prone to some diffraction effects. However, the bulk of the lens and the surface roughness will give a large magnification of the scattering effects that will be experienced, at a much lower level, on the actual flight model. We investigated through propagation of a laser beam and by digital camera the main stray light modes that this toymodel offers. In other words, the model amplifies, to a large extent, the

  17. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  18. Updated Users' Guide for RSAP -- A Code for Display and Manipulation of Neutron Cross Section Data and SAMMY Fit Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayer, R.O.

    2003-07-29

    RSAP [1] is a computer code for display and manipulation of neutron cross section data and selected SAMMY output. SAMMY [2] is a multilevel R-matrix code for fitting neutron time-of-flight cross-section data using Bayes' method. This users' guide provides documentation for the recently updated RSAP code (version 6). The code has been ported to the Linux platform, and several new features have been added, including the capability to read cross section data from ASCII pointwise ENDF files as well as double-precision PLT output from SAMMY. A number of bugs have been found and corrected, and the input formats have been improved. Input items are parsed so that items may be separated by spaces or commas.

  19. A new mouse model of mild ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (spf-j displays cerebral amino acid perturbations at baseline and upon systemic immune activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana N Tarasenko

    Full Text Available Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD, OMIM# 311250 is an inherited X-linked urea cycle disorder that is characterized by hyperammonemia and orotic aciduria. In this report, we describe a new animal model of OTCD caused by a spontaneous mutation in the mouse Otc gene (c.240T>A, p.K80N. This transversion in exon 3 of ornithine transcarbamylase leads to normal levels of mRNA with low levels of mature protein and is homologous to a mutation that has also been described in a single patient affected with late-onset OTCD. With higher residual enzyme activity, spf-J were found to have normal plasma ammonia and orotate. Baseline plasma amino acid profiles were consistent with mild OTCD: elevated glutamine, and lower citrulline and arginine. In contrast to WT, spf-J displayed baseline elevations in cerebral amino acids with depletion following immune challenge with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Our results indicate that the mild spf-J mutation constitutes a new mouse model that is suitable for mechanistic studies of mild OTCD and the exploration of cerebral pathophysiology during acute decompensation that characterizes proximal urea cycle dysfunction in humans.

  20. A new mouse model of mild ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (spf-j) displays cerebral amino acid perturbations at baseline and upon systemic immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Tatyana N; Rosas, Odrick R; Singh, Larry N; Kristaponis, Kara; Vernon, Hilary; McGuire, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD, OMIM# 311250) is an inherited X-linked urea cycle disorder that is characterized by hyperammonemia and orotic aciduria. In this report, we describe a new animal model of OTCD caused by a spontaneous mutation in the mouse Otc gene (c.240T>A, p.K80N). This transversion in exon 3 of ornithine transcarbamylase leads to normal levels of mRNA with low levels of mature protein and is homologous to a mutation that has also been described in a single patient affected with late-onset OTCD. With higher residual enzyme activity, spf-J were found to have normal plasma ammonia and orotate. Baseline plasma amino acid profiles were consistent with mild OTCD: elevated glutamine, and lower citrulline and arginine. In contrast to WT, spf-J displayed baseline elevations in cerebral amino acids with depletion following immune challenge with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Our results indicate that the mild spf-J mutation constitutes a new mouse model that is suitable for mechanistic studies of mild OTCD and the exploration of cerebral pathophysiology during acute decompensation that characterizes proximal urea cycle dysfunction in humans.

  1. Investigating pointing tasks across angularly coupled display areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennecke, Fabian; De Luca, Alexander; Nguyen, Ngo Dieu Huong;

    2013-01-01

    Pointing tasks are a crucial part of today’s graphical user interfaces. They are well understood for flat displays and most prominently are modeled through Fitts’ Law. For novel displays (e.g., curved displays with multi-purpose areas), however, it remains unclear whether such models for predicting...... that the target position affects overall pointing speed and offset in both conditions. However, we also found that Fitts’ Law can in fact still be used to predict performance as on flat displays. Our results help designers to optimize user interfaces on angularly coupled displays when pointing tasks are involved....... user performance still hold – in particular when pointing is performed across differently oriented areas. To answer this question, we conducted an experiment on an angularly coupled display – the Curve – with two input conditions: direct touch and indirect mouse pointer. Our findings show...

  2. Some results regarding the comparison of the Earth's atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šegan S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine air densities derived from our realization of aeronomic atmosphere models based on accelerometer measurements from satellites in a low Earth's orbit (LEO. Using the adapted algorithms we derive comparison parameters. The first results concerning the adjustment of the aeronomic models to the total-density model are given.

  3. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  4. Computational Modeling to Limit the Impact Displays and Indicator Lights Have on Habitable Volume Operational Lighting Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. A.; Salazar, G. A.; Brainard, G. C.; Kolomenski, A.; Hanifin, J.; Schwin, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has demonstrated an interest in improving astronaut health and performance through the installment of a new lighting countermeasure on the International Space Station. The Solid State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) system is designed to positively influence astronaut health by providing a daily change to light spectrum to improve circadian entrainment. Unfortunately, existing NASA standards and requirements define ambient light level requirements for crew sleep and other tasks, yet the number of light-emitting diode (LED) indicators and displays within a habitable volume is currently uncontrolled. Because each of these light sources has its own unique spectral properties, the additive lighting environment ends up becoming something different from what was planned or researched. Restricting the use of displays and indicators is not a solution because these systems provide beneficial crew feedback.

  5. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadimpalli Ravi S. Varma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71 on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1 gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle.

  6. The Effect of Bathymetric Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results 6. AUTHOR(S) Nathaniel Plant, Kacey L. Edwards, James M. Kaihatu, Jayaram Veeramony, Yuan-Huang L. Hsu...filtering on nearshore process model results Nathaniel G. Plant **, Kacey L Edwardsb, James M. Kaihatuc, Jayaram Veeramony b, Larry Hsu’’, K. Todd Holland...assimilation efforts that require this information. Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Nearshore process models are capable of predicting

  7. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays - Deprecated

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is up-to-date but newer better data can be retrieved at: https://data.energystar.gov/dataset/ENERGY-STAR-Certified-Displays/xsyb-v8gs Certified models...

  9. The chemical exposure toxicity space (CETS) model: Displaying exposure time, aqueous and organic concentration, activity, and onset of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Donald; Parnis, J. Mark; McCarty, Lynn S.; Arnot, Jon A.; Powell, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 1‐compartment toxicokinetic model is used to characterize the chemical exposure toxicity space (CETS), providing a novel graphic tool that can aid in the design of aquatic toxicity tests for fish and for interpreting their results. The graph depicts the solution to the differential equation describing the uptake kinetics of a chemical by a modeled fish under conventional bioassay conditions. The model relates the exposure concentration in the water to a dimensionless time and the onset of toxicity as determined by an estimated or assumed critical body residue or incipient lethal aqueous concentration. These concentration graphs are specific to each chemical and exposure and organism parameters and clearly demonstrate differences in toxicity between chemicals and how factors such as hydrophobicity influence the toxic endpoint. The CETS plots can also be used to assess bioconcentration test conditions to ensure that concentrations are well below toxic levels. Illustrative applications are presented using a recent set of high‐quality toxicity data. Conversion of concentrations to chemical activities in the plots enables results for different baseline toxicants to be superimposed. For chemicals that have different modes of toxic action, the increased toxicity then becomes apparent. Implications for design and interpretation of aquatic toxicity tests are discussed. The model, and pictorial visualization of the time‐course of aquatic toxicity tests, may contribute to improvements in test design, implementation, and interpretation, and to reduced animal usage. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1389–1396. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:27801500

  10. Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.

    1999-03-01

    A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

  11. Results from a new Cocks-Ashby style porosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    A new porosity evolution model is described, along with preliminary results. The formulation makes use of a Cocks-Ashby style treatment of porosity kinetics that includes rate dependent flow in the mechanics of porosity growth. The porosity model is implemented in a framework that allows for a variety of strength models to be used for the matrix material, including ones with significant changes in rate sensitivity as a function of strain rate. Results of the effect of changing strain rate sensitivity on porosity evolution are shown. The overall constitutive model update involves the coupled solution of a system of nonlinear equations.

  12. Large-scale autostereoscopic outdoor display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Schmid, Gerhard; Gartner, Wolfgang; Leeb, Walter; Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    State-of-the-art autostereoscopic displays are often limited in size, effective brightness, number of 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances, all of which are mandatory requirements for large-scale outdoor displays. Conventional autostereoscopic indoor concepts like lenticular lenses or parallax barriers cannot simply be adapted for these screens due to the inherent loss of effective resolution and brightness, which would reduce both image quality and sunlight readability. We have developed a modular autostereoscopic multi-view laser display concept with sunlight readable effective brightness, theoretically up to several thousand 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances of up to 60 meters. For proof-of-concept purposes a prototype display with two pixels was realized. Due to various manufacturing tolerances each individual pixel has slightly different optical properties, and hence the 3D image quality of the display has to be calculated stochastically. In this paper we present the corresponding stochastic model, we evaluate the simulation and measurement results of the prototype display, and we calculate the achievable autostereoscopic image quality to be expected for our concept.

  13. Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pattyn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models that are able to robustly simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison exercise for marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no effects of lateral buttressing. Unique steady state grounding line positions exist for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed, while hysteresis occurs across an overdeepened bed, and stable steady state grounding line positions only occur on the downward-sloping sections. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which does not resolve extensional stresses, do not reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line. For extensional-stress resolving "shelfy stream" models, differences between model results were mainly due to the choice of spatial discretization. Moving grid methods were found to be the most accurate at capturing grounding line evolution, since they track the grounding line explicitly. Adaptive mesh refinement can further improve accuracy, including fixed grid models that generally perform poorly at coarse resolution. Fixed grid models, with nested grid representations of the grounding line, are able to generate accurate steady state positions, but can be inaccurate over transients. Only one full-Stokes model was included in the intercomparison, and consequently the accuracy of shelfy stream models as approximations of full-Stokes models remains to be determined in detail, especially during transients.

  14. Updated Results for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Robert E.; Lai, David Y.; Delisi, Donald P.; Mellman, George R.

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an Inverse Model for inverting aircraft wake vortex data. The objective of the inverse modeling is to obtain estimates of the vortex circulation decay and crosswind vertical profiles, using time history measurements of the lateral and vertical position of aircraft vortices. The Inverse Model performs iterative forward model runs using estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Outputs from an Inverse Model run are the best estimates of the time history of the vortex circulation derived from the observed data, the vertical crosswind profile, and several vortex parameters. The forward model, named SHRAPA, used in this inverse modeling is a modified version of the Shear-APA model, and it is described in Section 2 of this document. Details of the Inverse Model are presented in Section 3. The Inverse Model was applied to lidar-observed vortex data at three airports: FAA acquired data from San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and Denver International Airport (DEN), and NASA acquired data from Memphis International Airport (MEM). The results are compared with observed data. This Inverse Model validation is documented in Section 4. A summary is given in Section 5. A user's guide for the inverse wake vortex model is presented in a separate NorthWest Research Associates technical report (Lai and Delisi, 2007a).

  15. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  16. Gestures to Intuitively Control Large Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Vet, van der P.E.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.; Sales Dias, M.; Gibet, S.; Wanderley, M.W.; Bastos, R.

    2009-01-01

    Large displays are highly suited to support discussions in empirical science. Such displays can display project results on a large digital surface to feed the discussion. This paper describes our approach to closely involve multidisciplinary omics scientists in the design of an intuitive display con

  17. Generalised Chou-Yang model and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-e-Aleem [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Rashid, H. [Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Centre for High Energy Physics

    1996-12-31

    It is shown that most recent results of E710 and UA4/2 collaboration for the total cross section and {rho} together with earlier measurements give good agreement with measurements for the differential cross section at 546 and 1800 GeV within the framework of Generalised Chou-Yang model. These results are also compared with the predictions of other models. (author) 16 refs.

  18. Life cycle Prognostic Model Development and Initial Application Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, Brien; Hines, Wesley; Nam, Alan; Sharp, Michael; Upadhyaya, Belle [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2014-08-15

    In order to obtain more accurate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) estimates based on empirical modeling, a Lifecycle Prognostics algorithm was developed that integrates various prognostic models. These models can be categorized into three types based on the type of data they process. The application of multiple models takes advantage of the most useful information available as the system or component operates through its lifecycle. The Lifecycle Prognostics is applied to an impeller test bed, and the initial results serve as a proof of concept.

  19. Preliminary Results of the first European Source Apportionment intercomparison for Receptor and Chemical Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belis, Claudio A.; Pernigotti, Denise; Pirovano, Guido

    2017-04-01

    little detail about the chemical components of this source used in the models. The sensitivity tests show that chemical transport models show better performances when displaying a detailed set of sources (14) than when using a simplified one (only 8). It was also observed that an enhanced vertical profiling can improve the estimation of specific sources, such as industry, under complex meteorological conditions and that an insufficient spatial resolution in urban areas can impact on the capabilities of models to estimate the contribution of diffuse primary sources (e.g. traffic). Both families of models identify traffic and biomass burning as the first and second most contributing categories, respectively, to elemental carbon. The results of this study demonstrate that the source apportionment assessment methodology developed by the JRC is applicable to any kind of SA model. The same methodology is implemented in the on-line DeltaSA tool to support source apportionment model evaluation (http://source-apportionment.jrc.ec.europa.eu/).

  20. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  1. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario...... of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological obser-vations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observa-tional data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced....... However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties...

  2. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely...... uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble......’ dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent...

  3. Mathematical Existence Results for the Doi-Edwards Polymer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupin, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present some mathematical results on the Doi-Edwards model describing the dynamics of flexible polymers in melts and concentrated solutions. This model, developed in the late 1970s, has been used and extensively tested in modeling and simulation of polymer flows. From a mathematical point of view, the Doi-Edwards model consists in a strong coupling between the Navier-Stokes equations and a highly nonlinear constitutive law. The aim of this article is to provide a rigorous proof of the well-posedness of the Doi-Edwards model, namely that it has a unique regular solution. We also prove, which is generally much more difficult for flows of viscoelastic type, that the solution is global in time in the two dimensional case, without any restriction on the smallness of the data.

  4. Modeling Results for the ITER Cryogenic Fore Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongsheng

    The work presented here is the analysis and modeling of the ITER-Cryogenic Fore Pump (CFP), also called Cryogenic Viscous Compressor (CVC). Unlike common cryopumps that are usually used to create and maintain vacuum, the cryogenic fore pump is designed for ITER to collect and compress hydrogen isotopes during the regeneration process of the torus cryopumps. Different from common cryopumps, the ITER-CFP works in the viscous flow regime. As a result, both adsorption boundary conditions and transport phenomena contribute unique features to the pump performance. In this report, the physical mechanisms of cryopumping are studied, especially the diffusion-adsorption process and these are coupled with the standard equations of species, momentum and energy balance, as well as the equation of state. Numerical models are developed, which include highly coupled non-linear conservation equations of species, momentum, and energy and equation of state. Thermal and kinetic properties are treated as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas fluid mixture. To solve such a set of equations, a novel numerical technique, identified as the Group-Member numerical technique is proposed. This document presents three numerical models: a transient model, a steady state model, and a hemisphere (or molecular flow) model. The first two models are developed based on analysis of the raw experimental data while the third model is developed as a preliminary study. The modeling results are compared with available experiment data for verification. The models can be used for cryopump design, and can also benefit problems, such as loss of vacuum in a cryomodule or cryogenic desublimation. The scientific and engineering investigation being done here builds connections between Mechanical Engineering and other disciplines, such as Chemical Engineering, Physics, and Chemistry.

  5. Comparison of NASCAP modelling results with lumped circuit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, D. B.; Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    Engineering design tools that can be used to predict the development of absolute and differential potentials by realistic spacecraft under geomagnetic substorm conditions are described. Two types of analyses are in use: (1) the NASCAP code, which computes quasistatic charging of geometrically complex objects with multiple surface materials in three dimensions; (2) lumped element equivalent circuit models that are used for analyses of particular spacecraft. The equivalent circuit models require very little computation time, however, they cannot account for effects, such as the formation of potential barriers, that are inherently multidimensional. Steady state potentials of structure and insulation are compared with those resulting from the equivalent circuit model.

  6. The East model: recent results and new progresses

    CERN Document Server

    Faggionato, Alessandra; Roberto, Cyril; Toninelli, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The East model is a particular one dimensional interacting particle system in which certain transitions are forbidden according to some constraints depending on the configuration of the system. As such it has received particular attention in the physics literature as a special case of a more general class of systems referred to as kinetically constrained models, which play a key role in explaining some features of the dynamics of glasses. In this paper we give an extensive overview of recent rigorous results concerning the equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of the East model together with some new improvements.

  7. Constraining hybrid inflation models with WMAP three-year results

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, A

    2006-01-01

    We reconsider the original model of quadratic hybrid inflation in light of the WMAP three-year results and study the possibility of obtaining a spectral index of primordial density perturbations, $n_s$, smaller than one from this model. The original hybrid inflation model naturally predicts $n_s\\geq1$ in the false vacuum dominated regime but it is also possible to have $n_s<1$ when the quadratic term dominates. We therefore investigate whether there is also an intermediate regime compatible with the latest constraints, where the scalar field value during the last 50 e-folds of inflation is less than the Planck scale.

  8. Recent MEG Results and Predictive SO(10) Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuyama, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Recent MEG results of a search for the lepton flavor violating (LFV) muon decay, $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$, show 3 events as the best value for the number of signals in the maximally likelihood fit. Although this result is still far from the evidence/discovery in statistical point of view, it might be a sign of a certain new physics beyond the Standard Model. As has been well-known, supersymmetric (SUSY) models can generate the $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ decay rate within the search reach of the MEG experiment. A certain class of SUSY grand unified theory (GUT) models such as the minimal SUSY SO(10) model (we call this class of models "predictive SO(10) models") can unambiguously determine fermion Yukawa coupling matrices, in particular, the neutrino Dirac Yukawa matrix. Based on the universal boundary conditions for soft SUSY breaking parameters at the GUT scale, we calculate the rate of the $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ process by using the completely determined Dirac Yukawa matrix in two examples of predictive SO(10) models. If we ...

  9. Summary of FY15 results of benchmark modeling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguello, J. Guadalupe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia is participating in the third phase of an is a contributing partner to a U.S.-German "Joint Project" entitled "Comparison of current constitutive models and simulation procedures on the basis of model calculations of the thermo-mechanical behavior and healing of rock salt." The first goal of the project is to check the ability of numerical modeling tools to correctly describe the relevant deformation phenomena in rock salt under various influences. Achieving this goal will lead to increased confidence in the results of numerical simulations related to the secure storage of radioactive wastes in rock salt, thereby enhancing the acceptance of the results. These results may ultimately be used to make various assertions regarding both the stability analysis of an underground repository in salt, during the operating phase, and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier against the release of harmful substances into the biosphere, in the post-operating phase.

  10. Standard Model physics results from ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dordevic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The most recent results of Standard Model physics studies in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV center-of-mass energy based on data recorded by ATLAS and CMS detectors during the LHC Run I are reviewed. This overview includes studies of vector boson production cross section and properties, results on V+jets production with light and heavy flavours, latest VBS and VBF results, measurement of diboson production with an emphasis on ATGC and QTGC searches, as well as results on inclusive jet cross sections with strong coupling constant measurement and PDF constraints. The outlined results are compared to the prediction of the Standard Model.

  11. Groundwater Visualisation System (GVS): A software framework for integrated display and interrogation of conceptual hydrogeological models, data and time-series animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Malcolm E.; James, Allan; Hawke, Amy; Raiber, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Management of groundwater systems requires realistic conceptual hydrogeological models as a framework for numerical simulation modelling, but also for system understanding and communicating this to stakeholders and the broader community. To help overcome these challenges we developed GVS (Groundwater Visualisation System), a stand-alone desktop software package that uses interactive 3D visualisation and animation techniques. The goal was a user-friendly groundwater management tool that could support a range of existing real-world and pre-processed data, both surface and subsurface, including geology and various types of temporal hydrological information. GVS allows these data to be integrated into a single conceptual hydrogeological model. In addition, 3D geological models produced externally using other software packages, can readily be imported into GVS models, as can outputs of simulations (e.g. piezometric surfaces) produced by software such as MODFLOW or FEFLOW. Boreholes can be integrated, showing any down-hole data and properties, including screen information, intersected geology, water level data and water chemistry. Animation is used to display spatial and temporal changes, with time-series data such as rainfall, standing water levels and electrical conductivity, displaying dynamic processes. Time and space variations can be presented using a range of contouring and colour mapping techniques, in addition to interactive plots of time-series parameters. Other types of data, for example, demographics and cultural information, can also be readily incorporated. The GVS software can execute on a standard Windows or Linux-based PC with a minimum of 2 GB RAM, and the model output is easy and inexpensive to distribute, by download or via USB/DVD/CD. Example models are described here for three groundwater systems in Queensland, northeastern Australia: two unconfined alluvial groundwater systems with intensive irrigation, the Lockyer Valley and the upper Condamine

  12. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  13. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  14. Latent class factor and cluster models, bi-plots and tri-plots and related graphical displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magidson, J.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose an alternative method of conducting exploratory latent class analysis that utilizes latent class factor models, and compare it to the more traditional approach based on latent class cluster models. We show that when formulated in terms of R mutually independent, dichotomous latent

  15. Relationship Marketing results: proposition of a cognitive mapping model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná Futino Barreto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This research sought to develop a cognitive model that expresses how marketing professionals understand the relationship between the constructs that define relationship marketing (RM. It also tried to understand, using the obtained model, how objectives in this field are achieved. Design/methodology/approach – Through cognitive mapping, we traced 35 individual mental maps, highlighting how each respondent understands the interactions between RM elements. Based on the views of these individuals, we established an aggregate mental map. Theoretical foundation – The topic is based on a literature review that explores the RM concept and its main elements. Based on this review, we listed eleven main constructs. Findings – We established an aggregate mental map that represents the RM structural model. Model analysis identified that CLV is understood as the final result of RM. We also observed that the impact of most of the RM elements on CLV is brokered by loyalty. Personalization and quality, on the other hand, proved to be process input elements, and are the ones that most strongly impact others. Finally, we highlight that elements that punish customers are much less effective than elements that benefit them. Contributions - The model was able to insert core elements of RM, but absent from most formal models: CLV and customization. The analysis allowed us to understand the interactions between the RM elements and how the end result of RM (CLV is formed. This understanding improves knowledge on the subject and helps guide, assess and correct actions.

  16. Value of the distant future: Model-independent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that the model-independent account of correlations in an interest rate process or a log-consumption growth process leads to declining long-term tails of discount curves. Under the assumption of an exponentially decaying memory in fluctuations of risk-free real interest rates, I derive the analytical expression for an apt value of the long run discount factor and provide a detailed comparison of the obtained result with the outcome of the benchmark risk-free interest rate models. Utilizing the standard consumption-based model with an isoelastic power utility of the representative economic agent, I derive the non-Markovian generalization of the Ramsey discounting formula. Obtained analytical results allowing simple calibration, may augment the rigorous cost-benefit and regulatory impact analysis of long-term environmental and infrastructure projects.

  17. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - II. Model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In the second part of this two-part article on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, we estimate the number of committed assets in water depth less than 1000 ft that are expected to be marginal over a 60-year time horizon. We compute the expected quantity and value of the production and gross revenue streams of the gulf's committed asset inventory circa. January 2007 using a probabilistic model framework. Cumulative hydrocarbon production from the producing inventory is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas. Marginal production from the committed asset inventory is expected to contribute 4.1% of total oil production and 5.4% of gas production. A meta-evaluation procedure is adapted to present the results of sensitivity analysis. Model results are discussed along with a description of the model framework and limitations of the analysis. (author)

  18. Exact results for car accidents in a traffic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    1998-07-01

    Within the framework of a recent model for car accidents on single-lane highway traffic, we study analytically the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. Exact results are obtained. Various scaling behaviours are observed. The linear dependence of the occurrence of car accidents on density is understood as the dominance of a single velocity in the distribution.

  19. Antigenic topology of the P29 surface lipoprotein of Mycoplasma fermentans: differential display of epitopes results in high-frequency phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, P; Karpas, A; Wise, K S

    1996-05-01

    Antibodies to P29, a major lipid-modified surface protein of Mycoplasma fermentans, reveal phase variation of surface epitopes occurring with high frequency in clonal lineages of the organism. This occurs despite continuous expression of the entire epitope-bearing P29 product (detected by Western immunoblotting) and contrasts with phase variation of other surface antigens mediated by differential expression of proteins. To understand the structure and antigenic topology of P29, the single-copy p29 gene from strain PG18 was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a prolipoprotein containing a signal sequence predicted to be modified with lipid and cleaved at the N-terminal Cys-1 residue of the mature P29 lipoprotein. The remaining 218-residue hydrophilic sequence of P29 is predicted to be located external to the single plasma membrane. Additional Cys residues at positions 91 and 128 in the mature protein were shown to form a 36-residue disulfide loop by selectively labeling sulfhydryl groups that were liberated only after chemical reduction of monomeric P29. Two nearly identical charged amino acid sequences occurred in P29, within the disulfide loop and upstream of this structure. Two distinct epitopes binding different monoclonal antibodies were associated with opposite ends of the P29 protein, by mapping products expressed in Escherichia coli from PCR-generated 3' deletion mutations of the p29 gene. Each monoclonal antibody detected high-frequency and noncoordinate changes in accessibility of the corresponding epitopes in colony immunoblots of clonal variants, yet sequencing of the p29 gene from these variants and analysis of disulfide bonds revealed no associated changes in the primary sequence or disulfide loop structure of P29. These results suggest that P29 surface epitope variation may involve masking of selected regions of P29, possibly by other surface components undergoing phase variation by differential expression. Differential masking may be an important

  20. Petri nets in Snoopy: a unifying framework for the graphical display, computational modelling, and simulation of bacterial regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Wolfgang; Rohr, Christian; Heiner, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Using the example of phosphate regulation in enteric bacteria, we demonstrate the particular suitability of stochastic Petri nets to model biochemical phenomena and their simulative exploration by various features of the software tool Snoopy.

  1. Modeling Results For the ITER Cryogenic Fore Pump. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfotenhauer, John M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zhang, Dongsheng [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-03-31

    A numerical model characterizing the operation of a cryogenic fore-pump (CFP) for ITER has been developed at the University of Wisconsin – Madison during the period from March 15, 2011 through June 30, 2014. The purpose of the ITER-CFP is to separate hydrogen isotopes from helium gas, both making up the exhaust components from the ITER reactor. The model explicitly determines the amount of hydrogen that is captured by the supercritical-helium-cooled pump as a function of the inlet temperature of the supercritical helium, its flow rate, and the inlet conditions of the hydrogen gas flow. Furthermore the model computes the location and amount of hydrogen captured in the pump as a function of time. Throughout the model’s development, and as a calibration check for its results, it has been extensively compared with the measurements of a CFP prototype tested at Oak Ridge National Lab. The results of the model demonstrate that the quantity of captured hydrogen is very sensitive to the inlet temperature of the helium coolant on the outside of the cryopump. Furthermore, the model can be utilized to refine those tests, and suggests methods that could be incorporated in the testing to enhance the usefulness of the measured data.

  2. Assessment of Galileo modal test results for mathematical model verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubert, M.

    1984-01-01

    The modal test program for the Galileo Spacecraft was completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the summer of 1983. The multiple sine dwell method was used for the baseline test. The Galileo Spacecraft is a rather complex 2433 kg structure made of a central core on which seven major appendages representing 30 percent of the total mass are attached, resulting in a high modal density structure. The test revealed a strong nonlinearity in several major modes. This nonlinearity discovered in the course of the test necessitated running additional tests at the unusually high response levels of up to about 21 g. The high levels of response were required to obtain a model verification valid at the level of loads for which the spacecraft was designed. Because of the high modal density and the nonlinearity, correlation between the dynamic mathematical model and the test results becomes a difficult task. Significant changes in the pre-test analytical model are necessary to establish confidence in the upgraded analytical model used for the final load verification. This verification, using a test verified model, is required by NASA to fly the Galileo Spacecraft on the Shuttle/Centaur launch vehicle in 1986.

  3. Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-06-15

    Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the /sup 1///sub 5/-scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena.

  4. Initial CGE Model Results Summary Exogenous and Endogenous Variables Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The following discussion presents initial results of tests of the most recent version of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of this is to test and assess the model’s behavioral properties. The test evaluated whether the predicted impacts are reasonable from a qualitative perspective. This issue is whether the predicted change, be it an increase or decrease in other model variables, is consistent with prior economic intuition and expectations about the predicted change. One of the purposes of this effort is to determine whether model changes are needed in order to improve its behavior qualitatively and quantitatively.

  5. Simulating lightning into the RAMS model: implementation and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a tailored version of a previously published methodology, designed to simulate lightning activity, implemented into the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS. The method gives the flash density at the resolution of the RAMS grid-scale allowing for a detailed analysis of the evolution of simulated lightning activity. The system is applied in detail to two case studies occurred over the Lazio Region, in Central Italy. Simulations are compared with the lightning activity detected by the LINET network. The cases refer to two thunderstorms of different intensity. Results show that the model predicts reasonably well both cases and that the lightning activity is well reproduced especially for the most intense case. However, there are errors in timing and positioning of the convection, whose magnitude depends on the case study, which mirrors in timing and positioning errors of the lightning distribution. To assess objectively the performance of the methodology, standard scores are presented for four additional case studies. Scores show the ability of the methodology to simulate the daily lightning activity for different spatial scales and for two different minimum thresholds of flash number density. The performance decreases at finer spatial scales and for higher thresholds. The comparison of simulated and observed lighting activity is an immediate and powerful tool to assess the model ability to reproduce the intensity and the evolution of the convection. This shows the importance of the use of computationally efficient lightning schemes, such as the one described in this paper, in forecast models.

  6. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  7. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.; Hakim, V.; Pasquier, V.

    1993-11-01

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices.

