WorldWideScience

Sample records for model relativistic hot

  1. Hot relativistic winds and the Crab nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, F.S.; Kennel, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts are reviewed to construct a self-consistent model of pulsar magnetospheres that links the particle source near the pulsar to the outflowing relativistic wind and couples the wind to the surrounding nebula. (Auth.)

  2. The case for the relativistic hot big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P. J. E.; Schramm, D. N.; Kron, R. G.; Turner, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    What has become the standard model in cosmology is described, and some highlights are presented of the now substantial range of evidence that most cosmologists believe convincingly establishes this model, the relativistic hot big bang cosmology. It is shown that this model has yielded a set of interpretations and successful predictions that substantially outnumber the elements used in devising the theory, with no well-established empirical contradictions. Brief speculations are made on how the open puzzles and work in progress might affect future developments in this field.

  3. Proton relativistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1995-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author)

  4. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  5. Relativistic kinetics of baryon production in hot Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, Yu.G.

    1985-01-01

    The process of baryon production in the hot Universe is investigated in the framework of the relativistic kinetic theory. The exact solution of kinetic equations for supermassive bosons is obtained, thus giving the possibility to correct the results of previous papers: the known optimum domain of baryon production m sub(X) > α sub(X)msub(PI)√N js complemented by the small-mass boson domain, m sub(X) << α sub(X) m sub(PI)√N; as a result, the cosmological lower-limit restriction on the superheavy bosons masses js removed

  6. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  7. Transition to Δ matter from hot, dense nuclear matter within a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear σ and ω model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Zhuo, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, G.; Zhuo, Y.; Mao, G.; Greiner, W.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation of the transition to Δ matter is performed based on a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear σ and ω model. We demonstrate that in addition to the Δ-meson coupling, the occurrence of the baryon resonance isomer also depends on the nucleon-meson coupling. Our results show that for the favored phenomenological value of m * and K, the Δ isomer exists at baryon density ∼2 3ρ 0 if β=1.31 is adopted. For universal coupling of the nucleon and Δ, the Δ density at baryon density ∼2 3ρ 0 and temperature ∼0.4 0.5 fm -1 is about normal nuclear matter density, which is in accord with a recent experimental finding. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Decay of hot nuclei produced by relativistic light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, V.A.; Avdeev, S.P.; Kuznetsov, V.D.

    1995-01-01

    In collisions of light relativistic projectiles (p, 4 He) with heavy nuclei (Au) very excited target spectators are created, which decay via multiple emission of intermediate mass fragments. It was found that the mean IMF multiplicities are equal (within 15%) to 2.0, 2.6 and 3.0 at proton energies 2.16, 3.6 and 8.1 GeV respectively. These values are comparable with those obtained with heavy ions in the same beam energy range. This is considered to indicate that this observable is not sensitive to the collision dynamics and is determined by the phase space factor. IMF energy spectra are described by the statistical model of multifragmentation neglecting dynamics of the expansion stage before the break up. The expansion velocity is estimated to be ≤ 0.02 c. The mean lifetime of a fragmentating system is found to be ≤ 75 fm/c from IMF-IMF-angular correlations for 4 He (14.6 GeV) +Au collisions. The results support a scenario of true 'thermal' multifragmentation. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  9. Elliptic flow based on a relativistic hydrodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi [Department of Physics, Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Based on the (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the space-time evolution of hot and dense nuclear matter produced in non-central relativistic heavy-ion collisions is discussed. The elliptic flow parameter v{sub 2} is obtained by Fourier analysis of the azimuthal distribution of pions and protons which are emitted from the freeze-out hypersurface. As a function of rapidity, the pion and proton elliptic flow parameters both have a peak at midrapidity. (author)

  10. Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.

    2003-01-01

    The nonstrange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the σ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum

  11. Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.

    2003-01-01

    The non-strange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the $\\sigma$ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum.

  12. Relativistic model for statevector reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearle, P.

    1991-04-01

    A relativistic quantum field model describing statevector reduction for fermion states is presented. The time evolution of the states is governed by a Schroedinger equation with a Hamiltonian that has a Hermitian and a non-Hermitian part. In addition to the fermions, the Hermitian part describes positive and negative energy mesons of equal mass, analogous to the longitudinal and timelike photons of electromagnetism. The meson-field-sum is coupled to the fermion field. This ''dresses'' each fermion so that, in the extreme nonrelativistic limit (non-moving fermions), a fermion in a position eigenstate is also in an eigenstate of the meson-field-difference with the Yukawa-potential as eigenvalue. However, the fermions do not interact: this is a theory of free dressed fermions. It is possible to obtain a stationary normalized ''vacuum'' state which satisfies two conditions analogous to the gauge conditions of electromagnetism (i.e., that the meson-field-difference, as well as its time derivative, give zero when applied to the vacuum state), to any desired degree of accuracy. The non-Hermitian part of the Hamiltonian contains the coupling of the meson-field-difference to an externally imposed c-number fluctuating white noise field, of the CSL (Continuous Spontaneous Localization) form. This causes statevector reduction, as is shown in the extreme nonrelativistic limit. For example, a superposition of spatially separated wavepackets of a fermion will eventually be reduced to a single wavepacket: the meson-field-difference discriminates among the Yukawa-potential ''handles'' attached to each wavepacket, thereby selecting one wavepacket to survive by the CSL mechanism. Analysis beyond that given in this paper is required to see what happens when the fermions are allowed to move. (It is possible that the ''vacuum'' state becomes involved in the dynamics so that the ''gauge'' conditions can no longer be maintained.) It is shown how to incorporate these ideas into quantum

  13. Relativistic models of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, V.; Kim, E.J.; Cauvin, M.; Kohmura, T.; Ohnaka, S.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the relativistic field formalism for the description of nuclear structure has improved our understanding of fundamental nuclear mechanisms such as saturation or many body forces. We discuss some of these progresses, both in the semi-classical mean field approximation and in a quantized meson field approach. (author)

  14. A relativistic quarkonium potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klima, B.; Maor, U.

    1984-04-01

    We review a recently developed relativistic quark-antiquark bound state equation using the expansion in intermediate states. Using a QCD motivated potential we succeeded very well to fit both the heavy systems (banti b, canti c) and the light systems (santi s, uanti u and danti d). Here we emphasize our results on heavy-light sustems and on the possible (tanti t) family. (orig.)

  15. Exact quantisation of the relativistic Hopfield model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belgiorno, F., E-mail: francesco.belgiorno@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo 32, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); INdAM-GNFM (Italy); Cacciatori, S.L., E-mail: sergio.cacciatori@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Piazza, F., E-mail: f.dallapiazza@gmail.com [Università “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Matematica, Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185, Roma (Italy); Doronzo, M., E-mail: m.doronzo@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, which entails the interaction of the quantum electromagnetic field with the matter dipole fields, represented by a mesoscopic polarisation field. A full quantisation of the model is provided in a covariant gauge, with the aim of maintaining explicit relativistic covariance. Breaking of the Lorentz invariance due to the intrinsic presence in the model of a preferred reference frame is also taken into account. Relativistic covariance forces us to deal with the unphysical (scalar and longitudinal) components of the fields, furthermore it introduces, in a more tricky form, the well-known dipole ghost of standard QED in a covariant gauge. In order to correctly dispose of this contribution, we implement a generalised Lautrup trick. Furthermore, causality and the relation of the model with the Wightman axioms are also discussed.

  16. Hot QCD equations of state and relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Vinod; Kumar, Ravindra; Ravishankar, V.

    2007-11-01

    We study two recently proposed equations of state obtained from high-temperature QCD and show how they can be adapted to use them for making predictions for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The method involves extracting equilibrium distribution functions for quarks and gluons from the equation of state (EOS), which in turn will allow a determination of the transport and other bulk properties of the quark gluon-plasma. Simultaneously, the method also yields a quasiparticle description of interacting quarks and gluons. The first EOS is perturbative in the QCD coupling constant and has contributions of O(g5). The second EOS is an improvement over the first, with contributions up to O[g6ln(1/g)]; it incorporates the nonperturbative hard thermal contributions. The interaction effects are shown to be captured entirely by the effective chemical potentials for the gluons and the quarks, in both cases. The chemical potential is seen to be highly sensitive to the EOS. As an application, we determine the screening lengths, which are, indeed, the most important diagnostics for QGP. The screening lengths are seen to behave drastically differently depending on the EOS considered and therefore yield a way to distinguish the two equations of state in heavy ion collisions.

  17. Relativistic dynamical reduction models and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.

    1990-09-01

    We discuss some features of continuous dynamical models yielding state vector reduction and we briefly sketch some recent attempts to get a relativistic generalization of them. Within the relativistic context we analyze in detail the local an nonlocal features of the reduction mechanism and we investigate critically the possibility of attributing objective properties to individual systems in the micro and macroscopic cases. At the nonrelativistic level, two physically equivalent versions of continuous reduction mechanisms have been presented. However, only one of them can be taken as a starting point for the above considered relativistic generalization. By resorting to counterfactual arguments we show that the reason for this lies in the fact that the stochasticity involved in the two approaches has different conceptual implications. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  18. Solutions to the relativistic precession model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, A.; Motta, S.

    2014-01-01

    The relativistic precession model (RPM) can be used to obtain a precise measurement of the mass and spin of a black hole when the appropriate set of quasi-periodic oscillations is detected in the power-density spectrum of an accreting black hole. However, in previous studies, the solution of the RPM

  19. Heavy baryons in the relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Faustov, R.N.; Galkin, V.O.; Martynenko, A.P.; Saleev, V.A.

    1996-07-01

    In the framework of the relativistic quasipotential quark model the mass spectrum of baryons with two heavy quarks is calculated. The quasipotentials for interactions of two quarks and of a quark with a scalar and axial vector diquark are evaluated. The bound state masses of baryons with J P =1/2 + , 3/2 + are computed. (orig.)

  20. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  1. Meson spectra using relativistic quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The complexity of QCD has led to the use of simpler, phenomenological models for hadrons, notably potential models. A short overview of the origin, rationale, merits and demerits of such models is given. Nonrelativistic models and scaling laws are discussed using the WKB technique for illustrative purposes. The failure of nonrelativistic models to describe the lighter mesons motivates the introduction of relativistic equations. Relativistic kinematics are incorporated into a Schroedinger formalism using equations derived by A. Barut, while two-body kinematics are brought into a one-body form via a substitution related to the Todorov equation. The potential used involves a semi-analytic solution to a harmonic oscillator modified by a spin-spin interaction term. The results seem to indicate that such a harmonic oscillator is unsuitable to describe diquark systems adequately

  2. Relativistic nuclear physics with the spectator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1988-01-01

    The spectator model, a general approach to the relativistic treatment of nuclear physics problems in which spectators to nuclear interactions are put on their mass-shell, will be defined nd described. The approach grows out of the relativistic treatment of two and three body systems in which one particle is off-shell, and recent numerical results for the NN interaction will be presented. Two meson-exchange models, one with only 4 mesons (π, σ, /rho/, ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with 6 mesons (π, σ, /rho/, ω, δ, and /eta/) but a pure γ 5 γ/sup mu/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rho/ 40 Cα elastic scattering observables. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Proton relativistic model; Modelo relativistico do proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1996-12-31

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author) 42 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Isoscalar giant resonances in a relativistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, M.; Nguyen Van Giai.

    1988-07-01

    Isoscalar giant resonances in finite nuclei are studied in a relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA) approach. The model is self-consistent in the sense that one set of coupling constants generates the Dirac-Hartree single-particle spectrum and the residual particle-hole interaction. The RRPA is used to calculate response functions of multipolarity L = 0,2,3, and 4 in light and medium nuclei. It is found that monopole and quadrupole modes exhibit a collective character. The peak energies are overestimated, but not as much as one might think if the bulk properties (compression modulus, effective mass) were the only relevant quantities

  5. Relativistic direct interaction and hadron models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, T.

    1984-01-01

    Direct interaction theories at a nonrelativistic level have been used successfully in several areas earlier (e.g. nuclear physics). But for hadron spectroscopy relativistic effects are important and hence the need for a relativistic direct interaction theory arises. It is the goal of this thesis to suggest such a theory which has the simplicity and the flexibility required for phenomenological model building. In general the introduction of relativity in a direct interaction theory is shown to be non-trivial. A first attempt leads to only an approximate form for allowed interactions. Even this is far too complex for phenomenological applicability. To simplify the model an extra spacelike particle called the vertex is introduced in any set of physical (timelike) particles. The vertex model is successfully used to fit and to predict experimental data on hadron spectra, γ and psi states fit very well with an interaction function inspired by QCD. Light mesons also fit reasonably well. Better forms of hyperfine interaction functions would be needed to improve the fitting of light mesons. The unexpectedly low pi meson mass is partially explained. Baryon ground states are fitted with unprecedented accuracy with very few adjustable parameters. For baryon excited states it is shown that better QCD motivated interaction functions are needed for a fit. Predictions for bb states in e + e - experiments are made to assist current experiments

  6. Relativistic quarkonium model with retardation effect, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1990-01-01

    A new relativistic two-body equation is proposed which has the charge-conjugation symmetry. The renormalization of the wave function at the origin (WFO) is done by incorporating the corresponding vertex equation. By using this model, the heavy-quarkonium phenomenology is developed putting emphasis on the short-distance interaction. The typical scale of the distance restricting the applicability of the ladder model for the mass spectra is found to be 0.13 fm: By assuming the equivalent high-momentum cutoff for the gluonic correction, good results are obtained for the charmonium masses. The improved fine-splittings of the bb-bar states are obtained by inclusion of the retardation. Leptonic decay rates are predicted by assuming the renormalized WFO reduced by another high-momentum cutoff. (author)

  7. Relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model, which has been proposed recently in an astrophysical context. Assuming a constant distribution of protons inside the nucleus of finite size avoids severe divergence of the electron density with respect to a point-like nucleus. A formula for the nuclear radius is chosen to treat any element. The relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model matches the two asymptotic regimes, i.e., the non-relativistic and the ultra-relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi models. The equation of state is considered in detail. For each version of the finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model, the pressure, the kinetic energy, and the entropy are calculated. The internal energy and free energy are also considered. The thermodynamic consistency of the three models is considered by working from the free energy. The virial question is also studied in the three cases as well as the relationship with the density functional theory. The relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model is far more involved than the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi models that are very close to each other from a mathematical point of view.

  8. Relativistic mean field model for entrainment in general relativistic superfluid neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, G.L.; Joynt, R.

    2003-01-01

    General relativistic superfluid neutron stars have a significantly more intricate dynamics than their ordinary fluid counterparts. Superfluidity allows different superfluid (and superconducting) species of particles to have independent fluid flows, a consequence of which is that the fluid equations of motion contain as many fluid element velocities as superfluid species. Whenever the particles of one superfluid interact with those of another, the momentum of each superfluid will be a linear combination of both superfluid velocities. This leads to the so-called entrainment effect whereby the motion of one superfluid will induce a momentum in the other superfluid. We have constructed a fully relativistic model for entrainment between superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons using a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the nucleons and their interactions. In this context there are two notions of 'relativistic': relativistic motion of the individual nucleons with respect to a local region of the star (i.e. a fluid element containing, say, an Avogadro's number of particles), and the motion of fluid elements with respect to the rest of the star. While it is the case that the fluid elements will typically maintain average speeds at a fraction of that of light, the supranuclear densities in the core of a neutron star can make the nucleons themselves have quite high average speeds within each fluid element. The formalism is applied to the problem of slowly rotating superfluid neutron star configurations, a distinguishing characteristic being that the neutrons can rotate at a rate different from that of the protons

  9. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the free-streaming of particles in the kinetic theory drive the system out of equi- ... For collisions at RHIC and LHC, a transport model may involve four main com- ...... Further, there are many important conceptual issues such as imple-.

  10. Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions - a hot cocktail of hydrodynamics, resonances and jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrodin E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies of RHIC and LHC are considered. For comparison with data the HYDJET++ model, which contains the treatment of both soft and hard processes, is employed. The study focuses mainly on the interplay of ideal hydrodynamics, final state interactions and jets, and its influence on the development of harmonics of the anisotropic flow. It is shown that jets are responsible for violation of the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ scaling at LHC energies. The interplay between elliptic and triangular flows and their contribution to higher flow harmonics and dihadron angular correlations, including ridge, is also discussed.

  11. Relativistic mean-field mass models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Arteaga, D.; Goriely, S.; Chamel, N. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-10-15

    We present a new effort to develop viable mass models within the relativistic mean-field approach with density-dependent meson couplings, separable pairing and microscopic estimations for the translational and rotational correction energies. Two interactions, DD-MEB1 and DD-MEB2, are fitted to essentially all experimental masses, and also to charge radii and infinite nuclear matter properties as determined by microscopic models using realistic interactions. While DD-MEB1 includes the σ, ω and ρ meson fields, DD-MEB2 also considers the δ meson. Both mass models describe the 2353 experimental masses with a root mean square deviation of about 1.1 MeV and the 882 measured charge radii with a root mean square deviation of 0.029 fm. In addition, we show that the Pb isotopic shifts and moments of inertia are rather well reproduced, and the equation of state in pure neutron matter as well as symmetric nuclear matter are in relatively good agreement with existing realistic calculations. Both models predict a maximum neutron-star mass of more than 2.6 solar masses, and thus are able to accommodate the heaviest neutron stars observed so far. However, the new Lagrangians, like all previously determined RMF models, present the drawback of being characterized by a low effective mass, which leads to strong shell effects due to the strong coupling between the spin-orbit splitting and the effective mass. Complete mass tables have been generated and a comparison with other mass models is presented. (orig.)

  12. Two point function for a simple general relativistic quantum model

    OpenAIRE

    Colosi, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    We study the quantum theory of a simple general relativistic quantum model of two coupled harmonic oscillators and compute the two-point function following a proposal first introduced in the context of loop quantum gravity.

  13. Radiative transitions in mesons within a non relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaz, R.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Gignoux, C.

    2002-01-01

    An exhaustive study of radiative transitions in mesons is performed in a non relativistic quark model. Three different types of mesons wave functions are tested. The effect of some usual approximations is commented. Overall agreement with experimental data is obtained

  14. Models of hot stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Albada, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Elliptical galaxies consist almost entirely of stars. Sites of recent star formation are rare, and most stars are believed to be several billion years old, perhaps as old as the Universe itself (--10/sup 10/ yrs). Stellar motions in ellipticals show a modest amount of circulation about the center of the system, but most support against the force of gravity is provided by random motions; for this reason ellipticals are called 'hot' stellar systems. Spiral galaxies usually also contain an appreciable amount of gas (--10%, mainly atomic hydrogen) and new stars are continually being formed out of this gas, especially in the spiral arms. In contrast to ellipticals, support against gravity in spiral galaxies comes almost entirely from rotation; random motions of the stars with respect to rotation are small. Consequently, spiral galaxies are called 'cold' stellar systems. Other than in hot systems, in cold systems the collective response of stars to variations in the force field is an essential part of the dynamics. The present overview is limited to mathematical models of hot systems. Computational methods are also discussed

  15. Calculation of relativistic model stars using Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to the Regge calculus, developed in a previous paper, is used in conjunction with the velocity potential version of relativistic fluid dynamics due to Schutz [1970, Phys. Rev., D, 2, 2762] to calculate relativistic model stars. The results are compared with those obtained when the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations are solved by other numerical methods. The agreement is found to be excellent. (author)

  16. Coulomb sum rules in the relativistic Fermi gas model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Dang, G.; L'Huillier, M.; Nguyen Giai, Van.

    1986-11-01

    Coulomb sum rules are studied in the framework of the Fermi gas model. A distinction is made between mathematical and observable sum rules. Differences between non-relativistic and relativistic Fermi gas predictions are stressed. A method to deduce a Coulomb response function from the longitudinal response is proposed and tested numerically. This method is applied to the 40 Ca data to obtain the experimental Coulomb sum rule as a function of momentum transfer

  17. Hot metastable state of abnormal matter in relativistic nuclear field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Because of their non-linearity, the field equations of relativistic nuclear field theory admit of additional solutions besides the normal state of matter. One of these is a finite-temperature abnormal phase. Over a narrow range in temperature, matter can exist in the abnormal phase at zero pressure. This is a hot metastable state, for which there is a barrier against decay, because the field configuration is different than in the normal state, the baryon masses are far removed from their vacuum masses, there is an abundance of pairs also far removed from their vacuum masses, and a correspondingly high entropy. The abundance of baryon-antibaryon pairs is the glue that holds this matter together. The signals associated with this novel state are quite unusual. A fragment of such matter will cool by emitting a spectrum of black-body radiation, consisting principally of photons, lepton pairs and pions, rather than by baryon emission, because the latter are far removed from their vacuum masses. If produced at the upper end of its temperature range, a large fraction of the original energy, more than half in the examples studied here, is radiated in this way. The baryons and light elements produced in the eventual decay, after the abnormal matter has cooled to a domain where its pressure becomes positive, will account for only a fraction of the original energy. The energy domain of this state depends sensitively on the coupling constants, and within a reasonable range as determined by nuclear matter properties, can lie in the range of GeV to tens of GeV per nucleon. (orig.)

  18. Heavy-ion interactions in relativistic mean-field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashdan, M.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction potential between spherical nuclei and the elastic scattering cross section are calculated within relativistic mean-field (linear and non-linear) models, using a generalized relativistic local density approximation. The nuclear densities are calculated self-consistently from the solution of the relativistic mean-field equations. It is found that both the linear and non-linear models predict the characteristic switching-over phenomenon of the heavy-ion nuclear potential, where the potential gets attraction with increasing energy up to some value where it reverses this behaviour. The non-linear NLC model predicts a deeper potential than the linear LW model. The elastic scattering cross section calculated within the non-linear NLC model is in better agreement with experiments than that calculated within the linear LW model. (orig.)

  19. Relativistic ''potential model'' for N-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1986-08-01

    Neither quantum field theory nor S-Matrix theory have a well defined procedure for going over to an approximation that can be reliably used in non-relativistic models for nuclear physics. We meet the problem here by constructing a finite particle number relativistic scattering theory for (scalar) particles and mesons using integral equations of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky type. Restricted to N particles and one meson, we can go from the relativistic theory to a ''potential theory'' in the integral equation formulation by using boundary states which do not contain the meson asymptotically. The meson-particle input amplitudes contain a pole at the particle mass, and the particle-particle input amplitudes are null. This gives unique definition (numerically calculable) to the particle-particle off-shell amplitude, and hence to the covariant ''scattering potential'' (but not to the noninvariant concept of ''potential energy''). As we have commented before, if we take these scattering amplitudes as iput for relativistic Faddeev equations, the results are identical to those obtained from the same model starting from three particles and one meson. In this paper we explore how far we can extend this relativistic ''potential model'' to higher numbers of particles and mesons. 10 refs

  20. Hydrodynamic modelling for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model, to describe the microscopic evolution and decoupling of the hadronic ... progress on hydrodynamic modelling, investigation on the flow data and the ... and to describe and predict the soft particle physics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions [4]. It is based on the conservation laws of energy, momentum and net charge ...

  1. The relativistic feedback discharge model of terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2012-02-01

    As thunderclouds charge, the large-scale fields may approach the relativistic feedback threshold, above which the production of relativistic runaway electron avalanches becomes self-sustaining through the generation of backward propagating runaway positrons and backscattered X-rays. Positive intracloud (IC) lightning may force the large-scale electric fields inside thunderclouds above the relativistic feedback threshold, causing the number of runaway electrons, and the resulting X-ray and gamma ray emission, to grow exponentially, producing very large fluxes of energetic radiation. As the flux of runaway electrons increases, ionization eventually causes the electric field to discharge, bringing the field below the relativistic feedback threshold again and reducing the flux of runaway electrons. These processes are investigated with a new model that includes the production, propagation, diffusion, and avalanche multiplication of runaway electrons; the production and propagation of X-rays and gamma rays; and the production, propagation, and annihilation of runaway positrons. In this model, referred to as the relativistic feedback discharge model, the large-scale electric fields are calculated self-consistently from the charge motion of the drifting low-energy electrons and ions, produced from the ionization of air by the runaway electrons, including two- and three-body attachment and recombination. Simulation results show that when relativistic feedback is considered, bright gamma ray flashes are a natural consequence of upward +IC lightning propagating in large-scale thundercloud fields. Furthermore, these flashes have the same time structures, including both single and multiple pulses, intensities, angular distributions, current moments, and energy spectra as terrestrial gamma ray flashes, and produce large current moments that should be observable in radio waves.

  2. Coulomb displacement energies in relativistic and non-relativistic self-consistent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, S.; Savushkin, L.N.; Giai, N. van.

    1992-03-01

    Coulomb displacement energies in mirror nuclei are comparatively analyzed in Dirac-Hartree and Skyrme-Hartree-Fock models. Using a non-linear effective Lagrangian fitted on ground state properties of finite nuclei, it is found that the predictions of relativistic models are lower than those of Hartree-Fock calculations with Skyrme force. The main sources of reduction are the kinetic energy and the Coulomb-nuclear interference potential. The discrepancy with the data is larger than in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock case. (author) 24 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Properties of Doubly Heavy Baryons in the Relativistic Quark Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Faustov, R.N.; Galkin, V.O.; Martynenko, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectra and semileptonic decay rates of baryons consisting of two heavy (b or c) and one light quark are calculated in the framework of the relativistic quark model. The doubly heavy baryons are treated in the quark-diquark approximation. The ground and excited states of both the diquark and quark-diquark bound systems are considered. The quark-diquark potential is constructed. The light quark is treated completely relativistically, while the expansion in the inverse heavy-quark mass is used. The weak transition amplitudes of heavy diquarks bb and bc going, respectively, to bc and cc are explicitly expressed through the overlap integrals of the diquark wave functions in the whole accessible kinematic range. The relativistic baryon wave functions of the quark-diquark bound system are used for the calculation of the decay matrix elements, the Isgur-Wise function, and decay rates in the heavy-quark limit

  4. Modeling terrestrial gamma ray flashes produced by relativistic feedback discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports a modeling study of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) produced by relativistic feedback discharges. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes are intense energetic radiation originating from the Earth's atmosphere that has been observed by spacecraft. They are produced by bremsstrahlung interactions of energetic electrons, known as runaway electrons, with air atoms. An efficient physical mechanism for producing large fluxes of the runaway electrons to make the TGFs is the relativistic feedback discharge, where seed runaway electrons are generated by positrons and X-rays, products of the discharge itself. Once the relativistic feedback discharge becomes self-sustaining, an exponentially increasing number of relativistic electron avalanches propagate through the same high-field region inside the thundercloud until the electric field is partially discharged by the ionization created by the discharge. The modeling results indicate that the durations of the TGF pulses produced by the relativistic feedback discharge vary from tens of microseconds to several milliseconds, encompassing all durations of the TGFs observed so far. In addition, when a sufficiently large potential difference is available in thunderclouds, a self-propagating discharge known as the relativistic feedback streamer can be formed, which propagates like a conventional positive streamer. For the relativistic feedback streamer, the positive feedback mechanism of runaway electron production by the positrons and X-rays plays a similar role as the photoionization for the conventional positive streamer. The simulation results of the relativistic feedback streamer show that a sequence of TGF pulses with varying durations can be produced by the streamer. The relativistic streamer may initially propagate with a pulsed manner and turn into a continuous propagation mode at a later stage. Milliseconds long TGF pulses can be produced by the feedback streamer during its continuous propagation. However

  5. Non-relativistic model of two-particle decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, J.; Exner, P.

    1986-01-01

    A simple non-relativistic model of a spinless particle decaying into two lighter particles is treated in detail. It is similar to the Lee-model description of V-particle decay. Galilean covariance is formulated properly, by means of a unitary projective representation acting on the state space of the model. After separating the centre-of-mass motion the meromorphic structure of the reduced resolvent is deduced

  6. Plasma waves in hot relativistic beam-plasma systems: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magneville, A.

    1990-01-01

    Dispersion relations of plasma waves in a beam-plasma system are computed in the general case where the plasma and beam temperatures, and the velocity of the beam, may be relativistic. The two asymptotic temperature cases, and different contributions of plasma or beam particles to wave dispersion are considered. (author)

  7. Properties of hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsene, Ionut Cristian

    2009-07-01

    In this thesis we tried to characterize a few aspects of the rich field of relativistic heavy ion collisions at intermediate and high energies. In chapter 2 we used two different microscopic string models, UrQMD and QGSM, to study the formation and evolution of the locally equilibrated matter in the central zone of heavy ion collisions at energies spanning from sq root sNN approx 4 GeV up to 17.3 GeV. The calculations were performed both in the cubic central cell of fixed volume V = 5 centre dot 5 centre dot 5 fm3 and for the instantly expanding volume of homogeneous energy density. To decide whether or not equilibrium is reached we used a traditional approach based on the fulfillment of the conditions of kinetic, thermal and chemical equilibrium. Both models favor the formation of equilibrated matter for a period of about 10 fm/c in which the matter expands isentropically with constant entropy per baryon. The square of the speed of sound c{sub s}2 has been found to vary in UrQMD from 0.13 at AGS to 0.15 at SPS energies and in QGSM from 0.11 at AGS to 0.15 at SPS. In both models the rise in c{sub s}2 slows down at sq rootsNN approx 9 GeV. Chapter 3 describes the HYDJET++ model as a superposition of the soft, hydrotype state and the hard state resulting from multi-parton fragmentation. Both states are treated independently. The hard part is an NN collision generator called PYQUEN which modifies the 'standard' jet event obtained with the PYTHIA generator and includes radiative and collisional energy loss for partons. Initial state effects like shadowing are included also. The soft part is the thermal hadronic state generated on the chemical and thermal freeze-out hypersurfaces obtained from the parametrization of relativistic hydrodynamics. We found that this model gives a good description of soft observables at top RHIC energy, like the p{sub T} spectrum, elliptic flow and HBT correlations. The hard part of the model describes well the high-p{sub T

  8. Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlin, Nathaniel D., E-mail: nh322@cornell.edu [438 Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Seyler, Charles E., E-mail: ces7@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm’s law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.