  8. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M.R.; Pasquier, V. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Hakim, V. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-12-31

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices. (author).

  9. APPLYING LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL TO THE EXAMINATION RESULTS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary logistic regression model is used to analyze the school examination results(scores of 1002 students. The analysis is performed on the basis of the independent variables viz.gender, medium of instruction, type of schools, category of schools, board of examinations andlocation of schools, where scores or marks are assumed to be dependent variables. The odds ratioanalysis compares the scores obtained in two examinations viz. matriculation and highersecondary.

  10. Model of β-Sheet of Muscle Fatty Acid Binding Protein of Locusta migratoria Displays Characteristic Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilbash, Nadeem A; Hai, Abdul; Alruwaili, Jamal

    2013-01-01

    The β-sheet of muscle fatty acid binding protein of Locusta migratoria (Lm-FABP) was modeled by employing 2-D NMR data and the Rigid Body Assembly method. The model shows the β-sheet to comprise ten β-strands arranged anti-parallel to each other. There is a β-bulge between Ser 13 and Gln 14 which is a difference from the published structure of β-sheet of bovine heart Fatty Acid Binding Protein. Also, a hydrophobic patch consisting of Ile 45, Phe 51, Phe 64 and Phe 66 is present on the surface which is characteristic of most Fatty Acid Binding Proteins. A "gap" is present between βD and βE that provides evidence for the presence of a portal or opening between the polypeptide chains which allows ligand fatty acids to enter the protein cavity and bind to the protein.

  11. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  12. Challenges in validating model results for first year ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Eastwood, Steinar; Xie, Jiping; Aaboe, Signe; Bertino, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the quality of model results for the distribution of first year ice, a comparison with a product based on observations from satellite-borne instruments has been performed. Such a comparison is not straightforward due to the contrasting algorithms that are used in the model product and the remote sensing product. The implementation of the validation is discussed in light of the differences between this set of products, and validation results are presented. The model product is the daily updated 10-day forecast from the Arctic Monitoring and Forecasting Centre in CMEMS. The forecasts are produced with the assimilative ocean prediction system TOPAZ. Presently, observations of sea ice concentration and sea ice drift are introduced in the assimilation step, but data for sea ice thickness and ice age (or roughness) are not included. The model computes the age of the ice by recording and updating the time passed after ice formation as sea ice grows and deteriorates as it is advected inside the model domain. Ice that is younger than 365 days is classified as first year ice. The fraction of first-year ice is recorded as a tracer in each grid cell. The Ocean and Sea Ice Thematic Assembly Centre in CMEMS redistributes a daily product from the EUMETSAT OSI SAF of gridded sea ice conditions which include "ice type", a representation of the separation of regions between those infested by first year ice, and those infested by multi-year ice. The ice type is parameterized based on data for the gradient ratio GR(19,37) from SSMIS observations, and from the ASCAT backscatter parameter. This product also includes information on ambiguity in the processing of the remote sensing data, and the product's confidence level, which have a strong seasonal dependency.

  13. Social isolation increases social display after priming in Betta splendens but decreases aggressive readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, J R; Dunham, D W; Ye, S

    1992-12-01

    We socially isolated adult, male Siamese fighting fish for 0 to 7 weeks but avoided sensory deprivation, and then measured aggressive display as the fish responded to a series of novel models. Isolates displayed much more strongly than non-isolates to the last model of the series, and display intensity became monotonically stronger with longer social isolation. By contrast, display to the first model seen after isolation was weaker the longer the social isolation. A second experiment compared responses of fish after three weeks during which controls displayed to a conspecific for two minutes every two days, while isolates saw a complex visual stimulus which did not release display. Again, isolates had depressed display readiness, but higher display rates once they were primed. This result supports the hypothesis that social isolation has two effects on aggressive display in Betta, causing decreasing readiness to display, but leading to greater display rates once fish are 'primed'. We discuss two models which predict these phenomena, and show that one of them suggests a new understanding of the function of motivational increases when aggression is 'dammed up'. Methodological issues relevant for examining the rodent behavior literature in the light of the new model are discussed.

  14. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  15. Results of Satellite Brightness Modeling Using Kringing Optimized Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, C.; Hejduk, M.

    At the 2005 AMOS conference, Kriging Optimized Interpolation (KOI) was presented as a tool to model satellite brightness as a function of phase angle and solar declination angle (J.M Okada and M.D. Hejduk). Since November 2005, this method has been used to support the tasking algorithm for all optical sensors in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The satellite brightness maps generated by the KOI program are compared to each sensor's ability to detect an object as a function of the brightness of the background sky and angular rate of the object. This will determine if the sensor can technically detect an object based on an explicit calculation of the object's probability of detection. In addition, recent upgrades at Ground-Based Electro Optical Deep Space Surveillance Sites (GEODSS) sites have increased the amount and quality of brightness data collected and therefore available for analysis. This in turn has provided enough data to study the modeling process in more detail in order to obtain the most accurate brightness prediction of satellites. Analysis of two years of brightness data gathered from optical sensors and modeled via KOI solutions are outlined in this paper. By comparison, geo-stationary objects (GEO) were tracked less than non-GEO objects but had higher density tracking in phase angle due to artifices of scheduling. A statistically-significant fit to a deterministic model was possible less than half the time in both GEO and non-GEO tracks, showing that a stochastic model must often be used alone to produce brightness results, but such results are nonetheless serviceable. Within the Kriging solution, the exponential variogram model was the most frequently employed in both GEO and non-GEO tracks, indicating that monotonic brightness variation with both phase and solar declination angle is common and testifying to the suitability to the application of regionalized variable theory to this particular problem. Finally, the average nugget value, or

  16. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  17. Titan Chemistry: Results From A Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric; West, R. A.; Friedson, A. J.; Oyafuso, F.

    2008-09-01

    We present results from a 3-dimesional global climate model of Titan's atmosphere and surface. This model, a modified version of NCAR's CAM-3 (Community Atmosphere Model), has been optimized for analysis of Titan's lower atmosphere and surface. With the inclusion of forcing from Saturn's gravitational tides, interaction from the surface, transfer of longwave and shortwave radiation, and parameterization of haze properties, constrained by Cassini observations, a dynamical field is generated, which serves to advect 14 long-lived species. The concentrations of these chemical tracers are also affected by 82 chemical reactions and the photolysis of 21 species, based on the Wilson and Atreya (2004) model, that provide sources and sinks for the advected species along with 23 additional non-advected radicals. In addition, the chemical contribution to haze conversion is parameterized along with the microphysical processes that serve to distribute haze opacity throughout the atmosphere. References Wilson, E.H. and S.K. Atreya, J. Geophys. Res., 109, E06002, 2004.

  18. Why Does a Kronecker Model Result in Misleading Capacity Estimates?

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Sayeed, Akbar M

    2008-01-01

    Many recent works that study the performance of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems in practice assume a Kronecker model where the variances of the channel entries, upon decomposition on to the transmit and the receive eigen-bases, admit a separable form. Measurement campaigns, however, show that the Kronecker model results in poor estimates for capacity. Motivated by these observations, a channel model that does not impose a separable structure has been recently proposed and shown to fit the capacity of measured channels better. In this work, we show that this recently proposed modeling framework can be viewed as a natural consequence of channel decomposition on to its canonical coordinates, the transmit and/or the receive eigen-bases. Using tools from random matrix theory, we then establish the theoretical basis behind the Kronecker mismatch at the low- and the high-SNR extremes: 1) Sparsity of the dominant statistical degrees of freedom (DoF) in the true channel at the low-SNR extreme, and 2) Non-regul...

  19. Quercetin induces cell apoptosis of myeloma and displays a synergistic effect with dexamethasone in vitro and in vivo xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Donghua; Guo, Xing; Zhang, Enfan; Zi, Fuming; Chen, Jing; Chen, Qingxiao; Lin, Xuanru; Yang, Li; Li, Yi; Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Yang; He, Jingsong; Cai, Zhen

    2016-07-19

    Quercetin, a kind of dietary flavonoid, has shown its anticancer activity in many kinds of cancers including hematological malignancies (acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and MM) in vitro and in vivo. However, its effects on MM need further investigation. In this study, MM cell lines were treated with quercetin alone or in combination with dexamethasone. In order to observe the effects in vivo, a xenograft model of human myeloma was established. Quercetin inhibited proliferation of MM cells (RPMI8226, ARP-1, and MM.1R) by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis. Western blot showed that quercetin downregulated c-myc expression and upregulated p21 expression. Quercetin also activated caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1. Caspase inhibitors partially blocked apoptosis induced by quercetin. Furthermore, quercetin combined with dexamethasone significantly increased MM cell apoptosis. In vivo xenograft models, quercetin obviously inhibited tumor growth. Caspase-3 was activated to a greater extent when quercetin was combined with dexamethasone. In conclusion, quercetin alone or in combination with dexamethasone may be an effective therapy for MM.

  20. Quercetin induces cell apoptosis of myeloma and displays a synergistic effect with dexamethasone in vitro and in vivo xenograft models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enfan; Zi, Fuming; Chen, Jing; Chen, Qingxiao; Lin, Xuanru; Yang, Li; Li, Yi; Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Yang; He, Jingsong; Cai, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a kind of dietary flavonoid, has shown its anticancer activity in many kinds of cancers including hematological malignancies (acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and MM) in vitro and in vivo. However, its effects on MM need further investigation. In this study, MM cell lines were treated with quercetin alone or in combination with dexamethasone. In order to observe the effects in vivo, a xenograft model of human myeloma was established. Quercetin inhibited proliferation of MM cells (RPMI8226, ARP-1, and MM.1R) by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis. Western blot showed that quercetin downregulated c-myc expression and upregulated p21 expression. Quercetin also activated caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1. Caspase inhibitors partially blocked apoptosis induced by quercetin. Furthermore, quercetin combined with dexamethasone significantly increased MM cell apoptosis. In vivo xenograft models, quercetin obviously inhibited tumor growth. Caspase-3 was activated to a greater extent when quercetin was combined with dexamethasone. In conclusion, quercetin alone or in combination with dexamethasone may be an effective therapy for MM. PMID:27329589

  1. New DNS and modeling results for turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Arne; El Khoury, George; Grundestam, Olof; Schlatter, Philipp; Brethouwer, Geert; Linne Flow Centre Team

    2013-11-01

    The near-wall region of turbulent pipe and channel flows (as well as zero-pressure gradient boundary layers) have been shown to exhibit a very high degree of similarity in terms of all statistical moments and many other features, while even the mean velocity profile in the two cases exhibits significant differences between in the outer region. The wake part of the profile, i.e. the deviation from the log-law, in the outer region is of substantially larger amplitude in pipe flow as compared to channel flow (although weaker than in boundary layer flow). This intriguing feature has been well known but has no simple explanation. Model predictions typically give identical results for the two flows. We have analyzed a new set of DNS for pipe and channel flows (el Khoury et al. 2013, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion) for friction Reynolds numbers up to 1000 and made comparing calculations with differential Reynolds stress models (DRSM). We have strong indications that the key factor behind the difference in mean velocity in the outer region can be coupled to differences in the turbulent diffusion in this region. This is also supported by DRSM results, where interesting differences are seen depending on the sophistication of modeling the turbulent diffusion coefficient.

  2. Some Results on Optimal Dividend Problem in Two Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaiqi Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compound Poisson risk model and the compound Poisson risk model perturbed by diffusion are considered in the presence of a dividend barrier with solvency constraints. Moreover, it extends the known result due to [1]. Ref. [1] finds the optimal dividend policy is of a barrier type for a jump-diffusion model with exponentially distributed jumps. In this paper, it turns out that there can be two different solutions depending on the model’s parameters. Furthermore, an interesting result is given: the proportional transaction cost has no effect on the dividend barrier. The objective of the corporation is to maximize the cumulative expected discounted dividends payout with solvency constraints before the time of ruin. It is well known that under some reasonable assumptions, optimal dividend strategy is a barrier strategy, i.e., there is a level b_{1}(b_{2} so that whenever surplus goes above the level b_{1}(b_{2}, the excess is paid out as dividends. However, the optimal level b_{1}(b_{2} may be unacceptably low from a solvency point of view. Therefore, some constraints should imposed on an insurance company such as to pay out dividends unless the surplus has reached a level b^{1}_{c}>b_{1}(b^2_{c}>b_{2} . We show that in this case a barrier strategy at b^{1}_{c}(b^2_{c} is optimal.

  3. Modeling results for the ITER cryogenic fore pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D. S.; Miller, F. K.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The cryogenic fore pump (CFP) is designed for ITER to collect and compress hydrogen isotopes during the regeneration process of torus cryopumps. Different from common cryopumps, the ITER-CFP works in the viscous flow regime. As a result, both adsorption boundary conditions and transport phenomena contribute unique features to the pump performance. In this report, the physical mechanisms of cryopumping are studied, especially the diffusion-adsorption process and these are coupled with standard equations of species, momentum and energy balance, as well as the equation of state. Numerical models are developed, which include highly coupled non-linear conservation equations of species, momentum and energy and equation of state. Thermal and kinetic properties are treated as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition. To solve such a set of equations, a novel numerical technique, identified as the Group-Member numerical technique is proposed. It is presented here a 1D numerical model. The results include comparison with the experimental data of pure hydrogen flow and a prediction for hydrogen flow with trace helium. An advanced 2D model and detailed explanation of the Group-Member technique are to be presented in following papers.

  4. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  5. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  6. A proactive classroom management model to enhance self-efficacy levels in teachers of adolescents who display disruptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Rolanda T; Boykins, Anita D; Davis, Sheila P

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this project were to determine teachers' self-efficacy levels at baseline and after participating in a proactive classroom management model intervention. Teachers (N = 26) were recruited from a rural middle school in a south central state. Data required for analysis were drawn from the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (long form). A statistically significant difference (t[25] = 7.68, p < 0.001) was noted in teachers' self-efficacy levels from pre- to post-intervention. Findings support the need for proactive classroom management training for teachers as well as the need for psychiatric and mental health nurse consultants within the school system. Teacher classroom management strategies should also include appropriate response to individual student's needs, effective communication, and insight regarding the behaviors of students from diverse backgrounds. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Chiral mercaptoacetamides display enantioselective inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 and exhibit neuroprotection in cortical neuron models of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Jay H; Zhang, Hankun; Gaudrel-Grosay, Sophie; Vistoli, Giulio; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-03-05

    Mercaptoacetamide-based ligands have been designed as a new class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for possible use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The thiol group of these compounds provides a key binding element for interaction with the catalytic zinc ion, and thus differs from the more typically employed hydroxamic acid based zinc binding groups. Herein we disclose the chemistry and biology of some substituted mercaptoacetamides with the intention of increasing HDAC6 isoform selectivity while maintaining potency similar to their hydroxamic acid analogues. The introduction of a stereocenter α to the thiol group was found to have a considerable impact on HDAC inhibitor potency. These new compounds were also profiled for their therapeutic potential in an in vitro model of stress-induced neuronal injury and were found to act as nontoxic neuroprotective agents. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Data Ellipses, HE Plots and Reduced-Rank Displays for Multivariate Linear Models: SAS Software and Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Friendly

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes graphical methods for multiple-response data within the framework of the multivariate linear model (MLM, aimed at understanding what is being tested in a multivariate test, and how factor/predictor effects are expressed across multiple response measures. In particular, we describe and illustrate a collection of SAS macro programs for: (a Data ellipses and low-rank biplots for multivariate data, (b HE plots, showing the hypothesis and error covariance matrices for a given pair of responses, and a given effect, (c HE plot matrices, showing all pairwise HE plots, and (d low-rank analogs of HE plots, showing all observations, group means, and their relations to the response variables.

  9. 15q13.3 homozygous knockout mouse model display epilepsy-, autism- and schizophrenia-related phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsingdal, A; Fejgin, K; Nielsen, V;

    2016-01-01

    The 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is caused by a 1.5-MB hemizygous microdeletion located on 15q13.3 affecting seven genes: FAN1; MTMR10; TRPM1; miR-211; KLF13; OTUD7A; and CHRNA7. The 15q13.3 microdeletion increases the risk of intellectual disability, epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder...... and schizophrenia, though the clinical profile varies considerably. Two mouse models of this syndrome, with hemizygous deletion of the orthologous region in the murine genome, have recently been shown to recapitulate a number of the behavioral and physiological deficits that characterize the human condition. Still......, little is known of the underlying biological mechanisms. Eleven human cases with homozygous deletion of the 15q13.3 region have been reported, all with severe functional and physiological impairments. We therefore hypothesized that a 15q13.3 homozygous knockout would confer more pronounced behavioral...

  10. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  11. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  12. Geochemical controls on shale groundwaters: Results of reaction path modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Damm, K.L.; VandenBrook, A.J.

    1989-03-01

    The EQ3NR/EQ6 geochemical modeling code was used to simulate the reaction of several shale mineralogies with different groundwater compositions in order to elucidate changes that may occur in both the groundwater compositions, and rock mineralogies and compositions under conditions which may be encountered in a high-level radioactive waste repository. Shales with primarily illitic or smectitic compositions were the focus of this study. The reactions were run at the ambient temperatures of the groundwaters and to temperatures as high as 250/degree/C, the approximate temperature maximum expected in a repository. All modeling assumed that equilibrium was achieved and treated the rock and water assemblage as a closed system. Graphite was used as a proxy mineral for organic matter in the shales. The results show that the presence of even a very small amount of reducing mineral has a large influence on the redox state of the groundwaters, and that either pyrite or graphite provides essentially the same results, with slight differences in dissolved C, Fe and S concentrations. The thermodynamic data base is inadequate at the present time to fully evaluate the speciation of dissolved carbon, due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for organic compounds. In the illitic cases the groundwaters resulting from interaction at elevated temperatures are acid, while the smectitic cases remain alkaline, although the final equilibrium mineral assemblages are quite similar. 10 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Multi-Model Combination techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajami, N K; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

    2005-04-11

    This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multi-model Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

  14. VNIR spectral modeling of Mars analogue rocks: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, L.; Roush, T.; Pedrazzi, G.; Sgavetti, M.

    Knowledge regarding the surface composition of Mars and other bodies of the inner solar system is fundamental to understanding of their origin, evolution, and internal structures. Technological improvements of remote sensors and associated implications for planetary studies have encouraged increased laboratory and field spectroscopy research to model the spectral behavior of terrestrial analogues for planetary surfaces. This approach has proven useful during Martian surface and orbital missions, and petrologic studies of Martian SNC meteorites. Thermal emission data were used to suggest two lithologies occurring on Mars surface: basalt with abundant plagioclase and clinopyroxene and andesite, dominated by plagioclase and volcanic glass [1,2]. Weathered basalt has been suggested as an alternative to the andesite interpretation [3,4]. Orbital VNIR spectral imaging data also suggest the crust is dominantly basaltic, chiefly feldspar and pyroxene [5,6]. A few outcrops of ancient crust have higher concentrations of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, and have been interpreted as cumulates [6]. Based upon these orbital observations future lander/rover missions can be expected to encounter particulate soils, rocks, and rock outcrops. Approaches to qualitative and quantitative analysis of remotely-acquired spectra have been successfully used to infer the presence and abundance of minerals and to discover compositionally associated spectral trends [7-9]. Both empirical [10] and mathematical [e.g. 11-13] methods have been applied, typically with full compositional knowledge, to chiefly particulate samples and as a result cannot be considered as objective techniques for predicting the compositional information, especially for understanding the spectral behavior of rocks. Extending the compositional modeling efforts to include more rocks and developing objective criteria in the modeling are the next required steps. This is the focus of the present investigation. We present results of

  15. ITER CS Model Coil and CS Insert Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Michael, P; Minervina, J; Radovinsky, A; Takayasu, M; Thome, R; Ando, T; Isono, T; Kato, T; Nakajima, H; Nishijima, G; Nunoya, Y; Sugimoto, M; Takahashi, Y; Tsuji, H; Bessette, D; Okuno, K; Ricci, M

    2000-09-07

    The Inner and Outer modules of the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) were built by US and Japanese home teams in collaboration with European and Russian teams to demonstrate the feasibility of a superconducting Central Solenoid for ITER and other large tokamak reactors. The CSMC mass is about 120 t, OD is about 3.6 m and the stored energy is 640 MJ at 46 kA and peak field of 13 T. Testing of the CSMC and the CS Insert took place at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from mid March until mid August 2000. This paper presents the main results of the tests performed.

  16. Results of the benchmark for blade structural models, part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekou, D.J.; Chortis, D.; Belen Fariñas, A.;

    2013-01-01

    Task 2.2 of the InnWind.Eu project. The benchmark is based on the reference wind turbine and the reference blade provided by DTU [1]. "Structural Concept developers/modelers" of WP2 were provided with the necessary input for a comparison numerical simulation run, upon definition of the reference blade......A benchmark on structural design methods for blades was performed within the InnWind.Eu project under WP2 “Lightweight Rotor” Task 2.2 “Lightweight structural design”. The present document is describes the results of the comparison simulation runs that were performed by the partners involved within...

  17. Model independent analysis of dark energy I: Supernova fitting result

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Y

    2004-01-01

    The nature of dark energy is a mystery to us. This paper uses the supernova data to explore the property of dark energy by some model independent methods. We first Talyor expanded the scale factor $a(t)$ to find out the deceleration parameter $q_0<0$. This result just invokes the Robertson-Walker metric. Then we discuss several different parameterizations used in the literature. We find that $\\Omega_{\\rm DE0}$ is almost less than -1 at $1\\sigma$ level. We also find that the transition redshift from deceleration phase to acceleration phase is $z_{\\rm T}\\sim 0.3$.

  18. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  19. Verbal Modification via Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Edmun B.; Wallace-Childers, La Donna

    1977-01-01

    The inability of foreign language students to produce acceptable approximations of new vowel sounds initiated a study to devise a real-time visual display system whereby the students could match vowel production to a visual pedagogical model. The system used amateur radio equipment and a standard oscilloscope. (CHK)

  20. Performance studies of electrochromic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The idea of having flexible, very thin, light, low power and even low cost display devices implemented using new materials and technologies is very exciting. Nowadays we can talk about more than just concepts, such devices exist, and they are part of an emerging concept: FOLAE (Flexible Organic and Large Area Electronics). Among the advantages of electrochromic devices are the low power consumption (they are non-emissive, i.e. passive) and the aspect like ink on paper with good viewing angle. Some studies are still necessary for further development, before proper performances are met and the functional behavior can be predicted. This paper presents the results of the research activity conducted to develop electric characterization platform for the organic electronics display devices, especially electrochromic displays, to permit a thorough study. The hardware part of platform permits the measuring of different electric and optical parameters. Charging/discharging a display element presents high interest for optimal driving circuitry. In this sense, the corresponding waveforms are presented. The contrast of the display is also measured for different operation conditions as driving voltage levels and duration. The effect of temperature on electrical and optical parameters (contrast) of the display will be also presented.

  1. Multi-Model Combination Techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajami, N; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

    2006-05-08

    This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multimodel Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

  2. Impact Flash Physics: Modeling and Comparisons With Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, E.; Stickle, A. M.; Ernst, C. M.; Schultz, P. H.; Mehta, N. L.; Brown, R. C.; Swaminathan, P. K.; Michaelis, C. H.; Erlandson, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    horizontal. High-speed radiometer measurements were made of the time-dependent impact flash at wavelengths of 350-1100 nm. We will present comparisons between these measurements and the output of APL's model. The results of this validation allow us to determine basic relationships between observed optical signatures and impact conditions.

  3. Subsea Permafrost Climate Modeling - Challenges and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehacke, C. B.; Stendel, M.; Marchenko, S. S.; Christensen, J. H.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Nicolsky, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations indicate that the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) releases methane, which stems from shallow hydrate seabed reservoirs. The total amount of carbon within the ESAS is so large that release of only a small fraction, for example via taliks, which are columns of unfrozen sediment within the permafrost, could impact distinctly the global climate. Therefore it is crucial to simulate the future fate of ESAS' subsea permafrost with regard to changing atmospheric and oceanic conditions. However only very few attempts to address the vulnerability of subsea permafrost have been made, instead most studies have focused on the evolution of permafrost since the Late Pleistocene ocean transgression, approximately 14000 years ago.In contrast to land permafrost modeling, any attempt to model the future fate of subsea permafrost needs to consider several additional factors, in particular the dependence of freezing temperature on water depth and salt content and the differences in ground heat flux depending on the seabed properties. Also the amount of unfrozen water in the sediment needs to be taken into account. Using a system of coupled ocean, atmosphere and permafrost models will allow us to capture the complexity of the different parts of the system and evaluate the relative importance of different processes. Here we present the first results of a novel approach by means of dedicated permafrost model simulations. These have been driven by conditions of the Laptev Sea region in East Siberia. By exploiting the ensemble approach, we will show how uncertainties in boundary conditions and applied forcing scenarios control the future fate of the sub sea permafrost.

  4. DARK STARS: IMPROVED MODELS AND FIRST PULSATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rindler-Daller, T.; Freese, K. [Department of Physics and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, McDonald Observatory and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Paxton, B. [Kavli Insitute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars (DSs). DSs, which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with previous models, which assumed polytropic interiors. There are some differences in the details, with positive implications for observability. We found that, in the mass range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al., are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of three to four, and more luminous by a factor of two. Our models also confirm previous results, according to which supermassive DSs are very well approximated by (n = 3)-polytropes. We also perform a first study of DS pulsations. Our DS models have pulsation modes with timescales ranging from less than a day to more than two years in their rest frames, at z ∼ 15, depending on DM particle mass and overtone number. Such pulsations may someday be used to identify bright, cool objects uniquely as DSs; if properly calibrated, they might, in principle, also supply novel standard candles for cosmological studies.

  5. Convergence results for a coarsening model using global linearization

    CERN Document Server

    Gallay, T; Gallay, Th.

    2002-01-01

    We study a coarsening model describing the dynamics of interfaces in the one-dimensional Allen-Cahn equation. Given a partition of the real line into intervals of length greater than one, the model consists in constantly eliminating the shortest interval of the partition by merging it with its two neighbors. We show that the mean-field equation for the time-dependent distribution of interval lengths can be explicitly solved using a global linearization transformation. This allows us to derive rigorous results on the long-time asymptotics of the solutions. If the average length of the intervals is finite, we prove that all distributions approach a uniquely determined self-similar solution. We also obtain global stability results for the family of self-similar profiles which correspond to distributions with infinite expectation. eliminating the shortest interval of the partition by merging it with its two neighbors. We show that the mean-field equation for the time-dependent distribution of interval lengths can...

  6. Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.

  7. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  8. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  9. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  10. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  11. Toona sinensis leaf aqueous extract displays activity against sepsis in both in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Yung-Chia; Tsai, Yee-Jean; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Wang, Chao-Chuan

    2014-06-01

    Toona sinensis (TS) leaves are used as a vegetable and in traditional Chinese medicine. However, in vivo experiments regarding the anti-inflammatory function of TS leaves have not previously been conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of TS leaf extract (TSL) in the prevention of sepsis-induced lung injury in vivo and on macrophage activation in vitro. The results showed that oral gavage pretreatment with TSL in rats for 30 days improved the survival of cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis, potentially by attenuating sepsis-induced histological lung damage rather than inflammatory cell infiltration. Furthermore, we demonstrated that pretreatment with TSL attenuated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, thereby inhibiting nitric oxide production and release in murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. Interestingly, TSL did not affect the LPS-induced release of other cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β) but increased LPS-induced heme-oxygenase-1 expression. In conclusion, the study provides preliminary data for TSL on cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. The beneficial impact of TSL needs extensive study to get solid evidence.

  12. Defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  13. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  14. Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.

  15. Position-sensitive transition edge sensor modeling and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammock, Christina E-mail: chammock@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Apodaca, Emmanuel; Bandler, Simon; Boyce, Kevin; Chervenak, Jay; Finkbeiner, Fred; Kelley, Richard; Lindeman, Mark; Porter, Scott; Saab, Tarek; Stahle, Caroline

    2004-03-11

    We report the latest design and experimental results for a Position-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST). The PoST is motivated by the desire to achieve a larger field-of-view without increasing the number of readout channels. A PoST consists of a one-dimensional array of X-ray absorbers connected on each end to a Transition Edge Sensor (TES). Position differentiation is achieved through a comparison of pulses between the two TESs and X-ray energy is inferred from a sum of the two signals. Optimizing such a device involves studying the available parameter space which includes device properties such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity as well as TES read-out circuitry parameters. We present results for different regimes of operation and the effects on energy resolution, throughput, and position differentiation. Results and implications from a non-linear model developed to study the saturation effects unique to PoSTs are also presented.

  16. Dark Stars: Improved Models and First Pulsation Results

    CERN Document Server

    Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Freese, Katherine; Winget, Donald E; Paxton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars. Dark stars (DSs), which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the Universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10^6 M_sun. While previous calculations were limited to polytropic interiors, our current calculations use MESA, a modern stellar evolution code to solve the equations of stellar structure. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with the basic results of previous models. There are some differences, however, in the details, with positive implications for observability of DSs. We found that, in the mass range of 10^4 - 10^5 M_sun, using MESA, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al.(2010), are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of 3...

  17. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  18. Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, M; Ferracin, P; Fessia, P; Gauthier, R; Giloux, C; Guinchard, M; Kircher, F; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Millot, J-F; Muñoz Garcia, J-E; Oberli, L; Perez, J-C; Pietrowicz, S; Rifflet, J-M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F; Todesco, E; Viret, P; Ziemianski, D

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.3.1 “Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed “. The report has four parts: “Design report for the dipole magnet”, “Dipole magnet structure tested in LN2”, “Nb3Sn strand procured for one dipole magnet” and “One test double pancake copper coil made”. The 4 report parts show that, although the magnet construction will be only completed by end 2014, all elements are present for a successful completion. Due to the importance of the project for the future of the participants and given the significant investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment to finish the project.