  9. Study of the properties of general relativistic Kink model (GRK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.C.S. de.

    1980-01-01

    The stability of the general relativistic Kink model (GRK) is studied. It is shown that the model is stable at least against radial perturbations. Furthermore, the Dirac field in the background of the geometry generated by the GRK is studied. It is verified that the GRK localizes the Dirac field, around the region of largest curvature. The physical interpretation of this system (the Dirac field in the GRK background) is discussed. (Author) [pt

  10. Tachyonless models of relativistic particles with curvature and torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.A.; Plyushchaj, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of construction (2+1)-dimensional tachyonless models of relativistic particles with an action depending on the world-trajectory curvature and torsion is investigated. The special class of models, described by maximum symmetric action and comprising only spin internal degrees of freedom is found. The examples of systems from the special class are given, whose classical and quantum spectra contain only massive states. 23 refs

  11. Uniform relativistic universe models with pressure. Part 2. Observational tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempec, J.; Krygier, B.

    1977-01-01

    The magnitude-redshift and angular diameter-redshift relations are discussed for the uniform (homogeneous and isotropic) relativistic Universe models with pressure. The inclusion of pressure into the energy-momentum tensor has given larger values of the deceleration parameter q. An increase of the deceleration parameter has led to the brightening of objects as well as to a little larger angular diameters. (author)

  12. New analytically solvable models of relativistic point interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesztesy, F.; Seba, P.

    1987-01-01

    Two new analytically solvable models of relativistic point interactions in one dimension (being natural extensions of the nonrelativistic δ-resp, δ'-interaction) are considered. Their spectral properties in the case of finitely many point interactions as well as in the periodic case are fully analyzed. Moreover the spectrum is explicitely determined in the case of independent, identically distributed random coupling constants and the analog of the Saxon and Huther conjecture concerning gaps in the energy spectrum of such systems is derived

  13. On relativistic models of strange stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tractable models of superdense stars in equilibrium. Several aspects of physical relevance of compact star models, based on Vaidya–Tikekar ansatz, have been in- vestigated [7–10] by a number of workers. Mukherjee et al [11–13] indicated the possibility of using this set-up to describe models of the compact star like Her.

  14. Modelling early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggieri M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we model early time dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color-electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism. The dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay is described by relativistic kinetic theory, taking into account the backreaction on the color field by solving self-consistently the kinetic and the field equations. Our main results concern isotropization and thermalization for a 1+1D expanding geometry. In case of small η/s (η/s ≲ 0.3 we find τisotropization ≈ 0.8 fm/c and τthermalization ≈ 1 fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics.

  15. The model of the relativistic particle with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyushchay, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The model of the relativistic particle with torsion, whose action appears in the Bose-Fermi transmutation mechanism, is canonically quantized in the Minkowski and euclidean spaces. In the Minkowski space there are massive, massless and tachyonic states in the spectrum of the model. In the massive sector the spectrum contains an infinite number of states, whose spin can take integer, half-integer, or fractional values. In the euclidean space, the spectrum is finite and the spin can only be integer, or half-integer. The reasons for the differences of the quantum theory of the model in the two spaces are elucidated. (orig.)

  16. Relativistic Coulomb excitation of giant resonances in the hydrodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos Gomes, Ana Cristina de.

    1990-05-01

    We investigate the Coulomb excitation of giant dipole resonances in relativistic heavy ion collisions using a macroscopic hydrodynamical model for the harmonic vibrations of the nuclear fluid. The motion is treated as a combination of the Goldhaber-Teller displacement mode and the Steinwedel-Jensen acoustic mode, and the restoring forces are calculated using the droplet model. This model is used as input to study the characteristics of multiple excitation of giant dipole resonances in nuclei. Possible signatures for the existence of such states are also discussed quantitatively. (author). 52 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Polyacetylene and relativistic field-theory models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.; Campbell, D.K.; Fesser, K.

    1981-01-01

    Connections between continuum, mean-field, adiabatic Peierls-Froehlich theory in the half-filled band limit and known field theory results are discussed. Particular attention is given to the phi 4 model and to the solvable N = 2 Gross-Neveu model. The latter is equivalent to the Peierls system at a static, semi-classical level. Based on this equivalence we note the prediction of both kink and polaron solitons in models of trans-(CH)/sub x/. Polarons in cis-(CH)/sub x/ are compared with those in the trans isomer. Optical absorption from polarons is described, and general experimental consequences of polarons in (CH)/sub x/ and other conjugated polymers is discussed

  18. Relativistic model for anisotropic strange stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Debabrata; Chowdhury, Sourav Roy; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Farook; Guha, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we attempt to find a singularity free solution of Einstein's field equations for compact stellar objects, precisely strange (quark) stars, considering Schwarzschild metric as the exterior spacetime. To this end, we consider that the stellar object is spherically symmetric, static and anisotropic in nature and follows the density profile given by Mak and Harko (2002) , which satisfies all the physical conditions. To investigate different properties of the ultra-dense strange stars we have employed the MIT bag model for the quark matter. Our investigation displays an interesting feature that the anisotropy of compact stars increases with the radial coordinate and attains its maximum value at the surface which seems an inherent property for the singularity free anisotropic compact stellar objects. In this connection we also perform several tests for physical features of the proposed model and show that these are reasonably acceptable within certain range. Further, we find that the model is consistent with the energy conditions and the compact stellar structure is stable with the validity of the TOV equation and Herrera cracking concept. For the masses below the maximum mass point in mass vs radius curve the typical behavior achieved within the framework of general relativity. We have calculated the maximum mass and radius of the strange stars for the three finite values of bag constant Bg.

  19. Calculation of radiative opacity of plasma mixtures using a relativistic screened hydrogenic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, M.A.; Rubiano, J.G.; Gil, J.M.; Rodríguez, R.; Florido, R.; Espinosa, G.; Martel, P.; Mínguez, E.

    2014-01-01

    We present the code ATMED based on an average atom model and conceived for fast computing the population distribution and radiative properties of hot and dense single and multicomponent plasmas under LTE conditions. A relativistic screened hydrogenic model (RSHM), built on a new set of universal constants considering j-splitting, is used to calculate the required atomic data. The opacity model includes radiative bound–bound, bound–free, free–free, and scattering processes. Bound–bound line-shape function has contributions from natural, Doppler and electron-impact broadenings. An additional dielectronic broadening to account for fluctuations in the average level populations has been included, which improves substantially the Rosseland mean opacity results. To illustrate the main features of the code and its capabilities, calculations of several fundamental quantities of one-component plasmas and mixtures are presented, and a comparison with previously published data is performed. Results are satisfactorily compared with those predicted by more elaborate codes. - Highlights: • A new opacity code, ATMED, based on the average atom approximation is presented. • Atomic data are computed by means of a relativistic screened hydrogenic model. • An effective bound level degeneracy is included for accounting pressure ionization. • A new dielectronic line broadening is included to improve the mean opacities. • ATMED has the possibility to handle with single element and multicomponent plasmas

  20. Seeded hot dark matter models with inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratsias, John; Scherrer, Robert J.; Steigman, Gary; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We examine massive neutrino (hot dark matter) models for large-scale structure in which the density perturbations are produced by randomly distributed relic seeds and by inflation. Power spectra, streaming velocities, and the Sachs-Wolfe quadrupole fluctuation are derived for this model. We find that the pure seeded hot dark matter model without inflation produces Sachs-Wolfe fluctuations far smaller than those seen by COBE. With the addition of inflationary perturbations, fluctuations consistent with COBE can be produced. The COBE results set the normalization of the inflationary component, which determines the large-scale (about 50/h Mpc) streaming velocities. The normalization of the seed power spectrum is a free parameter, which can be adjusted to obtain the desired fluctuations on small scales. The power spectra produced are very similar to those seen in mixed hot and cold dark matter models.

  1. Neutron stars with kaon condensation in relativistic effective model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chen; Ma, Yugang; Qian, Weiliang; Yang, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic mean-field theory with parameter sets FSUGold and IU-FSU is extended to study the properties of neutron star matter in β equilibrium by including Kaon condensation. The mixed phase of normal baryons and Kaon condensation cannot exist in neutron star matter for the FSUGold model and the IU-FSU model. In addition, it is found that when the optical potential of the K - in normal nuclear matter U K ≳ -100 MeV, the Kaon condensation phase is absent in the inner cores of the neutron stars. (author)

  2. A new class of relativistic stellar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Salah

    1995-03-01

    Einstein field equations for a static and spherically symmetric perfect fluid are considered. A formulation given by Patino and Rago is used to obtain a class of nine solutions, two of them are Tolman solutions I, IV and the remaining seven are new. The solutions are the correct ones corresponding to expressions derived by Patino and Rago which have been shown by Knutsen to be incorrect. Similar to Tolan solution IV each of the new solutions satisfies energy conditions inside a sphere in some range of two independent parameters. Besides, each solution could be matched to the exterior Schwarzschild solution at a boundary where the pressure vanishes and thus the solutions constitute a class of new physically reasonable stellar models.

  3. Spherically symmetric relativistic model for spiral galaxies and dense stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, R.; Rodrigues, L.M.C.; Sasse, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    The behaviour of the pressure and the density as well as the gravitational field of a dense star are studied in some detail. For such a purpose and to take into account relativistic effects, we find a family of exact solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equation, which contains as a particular case solutions corresponding to a γ-law equation of state. The mentioned family can also be used to model the (luminous or dark) matter content of spiral galaxies, as it fits the observed data for their orbital velocities profiles. (author)

  4. Prediction Model for Relativistic Electrons at Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Lyatsky, Wladislaw

    2008-01-01

    We developed a new prediction model for forecasting relativistic (greater than 2MeV) electrons, which provides a VERY HIGH correlation between predicted and actually measured electron fluxes at geostationary orbit. This model implies the multi-step particle acceleration and is based on numerical integrating two linked continuity equations for primarily accelerated particles and relativistic electrons. The model includes a source and losses, and used solar wind data as only input parameters. We used the coupling function which is a best-fit combination of solar wind/interplanetary magnetic field parameters, responsible for the generation of geomagnetic activity, as a source. The loss function was derived from experimental data. We tested the model for four year period 2004-2007. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual values of the electron fluxes for whole four year period as well as for each of these years is stable and incredibly high (about 0.9). The high and stable correlation between the computed and actual electron fluxes shows that the reliable forecasting these electrons at geostationary orbit is possible.

  5. Relativistic Chiral Mean Field Model for Finite Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y.; Toki, H.; Tamenaga, S.; Haga, A.

    2009-08-01

    We present a relativistic chiral mean field (RCMF) model, which is a method for the proper treatment of pion-exchange interaction in the nuclear many-body problem. There the dominant term of the pionic correlation is expressed in two-particle two-hole (2p-2h) states with particle-holes having pionic quantum number, J^{π}. The charge-and-parity-projected relativistic mean field (CPPRMF) model developed so far treats surface properties of pionic correlation in 2p-2h states with J^{π} = 0^{-} (spherical ansatz). We extend the CPPRMF model by taking 2p-2h states with higher spin quantum numbers, J^{π} = 1^{+}, 2^{-}, 3^{+}, ... to describe the full strength of the pionic correlation in the intermediate range (r > 0.5 fm). We apply the RCMF model to the ^{4}He nucleus as a pilot calculation for the study of medium and heavy nuclei. We study the behavior of energy convergence with the pionic quantum number, J^{π}, and find convergence around J^{π}_{max} = 6^{-}. We include further the effect of the short-range repulsion in terms of the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) for the central part of the pion-exchange interaction. The energy contribution of about 50% of the net two-body interaction comes from the tensor part and 20% comes from the spin-spin central part of the pion-exchange interaction.}

  6. Relativistic nuclear matter with alternative derivative coupling models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, A.; Coelho, C.T.; Malheiro, M.

    1994-01-01

    Effective Lagrangians involving nucleons coupled to scalar and vector fields are investigated within the framework of relativistic mean-field theory. The study presents the traditional Walecka model and different kinds of scalar derivative coupling suggested by Zimanyi and Moszkowski. The incompressibility (presented in an analytical form), scalar potential, and vector potential at the saturation point of nuclear matter are compared for these models. The real optical potential for the models are calculated and one of the models fits well the experimental curve from-50 to 400 MeV while also gives a soft equation of state. By varying the coupling constants and keeping the saturation point of nuclear matter approximately fixed, only the Walecka model presents a first order phase transition of finite temperature at zero density. (author)

  7. Relativistic fluid model of the resistive hose instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the hose instability using the relativistic fluid formulation is reported. In its basic nature, the hose instability is a macroscopic, low-frequency instability, hence a fluid model should, in principle, give an accurate account of the hose instability. It has been found that for zeroth-order beam displacements, giving rise to rigid beam displacements, the fluid wave equation and resulting dispersion relation are identical to the spread-mass model and the energy-group model results. When first-order fluid displacements are included as well, giving rise to compressible, nonfrozen displacements in the axial direction and beam cross-section distortion in the radial direction, then there is obtained a wave equation similar, but not identical to the multicomponent model. The dispersion relation is solved for numerically. The hose instability growth rate is found to be similar to the multicomponent model result, over part of the beam frame, real hose frequency range

  8. Spectra of heavy-light mesons in a relativistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-Bin; Lue, Cai-Dian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    The spectra and wave functions of heavy-light mesons are calculated within a relativistic quark model which is based on a heavy-quark expansion of the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter equation by applying the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. The kernel we choose is the standard combination of linear scalar and Coulombic vector. The effective Hamiltonian for heavy-light quark-antiquark system is calculated up to order 1/m{sub Q}{sup 2}. Our results are in good agreement with available experimental data except for the anomalous D{sub s0}{sup *}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) states. The newly observed heavy-light meson states can be accommodated successfully in the relativistic quark model with their assignments presented. The D{sub sJ}{sup *}(2860) can be interpreted as the vertical stroke 1{sup 3/2}D{sub 1} right angle and vertical stroke 1{sup 5/2}D{sub 3} right angle states being members of the 1D family with J{sup P} = 1{sup -} and 3{sup -}. (orig.)

  9. A relativistic point coupling model for nuclear structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buervenich, T.; Maruhn, J.A.; Madland, D.G.; Reinhard, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    A relativistic point coupling model is discussed focusing on a variety of aspects. In addition to the coupling using various bilinear Dirac invariants, derivative terms are also included to simulate finite-range effects. The formalism is presented for nuclear structure calculations of ground state properties of nuclei in the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations. Different fitting strategies for the determination of the parameters have been applied and the quality of the fit obtainable in this model is discussed. The model is then compared more generally to other mean-field approaches both formally and in the context of applications to ground-state properties of known and superheavy nuclei. Perspectives for further extensions such as an exact treatment of the exchange terms using a higher-order Fierz transformation are discussed briefly. (author)

  10. Relativistic generalizations of simple pion-nucleon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic, partial wave N/D dispersion theory is developed for low energy pion-nucleon elastic scattering. The theory is simplified by treating crossing symmetry only to lowest order in the inverse nucleon mass. The coupling of elastic scattering to inelastic channels is included by taking the necessary inelasticity from experimental data. Three models are examined: pseudoscalar coupling of pions and nucleons, pseudovector coupling, and a model in which all intermediate antinucleons are projected out of the amplitude. The phase shifts in the dominant P 33 channel are quantitatively reproduced for P/sub lab/ 33 phase shifts. Thus a model of the pion-nucleon interaction which does not include antinucleon degrees of freedom is found to be unphysical

  11. Influence of a relativistic kinematics on s-wave KN phase shifts in a quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, S.; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2001-01-01

    The I = 1 and I = 0 kaon-nucleon s-wave phase shifts have been calculated in a quark potential model using the resonating group method (RGM) and a relativistic kinematics. The spinless Salpeter equation has been solved numerically using the Fourier grid Hamiltonian method. The results have been compared to the non-relativistic ones. For each isospin channel the phase shifts obtained are not so far from the non-relativistic results. (author)

  12. A relativistic, meson exchange model of pion-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearces, B.C.; Jennings, B.K.

    1990-06-01

    A relativistic meson exchange approach to the pion-nucleon interaction is developed using a three-dimensional relativistic two-body propagator, and the results using different propagators are compared. The relativistic approach is able to describe low energy scattering up to 400 MeV above threshold, while preserving the soft pion theorems. The different propagators give similar results, as the form factors necessary to get a fit suppress much of the multiple scattering. (Author) (24 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.)

  13. A quantum relativistic integrable model as the continuous limit of the six-vertex model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    The six-vertex model in two-dimensional statistical mechanics is used to construct the L-matrix of a one-dimensional quantum relativistic integrable model through a continuous limit. This is the first step to extend the method used earlier by the author to construct quantum completely integrable systems from other well-known two-dimensional vertex models. (orig.)

  14. Scaling for deuteron structure functions in a relativistic light-front model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzou, W.N.; Gloeckle, W.

    1996-01-01

    Scaling limits of the structure functions [B.D. Keister, Phys. Rev. C 37, 1765 (1988)], W 1 and W 2 , are studied in a relativistic model of the two-nucleon system. The relativistic model is defined by a unitary representation, U(Λ,a), of the Poincaracute e group which acts on the Hilbert space of two spinless nucleons. The representation is in Dirac close-quote s [P.A.M. Dirac, Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 392 (1949)] light-front formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics and is designed to give the experimental deuteron mass and n-p scattering length. A model hadronic current operator that is conserved and covariant with respect to this representation is used to define the structure tensor. This work is the first step in a relativistic extension of the results of Hueber, Gloeckle, and Boemelburg. The nonrelativistic limit of the model is shown to be consistent with the nonrelativistic model of Hueber, Gloeckle, and Boemelburg. [D. Hueber et al. Phys. Rev. C 42, 2342 (1990)]. The relativistic and nonrelativistic scaling limits, for both Bjorken and y scaling are compared. The interpretation of y scaling in the relativistic model is studied critically. The standard interpretation of y scaling requires a soft wave function which is not realized in this model. The scaling limits in both the relativistic and nonrelativistic case are related to probability distributions associated with the target deuteron. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Chemical equilibrium relations used in the fireball model of relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fireball model of relativistic heavy-ion collision uses chemical equilibrium relations to predict cross sections for particle and composite productions. These relations are examined in a canonical ensemble model where chemical equilibrium is not explicitly invoked

  16. Quasi-exactly solvable relativistic soft-core Coulomb models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agboola, Davids, E-mail: davagboola@gmail.com; Zhang, Yao-Zhong, E-mail: yzz@maths.uq.edu.au

    2012-09-15

    By considering a unified treatment, we present quasi exact polynomial solutions to both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with the family of soft-core Coulomb potentials V{sub q}(r)=-Z/(r{sup q}+{beta}{sup q}){sup 1/q}, Z>0, {beta}>0, q{>=}1. We consider cases q=1 and q=2 and show that both cases are reducible to the same basic ordinary differential equation. A systematic and closed form solution to the basic equation is obtained using the Bethe ansatz method. For each case, the expressions for the energies and the allowed parameters are obtained analytically and the wavefunctions are derived in terms of the roots of a set of Bethe ansatz equations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relativistic bound-state solutions of the soft-core Coulomb models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quasi-exact treatments of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations for the soft-core Coulomb models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solutions obtained in terms of the roots to the Bethe ansatz equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hidden Lie algebraic structure discussed for the models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results useful in describing mesonic atoms and interaction of intense laser fields with atom.

  17. Relativistic strings and dual models of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    The theory of strong interactions,based on the model depicting a hardon as a one-dimentional elastic relativistic system(''string'') is considered. The relationship between this model and the concepts of quarks and partons is discussed. Presented are the principal results relating to the Veneziano dual theory, which may be considered as the consequence of the string model, and to its modifications. The classical string theory is described in detail. Attention is focused on questions of importance to the construction of the quantum theory - the Hamilton mechanisms and conformal symmetry. Quantization is described, and it is shown that it is not contradictory only in the 26-dimentional space and with a special requirement imposed on the spectrum of states. The theory of a string with a distributed spin is considered. The spin is introduced with the aid of the Grassman algebra formalism. In this case quantization is possible only in the 10-dimentional space. The strings interact by their ruptures and gluings. A method for calculating the interaction amplitudes is indicated

  18. Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons

    OpenAIRE

    Lladó Gambín, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the mod...

  19. Isospin-dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean-field models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An

    2007-01-01

    Using various relativistic mean-field models, including the nonlinear ones with meson field self-interactions, those with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, and the point-coupling models without meson fields, we have studied the isospin-dependent bulk and single-particle properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, we have determined the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy from these different relativistic mean-field models and compare the results with the constra...

  20. Nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NoRD) model of cosmic ray propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, V V; Sibatov, R T

    2017-01-01

    The problem of physical interpretation of the nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NoRD model) for cosmic ray transport in the Galaxy is discussed. The model accounts for the turbulent character of the interstellar medium and the relativistic principle of the speed limitation. Involving fractional calculus and non-Gaussian Lévy statistics yields numerical results compatible with observation data. A special attention is paid to the knee problem. The relativistic speed limit requirement steepens theoretical background spectrum at certain energies, and the position of the break, its sharpness and slopes of asymptotes depend on D α ( E ) and α . (paper)

  1. A general relativistic hydrostatic model for a galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, R.; Pena, L.; Zamorano, N.

    1991-08-01

    The existence of huge amounts of mass laying at the center of some galaxies has been inferred by data gathered at different wavelengths. It seems reasonable then, to incorporate general relativity in the study of these objects. A general relativistic hydrostatic model for a galaxy is studied. We assume that the galaxy is dominated by the dark mass except at the nucleus, where the luminous matter prevails. It considers four different concentric spherically symmetric regions, properly matched and with a specific equation of state for each of them. It yields a slowly raising orbital velocity for a test particle moving in the background gravitational field of the dark matter region. In this sense we think of this model as representing a spiral galaxy. The dependence of the mass on the radius in cluster and field spiral galaxies published recently, can be used to fix the size of the inner luminous core. A vanishing pressure at the edge of the galaxy and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium everywhere generates a jump in the density and the orbital velocity at the shell enclosing the galaxy. This is a prediction of this model. The ratio between the size core and the shells introduced here are proportional to their densities. In this sense the model is scale invariant. It can be used to reproduce a galaxy or the central region of a galaxy. We have also compared our results with those obtained with the Newtonian isothermal sphere. The luminosity is not included in our model as an extra variable in the determination of the orbital velocity. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs

  2. Nontopological bare solutions in the relativistic self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jongmin; Jang, Jaeduk

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we prove the existence of the radially symmetric nontopological bare solutions in the relativistic self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs model. We also verify the Chern-Simons limit for those solutions

  3. Pion-cloud corrections to the relativistic S + V harmonic potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, B.E.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    Pionic corrections to the mass spectrum of low-lying s-wave baryons are incorporated in a relativistic independent quark model with equally mixed Lorentz scalar and vector harmonic potentials. (M.W.O.) [pt

  4. Classification of integrable two-dimensional models of relativistic field theory by means of computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of classification of two-dimensional relativistic field models (1) spinor; (2) essentially-nonlinear scalar) possessing higher conservation laws using the system of symbolic computer calculations are presented shortly

  5. Particle production in high energy collisions and the non-relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisovich, V.V.; Nyiri, J.

    1981-07-01

    The present review deals with multiparticle production processes at high energies using ideas which originate in the non-relativistic quark model. Consequences of the approach are considered and they are compared with experimental data. (author)

  6. Decay constants of heavy mesons in the relativistic potential model with velocity dependent corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avaliani, I.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Slepchenko, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    In the relativistic model with the velocity dependent potential the masses and leptonic decay constants of heavy pseudoscalar and vector mesons are computed. The possibility of using this potential is discussed. 11 refs.; 4 tabs

  7. 'Relativistic' quark model for mesons with flavour-independent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroesen, G.

    1987-01-01

    On the base of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in instantaneous approximation a unified model for the mass spectrum of the mesons was designed. The 'relativistic' structure of the Bethe-Salpeter equation allows a natural inclusion of the spin dependences and an extension of the model to small quark masses. The model contains as essential property two potential contributions where one represents the one-gluon exchange while the other represents the confinement potential. The annihilation of qanti q into gluons was not regarded. The spectrum and the amplitudes of the Bethe-Salpeter equation were solved approximatively in numerical way for the lowest states. The free parameters of the model were determined by a fit of the spectrum to a wellknown part of the meson spectrum. The results yield even at small quark masses a quantitatively good picture for all meson families. The result shows that the spectra of the heavy and light mesons can be described by a flavor-independent potential which contains 5 free parameters. Both the internal spin dependent structure and the absolute position of the families can so correctly be described. Especially the position of the D, D s , and B states and the position of the uanti u, danti d states can be simultaneously described by a constant C in the long-range part of the potential. The constant C is thereby essentially determined by the splitting between the Υ family and the B family repectively Ψ and D family. The 3 S 1- 3 D 1 respectively the 3 P 2 - 3 F 2 configuration mixing was regarded. The results show that this mixing is negligibly small. (orig./HSI) [de

  8. Hadron matrix elements of quark operators in the relativistic quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bando, Masako; Toya, Mihoko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Sugimoto, Hiroshi

    1979-07-01

    General formulae for evaluating matrix elements of two- and four-quark operators sandwiched by one-hadron states are presented on the basis of the relativistic quark model. Observed hadronic quantities are expressed in terms of those matrix elements of two- and four-quark operators. One observes various type of relativistic expression for the matrix elements which in the non-relativistic case reduce to simple expression of the so-called ''the wave function at the origin /sup +/psi(0)/sup +/''.

  9. A relativistic gauge model describing N particles bound by harmonic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Application of the principle of gauging to linear canonical symmetries of simplest/rudimentary/bilinear lagrangians is shown to produce a relativistic version of the Lagrangian describing N particles bound by harmonic forces. For pairwise coupled identical particles the gauge group is T 1 xU 1 , xSU N-1 . A model for the relativistic discrete string (a chain of N particles) is also discussed. All these gauge theoried of particles can be quantized by standard methods

  10. Relativistic dynamical reduction models: General framework and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.

    1990-04-01

    The formulation of a relativistic theory of statevector reduction is proposed and analyzed, and its conceptual consequences are elucidated. In particular, a detailed discussion of stochastic invariance and of local and nonlocal aspects at the level of individual systems is presented. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  11. New models of general relativistic static thick disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, D.; Letelier, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    New families of exact general relativistic thick disks are constructed using the "displace, cut, fill, and reflect" method. A class of functions used to fill the disks is derived imposing conditions on the first and second derivatives to generate physically acceptable disks. The analysis of the

  12. Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llado-Gambin, Adriana

    A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the modeling based on typical thermal input from a balloon propane burner. The burner duty cycle to keep a constant altitude can vary from 10% to 28% depending on the atmospheric conditions, and the ambient temperature is the parameter that most affects the total thermal input needed. The simulation and analysis also predict that the gas temperature inside the balloon decreases at a rate of -0.25 K/s when there is no burner activity, and it increases at a rate of +1 K/s when the balloon pilot operates the burner. The results were compared to actual flight data and they show very good agreement indicating that the major physical processes responsible for balloon performance aloft are accurately captured in the simulation.

  13. Systematics of light nuclei in a relativistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The results of relativistic mean field calculations for non-spherical nuclei are presented and discussed. The need for non-linear scalar meson self-couplings in order to describe the properties of s-d shell nuclei is emphasized along with the importance of self-consistency in calculations of magnetic moments of odd-mass nuclei. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. On some solvable models in non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, J.; Shayo, L.K.

    1985-11-01

    The theory of self-adjoint extensions is employed to generalize some previous results in non-relativistic quantum interactions. In particular, the Hamiltonian H=-Δ+V, where Δ is the Laplacian and the potential V consists of a strongly singular interaction, a Coulomb and a delta-shell interaction is studied. The spectral properties are discussed and phase shifts as well as low energy parameters are obtained. (author)

  15. Modeling deflagration waves out of hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives comes about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping through an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step, deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in the cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighboring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration waves may depend on both pressure and temperature. It depends on pressure for quasistatic loading near ambient temperature, and on temperature at high temperatures resulting from shock loading. From the simulation we obtain deflagration fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For 8 to 13 GPa shocks, the emanating fronts propagate as deflagration waves to consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels deflagration waves may interact with the sweeping shock to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds.

  16. A finite Zitterbewegung model for relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    Starting from steps of length h/mc and time intervals h/mc 2 , which imply a quasi-local Zitterbewegung with velocity steps ±c, we employ discrimination between bit-strings of finite length to construct a necessary 3+1 dimensional event-space for relativistic quantum mechanics. By using the combinatorial hierarchy to label the strings, we provide a successful start on constructing the coupling constants and mass ratios implied by the scheme. Agreement with experiments is surprisingly accurate. 22 refs., 1 fig

  17. A finite Zitterbewegung model for relativistic quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-02-19

    Starting from steps of length h/mc and time intervals h/mc{sup 2}, which imply a quasi-local Zitterbewegung with velocity steps {plus minus}c, we employ discrimination between bit-strings of finite length to construct a necessary 3+1 dimensional event-space for relativistic quantum mechanics. By using the combinatorial hierarchy to label the strings, we provide a successful start on constructing the coupling constants and mass ratios implied by the scheme. Agreement with experiments is surprisingly accurate. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  18. A gauge model describing N relativistic particles bound by linear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    A relativistic model of N particles bound by linear forces is obtained by applying the gauging procedure to the linear canonical symmteries of a simple (rudimentary) nonrelativistic N-particle Lagrangian extended to relativistic phase space. The new (gauged) Lagrangian is formally Poincare invariant, the Hamiltonian is a linear combination of first-class constraints which are closed with respect to Pisson brackets and generate the localized canonical symmteries. The gauge potentials appear as the Lagrange multipliers of the constraints. Gauge fixing and quantization of the model are also briefly discussed. 11 refs

  19. Radiative proton-deuteron capture in a gauge invariant relativistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korchin, AY; Van Neck, D; Scholten, O; Waroquier, M

    A relativistic model is developed for the description of the process p+dHe-3+gamma*. It is based on the impulse approximation, but is explicitly gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant. The model is applied to radiative proton-deuteron capture and electrodisintegration of He-3 nt intermediate

  20. A relativistic model of the topological acceleration effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Jan J; Roukema, Boudewijn F; Buliński, Zbigniew P

    2012-01-01

    It has previously been shown heuristically that the topology of the Universe affects gravity, in the sense that a test particle near a massive object in a multiply connected universe is subject to a topologically induced acceleration that opposes the local attraction to the massive object. It is necessary to check if this effect occurs in a fully relativistic solution of the Einstein equations that has a multiply connected spatial section. A Schwarzschild-like exact solution that is multiply connected in one spatial direction is checked for analytical and numerical consistency with the heuristic result. The T 1 (slab-space) heuristic result is found to be relativistically correct. For a fundamental domain size of L, a slow-moving, negligible-mass test particle lying at distance x along the axis from the object of mass M to its nearest multiple image, where GM/c 2 3 )x, where ζ(3) is Apery's constant. For M ∼ 10 14 M sun and L ∼ 10-20h -1 Gpc, this linear expression is accurate to ±10% over h -1 Mpc/h -1 Gpc. Thus, at least in a simple example of a multiply connected universe, the topological acceleration effect is not an artefact of Newtonian-like reasoning, and its linear derivation is accurate over about three orders of magnitude in x. (paper)

  1. Differential regularization of a non-relativistic anyon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, D.Z.; Rius, N.