  19. Dipole model test with one superconducting coil: results analysed

    CERN Document Server

    Bajas, H; Benda, V; Berriaud, C; Bajko, M; Bottura, L; Caspi, S; Charrondiere, M; Clément, S; Datskov, V; Devaux, M; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Ferracin, P; Fessia, P; Gauthier, R; Giloux, C; Guinchard, M; Kircher, F; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Millot, J-F; Muñoz Garcia, J-E; Oberli, L; Perez, J-C; Pietrowicz, S; Rifflet, J-M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F; Todesco, E; Viret, P; Ziemianski, D

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.3.1 “Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed “. The report has four parts: “Design report for the dipole magnet”, “Dipole magnet structure tested in LN2”, “Nb3Sn strand procured for one dipole magnet” and “One test double pancake copper coil made”. The 4 report parts show that, although the magnet construction will be only completed by end 2014, all elements are present for a successful completion. Due to the importance of the project for the future of the participants and given the significant investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment to finish the project.

  20. Further Results on Dynamic Additive Hazard Rate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengcheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the proportional and additive hazard rate models have been investigated in the works. Nanda and Das (2011 introduced and studied the dynamic proportional (reversed hazard rate model. In this paper we study the dynamic additive hazard rate model, and investigate its aging properties for different aging classes. The closure of the model under some stochastic orders has also been investigated. Some examples are also given to illustrate different aging properties and stochastic comparisons of the model.

  1. Panoramic projection avionics displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.

    2003-09-01

    Avionics projection displays are entering production in advanced tactical aircraft. Early adopters of this technology in the avionics community used projection displays to replace or upgrade earlier units incorporating direct-view CRT or AMLCD devices. Typical motivation for these upgrades were the alleviation of performance, cost and display device availability concerns. In these systems, the upgraded (projection) displays were one-for-one form / fit replacements for the earlier units. As projection technology has matured, this situation has begun to evolve. The Lockheed-Martin F-35 is the first program in which the cockpit has been specifically designed to take advantage of one of the more unique capabilities of rear projection display technology, namely the ability to replace multiple small screens with a single large conformal viewing surface in the form of a panoramic display. Other programs are expected to follow, since the panoramic formats enable increased mission effectiveness, reduced cost and greater information transfer to the pilot. Some of the advantages and technical challenges associated with panoramic projection displays for avionics applications are described below.

  2. Mouse Model of Neurological Complications Resulting from Encephalitic Alphavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, Shannon E.; Smith, Jeanon; Koma, Takaaki; Miller, Magda M.; Yun, Nadezhda; Dineley, Kelly T.; Paessler, Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Symptomatic mice developed deficits in prepulse inhibition that lasted through 6 months post infection; these deficits were absent in asymptomatic or mock-infected groups. Accompanying prepulse inhibition deficits, symptomatic animals exhibited thalamus damage as visualized with H&E staining, as well as increased GFAP expression in the posterior complex of the thalamus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These histological changes and increased GFAP expression were absent in the asymptomatic and mock-infected animals, indicating that glial scarring could have contributed to the prepulse inhibition phenotype observed in the symptomatic animals. This model provides a tool to test mechanisms of and treatments for the neurological sequelae of viral encephalitis and begins to delineate potential explanations for the development of such sequelae post infection.

  3. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  4. A Duality Result for the Generalized Erlang Risk Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanpeng Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the generalized Erlang risk model and its dual model. By using a conditional measure-preserving correspondence between the two models, we derive an identity for two interesting conditional probabilities. Applications to the discounted joint density of the surplus prior to ruin and the deficit at ruin are also discussed.

  5. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... with the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld devices, Part II: Cartographic design for small-display devices, Part III: Study on the GiMoDig Client ? Portal...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  6. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  7. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  8. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  9. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  10. On the evaluation of box model results: the case of BOXURB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A

    2009-08-01

    In the present paper, the BOXURB model results, as they occurred in the Greater Area of Athens after model application on an hourly basis for the 10-year period 1995-2004, are evaluated both in time and space in the light of observed pollutant concentrations time series from 17 monitoring stations. The evaluation is performed at a total, monthly, daily and hourly scale. The analysis also includes evaluation of the model performance with regard to the meteorological parameters. Finally, the model is evaluated as an air quality forecasting and urban planning tool. Given the simplicity of the model and the complexity of the area topography, the model results are found to be in good agreement with the measured pollutant concentrations, especially in the heavy traffic stations. Therefore, the model can be used for regulatory purposes by authorities for time-efficient, simple and reliable estimation of air pollution levels within city boundaries.

  11. Computational multi-projection display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seokil; Park, Soon-Gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    A computational multi-projection display is proposed by employing a multi-projection system combining with compressive light field displays. By modulating the intensity of light rays from a spatial light modulator inside a single projector, the proposed system can offer several compact views to observer. Since light rays are spread to all directions, the system can provide flexible positioning of viewpoints without stacking projectors in vertical direction. Also, if the system is constructed properly, it is possible to generate view images with inter-pupillary gap and satisfy the super multi-view condition. We explain the principle of the proposed system and verify its feasibility with simulations and experimental results.

  12. Final model independent result of DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)

    2013-12-15

    The results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton x yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles (i.e. adding a further 0.17 ton x yr exposure) are presented. The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 data give evidence for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target, at 7.5{sigma} C.L. Including also the first generation DAMA/NaI experiment (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton x yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles), the C.L. is 9.3{sigma} and the modulation amplitude of the single-hit events in the (2-6) keV energy interval is: (0.0112{+-}0.0012) cpd/kg/keV; the measured phase is (144{+-}7) days and the measured period is (0.998{+-}0.002) yr, values well in agreement with those expected for DM particles. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. (orig.)

  13. Infrared thermography for CFRP inspection: computational model and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Henrique C.; Zhang, Hai; Morioka, Karen; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; López, Fernando; Maldague, Xavier P. V.; Tarpani, José R.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) is a well-known Non-destructive Testing (NDT) technique. In the last decades, it has been widely applied in several fields including inspection of composite materials (CM), specially the fiber-reinforced polymer matrix ones. Consequently, it is important to develop and improve efficient NDT techniques to inspect and assess the quality of CM parts in order to warranty airworthiness and, at the same time, reduce costs of airline companies. In this paper, active IRT is used to inspect carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) at laminate with artificial inserts (built-in sample) placed on different layers prior to the manufacture. Two optical active IRT are used. The first is pulsed thermography (PT) which is the most widely utilized IRT technique. The second is a line-scan thermography (LST) technique: a dynamic technique, which can be employed for the inspection of materials by heating a component, line-by-line, while acquiring a series of thermograms with an infrared camera. It is especially suitable for inspection of large parts as well as complex shaped parts. A computational model developed using COMSOL Multiphysics® was used in order to simulate the inspections. Sequences obtained from PT and LST were processed using principal component thermography (PCT) for comparison. Results showed that it is possible to detect insertions of different sizes at different depths using both PT and LST IRT techniques.

  14. Perceived image quality assessment for color images on mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyesung; Kim, Choon-Woo

    2015-01-01

    With increase in size and resolution of mobile displays and advances in embedded processors for image enhancement, perceived quality of images on mobile displays has been drastically improved. This paper presents a quantitative method to evaluate perceived image quality of color images on mobile displays. Three image quality attributes, colorfulness, contrast and brightness, are chosen to represent perceived image quality. Image quality assessment models are constructed based on results of human visual experiments. In this paper, three phase human visual experiments are designed to achieve credible outcomes while reducing time and resources needed for visual experiments. Values of parameters of image quality assessment models are estimated based on results from human visual experiments. Performances of different image quality assessment models are compared.

  15. BES Monitoring & Displaying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengWANG; BingyunZHANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    BES1 Monitoring & Displaying System(BESMDS)is projected to monitor and display the running status of DAQ and Slow Control systems of BES through the Web for worldwide accessing.It provides a real-time remote means of monitoring as well as an approach to study the environmental influence upon physical data taking.The system collects real-time data separately from BES online subsystems by network sockets and stores the data into a database.People can access the system through its web site.which retrieves data on request from the database and can display results in dynamically created images.Its web address in http:// besmds,ihep.ac.cn/

  16. Spin-1 Ising model on tetrahedron recursive lattices: Exact results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the ferromagnetic spin-1 Ising model on the tetrahedron recursive lattices. An exact solution of the model is found in the framework of which it is shown that the critical temperatures of the second order phase transitions of the model are driven by a single equation simultaneously on all such lattices. It is also shown that this general equation for the critical temperatures is equivalent to the corresponding polynomial equation for the model on the tetrahedron recursive lattice with arbitrary given value of the coordination number. The explicit form of these polynomial equations is shown for the lattices with the coordination numbers z = 6, 9, and 12. In addition, it is shown that the thermodynamic properties of all possible physical phases of the model are also completely driven by the corresponding single equations simultaneously on all tetrahedron recursive lattices. In this respect, the spontaneous magnetization, the free energy, the entropy, and the specific heat of the model are studied in detail.

  17. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  18. Droplet Reaction and Evaporation of Agents Model (DREAM). Glass model results; Sand model plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, A.R.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Agent Fate Program is generating an extensive set of quality agent fate data which is being used to develop highly accurate secondary evaporation predictive models. Models are being developed that cover a wide range of traditional chemical warfare agents deposited onto surfaces routinely found o

  19. Framework for effective use of multiple displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Kimber, Don; Zhao, Frank; Huang, Jeffrey

    2005-10-01

    Meeting environments, such as conference rooms, executive briefing centers, and exhibition spaces, are now commonly equipped with multiple displays, and will become increasingly display-rich in the future. Existing authoring/presentation tools such as PowerPoint, however, provide little support for effective utilization of multiple displays. Even using advanced multi-display enabled multimedia presentation tools, the task of assigning material to displays is tedious and distracts presenters from focusing on content. This paper describes a framework for automatically assigning presentation material to displays, based on a model of the quality of views of audience members. The framework is based on a model of visual fidelity which takes into account presentation content, audience members' locations, the limited resolution of human eyes, and display location, orientation, size, resolution, and frame rate. The model can be used to determine presentation material placement based on average or worst case audience member view quality, and to warn about material that would be illegible. By integrating this framework with a previous system for multi-display presentation [PreAuthor, others], we created a tool that accepts PowerPoint and/or other media input files, and automatically generates a layout of material onto displays for each state of the presentation. The tool also provides an interface allowing the presenter to modify the automatically generated layout before or during the actual presentation. This paper discusses the framework, possible application scenarios, examples of the system behavior, and our experience with system use.

  20. Effect of geometry of rice kernels on drying modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geometry of rice grain is commonly represented by sphere, spheroid or ellipsoid shapes in the drying models. Models using simpler shapes are easy to solve mathematically, however, deviation from the true grain shape might lead to large errors in predictions of drying characteristics such as, moistur...

  1. Urban traffic noise assessment by combining measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.; Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A model based monitoring system is applied on a local scale in an urban area to obtain a better understanding of the traffic noise situation. The system consists of a scalable sensor network and an engineering model. A better understanding is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures,

  2. Periodic Integration: Further Results on Model Selection and Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers model selection and forecasting issues in two closely related models for nonstationary periodic autoregressive time series [PAR]. Periodically integrated seasonal time series [PIAR] need a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. On the other

  3. Results from modeling and simulation of chemical downstream etch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Vosen, S.R.; Shon, J.W.; Larson, R.S.; Fox, C.A.; Buchenauer

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes modeling work performed at Sandia in support of Chemical Downstream Etch (CDE) benchmark and tool development programs under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with SEMATECH. The Chemical Downstream Etch (CDE) Modeling Project supports SEMATECH Joint Development Projects (JDPs) with Matrix Integrated Systems, Applied Materials, and Astex Corporation in the development of new CDE reactors for wafer cleaning and stripping processes. These dry-etch reactors replace wet-etch steps in microelectronics fabrication, enabling compatibility with other process steps and reducing the use of hazardous chemicals. Models were developed at Sandia to simulate the gas flow, chemistry and transport in CDE reactors. These models address the essential components of the CDE system: a microwave source, a transport tube, a showerhead/gas inlet, and a downstream etch chamber. The models have been used in tandem to determine the evolution of reactive species throughout the system, and to make recommendations for process and tool optimization. A significant part of this task has been in the assembly of a reasonable set of chemical rate constants and species data necessary for successful use of the models. Often the kinetic parameters were uncertain or unknown. For this reason, a significant effort was placed on model validation to obtain industry confidence in the model predictions. Data for model validation were obtained from the Sandia Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) experiments, from the literature, from the CDE Benchmark Project (also part of the Sandia/SEMATECH CRADA), and from the JDP partners. The validated models were used to evaluate process behavior as a function of microwave-source operating parameters, transport-tube geometry, system pressure, and downstream chamber geometry. In addition, quantitative correlations were developed between CDE tool performance and operation set points.

  4. Wave-current interactions: model development and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, Clement; Lyard, Florent; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    The coastal area concentrates many uses that require integrated management based on diagnostic and predictive tools to understand and anticipate the future of pollution from land or sea, and learn more about natural hazards at sea or activity on the coast. The realistic modelling of coastal hydrodynamics needs to take into account various processes which interact, including tides, surges, and sea state (Wolf [2008]). These processes act at different spatial scales. Unstructured-grid models have shown the ability to satisfy these needs, given that a good mesh resolution criterion is used. We worked on adding a sea state forcing in a hydrodynamic circulation model. The sea state model is the unstructured version of WAVEWATCH III c (Tolman [2008]) (which version is developed at IFREMER, Brest (Ardhuin et al. [2010]) ), and the hydrodynamic model is the 2D barotropic module of the unstructured-grid finite element model T-UGOm (Le Bars et al. [2010]). We chose to use the radiation stress approach (Longuet-Higgins and Stewart [1964]) to represent the effect of surface waves (wind waves and swell) in the barotropic model, as previously done by Mastenbroek et al. [1993]and others. We present here some validation of the model against academic cases : a 2D plane beach (Haas and Warner [2009]) and a simple bathymetric step with analytic solution for waves (Ardhuin et al. [2008]). In a second part we present realistic application in the Ushant Sea during extreme event. References Ardhuin, F., N. Rascle, and K. Belibassakis, Explicit wave-averaged primitive equations using a generalized Lagrangian mean, Ocean Modelling, 20 (1), 35-60, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.001, 2008. Ardhuin, F., et al., Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part I: Definition, Calibration, and Validation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40 (9), 1917-1941, doi:10.1175/2010JPO4324.1, 2010. Haas, K. A., and J. C. Warner, Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and

  5. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....

  6. Review of the dWind Model Conceptual Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Gleason, Michael; Preus, Robert; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-09-16

    This presentation provides an overview of the dWind model, including its purpose, background, and current status. Baring-Gould presented this material as part of the September 2015 WINDExchange webinar.

  7. Gravimetric and 1D fullwave modelling results across the Donbas Foldbelt, Ukrania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngsie, S. B.; Thybo, H.; Dobrefraction Workinggroup

    2003-04-01

    The Donbas Foldbelt, the uplifted and deformed part of the up to 20 km thick Dniepr-Donets Basin (Southeast Ukraine), formed as the result of intra-cratonic rifting. Rifting is believed to have affected large parts of the East European Craton in the Late Devonian. Numerous reflection- and refraction seismic studies have been carried out in the Dniepr-Donets basin, but only a few have targeted the Donbas Foldbelt. A seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection survey (DOBRE’99) was carried out during 1999. The seismic profile has a strike almost perpendicular to the rift axis. The profile has a length of 360 km, reaching from the shores of the Azov sea in the southwest, across the Azov Massif and the Donbas Foldbelt, ending at the Ukraine-Russia border in the Voronezh Massif to the northeast. Complimentary to the refraction survey, a reflection survey (DOBRE 2000) was carried out during 2000. The reflection profile covers the central and southern part of the Donbas Foldbelt, and is coincident to the refraction profile. Gravity modelling by joint inversion indicates high-density syn-rift deposits, possibly alkali-basaltic extrusives in the central part of the basin, and a high-density lower crust beneath the basin. The gravity model supports the results from the raytracing models (DOBREfraction Workinggroup), which divide the crust in the massifs, adjacent to the basin, into upper-, middle- and lower parts. A distinction between the upper- and middle parts cannot be made under the basin in either the raytracing models or the gravity model. Comparison between the reflection seismic profile (DOBREflection Workinggroup) and the gravity model reveals that the high-densities are coincident with high reflectivity. One-dimensional full wave reflectivity modelling yields detailed information on the lower crustal properties beneath the basin. The results indicate that the high-density and reflectivity of the lower curst is likely caused by inhomogeneties (sills). The

  8. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...

  9. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  10. The Ultimate Display

    CERN Document Server

    Fluke, C J

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images and datasets are increasingly high-resolution and multi-dimensional. The vast majority of astronomers perform all of their visualisation and analysis tasks on low-resolution, two-dimensional desktop monitors. If there were no technological barriers to designing the ultimate stereoscopic display for astronomy, what would it look like? What capabilities would we require of our compute hardware to drive it? And are existing technologies even close to providing a true 3D experience that is compatible with the depth resolution of human stereoscopic vision? We consider the CAVE2 (an 80 Megapixel, hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment directly integrated with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-powered supercomputer) and the Oculus Rift (a low- cost, head-mounted display) as examples at opposite financial ends of the immersive display spectrum.

  11. The Animal Model Determines the Results of Aeromonas Virulence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alejandro; Saraceni, Paolo R.; Merino, Susana; Figueras, Antonio; Tomás, Juan M.; Novoa, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analyzed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1ΔvapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild-type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1ΔrmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the AH-1ΔwahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim) and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella). They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study demonstrates

  12. Homology modelling and bivalent single-chain Fv construction of anti-HepG2 single-chain immunoglobulin Fv fragments from a phage display library

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ming Ni; Bing Yu; Y U Huang; Zhenjie Tang; Ping Lei; Xin Shen; Wei Xin; Huifen Zhu; Guanxin Shen

    2008-12-01

    We prepared single-chain immunoglobulin Fv fragments (scFv) SLH10 specific for the HepG2 cell line after biopanning from a large human-naïve phage display library (Griffin. 1 Library). The three-dimensional (3D) structure of SLH10 was modelled by the Insight II molecule simulation software. The structure was refined using the molecular dynamics method. The structures with the least steric clashes and lowest energy were determined finally. The optimized structures of heavy (VH) and light (VL) variable chains of SLH10 scFv were obtained. Then SLH10 bivalent single-chain Fv (BsFv) was constructed that would be suitable for high-affinity targeting. SLH10 BsFv was generated by linking scFvs together and identified by sequencing. Its expression products were confirmed by western blot analysis. The relative molecular masses of scFv and BsFv were approximately 30 kDa and 60 kDa, respectively. Flow cytometry revealed that SLH10 BsFv bound the selected cell lines with greater signal intensity than the parental scFv. The improved antigen binding of SLH10 BsFv may be useful for immunodiagnostics or targeted gene therapy for liver cancer.

  13. Results of the 2013 UT modeling benchmark obtained with models implemented in CIVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toullelan, Gwénaël; Raillon, Raphaële; Chatillon, Sylvain [CEA, LIST, 91191Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lonne, Sébastien [EXTENDE, Le Bergson, 15 Avenue Emile Baudot, 91300 MASSY (France)

    2014-02-18

    The 2013 Ultrasonic Testing (UT) modeling benchmark concerns direct echoes from side drilled holes (SDH), flat bottom holes (FBH) and corner echoes from backwall breaking artificial notches inspected with a matrix phased array probe. This communication presents the results obtained with the models implemented in the CIVA software: the pencilmodel is used to compute the field radiated by the probe, the Kirchhoff approximation is applied to predict the response of FBH and notches and the SOV (Separation Of Variables) model is used for the SDH responses. The comparison between simulated and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  14. Preliminary results of a three-dimensional radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hirok, W. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Clouds act as the primary modulator of the Earth`s radiation at the top of the atmosphere, within the atmospheric column, and at the Earth`s surface. They interact with both shortwave and longwave radiation, but it is primarily in the case of shortwave where most of the uncertainty lies because of the difficulties in treating scattered solar radiation. To understand cloud-radiative interactions, radiative transfer models portray clouds as plane-parallel homogeneous entities to ease the computational physics. Unfortunately, clouds are far from being homogeneous, and large differences between measurement and theory point to a stronger need to understand and model cloud macrophysical properties. In an attempt to better comprehend the role of cloud morphology on the 3-dimensional radiation field, a Monte Carlo model has been developed. This model can simulate broadband shortwave radiation fluxes while incorporating all of the major atmospheric constituents. The model is used to investigate the cloud absorption anomaly where cloud absorption measurements exceed theoretical estimates and to examine the efficacy of ERBE measurements and cloud field experiments. 3 figs.

  15. Reply: New results justify open discussion of alternative models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew; Stein, Seth; Weber, John; Engeln, Joseph; Mao, Aitlin; Dixon, Timothy

    A millennium ago, Jewish sages wrote that “the rivalry of scholars increases wisdom.” In contrast, Schweig et al. (Eos, this issue) demand that “great caution” be exercised in discussing alternatives to their model of high seismic hazard in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). We find this view surprising; we have no objection to their and their coworkers' extensive efforts promoting their model in a wide variety of public media, but see no reason not to explore a lower-hazard alternative based on both new data and reanalysis of data previously used to justify their model. In our view, the very purpose of collecting new data and reassessing existing data is to promote spirited testing and improvement of existing hypotheses. For New Madrid, such open reexamination seems scientifically appropriate, given the challenge of understanding intraplate earthquakes, and socially desirable because of the public policy implications.

  16. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...... is whether a bubble model with infinite variance can create the long swings, or persistence, which are observed in many macro variables. We say that a variable is persistent if its autoregressive coefficient ¿(n) of y(t) on y(t-1), is close to one. We show that the estimator of ¿(n) converges to ¿p...

  17. Transmission resonance Raman spectroscopy: experimental results versus theoretical model calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Alicia G; González Ureña, Ángel

    2012-10-01

    A laser spectroscopic technique is described that combines transmission and resonance-enhanced Raman inelastic scattering together with low laser power (view, a model for the Raman signal dependence on the sample thickness is also presented. Essentially, the model considers the sample to be homogeneous and describes the underlying physics using only three parameters: the Raman cross-section, the laser-radiation attenuation cross-section, and the Raman signal attenuation cross-section. The model was applied successfully to describe the sample-size dependence of the Raman signal in both β-carotene standards and carrot roots. The present technique could be useful for direct, fast, and nondestructive investigations in food quality control and analytical or physiological studies of animal and human tissues.

  18. Results on a Binding Neuron Model and Their Implications for Modified Hourglass Model for Neuronal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical models of single neuron like Hodgkin-Huxley point neuron or leaky integrate and fire neuron assume the influence of postsynaptic potentials to last till the neuron fires. Vidybida (2008 in a refreshing departure has proposed models for binding neurons in which the trace of an input is remembered only for a finite fixed period of time after which it is forgotten. The binding neurons conform to the behaviour of real neurons and are applicable in constructing fast recurrent networks for computer modeling. This paper develops explicitly several useful results for a binding neuron like the firing time distribution and other statistical characteristics. We also discuss the applicability of the developed results in constructing a modified hourglass network model in which there are interconnected neurons with excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs. Limited simulation results of the hourglass network are presented.

  19. Some vaccination strategies for the SEIR epidemic model. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a vaccination-based control strategy for a SEIR (susceptible plus infected plus infectious plus removed populations) propagation disease model. The model takes into account the total population amounts as a refrain for the illness transmission since its increase makes more difficult contacts among susceptible and infected. The control objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero.

  20. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  1. Results From Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, Kevin [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  2. Guinea-pig ileum as ex vivo model useful to characterize ligands displaying Imidazoline I2 and Adrenergic alpha2 mixed activity: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialessandra Contino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an effective analgesic treatment makes pain a clinical challenge and the need of a novel approach to identify new agents is urgent. In this scenario I2-ligands can be considered an alternative strategy in pain therapy. The development of an ex vivo model useful for the evaluation of functional activities at both a2 and I2-IBs (imidazoline binding sites is an important task in pharmacological sciences since several I2 ligands display activity also towards a receptors. The present study aims to develop an ex vivo model for estimating the activity of I2-IBs ligands in a biological sample where a1 and a2 adrenergic receptors are present. For this purpose the imidalzoline endogenous ligand, harmane, reference compounds, 2BFI and BU224, and imidazoline derivatives 1-3 have been selected taking into account their in vitro activity towards IBs and adrenergic receptors. All compounds have been tested ex vivo in guinea pig-ileum where a2A-ARs are prejunctionally and I2-IBS postjunctionally localized. Adrenergic component has been identified by the studying the interference of compounds on the electrically-evoked contraction while I2-IBs activity by testing the ability of compounds to inhibit the carbachol-evoked contractions in the presence of prazosin to mask the a1 adrenoceptors. Compounds 1 and 2 were found I2-IBs antago nists (pIC50=4.2 and 4.0, respectively whereas compound 3 was I2-IBs agonist (EC50=0.38 mM; All ligands were a2 adrenergic agonists. This paper suggests guinea-pig ileum as the first ex vivo approach for establishing both the intrinsic activity of I2-IBs ligands and the physiological correlation between IBs and adrenergic system.

  3. A novel transgenic rat model with a full Alzheimer's-like amyloid pathology displays pre-plaque intracellular amyloid-beta-associated cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Wanda Carolina; Canneva, Fabio; Partridge, Vanessa; Allard, Simon; Ferretti, Maria Teresa; DeWilde, Arald; Vercauteren, Freya; Atifeh, Ramtin; Ducatenzeiler, Adriana; Klein, William; Szyf, Moshe; Alhonen, Leena; Cuello, A Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology in which amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide accumulates in different brain areas leading to deposition of plaques and a progressive decline of cognitive functions. After a decade in which a number of transgenic (Tg) mouse models mimicking AD-like amyloid-deposition pathology have been successfully generated, few rat models have been reported that develop intracellular and extracellular Abeta accumulation, together with impairment of cognition. The generation of a Tg rat reproducing the full AD-like amyloid pathology has been elusive. Here we describe the generation and characterization of a new transgenic rat line, coded McGill-R-Thy1-APP, developed to express the human amyloid-beta precursor protein (AbetaPP) carrying both the Swedish and Indiana mutations under the control of the murine Thy1.2 promoter. The selected mono-transgenic line displays an extended phase of intraneuronal Abeta accumulation, already apparent at 1 week after birth, which is widespread throughout different cortical areas and the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus). Homozygous Tg animals eventually produce extracellular Abeta deposits and, by 6 months of age, dense, thioflavine S-positive, amyloid plaques are detected, associated with glial activation and surrounding dystrophic neurites. The cognitive functions in transgenic McGill-R-Thy1-APP rats, as assessed using the Morris water maze task, were found already altered as early as at 3 months of age, when no CNS plaques are yet present. The spatial cognitive impairment becomes more prominent in older animals (13 months), where the behavioral performance of Tg rats positively correlates with the levels of soluble Abeta (trimers) measured in the cortex.

  4. The Wobbler mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS displays hippocampal hyperexcitability, and reduced number of interneurons, but no presynaptic vesicle release impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina D Thielsen

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease. It is a fatal degenerative disease, best recognized for its debilitating neuromuscular effects. ALS however also induces cognitive impairments in as many as 50% of affected individuals. Moreover, many ALS patients demonstrate cortical hyperexcitability, which has been shown to precede the onset of clinical symptoms. The wobbler mouse is a model of ALS, and like ALS patients the wobbler mouse displays cortical hyperexcitability. Here we investigated if the neocortical aberrations of the wobbler mouse also occur in the hippocampus. Consequently, we performed extracellular field excitatory postsynaptic potential recordings in the CA1 region of the hippocampus on acute brain slices from symptomatic (P45-P60 and presymptomatic (P17-P21 wobbler mice. Significant increased excitation of hippocampal synapses was revealed by leftward shifted input/output-curves in both symptomatic and presymptomatic wobbler mice, and substantiated by population spike occurrence analyses, demonstrating that the increased synaptic excitation precedes the onset of visible phenotypic symptoms in the mouse. Synaptic facilitation tested by paired-pulse facilitation and trains in wobbler and control mice showed no differences, suggesting the absence of presynaptic defects. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that symptomatic wobbler mice have a lower number of parvalbumin positive interneurons when compared to controls and presymptomatic mice. This study reveals that the wobbler mouse model of ALS exhibits hippocampal hyperexcitability. We suggest that the hyperexcitability could be caused by increased excitatory synaptic transmission and a concomitant reduced inhibition due to a decreased number of parvalbumin positive interneurons. Thus we substantiate that wobbler brain impairments are not confined to the motor cortex, but extend to the hippocampus. Importantly, we have revealed more

  5. Some Results On The Modelling Of TSS Manufacturing Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MÎNZU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling of a particular class of manufacturing lines, governed by a decentralised control strategy so that they balance themselves. Such lines are known as “bucket brigades” and also as “TSS lines”, after their first implementation, at Toyota, in the 70’s. A first study of their behaviour was based upon modelling as stochastic dynamic systems, which emphasised, in the frame of the so-called “Normative Model”, a sufficient condition for self-balancing, that means for autonomous functioning at a steady production rate (stationary behaviour. Under some particular conditions, a simulation analysis of TSS lines could be made on non-linear block diagrams, showing that the state trajectories are piecewise continuous in between occurrences of certain discrete events, which determine their discontinuity. TSS lines may therefore be modelled as hybrid dynamic systems, more specific, with autonomous switching and autonomous impulses (jumps. A stability analysis of such manufacturing lines is allowed by modelling them as hybrid dynamic systems with discontinuous motions.