    1993-07-01

    Differential regularization is applied to a field theory of a non-relativistic charged boson field φ with λ(φ * φ) 2 self-interaction and coupling to a statistics-changing 0(1) Chern-Simons gauge field. Renormalized configuration-space amplitudes for all diagrams contributing to the φ * φ * φφ 4-point function, which is the only primitively divergent Green's function, are obtained up to 3-loop order. The renormalization group equations are explicitly checked, and the scheme dependence of the β-function is investigated. If the renormalization scheme is fixed to agree with a previous 1-loop calculation, the 2- and 3-loop contributions to β(λ, e) vanish, and β(λ, ε) itself vanishes when the ''self-dual'' condition relating λ to the gauge coupling e is imposed. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig

  2. Hadron matrix elements of quark operators in the relativistic quark model, 2. Model calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisue, H; Bando, M; Toya, M [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Sugimoto, H

    1979-11-01

    Phenomenological studies of the matrix elements of two- and four-quark operators are made on the basis of relativistic independent quark model for typical three cases of the potentials: rigid wall, linearly rising and Coulomb-like potentials. The values of the matrix elements of two-quark operators are relatively well reproduced in each case, but those of four-quark operators prove to be too small in the independent particle treatment. It is suggested that the short-range two-quark correlations must be taken into account in order to improve the values of the matrix elements of the four-quark operators.

  3. Strange hadrons and antiprotons as probes of hot and dense nuclear matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; Seltsame Hadronen und Antiprotonen als Proben heisser und dichter Kernmaterie in relativistischen Schwerionenkollisionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Henry

    2010-09-15

    Strange particles play an important role as probes of relativistic heavy-ion collisions where hot and dense matter is studied. The focus of this thesis is on the production of strange particles within a transport model of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) type. Current data of the HADES Collaboration concerning K{sup {+-}} and {phi} spectra provide the appropriate experimental framework. Moreover, the double-strange hyperon {xi}{sup -} is analyzed below the free NN production threshold. Hadron multiplicities, transversemomentum and rapidity spectra are compared with recent experimental data. Further important issues are in-medium mass shifts, the nuclear equation of state as well as the mean field of nucleons. Besides the study of AA collisions a comparison with recent ANKE data regarding the {phi} yield in pA collisions is done. Transparency ratios are determined and primarily investigated for absorption of {phi} mesons by means of the BUU transport code. Thereby, secondary {phi} production channels, isospin asymmetry and detector acceptance are important issues. A systematic analysis is presented for different system sizes. The momentum integrated Boltzmann equations describe dense nuclear matter on a hadronic level appearing in the Big Bang as well as in little bangs, in the context of kinetic off-equilibrium dynamics. This theory is applied to antiprotons and numerically calculated under consideration of various expansion models. Here, the evolution of proton- and antiproton densities till freeze-out is analyzed for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions within a hadrochemic resonance gas model acting as a possible ansatz for solving the ''antiproton puzzle''. Furthermore, baryonic matter and antimatter is investigated in the early universe and the adiabatic path of cosmic matter is sketched in the QCD phase diagram. (orig.)

  4. Analytical model for relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Rodolfo H. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400), Corrientes (Argentina)]. E-mail: rhromero@exa.unne.edu.ar; Gomez, Sergio S. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400), Corrientes (Argentina)

    2006-04-24

    We present a simple analytical model for calculating and rationalizing the main relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms. It provides good estimates for those corrections and their trends, in reasonable agreement with accurate four-component calculations and perturbation methods. The origin of the effects in deep core atomic orbitals is manifestly shown.

  5. Analytical model for relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Rodolfo H.; Gomez, Sergio S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple analytical model for calculating and rationalizing the main relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms. It provides good estimates for those corrections and their trends, in reasonable agreement with accurate four-component calculations and perturbation methods. The origin of the effects in deep core atomic orbitals is manifestly shown

  6. On the model of the relativistic particle with curvature and torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Two integrals along the world trajectory of its curvature and torsion are added to the standard action for the point-like spinless relativistic particle. This enables one to quantize the model canonically and to derive exactly the relation between the spin and mass of the states. 10 refs

  7. Relativistic one-boson-exchange model and elastic electron-deuteron scattering at high momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, E.; Tjon, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Using the one-boson-exchange model a relativistic covariant analysis is carried out of the elastic electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron including the ρπγ and ωεγ mesonic-exchange-current contributions. The theoretical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data at high momentum transfer

  8. General relativistic model for the gravitational field of active galactic nuclei surrounded by a disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, D.; Letelier, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    An exact but simple general relativistic model for the gravitational field of active galactic nuclei is constructed, based on the superposition in Weyl coordinates of a black hole, a Chazy-Curzon disk and two rods, which represent matter jets. The influence of the rods on the matter properties of

  9. Should the coupling constants be mass dependent in the relativistic mean field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levai, P.; Lukacs, B.

    1986-05-01

    Mass dependent coupling constants are proposed for baryonic resonances in the relativistic mean field model, according to the mass splitting of the SU-6 multiplet. With this choice the negative effective masses are avoided and the system remains nucleon dominated with moderate antidelta abundance. (author)

  10. Combining lightning leader and relativistic feedback discharge models of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Lightning leader models of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are based on the observations that leaders emit bursts of hard x-rays. These x-rays are thought to be generated by runaway electrons created in the high-field regions associated with the leader tips and/or streamers heads. Inside a thunderstorm, it has been proposed that these runaway electrons may experience additional relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) multiplication, increasing the number and the average energy of the electrons, and possibly resulting in a TGF. When modeling TGFs it is important to include the discharge currents resulting from the ionization produced by the runaway electrons, since these currents may alter the electric fields and affect the TGF. In addition, relativistic feedback effects, caused by backward propagating positrons and backscattered x-rays, need to be included, since relativistic feedback limits the size of the electric field and the amount of a RREA multiplication that may occur. In this presentation, a lightning leader model of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes that includes the effects of the discharge currents and relativistic feedback will be described and compared with observations.

  11. Relativistic Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The relativistic astrophysics is the field of astrophysics employing the theory of relativity Einstein as physical-mathematical model is to study the universe. This discipline analyzes astronomical contexts in which the laws of classical mechanics of Newton's law of gravitation are not valid. (Author)

  12. Coherent and incoherent J /ψ photonuclear production in an energy-dependent hot-spot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepila, J.; Contreras, J. G.; Krelina, M.

    2018-02-01

    In a previous publication, we have presented a model for the photoproduction of J /ψ vector mesons off protons, where the proton structure in the impact-parameter plane is described by an energy-dependent hot-spot profile. Here we extend this model to study the photonuclear production of J /ψ vector mesons in coherent and incoherent interactions of heavy nuclei. We study two methods to extend the model to the nuclear case: using the standard Glauber-Gribov formalism and using geometric scaling to obtain the nuclear saturation scale. We find that the incoherent cross section changes sizably with the inclusion of subnucleonic hot spots and that this change is energy dependent. We propose to search for this behavior by measuring the ratio of the incoherent to coherent cross sections at different energies. We compare the results of our model to results from the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and from run 1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), finding satisfactory agreement. We also present predictions for the LHC at the new energies reached in run 2. The predictions include J /ψ production in ultraperipheral collisions, as well as the recently observed photonuclear production in peripheral collisions.

  13. Colour rope model for extreme relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Nielsen, H.B.; Knoll, J.

    1984-04-01

    Our goal is to investigate the possible cumulative effects of the colour fields of the observable meson multiplicity distribution in the central rapidity region in extreme relativistic heavy ion collisions. In the first Chapter we overview the space-time picture of the string formation in a central heavy ion collision. We take into account trivial geometrical factors in a straight line geometry. In the second Chapter we consider the colour chargation process of heavy ions as a random walk. We calculate the expectation value and the relative standard deviation of the total effective charge square. In the third Chapter we consider the stochastic decay of a K-fold string-rope to mesons by the Schwinger-mechanism. We calculate the expected lifetime of a K-fold string and the time for the first quark antiquark pair creation. In the fourth Chapter we deal with the meson production of a K-fold rope relative to that of a single string and hence we look for a scaling between A + A and p + p collisions. (orig./HSI)

  14. A generalized Jaynes-Cummings model: The relativistic parametric amplifier and a single trapped ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-Guillén, D., E-mail: dojedag@ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Cómputo, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Bátiz esq. Av. Miguel Othón de Mendizábal, Col. Lindavista, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Mota, R. D. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Unidad Culhuacán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Santa Ana No. 1000, Col. San Francisco Culhuacán, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04430 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Granados, V. D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    We introduce a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model and study some of its properties. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this model by using the tilting transformation and the squeezed number states of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. As physical applications, we connect this new model to two important and novelty problems: the relativistic parametric amplifier and the quantum simulation of a single trapped ion.

  15. In quest of a relativistic constituent quark model - some constructive remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofsaess, T.; Schierholz, G.

    1978-01-01

    The set-up of a relativistic constituent quark model in four dimensions is one of the outstanding problems in particle physics. For the time being this involves a great deal of model building which, very probably, will not change in the near future. In this paper we shall offer some general remarks which might help putting such models into shape. Most of the earlier attempts are found controversial. In particular, a conventional quark constituent interpretation could not be recovered. (orig.) [de

  16. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  18. Neutron-skin thickness of finite nuclei in relativistic mean-field models with chiral limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weizhou; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen

    2007-01-01

    We study several structure properties of finite nuclei using relativistic mean-field Lagrangians constructed according to the Brown-Rho scaling due to the chiral symmetry restoration at high densities. The models are consistent with current experimental constraints for the equations of state of symmetric matter at both normal and supranormal densities and of asymmetric matter at subsaturation densities. It is shown that these models can successfully describe the binding energies and charge radii of finite nuclei. Compared to calculations with usual relativistic mean-field models, these models give a reduced thickness of neutron skin in 208 Pb between 0.17 fm and 0.21 fm. The reduction of the predicted neutron skin thickness is found to be due to not only the softening of the symmetry energy but also the scaling property of ρ meson required by the partial restoration of chiral symmetry

  19. Finite nuclei in relativistic models with a light chiral scalar meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serot, B.D.; Furnstahl, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Relativistic chiral models with a light scalar, meson appear to provide an economical marriage of successful relativistic mean-field theories and chiral symmetry. In these models, the scalar meson serves as both the chiral partner of the pion and the mediator of the intermediate-range nucleon-nucleon (NN) attraction. However, while some of these models can reproduce the empirical nuclear matter saturation point, they fail to reproduce observed properties of finite nuclei, such as spin-orbit splittings, shell structure, charge densities, and surface energetics. There deficiencies imply that this realization of chiral symmetry is incorrect. An alternative scenario for chiral hadronic models, which features a heavy chiral scalar and dynamical generation of the NN attraction, is discussed

  20. Relativistic nuclear fluid dynamics and VUU kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molitoris, J.J.; Hahn, D.; Alonso, C.; Collazo, I.; D'Alessandris, P.; McAbee, T.; Wilson, J.; Zingman, J.

    1987-01-01

    Relativistic kinetic theory may be used to understand hot dense hadronic matter. We address the questions of collective flow and pion production in a 3 D relativistic fluid dynamic model and in the VUU microscopic theory. The GSI/LBL collective flow and pion data point to a stiff equation of state. The effect of the nuclear equation of state on the thermodynamic parameters is discussed. The properties of dense hot hadronic matter are studied in Au + Au collisions from 0.1 to 10 GeV/nucleon. 22 refs., 5 figs

  1. Models of non-relativistic quantum gravity: the good, the bad and the healthy

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Horava's proposal for non-relativistic quantum gravity introduces a preferred time foliation of space-time which violates the local Lorentz invariance. The foliation is encoded in a dynamical scalar field which we call `khronon'. The dynamics of the khronon field is sensitive to the symmetries and other details of the particular implementations of the proposal. In this paper we examine several consistency issues present in three non-relativistic gravity theories: Horava's projectable theory, the healthy non-projectable extension, and a new extension related to ghost condensation. We find that the only model which is free from instabilities and strong coupling is the non-projectable one. We elaborate on the phenomenology of the latter model including a discussion of the couplings of the khronon to matter. In particular, we obtain the parameters of the post-Newtonian expansion in this model and show that they are compatible with current observations.

  2. General relativistic hydrodynamics with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and modeling of accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Orhan

    We present a general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and model of an accretion disk around a black hole. To do this, the GRH equations are written in a conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations is done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. We use Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states to solve GRH equations. First, we carry out different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2 D and 3D. Second, we solve the GRH equations and use the general relativistic test problems to compare the numerical solutions with analytic ones. In order to this, we couple the flux part of general relativistic hydrodynamic equation with a source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time. The test problems examined include shock tubes, geodesic flows, and circular motion of particle around the black hole. Finally, we apply this code to the accretion disk problems around the black hole using the Schwarzschild metric at the background of the computational domain. We find spiral shocks on the accretion disk. They are observationally expected results. We also examine the star-disk interaction near a massive black hole. We find that when stars are grounded down or a hole is punched on the accretion disk, they create shock waves which destroy the accretion disk.

  3. Isospin-dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An

    2007-11-01

    Using various relativistic mean-field models, including nonlinear ones with meson field self-interactions, models with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, and point-coupling models without meson fields, we have studied the isospin-dependent bulk and single-particle properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, we have determined the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy from these different relativistic mean-field models and compared the results with the constraints recently extracted from analyses of experimental data on isospin diffusion and isotopic scaling in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions as well as from measured isotopic dependence of the giant monopole resonances in even-A Sn isotopes. Among the 23 parameter sets in the relativistic mean-field model that are commonly used for nuclear structure studies, only a few are found to give symmetry energies that are consistent with the empirical constraints. We have also studied the nuclear symmetry potential and the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. We find that both the momentum dependence of the nuclear symmetry potential at fixed baryon density and the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass in neutron-rich nuclear matter depend not only on the nuclear interactions but also on the definition of the nucleon optical potential.

  4. Models and methods for hot spot safety work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that millions DKK each year are spent on improving roadsafety in Denmark, funds for traffic safety are limited. It is therefore vital to spend the resources as effectively as possible. This thesis is concerned with the area of traffic safety denoted "hot spot safety work", which...... is the task of improving road safety through alterations of the geometrical and environmental characteristics of the existing road network. The presently applied models and methods in hot spot safety work on the Danish road network were developed about two decades ago, when data was more limited and software...... and statistical methods less developed. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to improving "State of the art" in Denmark. Basis for the systematic hot spot safety work are the models describing the variation in accident counts on the road network. In the thesis hierarchical models disaggregated on time...

  5. Light-Curve Diagnosis of a Hot Spot for Accretion-Disk Models

    OpenAIRE

    FUKUE, Jun

    2003-01-01

    Light curves of a hot spot rotating in a relativistic Keplerian disk were found to be periodic with typically two peaks, originating from a gravitational focusing effect and a Doppler boost. On the other hand, we found that light curves of a hot spot spirally infalling in a sub-Keplerian advective disk are aperiodic with typically a single peak, originating from a gravitational focusing effect or a Doppler boost. Such a difference in the light curves of a hot spot can discriminate background ...

  6. An introduction to relativistic processes and the standard model of electroweak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo Maria

    2006-01-01

    These notes are designed as a guide-line for a course in Elementary Particle Physics for undergraduate students. The purpose is providing a rigorous and self-contained presentation of the theoretical framework and of the phenomenological aspects of the physics of interactions among fundamental constituents of matter. The first part of the volume is devoted to the description of scattering processes in the context of relativistic quantum field theory. The use of the semi-classical approximation allows us to illustrate the relevant computation techniques in a reasonably small amount of space. Our approach to relativistic processes is original in many respects. The second part contains a detailed description of the construction of the standard model of electroweak interactions, with special attention to the mechanism of particle mass generation. The extension of the standard model to include neutrino masses is also described. We have included a number of detailed computations of cross sections and decay rates of...

  7. Semileptonic decays of Λ{sub c} baryons in the relativistic quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faustov, R.N.; Galkin, V.O. [Institute of Informatics in Education, FRC CSC RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Motivated by recent experimental progress in studying weak decays of the Λ{sub c} baryon we investigate its semileptonic decays in the framework of the relativistic quark model based on the quasipotential approach with the QCD-motivated potential. The form factors of the Λ{sub c} → Λlν{sub l} and Λ{sub c} → nlν{sub l} decays are calculated in the whole accessible kinematical region without extrapolations and additional model assumptions. Relativistic effects are systematically taken into account including transformations of baryon wave functions from the rest to moving reference frame and contributions of the intermediate negative-energy states. Baryon wave functions found in the previous mass spectrum calculations are used for the numerical evaluation. Comprehensive predictions for decay rates, asymmetries and polarization parameters are given. They agree well with available experimental data. (orig.)

  8. A relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive efficiency in tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Liu Y.R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A fully relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD efficiency based on the adjoint function techniques is considered. Numerical calculations of the current drive efficiency in a tokamak by using the variational approach are performed. A fully relativistic extension of the variational principle with the modified basis functions for the Spitzer function with momentum conservation in the electron-electron collision is described in general tokamak geometry. The model developed has generalized that of Marushchenko’s (N.B . Marushchenko, et al. Fusion Sci. & Tech., 2009, which is extended for arbitrary temperatures and covers exactly the asymptotic for u ≫ 1 when Z → ∞, and suitable for ray-tracing calculations.

  9. Radiative transitions of B and Bs mesons in a non relativistic quark model with hulthen potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Praveen P.; Monteiro, A.P.; Vijaya Kumar, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy light mesons composed of one heavy quark and one light quark. They are the only mesons containing quarks of the third generation. Which has contributed enormously to our understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. In our calculation we get variational parameter for different heavy-light mesons. Having variational parameter eigen energy will be obtained. For meson system, the Hulthen term acts like a Coulombic term. The spin dependent potential from One Gluon Exchange Potential (OGEP) is introduced. The goal of the present work is to obtain the decay widths and understand the uncertainties in the calculation in the frame work of non-relativistic quark models. In the non-relativistic models this is satisfied for the c, b and t quarks

  10. Alterations to the relativistic Love-Franey model and their application to inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The fictitious axial-vector and tensor mesons for the real part of the relativistic Love-Franey interaction are removed. In an attempt to make up for this loss, derivative couplings are used for the π and ρ mesons. Such derivative couplings require the introduction of axial-vector and tensor contact term corrections. Meson parameters are then fit to free nucleon-nucleon scattering data. The resulting fits are comparable to those of the relativistic Love-Franey model provided that the contact term corrections are included and the fits are weighted over the physically significant quantity of twice the tensor minus the axial-vector Lorentz invariants. Failure to include contact term corrections leads to poor fits at higher energies. The off-shell behavior of this model is then examined by looking at several applications from inelastic proton-nucleus scattering

  11. Neutron fraction and neutrino mean free path predictions in relativistic mean field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutauruk, P.T.P.; Williams, C.K.; Sulaksono, A.; Mart, T.

    2004-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of dense matter and neutrino mean free path (NMFP) in a neutron star have been studied by using relativistic mean field models motivated by effective field theory. It is found that the models predict too large proton fractions, although one of the models (G2) predicts an acceptable EOS. This is caused by the isovector terms. Except G2, the other two models predict anomalous NMFP's. In order to minimize the anomaly, besides an acceptable EOS, a large M* is favorable. A model with large M* retains the regularity in the NMFP even for a small neutron fraction

  12. Ground-state triply and doubly heavy baryons in a relativistic three-quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Mass spectra of the ground-state baryons consisting of three or two heavy (b or c) and one light (u,d,s) quarks are calculated in the framework of the relativistic quark model and the hyperspherical expansion. The predictions of masses of the triply and doubly heavy baryons are obtained by employing the perturbation theory for the spin-independent and spin-dependent parts of the three-quark Hamiltonian

  13. Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions in a multi-string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.

    1987-01-01

    We present a model for ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions based on color string formation and subsequent independent string fragmentation. Strings are formed due to color exchange between quarks at each individual nucleon nucleon collision. The fragmentation is treated as in e + e - or lepton nucleon scattering. Calculation for pp, pA, and AA were carried out using the Monte Carlo code VENUS for Very Energetic Nuclear Scattering (version 1.0). 20 refs., 6 figs

  14. Relativistic Faddeev description of baryons and nucleon structure function in the NJL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, W.; Mineo, H.; Asami, H.; Yazaki, K

    2000-05-08

    In this work we use the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model as an effective quark theory based on QCD to describe the structure of baryons. Based on the solutions of the relativistic 3-quark Faddeev equation in the ladder approximation, we discuss the masses of the nucleon and the delta, the static properties of the nucleon, and the quark light cone momentum distributions in the nucleon.

  15. Quasistationary model of high-current relativistic electron beam. 1. Exact solution of Poisson equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, S.E.; Gandyl', E.M.; Podkopaev, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of high-current relativistic electron beam moving trough the cylindrical drift space has been modelled by the large particles, the shape of which allows to solve the Poisson equations exactly, and in such a way to avoid the linearization being usually used in those problems. The expressions for the components of own electric field of electron beam passing through the cylindrical drift space have been obtained. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig

  16. Modeling nuclear weak-interaction processes with relativistic energy density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paar, N.; Marketin, T.; Vale, D.; Vretenar, D.

    2015-01-01

    Relativistic energy density functionals have become a standard framework for nuclear structure studies of ground state properties and collective excitations over the entire nuclide chart. In this paper, we review recent developments in modeling nuclear weak-interaction processes: Charge-exchange excitations and the role of isoscalar proton–neutron pairing, charged-current neutrino–nucleus reactions relevant for supernova evolution and neutrino detectors and calculation of β-decay rates for r-process nucleosynthesis. (author)

  17. Macroscopic damping model for zero degree energy distribution in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chongshou; Wang Chengshing

    1993-01-01

    A macroscopic damping model is proposed to calculate the zero degree energy distribution in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The main features of the measured distributions are reproduced, good agreement is obtained in the middle energy region while overestimation results on the high energy side. The average energy loss coefficient of incident nucleons, varying in the reasonable region 0.2-0.6, depends on beam energy and target size

  18. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  19. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  20. Modelling and simulations in hot deformation of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, hot forming has been employed to provide shape to metals. Nowadays, however, hot working not only produces the desired geometry, but also the mechanical characteristics required. An understanding of the thermomechanical behaviour of metals, and particularly steels, is essential in the simulation and control of the hot forming operations. Moreover, a right prediction of the final properties needs from accurate descriptions of the microstructural features occurring during the shaping step. For this purpose, the determination of constitutive equations describing the stress σ - strain ε relationships at a given strain rate ε, temperature T and initial microstructure, is a useful task. In this sense, computer simulations of hot working processes proportionate a benchmark to engineers and researchers and allow decreasing the cost of developing products and processes. With regard to the prediction of the final microstructure, the simulation of the hot plastic deformation usually gives unsatisfactory results. This is due to the inadequate constitutive equations employed by the conventional and commercial software available to describe the hot flow behaviour. There are scarce models which couple the typical hot working variables (temperature, strain and strain rate) with microstructural characteristics such as grain size. In this review work is presented how the latter limitation can be overcome by using physical-based constitutive equations, some of which have been partially developed by the present authors, where account of the interaction between microstructure and processing variables is taken. Moreover, a practical derivation of the latter expressions on an AISI-304 steel is presented. To conclude, some examples of industrial applications of the latter approach are also presented. Copyright (2002) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  1. Modelling properties of hard x-rays generated by the interaction between relativistic electrons and very intense laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper we presented a calculation model for high harmonic generation by relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. In this paper we present a similar model for the calculation of the energies of hard x-rays (20- 200 keV) resulted from the interaction between relativistic electrons (20-100 MeV) and very intense laser beams. Starting from the relativistic equations of motion of an electron in the electromagnetic field we show that the Lienard-Wiechert equation leads to electromagnetic waves whose frequencies are in the domain of hard x-rays. When the relativistic parameter of the laser beam is greater than unity, the model predicts the existence of harmonics of the above frequencies. Our theoretical values are in good agreement with experimental values of the x-ray energies from the literature and predict accurately their angular distribution.

  2. Multiple-event probability in general-relativistic quantum mechanics. II. A discrete model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, Mauricio; Perez, Alejandro; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a simple quantum mechanical model in which time and space are discrete and periodic. These features avoid the complications related to continuous-spectrum operators and infinite-norm states. The model provides a tool for discussing the probabilistic interpretation of generally covariant quantum systems, without the confusion generated by spurious infinities. We use the model to illustrate the formalism of general-relativistic quantum mechanics, and to test the definition of multiple-event probability introduced in a companion paper [Phys. Rev. D 75, 084033 (2007)]. We consider a version of the model with unitary time evolution and a version without unitary time evolution

  3. Meson exchange currents in a relativistic model for electromagnetic one nucleon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meucci, Andrea; Giusti, Carlotta; Pacati, Franco Davide

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the role of meson exchange currents (MECs) in photon- and electron-induced one nucleon emission reactions in a fully relativistic model. The relativistic mean-field theory is used for the bound state and the Pauli reduction for the scattering state. Direct one-body and exchange two-body terms in the nuclear current are considered. Results for the 12 C(γ,p) and 16 O(γ,p) differential cross sections and photon asymmetries are displayed in an energy range between 60 and 196 MeV. The two-body seagull current affects the cross section less than in nonrelativistic analyses. In the case of the 16 O(γ,n) differential cross section, MEC effects are large but not sufficient to reproduce the data. MECs have a small effect on (e,e ' p) calculations

  4. A One-Dimensional Relativistic Shock Model for the Light Curve of Gamma-ray Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Yue Su; Yi-Ping Qin; Jun-Hui Fan; Zhang-Yu Han

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the forming of gamma-ray burst pulses with a simple onedimensional relativistic shock model. The mechanism is that a "central engine" drives forward the nearby plasma inside the fireball to generate a series of pressure waves. We give a relativistic geometric recurrence formula that connects the time when the pressure waves are produced and the time when the corresponding shocks occurred. This relation enables us to relate the pulse magnitude with the observation time. Our analysis shows that the evolution of the pressure waves leads to a fast rise and an exponential decay pulses. In determining the width of the pulses, the acceleration time is more important than that of the deceleration.

  5. Deeply virtual Compton scattering in a relativistic quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzenberg, T.

    2007-09-15

    This thesis is mainly concerned with a model calculation for generalized parton distributions (GPDs). We calculate vectorial- and axial GPDs for the N{yields}N and N{yields}{delta} transition in the framework of a light front quark model. This requires the elaboration of a connection between transition amplitudes and GPDs. We provide the first quark model calculations for N{yields}{delta} GPDs. The examination of transition amplitudes leads to various model independent consistency relations. These relations are not exactly obeyed by our model calculation since the use of the impulse approximation in the light front quark model leads to a violation of Poincare covariance. We explore the impact of this covariance breaking on the GPDs and form factors which we determine in our model calculation and find large effects. The reference frame dependence of our results which originates from the breaking of Poincare covariance can be eliminated by introducing spurious covariants. We extend this formalism in order to obtain frame independent results from our transition amplitudes. (orig.)

  6. Giant halos in medium nuclei within modified relativistic mean field (MRMF) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugraha, A. M., E-mail: alpi.mahisha@gmail.com; Sulaksono, A. [Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Sumaryada, T. [Department of Physics, Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan Meranti Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor 16680 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    The large number of neutrons in a region beyond a closed shell core indicates the presence of giant halos in nuclei. In this work, by using the Rotival method within a modified relativistic mean field (MRMF) model, we predict theoretically the formation of giant halos in Cr and Zr isotopes. The MRMF model is a modification of standard RMF model augmented with isoscalar and isovector tensor terms, isovector-isoscalar vector cross coupling term and electromagnetic exchange term for Coulomb interaction in local density approximation (LDA).

  7. Soliton excitations in polyacetylene and relativistic field theory models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.K.; Bishop, A.R.; Los Alamos Scientific Lab., NM

    1982-01-01

    A continuum model of a Peierls-dimerized chain, as described generally by Brazovskii and discussed for the case of polyacetylene by Takayama, Lin-Liu and Maki (TLM), is considered. The continuum (Bogliubov-de Gennes) equations arising in this model of interacting electrons and phonons are shown to be equivalent to the static, semiclassical equations for a solvable model field theory of self-coupled fermions - the N = 2 Gross-Neveu model. Based on this equivalence we note the existence of soliton defect states in polyacetylene that are additional to, and qualitatively different from, the amplitude kinks commonly discussed. The new solutions do not have the topological stability of kinks but are essentially conventional strong-coupling polarons in the dimerized chain. They carry spin (1/2) and charge (+- e). In addition, we discuss further areas in which known field theory results may apply to a Peierls-dimerized chain, including relations between phenomenological PHI 4 and continuuum electron-phonon models, and the structure of the fully quantum versus mean field theories. (orig.)

  8. Relativistic modeling of compact stars for anisotropic matter distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman)

    2017-05-15

    In this paper we have solved Einstein's field equations of spherically symmetric spacetime for anisotropic matter distribution by assuming physically valid expressions of the metric function e{sup λ} and radial pressure (p{sub r}). Next we have discussed the physical properties of the model in details by taking the radial pressure p{sub r} equal to zero at the boundary of the star. The physical analysis of the star indicates that its model parameters such as density, redshift, radial pressure, transverse pressure and anisotropy are well behaved. Also we have obtained the mass and radius of our compact star which are 2.29M {sub CircleDot} and 11.02 km, respectively. It is observed that the model obtained here for compact stars is compatible with the mass and radius of the strange star PSR 1937 +21. (orig.)

  9. Composite models of hadrons and relativistic bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The following problems are considered: what the constituents of the hadrons are; what their quantum numbers and their broken and unbroken symmetries are; what the dynamics of the constituents (equations, binding forces and the origin of symmetry violations) is. The most puzzling question is: why the constituents ''escape from freedom'' and are confined inside the hadrons; what experimentalists can report about the hadron constituents and their dynamics if not finding them. There are no final answers to all these questions. The achievements of quark model are described, some problems concerning the comparison of the quark model with experiment are considered. The attempt is also made to present alternative views on the same problems

  10. A relativistic quark–diquark model for the nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the present work is to develop an effective quark–diquark model, introducing in a perturbative ... The first term represents the constant rest energy of the system, the second one .... For the proton, the electric factor form is displayed in figure 2.

  11. Relativistic models of a class of compact objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    describe compact stars in hydrostatic equilibrium are discussed. The stellar ... [2] and examine the physical plausibility of several models of a class of neutron stars ... the physical space. However, for k = 0, the space-time metric (12) degenerates into that of Einstein's static Universe filled with matter of uniform density.

  12. Nonequilibrium models of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoecker, H; Bratkovskaya, E L; Bleicher, M; Soff, S; Zhu, X

    2005-01-01

    We review the results from the various hydrodynamical and transport models on the collective flow observables from AGS to RHIC energies. A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 A GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the v 1 -flow and of the v 2 -flow at ∼10 A GeV; at 40 A GeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as evidence for a first-order phase transition at high baryon density ρ B . Moreover, the connection of the elliptic flow v 2 to jet suppression is examined. It is proven experimentally that the collective flow is not faked by minijet fragmentation. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially ( 1 , v 2 closer to beam rapidity is related to the occurrence of a high density first order phase transition in the RHIC data at 62.5, 130 and 200 A GeV

  13. Saphenous Venous Ablation with Hot Contrast in a Canine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Amit; Qian Zhong; Kirsch, David; Eissa, Marna; Narra, Pavan; Lopera, Jorge; Espinoza, Carmen G.; Castaneda, Wifrido

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of thermal ablation of the saphenous vein with hot contrast medium. Methods. Twelve saphenous veins of 6 dogs were percutaneously ablated with hot contrast medium. In all animals, ablation was performed in the vein of one leg, followed by ablation in the contralateral side 1 month later. An occlusion balloon catheter was placed in the infragenicular segment of the saphenous vein via a jugular access to prevent unwanted thermal effects on the non-target segment of the saphenous vein. After inflation of the balloon, 10 ml of hot contrast medium was injected under fluoroscopic control through a sheath placed in the saphenous vein above the ankle. A second 10 ml injection of hot contrast medium was made after 5 min in each vessel. Venographic follow-up of the ablated veins was performed at 1 month (n = 12) and 2 months (n = 6). Results. Follow-up venograms showed that all ablated venous segments were occluded at 1 month. In 6 veins which were followed up to 2 months, 4 (66%) remained occluded, 1 (16%) was partially patent, and the remaining vein (16%) was completely patent. In these latter 2 cases, an inadequate amount of hot contrast was delivered to the lumen due to a closed balloon catheter downstream which did not allow contrast to displace blood within the vessel. Discussion. Hot contrast medium thermal ablation of the saphenous vein appears feasible, safe, and effective in the canine model, provided an adequate amount of embolization agent is used

  14. Modeling pulsations in hot stars with winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noels, Arlette; Godart, Melanie [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Liege (Belgium); Dupret, Marc-Antoine [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, LESIA (France)], E-mail: Arlette.Noels@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: ma.dupret@obspm.fr, E-mail: Melanie.Godart@ulg.ac.be

    2008-10-15

    The interaction pulsation/mass loss takes different aspects. Pulsations can trigger mass loss as in LBVs and Miras; on the other hand, mass loss can modify the driving conditions within the stars. But the most spectacular aspect is the effect on stellar models which, in turn, opens a royal way to asteroseismology to test physical conditions inside massive stars, such as the extent of convective cores or the appearance of new driving mechanisms. We start with a discussion on MS stars and their strange mode instabilities. We then move on to the excitation of the LBV phenomenon. WR stars and the newly observed MOST period in WR123 are discussed in view of the power of asteroseismology. We then turn to B supergiants, in particular HD163899, and show how asteroseismology can really probe convection, semiconvection and mass loss.

  15. Modeling pulsations in hot stars with winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noels, Arlette; Godart, Melanie; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2008-01-01

    The interaction pulsation/mass loss takes different aspects. Pulsations can trigger mass loss as in LBVs and Miras; on the other hand, mass loss can modify the driving conditions within the stars. But the most spectacular aspect is the effect on stellar models which, in turn, opens a royal way to asteroseismology to test physical conditions inside massive stars, such as the extent of convective cores or the appearance of new driving mechanisms. We start with a discussion on MS stars and their strange mode instabilities. We then move on to the excitation of the LBV phenomenon. WR stars and the newly observed MOST period in WR123 are discussed in view of the power of asteroseismology. We then turn to B supergiants, in particular HD163899, and show how asteroseismology can really probe convection, semiconvection and mass loss.

  16. Effects of the ρ - ω mixing interaction in relativistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, D.P.; Providencia, C.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the ρ-ω mixing term in infinite nuclear matter and in finite nuclei are investigated with the non-linear Walecka model in a Thomas-Fermi approximation. For infinite nuclear matter the influence of the mixing term in the binding energy calculated with the NL3 and TM1 parametrizations can be neglected. Its influence on the symmetry energy is only felt for the TM1 with a unrealistically large value for the mixing term strength. For finite nuclei the contribution of the isospin mixing term is very large as compared with the expected value to solve the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

  17. Critical rotation of general-relativistic polytropic models revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroyannis, V.; Karageorgopoulos, V.

    2013-09-01

    We develop a perturbation method for computing the critical rotational parameter as a function of the equatorial radius of a rigidly rotating polytropic model in the "post-Newtonia approximation" (PNA). We treat our models as "initial value problems" (IVP) of ordinary differential equations in the complex plane. The computations are carried out by the code dcrkf54.f95 (Geroyannis and Valvi 2012 [P1]; modified Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg code of fourth and fifth order for solving initial value problems in the complex plane). Such a complex-plane treatment removes the syndromes appearing in this particular family of IVPs (see e.g. P1, Sec. 3) and allows continuation of the numerical integrations beyond the surface of the star. Thus all the required values of the Lane-Emden function(s) in the post-Newtonian approximation are calculated by interpolation (so avoiding any extrapolation). An interesting point is that, in our computations, we take into account the complete correction due to the gravitational term, and this issue is a remarkable difference compared to the classical PNA. We solve the generalized density as a function of the equatorial radius and find the critical rotational parameter. Our computations are extended to certain other physical characteristics (like mass, angular momentum, rotational kinetic energy, etc). We find that our method yields results comparable with those of other reliable methods. REFERENCE: V.S. Geroyannis and F.N. Valvi 2012, International Journal of Modern Physics C, 23, No 5, 1250038:1-15.

  18. Quantum statistical model for hot dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukhsana Kouser; Tasneem, G.; Saleem Shahzad, M.; Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Nasim, M.H.; Amjad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In solving numerous applied problems, one needs to know the equation of state, photon absorption coefficient and opacity of substances employed. We present a code for absorption coefficient and opacity calculation based on quantum statistical model. A self-consistent method for the calculation of potential is used. By solving Schrödinger equation with self-consistent potential we find energy spectrum of quantum mechanical system and corresponding wave functions. In addition we find mean occupation numbers of electron states and average charge state of the substance studied. The main processes of interaction of radiation with matter included in our opacity calculation are photon absorption in spectral lines (Bound-bound), photoionization (Bound-free), inverse bremsstrahlung (Free-free), Compton and Thomson scattering. Bound-bound line shape function has contribution from natural, Doppler, fine structure, collisional and stark broadening. To illustrate the main features of the code and its capabilities, calculation of average charge state, absorption coefficient, Rosseland and Planck mean and group opacities of aluminum and iron are presented. Results are satisfactorily compared with the published data. (authors)

  19. State vector reduction - 2: Elements of physical reality, nonlocality and stochasticity in relativistic dynamical reduction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Pearle, P.

    1991-02-01

    The problem of getting a relativistic generalization of the CSL dynamical reduction model, which has been presented in part I, is discussed. In so doing we have the opportunity to introduce the idea of a stochastically invariant theory. The theoretical model we present, that satisfies this kind of invariance requirement, offers us the possibility to reconsider, from a new point of view, some conceptually relevant issues such as nonlocality, the legitimacy of attributing elements of physical reality to physical systems and the problem of establishing causal relations between physical events. (author). Refs, 3 figs

  20. Anisotropic flow fluctuations in hydro-inspired freeze-out model for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bravina, L V; Korotkikh, V L; Lokhtin, I P; Malinina, L V; Nazarova, E N; Petrushanko, S V; Snigirev, A M; Zabrodin, E E

    2015-01-01

    The possible mechanisms contributing to anisotropic flow fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed. The LHC data on event-by-event harmonic flow coefficients measured in PbPb collisions at center-of-mass energy 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair are analyzed and interpreted within the HYDJET++ model. To compare the model results with the experimental data the unfolding procedure is employed. It is shown that HYDJET++ correctly reproduces dynamical fluctuations of elliptic and triangular flows and related to it eccentricity fluctuations of the initial state.

  1. Electromagnetic properties of light and heavy baryons in the relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicmorus Marinescu, Diana

    2007-01-01

    One of the main challenges of nowadays low-energy physics remains the description of the internal structure of hadrons, strongly connected to the electromagnetic properties of matter. In this vein, the success of the relativistic quark model in the analysis of the hadron structure constitutes a solid motivation for the study carried out throughout this work. The relativistic quark model is extended to the investigation of static electromagnetic properties of both heavy and light baryons. The bare contributions to the magnetic moments of the single-, double- and triple-heavy baryons are calculated. Moreover, the relativistic quark model allows the study of the electromagnetic properties of the light baryon octet incorporating meson cloud contributions in a perturbative manner. The long disputed values of the multipole ratios E2/M1 and C2/M1 and the electromagnetic form factors of the N→Δγ transition are successfully reproduced. The relativistic quark model can be viewed as a quantum field theory approach based on a phenomenological Lagrangian coupling light and heavy baryons to their constituent quarks. In our approach the baryon is a composite object of three constituent quarks, at least in leading order. The effective interaction Lagrangian is written in terms of baryon and constituent quark fields. The effective action preserves Lorentz covariance and gauge invariance. The main ingredients of the model are already introduced at the level of the interaction Lagrangian: the three-quark baryon currents, the Gaussian distribution of the constituent quarks inside the baryon and the compositeness condition which sets an upper limit for the baryon-quark vertex. The S-matrix elements are expressed by a set of Feynman quark-diagrams. The model contains only few parameters, namely, the cut-off parameter of the Gaussian quark distribution and the free quark propagator, which are unambiguously determined from the best fit to the data. The heavy quark limit within this

  2. Electromagnetic properties of light and heavy baryons in the relativistic quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicmorus Marinescu, Diana

    2007-06-14

    One of the main challenges of nowadays low-energy physics remains the description of the internal structure of hadrons, strongly connected to the electromagnetic properties of matter. In this vein, the success of the relativistic quark model in the analysis of the hadron structure constitutes a solid motivation for the study carried out throughout this work. The relativistic quark model is extended to the investigation of static electromagnetic properties of both heavy and light baryons. The bare contributions to the magnetic moments of the single-, double- and triple-heavy baryons are calculated. Moreover, the relativistic quark model allows the study of the electromagnetic properties of the light baryon octet incorporating meson cloud contributions in a perturbative manner. The long disputed values of the multipole ratios E2/M1 and C2/M1 and the electromagnetic form factors of the N{yields}{delta}{gamma} transition are successfully reproduced. The relativistic quark model can be viewed as a quantum field theory approach based on a phenomenological Lagrangian coupling light and heavy baryons to their constituent quarks. In our approach the baryon is a composite object of three constituent quarks, at least in leading order. The effective interaction Lagrangian is written in terms of baryon and constituent quark fields. The effective action preserves Lorentz covariance and gauge invariance. The main ingredients of the model are already introduced at the level of the interaction Lagrangian: the three-quark baryon currents, the Gaussian distribution of the constituent quarks inside the baryon and the compositeness condition which sets an upper limit for the baryon-quark vertex. The S-matrix elements are expressed by a set of Feynman quark-diagrams. The model contains only few parameters, namely, the cut-off parameter of the Gaussian quark distribution and the free quark propagator, which are unambiguously determined from the best fit to the data. The heavy quark limit

  3. Stellar atmosphere modeling of extremely hot, compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Thomas; Ringat, Ellen; Werner, Klaus

    Present X-ray missions like Chandra and XMM-Newton provide excellent spectra of extremely hot white dwarfs, e.g. burst spectra of novae. Their analysis requires adequate NLTE model atmospheres. The Tuebingen Non-LTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) can calculate such model at-mospheres and spectral energy distributions at a high level of sophistication. We present a new grid of models that is calculated in the parameter range of novae and supersoft X-ray sources and show examples of their application.

  4. A neural network model of the relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, H.C.; Gorney, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A neural network has been developed to model the temporal variations of relativistic (>3 MeV) electrons at geosynchronous orbit based on model inputs consisting of 10 consecutive days of the daily sum of the planetary magnetic index ΣKp. The neural network consists of three layers of neurons, containing 10 neurons in the input layer, 6 neurons in a hidden layer, and 1 output neuron. The output is a prediction of the daily-averaged electron flux for the tenth day. The neural network was trained using 62 days of data from July 1, 1984, through August 31, 1984, from the SEE spectrometer on the geosynchronous spacecraft 1982-019. The performance of the model was measured by comparing model outputs with measured fluxes over a 6-year period from April 19, 1982, to June 4, 1988. For the entire data set the rms logarithmic error of the neural network is 0.76, and the average logarithmic error is 0.58. The neural network is essentially zero biased, and for accumulation intervals of 3 days or longer the average logarithmic error is less than 0.1. The neural network provides results that are significantly more accurate than those from linear prediction filters. The model has been used to simulate conditions which are rarely observed in nature, such as long periods of quiet (ΣKp = 0) and ideal impulses. It has also been used to make reasonably accurate day-ahead forecasts of the relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit

  5. On the mass spectra of the pseudoscalar mesons in the relativistic independent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchev, V.V.; Semenov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the relativistic independent quark model with the QCD-motivated static potential, the masses of the ground states of pseudoscalar mesons and their radial excitations are calculated for both observed mesons and unobserved ones. The strength of the spin-spin interaction and the magnitude of the mean field contribution are estimated for both the light and heavy 0 -+ mesons. The calculated masses are in agreement with experimental values within an accuracy of 30 - 40 MeV, and the predictions are obtained for the mass values of a number of unobserved yet radial excitations of pseudoscalar mesons

  6. Solution of the hyperon puzzle within a relativistic mean-field model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, K.A. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolomeitsev, E.E., E-mail: E.Kolomeitsev@gsi.de [Matej Bel University, SK-97401 Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Voskresensky, D.N. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-02

    The equation of state of cold baryonic matter is studied within a relativistic mean-field model with hadron masses and coupling constants depending on the scalar field. All hadron masses undergo a universal scaling, whereas the couplings are scaled differently. The appearance of hyperons in dense neutron star interiors is accounted for, however the equation of state remains sufficiently stiff if the reduction of the ϕ meson mass is included. Our equation of state matches well the constraints known from analyses of the astrophysical data and particle production in heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Relativistic wave functions of two spin 1/2 quarks in a model with QCD interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.

    1981-01-01

    Within the hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory an equation is obtained for the vertex and wave functions of a composite system of two spin 1/2 quarks. Exact solutions are found for the relativistic potential having in the momentum representation the ''asymptotically-free'' behaviour at large values of momentum transfer Q 2 . It is shown that within the given model the π-meson wave function has zero at a finite distance corresponding to the point of discontinuity of the effective potential [ru

  8. Solution of the hyperon puzzle within a relativistic mean-field model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Maslov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The equation of state of cold baryonic matter is studied within a relativistic mean-field model with hadron masses and coupling constants depending on the scalar field. All hadron masses undergo a universal scaling, whereas the couplings are scaled differently. The appearance of hyperons in dense neutron star interiors is accounted for, however the equation of state remains sufficiently stiff if the reduction of the ϕ meson mass is included. Our equation of state matches well the constraints known from analyses of the astrophysical data and particle production in heavy-ion collisions.

  9. On the H particle stability in the non relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, B.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.

    1987-05-01

    The H particle with quark content (uuddss) is presented as a good candidate to be stable with respect to strong interactions. In the framework of a non relativistic potential model, the binding energy is calculated by a full dynamical approach using a resonating group trial wave function. The center of mass motion and the Pauli principle are correctly treated. Sophisticated baryon wave functions are employed and the equation of motion is solved with six coupled channels including radial excited baryon states. The effect of breaking SU(3) flavour symmetry is discussed in detail

  10. Multiple-collision model for pion production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A simple model for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is developed based on nucleon-nucleon data, nuclear density distribution, and the assumption of straight-line trajectories. Multiplicity distributions for total pion production and for negative-pion production are predicted for 40 Ar incident on a Pb 3 O 4 target at 1.8 GeV/nucleon. Production through intermediate baryon resonances reduces the high-multiplicity region but insufficiently to yield agreement with data. This implies the need for a coherent production mechanism

  11. A NEW MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GENERAL RELATIVISTIC NEUTRINO HYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE. II. RELATIVISTIC EXPLOSION MODELS OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas, E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-09-01

    We present the first two-dimensional general relativistic (GR) simulations of stellar core collapse and explosion with the COCONUT hydrodynamics code in combination with the VERTEX solver for energy-dependent, three-flavor neutrino transport, using the extended conformal flatness condition for approximating the space-time metric and a ray-by-ray-plus ansatz to tackle the multi-dimensionality of the transport. For both of the investigated 11.2 and 15 M{sub Sun} progenitors we obtain successful, though seemingly marginal, neutrino-driven supernova explosions. This outcome and the time evolution of the models basically agree with results previously obtained with the PROMETHEUS hydro solver including an approximative treatment of relativistic effects by a modified Newtonian potential. However, GR models exhibit subtle differences in the neutrinospheric conditions compared with Newtonian and pseudo-Newtonian simulations. These differences lead to significantly higher luminosities and mean energies of the radiated electron neutrinos and antineutrinos and therefore to larger energy-deposition rates and heating efficiencies in the gain layer with favorable consequences for strong nonradial mass motions and ultimately for an explosion. Moreover, energy transfer to the stellar medium around the neutrinospheres through nucleon recoil in scattering reactions of heavy-lepton neutrinos also enhances the mentioned effects. Together with previous pseudo-Newtonian models, the presented relativistic calculations suggest that the treatment of gravity and energy-exchanging neutrino interactions can make differences of even 50%-100% in some quantities and is likely to contribute to a finally successful explosion mechanism on no minor level than hydrodynamical differences between different dimensions.

  12. Semi-analytical wave functions in relativistic average atom model for high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghui; Duan Yaoyong; Kuai Bin

    2007-01-01

    The semi-analytical method is utilized for solving a relativistic average atom model for high-temperature plasmas. Semi-analytical wave function and the corresponding energy eigenvalue, containing only a numerical factor, are obtained by fitting the potential function in the average atom into hydrogen-like one. The full equations for the model are enumerated, and more attentions are paid upon the detailed procedures including the numerical techniques and computer code design. When the temperature of plasmas is comparatively high, the semi-analytical results agree quite well with those obtained by using a full numerical method for the same model and with those calculated by just a little different physical models, and the result's accuracy and computation efficiency are worthy of note. The drawbacks for this model are also analyzed. (authors)

  13. Relativistic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1986-01-01

    Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs

  14. Effect of phase transition on QGP fluid in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Chiho; Miyamura, Osamu; Muroya, Shin

    2001-01-01

    A full (3+1)-dimensional calculation using the Lagrangian hydrodynamics is proposed for relativistic nuclear collisions. The calculation enables us to evaluate anisotropic flow of hot and dense matter which appears in non-central and/or asymmetrical relativistic nuclear collisions. The relativistic hydrodynamical model is related to the equation of the state and the useful for the verification of quark-gluon plasma state. By virtue of the Lagrangian hydrodynamics we can easily trace the trajectory which corresponds to the adiabatic paths in the T-μ plane. We evaluate the directly of the influence of the phase transition to physical phenomena in the ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Using our relativistic hydrodynamical model, we discuss the effect of the phase transition on the collective flow. (author)

  15. Contribution to the modelling and multi-scale numerical simulation of kinetic electron transport in hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, J.

    2012-01-01

    This research thesis stands at the crossroad of plasma physics, numerical analysis and applied mathematics. After an introduction presenting the problematic and previous works, the author recalls some basis of classical kinetic models for plasma physics (collisionless kinetic theory and Vlasov equation, collisional kinetic theory with the non-relativistic Maxwell-Fokker-Plansk system) and describes the fundamental properties of the collision operators such as conservation laws, entropy dissipation, and so on. He reports the improvement of a deterministic numerical method to solve the non-relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system coupled with Fokker-Planck-Landau type operators. The efficiency of each high order scheme is compared. The evolution of the hot spot is studied in the case of thermonuclear reactions in the centre of the pellet in a weakly collisional regime. The author focuses on the simulation of the kinetic electron collisional transport in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) between the laser absorption zone and the ablation front. A new approach is then introduced to reduce the huge computation time obtained with kinetic models. In a last chapter, the kinetic continuous equation in spherical domain is described and a new model is chosen for collisions in order to preserve collision properties

  16. A model for hot electron phenomena: Theory and general results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J.L.; Rodriquez, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    We propose a model for the description of the hot electron phenomena in semiconductors. Based on this model we are able to reproduce accurately the main characteristics observed in experiments of electric field transport, optical absorption, steady state photoluminescence and relaxation process. Our theory does not contain free nor adjustable parameters, it is very fast computerwise, and incorporates the main collision mechanisms including screening and phonon heating effects. Our description on a set of nonlinear rate equations in which the interactions are represented by coupling coefficients or effective frequencies. We calculate three coefficients from the characteristic constants and the band structure of the material. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  17. Formation of stable, high-beta, relativistic-electron plasmas using electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guest, G.E.; Miller, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    A one-dimensional, steady-state, relativistic Fokker-Planck model of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is used to analyse the heating kinetics underlying the formation of the two-component hot-electron plasmas characteristic of ECH in magnetic mirror configurations. The model is first applied to the well diagnosed plasmas obtained in SM-1 and is then used to simulate the effective generation of relativistic electrons by upper off-resonant heating (UORH), as demonstrated empirically in ELMO. The characteristics of unstable whistler modes and cyclotron maser modes are then determined for two-component hot-electron plasmas sustained by UORH. Cyclotron maser modes are shown to be strongly suppressed by the colder background electron species, while the growth rates of whistler modes are reduced by relativistic effects to levels that may render them unobservable, provided the hot-electron pressure anisotropy is below an energy dependent threshold. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  18. Microstructural modelling and lubrication study during zirconium alloy hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Using torsion tests (with strain rate jumps) and an experimental hot mini-extrusion apparatus, several samples zirconium alloy have been deformed: Zircaloy-4 (high α range) and Zr-1Nb (α + β domain). The fragmentation of the microstructure and post-dynamic grain growth have been examined. The main difference between these two alloys is that Zr-1Nb does not show grain growth during a heat treatment within the α + β domain after hot deformation. The recrystallization volume fraction has been measured on extruded samples with or without heat treatment. These rheological and microstructural data have been used to determine the parameters of a microstructural model including: a work-hardening model (Laaasraoui/Jonas), a continuous dynamic recrystallization model (Gourdet/Montheillet) and a grain growth model. This model leads to a good prediction of recrystallization volume fraction for Zircaloy-4 extrusion. However, the Zr-1Nb model cannot be validated because of the difficulty to observe deformed microstructures. Extrusion process is lubricated with a solid film. Trapping tests show that this lubricant is thermoviscoplastic. Friction along the container and several observations show the lubrication is not realized by a continuous film. Indeed, the heterogeneousness of deformation of these alloys causes a rupture of the lubricant film. Experiments and numerical simulations show that the radial gradient of axial displacement is affected by friction but also by stress softening of the alloys. (author)

  19. Refitting density dependent relativistic model parameters including Center-of-Mass corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, Sidney S.; Marinelli, Jose R.; Carlson, Brett Vern

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Relativistic mean field models have become a standard approach for precise nuclear structure calculations. After the seminal work of Serot and Walecka, which introduced a model Lagrangian density where the nucleons interact through the exchange of scalar and vector mesons, several models were obtained through its generalization, including other meson degrees of freedom, non-linear meson interactions, meson-meson interactions, etc. More recently density dependent coupling constants were incorporated into the Walecka-like models, which are then extensively used. In particular, for these models a connection with the density functional theory can be established. Due to the inherent difficulties presented by field theoretical models, only the mean field approximation is used for the solution of these models. In order to calculate finite nuclei properties in the mean field approximation, a reference set has to be fixed and therefore the translational symmetry is violated. It is well known that in such case spurious effects due to the center-of-mass (COM) motion are present, which are more pronounced for light nuclei. In a previous work we have proposed a technique based on the Pierls-Yoccoz projection operator applied to the mean-field relativistic solution, in order to project out spurious COM contributions. In this work we obtain a new fitting for the density dependent parameters of a density dependent hadronic model, taking into account the COM corrections. Our fitting is obtained taking into account the charge radii and binding energies for He 4 , O 16 , Ca 40 , Ca 48 , Ni 56 , Ni 68 , Sn 100 , Sn 132 and Pb 208 . We show that the nuclear observables calculated using our fit are of a quality comparable to others that can be found in the literature, with the advantage that now a translational invariant many-body wave function is at our disposal. (author)

  20. The Standard Model Higgs as the origin of the hot Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa, Daniel G.

    2017-04-10

    If the Standard Model (SM) Higgs is weakly coupled to the inflationary sector, the Higgs is expected to be universally in the form of a condensate towards the end of inflation. The Higgs decays rapidly after inflation -- via non-perturbative effects -- into an out-of-equilibrium distribution of SM species, which thermalize soon afterwards. If the post-inflationary equation of state of the universe is stiff, $w \\simeq +1$, the SM species eventually dominate the total energy budget. This provides a natural origin for the relativistic thermal plasma of SM species, required for the onset the `hot Big Bang' era. The viability of this scenario requires the inflationary Hubble scale $H_*$ to be lower than the instability scale for Higgs vacuum decay, the Higgs not to generate too large curvature perturbations at cosmological scales, and the SM dominance to occur before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We show that successful reheating into the SM can only be obtained in the presence of a non-minimal coupling to gravity $\\x...

  1. The ρ - ω mass difference in a relativistic potential model with pion corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, B.E.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the ρ - ω mass difference is studied in the framework of the relativistic, harmonic, S+V independent quark model implemented by center-of-mass, one-gluon exchange and plon-cloud corrections stemming from the requirement of chiral symmetry in the (u,d) SU(2) flavour sector of the model. The plonic self-energy corrections with different intermediate energy states are instrumental of the analysis of the problem, which requires and appropriate parametrization of the mesonic sector different from that previously used to calculate the mass spectrum of the S-wave baryons. The right ρ - ω mass splitting is found, together with a satisfactory value for the mass of the pion, calculated as a bound-state of a quark-antiquark pair. An analogous discussion based on the cloudy-bag model is also presented. (author) [pt

  2. A relativistic self-consistent model for studying enhancement of space charge limited emission due to counter-streaming ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. C.; Verboncoeur, J.

    2016-10-01

    A maximum electron current transmitted through a planar diode gap is limited by space charge of electrons dwelling across the gap region, the so called space charge limited (SCL) emission. By introducing a counter-streaming ion flow to neutralize the electron charge density, the SCL emission can be dramatically raised, so electron current transmission gets enhanced. In this work, we have developed a relativistic self-consistent model for studying the enhancement of maximum transmission by a counter-streaming ion current. The maximum enhancement is found when the ion effect is saturated, as shown analytically. The solutions in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes are obtained and verified with 1-D particle-in-cell simulations. This self-consistent model is general and can also serve as a comparison for verification of simulation codes, as well as extension to higher dimensions.

  3. Possibility of ΛΛ pairing and its dependence on background density in a relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Tomonori; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    We calculate a ΛΛ pairing gap in binary mixed matter of nucleons and Λ hyperons within the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Λ hyperons to be paired up are immersed in background nucleons in a normal state. The gap is calculated with a one-boson-exchange interaction obtained from a relativistic Lagrangian. It is found that at background density ρ N =2.5ρ 0 the ΛΛ pairing gap is very small, and that a denser background makes it rapidly suppressed. This result suggests a mechanism, specific to mixed matter dealt with relativistic models, of its dependence on the nucleon density. An effect of weaker ΛΛ attraction on the gap is also examined in connection with the revised information of the ΛΛ interaction

  4. Analytical models for the rewetting of hot surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olek, S.

    1988-10-01

    Some aspects concerning analytical models for the rewetting of hot surface are discussed. These include the problems with applying various forms of boundary conditions, compatibility of boundary conditions with the physics of the rewetting problems, recent analytical models, the use of the separation of variables method versus the Wiener-Hopf technique, and the use of transformations. The report includes an updated list of rewetting models as well as benchmark solutions in tabular form for several models. It should be emphasized that this report is not meant to cover the topic of rewetting models. It merely discusses some points which are less commonly referred to in the literature. 93 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs

  5. Relativistic MHD modeling of magnetized neutron stars, pulsar winds, and their nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Zanna, L.; Pili, A. G.; Olmi, B.; Bucciantini, N.; Amato, E.