  6. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauker, F. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Storch, H. von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2000-07-01

    A dynamical downscaling for the North Sea is presented. The numerical model used for the study is the coupled ice-ocean model OPYC. In a hindcast of the years 1979 to 1993 it was forced with atmospheric forcing of the ECMWF reanalysis. The models capability in simulating the observed mean state and variability in the North Sea is demonstrated by the hindcast. Two time scale ranges, from weekly to seasonal and the longer-than-seasonal time scales are investigated. Shorter time scales, for storm surges, are not captured by the model formulation. The main modes of variability of sea level, sea-surface circulation, sea-surface temperature, and sea-surface salinity are described and connections to atmospheric phenomena, like the NAO, are discussed. T106 ''time-slice'' simulations with a ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' horizon are used to estimate the effects of a changing climate on the shelf sea ''North Sea''. The ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' changes in the surface forcing are accompanied by changes in the lateral oceanic boundary conditions taken from a global coupled climate model. For ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' the time mean sea level increases up to 25 cm in the German Bight in the winter, where 15 cm are due to the surface forcing and 10 cm due to thermal expansion. This change is compared to the ''natural'' variability as simulated in the ECMWF integration and found to be not outside the range spanned by it. The variability of sea level on the weekly-to-seasonal time-scales is significantly reduced in the scenario integration. The variability on the longer-than-seasonal time-scales in the control and scenario runs is much smaller then in the ECMWF integration. This is traced back to the use of ''time-slice'' experiments. Discriminating between locally forced changes and changes induced at the lateral oceanic boundaries of the model in the circulation and

  7. Virtual acoustic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  8. A Dissipative Model for Hydrogen Storage: Existence and Regularity Results

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodaroli, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    We prove global existence of a solution to an initial and boundary value problem for a highly nonlinear PDE system. The problem arises from a termomechanical dissipative model describing hydrogen storage by use of metal hydrides. In order to treat the model from an analytical point of view, we formulate it as a phase transition phenomenon thanks to the introduction of a suitable phase variable. Continuum mechanics laws lead to an evolutionary problem involving three state variables: the temperature, the phase parameter and the pressure. The problem thus consists of three coupled partial differential equations combined with initial and boundary conditions. Existence and regularity of the solutions are here investigated by means of a time discretization-a priori estimate-passage to the limit procedure joined with compactness and monotonicity arguments.

  9. Vaccination strategies for SEIR models using feedback linearization. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    A linearization-based feedback-control strategy for a SEIR epidemic model is discussed. The vaccination objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero. The disease controlpolicy is designed based on a feedback linearization technique which provides a general method to generate families of vaccination policies with sound technical background.

  10. Recent results in the NJL model with heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmann, T

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the interplay of chiral and heavy quark symmetries by using the NJL quark model. Heavy quarks with finite masses m(Q) as well as the limit m(Q) to infinity are studied. We found large corrections to the heavy mass scaling law for the pseudoscalar decay constant. The influence of external momenta on the shape parameters of the Isgur-Wise form factor is discussed.

  11. How the user views visual displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the psychophysiological level, the result can be ineffective use of a system leading to an inherently error- and failure-prone system. Therefore, to minimize failures in a human-interactive system, it is essential that designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affect how the user gathers and processes information. By understanding the significant processing characteristics of the user, designers can implement practical and effective visual displays (or any other type of system) that are more desirable to all users. The material presented in this paper is based on a general study that involved users` perspective views of how visual displays should be designed for effective use. The methodology used was Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), because of its applicability in expanding design choices from the users` ``model of the world.`` The findings of the study have provided a beginning in the development of user comfort parameters and visual displays.

  12. Blade element momentum modeling of inflow with shear in comparison with advanced model results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Riziotis, V.; Zahle, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    There seems to be a significant uncertainty in aerodynamic and aeroelastic simulations on megawatt turbines operating in inflow with considerable shear, in particular with the engineering blade element momentum (BEM) model, commonly implemented in the aeroelastic design codes used by industry....... Computations with advanced vortex and computational fluid dynamics models are used to provide improved insight into the complex flow phenomena and rotor aerodynamics caused by the sheared inflow. One consistent result from the advanced models is the variation of induced velocity as a function of azimuth when...... a higher power than in uniform flow. On the basis of the consistent azimuthal induction variations seen in the advanced model results, three different BEM implementation methods are discussed and tested in the same aeroelastic code. A full local BEM implementation on an elemental stream tube in both...

  13. The physical model of a terraced plot: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlotto, Chiara; D'Agostino, Vincenzo; Buzzanca, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Terrace building have been expanded in the 19th century because of the increased demographic pressure and the need to crop additional areas at steeper slopes. Terraces are also important to regulate the hydrological behavior of the hillslope. Few studies are available in literature on rainfall-runoff processes and flood risk mitigation in terraced areas. Bench terraces, reducing the terrain slope and the length of the overland flow, quantitatively control the runoff flow velocity, facilitating the drainage and thus leading to a reduction of soil erosion. The study of the hydrologic-hydraulic function of terraced slopes is essential in order to evaluate their possible use to cooperate for flood-risk mitigation also preserving the landscape value. This research aims to better focus the times of the hydrological response, which are determined by a hillslope plot bounded by a dry-stone wall, considering both the overland flow and the groundwater. A physical model, characterized by a quasi-real scale, has been built to reproduce the behavior of a 3% outward sloped terrace at bare soil condition. The model consists of a steel metal box (1 m large, 3.3 m long, 2 m high) containing the hillslope terrain. The terrain is equipped with two piezometers, 9 TDR sensors measuring the volumetric water content, a surface spillway at the head releasing the steady discharge under test, a scale at the wall base to measure the outflowing discharge. The experiments deal with different initial moisture condition (non-saturated and saturated), and discharges of 19.5, 12.0 and 5.0 l/min. Each experiment has been replicated, conducting a total number of 12 tests. The volumetric water content analysis produced by the 9 TDR sensors was able to provide a quite satisfactory representation of the soil moisture during the runs. Then, different lag times at the outlet since the inflow initiation were measured both for runoff and groundwater. Moreover, the time of depletion and the piezometer

  14. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus cycles and dissolved oxygen in the Zhujiang Estuary Ⅱ. Model results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Weibing; Wong Lai-Ah; Xu Dongfeng

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the ecosystem-based water quality model was applied to the Pearl River (Zhujiang) Estuary. The model results successfully represent the distribution trend of nutrients and dissolved oxygen both in the horizontal and vertical planes during the flood season, and it shows that the model has taken into consideration the key part of the dynamical, chemical and biological processes existing in the Zhujiang Estuary. The further studies illustrate that nitrogen is in plenty while phosphorus and light limit the phytoplankton biomass in the Zhujiang Estuary during the flood season.

  15. Exact results in modeling planetary atmospheres-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelkowski, J. [Institut fuer Atmosphaere und Umwelt, J.W. Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt, Campus Riedberg, Altenhoferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)], E-mail: Pelkowski@meteor.uni-frankfurt.de; Chevallier, L. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Laboratoire LUTH, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon cedex (France); Rutily, B. [Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CNRS, UMR 5574, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (France); Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, F-69007 Lyon (France); Titaud, O. [Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMI 2807 CNRS-UChile, Blanco Encalada 2120 - 7 Piso, Casilla 170 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile)

    2008-01-15

    We apply the semi-gray model of our previous paper to the particular case of the Earth's atmosphere, in order to illustrate quantitatively the inverse problem associated with the direct problem we dealt with before. From given climatological values of the atmosphere's spherical albedo and transmittance for visible radiation, the single-scattering albedo and the optical thickness in the visible are inferred, while the infrared optical thickness is deduced for given global average surface temperature. Eventually, temperature distributions in terms of the infrared optical depth will be shown for a terrestrial atmosphere assumed to be semi-gray and, locally, in radiative and thermodynamic equilibrium.

  16. Exact results in modeling planetary atmospheres-I. Gray atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, L. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Laboratoire LUTH, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon cedex (France)]. E-mail: loic.chevallier@obspm.fr; Pelkowski, J. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik, J.W. Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt, Robert Mayer Strasse 1, D-60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Rutily, B. [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, F-69000 (France) and Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, F-69622 (France) and Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andre, Saint-Genis Laval cedex, F-69561 (France) and CNRS, UMR 5574; Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2007-04-15

    An exact model is proposed for a gray, isotropically scattering planetary atmosphere in radiative equilibrium. The slab is illuminated on one side by a collimated beam and is bounded on the other side by an emitting and partially reflecting ground. We provide expressions for the incident and reflected fluxes on both boundary surfaces, as well as the temperature of the ground and the temperature distribution in the atmosphere, assuming the latter to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Tables and curves of the temperature distribution are included for various values of the optical thickness. Finally, semi-infinite atmospheres illuminated from the outside or by sources at infinity is dealt with.

  17. Delta-tilde interpretation of standard linear mixed model results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per Bruun; Amorim, Isabel de Sousa; Kuznetsova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    effects relative to the residual error and to choose the proper effect size measure. For multi-attribute bar plots of F-statistics this amounts, in balanced settings, to a simple transformation of the bar heights to get them transformed into depicting what can be seen as approximately the average pairwise...... for factors with differences in number of levels. For mixed models, where in general the relevant error terms for the fixed effects are not the pure residual error, it is suggested to base the d-prime-like interpretation on the residual error. The methods are illustrated on a multifactorial sensory profile...... inherently challenging effect size measure estimates in ANOVA settings....

  18. Analysis of temporal stability of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    An analysis has been made of the stability of the images generated by electronic autostereoscopic 3D displays, studying the time course of the photometric and colorimetric parameters. The measurements were made on the basis of the procedure recommended in the European guideline EN 61747-6 for the characterization of electronic liquid-crystal displays (LCD). The study uses 3 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and numbers of pixels, taking the measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). For each of the displays, the time course is shown for the tristimulus values and the chromaticity coordinates in the XYZ CIE 1931 system and values from the time periods required to reach stable values of these parameters are presented. For the analysis of how the procedure recommended in the guideline EN 61747-6 for 2D displays influenced the results, and for the adaption of the procedure to the characterization of 3D displays, the experimental conditions of the standard procedure were varied, making the stability analysis in the two ocular channels (RE and LE) of the 3D mode and comparing the results with those corresponding to the 2D. The results of our study show that the stabilization time of a autostereoscopic 3D display with parallax barrier technology depends on the tristimulus value analysed (X, Y, Z) as well as on the presentation mode (2D, 3D); furthermore, it was found that whether the 3D mode is used depends on the ocular channel evaluated (RE, LE).

  19. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  20. Large Deviation Results for Generalized Compound Negative Binomial Risk Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan-chao Kong; Chen Shen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we extend and improve some results of the large deviation for random sums of random variables.Let {Xn;n≥1} be a sequence of non-negative,independent and identically distributed random variables with common heavy-tailed distribution function F and finite mean μ∈R+,{N(n);n≥0} be a sequence of negative binomial distributed random variables with a parameter p ∈(0,1),n≥0,let {M(n);n≥0} be a Poisson process with intensity λ0.Suppose {N(n);n≥0},{Xn;n≥1} and {M(n);n≥0} are mutually results.These results can be applied to certain problems in insurance and finance.

  1. The kiwi fruit peptide kissper displays anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in in-vitro and ex-vivo human intestinal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciacci, C; Russo, I; Bucci, C; Iovino, P; Pellegrini, L; Giangrieco, I; Tamburrini, M; Ciardiello, M A

    2014-03-01

    Literature reports describe kiwi fruit as a food with significant effects on human health, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Fresh fruit or raw kiwi fruit extracts have been used so far to investigate these effects, but the molecule(s) responsible for these health-promoting activities have not yet been identified. Kissper is a kiwi fruit peptide displaying pore-forming activity in synthetic lipid bilayers, the composition of which is similar to that found in intestinal cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the kissper influence on intestinal inflammation using cultured cells and ex-vivo tissues from healthy subjects and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of kissper were tested on Caco-2 cells and on the colonic mucosa from 23 patients with CD, by challenging with the lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS) and monitoring the appropriate markers by Western blot and immunofluorescence. EC-LPS challenge determined an increase in the intracellular concentration of calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The peptide kissper was highly effective in preventing the increase of LPS-induced ROS levels in both the Caco-2 cells and CD colonic mucosa. Moreover, it controls the calcium increase, p65-nuclear factor (NF)-kB induction and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) activation inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and CD colonic mucosa. Kissper efficiently counteracts the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in valuable model systems consisting of intestinal cells and CD colonic mucosa. This study reports the first evidence supporting a possible correlation between some beneficial effects of kiwi fruit and a specific protein molecule rather than generic nutrients.

  2. Theoretical Modeling of ISO Results on Planetary Nebula NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M.; Federman, S. R.; Dalgarno, A.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    1999-04-01

    We present a thermal and chemical model of the neutral envelope of planetary nebula NGC 7027. In our model, the neutral envelope is composed of a thin dense shell of constant density and an outer stellar wind region with the usual inverse-square law density profile. The thermal and chemical structure is calculated with the assumption that the incident radiation field on the inner surface equals 0.5×105 times Draine's fit to the average interstellar far-ultraviolet field. The rate coefficient for H2 formation on grains is assumed to be 1/5 the usual value to take into account the lower dust-gas mass ratio in the neutral envelope of NGC 7027. The calculated temperature in the dense shell decreases from 3000 to under 200 K. Once the temperature drops to 200 K, we assume that it remains at 200 K until the outer edge of the dense shell is reached, so that the observed intensities of CO J=16-15, 15-14, and 14-13 lines can be reproduced. The 200 K temperature can be interpreted as the average temperature of the shocked gas just behind the forward shock front in the framework of the interacting stellar wind theory. We calculate the intensities of the molecular far-infrared rotational lines by using a revised version of the escape probability formalism. The theoretical intensities for rotational lines of CO (from J=29-28 to J=14-13), CH+, OH, and CH are shown to be in good agreement with ISO observations. The H2 rovibrational line intensities are also calculated and are in agreement with available observations.

  3. A Mathematical Model and Simulation Results of the Dynamic System Railway Vehicle Wheel–Track with a Wheel Flat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Žygienė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the system Railway Vehicle Wheel–Track with a wheel flat of a wheelset has been made. The system Railway Vehicle Wheel–Track has been examined on the vertical plane. The mathematical model of the system Railway Vehicle Wheel–Track has employed linear, nonlinear, elastic and damping discrete elements. Rail dynamics haves been described using the finite element method. The unevenness of the rail and the wheel of the wheelset have been evaluated considering the contact between the rail and the wheel flat of the wheelset. The analysis of dynamic processes taking place in a railway vehicle wheel with the wheel flat moving at speed V = 60 km/h has been accomplished. The results of mathematical modelling of the above introduced dynamic system have been presented along with graphically displayed research findings of the conducted research.

  4. Combining forming results via weld models to powerful numerical assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kose, K.; Rietman, Bert

    2004-01-01

    Forming simulations generally give satisfying results with respect to thinning, stresses, changed material properties and, with a proper springback calculation, the geometric form. The joining of parts by means of welding yields an extra change of the material properties and the residual stresses.

  5. Combining forming results via weld models to powerful numerical assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kose, K.; Rietman, B.

    2004-01-01

    Forming simulations generally give satisfying results with respect to thinning, stresses, changed material properties and, with a proper springback calculation, the geometric form. The joining of parts by means of welding yields an extra change of the material properties and the residual stresses. W

  6. Garuda: a scalable tiled display wall using commodity PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirnimesh; Harish, Pawan; Narayanan, P J

    2007-01-01

    Cluster-based tiled display walls can provide cost-effective and scalable displays with high resolution and a large display area. The software to drive them needs to scale too if arbitrarily large displays are to be built. Chromium is a popular software API used to construct such displays. Chromium transparently renders any OpenGL application to a tiled display by partitioning and sending individual OpenGL primitives to each client per frame. Visualization applications often deal with massive geometric data with millions of primitives. Transmitting them every frame results in huge network requirements that adversely affect the scalability of the system. In this paper, we present Garuda, a client-server-based display wall framework that uses off-the-shelf hardware and a standard network. Garuda is scalable to large tile configurations and massive environments. It can transparently render any application built using the Open Scene Graph (OSG) API to a tiled display without any modification by the user. The Garuda server uses an object-based scene structure represented using a scene graph. The server determines the objects visible to each display tile using a novel adaptive algorithm that culls the scene graph to a hierarchy of frustums. Required parts of the scene graph are transmitted to the clients, which cache them to exploit the interframe redundancy. A multicast-based protocol is used to transmit the geometry to exploit the spatial redundancy present in tiled display systems. A geometry push philosophy from the server helps keep the clients in sync with one another. Neither the server nor a client needs to render the entire scene, making the system suitable for interactive rendering of massive models. Transparent rendering is achieved by intercepting the cull, draw, and swap functions of OSG and replacing them with our own. We demonstrate the performance and scalability of the Garuda system for different configurations of display wall. We also show that the

  7. Image Descriptors for Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    hypothetical televison display. The viewing distance is 4 picture heights, and the bandwidth limitation has been set by the U.S. Monochrome Standards...significantly influence the power spectrum over most of the video frequency range. A large dc component and a small random component provide another scene... influences . It was Illuminated with natural light to a brightness of over 300 ft-L. The high brightness levels were chosen so as to nearly reproduce the

  8. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  9. X-1 on display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  10. Modeling Framework and Results to Inform Charging Infrastructure Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market is experiencing rapid growth with dozens of battery electric (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) models already available and billions of dollars being invested by automotive manufacturers in the PEV space. Electric range is increasing thanks to larger and more advanced batteries and significant infrastructure investments are being made to enable higher power fast charging. Costs are falling and PEVs are becoming more competitive with conventional vehicles. Moreover, new technologies such as connectivity and automation hold the promise of enhancing the value proposition of PEVs. This presentation outlines a suite of projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office to conduct assessments of the economic value and charging infrastructure requirements of the evolving PEV market. Individual assessments include national evaluations of PEV economic value (assuming 73M PEVs on the road in 2035), national analysis of charging infrastructure requirements (with community and corridor level resolution), and case studies of PEV ownership in Columbus, OH and Massachusetts.

  11. Standard Model Higgs results from ATLAS and CMS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221190; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The properties of the Higgs boson particle were measured with the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC at the centre-of-mass energies 7 TeV and 8 TeV. The combined data samples of the ATLAS and CMS experiments were used for the measurements of the Higgs boson mass and couplings. Furthermore, the CP and spin analysis done separately with the CMS and ATLAS experiments are described. Moreover, first results of the Higgs boson cross section at the centre-of-mass energy 13 TeV in the channels H->ZZ->4leptons and H->gamma+gamma with the ATLAS detector are presented.

  12. Display depth analyses with the wave aberration for the auto-stereoscopic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Chen, Duo; Chen, Zhidong; Zhang, Wanlu; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-07-01

    Because the aberration severely affects the display performances of the auto-stereoscopic 3D display, the diffraction theory is used to analyze the diffraction field distribution and the display depth through aberration analysis. Based on the proposed method, the display depth of central and marginal reconstructed images is discussed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. Increasing the viewing distance or decreasing the lens aperture can improve the display depth. Different viewing distances and the LCD with two lens-arrays are used to verify the conclusion.

  13. Stress Resultant Based Elasto-Viscoplastic Thick Shell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Woelke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents enhancement introduced to the elasto-viscoplastic shell formulation, which serves as a theoretical base for the finite element code EPSA (Elasto-Plastic Shell Analysis [1–3]. The shell equations used in EPSA are modified to account for transverse shear deformation, which is important in the analysis of thick plates and shells, as well as composite laminates. Transverse shear forces calculated from transverse shear strains are introduced into a rate-dependent yield function, which is similar to Iliushin's yield surface expressed in terms of stress resultants and stress couples [12]. The hardening rule defined by Bieniek and Funaro [4], which allows for representation of the Bauschinger effect on a moment-curvature plane, was previously adopted in EPSA and is used here in the same form. Viscoplastic strain rates are calculated, taking into account the transverse shears. Only non-layered shells are considered in this work.

  14. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  15. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Evangelia [Queen Mary, University of London; Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Weber, William J [ORNL; Seaton, M [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Todorov, I T [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki; Dove, Martin T [Queen Mary, University of London; Trachenko, Kostya [Queen Mary, University of London

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  16. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, E., E-mail: zarkadoulae@ornl.gov [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Devanathan, R. [Nuclear Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Weber, W. J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Scientific Computing Department, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nordlund, K. [University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Dove, M. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Trachenko, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1–0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  17. Characterization of the rotating display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, J W; Fahey, F H; Harkness, B A; Eggli, D F; Balseiro, J; Ziessman, H A

    1988-09-01

    The rotating display is a useful method for reviewing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. This study evaluated the requirements for a subjectively pleasing and useful implementation of this technique. Twelve SPECT data sets were modified and viewed by several observers who recorded the minimum framing rates for apparent smooth rotation, 3D effect, effects of image size, and other parameters. The results showed that a minimum of 16 frames was needed for a useful display. Smaller image sizes and more frames were preferred. The recommended minimal framing rate for a 64-frame study is 16-17 frames per second and for a 32-frame study, 12-13 frames per second. Other enhancements also were useful.

  18. Loss of laforin or malin results in increased Drp1 level and concomitant mitochondrial fragmentation in Lafora disease mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Agarwal, Saloni; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2017-04-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive form of a fatal disorder characterized by the myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia, psychosis, dementia, and dysarthria. A hallmark of LD is the presence of abnormal glycogen inclusions called Lafora bodies in the affected tissues including the neurons. LD can be caused by defects either in the laforin phosphatase coded by the EPM2A gene or in the malin E3 ubiquitin ligase coded by the NHLRC1 gene. The mouse models of LD, created by the targeted disruption of the LD genes, display several neurodegenerative changes. Prominent among them are the autophagic defects, abnormally large lysosomes, neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid beta deposits, and abnormal mitochondria. However, whether or not such neurodegenerative changes are a direct effect of the loss of laforin/malin was not unequivocally established. Here, we show that laforin- or malin-deficient neurons and fibroblasts display a significantly higher number of fragmented mitochondria. Loss of laforin or malin resulted in increased levels of the mitochondrial fission GTPase Drp1, its enhanced mitochondrial targeting, and increased intracellular calcium levels. Intriguingly, laforin and malin display opposite effects on the cellular level of parkin, an ubiquitin ligase of Drp1; loss of laforin led to reduced levels of parkin while the loss of malin resulted in increased parkin levels. Laforin and malin, however, interact with and positively regulate the activity of parkin, thus explaining the molecular basis of increased Drp1 levels in LD tissues. Our results suggest that laforin and malin are novel regulators of mitochondrial quality control pathway and that the mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the increased Drp1 levels could underlie neuropathology in LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. First results from the International Urban Energy Balance Model Comparison: Model Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, M.; Grimmond, S.; Best, M.

    2009-04-01

    A great variety of urban energy balance models has been developed. These vary in complexity from simple schemes that represent the city as a slab, through those which model various facets (i.e. road, walls and roof) to more complex urban forms (including street canyons with intersections) and features (such as vegetation cover and anthropogenic heat fluxes). Some schemes also incorporate detailed representations of momentum and energy fluxes distributed throughout various layers of the urban canopy layer. The models each differ in the parameters they require to describe the site and the in demands they make on computational processing power. Many of these models have been evaluated using observational datasets but to date, no controlled comparisons have been conducted. Urban surface energy balance models provide a means to predict the energy exchange processes which influence factors such as urban temperature, humidity, atmospheric stability and winds. These all need to be modelled accurately to capture features such as the urban heat island effect and to provide key information for dispersion and air quality modelling. A comparison of the various models available will assist in improving current and future models and will assist in formulating research priorities for future observational campaigns within urban areas. In this presentation we will summarise the initial results of this international urban energy balance model comparison. In particular, the relative performance of the models involved will be compared based on their degree of complexity. These results will inform us on ways in which we can improve the modelling of air quality within, and climate impacts of, global megacities. The methodology employed in conducting this comparison followed that used in PILPS (the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes) which is also endorsed by the GEWEX Global Land Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) panel. In all cases, models were run

  20. PICASSO VISION instrument design, engineering model test results, and flight model development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsilä, Antti; Holmlund, Christer; Mannila, Rami; Näkki, Ismo; Ojanen, Harri J.; Akujärvi, Altti; Saari, Heikki; Fussen, Didier; Pieroux, Didier; Demoulin, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    PICASSO - A PICo-satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations is an ESA project led by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, in collaboration with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Clyde Space Ltd. (UK) and Centre Spatial de Liège (BE). The test campaign for the engineering model of the PICASSO VISION instrument, a miniaturized nanosatellite spectral imager, has been successfully completed. The test results look very promising. The proto-flight model of VISION has also been successfully integrated and it is waiting for the final integration to the satellite platform.

  1. Modelling combustion reactions for gas flaring and its resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saheed Ismail

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flaring of associated petroleum gas is an age long environmental concern which remains unabated. Flaring of gas maybe a very efficient combustion process especially steam/air assisted flare and more economical than utilization in some oil fields. However, it has serious implications for the environment. This study considered different reaction types and operating conditions for gas flaring. Six combustion equations were generated using the mass balance concept with varying air and combustion efficiency. These equations were coded with a computer program using 12 natural gas samples of different chemical composition and origin to predict the pattern of emission species from gas flaring. The effect of key parameters on the emission output is also shown. CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 are the anticipated non-hydrocarbon emissions of environmental concern. Results show that the quantity and pattern of these chemical species depended on percentage excess/deficiency of stoichiometric air, natural gas type, reaction type, carbon mass content, impurities, combustion efficiency of the flare system etc. These emissions degrade the environment and human life, so knowing the emission types, pattern and flaring conditions that this study predicts is of paramount importance to governments, environmental agencies and the oil and gas industry.

  2. Modelling of a water plasma flow: I. Basic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KotalIk, Pavel [INP Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-06-21

    One-fluid MHD equations are numerically solved for an axisymmetric flow of thermal water plasma inside and outside a discharge chamber of a plasma torch with water vortex stabilization of electric arc. Comparisons with experimental data and previous calculations are given. For arc currents of 300-600 A, the respective temperatures and velocities in the range 16 700-26 400 K and 2300-6900 m s{sup -1} are obtained at the centre of the nozzle exit. The flow velocity on axis increases by 1-2 km s{sup -1} in the 5 mm long nozzle. Ohmic heating and radiative losses are two competitive processes influencing most the plasma temperature and velocity. The radiative losses represent 39% to 46% of the torch power of 69-174 kW when optical thickness of 3 mm is assumed for the plasma column. In front of the cathode, inside the discharge chamber, a recirculation zone is predicted and discussed. Effects of the temperature dependence of the plasma viscosity and sound velocity and of the optical thickness are examined. It is shown that the results such as waviness of the Mach number isolines are direct consequences of these dependences. Different lengths of 55 and 60 mm of the water vortex stabilized part of the electric arc do not substantially influence the plasma temperature and velocity at the nozzle exit.

  3. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  4. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  5. A Flight Investigation of Control, Display, and Guidance Requirements for Decelerating Descending VTOL Instrument Transitions using the X-22A Variable Stability Aircraft. Volume 1. Technical Discussion and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    airspeed/ground speed switching logic, configuration change command. 5.0 Selection of control system types , individual system characteristics...all five control system types in combination with the three most sophisticated display presentations is intended to provide some guidance in...deceleration profiles. 2. The required dynamic characteristics of the generic control system types investigated in this experiment should be

  6. Display Developer for Firing Room Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The firing room at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is responsible for all NASA human spaceflight launch operations, therefore it is vital that all displays within the firing room be properly tested, up-to-date, and user-friendly during a launch. The Ground Main Propulsion System (GMPS) requires a number of remote displays for Vehicle Integration and Launch (VIL) Operations at KSC. My project is to develop remote displays for the GMPS using the Display Services and Framework (DSF) editor. These remote displays will be based on model images provided by GMPS through PowerPoint. Using the DSF editor, the PowerPoint images can be recreated with active buttons associated with the correct Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs). These displays will be documented in the Software Requirements and Design Specifications (SRDS) at the 90% GMPS Design Review. In the future, these remote displays will be available for other developers to improve, edit, or add on to so that the display may be incorporated into the firing room to be used for launches.

  7. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newberg Lee A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results.

  8. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Lee A

    2009-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results. PMID:19589158

  9. Implementing the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) in a general circulation model: Methodologies and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N.; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Schneider, E. K.; Shukla, J.; Kinter, J. L., III; Hou, Y.-T.; Albertazzi, E.

    1989-01-01

    The Simple Biosphere MOdel (SiB) of Sellers et al., (1986) was designed to simulate the interactions between the Earth's land surface and the atmosphere by treating the vegetation explicitly and relistically, thereby incorporating biophysical controls on the exchanges of radiation, momentum, sensible and latent heat between the two systems. The steps taken to implement SiB in a modified version of the National Meteorological Center's spectral GCM are described. The coupled model (SiB-GCM) was used with a conventional hydrological model (Ctl-GCM) to produce summer and winter simulations. The same GCM was used with a conventional hydrological model (Ctl-GCM) to produce comparable 'control' summer and winter variations. It was found that SiB-GCM produced a more realistic partitioning of energy at the land surface than Ctl-GCM. Generally, SiB-GCM produced more sensible heat flux and less latent heat flux over vegetated land than did Ctl-GCM and this resulted in the development of a much deeper daytime planetary boundary and reduced precipitation rates over the continents in SiB-GCM. In the summer simulation, the 200 mb jet stream and the wind speed at 850 mb were slightly weakened in the SiB-GCM relative to the Ctl-GCM results and equivalent analyses from observations.