    2018-01-01

    Neutron stars are among the most fascinating astrophysical sources, being characterized by strong gravity, densities about the nuclear one or even above, and huge magnetic fields. Their observational signatures can be extremely diverse across the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from the periodic and low-frequency signals of radio pulsars, up to the abrupt high-energy gamma-ray flares of magnetars, where energies of ∼ {10}46 {erg} are released in a few seconds. Fast-rotating and highly magnetized neutron stars are expected to launch powerful relativistic winds, whose interaction with the supernova remnants gives rise to the non-thermal emission of pulsar wind nebulae, which are known cosmic accelerators of electrons and positrons up to PeV energies. In the extreme cases of proto-magnetars (magnetic fields of ∼ {10}15 G and millisecond periods), a similar mechanism is likely to provide a viable engine for the still mysterious gamma-ray bursts. The key ingredient in all these spectacular manifestations of neutron stars is the presence of strong magnetic fields in their constituent plasma. Here we will present recent updates of a couple of state-of-the-art numerical investigations by the high-energy astrophysics group in Arcetri: a comprehensive modeling of the steady-state axisymmetric structure of rotating magnetized neutron stars in general relativity, and dynamical 3D MHD simulations of relativistic pulsar winds and their associated nebulae.

  6. Residence time modeling of hot melt extrusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Elena; Podhaisky, Helmut; Ely, David; Thommes, Markus

    2013-11-01

    The hot melt extrusion process is a widespread technique to mix viscous melts. The residence time of material in the process frequently determines the product properties. An experimental setup and a corresponding mathematical model were developed to evaluate residence time and residence time distribution in twin screw extrusion processes. The extrusion process was modeled as the convolution of a mass transport process described by a Gaussian probability function, and a mixing process represented by an exponential function. The residence time of the extrusion process was determined by introducing a tracer at the extruder inlet and measuring the tracer concentration at the die. These concentrations were fitted to the residence time model, and an adequate correlation was found. Different parameters were derived to characterize the extrusion process including the dead time, the apparent mixing volume, and a transport related axial mixing. A 2(3) design of experiments was performed to evaluate the effect of powder feed rate, screw speed, and melt viscosity of the material on the residence time. All three parameters affect the residence time of material in the extruder. In conclusion, a residence time model was developed to interpret experimental data and to get insights into the hot melt extrusion process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Relativistic scalar-vector models of the N-N and N-nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper for the Proceedings of Conference an Anti-Nucleon and Nucleon-Nucleus Interactions summarizes work by the principal investigator and his collaborators on the nucleon-nucleon (N-N) and nucleon-nuclear (N-eta) interactions. It draws heavily on a paper presented at the Many Body Conference in Rome in 1972 but also includes a brief review of our phenomenological N-eta interaction studies. We first summarize our 48-49 generalized scalar-vector meson field theory model of the N-N interactions. This is followed by a brief description of our phenomenological work in the 50's on the N-eta interaction sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission (the present DOE). This work finally led to strong velocity dependent potentials with spin orbit and isospin terms for shell and optical model applications. This is followed by a section on the Emergence of One-Boson Exchange Models describing developments in the 60's of quantitative generalized one boson exchange potentials (GOBEP) including our purely relativistic N-N analyses. Then follows a section on the application of this meson field model to the N-eta interaction, in particular to spherical closed shell nuclei. This work was sponsored by AFOSR but funding was halted with the Mansfield amendment. We conclude with a discussion of subsequent collateral work by former colleagues and by others who have converged upon scalar-vector relativistic models of N-N, antiN-N, N-eta and antiN-eta interactions and some lessons learned from this extended endeavor. 61 refs

  8. A collisional-radiative average atom model for hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsnyai, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    A collisional-radiative 'average atom' (AA) model is presented for the calculation of opacities of hot plasmas not in the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The electron impact and radiative rate constants are calculated using the dipole oscillator strengths of the average atom. A key element of the model is the photon escape probability which at present is calculated for a semi infinite slab. The Fermi statistics renders the rate equation for the AA level occupancies nonlinear, which requires iterations until the steady state. AA level occupancies are found. Detailed electronic configurations are built into the model after the self-consistent non-LTE AA state is found. The model shows a continuous transition from the non-LTE to the LTE state depending on the optical thickness of the plasma. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  9. A Model of Polarisation Rotations in Blazars from Kink Instabilities in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nalewajko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple model of polarisation rotation in optically thin relativistic jets of blazars. The model is based on the development of helical (kink mode of current-driven instability. A possible explanation is suggested for the observational connection between polarisation rotations and optical/gamma-ray flares in blazars, if the current-driven modes are triggered by secular increases of the total jet power. The importance of intrinsic depolarisation in limiting the amplitude of coherent polarisation rotations is demonstrated. The polarisation rotation amplitude is thus very sensitive to the viewing angle, which appears to be inconsistent with the observational estimates of viewing angles in blazars showing polarisation rotations. Overall, there are serious obstacles to explaining large-amplitude polarisation rotations in blazars in terms of current-driven kink modes.

  10. Numerically calibrated model for propagation of a relativistic unmagnetized jet in dense media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard; Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud

    2018-06-01

    Relativistic jets reside in high-energy astrophysical systems of all scales. Their interaction with the surrounding media is critical as it determines the jet evolution, observable signature, and feedback on the environment. During its motion, the interaction of the jet with the ambient media inflates a highly pressurized cocoon, which under certain conditions collimates the jet and strongly affects its propagation. Recently, Bromberg et al. derived a general simplified (semi-)analytic solution for the evolution of the jet and the cocoon in case of an unmagnetized jet that propagates in a medium with a range of density profiles. In this work we use a large suite of 2D and 3D relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in order to test the validity and accuracy of this model. We discuss the similarities and differences between the analytic model and numerical simulations and also, to some extent, between 2D and 3D simulations. Our main finding is that although the analytic model is highly simplified, it properly predicts the evolution of the main ingredients of the jet-cocoon system, including its temporal evolution and the transition between various regimes (e.g. collimated to uncollimated). The analytic solution predicts a jet head velocity that is faster by a factor of about 3 compared to the simulations, as long as the head velocity is Newtonian. We use the results of the simulations to calibrate the analytic model which significantly increases its accuracy. We provide an applet that calculates semi-analytically the propagation of a jet in an arbitrary density profile defined by the user at http://www.astro.tau.ac.il/˜ore/propagation.html.

  11. Numerically calibrated model for propagation of a relativistic unmagnetized jet in dense media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard; Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud

    2018-03-01

    Relativistic jets reside in high-energy astrophysical systems of all scales. Their interaction with the surrounding media is critical as it determines the jet evolution, observable signature, and feedback on the environment. During its motion the interaction of the jet with the ambient media inflates a highly pressurized cocoon, which under certain conditions collimates the jet and strongly affects its propagation. Recently, Bromberg et al. (2011b) derived a general simplified (semi)analytic solution for the evolution of the jet and the cocoon in case of an unmagnetized jet that propagates in a medium with a range of density profiles. In this work we use a large suite of 2D and 3D relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in order to test the validity and accuracy of this model. We discuss the similarities and differences between the analytic model and numerical simulations and also, to some extent, between 2D and 3D simulations. Our main finding is that although the analytic model is highly simplified, it properly predicts the evolution of the main ingredients of the jet-cocoon system, including its temporal evolution and the transition between various regimes (e.g., collimated to uncollimated). The analytic solution predicts a jet head velocity that is faster by a factor of about 3 compared to the simulations, as long as the head velocity is Newtonian. We use the results of the simulations to calibrate the analytic model which significantly increases its accuracy. We provide an applet that calculates semi-analytically the propagation of a jet in an arbitrary density profile defined by the user at http://www.astro.tau.ac.il/ ore/propagation.html.

  12. Rare Λb→Λ l+l- and Λb→Λ γ decays in the relativistic quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustov, R. N.; Galkin, V. O.

    2017-09-01

    Rare Λb→Λ l+l- and Λb→Λ γ decays are investigated in the relativistic quark model based on the quark-diquark picture of baryons. The decay form factors are calculated accounting for all relativistic effects, including relativistic transformations of baryon wave functions from rest to a moving reference frame and the contribution of the intermediate negative-energy states. The momentum-transfer-squared dependence of the form factors is explicitly determined in the whole accessible kinematical range. The calculated decay branching fractions, various forward-backward asymmetries for the rare decay Λb→Λ μ+μ-, are found to be consistent with recent detailed measurements by the LHCb Collaboration. Predictions for the Λb→Λ τ+τ- decay observables are given.

  13. Distribution functions for a family of general-relativistic hypervirial models in the collisionless regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauy, Henrique Matheus; Ramos-Caro, Javier

    2018-03-01

    By considering the Einstein-Vlasov system for static spherically symmetric distributions of matter, we show that configurations with constant anisotropy parameter β , leading to asymptotically flat spacetimes, have necessarily a distribution function (DF) of the form F =l-2 βξ (ɛ ) , where ɛ =E /m and l =L /m are the relativistic energy and angular momentum per unit rest mass, respectively. We exploit this result to obtain DFs for the general relativistic extension of the hypervirial family introduced by Nguyen and Lingam [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 436, 2014 (2013), 10.1093/mnras/stt1719], which Newtonian potential is given by ϕ (r )=-ϕo/[1 +(r /a )n]1 /n (a and ϕo are positive free parameters, n =1 ,2 ,… ). Such DFs can be written in the form Fn=ln -2ξn(ɛ ) . For odd n , we find that ξn is a polynomial of order 2 n +1 in ɛ , as in the case of the Hernquist model (n =1 ), for which F1∝l-1(2 ɛ -1 ) (ɛ-1 ) 2 . For even n , we can write ξn in terms of incomplete beta functions (Plummer model, n =2 , is an example). Since we demand that F ≥0 throughout the phase space, the particular form of each ξn leads to restrictions for the values of ϕo. For example, for the Hernquist model we find that 0 ≤ϕo≤2 /3 , i.e., an upper bounding value less than the one obtained for Nguyen and Lingam (0 ≤ϕo≤1 ), based on energy conditions.

  14. Physical processes in relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The continuum emission in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extend to 100 keV and beyond (e.g. Rothschild et al. 1983). In thermal models of the continuum emission this implies temperatures above 10 9 K or kT of order mc 2 . In such a plasma the electrons are at least mildly relativistic and furthermore the particles and the photons are energetic enough to produce electron-positron pairs. The physics of such hot plasmas has only recently been studied in any detail and here we review the results of those studies. Significant electron-positron pair production may also occur in non-thermal models of the continuum emission if the optical depth to photon-photon pair production is greater than unity. We review the few results obtained regarding this interesting but not very well studied possibility. First, however, we briefly discuss the processes taking place in relativistic plasmas and the standard models for the continuum emission from AGNs. We then summarize the effects pair production have on these models and the observational implications of the presence of electron-positron pairs. (orig./WL)

  15. Biophysical model of prokaryotic diversity in geothermal hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klales, Anna; Duncan, James; Nett, Elizabeth Janus; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies of photosynthetic bacteria living in geothermal hot spring environments have revealed surprisingly complex ecosystems with an unexpected level of genetic diversity. One case of particular interest involves the distribution along hot spring thermal gradients of genetically distinct bacterial strains that differ in their preferred temperatures for reproduction and photosynthesis. In such systems, a single variable, temperature, defines the relevant environmental variation. In spite of this, each region along the thermal gradient exhibits multiple strains of photosynthetic bacteria adapted to several distinct thermal optima, rather than a single thermal strain adapted to the local environmental temperature. Here we analyze microbiology data from several ecological studies to show that the thermal distribution data exhibit several universal features independent of location and specific bacterial strain. These include the distribution of optimal temperatures of different thermal strains and the functional dependence of the net population density on temperature. We present a simple population dynamics model of these systems that is highly constrained by biophysical data and by physical features of the environment. This model can explain in detail the observed thermal population distributions, as well as certain features of population dynamics observed in laboratory studies of the same organisms. © 2012 American Physical Society

  16. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity

  17. Low-lying qq(qq)-bar states in a relativistic model based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, B.; Kriss, V.

    1985-01-01

    Low-lying qq(qq)-bar states are analysed in a previously given relativistic model based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation. It is not got M-diquonia, P-mesonia, or meson molecules, but it is got T-diquonia

  18. Revisiting directed flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from a multiphase transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chong-Qiang; Zhang, Chun-Jian; Xu, Jun

    2017-12-01

    We have revisited several interesting questions on how the rapidity-odd directed flow is developed in relativistic 197Au+197Au collisions at √{s_{NN}} = 200 and 39 GeV based on a multiphase transport model. As the partonic phase evolves with time, the slope of the parton directed flow at midrapidity region changes from negative to positive as a result of the later dynamics at 200 GeV, while it remains negative at 39 GeV due to the shorter life time of the partonic phase. The directed flow splitting for various quark species due to their different initial eccentricities is observed at 39 GeV, while the splitting is very small at 200GeV. From a dynamical coalescence algorithm with Wigner functions, we found that the directed flow of hadrons is a result of competition between the coalescence in momentum and coordinate space as well as further modifications by the hadronic rescatterings.

  19. Modelling hot electron generation in short pulse target heating experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sircombe N.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Target heating experiments planned for the Orion laser facility, and electron beam driven fast ignition schemes, rely on the interaction of a short pulse high intensity laser with dense material to generate a flux of energetic electrons. It is essential that the characteristics of this electron source are well known in order to inform transport models in radiation hydrodynamics codes and allow effective evaluation of experimental results and forward modelling of future campaigns. We present results obtained with the particle in cell (PIC code EPOCH for realistic target and laser parameters, including first and second harmonic light. The hot electron distributions are characterised and their implications for onward transport and target heating are considered with the aid of the Monte-Carlo transport code THOR.

  20. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS AND SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: A RELATIVISTIC TOY MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE MASS OF THE TORUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannarale, Francesco; Tonita, Aaryn; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    The merger of a binary system composed of a black hole (BH) and a neutron star (NS) may leave behind a torus of hot, dense matter orbiting around the BH. While numerical-relativity simulations are necessary to simulate this process accurately, they are also computationally expensive and unable at present to cover the large space of possible parameters, which include the relative mass ratio, the stellar compactness, and the BH spin. To mitigate this and provide a first reasonable coverage of the space of parameters, we have developed a method for estimating the mass of the remnant torus from BH-NS mergers. The toy model makes use of an improved relativistic affine model to describe the tidal deformations of an extended tri-axial ellipsoid orbiting around a Kerr BH and measures the mass of the remnant torus by considering which of the fluid particles composing the star are on bound orbits at the time of the tidal disruption. We tune the toy model by using the results of fully general-relativistic simulations obtaining relative precisions of a few percent and use it to investigate the space of parameters extensively. In this way, we find that the torus mass is largest for systems with highly spinning BHs, small stellar compactnesses, and large mass ratios. As an example, tori as massive as M b,tor ≅ 1.33 M sun can be produced for a very extended star with compactness C ≅ 0.1 inspiralling around a BH with dimensionless spin parameter a = 0.85 and mass ratio q ≅ 0.3. However, for a more astrophysically reasonable mass ratio q ≅ 0.14 and a canonical value of the stellar compactness C ≅ 0.145, the toy model sets a considerably smaller upper limit of M b,tor ∼ sun .

  1. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  2. Relativistic quark model and behaviour of the meson electromagnetic form factors at small and intermediate momentum transfer Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, A.S.; Esaybegyan, S.V.; Ter-Isaakyan, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    In a model of hadrons composed of relativistic quarks a description of meson static characteristics and pion electromagnetic form factor in the range of small and intermediate values of momentum transfer 0 2 2 have obtained. It is shown that in such a model the data available on the pion electromagnetic form factor may be described basing on a simplest quark without gluon exchange. The contribution of a one-gluon exchange diagram in such a model cannot exceed 30%

  3. Relativistic one-boson-exchange model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.; Van Orden, J.W.; Holinde, K.

    1992-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon data below 300-MeV laboratory energy are described by a manifestly covariant wave equation in which one of the intermediate nucleons is restricted to its mass shell. Antisymmetrization of the kernel yields an equation in which the two nucleons are treated in an exactly symmetric manner, and in which all amplitudes satisfy the Pauli principle exactly. The kernel is modeled by the sum of one boson exchanges, and four models, all of which fit the data very well (χ 2 congruent 3 per data point) are discussed. Two models require the exchange of only the π, σ, ρ, and ω, but also require an admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, while two other models restrict the pion coupling to pure γ 5 γ μ , but require the exchange of six mesons, including the η, and a light scalar-isovector meson referred to as σ 1 . Deuteron wave functions resulting from these models are obtained. The singularities and relativistic effects which are a part of this approach are discussed, and a complete development of the theory is presented

  4. Newtonian self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Ryusuke; Nakao, Ken-ichi [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Yoo, Chul-Moon, E-mail: ryusuke@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp, E-mail: knakao@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp, E-mail: yoo@gravity.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    We consider a test of the Copernican Principle through observations of the large-scale structures, and for this purpose we study the self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model which does not invoke the Copernican Principle. If we focus on the the weakly self-gravitating and slowly evolving system whose spatial extent is much smaller than the scale of the cosmological horizon in the homogeneous and isotropic background universe model, the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available. Also in the huge void universe model, the same kind of approximation as the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available for the analysis of the perturbations contained in a region whose spatial size is much smaller than the scale of the huge void: the effects of the huge void are taken into account in a perturbative manner by using the Fermi-normal coordinates. By using this approximation, we derive the equations of motion for the weakly self-gravitating perturbations whose elements have relative velocities much smaller than the speed of light, and show the derived equations can be significantly different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model, due to the anisotropic volume expansion in the huge void. We linearize the derived equations of motion and solve them. The solutions show that the behaviors of linear density perturbations are very different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model.

  5. Physicochemical model for reactive sputtering of hot target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalov, Viktor I., E-mail: vishapovalov@mail.ru; Karzin, Vitaliy V.; Bondarenko, Anastasia S.

    2017-02-05

    A physicochemical model for reactive magnetron sputtering of a metal target is described in this paper. The target temperature in the model is defined as a function of the ion current density. Synthesis of the coating occurs due to the surface chemical reaction. The law of mass action, the Langmuir isotherm and the Arrhenius equation for non-isothermal conditions were used for mathematical description of the reaction. The model takes into consideration thermal electron emission and evaporation of the target surface. The system of eight algebraic equations, describing the model, was solved for the tantalum target sputtered in the oxygen environment. It was established that the hysteresis effect disappears with the increase of the ion current density. - Highlights: • When model is applied for a cold target, hysteresis width is proportional to the ion current density. • Two types of processes of hot target sputtering are possible, depending on the current density: with and without the hysteresis. • Sputtering process is dominant at current densities less than 50 A/m{sup 2} and evaporation can be neglected. • For current densities over 50 A/m{sup 2} the hysteresis width reaches its maximum and the role of evaporation increases.

  6. A SCILAB Program for Computing General-Relativistic Models of Rotating Neutron Stars by Implementing Hartle's Perturbation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiriou, P. J.; Geroyannis, V. S.

    We implement Hartle's perturbation method to the computation of relativistic rigidly rotating neutron star models. The program has been written in SCILAB (© INRIA ENPC), a matrix-oriented high-level programming language. The numerical method is described in very detail and is applied to many models in slow or fast rotation. We show that, although the method is perturbative, it gives accurate results for all practical purposes and it should prove an efficient tool for computing rapidly rotating pulsars.

  7. Relativistic form factors for hadrons with quark-model wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, D.P.; Robson, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between relativistic form factors and quark-potential-model wave functions is examined using an improved version of an approach by Licht and Pagnamenta. Lorentz-contraction effects are expressed in terms of an effective hadron mass which varies as the square root of the number of quark constituents. The effective mass is calculated using the rest-frame wave functions from the mean-square momentum along the direction of the momentum transfer. Applications with the parameter-free approach are made to the elastic form factors of the pion, proton, and neutron using a Hamiltonian which simultaneously describes mesons and baryons. A comparison of the calculated radii for pions and kaons suggests that the measured kaon radius should be slightly smaller than the corresponding pion radius. The large negative squared charge radius for the neutron is partially explained via the quark model but a full description requires the inclusion of a small component of a pion ''cloud'' configuration. The problematic connection between the sizes of hadrons deduced from form factors and the ''measured'' values of average transverse momenta is reconciled in the present model

  8. Hot Deformation Behavior and a Two-Stage Constitutive Model of 20Mn5 Solid Steel Ingot during Hot Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft forging due to its strength, toughness, and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under a high temperature were not studied. For this article, hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850–1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01 s−1–1 s−1 were conducted using a Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. Flow stress-strain curves and microstructure after hot compression were obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relationship and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 solid steel ingot.

  9. Comparing models of rapidly rotating relativistic stars constructed by two numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Friedman, John L.

    1995-05-01

    We present the first direct comparison of codes based on two different numerical methods for constructing rapidly rotating relativistic stars. A code based on the Komatsu-Eriguchi-Hachisu (KEH) method (Komatsu et al. 1989), written by Stergioulas, is compared to the Butterworth-Ipser code (BI), as modified by Friedman, Ipser, & Parker. We compare models obtained by each method and evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the two codes. The agreement is surprisingly good, and error bars in the published numbers for maximum frequencies based on BI are dominated not by the code inaccuracy but by the number of models used to approximate a continuous sequence of stars. The BI code is faster per iteration, and it converges more rapidly at low density, while KEH converges more rapidly at high density; KEH also converges in regions where BI does not, allowing one to compute some models unstable against collapse that are inaccessible to the BI code. A relatively large discrepancy recently reported (Eriguchi et al. 1994) for models based on Friedman-Pandharipande equation of state is found to arise from the use of two different versions of the equation of state. For two representative equations of state, the two-dimensional space of equilibrium configurations is displayed as a surface in a three-dimensional space of angular momentum, mass, and central density. We find, for a given equation of state, that equilibrium models with maximum values of mass, baryon mass, and angular momentum are (generically) either all unstable to collapse or are all stable. In the first case, the stable model with maximum angular velocity is also the model with maximum mass, baryon mass, and angular momentum. In the second case, the stable models with maximum values of these quantities are all distinct. Our implementation of the KEH method will be available as a public domain program for interested users.

  10. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  11. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  12. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  13. Analysis of multi-fragmentation reactions induced by relativistic heavy ions using the statistical multi-fragmentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, T., E-mail: ogawa.tatsuhiko@jaea.go.jp [Research Group for Radiation Protection, Division of Environment and Radiation Sciences, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sato, T.; Hashimoto, S. [Research Group for Radiation Protection, Division of Environment and Radiation Sciences, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Niita, K. [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2013-09-21

    The fragmentation cross-sections of relativistic energy nucleus–nucleus collisions were analyzed using the statistical multi-fragmentation model (SMM) incorporated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport simulation code particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS). Comparison with the literature data showed that PHITS-SMM reproduces fragmentation cross-sections of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies better than the original PHITS by up to two orders of magnitude. It was also found that SMM does not degrade the neutron production cross-sections in heavy ion collisions or the fragmentation cross-sections of light nuclei, for which SMM has not been benchmarked. Therefore, SMM is a robust model that can supplement conventional nucleus–nucleus reaction models, enabling more accurate prediction of fragmentation cross-sections.

  14. Analysis of multi-fragmentation reactions induced by relativistic heavy ions using the statistical multi-fragmentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Sato, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Niita, K.

    2013-01-01

    The fragmentation cross-sections of relativistic energy nucleus–nucleus collisions were analyzed using the statistical multi-fragmentation model (SMM) incorporated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport simulation code particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS). Comparison with the literature data showed that PHITS-SMM reproduces fragmentation cross-sections of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies better than the original PHITS by up to two orders of magnitude. It was also found that SMM does not degrade the neutron production cross-sections in heavy ion collisions or the fragmentation cross-sections of light nuclei, for which SMM has not been benchmarked. Therefore, SMM is a robust model that can supplement conventional nucleus–nucleus reaction models, enabling more accurate prediction of fragmentation cross-sections

  15. Relativistic three-body model of pion-deuton elasic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, Noel.

    1978-01-01

    The Aaron-Amado-Young equations for the relativistic three-body problem are derived following the Blauckenbecker - Sugar method. The angular momentum reduction is carried out using suitable relative momenta. The pion-deuteron elastic scattering is calculated using the equations in which relativistic kinematics are retained only for the pion. After a general study of the observables in the energy range 25 to 256 MeV, detailed calculations are performed at 142 MeV [fr

  16. Quasistationary model of high current relativistic electron beam. 2. The own magnetic field of relativistic electron beam in cylindrical Drift space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, S.E.; Gandul', E.M.; Podkopaev, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is devoted to obtaining the components of own magnetic field of high current relativistic electron beam passing through the cylindrical drift space superconducting walls: the peculiarities of applied numerical scheme have been also described briefly. (author). 6 refs

  17. Cluster radioactive decay within the preformed cluster model using relativistic mean-field theory densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Patra, S. K.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the (ground-state) cluster radioactive decays within the preformed cluster model (PCM) of Gupta and collaborators [R. K. Gupta, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, Varenna, edited by E. Gadioli (Ricerca Scientifica ed Educazione Permanente, Milano, 1988), p. 416; S. S. Malik and R. K. Gupta, Phys. Rev. C 39, 1992 (1989)]. The relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory is used to obtain the nuclear matter densities for the double folding procedure used to construct the cluster-daughter potential with M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction including exchange effects. Following the PCM approach, we have deduced empirically the preformation probability P 0 emp from the experimental data on both the α- and exotic cluster-decays, specifically of parents in the trans-lead region having doubly magic 208 Pb or its neighboring nuclei as daughters. Interestingly, the RMF-densities-based nuclear potential supports the concept of preformation for both the α and heavier clusters in radioactive nuclei. P 0 α(emp) for α decays is almost constant (∼10 -2 -10 -3 ) for all the parent nuclei considered here, and P 0 c(emp) for cluster decays of the same parents decrease with the size of clusters emitted from different parents. The results obtained for P 0 c(emp) are reasonable and are within two to three orders of magnitude of the well-accepted phenomenological model of Blendowske-Walliser for light clusters.

  18. Advantage of nonlinear relativistic mean-field model in studying neutron star matter

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, K

    2006-01-01

    We test the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model of relativistic nuclear matter for reproducing the density dependence of the symmetry energy, the direct URCA constraint M_{G}^{DU} \\geq 1.5M_{\\odot} on the gravitational mass of neutron star (NS), the large radii of NSs in RX J1856.5-3754 and qLMXB X7, the massive NSs in PSR J0751+1807 and 4U1700-37, and the baryonic mass of J0737-3039B. The two sets of NN\\rho coupling constant are considered. The first (EZM1) is the same as the Bonn A potential. The second (EZM2) is chosen so as to reproduce the symmetry energy E_s=32MeV of nuclear matter. The EZM1 can pass 6 tests among 7, while the EZM2 passes 5 tests. We can therefore conclude that the EZM model has unique and excellent features and is the most prospective one for studying the dense baryonic matter.

  19. Simulation of a Rapid Dropout Event for Highly Relativistic Electrons with the RBE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S-B.; Fok, M.-C.; Glocer, A.; Min, K.-W.; Choi, C.-R.; Choi, E.; Hwang, J.

    2016-01-01

    A flux dropout is a sudden and sizable decrease in the energetic electron population of the outer radiation belt on the time scale of a few hours. We simulated a flux dropout of highly relativistic 2.5 MeV electrons using the Radiation Belt Environment model, incorporating the pitch angle diffusion coefficients caused by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves for the geomagnetic storm events of 23-26 October 2002. This simulation showed a remarkable decrease in the 2.5 MeV electron flux during main phase of the storm, compared to those without EMIC waves. This decrease was independent of magnetopause shadowing or drift loss to the magnetopause. We suggest that the flux decrease was likely to be primarily due to pitch angle scattering to the loss cone by EMIC waves. Furthermore, the 2.5 MeV electron flux calculated with EMIC waves correspond very well with that observed from Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle EXplorer spacecraft. EMIC wave scattering is therefore likely one of the key mechanisms to understand flux dropouts. We modeled EMIC wave intensities by the Kp index. However, the calculated dropout is a several hours earlier than the observed one. We propose that Kp is not the best parameter to predict EMIC waves.

  20. Equivalent circuit-level model of quantum cascade lasers with integrated hot-electron and hot-phonon effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefvand, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    We report a study of the effects of hot-electron and hot-phonon dynamics on the output characteristics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using an equivalent circuit-level model. The model is developed from the energy balance equation to adopt the electron temperature in the active region levels, the heat transfer equation to include the lattice temperature, the nonequilibrium phonon rate to account for the hot phonon dynamics and simplified two-level rate equations to incorporate the carrier and photon dynamics in the active region. This technique simplifies the description of the electron-phonon interaction in QCLs far from the equilibrium condition. Using the presented model, the steady and transient responses of the QCLs for a wide range of sink temperatures (80 to 320 K) are investigated and analysed. The model enables us to explain the operating characteristics found in QCLs. This predictive model is expected to be applicable to all QCL material systems operating in pulsed and cw regimes.

  1. Dynamic fracture and hot-spot modeling in energetic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Nicolò; Duarte, Camilo A.; Koslowski, Marisol

    2018-02-01

    Defects such as cracks, pores, and particle-matrix interface debonding affect the sensitivity of energetic materials by reducing the time-to-ignition and the threshold pressure to initiate an explosion. Frictional sliding of preexisting cracks is considered to be one of the most important causes of localized heating. Therefore, understanding the dynamic fracture of crystalline energetic materials is of extreme importance to assess the reliability and safety of polymer-bonded explosives. Phase field damage model simulations, based on the regularization of the crack surface as a diffuse delta function, are used to describe crack propagation in cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine crystals embedded in a Sylgard matrix. A thermal transport model that includes heat generation by friction at crack interfaces is coupled to the solution of crack propagation. 2D and 3D dynamic compression simulations are performed with different boundary velocities and initial distributions of cracks and interface defects to understand their effect on crack propagation and heat generation. It is found that, at an impact velocity of 400 m/s, localized damage at the particle-binder interface is of key importance and that the sample reaches temperatures high enough to create a hot-spot that will lead to ignition. At an impact velocity of 10 m/s, preexisting cracks advanced inside the particle, but the increase of temperature will not cause ignition.