  10. SOLIDFELIX: a transportable 3D static volume display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Kreft, Alexander; Wörden, Henrik Tom

    2009-02-01

    Flat 2D screens cannot display complex 3D structures without the usage of different slices of the 3D model. Volumetric displays like the "FELIX 3D-Displays" can solve the problem. They provide space-filling images and are characterized by "multi-viewer" and "all-round view" capabilities without requiring cumbersome goggles. In the past many scientists tried to develop similar 3D displays. Our paper includes an overview from 1912 up to today. During several years of investigations on swept volume displays within the "FELIX 3D-Projekt" we learned about some significant disadvantages of rotating screens, for example hidden zones. For this reason the FELIX-Team started investigations also in the area of static volume displays. Within three years of research on our 3D static volume display at a normal high school in Germany we were able to achieve considerable results despite minor funding resources within this non-commercial group. Core element of our setup is the display volume which consists of a cubic transparent material (crystal, glass, or polymers doped with special ions, mainly from the rare earth group or other fluorescent materials). We focused our investigations on one frequency, two step upconversion (OFTS-UC) and two frequency, two step upconversion (TFTSUC) with IR-Lasers as excitation source. Our main interest was both to find an appropriate material and an appropriate doping for the display volume. Early experiments were carried out with CaF2 and YLiF4 crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Er3+-ions which were excited in order to create a volumetric pixel (voxel). In addition to that the crystals are limited to a very small size which is the reason why we later investigated on heavy metal fluoride glasses which are easier to produce in large sizes. Currently we are using a ZBLAN glass belonging to the mentioned group and making it possible to increase both the display volume and the brightness of the images significantly. Although, our display is currently

  11. The response of an equatorial ocean to simple wind stress patterns. I - Model formulation and analytic results. II - Numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    A time-dependent, primitive equation, beta plane model that is two-dimensional in the horizontal has been developed to model wind-driven equatorial ocean circulation. A simple vertical structure consisting of two layers above the thermocline with the same constant density permits a steady-state undercurrent in the model. An analytical study of the linear dynamics of the model suggests that the addition of inertial effects is needed to simulate the undercurrent properly. Also, both linear and nonlinear dynamics of the model are investigated numerically. Such nonlinear response to wind stress as a strong eastward equatorial undercurrent and an intense eastward 'countercurrent' at three deg N are noted in the numerical results.

  12. A population-based model of the nonlinear dynamics of the thalamocortical feedback network displays intrinsic oscillations in the spindling (7-14 Hz) range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Nada A B; Denham, Michael

    2005-12-01

    The thalamocortical network is modelled using the Wilson-Cowan equations for neuronal population activity. We show that this population model with biologically derived parameters possesses intrinsic nonlinear oscillatory dynamics, and that the frequency of oscillation lies within the spindle range. Spindle oscillations are an early sleep oscillation characterized by high-frequency bursts of action potentials followed by a period of quiescence, at a frequency of 7-14 Hz. Spindles are generally regarded as being generated by intrathalamic circuitry, as decorticated thalamic slices and the isolated thalamic reticular nucleus exhibit spindles. However, the role of cortical feedback has been shown to regulate and synchronize the oscillation. Previous modelling studies have mainly used conductance-based models and hence the mechanism relied upon the inclusion of ionic currents, particularly the T-type calcium current. Here we demonstrate that spindle-frequency oscillatory activity can also arise from the nonlinear dynamics of the thalamocortical circuit, and we use bifurcation analysis to examine the robustness of this oscillation in terms of the functional range of the parameters used in the model. The results suggest that the thalamocortical circuit has intrinsic nonlinear population dynamics which are capable of providing robust support for oscillatory activity within the frequency range of spindle oscillations.

  13. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  14. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  15. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  16. A novel mouse model for ataxia-telangiectasia with a N-terminal mutation displays a behavioral defect and a low incidence of lymphoma but no increased oxidative burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Andrew; Krupp, Brittany; Bushman, Jared; Noble, Mark; Pröschel, Christoph; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2015-11-15

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare multi-system disorder caused by mutations in the ATM gene. Significant heterogeneity exists in the underlying genetic mutations and clinical phenotypes. A number of mouse models have been generated that harbor mutations in the distal region of the gene, and a recent study suggests the presence of residual ATM protein in the brain of one such model. These mice recapitulate many of the characteristics of A-T seen in humans, with the notable exception of neurodegeneration. In order to study how an N-terminal mutation affects the disease phenotype, we generated an inducible Atm mutant mouse model (Atm(tm1Mmpl/tm1Mmpl), referred to as A-T [M]) predicted to express only the first 62 amino acids of Atm. Cells derived from A-T [M] mutant mice exhibited reduced cellular proliferation and an altered DNA damage response, but surprisingly, showed no evidence of an oxidative imbalance. Examination of the A-T [M] animals revealed an altered immunophenotype consistent with A-T. In contrast to mice harboring C-terminal Atm mutations that disproportionately develop thymic lymphomas, A-T [M] mice developed lymphoma at a similar rate as human A-T patients. Morphological analyses of A-T [M] cerebella revealed no substantial cellular defects, similar to other models of A-T, although mice display behavioral defects consistent with cerebellar dysfunction. Overall, these results suggest that loss of Atm is not necessarily associated with an oxidized phenotype as has been previously proposed and that loss of ATM protein is not sufficient to induce cerebellar degeneration in mice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-12-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  18. Integration of intraoperative and model-updated images into an industry-standard neuronavigation system: initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaewe, Timothy J.; Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Hartov, Alex; Hiemenz Holton, Leslie; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Simon, David A.

    2013-03-01

    Dartmouth and Medtronic have established an academic-industrial partnership to develop, validate, and evaluate a multimodality neurosurgical image-guidance platform for brain tumor resection surgery that is capable of updating the spatial relationships between preoperative images and the current surgical field. Previous studies have shown that brain shift compensation through a modeling framework using intraoperative ultrasound and/or visible light stereovision to update preoperative MRI appears to result in improved accuracy in navigation. However, image updates have thus far only been produced retrospective to surgery in large part because of gaps in the software integration and information flow between the co-registration and tracking, image acquisition and processing, and image warping tasks which are required during a case. This paper reports the first demonstration of integration of a deformation-based image updating process for brain shift modeling with an industry-standard image guided surgery platform. Specifically, we have completed the first and most critical data transfer operation to transmit volumetric image data generated by the Dartmouth brain shift modeling process to the Medtronic StealthStation® system. StealthStation® comparison views, which allow the surgeon to verify the correspondence of the received updated image volume relative to the preoperative MRI, are presented, along with other displays of image data such as the intraoperative 3D ultrasound used to update the model. These views and data represent the first time that externally acquired and manipulated image data has been imported into the StealthStation® system through the StealthLink® portal and visualized on the StealthStation® display.

  19. Perceptual transparency in neon color spreading displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2002-08-01

    In neon color spreading displays, both a color illusion and perceptual transparency can be seen. In this study, we investigated the color conditions for the perception of transparency in such displays. It was found that the data are very well accounted for by a generalization of Metelli's (1970) episcotister model of balanced perceptual transparency to tristimulus values. This additive model correctly predicted which combinations of colors would lead to optimal impressions of transparency. Color combinations deviating slightly from the additive model also looked transparent, but less convincingly so.

  20. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  1. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  2. Charge-density analysis using multipolar atom and spherical charge models: 2-methyl-1,3-cyclopentanedione, a compound displaying a resonance-assisted hydrogen bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassour, Ayoub; Kubicki, Maciej; Wright, Jonathan; Borowiak, Teresa; Dutkiewicz, Grzegorz; Lecomte, Claude; Jelsch, Christian

    2014-04-01

    The experimental charge-density distribution in 2-methyl-1,3-cyclopentanedione in the crystal state was analyzed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction data collection at 0.33 Å resolution. The molecule in the crystal is in the enol form. The experimental electron density was refined using the Hansen-Coppens multipolar model and an alternative modeling, based on spherical atoms and additional charges on the covalent bonds and electron lone-pair sites. The crystallographic refinements, charge-density distributions, molecular electrostatic potentials, dipole moments and intermolecular interaction energies obtained from the different charge-density models were compared. The experimental results are also compared with the theoretical charge densities using theoretical structure factors obtained from periodic quantum calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G** level. A strong intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bond connects molecules along the [001] direction. The deformation density maps show the resonance within the O=C-C=C-OH fragment and merged lone pair lobes on the hydroxyl O atom. This resonance is further confirmed by the analysis of charges and topology of the electron density.

  3. Pilot performance with a simulated ILS independence pictorial display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E.; Wempe, T.

    1972-01-01

    As part of a general investigation of the effectiveness of pictorial displays for manual control and monitoring of aircraft approaches and landings, a simulator study was conducted in which pilot performance with three pictorial displays was evaluated. These displays differed in the type of guidance symbology added to the basic perspective runway display. The effect of decreased resolution and update rate of the runway image on pilot performance was also determined. The results indicate that for pictorial displays with added guidance symbology, there was a marked improvement in pilot performance compared to results of a previous study in which the display consisted of only a runway image and aircraft attitude.

  4. Data Display in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Verdinelli PsyD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual displays help in the presentation of inferences and conclusions and represent ways of organizing, summarizing, simplifying, or transforming data. Data displays such as matrices and networks are often utilized to enhance data analysis and are more commonly seen in quantitative than in qualitative studies. This study reviewed the data displays used by three prestigious qualitative research journals within a period of three years. The findings include the types of displays used in these qualitative journals, the frequency of use, and the purposes for using visual displays as opposed to presenting data in text.

  5. Towards more accurate isoscapes encouraging results from wine, water and marijuana data/model and model/model comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Cerling, T.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how the biosphere responds to change it at the heart of biogeochemistry, ecology, and other Earth sciences. The dramatic increase in human population and technological capacity over the past 200 years or so has resulted in numerous, simultaneous changes to biosphere structure and function. This, then, has lead to increased urgency in the scientific community to try to understand how systems have already responded to these changes, and how they might do so in the future. Since all biospheric processes exhibit some patchiness or patterns over space, as well as time, we believe that understanding the dynamic interactions between natural systems and human technological manipulations can be improved if these systems are studied in an explicitly spatial context. We present here results of some of our efforts to model the spatial variation in the stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) of plants over large spatial extents, and how these spatial model predictions compare to spatially explicit data. Stable isotopes trace and record ecological processes and as such, if modeled correctly over Earth's surface allow us insights into changes in biosphere states and processes across spatial scales. The data-model comparisons show good agreement, in spite of the remaining uncertainties (e.g., plant source water isotopic composition). For example, inter-annual changes in climate are recorded in wine stable isotope ratios. Also, a much simpler model of leaf water enrichment driven with spatially continuous global rasters of precipitation and climate normals largely agrees with complex GCM modeling that includes leaf water δ18O. Our results suggest that modeling plant stable isotope ratios across large spatial extents may be done with reasonable accuracy, including over time. These spatial maps, or isoscapes, can now be utilized to help understand spatially distributed data, as well as to help guide future studies designed to understand ecological change across

  6. Image quality of a mobile display under different illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Hung; Kuo, Wen-Hung

    2011-08-01

    This study constructed the image quality models for a small mobile display under different ambient illumination levels using Group Method and Data Handling (GMDH) and described the relationship between perceived image quality and physical measurements. 33 college students took part in this experiment and were asked to evaluate the image quality under 1500 lux (typical indoor office illumination) and 7000 lux (simulated outdoor environment) in Stage One and Stage Two, respectively. In each stage, the participants had to evaluate 21 images. 17 sets of the data as a training set were used to build the model and four sets of the data as a testing set were used to verify the model. The results indicated that the effects of luminance, contrast, correlated color temperature (CCT), and resolution were significant on perceived image quality under 1500 lux. However, color temperature was not a significant physical characteristic, and an interaction between luminance and contrast was found below 7000 lux. From the results of the experiment, it is considered that the outdoor environment (7000 lux) is not suitable for using mobile displays. Finally, once a valid image quality model is built, the subjective image quality can be established when the measurements of significant physical characteristics are provided. The results of subjective ratings can also be provided for mobile display manufacturers to improve the product quality so that their products can meet customers' requirements.

  7. 两供应商单零售商的货架展示量与定价决策模型%Two Suppliers and One Retailer's Shelf-Display-Quantity and Pricing Decision Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星

    2011-01-01

    From the point of view of the retailers, firstly, retailer's decentralized decisions with profit-maximization are analyzed. Secondly, two centralized decision models are studied for maximizing profits of the whole supply chain system and the allied channel consisting of the supplier and retailer respectively. And then, the contract of subsidy on the basis of wholesale price which is relevant with display quantity and retail price is mentioned. which obtains decentralized decisions of coordinating retailer, and achieve the result that is consistent with the decision of maximizing profits of the system.%本文从零售商的角度,首先分析了零售商自身利润最大化的分散式决策,然后分别研究了供应链系统利润最大化、供应商和零售商联盟下的渠道利润最大化的集中式决策模型.进而提出了与展示量和零售价格相关的批发价加补贴合同,得到协调零售商的分散式决策,达到与系统利润最大化决策一致的结果.

  8. Ergonomic concerns with lightbar guidance displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ima, C S; Mann, D D

    2004-05-01

    This article reviews some ergonomic factors associated with agricultural guidance displays. Any technology or management decision that improves the efficiency of an agricultural operation can be considered an aspect of precision farming. Agricultural guidance displays are one such tool because they help to reduce guidance error (i.e., skipping and overlapping of implements within the field), which result in improper application of crop inputs at increased cost. Although each of the guidance displays currently available functions using a different principle, their key objective is to communicate useful guidance information to the operator of the agricultural machine. The case with which the operator obtains the required information depends on a number of ergonomic factors, such as color perceptibility, flash rate, attentional demand, display size, viewing distance, and height of placement of the display in the cab. Ergonomics can be defined as the application of knowledge to create a safe, comfortable, and effective work environment. Consequently, it is critical to consider ergonomics when designing guidance displays or when locating a display in the tractor cab. Without considering ergonomics, it is unlikely that the efficiency of the human-machine system can be optimized.

  9. Quantitative analysis and parametric display of regional myocardial mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusemann, Christian D.; Bellemann, Matthias E.; Robb, Richard A.

    2000-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of regional heart motion has significant potential for more accurate diagnosis of heart disease and/or cardiac irregularities. Local heart motion may be studied from medical imaging sequences. Using functional parametric mapping, regional myocardial motion during a cardiac cycle can be color mapped onto a deformable heart model to obtain better understanding of the structure- to-function relationships in the myocardium, including regional patterns of akinesis or diskinesis associated with ischemia or infarction. In this study, 3D reconstructions were obtained from the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor at 15 time points throughout one cardiac cycle of pre-infarct and post-infarct hearts. Deformable models were created from the 3D images for each time point of the cardiac cycles. Form these polygonal models, regional excursions and velocities of each vertex representing a unit of myocardium were calculated for successive time-intervals. The calculated results were visualized through model animations and/or specially formatted static images. The time point of regional maximum velocity and excursion of myocardium through the cardiac cycle was displayed using color mapping. The absolute value of regional maximum velocity and maximum excursion were displayed in a similar manner. Using animations, the local myocardial velocity changes were visualized as color changes on the cardiac surface during the cardiac cycle. Moreover, the magnitude and direction of motion for individual segments of myocardium could be displayed. Comparison of these dynamic parametric displays suggest that the ability to encode quantitative functional information on dynamic cardiac anatomy enhances the diagnostic value of 4D images of the heart. Myocardial mechanics quantified this way adds a new dimension to the analysis of cardiac functional disease, including regional patterns of akinesis and diskinesis associated with ischemia and infarction. Similarly, disturbances in

  10. Routing and advanced display technologies within STOMPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittu, Ranjeev; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.; McCune, Justin

    1998-08-01

    This paper will discuss research conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of automated routing, advanced 3D displays and novel interface techniques for interacting with those displays. This research has culminated in the development of the strike optimized mission planing module (STOMPM). The STOMPM testbed incorporates new technologies/results in the aforementioned areas to address the deficiencies in current systems and advance the state of the art in military planing systems.

  11. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  12. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  13. Rapid display of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.; Whitman, Robert A.; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Karlsson, L. M.; Monsees, Thomas L.; Hassen, Gregory L.; David, Timothy C.

    1991-07-01

    The requirements for the rapid display of radiographic images exceed the capabilities of widely available display, computer, and communications technologies. Computed radiography captures data with a resolution of about four megapixels. Large-format displays are available that can present over four megapixels. One megapixel displays are practical for use in combination with large-format displays and in areas where the viewing task does not require primary diagnosis. This paper describes an electronic radiology system that approximates the highest quality systems, but through the use of several interesting techniques allows the possibility of its widespread installation throughout hospitals. The techniques used can be grouped under three major system concepts: a local, high-speed image server, one or more physician's workstations each with one or more high-performance auxiliary displays specialized to the radiology viewing task, and dedicated, high-speed communication links between the server and the displays. This approach is enhanced by the use of a progressive transmission scheme to decrease the latency for viewing four megapixel images. The system includes an image server with storage for over 600 4-megapixel images and a high-speed link. A subsampled megapixel image is fetched from disk and transmitted to the display in about one second followed by the full resolution 4-megapixel image in about 2.5 seconds. Other system components include a megapixel display with a 6-megapixel display memory space and frame-rate update of image roam, zoom, and contrast. Plans for clinical use are presented.

  14. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  15. Testing of Subgrid—Scale Stress Models by Using Results from Direct Numerical SImulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongruiGONG

    1998-01-01

    The most commonly used dynamic subgrid models,Germano's model and dynamic kinetic energy model,and their base models-the Smagorinsky model and the kinetic energy model,were tested using results from direct numerical simulations of various turbulent flows.In germano's dynamic model,the model coefficient was treated as a constant within the test filter,This treatment is conceptually inconsistent.An iteration procedure was proposed to calculate the model coefficient and an improved correlation coefficient was found.

  16. Constraining performance assessment models with tracer test results: a comparison between two conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Sean A.; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    Tracer tests are conducted to ascertain solute transport parameters of a single rock feature over a 5-m transport pathway. Two different conceptualizations of double-porosity solute transport provide estimates of the tracer breakthrough curves. One of the conceptualizations (single-rate) employs a single effective diffusion coefficient in a matrix with infinite penetration depth. However, the tracer retention between different flow paths can vary as the ratio of flow-wetted surface to flow rate differs between the path lines. The other conceptualization (multirate) employs a continuous distribution of multiple diffusion rate coefficients in a matrix with variable, yet finite, capacity. Application of these two models with the parameters estimated on the tracer test breakthrough curves produces transport results that differ by orders of magnitude in peak concentration and time to peak concentration at the performance assessment (PA) time and length scales (100,000 years and 1,000 m). These differences are examined by calculating the time limits for the diffusive capacity to act as an infinite medium. These limits are compared across both conceptual models and also against characteristic times for diffusion at both the tracer test and PA scales. Additionally, the differences between the models are examined by re-estimating parameters for the multirate model from the traditional double-porosity model results at the PA scale. Results indicate that for each model the amount of the diffusive capacity that acts as an infinite medium over the specified time scale explains the differences between the model results and that tracer tests alone cannot provide reliable estimates of transport parameters for the PA scale. Results of Monte Carlo runs of the transport models with varying travel times and path lengths show consistent results between models and suggest that the variation in flow-wetted surface to flow rate along path lines is insignificant relative to variability in

  17. Evaluation of streamflow simulation results of land surface models in GLDAS on the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peng; Liu, Xiaomang; Yang, Tiantian; Liang, Kang; Liu, Changming

    2016-10-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) project estimates long-term runoff based on land surface models (LSMs) and provides a potential way to solve the issue of nonexistent streamflow data in gauge-sparse regions such as the Tibetan Plateau (TP). However, the reliability of GLDAS runoff data must be validated before being practically applied. In this study, the streamflows simulated by four LSMs (CLM, Noah, VIC, and Mosaic) in GLDAS coupled with a river routing model are evaluated against observed streamflows in five river basins on the TP. The evaluation criteria include four aspects: monthly streamflow value, seasonal cycle of streamflow, annual streamflow trend, and streamflow component partitioning. The four LSMs display varying degrees of biases in monthly streamflow simulations: systematic overestimations are found in the Noah (1.74 ≤ bias ≤ 2.75) and CLM (1.22 ≤ bias ≤ 2.53) models, whereas systematic underestimations are observed in the VIC (0.36 ≤ bias ≤ 0.85) and Mosaic (0.34 ≤ bias ≤ 0.66) models. The Noah model shows the best performance in capturing the temporal variation in monthly streamflow and the seasonal cycle of streamflow, while the VIC model performs the best in terms of bias statistics. The Mosaic model provides the best performance in modeling annual runoff trends and runoff component partitioning. The possible reasons for the different performances of the LSMs are discussed in detail. In order to achieve more accurate streamflow simulations from the LSMs in GLDAS, suggestions are made to further improve the accuracy of the forcing data and parameterization schemes in all models.

  18. Fed state prior to hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma in a porcine model results in altered liver transcriptomic response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Determan

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of trauma-related mortality in both civilian and military settings. Resuscitation often results in reperfusion injury and survivors are susceptible to developing multiple organ failure (MOF. The impact of fed state on the overall response to shock and resuscitation has been explored in some murine models but few clinically relevant large animal models. We have previously used metabolomics to establish that the fed state results in a different metabolic response in the porcine liver following hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. In this study, we used our clinically relevant model of hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma and the Illumina HiSeq platform to determine if the liver transcriptomic response is also altered with respect to fed state. Functional analysis of the response to shock and resuscitation confirmed several typical responses including carbohydrate metabolism, cytokine inflammation, decreased cholesterol synthesis, and apoptosis. Our findings also suggest that the fasting state, relative to a carbohydrate prefed state, displays decreased carbohydrate metabolism, increased cytoskeleton reorganization and decreased inflammation in response to hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion. Evidence suggests that this is a consequence of a shrunken, catabolic state of the liver cells which provides an anti-inflammatory condition that partially mitigates hepatocellar damage.

  19. Precarious manhood and displays of physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Vandello, Joseph A; Burnaford, Rochelle M; Weaver, Jonathan R; Arzu Wasti, S

    2009-05-01

    The results of three experiments demonstrate that physically aggressive displays are part of men's cultural script for restoring threatened gender status. In Studies 1 and 2, challenges to men's gender status elicited heightened physically aggressive displays, including punching a pad with greater force and selecting an aggressive boxing activity over a nonaggressive puzzle activity. Study 3 established that a public display of aggressive readiness reduced men's anxiety-related cognitions in the wake of a gender threat. This suggests that aggressive displays may function to downregulate negative affect when manhood has been threatened. The discussion considers past research on gender and physical aggression in light of the authors' thesis that manhood, relative to womanhood, is culturally defined as a precarious status that must be actively, even aggressively, defended.

  20. Fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Daniel Aaron; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Conkar, Deniz; Nur Firat-Karalar, Elif; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2016-11-01

    The usage time of displays (e.g., TVs, mobile phones, etc) is in general shorter than their functional life time, which worsens the electronic waste (e-waste) problem around the world. The integration of biomaterials into electronics can help to reduce the e-waste problem. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs to use as a backlight source for liquid crystal (LC) displays for the first time. We express and purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric Cherry protein (mCherry), and afterward we integrate these proteins as a wavelength-converter on a blue LED chip. The protein-integrated backlight exhibits a high luminous efficacy of 248 lm/Wopt and the area of the gamut covers 80% of the NTSC color gamut. The resultant colors and objects in the image on the display can be well observed and distinguished. Therefore, fluorescent proteins show promise for display applications.

  1. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid Displays for UAS: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, Conrad; Fern, Lisa; Pack, Jessica; Shively, Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The pilot-in-the-loop Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays.

  2. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  3. Methodologies for the evaluation of CRT displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of experiments that have been conducted by the Human Factors Research Branch for the purpose of developing objective methods that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of cathode ray tube (CRT) generated displays in improving reactor operator performance. The results of this work can provide a basis for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to objectively evaluate specific licensee-developed display designs. The following methods have been developed: (1) Psychophysics - short exposure of static display types were presented to subjects who were tasked to report status of a given parameter; (2) Multidimensional Rating Scale - paper and pencil instrument employed by subjects to rate the features of a display type across a variety of psychological dimensions; (3) Checklist Evaluation - a paper and pencil instrument employed by subjects to assess particular display types according to a set of human engineering criteria; (4) Noninteractive Evaluation - a formal experiment where the subjects were requested to identify dynamic simulated transients using various display types; and (5) Interactive Evaluation - similar to the noninteractive, but the subjects interacted with the simulator using a touch screen to mitigate transient events.

  4. Review on optical constants of Titan aerosols: Experimental results and modeling/observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassé, Coralie; Muñoz, Olga; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François

    2014-05-01

    During the last years many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of optical constants of Titan aerosols. Indeed, the determination of the optical constants of these particles is essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and to scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Titan's radiative balance and climate. The study of optical properties is also crucial to analyze and to better interpret many of Titan's observational data, in particular those acquired during the Cassini-Huygens mission. One way to determine Titan aerosols optical constant is to measure the optical constants of analogues of Titan complex organic material synthesized in the laboratory, usually named Titan's tholins (Sagan and Khare, 1979). But the optical constants depend on the chemical composition, the size and the shape of particles (Raulin et al., 2012). Those three parameters result from the experimental conditions such as energy source, gas mixing ratio, gas pressure, flow rate and irradiation time (Cable et al., 2012). Besides the determination of the refractive index in the laboratory, there are others methods using theoretical models or observational data. Nevertheless, theoretical models are based on laboratory data or/and observational data. The visible - near infrared spectral region of optical constants has been widely studied with laboratory analogues. Comparison of the obtained results suggest that tholins synthesized by Tran et al. (2003) and Majhoub et al. (2012) are the best representative of Titan aerosols with regards to their refractive indexes in this spectral region. The mid-infrared spectral range has been studied only by Imanaka et al. (2012) and slightly by Tran et al. (2003). In that spectral range, Titan tholins do not exhibit the features displayed by Kim and Courtin (2013) from Titan's observations. For spectral region of wavelengths smaller than 0.20µm or higher than 25µm, only the data from Khare et al. (1984) are

  5. Model validation: Issues regarding comparisons of point measurements and high-resolution modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Anne D.; Skagseth, Øystein; Skogen, Morten D.

    2016-10-01

    In this study we compare a high resolution model of waters on the Norwegian Shelf with hydrographic observations obtained during 2009 at Ingøy, a fixed coastal station off northwestern Norway operated by the Institute of Marine Research. The observations comprise snapshots from Ingøy every two weeks, whereas the model represents an average over a certain volume and is continuous in time. We suggest that bias is the best way to compare the modeled and observed times series, while acknowledging the short-term variability (within a day) it is recommended to use the modeled range to estimate an acceptable deviation between single points in the series. Using the suggested method we conclude that an acceptable deviation between the modeled and observed surface temperatures at Ingøy is 0.6 °C. With such an acceptance level the model is correct in 27 out of 33 points for the time series considered.

  6. Comparison of Statistical Multifragmentation Model simulations with Canonical Thermodynamical Model results: a few representative cases

    CERN Document Server

    Botvina, A; Gupta, S Das; Mishustin, I

    2008-01-01

    The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) has been widely used to explain experimental data of intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. A later entrant in the field is the canonical thermodynamic model (CTM) which is also being used to fit experimental data. The basic physics of both the models is the same, namely that fragments are produced according to their statistical weights in the available phase space. However, they are based on different statistical ensembles, and the methods of calculation are different: while the SMM uses Monte-Carlo simulations, the CTM solves recursion relations. In this paper we compare the predictions of the two models for a few representative cases.

  7. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  8. Colorimetric evaluation of display performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2001-08-01

    The development of information techniques, using new technologies, physical phenomena and coding schemes, enables new application areas to be benefited form the introduction of displays. The full utilization of the visual perception of a human operator, requires the color coding process to be implemented. The evolution of displays, from achromatic (B&W) and monochromatic, to multicolor and full-color, enhances the possibilities of information coding, creating however a need for the quantitative methods of display parameter assessment. Quantitative assessment of color displays, restricted to photometric measurements of their parameters, is an estimate leading to considerable errors. Therefore, the measurements of a display's color properties have to be based on spectral measurements of the display and its elements. The quantitative assessment of the display system parameters should be made using colorimetric systems like CIE1931, CIE1976 LAB or LUV. In the paper, the constraints on the measurement method selection for the color display evaluation are discussed and the relations between their qualitative assessment and the ergonomic conditions of their application are also presented. The paper presents the examples of using LUV colorimetric system and color difference (Delta) E in the optimization of color liquid crystal displays.

  9. Regression mixture models : Does modeling the covariance between independent variables and latent classes improve the results?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, A.E.; Vermunt, J.K.; Van Horn, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Regression mixture models are increasingly used as an exploratory approach to identify heterogeneity in the effects of a predictor on an outcome. In this simulation study, we tested the effects of violating an implicit assumption often made in these models; that is, independent variables in the

  10. Modeling drifting snow in Antarctica with a regional climate model: 2. Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model study of the impact of drifting snow on the lower atmosphere, surface snow characteristics, and surface mass balance of Antarctica. We use the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.1/ANT with a high horizontal resolution (27 km), equipped with a drifting snow routine

  11. Modeling drifting snow in Antarctica with a regional climate model: 2. Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model study of the impact of drifting snow on the lower atmosphere, surface snow characteristics, and surface mass balance of Antarctica. We use the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.1/ANT with a high horizontal resolution (27 km), equipped with a drifting snow routine

  12. In Silico Model for Developmental Toxicity: How to Use QSAR Models and Interpret Their Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Marco; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Kulkarni, Sunil; Barton-Maclaren, Tara S; Benfenati, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Modeling developmental toxicity has been a challenge for (Q)SAR model developers due to the complexity of the endpoint. Recently, some new in silico methods have been developed introducing the possibility to evaluate the integration of existing methods by taking advantage of various modeling perspectives. It is important that the model user is aware of the underlying basis of the different models in general, as well as the considerations and assumptions relative to the specific predictions that are obtained from these different models for the same chemical. The evaluation on the predictions needs to be done on a case-by-case basis, checking the analogs (possibly using structural, physicochemical, and toxicological information); for this purpose, the assessment of the applicability domain of the models provides further confidence in the model prediction. In this chapter, we present some examples illustrating an approach to combine human-based rules and statistical methods to support the prediction of developmental toxicity; we also discuss assumptions and uncertainties of the methodology.

  13. Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Songlin; Wang, Peng; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Chengyu

    2016-05-30

    A video see-through augmented reality three-dimensional display method is presented. The system that is used for dense viewpoint augmented reality presentation fuses the light fields of the real scene and the virtual model naturally. Inherently benefiting from the rich information of the light field, depth sense and occlusion can be handled under no priori depth information of the real scene. A series of processes are proposed to optimize the augmented reality performance. Experimental results show that the reconstructed fused 3D light field on the autostereoscopic display is well presented. The virtual model is naturally integrated into the real scene with a consistence between binocular parallax and monocular depth cues.