  2. Effects of anisotropy on gravitational infall in galaxy clusters using an exact general relativistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxel, M.A.; Peel, Austin; Ishak, Mustapha, E-mail: troxel@utdallas.edu, E-mail: austin.peel@utdallas.edu, E-mail: mishak@utdallas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75083 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We study the effects and implications of anisotropies at the scale of galaxy clusters by building an exact general relativistic model of a cluster using the inhomogeneous and anisotropic Szekeres metric. The model is built from a modified Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile. We compare this to a corresponding spherically symmetric structure in the Lemaȋtre-Tolman (LT) model and quantify the impact of introducing varying levels of anisotropy. We examine two physical measures of gravitational infall — the growth rate of density and the velocity of the source dust in the model. We introduce a generalization of the LT dust velocity profile for the Szekeres metric and demonstrate its consistency with the growth rate of density. We find that the growth rate of density in one substructure increases by 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.75% for 5%, 10%, and 15% levels of introduced anisotropy, which is measured as the fractional displaced mass relative to the spherically symmetric case. The infall velocity of the dust is found to increase by 2.5, 10, and 20 km s{sup −1} (0.5%, 2%, and 4.5%), respectively, for the same three levels of anisotropy. This response to the anisotropy in a structure is found to be strongly nonlinear with respect to the strength of anisotropy. These relative velocities correspond to an equivalent increase in the total mass of the spherically symmetric structure of 1%, 3.8%, and 8.4%, indicating that not accounting for the presence of anisotropic mass distributions in cluster models can strongly bias the determination of physical properties like the total mass.

  3. Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.

    1989-01-01

    Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova

  4. Application of the model of the relativistic anti-loss-cone distribution to ECE spectrum in discharge applying LH wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masayasu; Yokomizo, Hideaki

    1987-11-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is dominated from supra-thermal electron in discharge applying LH wave. We obtain informations of supra-thermal electron by applying the model of the relativistic anti-loss-cone distribution to ECE spectrum in the discharge. In this model, the emission perpendicular to the magnetic field are considered. The frequency range is considered to be well above the plasma and electron cyclotron frequencies, thus collective effects can be neglected. The electron distribution is assumed to be anisotropic in the velocity space and strongly extended in the direction parallel to the magnetic field, namely the relativistic anti-loss-cone distribution. The informations of supra-thermal electron are obtained by the following way. The temperature and density of the supra-thermal electron and the anti-loss-cone angle are obtained from the power spectrum of LH wave launched, the measured slope of the spectrum of ECE and the spectral radiance of ECE. (author)

  5. Simulations of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions within relativistic mean-field two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Y.B.; Russkikh, V.N.; Pokrovsky, Y.E. Kurchatov; Ivanov, Y.B.; Russkikh, V.N.; Polrovsky, Y.E.; Henning, P.A.; Henning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional realization of the relativistic mean-field 2-fluid model is described. The first results of analyzing the inclusive data on the yield of nuclear fragments and pions, as well as the Plastic-Ball rapidity distributions of nuclear fragments are presented. For comparison, the calculations within the conventional relativistic hydrodynamical model with the same mean fields are also performed. It is found that all the analysed observables, except the pion spectra, appeared to be fairly insensitive to the nuclear EOS. The sensitivity to the nuclear stopping power is slightly higher. The original sensitivity of the rapidity distributions to the stopping power is smeared out by the Plastic-Ball filter and selection criterion. Nevertheless, one can conclude that the stopping power induced by the Cugnon cross-sections is not quite sufficient for a more adequate reproduction of the experimental data. (authors)

  6. Investigating the impact of different thermal comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, S.G.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The selection of a thermal comfort model has a major impact on energy consumption of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in hot climates. The objective of this paper is to compare the influence of using different comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates. The paper compares the impact

  7. Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.

  8. TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL HOT JUPITER MODEL ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, J. J.; Shabram, M.; Showman, A. P.; Lian, Y.; Lewis, N. K.; Freedman, R. S.; Marley, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    We compute models of the transmission spectra of planets HD 209458b, HD 189733b, and generic hot Jupiters. We examine the effects of temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity for the generic planets as a guide to understanding transmission spectra in general. We find that carbon dioxide absorption at 4.4 and 15 μm is prominent at high metallicity, and is a clear metallicity indicator. For HD 209458b and HD 189733b, we compute spectra for both one-dimensional and three-dimensional model atmospheres and examine the differences between them. The differences are usually small, but can be large if atmospheric temperatures are near important chemical abundance boundaries. The calculations for the three-dimensional atmospheres, and their comparison with data, serve as constraints on these dynamical models that complement the secondary eclipse and light curve data sets. For HD 209458b, even if TiO and VO gases are abundant on the dayside, their abundances can be considerably reduced on the cooler planetary limb. However, given the predicted limb temperatures and TiO abundances, the model's optical opacity is too high. For HD 189733b we find a good match with some infrared data sets and constrain the altitude of a postulated haze layer. For this planet, substantial differences can exist between the transmission spectra of the leading and trailing hemispheres, which are an excellent probe of carbon chemistry. In thermochemical equilibrium, the cooler leading hemisphere is methane-dominated, and the hotter trailing hemisphere is CO-dominated, but these differences may be eliminated by non-equilibrium chemistry due to vertical mixing. It may be possible to constrain the carbon chemistry of this planet, and its spatial variation, with James Webb Space Telescope.

  9. Relativistic approach to nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Giai; Bouyssy, A.

    1987-03-01

    Some recent works related with relativistic models of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock are recalled and illustrated by some examples. The problem of isoscalar current and magnetic moments of odd nuclei is discussed. The application of the relativistic model to the nuclear response function is examined

  10. Revisiting directed flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from a multiphase transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chong-Qiang; Zhang, Chun-Jian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Xu, Jun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2017-12-15

    We have revisited several interesting questions on how the rapidity-odd directed flow is developed in relativistic {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 200 and 39 GeV based on a multiphase transport model. As the partonic phase evolves with time, the slope of the parton directed flow at midrapidity region changes from negative to positive as a result of the later dynamics at 200 GeV, while it remains negative at 39 GeV due to the shorter life time of the partonic phase. The directed flow splitting for various quark species due to their different initial eccentricities is observed at 39 GeV, while the splitting is very small at 200 GeV. From a dynamical coalescence algorithm with Wigner functions, we found that the directed flow of hadrons is a result of competition between the coalescence in momentum and coordinate space as well as further modifications by the hadronic rescatterings. (orig.)

  11. Radiative leptonic B{sub c} decay in the relativistic independent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India); Naimuddin, Sk; Dash, P C [Department of Physics, Prananath Autonomous College, Khurda-752057 (India); Kar, Susmita [Department of Physics, North Orissa University, Baripada-757003 (India)

    2008-12-01

    The radiative leptonic decay B{sub c}{sup -}{yields}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}}{gamma} is analyzed in its leading order in a relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratio for this decay in the vanishing lepton mass limit is obtained as Br(B{sub c}{yields}{mu}{nu}{sub {mu}}{gamma})=6.83x10{sup -5}, which includes the contributions of the internal bremsstrahlung and structure-dependent diagrams at the level of the quark constituents. The contributions of the bremsstrahlung and the structure-dependent diagrams, as well as their additive interference parts, are compared and found to be of the same order of magnitude. Finally, the predicted photon energy spectrum is observed here to be almost symmetrical about the peak value of the photon energy at E-tilde{sub {gamma}}{approx_equal}(M{sub B{sub c}}/4), which may be quite accessible experimentally at LHC in near future.

  12. Relation of gauge formalisms for pulsations of general-relativistic stellar models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Ipser, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    There have been two recent reformulations of the equations for even-parity perturbations of general-relativistic stellar models, in both of which fluid perturbation variables are absent in the final set of equations. The recent reformulation by Chandrasekhar and Ferrari uses the diagonal coordinate gauge and leads to a fifth-order system of differential equations; we have recently presented a reformulation, based on the Regge-Wheeler coordinate gauge, which leads to a fourth-order system. The difference in the orders is similar to that for perturbations of Schwarzschild and of Reissner-Nordstroem black holes; in both cases the diagonal-gauge formulation led to a system one degree higher than that for equations based on the Regge-Wheeler gauge. For perturbations of holes, however, the equations could be reduced by one degree. We show that this is the case also for the Chandrasekhar-Ferrari equations for stellar perturbations. More important, we show that the extra degree of freedom, in all descriptions based on the diagonal gauge, is due to the fact that the diagonal gauge is an incomplete constraint on coordinates; a one degree of freedom set of gauge transformations can be made within the diagonal gauge. This previously unnoticed degree of freedom is responsible for the extra degree of freedom in the Chandrasekhar-Ferrari equations, and the related black-hole equations. It also provides an a priori solution with which those equations can be reduced

  13. Modeling the Physics of Sliding Objects on Rotating Space Elevators and Other Non-relativistic Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Knudsen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    We consider general problem of modeling the dynamics of objects sliding on moving strings. We introduce a powerful computational algorithm that can be used to investigate the dynamics of objects sliding along non-relativistic strings. We use the algorithm to numerically explore fundamental physics of sliding climbers on a unique class of dynamical systems, Rotating Space Elevators (RSE). Objects sliding along RSE strings do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported from the Earth's surface into outer space. By extensive numerical simulations, we find that sliding climbers may display interesting non-linear dynamics exhibiting both quasi-periodic and chaotic states of motion. While our main interest in this study is in the climber dynamics on RSEs, our results for the dynamics of sliding object are of more general interest. In particular, we designed tools capable of dealing with strongly nonlinear phenomena involving moving strings of any kind, such as the chaotic dynamics of sliding climbers observed in our simulations.

  14. Collective flow of pions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russkikh, V.N.; Ivanov, Yu.B.

    1995-02-01

    The transverse-momentum distributions of pions in the Au(1 GeV/nucleon)+Au collisions are analyzed. The calculations are carried out within relativistic meanfield one- and two-fluid models. The rapidity distributions of the mean transverse momentum of pions are found to be fairly sensitive to the nuclear equation of state and, especially, to the stopping power. It is shown that the collective flow of pions in the reaction plane always correlates with the 'hot' flow of nucleons (i.e. those emitted from hot regions of nuclear system), while not always, with the total nucleon flow. This 'hot' nucleon flow can be experimentally singled out by selecting nucleons with sufficiently high transverse momenta. We predict that the 'hot' nucleon flow selected in this way will always correlate with the pion flow. Available experimental data on transverse-momentum spectra of pions are compared with calculations employing various equations of state and stopping power. (orig.)

  15. A new Predictive Model for Relativistic Electrons in Outer Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Relativistic electrons trapped in the Earth's outer radiation belt present a highly hazardous radiation environment for spaceborne electronics. These energetic electrons, with kinetic energies up to several megaelectron-volt (MeV), manifest a highly dynamic and event-specific nature due to the delicate interplay of competing transport, acceleration and loss processes. Therefore, developing a forecasting capability for outer belt MeV electrons has long been a critical and challenging task for the space weather community. Recently, the vital roles of electron resonance with waves (including such as chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron) have been widely recognized; however, it is still difficult for current diffusion radiation belt models to reproduce the behavior of MeV electrons during individual geomagnetic storms, mainly because of the large uncertainties existing in input parameters. In this work, we expanded our previous cross-energy cross-pitch-angle coherence study and developed a new predictive model for MeV electrons over a wide range of L-shells inside the outer radiation belt. This new model uses NOAA POES observations from low-Earth-orbits (LEOs) as inputs to provide high-fidelity nowcast (multiple hour prediction) and forecast (> 1 day prediction) of the energization of MeV electrons as well as the evolving MeV electron distributions afterwards during storms. Performance of the predictive model is quantified by long-term in situ data from Van Allen Probes and LANL GEO satellites. This study adds new science significance to an existing LEO space infrastructure, and provides reliable and powerful tools to the whole space community.

  16. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  17. Densification of sintered molybdenum during hot upsetting: experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parteder, E.; Kopp, R.

    1999-01-01

    The densification behaviour of sintered molybdenum is investigated experimentally and by modelling using a pressure dependent plasticity model. Therefore the yield condition of Gurson, extended by Tvergaard is used. The uniaxial compression test is applied to determine the evolution of the density as well as the stress-strain curves for the porous metal. Powder metallurgical molybdenum exhibits closed porosity after consolidation due to sintering with nearly spherical shaped pores. The experimental results show that the densification, especially during the first stage of deformation, is different from that of powder compacts or partially consolidated powder materials with open porosity. During hot upsetting, the pores change their size and shape. This behaviour strongly affects the densification rate. For an accurate prediction of the evolution of the density using Gurson's model, the parameters q 1 and q 2 introduced by Tvergaard, will be defined as internal variables. The use of internal variables is justified by the fact that the pores change their shape during deformation, although the link between the internal variables and the pore shape is not explicitly established in this paper. If the loading is proportional (which means that the ratio of the stress-components does not change with plastic strain), the pore shape can be associated with the applied plastic strain. With this association the parameters q i can be defined as a function from the invariant quantity equivalent plastic strain, which can be used as the internal variable in the finite element simulation. The influence of the porosity on the flow stress at different levels of plastic strain will also be investigated and is used as a second information to fit both parameters q 1 and q 2 . (orig.)

  18. Development of the RETRAN hot spot model for KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yo Han; Kim, Yong Deog; Lee, Chang Sup

    2004-01-01

    Under the funding of Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), the research center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO), has been developed the in-house non-loss-of-coolant accident (non-LOCA) analysis methodology for Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNP). To develop the methodology, the related documents of EPRI and vendors were examined and the methodologies of some foreign utilities were reviewed also to compensate for lack of capabilities. In fact, one of the major goals of the project is to build the code and methodology systems to replace the restricted codes by U. S. Government mentioned in the Technical Transfer Agreement between KEPCO and ABB-CE. To achieve the goal, KEPRI has developed the methodology based on general-purpose system codes, such as RETRAN, RELAP and MASTER. Despite the efforts, some functional weaks were raised from the users. So, KEPRI has developed the RETRAN hot spot model (HSM) to compensate some functions used for the estimation of the fuel temperature and enthalpy, cladding surface temperature, etc. In current methodology for KSNP, the parameters are calculated with STRIKIN-II code, which is one of the restricted codes. In this paper the development of HSM is described. And to estimate the feasibility of the model, the rod ejection accident (REA) was analyzed and the results were compared with those calculated by STRIKIN-II code. Through the feasibility study, it was concluded that the developed model showed the acceptable results and could be used further works

  19. New developments in the study of the caloric curve for finite nuclei within relativistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Debora Peres; Providencia, C.

    2001-01-01

    Relativistic nuclear models have been widely used in describing infinite nuclear matter and finite nuclei properties. With the help of the Thomas Fermi approximation, we have investigated droplet formation in the liquid-gas phase transition in cold and warm asymmetric nuclear matters using the non-linear Walecka model. We have shown that the optimal nuclear size of a droplet in a neutron gas is determined by a delicate balance between nuclear Coulomb and surface energies. On the other hand, the production of several intermediate mass fragments in a short time scale during heavy ion collisions is known as nuclear multifragmentation. In these experiments, the spectator matter has been used to investigate a possible liquid-gas phase transition. The caloric curve, which is given by the excitation energy per nucleon in terms of the thermodynamic temperature is an important quantity to be investigated in the search for a signal of a phase transition. In the present work we obtain the excitation energies of arising droplets in a vapor system, up to T = 6.5 MeV. The droplets are described in terms of a non-linear Walecka-type model with the NL1 parameterization, within the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We conclude that the excitation energies of droplets either corresponding to 150 Sm or 166 Sm, are consistent with the caloric curve in the Fermi gas approximation with a level density parameter A/13. This result agrees with experimental data obtained in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. We have shown that the caloric curve is sensitive to the proton fraction and the inclusion of the Coulomb interaction is important. (author)

  20. Studies on the quark confinement in a non-relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, T.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the non-relativistic quark model we have studied several aspects of the description of the confinement by a confinement potential. A first consideration applied to the effects of the long-range color van-der-Waals forces on the nucleon-nucleon scattering. Regarding color dipole states as an additional closed channel in a dynamical and nonlocal resonating-group calculation we found a strong attraction. Additionally it was possible by means of the RGM kernels to derive an against earlier calculations improved color van-der-Waals potential in adiabatic approximation which regards correctly the internal kinetic and the confinement energy of the color octet states. This potential is not confined to large NN distances and shows asymptotically a 1/R 2 behaviour if it is based on a harmonic confinement. A further study applied to the question how far a possible vector character of the confinement, which is suggested by the elementary quark-gluon vertex, has effects on baryon properties and the NN interaction. Here it resulted that the vector confinement reacts in view of the model parameters very sensitively in the baryon properties whereas the scalar confinement did not show this dependence. In the NN scattering this vector confinement however plays a more secondary role. Because of the difficulties of the usual confinement potential with long-range color van-der-Waals forces we proposed in the last part a new potential and additional orthogonality relations for the quark wave functions in order to accomodate in the potential model to the string degrees of freedom. In scattering calculations we again studied the effects of the modification on the NN interaction. (orig./HSI) [de

  1. An introduction to relativistic processes and the standard model of electroweak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo Maria

    2014-01-01

    These lectures are meant to be a reference and handbook for an introductory course in Theoretical Particle Physics, suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. Their purpose is to reconcile theoretical rigour and completeness with a careful analysis of more phenomenological aspects of the physics. They aim at filling the gap between quantum field theory textbooks and purely phenomenological treatments of fundamental interactions. The first part provides an introduction to scattering in relativistic quantum field theory. Thanks to an original approach to relativistic processes, the relevant computational techniques are derived cleanly and simply in the semi-classical approximation. The second part contains a detailed presentation of the gauge theory of electroweak interactions with particular focus to the processes of greatest phenomenological interest. The main novelties of the present second edition are a more complete discussion of relativistic scattering theory and an expansion of ...

  2. Non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres of hot stars. 2: Hot, metal-rich white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.

    1995-01-01

    We present several model atmospheres for a typical hot metal-rich DA white dwarf, T(sub eff) = 60,000 K, log g = 7.5. We consider pure hydrogen models, as well as models with various abundances of two typical 'trace' elements-carbon and iron. We calculte a number of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE models, taking into account the effect of numerous lines of these elements on the atmospheric structure. We demostrate that while the non-LTE effects are notvery significant for pure hydrogen models, except for describing correctly the central emission in H-alpha they are essential for predicting correctly the ionization balance of metals, such as carbon and iron. Previously reported discrepancies in LTE abundances determinations using C III and C IV lines are easily explained by non-LTE effects. We show that if the iron abundance is larger than 10(exp -5), the iron line opacity has to be considered not only for the spectrum synthesis, but also in the model construction itself. For such metal abundances, non-LTE metal line-blanketed models are needed for detailed abundance studies of hot, metal-rich white dwarfs. We also discuss the predicted Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum and show that it is very sensitive to metal abundances, as well as to non-LTE effects.

  3. Experimental Validation of a Domestic Stratified Hot Water Tank Model in Modelica for Annual Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    The use of stratified hot water tanks in solar energy systems - including ORC systems - as well as heat pump systems is paramount for a better performance of these systems. However, the availability of effective and reliable models to predict the annual performance of stratified hot water tanks...

  4. Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…

  5. Relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luciano, Rezzolla

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...

  6. Calculation of β-decay rates in a relativistic model with momentum-dependent self-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2007-01-01

    The relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (PN-RQRPA) is applied in the calculation of β-decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei in the Z≅28 and Z≅50 regions. The study is based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculation of nuclear ground states, using effective Lagrangians with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, and also extended by the inclusion of couplings between the isoscalar meson fields and the derivatives of the nucleon fields. This leads to a linear momentum dependence of the scalar and vector nucleon self-energies. The residual QRPA interaction in the particle-hole channel includes the π+ρ exchange plus a Landau-Migdal term. The finite-range Gogny interaction is employed in the T=1 pairing channel, and the model also includes a proton-neutron particle-particle interaction. The results are compared with available data, and it is shown that an extension of the standard relativistic mean-field framework to include momentum-dependent nucleon self-energies naturally leads to an enhancement of the effective (Landau) nucleon mass, and thus to an improved PN-QRPA description of β - -decay rates

  7. The symmetry energy {\\boldsymbol{\\gamma }} parameter of relativistic mean-field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Mariana; Lourenço, Odilon; Hen, Or; Piasetzky, Eliezer; Menezes, Débora P.

    2018-05-01

    The relativistic mean-field models tested in previous works against nuclear matter experimental values, critical parameters and macroscopic stellar properties are revisited and used in the evaluation of the symmetry energy γ parameter obtained in three different ways. We have checked that, independent of the choice made to calculate the γ values, a trend of linear correlation is observed between γ and the symmetry energy ({{\\mathscr{S}}}0) and a more clear linear relationship is established between γ and the slope of the symmetry energy (L 0). These results directly contribute to the arising of other linear correlations between γ and the neutron star radii of {R}1.0 and {R}1.4, in agreement with recent findings. Finally, we have found that short-range correlations induce two specific parametrizations, namely, IU-FSU and DD-MEδ, simultaneously compatible with the neutron star mass constraint of 1.93≤slant {M}{{\\max }}/{M}ȯ ≤slant 2.05 and with the overlap band for the {L}0× {{\\mathscr{S}}}0 region, to present γ in the range of γ =0.25+/- 0.05. This work is a part of the project INCT-FNA Proc. No. 464898/2014-5 and was partially supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Brazil under grants 300602/2009-0 and 306786/2014-1. E. P. acknowledges support from the Israel Science Foundation. O. H. acknowledges the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics program under award number DE-FG02-94ER40818

  8. A feature-based approach to modeling protein-protein interaction hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-il; Kim, Dongsup; Lee, Doheon

    2009-05-01

    Identifying features that effectively represent the energetic contribution of an individual interface residue to the interactions between proteins remains problematic. Here, we present several new features and show that they are more effective than conventional features. By combining the proposed features with conventional features, we develop a predictive model for interaction hot spots. Initially, 54 multifaceted features, composed of different levels of information including structure, sequence and molecular interaction information, are quantified. Then, to identify the best subset of features for predicting hot spots, feature selection is performed using a decision tree. Based on the selected features, a predictive model for hot spots is created using support vector machine (SVM) and tested on an independent test set. Our model shows better overall predictive accuracy than previous methods such as the alanine scanning methods Robetta and FOLDEF, and the knowledge-based method KFC. Subsequent analysis yields several findings about hot spots. As expected, hot spots have a larger relative surface area burial and are more hydrophobic than other residues. Unexpectedly, however, residue conservation displays a rather complicated tendency depending on the types of protein complexes, indicating that this feature is not good for identifying hot spots. Of the selected features, the weighted atomic packing density, relative surface area burial and weighted hydrophobicity are the top 3, with the weighted atomic packing density proving to be the most effective feature for predicting hot spots. Notably, we find that hot spots are closely related to pi-related interactions, especially pi . . . pi interactions.

  9. General relativistic modelling of the negative reverberation X-ray time delays in AGN(star)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Papadakis, I.E.; Dovčiak, Michal; McHardy, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 439, č. 4 (2014), s. 3931-3950 ISSN 0035-8711 Grant - others:STFC(GB) ST/G003084/1 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * black hole physics * relativistic processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.107, year: 2014

  10. Quantitative analysis of prediction models for hot cracking in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A RodrМguez-Prieto

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... In this paper, a systematic analysis of different methods of d-ferrite estimation is carried out based ... Keywords. d-Ferrite; hot cracking; prediction methods; stringency levels; decision tool. 1. .... prediction of d-ferrite content using a system of multi- ..... support the selection of some materials according to their.

  11. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  12. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  13. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Price, R H

    1993-01-01

    Work reported in the workshop on relativistic astrophysics spanned a wide varicy of topics. Two specific areas seemed of particular interest. Much attention was focussed on gravitational wave sources, especially on the waveforms they produce, and progress was reported in theoretical and observational aspects of accretion disks.

  14. Relativistic Kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.

  15. 2D Relativistic MHD simulations of the Kruskal-Schwarzschild instability in a relativistic striped wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan; Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2018-03-01

    We study the linear and non-linear development of the Kruskal-Schwarzchild instability in a relativisitically expanding striped wind. This instability is the generalization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of a magnetic field. It has been suggested to produce a self-sustained acceleration mechanism in strongly magnetized outflows found in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and micro-quasars. The instability leads to magnetic reconnection, but in contrast with steady-state Sweet-Parker reconnection, the dissipation rate is not limited by the current layer's small aspect ratio. We performed two-dimensional (2D) relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations featuring two cold and highly magnetized (1 ≤ σ ≤ 103) plasma layers with an anti-parallel magnetic field separated by a thin layer of relativistically hot plasma with a local effective gravity induced by the outflow's acceleration. Our simulations show how the heavier relativistically hot plasma in the reconnecting layer drips out and allows oppositely oriented magnetic field lines to reconnect. The instability's growth rate in the linear regime matches the predictions of linear stability analysis. We find turbulence rather than an ordered bulk flow near the reconnection region, with turbulent velocities up to ˜0.1c, largely independent of model parameters. However, the magnetic energy dissipation rate is found to be much slower, corresponding to an effective ordered bulk velocity inflow into the reconnection region vin = βinc of 10-3 ≲ βin ≲ 5 × 10-3. This occurs due to the slow evacuation of hot plasma from the current layer, largely because of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability experienced by the dripping plasma. 3D RMHD simulations are needed to further investigate the non-linear regime.

  16. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF THE SNS CCL HOT MODEL WATER COOLING SYSTEM USING THE SINDA/FLUINT NETWORK MODELING TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. AMMERMAN; J. BERNARDIN

    1999-11-01

    This report presents results for design and analysis of the hot model water cooling system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The hot model, when completed, will include segments for both the CCL and coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL). The scope of this report encompasses the modeling effort for the CCL portion of the hot model. This modeling effort employed the SINDA/FLUINT network modeling tool. This report begins with an introduction of the SNS hot model and network modeling using SINDA/FLUINT. Next, the development and operation of the SINDA/FLUINT model are discussed. Finally, the results of the SINDA/FLUINT modeling effort are presented and discussed.

  17. Relativistic few body calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1988-01-01

    A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ 5 γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40 Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  18. A temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for hot work tool steel including particle coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilg, Andreas; Seifert, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Hot work tools are subjected to complex thermal and mechanical loads during hot forming processes. Locally, the stresses can exceed the material's yield strength in highly loaded areas as e.g. in small radii in die cavities. To sustain the high loads, the hot forming tools are typically made of martensitic hot work steels. While temperatures for annealing of the tool steels usually lie in the range between 400 and 600 °C, the steels may experience even higher temperatures during hot forming, resulting in softening of the material due to coarsening of strengthening particles. In this paper, a temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for the martensitic hot work tool steel 1.2367 (X38CrMoV5-3) is presented that includes softening due to particle coarsening and that can be applied in finite-element calculations to assess the effect of softening on the thermomechanical fatigue life of hot work tools. To this end, a kinetic model for the evolution of the mean size of secondary carbides based on Ostwald ripening is coupled with a cyclic plasticity model with kinematic hardening. Mechanism-based relations are developed to describe the dependency of the mechanical properties on carbide size and temperature. The material properties of the mechanical and kinetic model are determined on the basis of tempering hardness curves as well as monotonic and cyclic tests.

  19. Hot money and China's stock market volatility: Further evidence using the GARCH-MIDAS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu; Yu, Qianwen; Liu, Jing; Cao, Yang

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the influence of hot money on the return and volatility of the Chinese stock market using a nonlinear Granger causality test and a new GARCH-class model based on mixed data sampling regression (GARCH-MIDAS). The empirical results suggest that no linear or nonlinear causality exists between the growth rate of hot money and the Chinese stock market return, implying that the Chinese stock market is not driven by hot money and vice versa. However, hot money has a significant positive impact on the long-term volatility of the Chinese stock market. Furthermore, the dependence between the long-term volatility caused by hot money and the total volatility of the Chinese stock market is time-variant, indicating that huge volatilities in the stock market are not always triggered by international speculation capital flow and that Chinese authorities should further focus on more systemic reforms in the trading rules and on effectively regulating the stock market.

  20. Non-relativistic supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    The most general one- and two-body hamiltonian invariant under galilean supersymmetry is constructed in superspace. The corresponding Feynman rules are given for the superfield Green functions. As demonstrated by a simple example, it is straightforward to construct models in which the supersymmetry is spontaneously broken by the non-relativistic vacuum. (orig.)

  1. Modeling of Possible Conditions for Origin of First Organic Forms in hot Mineral Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat Ignatov; Oleg Mosin

    2014-01-01

    The composition of water, its temperature and pH value was analyzed in experiments with modelling of primary hydrosphere and possible conditions for origin of first organic forms in hot mineral water. For this aim the authors performed experiments with hot mineral and seawater from Bulgaria by IR-spectrometry (DNES-method). As model systems were used cactus juice of Echinopsis pachanoi and Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. It was considered the reactions of condensation and deh...

  2. Heuristic models of two-fermion relativistic systems with field-type interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duviryak, A

    2002-01-01

    We use the chain of simple heuristic expedients for obtaining perturbative and exactly solvable relativistic spectra for a family of two-fermionic bound systems with Coulomb-like interaction. In the case of electromagnetic interaction the spectrum coincides up to the second order in a coupling constant with that following from the quantum electrodynamics. Discrepancy occurs only for S-states which is the well-known difficulty in the bound-state problem. The confinement interaction is considered too

  3. First results from the use of the relativistic and slim disc model SLIMULX in XSPEC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caballero-García, María Dolores; Bursa, Michal; Dovčiak, Michal; Fabrika, S.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Karas, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 84-93 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E13012 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312789 - STRONGGRAVITY Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion-discs * black hole physics * relativistic processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  4. Temperature-dependent relativistic microscopic optical potential and the mean free path of a nucleon based on Walecka's model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Zhuo Yizhong

    1994-01-01

    The relativistic microscopic optical potential, the Schroedinger equivalent potential, and mean free paths of a nucleon at finite temperature in nuclear matter and finite nuclei are studied based on Walecka's model and thermo-field dynamics. We let only the Hartree-Fock self-energy of a nucleon represent the real part of the microscopic optical potential and the fourth order of meson exchange diagrams, i.e. the polarization diagrams represent the imaginary part of the microscopic optical potential in nuclear matter. The microscopic optical potential of finite nuclei is obtained by means of the local density approximation. (orig.)

  5. Relativistic klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.

    1989-03-01

    Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Hard processes and fragmentation in a unified model for interactions at ultra-relativistic energies; Les processus durs et la fragmentation dans un modele unifie pour les interactions aux energies ultra-relativistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J

    1999-06-11

    In this work we have developed hard processes and string fragmentation in the framework of interactions at relativistic energies. The hypothesis of the universality of high energy interactions means that many elements of heavy ion collisions can be studied and simulated in simpler nuclear reactions. In particular this hypothesis implies that the fragmentation observed in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} follows the same rules as in the collision of 2 lead ions. This work deals with 2 nuclear processes: the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation reaction and the deep inelastic diffusion. For the first process the string model has been developed to simulate fragmentation by adding an artificial breaking of string due to relativistic effects. A monte-Carlo method has been used to determine the points in a Minkowski space where this breaking occurs. For the second reaction, the theory of semi-hard pomerons is introduced in order to define elementary hadron-hadron interactions. The model of fragmentation proposed in this work can be applied to more complicated reactions such as proton-proton or ion-ion collisions.

  7. Gravitation relativiste

    CERN Document Server

    Hakim, Rémi

    1994-01-01

    Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.

  8. Relativistic klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, R.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical analysis is presented of a relativisic klystron; i.e. a high-relativistic bunched electron beam which is sent through a succession of tuned cavities and has its energy replenished by periodic induction accelerator units. Parameters are given for a full-size device and for an experimental device using the FEL at the ETA; namely the ELF Facility. 6 refs., 2 figs

  9. Application of an effective gauge-invariant model to nuclear matter in the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardos, P. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Ciencias de la Computacion, 39005, Santander (Spain); Fomenko, V.N. [St Petersburg University for Railway Engineering, Department of Mathematics, 190031, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Marcos, S.; Niembro, R. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Fisica Moderna, 39005, Santander (Spain); Lopez-Quelle, M. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, 39005, Santander (Spain); Savushkin, L.N. [St Petersburg University for Telecommunications, Department of Physics, 191186, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2001-02-01

    An effective nuclear model describing {omega}-, {rho}- and axial-mesons as gauge fields is applied to nuclear matter in the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation. The isoscalar two-pion exchange is simulated by a scalar field s similar to that used in the conventional relativistic mean-field approach. Two more scalar fields are essential ingredients of the present treatment: the {sigma}-field, the chiral partner of the pion, and the {sigma}-field, the Higgs field for the {omega}-meson. Two versions of the model are used depending on whether the {sigma}-field is considered as a dynamical variable or 'frozen', by taking its mass as infinite. The model contains four free parameters in the first case and three in the second one which are fitted to the nuclear matter saturation conditions. The nucleon and meson effective masses, compressibility modulus and symmetry energy are calculated. The results prove the reliability of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach within the linear realization of the chiral symmetry. (author)

  10. New relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.; Loewe, M.; Magnollay, P.; Tarlini, M.; Aldinger, R.R.; Kielanowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    A relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations is suggested which is different from the conventional ones used for the intrinsic coordinates and momenta in the relativistic oscillator model and the relativistic string. This new quantum relativistic oscillator model is determined by the requirement that it gives a unified description of relativistic vibrations and rotations and contracts in the nonrelativistic limit c -1 →0 into the usual nonrelativistic harmonic oscillator

  11. Relativistic description of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Papers on the relativistic description of nuclei are reviewed. The Brown and Rho ''small'' bag'' model is accepted for hardrons. Meson exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon interaction have been considered. Then the transition from a system of two interacting nucleons has been performed to the relativistic nucleus description as a multinucleon system on the basis of OBEP (one-boson exchange potential). The proboem of OPEP (one-pion-exchange potential) inclusion to a relativistic scheme is discussed. Simplicity of calculations and attractiveness of the Walecka model for specific computations and calculations was noted. The relativistic model of nucleons interacting through ''effective'' scalar and vector boson fields was used in the Walacka model for describing neutronaand nuclear mater matters

  12. Breakdown of hot-spot model in determining convective amplification in large homogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounaix, Philippe; Divol, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    Convective amplification in large homogeneous systems is studied, both analytically and numerically, in the case of a linear diffraction-free stochastic amplifier. Overall amplification does not result from successive amplifications in small scale high intensity hot spots, but from a single amplification in a delocalized mode of the driver field spreading over the whole interaction length. For this model, the hot-spot approach is found to systematically underestimate the gain factor by more than 50%

  13. Weakly relativistic modeling of refraction and absorption for waves with small Nparallel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.R.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Kritz, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    Transmission measurements for waves near the fundamental and harmonics of the electron-cyclotron frequency indicate that propagation and absorption is not always correctly described when ray trajectories are obtained using cold-plasma analysis. Improved methods have been developed for evaluating the Shkarofsky functions, which appear in the weakly relativistic approximation of the dielectric tensor, for small parallel index of refraction. Computational results for vertical third-harmonic X-mode propagation in Tore Supra show strong, warm-plasma refraction effects that qualitatively agree with experimental observations

  14. Spin rotation function in a microscopic non-relativistic optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauhoff, W.

    1984-01-01

    A microscopic optical potential, which is calculated non-relativistically with a density-dependent effective force, is used to calculate cross-section, polarization and spin-rotation function for elastic proton scattering from 40 Ca at 160 MeV and 497 MeV. At 160 MeV, the agreement to the data is comparable to phenomenological fits, and the spin-rotation can be used to distinguish between microscopic and Woods-Saxon potentials. A good fit to the spin-rotation function results at 497 MeV, whereas the polarization data are not well reproduced

  15. A model for consecutive spallation and fragmentation reactions in inverse kinematics at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitani, P.; Tassan-Got, L.; Bernas, M.; Armbruster, P.

    2003-04-01

    Secondary reactions induced by relativistic beams in inverse kinematics in a thick target are relevant in several fields of experimental physics and technology, like secondary radioactive beams, production of exotic nuclei close to the proton drip line, and cross-section measurements for applications of spallation reactions for energy production and incineration of nuclear wastes. A general mathematical formulation is presented and successively applied as a tool to disentangle the primary reaction yields from the secondary production in the measurement of fission of a 238 U projectile impinging on a proton target at the energy of 1 A GeV. (orig.)

  16. Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin

    1999-01-01

    This study focus on the analysis, modeling and simulation of solar domestic hot water(DHW) systems. Problems related to the system operation such as input weather data and hot water load conditions are also investigated.In order to investigate the heat loss as part of the total heat load, dynamic...... model of distribution network is developed and simulations are carried out for typical designed circulation type of distribution networks. For dynamic simulation of thermosyphon and drain-back solar DHW systems, thermosyphon loop model and drain-back tank model are put forward. Based on the simulations...

  17. A feature-based approach to modeling protein–protein interaction hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-il; Kim, Dongsup; Lee, Doheon

    2009-01-01

    Identifying features that effectively represent the energetic contribution of an individual interface residue to the interactions between proteins remains problematic. Here, we present several new features and show that they are more effective than conventional features. By combining the proposed features with conventional features, we develop a predictive model for interaction hot spots. Initially, 54 multifaceted features, composed of different levels of information including structure, sequence and molecular interaction information, are quantified. Then, to identify the best subset of features for predicting hot spots, feature selection is performed using a decision tree. Based on the selected features, a predictive model for hot spots is created using support vector machine (SVM) and tested on an independent test set. Our model shows better overall predictive accuracy than previous methods such as the alanine scanning methods Robetta and FOLDEF, and the knowledge-based method KFC. Subsequent analysis yields several findings about hot spots. As expected, hot spots have a larger relative surface area burial and are more hydrophobic than other residues. Unexpectedly, however, residue conservation displays a rather complicated tendency depending on the types of protein complexes, indicating that this feature is not good for identifying hot spots. Of the selected features, the weighted atomic packing density, relative surface area burial and weighted hydrophobicity are the top 3, with the weighted atomic packing density proving to be the most effective feature for predicting hot spots. Notably, we find that hot spots are closely related to π–related interactions, especially π · · · π interactions. PMID:19273533

  18. Relativistic impulse dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Stanley M

    2011-08-01

    Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.

  19. The choice between cooled tubular reactor models: analysis of the hot spot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, E.J.; Koster, N.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of the one-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model of the cooled tubular reactor is studied. Using the two-dimensional model as the more accurate one we compared both models by studying the influence of the design and operating variables on the conditions in the hot spot of the

  20. Relativistic electron influence on sanitary-model microorganisms and antibiotics in model samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.S.; Berezhna, I.V.; Kovpik, O.F.; Babych, E.M.; Voliansky, Yu.L.; Sklar, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    A series of the investigations of the electron beam influence on sanitary-model test cultures and antibiotics in model solutions has been carried out. For each of the test objects, the authors have found the boundary doses of the absorbed radiation. The higher doses cause the sharp increase in the bactericidal influence, which becomes complete. The sanitary-bactericidal indices of the water samples remain sable during 6 days. The samples of antibiotics in various concentrations (from 100 UA) have been irradiated. It is proved that the substratum processing by the beam (in the regimes 30 kGy) causes diminution and complete neutralization of the antibacterial activity in all probes of the samples

  1. Solvable light-front model of the electromagnetic form factor of the relativistic two-body bound state in 1+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankiewicz, L.; Sawicki, M.

    1989-01-01

    Within a relativistically correct yet analytically solvable model of light-front quantum mechanics we construct the electromagnetic form factor of the two-body bound state and we study the validity of the static approximation to the full form factor. Upon comparison of full form factors calculated for different values of binding energy we observe an unexpected effect that for very strongly bound states further increase in binding leads to an increase in the size of the bound system. A similar effect is found for another quantum-mechanical model of relativistic dynamics

  2. CORONA, JET, AND RELATIVISTIC LINE MODELS FOR SUZAKU/RXTE/CHANDRA-HETG OBSERVATIONS OF THE CYGNUS X-1 HARD STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Trowbridge, Sarah N.; Davis, John E.; Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Joern; Markoff, Sera B.; Maitra, Dipankar; Tramper, Frank; Pottschmidt, Katja; Coppi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Using Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have conducted a series of four simultaneous observations of the galactic black hole candidate Cyg X-1 in what were historically faint and spectrally hard 'low states'. Additionally, all of these observations occurred near superior conjunction with our line of sight to the X-ray source passing through the dense phases of the 'focused wind' from the mass donating secondary. One of our observations was also simultaneous with observations by the Chandra-High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). These latter spectra are crucial for revealing the ionized absorption due to the secondary's focused wind. Such absorption is present and must be accounted for in all four spectra. These simultaneous data give an unprecedented view of the 0.8-300 keV spectrum of Cyg X-1, and hence bear upon both corona and X-ray emitting jet models of black hole hard states. Three models fit the spectra well: coronae with thermal or mixed thermal/non-thermal electron populations and jets. All three models require a soft component that we fit with a low temperature disk spectrum with an inner radius of only a few tens of GM/c 2 . All three models also agree that the known spectral break at 10 keV is not solely due to the presence of reflection, but each gives a different underlying explanation for the augmentation of this break. Thus, whereas all three models require that there is a relativistically broadened Fe line, the strength and inner radius of such a line is dependent upon the specific model, thus making premature line-based estimates of the black hole spin in the Cyg X-1 system. We look at the relativistic line in detail, accounting for the narrow Fe emission and ionized absorption detected by HETG. Although the specific relativistic parameters of the line are continuum dependent, none of the broad line fits allow for an inner disk radius that is >40 GM/c 2 .

  3. Modeling Skin Injury from Hot Rice Porridge Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgrim Log

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes skin burns from spills of hot rice and milk products. The traditional Norwegian rice porridge serves as an example. By testing spills on objects emulating an arm, it was concluded that spills were seldom thinner than 3 mm, and stayed in place due to the viscosity of the porridge for more than one minute. The Pennes bioheat equation was solved numerically for such spills, including heat conduction to the skin and convective heat losses from the porridge surface. Temperatures were analyzed in the porridge and skin layers, and the resulting skin injury was calculated based on the basal layer temperature. Parameters influencing burn severity, such as porridge layer thickness, porridge temperature, removal of the porridge and thermal effects of post scald tempered (15 °C water cooling were analyzed. The spilled porridge resulted in a prolonged heat supply to the skin, and the skin injury developed significantly with time. The porridge temperature turned out to be the most important injury parameter. A 70 °C porridge temperature could develop superficial partial-thickness burns. Porridge temperatures at processing temperatures nearly instantly developed severe burns. It was demonstrated that prompt removal of the hot porridge significantly reduced the injury development. The general advice is to avoid serving porridge and similar products at temperatures above 65 °C and, if spilled on the skin, to remove it quickly. After such scald incidents, it is advised to cool the injured area by tempered water for a prolonged period to stimulate healing.

  4. A relativistic self-consistent model for studying enhancement of space charge limited field emission due to counter-streaming ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M. C.; Lu, P. S.; Chang, P. C.; Ragan-Kelley, B.; Verboncoeur, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, field emission has attracted increasing attention despite the practical limitation that field emitters operate below the Child-Langmuir space charge limit. By introducing counter-streaming ion flow to neutralize the electron charge density, the space charge limited field emission (SCLFE) current can be dramatically enhanced. In this work, we have developed a relativistic self-consistent model for studying the enhancement of SCLFE by a counter-streaming ion current. The maximum enhancement is found when the ion effect is saturated, as shown analytically. The solutions in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes are obtained and verified with 1-D particle-in-cell simulations. This self-consistent model is general and can also serve as a benchmark or comparison for verification of simulation codes, as well as extension to higher dimensions

  5. [The interaction of soil micromycetes with "hot" particles in a model system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, N N; Lashko, T N; Redchits, T I; Vasilevskaia, A I; Borisiuk, L G; Siniavskaia, O I; Gavriliuk, V I; Muzalev, P N

    1991-01-01

    A model system which permits observing for a long time and fixing interaction of fungi with a radiation source has been created on the basis of an isolated "hot" particle, deficient mineral medium (saccharose content 60 mg/l) and suspension of fungal conidia. Five species (six strains) of micromycetes isolated from radionuclide-contaminated soils and fifteen "hot" particles have been tested. It has been found out for the first time that Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium roseo-purpureum are able actively overgrow "hot" particles whose radioactivity did not exceed 3.1-1.0(-7) Ci by gamma-spectrum and to destroy them 50-150 days later. Certain changes in morphology of fungi-destructors of "hot" particles are revealed. A problem on ecological significance of the found phenomenon is discussed.

  6. Prediction of hot spots in protein interfaces using a random forest model with hybrid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Chen, Luonan

    2012-03-01

    Prediction of hot spots in protein interfaces provides crucial information for the research on protein-protein interaction and drug design. Existing machine learning methods generally judge whether a given residue is likely to be a hot spot by extracting features only from the target residue. However, hot spots usually form a small cluster of residues which are tightly packed together at the center of protein interface. With this in mind, we present a novel method to extract hybrid features which incorporate a wide range of information of the target residue and its spatially neighboring residues, i.e. the nearest contact residue in the other face (mirror-contact residue) and the nearest contact residue in the same face (intra-contact residue). We provide a novel random forest (RF) model to effectively integrate these hybrid features for predicting hot spots in protein interfaces. Our method can achieve accuracy (ACC) of 82.4% and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.482 in Alanine Scanning Energetics Database, and ACC of 77.6% and MCC of 0.429 in Binding Interface Database. In a comparison study, performance of our RF model exceeds other existing methods, such as Robetta, FOLDEF, KFC, KFC2, MINERVA and HotPoint. Of our hybrid features, three physicochemical features of target residues (mass, polarizability and isoelectric point), the relative side-chain accessible surface area and the average depth index of mirror-contact residues are found to be the main discriminative features in hot spots prediction. We also confirm that hot spots tend to form large contact surface areas between two interacting proteins. Source data and code are available at: http://www.aporc.org/doc/wiki/HotSpot.

  7. The Pore Collapse “Hot-Spots” Model Coupled with Brittle Damage for Solid Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the building of a numerical pore collapse model with “hot-spots” formation for the impacted damage explosives. According to damage mechanical evolution of brittle material, the one-dimensional elastic-viscoplastic collapse model was improved to incorporate the impact damage during the dynamic collapse of pores. The damage of explosives was studied using the statistical crack mechanics (SCRAM. The effects of the heat conduction and the chemical reaction were taken into account in the formation of “hot-spots.” To verify the improved model, numerical simulations were carried out for different pressure states and used to model a multiple-impact experiment. The results show that repeated weak impacts can lead to the collapse of pores and the “hot-spots” may occur due to the accumulation of internal defects accompanied by the softening of explosives.

  8. Effect of deformation on structure and reaction of Al isotopes using relativistic mean field densities in Glauber model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. N.; Sharma, Mahesh K.; Panigrahi, M.; Patra, S. K.

    2018-06-01

    We have examined the ground state properties of Al isotopes towards the proton rich side from A = 22 to 28 using the well known relativistic mean field (RMF) formalism with NLSH parameter set. The calculated results are compared with the predictions of finite range droplet model and experimental data. The calculation is extended to estimate the reaction cross section for ^{22-28}Al as projectiles with ^{12}C as target. The incident energy of the projectiles are taken as 950 MeV/nucleon, for both spherical and deformed RMF densities as inputs in the Glauber model approximation. Further investigation of enhanced values of total reaction cross section for ^{23}Al and ^{24}Al in comparison to rest of the isotopes indicates the proton skin structure of these isotopes. Specifically, the large value of root mean square radius and total reaction cross section of ^{23}Al could not be ruled out the formation of proton halo.

  9. Relativistic field theory of neutron stars and their hyperon populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear many-body problem is examined by means of the formulation of an effective relativistic field theory of interacting hadrons. A relativistic field theory of hadronic matter is especially appropriate for the description of hot or dense matter, because of the appearance of antiparticles and higher baryon resonances and because it automatically respects causality. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  10. On the relativistic Vlasov equation in guiding-center coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Chaudhry, M.B.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1989-11-01

    The relativistic Vlasov equation has been expressed in terms of the guiding-center coordinates in a hot magnetized plasma. It is noted that the relativistic effect reduces the cyclotron resonance frequency for electrostatic and electromagnetic waves propagating transverse to the direction of the static magnetic field in the plasma. (author). 4 refs

  11. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  12. Modelling of Damage During Hot Forging of Ingots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Ductile damage modelling in the ingot forging process is discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of both coupled and uncoupled ductile damage models are presented. Some uncoupled damage models are examined in greater detail regarding their applicability to different processes, where hydrostatic...

  13. grmonty: A MONTE CARLO CODE FOR RELATIVISTIC RADIATIVE TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolence, Joshua C.; Gammie, Charles F.; Leung, Po Kin; Moscibrodzka, Monika

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Monte Carlo radiative transport code intended for calculating spectra of hot, optically thin plasmas in full general relativity. The version we describe here is designed to model hot accretion flows in the Kerr metric and therefore incorporates synchrotron emission and absorption, and Compton scattering. The code can be readily generalized, however, to account for other radiative processes and an arbitrary spacetime. We describe a suite of test problems, and demonstrate the expected N -1/2 convergence rate, where N is the number of Monte Carlo samples. Finally, we illustrate the capabilities of the code with a model calculation, a spectrum of the slowly accreting black hole Sgr A* based on data provided by a numerical general relativistic MHD model of the accreting plasma.

  14. Modelling of mid-infrared interferometric signature of hot exozodiacal dust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchschlager, Florian; Wolf, Sebastian; Brunngräber, Robert; Matter, Alexis; Krivov, Alexander V.; Labdon, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Hot exozodiacal dust emission was detected in recent surveys around two dozen main-sequence stars at distances of less than 1 au using the H- and K-band interferometry. Due to the high contrast as well as the small angular distance between the circumstellar dust and the star, direct observation of this dust component is challenging. An alternative way to explore the hot exozodiacal dust is provided by mid-infrared interferometry. We analyse the L, M and N bands interferometric signature of this emission in order to find stronger constraints for the properties and the origin of the hot exozodiacal dust. Considering the parameters of nine debris disc systems derived previously, we model the discs in each of these bands. We find that the M band possesses the best conditions to detect hot dust emission, closely followed by L and N bands. The hot dust in three systems - HD 22484 (10 Tau), HD 102647 (β Leo) and HD 177724 (ζ Aql) - shows a strong signal in the visibility functions, which may even allow one to constrain the dust location. In particular, observations in the mid-infrared could help to determine whether the dust piles up at the sublimation radius or is located at radii up to 1 au. In addition, we explore observations of the hot exozodiacal dust with the upcoming mid-infrared interferometer Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment (MATISSE) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer.

  15. A thermo-electro-mechanical simulation model for hot wire cutting of EPS foam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Kiril; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermo-electro-mechanical mathematical model describing the effects taking place within a Ni-Cr20% wire used in a hot-wire cutting process for free forming and rapid prototyping of expanded polystyrene (EPS) is investigated and simulated. The model implements and solves three semi...... cutting of EPS in contact with a cutting tool made of an electrically heated metal wire attached to a robot device. The finite difference method is used to solve the coupled equations in the two environments (domains) in which the hot-wire operates, namely air and EPS. The model is calibrated against...... experimentally obtained data. Novel findings are a transient temperature-dependent kerfwidth prediction and a relation between kerfwidth and the cutting angle as measured from the horizontal direction. These are important relations in the aim for higher geometrical accuracy of the hot-wire cutting process. (C...

  16. On unique parameters and unified formal form of hot-wire anemometric sensor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LigePza, P.

    2005-01-01

    This note reviews the extensively adopted equations used as models of hot-wire anemometric sensors. An unified formal form of the mathematical model of a hot-wire anemometric sensor with otherwise defined parameters is proposed. Those parameters, static and dynamic, have simple physical interpretation and can be easily determined. They show directly the range of sensor application. They determine the metrological properties of the given sensor in the actual medium. Hence, the parameters' values might be ascribed to each sensor in the given medium and be quoted in manufacturers' catalogues, supplementing the sensor specifications. Because of their simple physical interpretation, those parameters allow the direct comparison of the fundamental metrological properties of various sensors and selection of the optimal sensor for the given research measurement application. The parameters are also useful in modeling complex hot-wire systems

  17. Mathematical modeling of hot air/electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying kinetics of mushroom slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghian Dinani, Somayeh; Hamdami, Nasser; Shahedi, Mohammad; Havet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot air/EHD drying behavior of thin layer mushroom slices was evaluated. • A new empirical model was proposed for drying kinetics modeling of mushroom slices. • The new model presents excellent predictions for hot air/EHD drying of mushroom. - Abstract: Researches about mathematical modeling of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying are rare. In this study, hot air combined with electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying behavior of thin layer mushroom slices was evaluated in a laboratory scale dryer at voltages of 17, 19, and 21 kV and electrode gaps of 5, 6, and 7 cm. The drying curves were fitted to ten different mathematical models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Two-term exponential, Midilli and Kucuk, Wang and Singh, Weibull and Parabolic models) and a proposed new empirical model to select a suitable drying equation for drying mushroom slices in a hot air combined with EHD dryer. Coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis and the models were compared based on their coefficient of determination (R 2 ), sum of square errors (SSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between experimental and predicted moisture ratios. According to the results, the proposed model that contains only three parameters provided the best fit with the experimental data. It was closely followed by the Midilli and Kucuk model that contains four parameters. Therefore, the proposed model can present comfortable usage and excellent predictions for the moisture content changes of mushroom slices in the hot air combined with EHD drying system

  18. A comparison of two atomic models for the radiative properties of dense hot low Z plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, E.; Sauvan, P.; Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Florido, R.; Martel, P.; Angelo, P.; Schott, R.; Philippe, F.; Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Mancini, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, two different atomic models (ANALOP based on parametric potentials and IDEFIX based on the dicenter model) are used to calculate the opacities for bound-bound transitions in hot dense, low Z plasmas, and the results are compared to each other. In addition, the ANALOP code has been used to compute free-bound cross sections for hydrogen-like ions

  19. Scale-lengths and instabilities in magnetized classical and relativistic plasma fluid models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diver, D A; Laing, E W

    2015-01-01

    The validity of the traditional plasma continuum is predicated on a hierarchy of scale-lengths, with the Debye length being considered to be effectively unresolvable in the continuum limit. In this article, we revisit the strong magnetic field case in which the Larmor radius is comparable or smaller than the Debye length in the classical plasma, and also for a relativistic plasma. Fresh insight into the validity of the continuum assumption in each case is offered, including a fluid limit on the Alfvén speed that may impose restrictions on the validity of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in some solar and fusion contexts. Additional implications concerning the role of the firehose instability are also explored. (paper)

  20. Modeling Skin Injury from Hot Spills on Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgrim Log

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes scald burns from hot beverages, such as coffee and tea, spilled on the lap, i.e., an incident that may occur in daily life. The Pennes bioheat equation is solved numerically for small spills wetting the clothing, i.e., the fabric prevents the spilled liquid from draining away. Temperatures are analyzed in the wetted fabric and the skin layers and the resulting skin injury is calculated based on the basal layer temperature. Parameters influencing burn severity, such as clothing thickness, liquid temperature, removal of fabric and thermal effects of post scald water cooling are analyzed. The fabric cools the water some but represents a threat since the entrapped water results in a prolonged heat supply. The liquid temperature turned out to be the most important injury parameter, where liquid temperature of about 80–85 °C seems to be a limit for developing superficial partial-thickness burns in the present minimum case, i.e., where the liquid just wets the fabric. Spilling water in excess of just wetting the fabric, more severe burns will develop at lower liquid temperatures due to the prolonged heat supply. Higher liquid temperatures will nearly instantly develop more severe burns. It is demonstrated that removal of the clothing within the first seconds after the spill may significantly reduce the scalding severity. The general advice is therefore to avoid excessive heating of beverages and, if the beverage is spilled, to quickly remove the wetted clothing. Prolonged tempered water cooling is advised to improve the healing processes.

  1. Relativistic charged Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed

  2. Open heavy-flavor measurements in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averbeck, Ralf

    2016-12-15

    Recent results from open heavy-flavor measurements in proton-proton (pp), proton/deuteron-nucleus (p/d-A), and nucleus-nucleus collisions (A-A) at RHIC and at the LHC are presented. Predictions from theoretical models are compared with the data, and implications for the properties of the hot and dense medium produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are discussed.

  3. Predictive Models for Photovoltaic Electricity Production in Hot Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabar H. Yousif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of finding a correct forecast equation for photovoltaic electricity production from renewable sources is an important matter, since knowing the factors affecting the increase in the proportion of renewable energy production and reducing the cost of the product has economic and scientific benefits. This paper proposes a mathematical model for forecasting energy production in photovoltaic (PV panels based on a self-organizing feature map (SOFM model. The proposed model is compared with other models, including the multi-layer perceptron (MLP and support vector machine (SVM models. Moreover, a mathematical model based on a polynomial function for fitting the desired output is proposed. Different practical measurement methods are used to validate the findings of the proposed neural and mathematical models such as mean square error (MSE, mean absolute error (MAE, correlation (R, and coefficient of determination (R2. The proposed SOFM model achieved a final MSE of 0.0007 in the training phase and 0.0005 in the cross-validation phase. In contrast, the SVM model resulted in a small MSE value equal to 0.0058, while the MLP model achieved a final MSE of 0.026 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989, which indicates a strong relationship between input and output variables. The proposed SOFM model closely fits the desired results based on the R2 value, which is equal to 0.9555. Finally, the comparison results of MAE for the three models show that the SOFM model achieved a best result of 0.36156, whereas the SVM and MLP models yielded 4.53761 and 3.63927, respectively. A small MAE value indicates that the output of the SOFM model closely fits the actual results and predicts the desired output.

  4. Relativistic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Kunyang

    2018-02-01

    The “Breakthrough Starshot” aims at sending near-speed-of-light cameras to nearby stellar systems in the future. Due to the relativistic effects, a transrelativistic camera naturally serves as a spectrograph, a lens, and a wide-field camera. We demonstrate this through a simulation of the optical-band image of the nearby galaxy M51 in the rest frame of the transrelativistic camera. We suggest that observing celestial objects using a transrelativistic camera may allow one to study the astronomical objects in a special way, and to perform unique tests on the principles of special relativity. We outline several examples that suggest transrelativistic cameras may make important contributions to astrophysics and suggest that the Breakthrough Starshot cameras may be launched in any direction to serve as a unique astronomical observatory.

  5. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada)

    2017-05-02

    We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the “conventional” magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell’s equations in matter) to those in the “dual” version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).

  6. Relativistic gravitational instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures

  7. Hot News Recommendation System from Heterogeneous Websites Based on Bayesian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyou Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most current news recommendations are suitable for news which comes from a single news website, not for news from different heterogeneous news websites. Previous researches about news recommender systems based on different strategies have been proposed to provide news personalization services for online news readers. However, little research work has been reported on utilizing hundreds of heterogeneous news websites to provide top hot news services for group customers (e.g., government staffs. In this paper, we propose a hot news recommendation model based on Bayesian model, which is from hundreds of different news websites. In the model, we determine whether the news is hot news by calculating the joint probability of the news. We evaluate and compare our proposed recommendation model with the results of human experts on the real data sets. Experimental results demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of our method. We also implement this model in hot news recommendation system of Hangzhou city government in year 2013, which achieves very good results.