  14. TL-118 and gemcitabine drug combination display therapeutic efficacy in a MYCN amplified orthotopic neuroblastoma murine model--evaluation by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar-Stossel, Chani; Gross, Eitan; Dery, Elia; Corchia, Nathalie; Meir, Karen; Fried, Iris; Abramovitch, Rinat

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial pediatric solid tumor with up to 50% of NB patients classified as having high-risk disease with poor long-term survival rates. The poor clinical outcome and aggressiveness of high-risk NB strongly correlates with enhanced angiogenesis, suggesting anti-angiogenic agents as attractive additions to the currently insufficient therapeutics. TL-118, a novel drug combination has been recently developed to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. In the current study, we used the SK-N-BE (2) cell line to generate orthotopic NB tumors in order to study the combinational therapeutic potential of TL-118 with either Gemcitabine (40 mg/kg; IP) or Retinoic acid (40 mg/kg; IP). We show that TL-118 treatment (n = 9) significantly inhibited tumor growth, increased cell apoptosis, reduced proliferation and extended mouse survival. Moreover, the reciprocal effect of TL-118 and Gemcitabine treatment (n = 10) demonstrated improved anti-tumor activity. The synergistic effect of these drugs in combination was more effective than either TL or Gemcitabine alone (n = 9), via significantly reduced cell proliferation (pTL-118 has the ability to suppress the growth of an aggressive NB tumor. The promising results with TL-118 in this aggressive animal model may imply that this drug combination has therapeutic potential in the clinical setting.

  15. TL-118 and Gemcitabine Drug Combination Display Therapeutic Efficacy in a MYCN Amplified Orthotopic Neuroblastoma Murine Model – Evaluation by MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar-Stossel, Chani; Gross, Eitan; Dery, Elia; Corchia, Nathalie; Meir, Karen; Fried, Iris; Abramovitch, Rinat

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial pediatric solid tumor with up to 50% of NB patients classified as having high-risk disease with poor long-term survival rates. The poor clinical outcome and aggressiveness of high-risk NB strongly correlates with enhanced angiogenesis, suggesting anti-angiogenic agents as attractive additions to the currently insufficient therapeutics. TL-118, a novel drug combination has been recently developed to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. In the current study, we used the SK-N-BE (2) cell line to generate orthotopic NB tumors in order to study the combinational therapeutic potential of TL-118 with either Gemcitabine (40 mg/kg; IP) or Retinoic acid (40 mg/kg; IP). We show that TL-118 treatment (n = 9) significantly inhibited tumor growth, increased cell apoptosis, reduced proliferation and extended mouse survival. Moreover, the reciprocal effect of TL-118 and Gemcitabine treatment (n = 10) demonstrated improved anti-tumor activity. The synergistic effect of these drugs in combination was more effective than either TL or Gemcitabine alone (n = 9), via significantly reduced cell proliferation (pTL-118 has the ability to suppress the growth of an aggressive NB tumor. The promising results with TL-118 in this aggressive animal model may imply that this drug combination has therapeutic potential in the clinical setting. PMID:24603724

  16. Recent results of searches for beyond Standard Model physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Serkin, Leonid; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Recent results of searches for beyond Standard Model physics in ATLAS are presented, with particular focus on searches for new phenomena in high jet multiplicity final states. No significant excess are observed and limits are set on several signal models.

  17. Updated defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  18. Pervasive displays understanding the future of digital signage

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Nigel; Alt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Fueled by falling display hardware costs and rising demand, digital signage and pervasive displays are becoming ever more ubiquitous. Such systems have traditionally been used for advertising and information dissemination, with digital signage commonplace in shopping malls, airports and public spaces. While advertising and broadcasting announcements remain important applications, developments in sensing and interaction technologies are enabling entirely new classes of display applications that tailor content to the situation and audience of the display. As a result, signage systems are beginni

  19. The MARINA model (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs): Model description and results for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin

    2016-08-15

    Chinese agriculture has been developing fast towards industrial food production systems that discharge nutrient-rich wastewater into rivers. As a result, nutrient export by rivers has been increasing, resulting in coastal water pollution. We developed a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs (MARINA) for China. The MARINA Nutrient Model quantifies river export of nutrients by source at the sub-basin scale as a function of human activities on land. MARINA is a downscaled version for China of the Global NEWS-2 (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model with an improved approach for nutrient losses from animal production and population. We use the model to quantify dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) export by six large rivers draining into the Bohai Gulf (Yellow, Hai, Liao), Yellow Sea (Yangtze, Huai) and South China Sea (Pearl) in 1970, 2000 and 2050. We addressed uncertainties in the MARINA Nutrient model. Between 1970 and 2000 river export of dissolved N and P increased by a factor of 2-8 depending on sea and nutrient form. Thus, the risk for coastal eutrophication increased. Direct losses of manure to rivers contribute to 60-78% of nutrient inputs to the Bohai Gulf and 20-74% of nutrient inputs to the other seas in 2000. Sewage is an important source of dissolved inorganic P, and synthetic fertilizers of dissolved inorganic N. Over half of the nutrients exported by the Yangtze and Pearl rivers originated from human activities in downstream and middlestream sub-basins. The Yellow River exported up to 70% of dissolved inorganic N and P from downstream sub-basins and of dissolved organic N and P from middlestream sub-basins. Rivers draining into the Bohai Gulf are drier, and thus transport fewer nutrients. For the future we calculate further increases in river export of nutrients. The MARINA Nutrient model quantifies the main sources of coastal water pollution for sub-basins. This information can contribute to formulation of

  20. The geothermal field below the city of Berlin, Germany: Results from structurally and parametrically improved 3D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Maximilian; Sippel, Judith; Cacace, Mauro; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the influence of the geological structure and geophysical parametrization of model units on the geothermal field as calculated by 3D numerical simulations of coupled fluid and heat transport for the subsurface of Berlin, Germany. The study area is located in the Northeast German Basin which is filled with several kilometers of sediments. This sedimentary infill includes the clastic sedimentary units Middle Buntsandstein and Sedimentary Rotliegend which are of particular interest for geothermal exploration. Previous studies conducted in the Northeast German Basin have already shown the geometries and properties of the geological units majorly control the distribution of subsurface temperatures. In this study we followed a two-step approach, where we first improved an existing structural model by integrating newly available 57 geological cross-sections, well data and deep seismics (down to ~4 km). Secondly, we performed a sensitivity analysis investigating the effects of varying physical fluid and rock properties on the subsurface temperature field. The results of this study show, that the structural configuration of model units exerts the highest influence on the geothermal field (up to ± 23 K at 1000 m below sea level). Here, the Rupelian clay aquitard, displaying a heterogeneous thickness distribution, locally characterized by hydrogeological windows (i.e. domains of no thickness) enabling intra-aquifer groundwater circulation has been identified as major controlling factor. The new structural configuration of this unit (more continuous, less numerous hydrogeological windows) also leads to a reduction of the influence of different boundary conditions and heat transport mechanisms considered. Additionally, the models results show that calculated temperatures highly depend on geophysical properties of model units whereas the hydraulic conductivity of the Cenozoic succession was identified as most dominant, leading to changes

  1. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  2. The Evaluation Model About the Result of Enterprise Technological Innovation Based on DAGF Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LikeMao; ZigangZhang

    2004-01-01

    Based on DAGF Algorithm, an evaluation model about the result of enterprise's technological innovation is proposed. Furthermore, establishment of its system of evaluation indicators and DAGF Algorithm are discussed in detail. Besides, the result of the case shows that the model is fit for evaluation of the result of enterprise's technological innovation.

  3. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  4. Evaluation model for the implementation results of mine law based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tao; Li, Xu

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the implementation results of mine safety production law, the evaluation model based on neural network is presented. In this model, 63 indicators which can describe the mine law effectively are proposed. The evaluation system is developed by using the model and the 63 indicators. The evaluation results show that the proposed method has high accuracy. We can effectively estimate the score of one mine for its carrying out the safety law. The estimate results are of scientific credibility and impartiality.

  5. Liquid crystal displays with high brightness of visualization versus active displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifierczuk, Marek; Zieliński, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) takes the very important place among different visualization devices. It's are used in many standard applications such as computer or video screens. In May 2006, 100" LCD TV monitor had been shown by LG. But beside of this main direction of display development, very interesting - because of insignificant electro-magnetic disturbances - is the possibility of it's applications in motorization and aviation. An example of it can be a glass cockpit of U2 , Boeing 777 or many different car dashboards. On this field beside LCD we have now many another display technologies, but interesting for us are 3 of them: FEDs (Field Emission Displays), OLEDs (Organic Light Emitting Diode), PLEDs (Polymer Light Emitting Diode). The leading position of LCD is a result of LCD unique advantages of flat form, weight, power consumption, and reliability, higher (than CRT) luminance, luminance uniformity, sunlight readability, wide dimming range, fault tolerance and a large active display area with a small border. The basis of starting our investigation was the comparison of passive LCD and the other technology, which can be theoretically used on motorization and aviation field. The following parameters are compared: contrast ratio, luminance level, temperature stability, life-time, operating temperature range, color performance, and depth, viewing cone, technology maturity, availability and cost. In our work an analysis of Liquid Crystal Displays used in specific applications is done. The possibilities of the applications such a display under high lighting level are presented. The presented results of this analysis are obtained from computer program worked by authors, which makes it possible to calculate the optical parameters of transmissive and reflective LCD working in quasi-real conditions. The base assumption of this program are shown. This program calculate the transmission and reflection coefficient of a display taking into account the

  6. Modeling chemistry in and above snow at Summit, Greenland – Part 1: Model description and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun-lit snow is increasingly recognized as a chemical reactor that plays an active role in uptake, transformation, and release of atmospheric trace gases. Snow is known to influence boundary layer air on a local scale, and given the large global surface coverage of snow may also be significant on regional and global scales.

    We present a new detailed one-dimensional snow chemistry module that has been coupled to the 1-D atmospheric boundary layer model MISTRA, we refer to the coupled model as MISTRA-SNOW. The new 1-D snow module, which is dynamically coupled to the overlaying atmospheric model, includes heat transport in the snowpack, molecular diffusion, and wind pumping of gases in the interstitial air. The model includes gas phase photochemistry and chemical reactions both in the interstitial air and the atmosphere. Heterogeneous and multiphase chemistry on atmospheric aerosol is considered explicitly. The chemical interaction of interstitial air with snow grains is simulated assuming chemistry in a liquid (aqueous layer on the grain surface. The model was used to investigate snow as the source of nitrogen oxides (NOx and gas phase reactive bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer in the remote snow covered Arctic (over the Greenland ice sheet as well as to investigate the link between halogen cycling and ozone depletion that has been observed in interstitial air. The model is validated using data taken 10 June–13 June, 2008 as part of the Greenland Summit Halogen-HOx experiment (GSHOX. The model predicts that reactions involving bromide and nitrate impurities in the surface snow at Summit can sustain atmospheric NO and BrO mixing ratios measured at Summit during this period.

  7. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  8. Review of Display Technologies Focusing on Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Fernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the main manufacturing technologies of displays, focusing on those with low and ultra-low levels of power consumption, which make them suitable for current societal needs. Considering the typified value obtained from the manufacturer’s specifications, four technologies—Liquid Crystal Displays, electronic paper, Organic Light-Emitting Display and Electroluminescent Displays—were selected in a first iteration. For each of them, several features, including size and brightness, were assessed in order to ascertain possible proportional relationships with the rate of consumption. To normalize the comparison between different display types, relative units such as the surface power density and the display frontal intensity efficiency were proposed. Organic light-emitting display had the best results in terms of power density for small display sizes. For larger sizes, it performs less satisfactorily than Liquid Crystal Displays in terms of energy efficiency.

  9. Visual displays and Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); VanHoozer, W.R. [Tranceformations Unlimited, Rigby, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Advancement of computer technology is forthcoming at such a rapid pace that the research concerning the interplay of humans and computer technology is lagging far behind. One area of particular concern is the design of visual displays that are pragmatic, ``user friendly,`` and ``user assisting.`` When engineers design visual displays, they generally do so methodically and logically, but only from within their own individual perspective or ``model of the world.`` They select the human aspects which make sense to them and not necessarily to non-engineers, operators, and others. The model design is what the engineer chooses to relate, based on his or her perspective of reality. These choices limit the model design thereby excluding the users` perspective. A set of techniques which can be used to assist the designers in expanding their choices and include the users` model is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP).

  10. Polarity effect in electrovibration for tactile display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Kurt A; Nammi, Krishnakant; Agarwal, Abhishek K; Tyler, Mitchell E; Haase, Steven J; Beebe, David J

    2006-10-01

    Electrovibration is the tactile sensation of an alternating potential between the human body and a smooth conducing surface when the skin slides over the surface and where the current is too small to stimulate sensory nerves directly. It has been proposed as a high-density tactile display method, for example to display pictographic information to persons who are blind. Previous models for the electrovibration transduction mechanism are based on a parallel-plate capacitor in which the electrostatic force is insensitive to polarity. We present experimental data showing that electrovibratory perceptual sensitivity to positive pulses is less than that for negative or biphasic pulses and propose that this disparity may be due to the asymmetric electrical properties of human skin. We furthermore propose using negative pulses for insulated tactile displays based on electrovibration because their sensory thresholds were found to be more stable than for waveforms incorporating positive pulses.

  11. Perception of Spatial Features with Stereoscopic Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-24

    aniseikonia (differences in retinal image size in the two eyes) are of little significance because only monocular perception of the display is required for...perception as a result of such factors as aniseikonia , uncor- rected refractive errors, or phorias results in reduced stereopsis. However, because

  12. Variable parallax barrier spacing in autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon Kyu; Khym, Sungwon; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2016-07-01

    In general, multi-view autostereoscopic displays can only provide autostereoscopic images with little crosstalk at the optimum viewing distance (OVD) in the depth direction, limiting the mobility of viewers. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of increasing viewer mobility in the depth direction by varying the distance separating the parallax barrier and the display. Computer simulations and experiments were conducted to verify changes in the OVD resulting from the application of the proposed method. The results showed that the proposed method is effective at changing the OVD with respect to changes in the viewing distance. Therefore this method minimizes changes in the 3D image quality due to the viewer's depth location.

  13. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  14. THE CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE COMPOSITE MATERIALS HARDNESS WITH THEORETICAL RESULTS OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Maria PASARE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is about of the Hays-Kendall theoretical model of testing the microhardness of the composites materials of NiP/SiC type. We used an indenter to establish the microhardness of the composite and different types of loads. The microhardness can be interpreted using a theoretical model Hays-Kendall and the Kick model.

  15. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  16. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humada, Ali M.; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M.; Ahmed, Mushtaq N.

    2016-01-01

    A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions. PMID:27035575

  17. Extension of Some Classical Results on Ruin Probability to Delayed Renewal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Su; Tao Jiang; Qi-he Tang

    2002-01-01

    Embrechts and Veraverbeke[2] investigated the renewal risk model and gave a tail equivalence relationship of the ruin probabilities ψ(x) under the assumption that the claim size is heavy-tailed, which is regarded as a classical result in the context of extremal value theory. In this note we extend this result to the delayed renewal risk model.

  18. Behavioral Change as a Result of Videotaped Playback: An Examination of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Don; Ripple, Richard E.

    The literature on the behavior effects of videotaped playback reveals that little theoretical formulation has been offered to explain the positive results which have been reported. Two theoretical models are considered in regard to these results. The first, a reinforcement model, suggests that some behaviors are reinforced positively and some…

  19. Tactile display with dielectric multilayer elastomer actuatorsq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysek, Marc; Lotz, Peter; Schlaak, Helmut F.

    2009-03-01

    Tactile perception is the human sensation of surface textures through the vibrations generated by stroking a finger over the surface. The skin responds to several distributed physical quantities. Perhaps the most important are high-frequency vibrations, pressure distributions (static shape) and thermal properties. The integration of tactile displays in man-machine interfaces promises a more intuitive handling. For this reason many tactile displays are developed using different technologies. We present several state-of-the-art tactile displays based on different types of dielectric elastomer actuators to clarify the advantages of our matrix display based on multilayer technology. Using this technology perpendicular and hexagonal arrays of actuator elements (tactile stimulators) can be integrated into a PDMS substrate. Element diameters down to 1 mm allow stimuli at the range of the human two-point-discrimination threshold. Driving the elements by column and row addressing enables various stimulation patterns with a reduced number of feeding lines. The transient analysis determines charging times of the capacitive actuators depending on actuator geometry and material parameters. This is very important to ensure an adequate dynamic characteristic of the actuators to stimulate the human skin by vibrations. The suitability of multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators for actuation in tactile displays has been determined. Beside the realization of a static tactile display - where multilayer DEA are integrated as drives for movable contact pins - we focus on the direct use of DEA as a vibrotactile display. Finally, we present the scenario and achieved results of a recognition threshold test. Even relative low voltages in the range of 800 V generate vibrations with 100% recognition ratio within the group of participants. Furthermore, the frequency dependent characteristic of the determined recognition threshold confirms with established literature.

  20. The dark matter halo shape of edge-on disk galaxies - III. Modelling the HI observations: results

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, J C; van der Kruit, P C

    2010-01-01

    This is the third paper in a series in which we attempt to put constraints on the flattening of dark halos in disk galaxies. For this purpose we need to analyse the observed XV diagrams in edge-on galaxies to accurately measure the radial HI surface density, the rotation curve and the HI velocity dispersion. We present the results of the modelling of HI observations of 8 HI-rich, late-type, edge-on galaxies. In all of these we find differential rotation. Most systems display HI velocity dispersions of 6.5 to 7.5 km s$^{-1}$ and all except one show radial structure. There is an increase in the mean HI velocity dispersion with maximum rotation velocity, at least up to 120 km s$^{-1}$. Next we analyse the observations to derive the radial variation of the thickness (flaring) of the HI layer. We find that with the exception of the asymmetric IC5052, all of the galaxies in our sample are good candidates for 3D mass modelling to measure the dark halo shape. The flaring profiles are symmetric and have a common shape...

  1. Research on Three-dimensional Model Display Based on Web3 D without Plug-in%基于Web3 D无插件的三维模型展示的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 高珏; 金野; 许华虎

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer network,it becomes a hot issue in Web3D-related research to better display exhibits in museums online. In this paper,mainly study three-dimensional model display online,using the WebGL technology removes the trouble of rendering plug-in required by the Web3D show,and analyze the process of showing simple 3D scene by using the Three. js framework of WebGL standard and research on adding hot spots to 3D models. Finally,the overall design of the 3D model display platform,based on the above studies,is proposed with the introduction of database system and the configuration file system. It achieves the separation of model addition and model display,which improves convenience and reusability. Meanwhile,analyze the visualization of 3D model display and interaction. The platform is convenient for users to view the 3D effect. In addition,it is easy to operate with significant effect.%随着计算机网络的快速发展,如何将一些诸如文物馆内的展品在网上更好地展显出来,是当今有关Web3D技术研究的热点问题。文中主要对网上三维模型展示进行研究,利用WebGL技术免去了网页3D展示所需的渲染插件的麻烦,运用WebGL标准中的Three. js框架对网页上简单三维场景显示流程进行分析并对场景中三维模型上添加热点进行了研究。最后在上述研究的基础上,提出了三维模型展示平台的整体设计,其中引入数据库系统和配置文件系统,实现了模型添加和模型展示的分离,使用方便,并增加了复用性。同时对三维模型可视化展示和交互进行实例分析。此平台方便了用户在网上观看实体馆展品的三维效果,操作简便,取得了很好的效果。

  2. Conceptual Incoherence as a Result of the use of Multiple Historical Models in School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas M.; Hagberg, Mariana

    2010-08-01

    This paper explores the occurrence of conceptual incoherence in upper secondary school textbooks resulting from the use of multiple historical models. Swedish biology and chemistry textbooks, as well as a selection of books from English speaking countries, were examined. The purpose of the study was to identify which models are used to represent the phenomenon of gene function in textbooks and to investigate how these models relate to historical scientific models and subject matter contexts. Models constructed for specific use in textbooks were identified using concept mapping. The data were further analyzed by content analysis. The study shows that several different historical models are used in parallel in textbooks to describe gene function. Certain historical models were used more often then others and the most recent scientific views were rarely referred to in the textbooks. Hybrid models were used frequently, i.e. most of the models in the textbooks consisted of a number of components of several historical models. Since the various historical models were developed as part of different scientific frameworks, hybrid models exhibit conceptual incoherence, which may be a source of confusion for students. Furthermore, the use of different historical models was linked to particular subject contexts in the textbooks studied. The results from Swedish and international textbooks were similar, indicating the general applicability of our conclusions.

  3. Optimization of a novel biophysical model using large scale in vivo antisense hybridization data displays improved prediction capabilities of structurally accessible RNA regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Anderson, Jorge; Mihailovic, Mia K.; Baldridge, Kevin C.; Reyes, Kristofer G.; Haning, Katie; Cho, Seung Hee; Amador, Paul; Powell, Warren B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Current approaches to design efficient antisense RNAs (asRNAs) rely primarily on a thermodynamic understanding of RNA–RNA interactions. However, these approaches depend on structure predictions and have limited accuracy, arguably due to overlooking important cellular environment factors. In this work, we develop a biophysical model to describe asRNA–RNA hybridization that incorporates in vivo factors using large-scale experimental hybridization data for three model RNAs: a group I intron, CsrB and a tRNA. A unique element of our model is the estimation of the availability of the target region to interact with a given asRNA using a differential entropic consideration of suboptimal structures. We showcase the utility of this model by evaluating its prediction capabilities in four additional RNAs: a group II intron, Spinach II, 2-MS2 binding domain and glgC 5΄ UTR. Additionally, we demonstrate the applicability of this approach to other bacterial species by predicting sRNA–mRNA binding regions in two newly discovered, though uncharacterized, regulatory RNAs. PMID:28334800

  4. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SCALED HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK MIXING - CFD MODELING SENSITIVITY STUDY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JACKSON VL

    2011-08-31

    The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

  5. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  6. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  7. Implicit learning increases preference for predictive visual display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether implicit learning in a visual search task would influence preferences for visual stimuli. Participants performed a contextual cueing task in which they searched for visual targets, the locations of which were either predicted or not predicted by the positioning of distractors. The speed with which participants located the targets increased across trials more rapidly for predictive displays than for non-predictive displays, consistent with contextual cueing. Participants were subsequently asked to rate the "goodness" of visual displays. The rating results showed that they preferred predictive displays to both non-predictive and novel displays. The participants did not recognize predictive displays any more frequently than they did non-predictive or novel displays. These results suggest that contextual cueing occurred implicitly and that the implicit learning of visual layouts promotes a preference for visual layouts that are predictive of target location.

  8. Investigation of Energy-Efficient Supermarket Display Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.

    2005-01-21

    contributing about 3/4 of that fraction. Consequently, the focus of this investigation has tilted toward the open, vertical, multi-deck medium temperature case type. Various technologies and control methods are energy efficiency measures (EEMs) that could be applied to display cases and result in the reduction of the refrigeration load and of the energy consumption of the supermarket refrigeration system. An extensive evaluation of the EEMs was conducted in order to select those that met the following criteria: (1) Near-term implementation--All EEMs considered could be implemented with existing refrigeration hardware and technology. (2) Potential for energy-efficiency improvements--Energy savings and/or refrigeration load reduction must be obtained by the implementation of the EEM. (3) Enhancement of the ability to maintain target product temperature--Proper operation of the display case and maintenance of the stored product temperature could not be compromised by the use of the EEM. The energy impact of a number of viable display case EEMs was quantified by performing whole building hourly simulations. A special version of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE-2.3) program was used to develop a model of a supermarket. The model was then calibrated using available end-use monitored data to increase confidence in simulation results.

  9. Seeking for the rational basis of the Median Model: the optimal combination of multi-model ensemble results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riccio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach for the statistical analysis of multi-model ensemble results. The models considered here are operational long-range transport and dispersion models, also used for the real-time simulation of pollutant dispersion or the accidental release of radioactive nuclides.

    We first introduce the theoretical basis (with its roots sinking into the Bayes theorem and then apply this approach to the analysis of model results obtained during the ETEX-1 exercise. We recover some interesting results, supporting the heuristic approach called "median model", originally introduced in Galmarini et al. (2004a, b.

    This approach also provides a way to systematically reduce (and quantify model uncertainties, thus supporting the decision-making process and/or regulatory-purpose activities in a very effective manner.

  10. Seeking for the rational basis of the median model: the optimal combination of multi-model ensemble results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riccio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach for the statistical analysis of multi-model ensemble results. The models considered here are operational long-range transport and dispersion models, also used for the real-time simulation of pollutant dispersion or the accidental release of radioactive nuclides.

    We first introduce the theoretical basis (with its roots sinking into the Bayes theorem and then apply this approach to the analysis of model results obtained during the ETEX-1 exercise. We recover some interesting results, supporting the heuristic approach called "median model", originally introduced in Galmarini et al. (2004a, b.

    This approach also provides a way to systematically reduce (and quantify model uncertainties, thus supporting the decision-making process and/or regulatory-purpose activities in a very effective manner.

  11. Numerical modelling of radon-222 entry into houses: An outline of techniques and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool for studies of soil gas and radon-222 entry into houses. It is the purpose of this paper to review some main techniques and results. In the past, modelling has focused on Darcy flow of soil gas (driven by indoor–outdoor pressure differences) and combined...... diffusive and advective transport of radon. Models of different complexity have been used. The simpler ones are finite-difference models with one or two spatial dimensions. The more complex models allow for full three-dimensional and time dependency. Advanced features include: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy......, fractures, moisture, non-uniform soil temperature, non-Darcy flow of gas, and flow caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Numerical models can be used to estimate the importance of specific factors for radon entry. Models are also helpful when results obtained in special laboratory or test structure...

  12. Parallel Path Magnet Motor: Development of the Theoretical Model and Analysis of Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirba, I.; Kleperis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical and numerical modelling is performed for the linear actuator of a parallel path magnet motor. In the model based on finite-element analysis, the 3D problem is reduced to a 2D problem, which is sufficiently precise in a design aspect and allows modelling the principle of a parallel path motor. The paper also describes a relevant numerical model and gives comparison with experimental results. The numerical model includes all geometrical and physical characteristics of the motor components. The magnetic flux density and magnetic force are simulated using FEMM 4.2 software. An experimental model has also been developed and verified for the core of switchable magnetic flux linear actuator and motor. The results of experiments are compared with those of theoretical/analytical and numerical modelling.

  13. Comparison of fully coupled hydroelastic computation and segmented model test results for slamming and whipping loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hyun Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis of slamming and whipping using a fully coupled hydroelastic model. The coupled model uses a 3-D Rankine panel method, a 1-D or 3-D finite element method, and a 2-D Generalized Wagner Model (GWM, which are strongly coupled in time domain. First, the GWM is validated against results of a free drop test of wedges. Second, the fully coupled method is validated against model test results for a 10,000 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU containership. Slamming pressures and whipping responses to regular waves are compared. A spatial distribution of local slamming forces is measured using 14 force sensors in the model test, and it is compared with the integration of the pressure distribution by the computation. Furthermore, the pressure is decomposed into the added mass, impact, and hydrostatic components, in the computational results. The validity and characteristics of the numerical model are discussed.

  14. Effective color design for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    2002-06-01

    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  15. Comparison between InfoWorks hydraulic results and a physical model of an urban drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Shucksmith, James; Saul, Adrian J; Shepherd, Will

    2013-01-01

    Urban drainage systems are frequently analysed using hydraulic modelling software packages such as InfoWorks CS or MIKE-Urban. The use of such modelling tools allows the evaluation of sewer capacity and the likelihood and impact of pluvial flood events. Models can also be used to plan major investments such as increasing storage capacity or the implementation of sustainable urban drainage systems. In spite of their widespread use, when applied to flooding the results of hydraulic models are rarely compared with field or laboratory (i.e. physical modelling) data. This is largely due to the time and expense required to collect reliable empirical data sets. This paper describes a laboratory facility which will enable an urban flood model to be verified and generic approaches to be built. Results are presented from the first phase of testing, which compares the sub-surface hydraulic performance of a physical scale model of a sewer network in Yorkshire, UK, with downscaled results from a calibrated 1D InfoWorks hydraulic model of the site. A variety of real rainfall events measured in the catchment over a period of 15 months (April 2008-June 2009) have been both hydraulically modelled and reproduced in the physical model. In most cases a comparison of flow hydrographs generated in both hydraulic and physical models shows good agreement in terms of velocities which pass through the system.

  16. Empirical Evaluation of the Proposed eXSCRUM Model-Results of a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Agile models promote fast development. XP and Scrum are the most widely used agile models. This paper investigates the phases of XP and Scrum models in order to identify their potentials and drawbacks. XP model has certain drawbacks, such as not suitable for maintenance projects and poor performance for medium and large-scale development projects. Scrum model has certain limitations, such as lacked in engineering practices. Since, both XP and Scrum models contain good features and strengths but still there are improvement possibilities in these models. Majority of the software development companies are reluctant to switch from traditional methodologies to agile methodologies for development of industrial projects. A fine integration, of software management of the Scrum model and engineering practices of XP model, is very much required to accumulate the strengths and remove the limitations of both models. This is achieved by proposing an eXScrum model. The proposed model is validated by conducting a controlled case study. The results of case study show that the proposed integrated eXScrum model enriches the potentials of both XP and Scrum models and eliminates their drawbacks.

  17. Development of new methods for the modeling of technical systems and result evaluation for reactor safety simulation codes. Modeling, simulation models; Entwicklung neuer Methoden zur Modellierung technischer Systeme und zur Ergebnisauswertung fuer Simulationsprogramme der Reaktorsicherheit. Modellierung, Simulationsprogramme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cester, Francesco; Deitenbeck, Helmuth; Kuentzel, Matthias; Scheuer, Josef; Voggenberger, Thomas

    2015-04-15

    The overall objective of the project is to develop a general simulation environment for program systems used in reactor safety analysis. The simulation environment provides methods for graphical modeling and evaluation of results for the simulation models. The terms of graphical modeling and evaluation of results summarize computerized methods of pre- and postprocessing for the simulation models, which can assist the user in the execution of the simulation steps. The methods comprise CAD (''Computer Aided Design'') based input tools, interactive user interfaces for the execution of the simulation and the graphical representation and visualization of the simulation results. A particular focus was set on the requirements of the system code ATHLET. A CAD tool was developed that allows the specification of 3D geometry of the plant components and the discretization with a simulation grid. The system provides inter-faces to generate the input data of the codes and to export the data for the visualization software. The CAD system was applied for the modeling of a cooling circuit and reactor pressure vessel of a PWR. For the modeling of complex systems with many components, a general purpose graphical network editor was adapted and expanded. The editor is able to simulate networks with complex topology graphically by suitable building blocks. The network editor has been enhanced and adapted to the modeling of balance of plant and thermal fluid systems in ATHLET. For the visual display of the simulation results in the local context of the 3D geometry and the simulation grid, the open source program ParaView is applied, which is widely used for 3D visualization of field data, offering multiple options for displaying and ana-lyzing the data. New methods were developed, that allow the necessary conversion of the results of the reactor safety codes and the data of the CAD models. The trans-formed data may then be imported into ParaView and visualized. The

  18. Updating Finite Element Model of a Wind Turbine Blade Section Using Experimental Modal Analysis Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luczak, Marcin; Manzato, Simone; Peeters, Bart;

    2014-01-01

    of model parameters was selected for the model updating process. Design of experiment and response surface method was implemented to find values of model parameters yielding results closest to the experimental. The updated finite element model is producing results more consistent with the measurement...... is to validate finite element model of the modified wind turbine blade section mounted in the flexible support structure accordingly to the experimental results. Bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled unidirectional layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Dynamic test and simulations...... were performed on a section of a full scale wind turbine blade provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and the discrepancies are assessed by natural frequency difference and modal assurance criterion. Based on sensitivity analysis, set...

  19. Optical scanning holography for stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Wen, Hsuan-Hsuan

    2016-10-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a scanning-type digital holographic recording technique. One of OSH's most important properties is that the OSH can record an incoherent hologram, which is free of speckle and thus is suitable for the applications of holographic display. The recording time of a scanning hologram is proportional to the sampling resolution. Hence the viewing angle as well as the resolution of a scanning hologram is limited for avoid too long recording. As a result, the viewing angle is not large enough for optical display. To solve this problem, we recorded two scanning holograms at different viewing angles. The two holograms are synthesized to a single stereoscopic hologram with two main viewing angles. In displaying, two views at the two main viewing angles are reconstructed. Because both views contain full-depth-resolved 3D scenes, the problem of accommodation conflict in conventional stereogram is avoided.

  20. Interacting on and around Large Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Anders

    of content that reside outside the display boundaries, taking advantage of users’ perceived location of off-screen content. Off-Limits was found to provide significant benefits over touch-based interaction. The results show that an extension of interactions beyond the boundaries of the display can increase......), a previously successfully text entry method for touch- and pen-based input, to work as a technique for mid-air text entry. With a text entry rate of 20.6 WPM after 10 sessions of text entry, the mid-air WGK provided faster text entry rates than previously evaluated methods for mid-air text entry. An improved....... To improve understanding of the differences between input modalities for large displays, the mid-air WGK was compared to a touch-based functionally equivalent WGK. The touch-based keyboard was found to be significantly faster than the mid-air WGK, indicating that touch based interaction may be preferable...

  1. A robust photometric calibration framework for projector-camera display system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhai Zou; Haisong Xu

    2009-01-01

    A novel photometric calibration framework is presented for a projector-camera (ProCam) display system,which is currently under booming development.Firstly,a piccewise bilinear model and five 5-ary color coding images are used to construct the homography between the image planes of a projector and a camcra.Secondly,a photometric model is proposed to describe the data flow of the ProCam display system for displaying color images on colored surface in a general way. An efficient self-calibration algorithm is correspondingly put forward to recover the model parameters.Aiming to adapt this algorithm to different types of ProCam display system robustly,a 3×7 masking coupling matrix and a patches image with 1024 color samples are adopted to fit the complex channel interference function of the display system.Finally,the experimental results demonstrate the validity and superiority of this calibration algorithm for the ProCam display system.

  2. The effect of configural displays on pilot situation awareness in helmet-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Joseph Christopher

    pilot Level 1 SA (i.e., perception of information) for integration tasks. The performance results for the dynamic aircraft control task in Experiment 2 were inconclusive as performance differences between the three configural displays approached significance, but did not reach significance. Experiment 2 investigated design differences of configural displays impacting operator SA beyond perception, that is, once information extraction has taken place, how does the pilot utilize the information to build and develop Level 2 and Level 3 SA? Given the brief duration of the task from Experiment 2, it's recommended that the benefits of configural displays for higher-order SA be investigated in a more complex and extended task that would allow SA to be developed over time and possibly sampled more extensively than the task used in Experiment 2 that lasted from 1-2 seconds for the performance measures used. Experiments 3 and 4 compared operator SA for using the same three configural displays as used in Experiments 1 and 2 but for switching between attitude displays during task completion. The findings from Experiment 3 show that when using a configural display off-axis in a helmet-mounted display (HMD) that allows for aircraft attitude to be readily perceived and understood (i.e., the prevailing format from Experiment 1), the transition forward to the primary flight display (i.e., forward configural display) poses little impact on either pilot (expert) or flight test engineer (FTE, novice) ability to transition between the two displays and still control the aircraft. The results from Experiment 4 showed that experts and novices both choose to rely upon aircraft instruments for obtaining orientation cues and aircraft attitude state when using a HMD off-axis, but how expert and novice aircraft operators utilize flight instruments and real world visual cues off-axis in a HMD during extending off-axis viewing still needs to be examined. An application of the design recommendations

  3. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  4. A new procedure to built a model covariance matrix: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzaghi, R.; Marotta, A. M.; Splendore, R.; Borghi, A.

    2012-04-01

    In order to validate the results of geophysical models a common procedure is to compare model predictions with observations by means of statistical tests. A limit of this approach is the lack of a covariance matrix associated to model results, that may frustrate the achievement of a confident statistical significance of the results. Trying to overcome this limit, we have implemented a new procedure to build a model covariance matrix that could allow a more reliable statistical analysis. This procedure has been developed in the frame of the thermo-mechanical model described in Splendore et al. (2010), that predicts the present-day crustal velocity field in the Tyrrhenian due to Africa-Eurasia convergence and to lateral rheological heterogeneities of the lithosphere. Modelled tectonic velocity field has been compared to the available surface velocity field based on GPS observation, determining the best fit model and the degree of fitting, through the use of a χ2 test. Once we have identified the key models parameters and defined their appropriate ranges of variability, we have run 100 different models for 100 sets of randomly values of the parameters extracted within the corresponding interval, obtaining a stack of 100 velocity fields. Then, we calculated variance and empirical covariance for the stack of results, taking into account also cross-correlation, obtaining a positive defined, diagonal matrix that represents the covariance matrix of the model. This empirical approach allows us to define a more robust statistical analysis with respect the classic approach. Reference Splendore, Marotta, Barzaghi, Borghi and Cannizzaro, 2010. Block model versus thermomechanical model: new insights on the present-day regional deformation in the surroundings of the Calabrian Arc. In: Spalla, Marotta and Gosso (Eds) Advances in Interpretation of Geological Processes: Refinement of Multi scale Data and Integration in Numerical Modelling. Geological Society, London, Special

  5. Evaluating Direct Radiative Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Atmospheric Dynamics with Aquaplanet and Regional Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ö.; Tegen, I.; Quaas, J.

    2015-12-01

    Effects of absorbing aerosol on atmospheric dynamics are usually investigated with help of general circulation models or also regional models that represent the atmospheric system as realistic as possible. Reducing the complexity of models used to study the effects of absorbing aerosol on atmospheric dynamics helps to understand underlying mechanisms. In this study, by using ECHAM6 General Circulation Model (GCM) in an Aquaplanet setting and using simplified aerosol climatology, an initial idealization step has been taken. The analysis only considers direct radiative effects, furthering the reduction of complex model results. The simulations include cases including aerosol radiative forcing, no aerosol forcing, coarse mode aerosol forcing only (as approximation for mineral dust forcing) and forcing with increased aerosol absorption. The results showed that increased absorption affects cloud cover mainly in subtropics. Hadley circulation is found to be weakened in the increased absorption case. To compare the results of the idealized model with a more realistic model setting, the results of the regional model COSMO-MUSCAT that includes interactive mineral dust aerosol and considers the effects of dust radiative forcing are also analyzed. The regional model computes the atmospheric circulation for the year 2007 twice, including the feedback of dust and excluding the dust aerosol forcing. It is investigated to which extent the atmospheric response to the dust forcing agrees with the simplified Aquaplanet results. As expected, in the regional model mineral dust causes an increase in the temperature right above the dust layer while reducing the temperature close to the surface. In both models the presence of aerosol forcing leads to increased specific humidity, close to ITCZ. Notwithstanding the difference magnitudes, comparisons of the global aquaplanet and the regional model showed similar patterns. Further detailed comparisons will be presented.

  6. Models of convection-driven tectonic plates - A comparison of methods and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.; Gable, Carl W.; Weinstein, Stuart A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent numerical studies of convection in the earth's mantle have included various features of plate tectonics. This paper describes three methods of modeling plates: through material properties, through force balance, and through a thin power-law sheet approximation. The results obtained are compared using each method on a series of simple calculations. From these results, scaling relations between the different parameterizations are developed. While each method produces different degrees of deformation within the surface plate, the surface heat flux and average plate velocity agree to within a few percent. The main results are not dependent upon the plate modeling method and herefore are representative of the physical system modeled.

  7. A Highly Efficient Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Microglia Model Displays a Neuronal-Co-culture-Specific Expression Profile and Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Haenseler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are increasingly implicated in brain pathology, particularly neurodegenerative disease, with many genes implicated in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and motor neuron disease expressed in microglia. There is, therefore, a need for authentic, efficient in vitro models to study human microglial pathological mechanisms. Microglia originate from the yolk sac as MYB-independent macrophages, migrating into the developing brain to complete differentiation. Here, we recapitulate microglial ontogeny by highly efficient differentiation of embryonic MYB-independent iPSC-derived macrophages then co-culture them with iPSC-derived cortical neurons. Co-cultures retain neuronal maturity and functionality for many weeks. Co-culture microglia express key microglia-specific markers and neurodegenerative disease-relevant genes, develop highly dynamic ramifications, and are phagocytic. Upon activation they become more ameboid, releasing multiple microglia-relevant cytokines. Importantly, co-culture microglia downregulate pathogen-response pathways, upregulate homeostatic function pathways, and promote a more anti-inflammatory and pro-remodeling cytokine response than corresponding monocultures, demonstrating that co-cultures are preferable for modeling authentic microglial physiology.

  8. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    Full Text Available The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS. In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines.In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification.Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  9. Transient Exposure to Ethanol during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Defects in Neuronal Differentiation: An Alternative Model System to Study FASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pujades, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Background The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification. Conclusion Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development. PMID:25383948

  10. Inecalcitol, an analog of 1,25D₃, displays enhanced antitumor activity through the induction of apoptosis in a squamous cell carcinoma model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Hidalgo, Alejandro A.; Luo, Wei; Delansorne, Remi; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest an important role of vitamin D signaling in cancer development and progression, and experimental studies demonstrate that the active vitamin D metabolite 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25D₃) has broad spectrum antitumor activity. Hypercalcemia has often been suggested to limit the clinical application of these data. The 14-epi-analog of 1,25D₃, inecalcitol [19-nor-14-epi-23-yne-1,25-(OH)₂D₃; TX522], was developed to have superagonistic antitumor activities but low hypercalcemia potential. We examined the antitumor activity of inecalcitol and the underlying mechanisms in a murine squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) model system. In vitro, compared with 1,25D₃, inecalcitol showed enhanced vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated transcriptional activity. Inecalcitol suppressed SCC cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC₅₀ value 30 times lower than that of 1,25D₃. Both inecalcitol and 1,25D₃ induced a comparable level of G₀/G₁ cell cycle arrest in SCC cells. The level of apoptosis induced by inecalcitol was markedly higher than that of 1,25D₃. Apoptosis was mediated through the activation of the caspase 8/10- caspase 3 pathway. Further, inecalcitol markedly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of c-IAP1 and XIAP compared with 1,25D₃. In vivo, inecalcitol inhibits SCC tumor growth in a dose-dependent fashion. Notably, inecalcitol induced a significantly higher level of apoptosis in the SCC xenograft model. While in vitro inecalcitol demonstrates apparent enhanced VDR binding and antiproliferative effects compared to 1,25D₃, in vivo these advantages disappear; at doses of inecalcitol that have equivalent antitumor effects, similar hypercalcemia is seen. This may be explained by the pharmacokinetics of 1,25D₃ vs. inecalcitol and attributed to the much shorter serum half-life of inecalcitol.We show that inecalcitol has potent antitumor activity in the SCC model system, and this is associated with a

  11. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: comparison of model to human participant results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. It also demonstrates that upta...... the cotton-phthalate system will be challenging until data on partition coefficients are quantified for other combinations of SVOCs, fabric materials and environmental conditions....

  12. CHD7 deficiency in "Looper", a new mouse model of CHARGE syndrome, results in ossicle malformation, otosclerosis and hearing impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Ogier

    Full Text Available CHARGE syndrome is a rare human disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7. Characteristics of CHARGE are varied and include developmental ear and hearing anomalies. Here we report a novel mouse model of CHD7 dysfunction, termed Looper. The Looper strain harbours a nonsense mutation (c.5690C>A, p.S1897X within the Chd7 gene. Looper mice exhibit many of the clinical features of the human syndrome, consistent with previously reported CHARGE models, including growth retardation, facial asymmetry, vestibular defects, eye anomalies, hyperactivity, ossicle malformation, hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Looper mice display an otosclerosis-like fusion of the stapes footplate to the cochlear oval window and blepharoconjunctivitis but not coloboma. Looper mice are hyperactive and have vestibular dysfunction but do not display motor impairment.

  13. Implementation and analysis of an autostereoscopic display using multiple liquid crystal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2012-03-01

    Multilayer displays are constructed by stacking multiple liquid crystal panels along with a pair of polarizers and a light source. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that such a display could exhibit the light field of a 3D scene if the panels in the display are properly controlled. In this study, we present an implementation of a monochromatic multilayer display using IPS-LCD panels, and report that a reasonable approximation of the light field is actually observed from the display. A major obstacle to constructing a multilayer display is the complexity of optical properties of LCD panels. Since an accurate analytic representation of panels' behavior is difficult to obtain, we have developed an approximate model specific to IPS-LCD cells, using which our implementation is built. We then evaluate the quality of the light field observed from the prototype implementation by examining the images photographed at several camera positions. The results show geometrically correct views are observable from the display within the viewing angle of 30 degrees.

  14. Thinking about the weather: How display salience and knowledge affect performance in a graphic inference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Mary; Canham, Matt S; Fabrikant, Sara I

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined how bottom-up and top-down processes interact when people view and make inferences from complex visual displays (weather maps). Bottom-up effects of display design were investigated by manipulating the relative visual salience of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information across different maps. Top-down effects of domain knowledge were investigated by examining performance and eye fixations before and after participants learned relevant meteorological principles. Map design and knowledge interacted such that salience had no effect on performance before participants learned the meteorological principles; however, after learning, participants were more accurate if they viewed maps that made task-relevant information more visually salient. Effects of display design on task performance were somewhat dissociated from effects of display design on eye fixations. The results support a model in which eye fixations are directed primarily by top-down factors (task and domain knowledge). They suggest that good display design facilitates performance not just by guiding where viewers look in a complex display but also by facilitating processing of the visual features that represent task-relevant information at a given display location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    . The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density Sigma(Md), the dust optical extinction A(V), and the starlight intensity heating the bulk......We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling...... of the dust, parametrized by U-min. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31...

  16. Admission Laboratory Results to Enhance Prediction Models of Postdischarge Outcomes in Cardiac Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Michael; Fry, Donald E; Hannan, Edward L; Naessens, James M; Whitman, Kay; Reband, Agnes; Qian, Feng; Schindler, Joseph; Sonneborn, Mark; Roland, Jaclyn; Hyde, Linda; Dennison, Barbara A

    Predictive modeling for postdischarge outcomes of inpatient care has been suboptimal. This study evaluated whether admission numerical laboratory data added to administrative models from New York and Minnesota hospitals would enhance the prediction accuracy for 90-day postdischarge deaths without readmission (PD-90) and 90-day readmissions (RA-90) following inpatient care for cardiac patients. Risk-adjustment models for the prediction of PD-90 and RA-90 were designed for acute myocardial infarction, percutaneous cardiac intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, and congestive heart failure. Models were derived from hospital claims data and were then enhanced with admission laboratory predictive results. Case-level discrimination, goodness of fit, and calibration were used to compare administrative models (ADM) and laboratory predictive models (LAB). LAB models for the prediction of PD-90 were modestly enhanced over ADM, but negligible benefit was seen for RA-90. A consistent predictor of PD-90 and RA-90 was prolonged length of stay outliers from the index hospitalization.

  17. GENERAL APROACH TO MODELING NONLINEAR AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY DEPENDENT HYSTERESIS EFFECTS BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the rubber parts’ properties is gaining in importance in the current simulation models of multi-body simulation. One application example is a multi-body simulation of the washing machine movement. Inside the washing machine, there are different force transmission elements, which consist completely or partly of rubber. Rubber parts or, generally, elastomers usually have amplitude-dependant and frequency-dependent force transmission properties. Rheological models are used to describe these properties. A method for characterization of the amplitude and frequency dependence of such a rheological model is presented within this paper. Within this method, the used rheological model can be reduced or expanded in order to illustrate various non-linear effects. An original result is given with the automated parameter identification. It is fully implemented in Matlab. Such identified rheological models are intended for subsequent implementation in a multi-body model. This allows a significant enhancement of the overall model quality.

  18. Results and Comparison from the SAM Linear Fresnel Technology Performance Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the new Linear Fresnel technology performance model in NREL's System Advisor Model. The model predicts the financial and technical performance of direct-steam-generation Linear Fresnel power plants, and can be used to analyze a range of system configurations. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation and motivation, and provides extensive discussion of the model performance and financial results. The Linear Fresnel technology is also compared to other concentrating solar power technologies in both qualitative and quantitative measures. The Linear Fresnel model - developed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute - provides users with the ability to model a variety of solar field layouts, fossil backup configurations, thermal receiver designs, and steam generation conditions. This flexibility aims to encompass current market solutions for the DSG Linear Fresnel technology, which is seeing increasing exposure in fossil plant augmentation and stand-alone power generation applications.

  19. Two methods to forecast auroral displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigernes, Fred; Dyrland, Margit; Brekke, Pål; Chernouss, Sergey; Lorentzen, Dag Arne; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Sterling Deehr, Charles

    2011-10-01

    This work compares the methods by Starkov (1994a) and Zhang & Paxton (2008), that calculate the size and location of the auroral ovals as a function of planetary Kp index. The ovals are mapped in position and time onto a solar illuminated surface model of the Earth. It displays both the night- and dayside together with the location of the twilight zone as Earth rotates under the ovals. The graphical display serves as a tool to forecast auroral activity based on the predicted value of the Kp index. The forecast is installed as a service at http://kho.unis.no/. The Zhang & Paxton (2008) ovals are wider in latitude than the Starkov (1994a) ovals. The nightside model ovals coincide fairly well in shape for low to normal auroral conditions. The equatorward border of the diffuse aurora is well defined by both methods on the nightside for Kp ≤ 7. The dayside needs further studies in order to conclude.

  20. Two methods to forecast auroral displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksavik Kjellmar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work compares the methods by Starkov (1994a and Zhang & Paxton (2008, that calculate the size and location of the auroral ovals as a function of planetary Kp index. The ovals are mapped in position and time onto a solar illuminated surface model of the Earth. It displays both the night- and dayside together with the location of the twilight zone as Earth rotates under the ovals. The graphical display serves as a tool to forecast auroral activity based on the predicted value of the Kp index. The forecast is installed as a service at http://kho.unis.no/. The Zhang & Paxton (2008 ovals are wider in latitude than the Starkov (1994a ovals. The nightside model ovals coincide fairly well in shape for low to normal auroral conditions. The equatorward border of the diffuse aurora is well defined by both methods on the nightside for Kp ≤ 7. The dayside needs further studies in order to conclude.

  1. Integrating Domain Knowledge Differences into Modeling User Clicks on Search Result Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanam, S.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Computational cognitive models developed so far do not incorporate any effect of individual differences in domain knowledge of users in predicting user clicks on search result pages. We address this problem using a cognitive model of information search which enables us to use two semantic spaces

  2. Modelling of water potential and water uptake rate of tomato plants in the greenhouse: preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, G.T.; Schouwink, H.E.; Gieling, Th.H.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented which predicts water potential and water uptake rate of greenhouse tomato plants using transpiration rate as input. The model assumes that water uptake is the resultant of water potential and hydraulic resistance, and that water potential is linearly related to water con

  3. The European Integrated Tokamak Modelling (ITM) effort: achievements and first physics results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. Falchetto,; Coster, D.; Coelho, R.; Scott, B. D.; Figini, L.; Kalupin, D.; Nardon, E.; Nowak, S.; L.L. Alves,; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; João P.S. Bizarro,; C. Boulbe,; Dinklage, A.; Farina, D.; B. Faugeras,; Ferreira, J.; Figueiredo, A.; Huynh, P.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Jonsson, T.; H.-J. Klingshirn,; Konz, C.; Kus, A.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Pereverzev, G.; M. Owsiak,; Poli, E.; Peysson, Y.; R. Reimer,; Signoret, J.; Sauter, O.; Stankiewicz, R.; Strand, P.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Westerhof, E.; T. Zok,; Zwingmann, W.; ITM-TF contributors,; ASDEX Upgrade team,; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2014-01-01

    A selection of achievements and first physics results are presented of the European Integrated Tokamak Modelling Task Force (EFDA ITM-TF) simulation framework, which aims to provide a standardized platform and an integrated modelling suite of validated numerical codes for the simulation and

  4. Conceptual Incoherence as a Result of the Use of Multiple Historical Models in School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas M.; Hagberg, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the occurrence of conceptual incoherence in upper secondary school textbooks resulting from the use of multiple historical models. Swedish biology and chemistry textbooks, as well as a selection of books from English speaking countries, were examined. The purpose of the study was to identify which models are used to represent…

  5. The CRT display evaluation: The multidimensional rating of CRT-generated displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, D. L.; Blackman, H. S.; Banks, W. W.; Petersen, R. J.

    1982-10-01

    This report is one in a series evaluating various methods for determining the effectiveness of display formats and contains results from multidimensional rating of three cathode ray tube displays. Each display contained information regarding the status of nine safety parameters critical to safe operations the Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Certified LOFT operators evaluated three formats - bars, stars, and meters - as part of a multimethod display evaluation ongoing at INEL. Each of the six cognitive dimensions embedded in the rating scale are discussed in terms of their internal consistency and ability to differentiate between each of the three formats. Preliminary findings suggest that two of the six dimensions, content integration and cognitive processing, were able to discriminate between formats while satisfying the criteria of internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's alpha. Conclusions in this report must be interpreted in light of moderate test-retest reliability.

  6. Three-dimensional holographic display using active shutter for head mounted display application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Eui; Kim, Nam; Song, Hoon; Lee, Hong-Seok; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional holographic system using active shutters for head mounted display application is proposed. Conventional three-dimensional head mounted display suffers from eye-fatigue since it only provides binocular disparity, not monocular depth cues like accommodation. The proposed method presents two holograms of a 3D scene to corresponding eyes using active shutters. Since a holography delivered to each eye has full three-dimensional information, not only the binocular depth cues but also monocular depth cues are presented, eliminating eye-fatigue. The application to the head mounted display also greatly relaxes the viewing angle requirement that is one of the main issues of the conventional holographic displays. In presentation, the proposed optical system will be explained in detail with experimental results.

  7. Flexible daylight memory displays EASL DMD: a new approach toward displays for cockpit and soldier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Borre; Kamfjord, Thor G.; Fossum, Richard; Fagerberg, Ragnar

    2000-08-01

    The Norwegian based company PolyDisplayR ASA, in collaboration with the Norwegian Army Material Command and SINTEF, has refined, developed and shown with color and black/white technology demonstrators an electrically addressed Smectic A reflective LCD technology featuring: (1) Good contrast, all-round viewing angle and readability under all light conditions (no wash-out in direct sunlight). (2) Infinite memory -- image remains without power -- very low power consumption, no or very low radiation ('silent display') and narrow band updating. (3) Clear, sharp and flicker-free images. (4) Large number of gray tones and colors possible. (5) Simple construction and production -- reduced cost, higher yield, more robust and environmentally friendly. (6) Possibility for lighter, more robust and flexible displays based on plastic substrates. The results and future implementation possibilities for cockpit and soldier-system displays are discussed.

  8. Computer Programs to Display and Modify Data in Geographic Coordinates and Methods to Transfer Positions to and from Maps, with Applications to Gravity Data Processing, Global Positioning Systems, and 30-Meter Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouff, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Computer programs were written in the Fortran language to process and display gravity data with locations expressed in geographic coordinates. The programs and associated processes have been tested for gravity data in an area of about 125,000 square kilometers in northwest Nevada, southeast Oregon, and northeast California. This report discusses the geographic aspects of data processing. Utilization of the programs begins with application of a template (printed in PostScript format) to transfer locations obtained with Global Positioning Systems to and from field maps and includes a 5-digit geographic-based map naming convention for field maps. Computer programs, with source codes that can be copied, are used to display data values (printed in PostScript format) and data coverage, insert data into files, extract data from files, shift locations, test for redundancy, and organize data by map quadrangles. It is suggested that 30-meter Digital Elevation Models needed for gravity terrain corrections and other applications should be accessed in a file search by using the USGS 7.5-minute map name as a file name, for example, file '40117_B8.DEM' contains elevation data for the map with a southeast corner at lat 40? 07' 30' N. and lon 117? 52' 30' W.

  9. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Laman: Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data supporting the "Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions" manuscript are distribution and abundance of Pacific ocean perch from RACEBase,...

  10. Results of a modeling workshop concerning development of the Beluga coal resource in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a modeling workshop concerning development of the Beluga coal resource in Alaska. The workshop was facilitated by the AEA Group...

  11. Removal of arsenic from wastewaters by cryptocrystalline magnesite: complimenting experimental results with modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Cleaner Production Removal of arsenic from wastewaters by cryptocrystalline magnesite: complimenting experimental results with modelling Vhahangwele Masindi W. Mugera Gitari Keywords: Arsenic Mine leachates Cryptocrystalline...

  12. Experimental and modelling results of a parallel-plate based active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Rowe, A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic...

  13. The VLT Real Time Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, T.; Brighton, A.; Biereichel, P.

    The VLT Real-Time Display (RTD) software was developed in order to support image display in real-time, providing a tool for users to display video like images from a camera or detector as fast as possible on an X-Server. The RTD software is implemented as a package providing a Tcl/Tk image widget written in C++ and an independent image handling library and can be used as a building block, adding display capabilities to dedicated VLT control applications. The RTD widget provides basic image display functionality like: panning, zooming, color scaling, colormaps, intensity changes, pixel query, overlaying of line graphics. A large set of assisting widgets, e.g., colorbar, zoom window, spectrum plot are provided to enable the building of image applications. The support for real-time is provided by an RTD image event mechanism used for camera or detector subsystems to pass images to the RTD widget. Image data are passed efficiently via shared memory. This paper describes the architecture of the RTD software and summarizes the features provided by RTD.

  14. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  15. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  16. Updating the CHAOS series of field models using Swarm data and resulting candidate models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    th order spline representation with knot points spaced at 0.5 year intervals. The resulting field model is able to consistently fit data from six independent low Earth orbit satellites: Oersted, CHAMP, SAC-C and the three Swarm satellites. As an example, we present comparisons of the excellent model......Ten months of data from ESA's Swarm mission, together with recent ground observatory monthly means, are used to update the CHAOS series of geomagnetic field models with a focus on time-changes of the core field. As for previous CHAOS field models quiet-time, night-side, data selection criteria...

  17. The comparison of measured impedance of the bladder tissue with the computational modeling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad keshtkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The electrical impedance spectroscopy technique can be used to measure the electrical impedance of the human bladder tissue, for differentiating pathological changes in the urothelium. Methods: In this study, the electrical impedance spectroscopy technique and then, a numerical technique, finite element analysis (FEA were used to model the electrical properties of this tissue to predict the impedance spectrum of the normal and malignant areas of this organ. Results: After determining and comparing the modeled data with the experimental results, it is believed that there are some factors that may affect the measurement results. Thus, the effect of inflammation, edema, changes in the applied pressure over the probe and the distensible property of the bladder tissue were considered. Furthermore, the current distribution inside the human bladder tissue was modeled in normal and malignant cases using the FEA. This model results showed that very little of the current actually flows through the urothelium and much of the injected current flows through the connective tissue beneath the urothelium. Conclusion: The results of the models do not explain the measurements results. In conclusion, there are many factors, which may account for discrepancies between the measured and modeled data.

  18. New Results on Robust Model Predictive Control for Time-Delay Systems with Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of model predictive control for a class of nonlinear systems subject to state delays and input constraints. The time-varying delay is considered with both upper and lower bounds. A new model is proposed to approximate the delay. And the uncertainty is polytopic type. For the state-feedback MPC design objective, we formulate an optimization problem. Under model transformation, a new model predictive controller is designed such that the robust asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed. Finally, the applicability of the presented results are demonstrated by a practical example.

  19. 高职服装陈列人才培养模式的探析%On Talent Cultivation Model of Clothing Display in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽群; 韩雪

    2015-01-01

    服装陈列师继服装设计师之后成为新时期业内的焦点,但由于没有科学系统的职业教育,没有足够的历史积累可供学习和参考,更没有一套成熟的模式可以套用或复制,国内的陈列行业还很艰难。本文系统阐述了服装陈列设计这一学科在国内外的研究现状以及行业应用情况,对目前国内培训陈列师的教学形式、方法和内容做重点研究,就如何提高陈列师的专业素质,专业技能做系统的归纳总结。信息化教学平台的建立提升了人才培养质量。%Visual Merchandising Designers are needed,but there was not a major of Visual Merchandising in Chinese fashion schools.So Chinese Visual Merchandising designers learn during working,and they don't have enough experience and mature models for reference.This paper is to illustrate the status quo and application of Fashion Visual Merchandising home and a-broad,emphasis the importance of Visual Merchandising education,and summarize systematically the teaching experiences. The informatization teaching platform is set up to promote the personnel training quality.

  20. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  1. Theoretical results on the tandem junction solar cell based on its Ebers-Moll transistor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, C.; Vaughn, J.; Baraona, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional theoretical model of the tandem junction solar cell (TJC) with base resistivity greater than about 1 ohm-cm and under low level injection has been derived. This model extends a previously published conceptual model which treats the TJC as an npn transistor. The model gives theoretical expressions for each of the Ebers-Moll type currents of the illuminated TJC and allows for the calculation of the spectral response, I(sc), V(oc), FF and eta under variation of one or more of the geometrical and material parameters and 1MeV electron fluence. Results of computer calculations based on this model are presented and discussed. These results indicate that for space applications, both a high beginning of life efficiency, greater than 15% AM0, and a high radiation tolerance can be achieved only with thin (less than 50 microns) TJC's with high base resistivity (greater than 10 ohm-cm).

  2. Recognition of epoxy with phage displayed peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2013-07-01

    The development of a general approach for non-destructive chemical and biological functionalization of epoxy could expand opportunities for both fundamental studies and creating various device platforms. Epoxy shows unique electrical, mechanical, chemical and biological compatibility and has been widely used for fabricating a variety of devices. Phage display has emerged as a powerful method for selecting peptides that possess enhanced selectivity and binding affinity toward a variety of targets. In this letter, we demonstrate for the first time a powerful yet benign approach for identifying binding motifs to epoxy via comprehensively screened phage displayed peptides. Our results show that the epoxy can be selectively recognized with peptide-displaying phages. Further, along with the development of epoxy-based microstructures; recognition of the epoxy with phage displayed peptides can be specifically localized in these microstructures. We anticipate that these results could open up exciting opportunities in the use of peptide-recognized epoxy in fundamental biochemical recognition studies, as well as in applications ranging from analytical devices, hybrid materials, surface and interface, to cell biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISO 9001 CERTIFICATION MATURITY AND EFQM BUSINESS EXCELLENCE MODEL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Fonseca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This exploratory research evaluates if there a relationship between the number of years since an organization has achieved ISO 9001 certification and the highest level of recognition received by the same organization with the EFQM Business Excellence Model.Methodology/Approach: After state of the art review a detailed comparison between both models was made. Fifty two Portuguese organizations were considered and Correlation coefficient Spearman Rho was used to investigate the possible relationships.Findings: Conclusion is that there is indeed a moderate positive correlation between these two variables, the higher the number of years of ISO 9001 certification, the higher the results of the organization EFQM model evaluation and recognition. This supports the assumption that ISO 9001 International Standard by incorporating many of the principles present in the EFQM Business Excellence Model is consistent with this model and can be considered as a step towards that direction.Research Limitation/implication: Due to the dynamic nature of these models that might change over time and the possible time delays between implementation and results, more in-depth studies like experimental design or a longitudinal quasi-experimental design could be used to confirm the results of this investigation.Originality/Value of paper: This research gives additional insights on conjunct studies of both models. The use of external evaluation results carried out by the independent EFQM assessors minimizes the possible bias of previous studies accessing the value of ISO 9001 certification.

  4. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  5. Early Results from a Multi-Thermal Model for the Cooling of Post-Flare Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, K. K.; Warren, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a multi-thermal model for the cooling of post-flare loops. The model consists of an arcade of many nested loops that reconnect and begin cooling at slightly different times, and have different cooling profiles because of the different loop lengths across the arcade. Cooling due to both conductive and radiative processes is taken into account. The free parameters in the model include initial temperature and density in the loop, loop width and the initial loop length. The results from the model are then compared to TRACE and SXT observations. Our many-loop model does a much better job of predicting the SXT and TRACE light curves than a similar model with only one loop.

  6. NACA 0012 benchmark model experimental flutter results with unsteady pressure distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Bennett, Robert M.; Durham, Michael H.; Silva, Walter A.

    1992-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Division at NASA Langley Research Center has started a wind tunnel activity referred to as the Benchmark Models Program. The primary objective of the program is to acquire measured dynamic instability and corresponding pressure data that will be useful for developing and evaluating aeroelastic type CFD codes currently in use or under development. The program is a multi-year activity that will involve testing of several different models to investigate various aeroelastic phenomena. This paper describes results obtained from a second wind tunnel test of the first model in the Benchmark Models Program. This first model consisted of a rigid semispan wing having a rectangular planform and a NACA 0012 airfoil shape which was mounted on a flexible two degree-of-freedom mount system. Experimental flutter boundaries and corresponding unsteady pressure distribution data acquired over two model chords located at the 60 and 95 percent span stations are presented.

  7. Environmental Model Interoperability Enabled by Open Geospatial Standards - Results of a Feasibility Study (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K. K.; Yang, C.; Huang, Q.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of high-speed research networks such as the US National Lambda Rail and the GÉANT network, scalable on-demand commodity computing resources provided by public and private "cloud" computing systems, and increasing demand for rapid access to the products of environmental models for both research and public policy development contribute to a growing need for the evaluation and development of environmental modeling systems that distribute processing, storage, and data delivery capabilities between network connected systems. In an effort to address the feasibility of developing a standards-based distributed modeling system in which model execution systems are physically separate from data storage and delivery systems, the research project presented in this paper developed a distributed dust forecasting system in which two nested atmospheric dust models are executed at George Mason University (GMU, in Fairfax, VA) while data and model output processing services are hosted at the University of New Mexico (UNM, in Albuquerque, NM). Exchange of model initialization and boundary condition parameters between the servers at UNM and the model execution systems at GMU is accomplished through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Coverage Services (WCS) and Web Feature Services (WFS) while model outputs are pushed from GMU systems back to UNM using a REST web service interface. In addition to OGC and non-OGC web services for exchange between UNM and GMU, the servers at UNM also provide access to the input meteorological model products, intermediate and final dust model outputs, and other products derived from model outputs through OGC WCS, WFS, and OGC Web Map Services (WMS). The performance of the nested versus non-nested models is assessed in this research, with the results of the performance analysis providing the core content of the produced feasibility study. System integration diagram illustrating the storage and service platforms hosted at the Earth Data

  8. A Nuclear Interaction Model for Understanding Results of Single Event Testing with High Energy Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, William X.; ONeill, Pat; Nicholson, Leonard L.

    2000-01-01

    An internuclear cascade and evaporation model has been adapted to estimate the LET spectrum generated during testing with 200 MeV protons. The model-generated heavy ion LET spectrum is compared to the heavy ion LET spectrum seen on orbit. This comparison is the basis for predicting single event failure rates from heavy ions using results from a single proton test. Of equal importance, this spectra comparison also establishes an estimate of the risk of encountering a failure mode on orbit that was not detected during proton testing. Verification of the general results of the model is presented based on experiments, individual part test results, and flight data. Acceptance of this model and its estimate of remaining risk opens the hardware verification philosophy to the consideration of radiation testing with high energy protons at the board and box level instead of the more standard method of individual part testing with low energy heavy ions.

  9. A Tower Model for Lightning Overvoltage Studies Based on the Result of an FDTD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Taku

    This paper describes a method for deriving a transmission tower model for EMTP lightning overvoltage studies from a numerical electromagnetic simulation result obtained by the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method. The FDTD simulation carried out in this paper takes into account the following items which have been ignored or over-simplified in previously-presented simulations: (i) resistivity of the ground soil; (ii) arms, major slant elements, and foundations of the tower; (iii) development speed of the lightning return stroke. For validation purpose a pulse test of a 500-kV transmission tower is simulated, and a comparison with the measured result shows that the present FDTD simulation gives a sufficiently accurate result. Using this validated FDTD-based simulation method the insulator-string voltages of a tower for a lightning stroke are calculated, and based on the simulation result the parameter values of the proposed tower model for EMTP studies are determined in a systematic way. Since previously-presented models include trial-and-error process in the parameter determination, it can be said that the proposed model is more general in this regard. As an illustrative example, the 500-kV transmission tower mentioned above is modeled, and it is shown that the derived model closely reproduces the FDTD simulation result.

  10. Construction of an extended library of adult male 3D models: rationale and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Bremaud, M.; Desbrée, A.; Farah, J.; Huet, C.; Franck, D.

    2011-12-01

    In order to best cover the possible extent of heights and weights of male adults the construction of 25 whole body 3D models has been undertaken. Such a library is thought to be useful to specify the uncertainties and relevance of dosimetry calculations carried out with models representing individuals of average body heights and weights. Representative 3D models of Caucasian body types are selected in a commercial database according to their height and weight, and 3D models of the skeleton and internal organs are designed using another commercial dataset. A review of the literature enabled one to fix volume or mass target values for the skeleton, soft organs, skin and fat content of the selected individuals. The composition of the remainder tissue is fixed so that the weight of the voxel models equals the weight of the selected individuals. After mesh and NURBS modelling, volume adjustment of the selected body shapes and additional voxel-based work, 25 voxel models with 109 identified organs or tissue are obtained. Radiation transport calculations are carried out with some of the developed models to illustrate potential uses. The following points are discussed throughout this paper: justification of the fixed or obtained models' features regarding available and relevant literature data; workflow and strategy for major modelling steps; advantages and drawbacks of the obtained library as compared with other works. The construction hypotheses are explained and justified in detail since future calculation results obtained with this library will depend on them.

  11. Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

  12. Display standards for commercial flight decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Penn, Cecil W.

    1994-06-01

    SAE display standards are used as guidelines for certifying commercial airborne electronic displays. The SAE document generation structure and approval process is described. The SAE committees that generate display standards are described. Three SAE documents covering flat panel displays (AS-8034, ARP-4256, and ARP-4260) are discussed with their current status. Head-Up Display documents are also in work.

  13. DBSolve Optimum: a software package for kinetic modeling which allows dynamic visualization of simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizzatkulov Nail M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology research and applications require creation, validation, extensive usage of mathematical models and visualization of simulation results by end-users. Our goal is to develop novel method for visualization of simulation results and implement it in simulation software package equipped with the sophisticated mathematical and computational techniques for model development, verification and parameter fitting. Results We present mathematical simulation workbench DBSolve Optimum which is significantly improved and extended successor of well known simulation software DBSolve5. Concept of "dynamic visualization" of simulation results has been developed and implemented in DBSolve Optimum. In framework of the concept graphical objects representing metabolite concentrations and reactions change their volume and shape in accordance to simulation results. This technique is applied to visualize both kinetic response of the model and dependence of its steady state on parameter. The use of the dynamic visualization is illustrated with kinetic model of the Krebs cycle. Conclusion DBSolve Optimum is a user friendly simulation software package that enables to simplify the construction, verification, analysis and visualization of kinetic models. Dynamic visualization tool implemented in the software allows user to animate simulation results and, thereby, present them in more comprehensible mode. DBSolve Optimum and built-in dynamic visualization module is free for both academic and commercial use. It can be downloaded directly from http://www.insysbio.ru.

  14. Assessing the agricultural costs of climate change: Combining results from crop and economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    simultaneously. The paper will briefly discuss some examples of the direct embedding of results from plant growth models in economic models.

  15. Next Generation Flight Displays Using HTML5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Human Integrated Vehicles and Environments (HIVE) lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is focused on bringing together inter-disciplinary talent to design and integrate innovative human interface technologies for next generation manned spacecraft. As part of this objective, my summer internship project centered on an ongoing investigation in to building flight displays using the HTML5 standard. Specifically, the goals of my project were to build and demo "flight-like" crew and wearable displays as well as create a webserver for live systems being developed by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. In parallel to my project, a LabVIEW application, called a display server, was created by the HIVE that uses an XTCE (XML (Extensible Markup Language) Telemetry and Command Exchange) parser and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) space packet decoder to translate telemetry items sent by the CFS (Core Flight Software) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It was the webserver's job to receive these UDP messages and send them to the displays. To accomplish this functionality, I utilized Node.js and the accompanying Express framework. On the display side, I was responsible for creating the power system (AMPS) displays. I did this by using HTML5, CSS and JavaScript to create web pages that could update and change dynamically based on the data they received from the webserver. At this point, I have not started on the commanding, being able to send back to the CFS, portion of the displays but hope to have this functionality working by the completion of my internship. I also created a way to test the webserver's functionality without the display server by making a JavaScript application that read in a comma-separate values (CSV) file and converted it to XML which was then sent over UDP. One of the major requirements of my project was to build everything using as little preexisting code as possible, which I accomplished by only using a handful of Java

  16. Using hierarchical linear models to test differences in Swedish results from OECD’s PISA 2003: Integrated and subject-specific science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Åström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of different organisations of the science curriculum in schools participating in PISA 2003 are tested with a hierarchical linear model (HLM of two levels. The analysis is based on science results. Swedish schools are free to choose how they organise the science curriculum. They may choose to work subject-specifically (with Biology, Chemistry and Physics, integrated (with Science or to mix these two. In this study, all three ways of organising science classes in compulsory school are present to some degree. None of the different ways of organising science education displayed statistically significant better student results in scientific literacy as measured in PISA 2003. The HLM model used variables of gender, country of birth, home language, preschool attendance, an economic, social and cultural index as well as the teaching organisation.

  17. Exact results for spin dynamics and fractionalization in the Kitaev Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, G; Mandal, Saptarshi; Shankar, R

    2007-06-15

    We present certain exact analytical results for dynamical spin correlation functions in the Kitaev Model. It is the first result of its kind in nontrivial quantum spin models. The result is also novel: in spite of the presence of gapless propagating Majorana fermion excitations, dynamical two spin correlation functions are identically zero beyond nearest neighbor separation. This shows existence of a gapless but short range spin liquid. An unusual, all energy scale fractionalization of a spin-flip quanta, into two infinitely massive pi fluxes and a dynamical Majorana fermion, is shown to occur. As the Kitaev Model exemplifies topological quantum computation, our result presents new insights into qubit dynamics and generation of topological excitations.

  18. Empirical Results of Modeling EUR/RON Exchange Rate using ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH, TARCH and PARCH models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea – Cristina PETRICĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study consists in examining the changes in the volatility of daily returns of EUR/RON exchange rate using on the one hand symmetric GARCH models (ARCH and GARCH and on the other hand the asymmetric GARCH models (EGARCH, TARCH and PARCH, since the conditional variance is time-varying. The analysis takes into account daily quotations of EUR/RON exchange rate over the period of 04th January 1999 to 13th June 2016. Thus, we are modeling heteroscedasticity by applying different specifications of GARCH models followed by looking for significant parameters and low information criteria (minimum Akaike Information Criterion. All models are estimated using the maximum likelihood method under the assumption of several distributions of the innovation terms such as: Normal (Gaussian distribution, Student’s t distribution, Generalized Error distribution (GED, Student’s with fixed df. Distribution, and GED with fixed parameter distribution. The predominant models turned out to be EGARCH and PARCH models, and the empirical results point out that the best model for estimating daily returns of EUR/RON exchange rate is EGARCH(2,1 with Asymmetric order 2 under the assumption of Student’s t distributed innovation terms. This can be explained by the fact that in case of EGARCH model, the restriction regarding the positivity of the conditional variance is automatically satisfied.

  19. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  20. Book Display as Adult Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  1. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  2. Colour displays for categorical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbey, C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Toh, V.F.K.; Gray, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for identifying a set of colours for displaying 2D and 3D categorical images when the categories are unordered labels. The principle is to find maximally distinct sets of colours. We either generate colours sequentially, to maximize the dissimilarity or distance between a new col

  3. Crystal ball single event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Allgower, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Alyea, J. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

    1997-10-15

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  4. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  5. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  6. Satellite data for systematic validation of wave model results in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Arno; Staneva, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    The Black Sea is with regard to the availability of traditional in situ wave measurements recorded by usual waverider buoys a data sparse semi-enclosed sea. The only possibility for systematic validations of wave model results in such a regional area is the use of satellite data. In the frame of the COPERNICUS Marine Evolution System for the Black Sea that requires wave predictions, the third-generation spectral wave model WAM is used. The operational system is demonstrated based on four years' systematic comparisons with satellite data. The aim of this investigation was to answer two questions. Is the wave model able to provide a reliable description of the wave conditions in the Black Sea and are the satellite measurements suitable for validation purposes on such a regional scale ? Detailed comparisons between measured data and computed model results for the Black Sea including yearly statistics have been done for about 300 satellite overflights per year. The results discussed the different verification schemes needed to review the forecasting skills of the operational system. The good agreement between measured and modeled data supports the expectation that the wave model provides reasonable results and that the satellite data is of good quality and offer an appropriate validation alternative to buoy measurements. This is the required step towards further use of those satellite data for assimilation into the wave fields to improve the wave predictions. Additional support for the good quality of the wave predictions is provided by comparisons between ADCP measurements that are available for a short time period in February 2012 and the corresponding model results at a location near the Bulgarian coast in the western Black Sea. Sensitivity tests with different wave model options and different driving wind fields have been done which identify the appropriate model configuration that provides the best wave predictions. In addition to the comparisons between measured

  7. A computer model to forecast wetland vegetation changes resulting from restoration and protection in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jenneke M.; Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.; Carter, Jacoby; Broussard, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    The coastal wetlands of Louisiana are a unique ecosystem that supports a diversity of wildlife as well as a diverse community of commercial interests of both local and national importance. The state of Louisiana has established a 5-year cycle of scientific investigation to provide up-to-date information to guide future legislation and regulation aimed at preserving this critical ecosystem. Here we report on a model that projects changes in plant community distribution and composition in response to environmental conditions. This model is linked to a suite of other models and requires input from those that simulate the hydrology and morphology of coastal Louisiana. Collectively, these models are used to assess how alternative management plans may affect the wetland ecosystem through explicit spatial modeling of the physical and biological processes affected by proposed modifications to the ecosystem. We have also taken the opportunity to advance the state-of-the-art in wetland plant community modeling by using a model that is more species-based in its description of plant communities instead of one based on aggregated community types such as brackish marsh and saline marsh. The resulting model provides an increased level of ecological detail about how wetland communities are expected to respond. In addition, the output from this model provides critical inputs for estimating the effects of management on higher trophic level species though a more complete description of the shifts in habitat.

  8. Liquid Crystal Microlenses for Autostereoscopic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Algorri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional vision has acquired great importance in the audiovisual industry in the past ten years. Despite this, the first generation of autostereoscopic displays failed to generate enough consumer excitement. Some reasons are little 3D content and performance issues. For this reason, an exponential increase in three-dimensional vision research has occurred in the last few years. In this review, a study of the historical impact of the most important technologies has been performed. This study is carried out in terms of research manuscripts per year. The results reveal that research on spatial multiplexing technique is increasing considerably and today is the most studied. For this reason, the state of the art of this technique is presented. The use of microlenses seems to be the most successful method to obtain autostereoscopic vision. When they are fabricated with liquid crystal materials, extended capabilities are produced. Among the numerous techniques for manufacturing liquid crystal microlenses, this review covers the most viable designs for its use in autostereoscopic displays. For this reason, some of the most important topologies and their relation with autostereoscopic displays are presented. Finally, the challenges in some recent applications, such as portable devices, and the future of three-dimensional displays based on liquid crystal microlenses are outlined.

  9. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  10. Tactile display device using an electrorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-08-01

    A tactile display device utilizes an electrorheological fluid to activate a plurality of tactile dots. A voltage is selectively produced uniformly across an electrorheological fluid flowing between a common ground electrode and a plurality of conductive dot electrodes, thereby producing an increase in the fluid's viscosity to the extent that fluid flow between the two electrodes is restricted. The flow restriction produces a build-up of electrorheological fluid in a corresponding dot actuator chamber. The resulting pressure increase in the chamber displaces an elastic diaphragm fixed to a display surface to form a lump which can be perceived by the reader as one dot in a Braille character cell. A flow regulation system provides a continually pressurized flow system and provides for free flow of the electrorheological fluid through the plurality of dot actuator chambers when they are not activated. The device is adaptable to printed circuit techniques and can simultaneously display tactile dots representative of a full page of Braille characters stored on a medium such as a tape cassette or to display tactile dots representative of non-Braille data appearing on a computer monitor or contained on another data storage medium. In an alternate embodiment, the elastic diaphragm drives a plurality of spring-loaded pins provided with positive stops to maintain consistent displacements of the pins in both their actuated and nonactuated positions.

  11. Updating Finite Element Model of a Wind Turbine Blade Section Using Experimental Modal Analysis Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Luczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents selected results and aspects of the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research oriented for the experimental and numerical study of the structural dynamics of a bend-twist coupled full scale section of a wind turbine blade structure. The main goal of the conducted research is to validate finite element model of the modified wind turbine blade section mounted in the flexible support structure accordingly to the experimental results. Bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled unidirectional layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Dynamic test and simulations were performed on a section of a full scale wind turbine blade provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and the discrepancies are assessed by natural frequency difference and modal assurance criterion. Based on sensitivity analysis, set of model parameters was selected for the model updating process. Design of experiment and response surface method was implemented to find values of model parameters yielding results closest to the experimental. The updated finite element model is producing results more consistent with the measurement outcomes.

  12. SModelS: A Tool for Making Systematic Use of Simplified Models Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Wolfgang; SModelS Group.

    2016-10-01

    We present an automated software tool ”SModelS” to systematically confront theories Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) with experimental data. The tool consists of a general procedure to decompose such BSM theories into their Simplified Models Spectra (SMS). In addition, SModelS features a database containing the majority of the published SMS results of CMS and ATLAS. These results consist of the 95% confidence level upper limits on signal production cross sections. The two components together allow us to quickly confront any BSM model with LHC results. As a show-case example we will briefly discuss an application of our procedure to a specific supersymmetric model. It is one of our ongoing efforts to extend the framework to include also efficiency maps produced either by the experimental collaborations, by efforts performed within the phenomenological groups, or possibly also by ourselves. While the current implementation can handle null results only, it is our ultimate goal to build the Next Standard Model in a bottom-up fashion from both negative and positive results of several experiments. The implementation is open source, written in python, and available from http://smodels.hephy.at.

  13. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Phase 1 and 2: Testing and Modeling Results; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; LaCava, W.; Link, H.; McNiff, B.

    2012-05-01

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) investigates root causes of wind turbine gearbox premature failures and validates design assumptions that affect gearbox reliability using a combined testing and modeling approach. Knowledge gained from the testing and modeling of the GRC gearboxes builds an understanding of how the selected loads and events translate into internal responses of three-point mounted gearboxes. This paper presents some testing and modeling results of the GRC research during Phase 1 and 2. Non-torque loads from the rotor including shaft bending and thrust, traditionally assumed to be uncoupled with gearbox, affect gear and bearing loads and resulting gearbox responses. Bearing clearance increases bearing loads and causes cyclic loading, which could contribute to a reduced bearing life. Including flexibilities of key drivetrain subcomponents is important in order to reproduce the measured gearbox response during the tests using modeling approaches.

  14. Results of recent Pacific-Arctic ice-ocean modeling studies at the Naval Postgraduate School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaclyn Clement Kinney; Wieslaw Maslowski

    2008-01-01

    Summary of results from a high - resolution pan - Arctic ice -'ocean model are presented for the northern North Pacific, Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas.The main focus is on the mean circulation, communication from the Gulf of Alaska across the Bering Sea into the western Arctic Ocean and on mesoscale eddy activity within several important ecosystems. Model results from 1979 -2004 are compared to observations whenever possible. The high spatial model resolution at 1/12o (or~9 -km) in the horizontal and 45 levels in the vertical direction allows for representation of eddies with diameters as small as 36 km. However, we believe that upcoming new model integrations at even higher resolution will allow us to resolve even smaller eddies. This is especially important at the highest latitudes where the Rossby radius of deformation is as small as 10 km or less.

  15. Soil gas and radon entry into a simple test structure: Comparison of experimental and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1994-01-01

    A radon test structure has been established at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of soil gas entry rates, pressure couplings and radon depletion. The experimental results have been compared with results obtained from measured soil parameters and a two......-dimensional steady-state numerical model of Darcy flow and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. For most probe locations, the calculated values of the pressure couplings and the radon depletion agree well with the measured values, thus verifying important elements of the Darcy flow approximation......, and the ability of the model to treat combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. However, the model gives an underestimation of the soil gas entry rate. Even if it is assumed that the soil has a permeability equal to the highest of the measured values, the model underestimates the soil gas entry rate...

  16. Acute Fetal Demise with First Trimester Maternal Infection Resulting from Listeria monocytogenes in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Bryce; Wiepz, Gregory J.; Schotzko, Michele; Bondarenko, Gennadiy I.; Durning, Maureen; Simmons, Heather A.; Mejia, Andres; Faith, Nancy G.; Sampene, Emmanuel; Suresh, Marulasiddappa; Kathariou, Sophia; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Four pregnant cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) received a single intragastric inoculation between days 36 and 46 of gestation with 107 CFU of an L. monocytogenes strain isolated from a previous cluster of human listeriosis cases that resulted in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fecal shedding, maternal bacteremia, and fetal demise were consistently noted within 7 to 13 days. Biopsy specimens of maternal liver, spleen, and lymph node displayed variable inflammation and relatively low bacterial burden. In comparison, we observed greater bacterial burden in the decidua and placenta and the highest burden in fetal tissues. Histopathology indicated vasculitis, fibrinoid necrosis, and thrombosis of the decidual spiral arteries, acute chorioamnionitis and villitis in the placenta, and hematogenous infection of the fetus. Vascular pathology suggests early impact of L. monocytogenes infection on spiral arteries in the decidua, which we hypothesize precipitates subsequent placentitis and fetal demise. These results demonstrate that L. monocytogenes tropism for the maternal reproductive tract results in infection of the decidua, placenta, and the fetus itself during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:28223455

  17. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  18. A Calibration of the Wierzbicki-Xue Damage Model Using Charpy Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage models are frequently used to predict fractures in large deformation problems such as penetration of a projectile into a target. Though many damage models have been proposed so far, coefficients of each model have been provided for only a few materials. In this study, the coefficients of the Wierzbicki-Xue (2005 damage model for tungsten heavy alloy (DX2HCMF are determined using the Charpy impact test. The Wierzbicki-Xue fracture criterion is implemented into NET3D code in which a node-split algorithm is built in. By comparing the energy absorbed in the Charpy test with the results of finite element analysis, the fracture model coefficients are determined.

  19. Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions for the Pliocene (Plio-QUMP): Initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J.O.; Collins, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.; Hunter, S.J.; Lunt, D.J.; Pickering, S.J.; Pound, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP; ~. 3.3 to 3.0. Ma BP) provides an excellent opportunity to test the ability of climate models to reproduce warm climate states, thereby assessing our confidence in model predictions. To do this it is necessary to relate the uncertainty in model simulations of mPWP climate to uncertainties in projections of future climate change. The uncertainties introduced by the model can be estimated through the use of a Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE). Developing on the UK Met Office Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) Project, this paper presents the results from an initial investigation using the end members of a PPE in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model (HadCM3) running with appropriate mPWP boundary conditions. Prior work has shown that the unperturbed version of HadCM3 may underestimate mPWP sea surface temperatures at higher latitudes. Initial results indicate that neither the low sensitivity nor the high sensitivity simulations produce unequivocally improved mPWP climatology relative to the standard. Whilst the high sensitivity simulation was able to reconcile up to 6 ??C of the data/model mismatch in sea surface temperatures in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (relative to the standard simulation), it did not produce a better prediction of global vegetation than the standard simulation. Overall the low sensitivity simulation was degraded compared to the standard and high sensitivity simulations in all aspects of the data/model comparison. The results have shown that a PPE has the potential to explore weaknesses in mPWP modelling simulations which have been identified by geological proxies, but that a 'best fit' simulation will more likely come from a full ensemble in which simulations that contain the strengths of the two end member simulations shown here are combined. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Coupling Landform Evolution and Soil Pedogenesis - Initial Results From the SSSPAM5D Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgoose, G. R.; Welivitiya, W. D. D. P.; Hancock, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of soil on a dynamic landform is a crucial next step in landscape evolution modelling. Some attempts have been taken such as MILESD by Vanwalleghem et al. to develop a first model which is capable of simultaneously evolving both the soil profile and the landform. In previous work we have presented physically based models for soil pedogenesis, mARM and SSSPAM. In this study we present the results of coupling a landform evolution model with our SSSPAM5D soil pedogenesis model. In previous work the SSSPAM5D soil evolution model was used to identify trends of the soil profile evolution on a static landform. Two pedogenetic processes, namely (1) armouring due to erosion, and (2) physical and chemical weathering were used in those simulations to evolve the soil profile. By incorporating elevation changes (due to erosion and deposition) we have advanced the SSSPAM5D modelling framework into the realm of landscape evolution. Simulations have been run using elevation and soil grading data of the engineered landform (spoil heap) at the Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results obtained for the coupled landform-soil evolution simulations predict the erosion of high slope areas, development of rudimentary channel networks in the landform and deposition of sediments in lowland areas, and qualitatively consistent with landform evolution models on their own. Examination of the soil profile characteristics revealed that hill crests are weathering dominated and tend to develop a thick soil layer. The steeper hillslopes at the edge of the landform are erosion dominated with shallow soils while the foot slopes are deposition dominated with thick soil layers. The simulation results of our coupled landform and soil evolution model provide qualitatively correct and timely characterization of the soil evolution on a dynamic landscape. Finally we will compare the characteristics of erosion and deposition predicted by the coupled landform-soil SSSPAM