  8. Hot news recommendation system from heterogeneous websites based on bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Liu, Ningzhong; Zhao, Zhengkang

    2014-01-01

    The most current news recommendations are suitable for news which comes from a single news website, not for news from different heterogeneous news websites. Previous researches about news recommender systems based on different strategies have been proposed to provide news personalization services for online news readers. However, little research work has been reported on utilizing hundreds of heterogeneous news websites to provide top hot news services for group customers (e.g., government staffs). In this paper, we propose a hot news recommendation model based on Bayesian model, which is from hundreds of different news websites. In the model, we determine whether the news is hot news by calculating the joint probability of the news. We evaluate and compare our proposed recommendation model with the results of human experts on the real data sets. Experimental results demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of our method. We also implement this model in hot news recommendation system of Hangzhou city government in year 2013, which achieves very good results.

  9. Extension of thickened and hot lithospheres: Inferences from laboratory modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirel, C.; Brun, J.P.; Sokoutis, D.

    2006-01-01

    The extension of a previously thickened lithosphere is studied through a series of analogue experiments. The models deformed in free and boundary-controlled gravity spreading conditions that simulate the development of wide rift-type and core complex-type structures. In models, the development of

  10. Improvement of sweating model in 2-Node Model and its application to thermal safety for hot environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, Ryozo [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153 8505 (Japan); Minami, Yuriko [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Sakoi, Tomonori [International Young Researchers Empowerment Center, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan); Tsuzuki, Kazuyo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Rijal, H.B. [Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Recently, due to global warming and the heat-island effect, more and more people are exposed to the dangers of heat disorders. A hot thermal environment can be evaluated using various indices, such as new Standard Effective Temperature (SET{sup *}) using the 2-Node Model (2 NM), Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model, and so on. The authors aim to develop a safety evaluation approach for hot environments. Subject experiments are performed in a laboratory to comprehend the physiological response of the human body. The results are compared with the computed values from the 2 NM and PHS models, and improved the sweating model in 2 NM in order to take into account the relationship with metabolic rate. A demonstration is provided of using the new sweating model for evaluating thermal safety in a hot environment. (author)

  11. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good

  12. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir [BlueScope Steel, TEOB, 1 Bayview Road, Hastings Vic. 3915 (Australia)]. E-mail: Vladimir.Panjkovic@BlueScopeSteel.com

    2007-10-15

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good.

  13. Hot Strange Hadronic Matter in an Effective Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Wei-Liang; SU Ru-Keng; SONG Hong-Qiu

    2003-01-01

    An effective model used to describe the strange hadronic matter with nucleons, Λ-hyperons, and Ξ-hyperonsis extended to finite temperature. The extended model is used to study the density, temperature, and strangeness fractiondependence of the effective masses of baryons in the matter. The thermodynamical quantities, such as free energy andpressure, as well as the equation of state of the matter, are given.

  14. Hot Strange Hadronic Matter in an Effective Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANWei-Liang; SURu-Keng; SONGHong-Qiu

    2003-01-01

    An effective model used to describe the strange hadronic matter with nucleons, A-hyperons, and [I]-hyperons is extended to finite temperature. The extended model is used to study the density, temperature, and strangeness fraction dependence of the effective masses of baryons in the matter. The thermodynamical quantities, such as free energy and pressure, as well as the equation of state of the matter, are given.

  15. 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components. Volume 2: Advanced special functions models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. B.; Banerjee, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    This Annual Status Report presents the results of work performed during the third year of the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Sections Components program (NASA Contract NAS3-23697). The objective of the program is to produce a series of computer codes that permit more accurate and efficient three-dimensional analyses of selected hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The computer codes embody a progression of mathematical models and are streamlined to take advantage of geometrical features, loading conditions, and forms of material response that distinguish each group of selected components.

  16. Modeling and Analysis of Ultra-Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, Steffen A.

    2008-01-01

    Hadronic, i.e. strongly interacting, matter is described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The basic constituents of QCD, quarks and gluons, are normally confined to hadrons, but it is believed that under extreme conditions, such as shortly after the creation of the universe, quarks and gluons can exist as independent particles in a new state of matter, called a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Due to the rapid expansion of the universe, this plasma went through a phase transition to form hadrons - most importantly nucleons - which constitute the building blocks of matter as we know it today. The investigation of the QGP under laboratory conditions will yield important novel insights into the development of the early universe and the behavior of matter under extreme conditions. This study is presently the subject of the physics program of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. First data from the √s NN = 130 GeV and √s NN = 200 GeV Au+Au runs at RHIC have yielded many interesting and sometimes surprising results. While many theoretical predictions have been confirmed, some of the experimental results have brought surprises and indicate that RHIC is, indeed, probing a new physics regime of QCD matter.

  17. Quest of halo in 31Ne using Glauber model formalism with deformed relativistic mean field density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mahesh K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of radio active ion beam (RIB) explored the structure of exotic nuclei, which are away from the β stability line. Such nuclei with weak binding lie at the limit of stability and exhibit some fascinating phenomena. One of them is the formation of one or more nucleon halo structure. It is well established that the interaction cross section of halo nuclei like 11 Li, 11 Be and 19 C show anomalously large interaction cross sections and matter radius than that of their neighboring nuclei. Some recent investigations for 31 Ne predict that has a halo nature. The first experimental evidence also suggests 31 Ne as a halo candidate. The isotope 31 Ne having N=21, which breaks the shell closer structure as a consequence of deformation associated with the strong intruder configuration and having special interest, because it lie at island of inversion. Here we apply the well known Glauber approach with conjunction of deformed relativistic mean field densities of projectile and target nuclei. It is to be noted that Panda et al has done the similar calculation using a spherical density

  18. Polycarbonate as an Elasto-Plastic Material Model for Simulation of the Microstructure Hot Imprint Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokas Šakalys

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal imprint process of polymer micro-patterning is widely applied in areas such as manufacturing of optical parts, solar energy, bio-mechanical devices and chemical chips. Polycarbonate (PC, as an amorphous polymer, is often used in thermoforming processes because of its good replication characteristics. In order to obtain replicas of the best quality, the imprint parameters (e.g., pressure, temperature, time, etc. must be determined. Therefore finite element model of the hot imprint process of lamellar periodical microstructure into PC has been created using COMSOL Multiphysics. The mathematical model of the hot imprint process includes three steps: heating, imprinting and demolding. The material properties of amorphous PC strongly depend on the imprint temperature and loading pressure. Polycarbonate was modelled as an elasto-plastic material, since it was analyzed below the glass transition temperature. The hot imprint model was solved using the heat transfer and the solid stress-strain application modes with thermal contact problem between the mold and polycarbonate. It was used for the evaluation of temperature and stress distributions in the polycarbonate during the hot imprint process. The quality of the replica, by means of lands filling ratio, was determined as well.

  19. Modeling ethanol spray jet flame in hot-diluted coflow with transported PDF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.; Naud, B.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    MILD Combustion, also known as flameless combustion, is attracting wide scientific interest due to its potential of high efficiency and low NOx emission. This paper focuses on the numerical modeling of one of the ethanol spray flame cases from the Delft Spray-in-Hot-Coflow (DSHC) burner, which has

  20. A Unified Physical Model for Creep and Hot Working of Al-Mg Solid Solution Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Spigarelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of the dependence of steady-state creep rate on applied stress and temperature is almost invariably based on the Norton equation or on derived power-law relationships. In hot working, the Norton equation does not work, and is therefore usually replaced with the Garofalo (sinh equation. Both of these equations are phenomenological in nature and can be seldom unambiguously related to microstructural parameters, such as dislocation density, although early efforts in this sense led to the introduction of the “natural power law” with exponent 3. In an attempt to overcome this deficiency, a recent model with sound physical basis has been successfully used to describe the creep response of fcc metals, such as copper. The main advantage of this model is that it does not require any data fitting to predict the strain rate dependence on applied stress and temperature, which is a particularly attractive peculiarity when studying the hot workability of metals. Thus, the model, properly modified to take into account solid solution strengthening effects, has been here applied to the study of the creep and hot-working of simple Al-Mg single phase alloys. The model demonstrated an excellent accuracy in describing both creep and hot working regimes, still maintaining its most important feature, that is, it does not require any fitting of the experimental data.

  1. Transported PDF Modeling of Ethanol Spray in Hot-Diluted Coflow Flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.; Naud, B.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of one ethanol spray flame from the Delft Spray-in-Hot-Coflow (DSHC) database, which has been used to study Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion of liquid fuels (Correia Rodrigues et al. Combust. Flame 162(3), 759–773, 2015). A

  2. Model for ion confinement in a hot-electron tandem mirror anchor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Anisotropic, hot electrons trapped in local minimum-B wells have been proposed as MHD-stabilizing anchors to an otherwise axisymmetric tandem configuration. This work describes a model for plasma confinement between the anchors and the remainder of the system and calcuates the power loss implied by maintenance of this plasma

  3. Relativistic quarkonium dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdjian, H.

    1985-06-01

    We present, in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting particles, a general model for quarkonium systems satisfying the following four requirements: confinement, spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry, soft explicit chiral symmetry breaking, short distance interactions of the vector type. The model is characterized by two arbitrary scalar functions entering in the large and short distance interaction potentials, respectively. Using relationships with corresponding quantities of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we also present the normalization condition of the wave functions, as well as the expressions of the meson decay coupling constants. The quark masses appear in this model as free parameters

  4. Relativistic nuclear collisions: theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1980-07-01

    Some of the recent theoretical developments in relativistic (0.5 to 2.0-GeV/nucleon) nuclear collisions are reviewed. The statistical model, hydrodynamic model, classical equation of motion calculations, billiard ball dynamics, and intranuclear cascade models are discussed in detail. Inclusive proton and pion spectra are analyzed for a variety of reactions. Particular attention is focused on how the complex interplay of the basic reaction mechanism hinders attempts to deduce the nuclear matter equation of state from data. 102 references, 19 figures

  5. Hot Strange Hadronic Matter in an Effective Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei-Liang; Su, Ru-Keng; Song, Hong-Qiu

    2003-10-01

    An effective model used to describe the strange hadronic matter with nucleons, Λ-hyperons, and Ξ-hyperons is extended to finite temperature. The extended model is used to study the density, temperature, and strangeness fraction dependence of the effective masses of baryons in the matter. The thermodynamical quantities, such as free energy and pressure, as well as the equation of state of the matter, are given. The project supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 10075071, 10047005, 19947001, 19975010, and 10235030, and the CAS Knowledge Innovation Project No. KJCX2-N11. Also supported by the State Key Basic Research Development Program under Grant No. G200077400 and the Exploration Project of Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

  6. Radiative redistribution modeling for hot and dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, C.; Calisti, A.; Talin, B.; Stamm, R.; Lee, R. W.; Klein, L.

    1999-01-01

    A model based on an extension of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM) is developed to investigate the two-photon processes and particularly the radiative redistribution functions for complex emitters in a wide range of plasmas conditions. The FFM, originally, designed as a fast and reliable numerical procedure for the calculation of the spectral shape of the Stark broadened lines emitted by multi-electron ions, relies on the hypothesis that the emitter-plasma system can be well represented by a set of 'Stark Dressed Transitions', SDT. These transitions connected to each others through a stochastic mixing process accounting for the local microfield random fluctuations, form the basis for the extension of the FFM to computation of non-linear response functions. The formalism of the second order radiative redistribution function is presented and examples are shown

  7. A model and computer code for the Monte Carlo simulation of relativistic electron and positron penetration through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Liljequist, D.

    1986-10-01

    In the present model, the treatment of elastic scattering is based on the similarity of multiple scattering processes with equal transport mean free path /LAMBDA/sub(tr). Elastic scattering events are separated by an artificially enlarged mean free path. In such events, scattering is optionally performed either by means of a single, energy-dependent scattering angle, or by means of a scattering angle distribution of the same form as the screened Rutherford cross section, but with an artificial screening factor. The physically correct /LAMBDA/sub(tr) value is obtained by appropriate choice of scattering angle or screening factor, respectively. We find good agreement with experimental transmission and with energy loss distributions. The Rutherford-like model gives good agreement with experimental angular distribution even for the penetration of very thin layers. Treatment of electron energy loss is based on the partial CSDA method: energy losses W WMINSE are treated as discrete electron-electron or positron-electron scattering events. Similarly, for bremsstrahlung photon energies W WMINR are treated at discrete events. The sensitivity of the model to the parameters WMINSE and WMINR is studied. WMINR can, in practise, be made negligibly small, and WMINSE can without any excessive computer time be made as small as to give results in good agreement with experiment and with computations based on Landau theory of straggling. Using this model, we study some of the characteristic features of relativistic electron transmission, energy loss distributions, straggling, angular distributions and trajectories. (authors)

  8. Observational and theoretical aspects of relativistic astrophysics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.L.; Goicoechea, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The studies of relativistic astrophysics and cosmology in these proceedings include primordial nucleosynthesis, nonluminous matter, star and galaxy evolution, cosmic microwave background, and general relativistic models of the universe

  9. Scattering in relativistic particle mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bievre, S.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis the authors studied scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. He uses the results to analyze gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. A general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics is presented and the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e., those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group are studied. The second part of the analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Using general geometric arguments, gauge invariance of the scattering transformation in the Todorov-Komar Hamiltonian constraint model is proved. Finally, quantization of the models is discussed

  10. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  11. Relativistic Outflows from ADAFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter; Subramanian, Prasad; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2001-04-01

    Advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) have a positive Bernoulli parameter, and are therefore gravitationally bound. The Newtonian ADAF model has been generalized recently to obtain the ADIOS model that includes outflows of energy and angular momentum, thereby allowing accretion to proceed self-consistently. However, the utilization of a Newtonian gravitational potential limits the ability of this model to describe the inner region of the disk, where any relativistic outflows are likely to originate. In this paper we modify the ADIOS scenario to incorporate a seudo - Newtonian potential, which approximates the effects of general relativity. The analysis yields a unique, self - similar solution for the structure of the coupled disk/wind system. Interesting features of the new solution include the relativistic character of the outflow in the vicinity of the radius of marginal stability, which represents the inner edge of the quasi-Keplerian disk in our model. Our self - similar model may therefore help to explain the origin of relativistic jets in active galaxies. At large distances the radial dependence of the accretion rate approachs the unique form dot M ∝ r^1/2, with an associated density variation given by ρ ∝ r-1. This density variation agrees with that implied by the dependence of the X-ray hard time lags on the Fourier frequency for a number of accreting galactic black hole candidates. While intriguing, the results of our self-similar model need to be confirmed in the future by incorporating a detailed physical description of the energization mechanism that drives the outflow, which is likely to be powered by the shear of the underlying accretion disk.

  12. New phenomenological and differential model for hot working of metallic polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, J.; Munoz, J.; Gutierrez, V.; Rieiro, I.; Ruano, O. A.; Carsi, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new phenomenological and differential model (that use differential equations) to predict the flow stress of a metallic polycrystalline material under hot working. The model, called MCC, depends on six parameters and uses two internal variables to consider the strain hardening, dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization processes that occur under hot working. The experimental validation of the MCC model has been carried out by means of stress-strain curves from torsion tests at high temperature (900 degree centigrade a 1200 degree centigrade) and moderate high strain rate (0.005 s-1 to 5 s-1) in a high nitrogen steel. The results reveal the very good agreement between experimental and predicted stresses. Furthermore, the Garofalo a-parameter and the strain to reach 50 % of recrystallized volume fraction have been employed as a control check being a first step to the physical interpretation of variables and parameters of the MCC model. (Author) 26 refs.

  13. Theoretical modelling of hot gas ingestion through turbine rim seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Owen

    2012-12-01

    The nozzle guide vanes create three-dimensional (3D variations in the distribution of pressure in the mainstream annulus and the turbine blades create unsteady effects. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is both time-consuming and expensive for these 3D unsteady flows, and engine designers tend to use correlations or simple models to predict ingress. This paper describes the application of simple ‘orifice models’, the analytical solutions of which can be used to calculate the sealing effectiveness of turbine rim seals. The solutions agree well with available data for externally-induced ingress, where the effects of rotation are negligible, for rotationally-induced ingress, where the effects of the external flow are small, and for combined ingress, where the effects of both external flow and rotation are significant.

  14. Towards the damage evaluation using Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model for hot forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Bambach, Markus

    2018-05-01

    In the production of semi-finished metal products, hot forming is used to eliminate the pores and voids from the casting process under compressive stresses and to modify the microstructure for further processing. In the case of caliber and flat rolling processes, tensile stresses occur at certain roll gap ratios which promote pore formation on nonmetallic inclusion. The formation of new pores contributes to ductile damage and reduces the load carrying capacity of the material. In the literature, the damage nucleation and growth during the hot forming process are not comprehensively described. The aim of this study is to understand the damage initiation and growth mechanism during hot forming processes. Hot tensile tests are performed at different temperatures and strain rates for 16MnCrS5 steel. To investigate the influence of geometrical variations on the damage mechanism, specimens with different stress triaxiality ratios are used. Finite element simulations using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model are performed to estimate the critical void fraction for the damage initiation and the evolution of the void volume fraction. The results showed that the GTN model underestimates the softening of the material due to the independence of the temperature and the strain rate.

  15. Hot kinetic model as a guide to improve organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosorev, Andrey Yu; Godovsky, Dmitry Yu; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu

    2018-01-31

    The modeling of organic solar cells (OSCs) can provide a roadmap for their further improvement. Many OSC models have been proposed in recent years; however, the impact of the key intermediates from photons to electricity-hot charge-transfer (CT) states-on the OSC efficiency is highly ambiguous. In this study, we suggest an analytical kinetic model for OSC that considers a two-step charge generation via hot CT states. This hot kinetic model allowed us to evaluate the impact of different material parameters on the OSC performance: the driving force for charge separation, optical bandgap, charge mobility, geminate recombination rate, thermalization rate, average electron-hole separation distance in the CT state, dielectric permittivity, reorganization energy and charge delocalization. In contrast to a widespread trend of lowering the material bandgap, the model predicts that this approach is only efficient along with improvement of the other material properties. The most promising ways to increase the OSC performance are decreasing the reorganization energy, i.e., an energy change accompanying CT from the donor molecule to the acceptor, increasing the dielectric permittivity and charge delocalization. The model suggests that there are no fundamental limitations that can prevent achieving the OSC efficiency above 20%.

  16. X-Ray Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Lense–Thirring Precession Model. I. Variability of Relativistic Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bei; Bursa, Michal; Życki, Piotr T.

    2018-05-01

    We develop a Monte Carlo code to compute the Compton-scattered X-ray flux arising from a hot inner flow that undergoes Lense–Thirring precession. The hot flow intercepts seed photons from an outer truncated thin disk. A fraction of the Comptonized photons will illuminate the disk, and the reflected/reprocessed photons will contribute to the observed spectrum. The total spectrum, including disk thermal emission, hot flow Comptonization, and disk reflection, is modeled within the framework of general relativity, taking light bending and gravitational redshift into account. The simulations are performed in the context of the Lense–Thirring precession model for the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations, so the inner flow is assumed to precess, leading to periodic modulation of the emitted radiation. In this work, we concentrate on the energy-dependent X-ray variability of the model and, in particular, on the evolution of the variability during the spectral transition from hard to soft state, which is implemented by the decrease of the truncation radius of the outer disk toward the innermost stable circular orbit. In the hard state, where the Comptonizing flow is geometrically thick, the Comptonization is weakly variable with a fractional variability amplitude of ≤10% in the soft state, where the Comptonizing flow is cooled down and thus becomes geometrically thin, the fractional variability of the Comptonization is highly variable, increasing with photon energy. The fractional variability of the reflection increases with energy, and the reflection emission for low spin is counterintuitively more variable than the one for high spin.

  17. A semi-analytical refrigeration cycle modelling approach for a heat pump hot water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaras, G.; Mathioulakis, E.; Belessiotis, V.

    2018-04-01

    The use of heat pump systems in applications like the production of hot water or space heating makes important the modelling of the processes for the evaluation of the performance of existing systems, as well as for design purposes. The proposed semi-analytical model offers the opportunity to estimate the performance of a heat pump system producing hot water, without using detailed geometrical or any performance data. This is important, as for many commercial systems the type and characteristics of the involved subcomponents can hardly be detected, thus not allowing the implementation of more analytical approaches or the exploitation of the manufacturers' catalogue performance data. The analysis copes with the issues related with the development of the models of the subcomponents involved in the studied system. Issues not discussed thoroughly in the existing literature, as the refrigerant mass inventory in the case an accumulator is present, are examined effectively.

  18. Prediction of Proper Temperatures for the Hot Stamping Process Based on the Kinetics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, P.; Parsa, M. H.; Mirzadeh, H.

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, the application of kinetics models for predicting microstructures of steels subjected to thermo-mechanical treatments has increased to minimize direct experimentation, which is costly and time consuming. In the current work, the final microstructures of AISI 4140 steel sheets after the hot stamping process were predicted using the Kirkaldy and Li kinetics models combined with new thermodynamically based models in order for the determination of the appropriate process temperatures. In this way, the effect of deformation during hot stamping on the Ae3, Acm, and Ae1 temperatures was considered, and then the equilibrium volume fractions of phases at different temperatures were calculated. Moreover, the ferrite transformation rate equations of the Kirkaldy and Li models were modified by a term proposed by Åkerström to consider the influence of plastic deformation. Results showed that the modified Kirkaldy model is satisfactory for the determination of appropriate austenitization temperatures for the hot stamping process of AISI 4140 steel sheets because of agreeable microstructure predictions in comparison with the experimental observations.

  19. Massive neutron star with strangeness in a relativistic mean-field model with a high-density cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Hu, Jinniu; Liu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The properties of neutron stars with the strangeness degree of freedom are studied in the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model via including a logarithmic interaction as a function of the scalar meson field. This interaction, named the σ -cut potential, can largely reduce the attractive contributions of the scalar meson field at high density without any influence on the properties of nuclear structure around the normal saturation density. In this work, the TM1 parameter set is chosen as the RMF interaction, while the strengths of σ -cut potential are constrained by the properties of finite nuclei so that we can obtain a reasonable effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The hyperons Λ ,Σ , and Ξ are considered in neutron stars within this framework, whose coupling constants with mesons are determined by the latest hyperon-nucleon and Λ -Λ potentials extracted from the available experimental data of hypernuclei. The maximum mass of neutron star can be larger than 2 M⊙ with these hyperons in the present framework. Furthermore, the nucleon mass at high density will be saturated due to this additional σ -cut potential, which is consistent with the conclusions obtained by other calculations such as Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory and quark mean-field model.

  20. Accurate anisotropic material modelling using only tensile tests for hot and cold forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abspoel, M.; Scholting, M. E.; Lansbergen, M.; Neelis, B. M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate material data for simulations require a lot of effort. Advanced yield loci require many different kinds of tests and a Forming Limit Curve (FLC) needs a large amount of samples. Many people use simple material models to reduce the effort of testing, however some models are either not accurate enough (i.e. Hill’48), or do not describe new types of materials (i.e. Keeler). Advanced yield loci describe the anisotropic materials behaviour accurately, but are not widely adopted because of the specialized tests, and data post-processing is a hurdle for many. To overcome these issues, correlations between the advanced yield locus points (biaxial, plane strain and shear) and mechanical properties have been investigated. This resulted in accurate prediction of the advanced stress points using only Rm, Ag and r-values in three directions from which a Vegter yield locus can be constructed with low effort. FLC’s can be predicted with the equations of Abspoel & Scholting depending on total elongation A80, r-value and thickness. Both predictive methods are initially developed for steel, aluminium and stainless steel (BCC and FCC materials). The validity of the predicted Vegter yield locus is investigated with simulation and measurements on both hot and cold formed parts and compared with Hill’48. An adapted specimen geometry, to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution in the Gleeble hot tensile test, was used to measure the mechanical properties needed to predict a hot Vegter yield locus. Since for hot material, testing of stress states other than uniaxial is really challenging, the prediction for the yield locus adds a lot of value. For the hot FLC an A80 sample with a homogeneous temperature distribution is needed which is due to size limitations not possible in the Gleeble tensile tester. Heating the sample in an industrial type furnace and tensile testing it in a dedicated device is a good alternative to determine the necessary parameters for the FLC

  1. Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and ...

  2. The relativistic virial theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucha, W.; Schoeberl, F.F.

    1989-11-01

    The relativistic generalization of the quantum-mechanical virial theorem is derived and used to clarify the connection between the nonrelativistic and (semi-)relativistic treatment of bound states. 12 refs. (Authors)

  3. Hot electron transport modelling in fast ignition relevant targets with non-Spitzer resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D A; Hoarty, D J; Swatton, D J R [Plasma Physics Department, AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Hughes, S J, E-mail: david.chapman@awe.co.u [Computational Physics Group, AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    The simple Lee-More model for electrical resistivity is implemented in the hybrid fast electron transport code THOR. The model is shown to reproduce experimental data across a wide range of temperatures using a small number of parameters. The effect of this model on the heating of simple Al targets by a short-pulse laser is studied and compared to the predictions of the classical Spitzer-Haerm resistivity. The model is then used in simulations of hot electron transport experiments using buried layer targets.

  4. Testing the Performance and Accuracy of the RELXILL Model for the Relativistic X-Ray Reflection from Accretion Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Kishalay; García, Javier A.; Steiner, James F.; Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-12-01

    The reflection spectroscopic model RELXILL is commonly implemented in studying relativistic X-ray reflection from accretion disks around black holes. We present a systematic study of the model’s capability to constrain the dimensionless spin and ionization parameters from ∼6000 Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simulations of a bright X-ray source employing the lamp-post geometry. We employ high-count spectra to show the limitations in the model without being confused with limitations in signal-to-noise. We find that both parameters are well-recovered at 90% confidence with improving constraints at higher reflection fraction, high spin, and low source height. We test spectra across a broad range—first at 106–107 and then ∼105 total source counts across the effective 3–79 keV band of NuSTAR, and discover a strong dependence of the results on how fits are performed around the starting parameters, owing to the complexity of the model itself. A blind fit chosen over an approach that carries some estimates of the actual parameter values can lead to significantly worse recovery of model parameters. We further stress the importance to span the space of nonlinear-behaving parameters like {log} ξ carefully and thoroughly for the model to avoid misleading results. In light of selecting fitting procedures, we recall the necessity to pay attention to the choice of data binning and fit statistics used to test the goodness of fit by demonstrating the effect on the photon index Γ. We re-emphasize and implore the need to account for the detector resolution while binning X-ray data and using Poisson fit statistics instead while analyzing Poissonian data.

  5. CMBE v05-Implementation of a toy-model for chaos analysis of relativistic nuclear collisions at the present BNL energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossu, I. V.; Felea, D.; Jipa, Al.; Besliu, C.; Stan, E.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, C.; Calin, M.; Esanu, T.; Bordeianu, C.; Tuturas, N.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a new version of Chaos Many-Body Engine (CMBE) Grossu et al. (2014) [1]. Inspired by the Mean Free Path concept, we implemented a new parameter, namely the ;Mean Free Time;, which is defined as the mean time between one particle's creation and its stimulated decay. This new parameter should be understood as an effect of the nuclear environment and, as opposed to the particle lifetime, it has the advantage of not being affected by the relativistic dilation. In [2] we presented a toy-model for chaos analysis of relativistic nuclear collisions at 4.5 A GeV/c (the SKM 200 collaboration). In this work, we extended our model to 200 A GeV (the maximum BNL energy).

  6. Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated mathematical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samaraseker; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1998-09-30

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a join research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American steel makers.

  7. Physical and mathematical modeling of process of frozen ground thawing under hot tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkova, M. Y.; Shastunova, U.; Shabarov, A.; Kislitsyn, A.; Shuvaev, A.

    2018-05-01

    A description of a new non-stationary thermophysical model in the “hot tank-frozen ground” system is given, taking into account mass transfer of pore moisture. The results of calculated and experimental data are presented, and the position of the thawing front is shown to be in good agreement with the convective heat transfer due to moisture migration in the thawed ground.

  8. Theoretical investigations in nonlinear quantum optics, theory of measurement, and pulsations of general relativistic models of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumaker, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of six papers. The first four constitute the heart of the thesis; they are concerned with quantum-mechanical properties of certain harmonic-oscillator states. The first paper is a discourse on single-mode and two-mode Gaussian pure states (GPS), states produced when harmonic oscillators in their ground states are exposed to potentials that are linear or quadratic in oscillator position and momentum variables (creation and annihilation operators). The second and third papers develop a formalism for analyzing two photon devices (e.g., parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors), in which photons in the output modes arise from two-proton transitions, i.e., are created or destroyed two at a time. The fourth paper is an analysis of the noise in homodyne detection, a phase-sensitive detection scheme in which the special properties of (single-mode) squeezed states are revealed. The fifth paper considers the validity of the standard quantum limit (SQL) for measurements that monitor the position of a free mass. The sixth paper develops the mathematical theory of torsional (toroidal) oscillations in fully general relativistic, nonrotating, spherical stellar models and of the gravitational waves they emit

  9. Equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean-field models with chiral limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weizhou; Li Baozn; Chen Liewen

    2007-01-01

    Using in-medium hadron properties according to the Brown-Rho scaling due to the chiral symmetry restoration at high densities and considering naturalness of the coupling constants, we have newly constructed several relativistic mean-field Lagrangians with chiral limits. The model parameters are adjusted such that the symmetric part of the resulting equation of state at supra-normal densities is consistent with that required by the collective flow data from high energy heavy-ion reactions, while the resulting density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities agrees with that extracted from the recent isospin diffusion data from intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions. The resulting equations of state have the special feature of being soft at intermediate densities but stiff at high densities naturally. With these constrained equations of state, it is found that the radius of a 1.4M o canonical neutron star is in the range of 11.9 km≤R≤13.1 km, and the maximum neutron star mass is around 2.0M o close to the recent observations

  10. Self-Consistent Atmosphere Models of the Most Extreme Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothringer, Joshua; Barman, Travis

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed look at self-consistent PHOENIX atmosphere models of the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters known to exist. These hot Jupiters typically have equilibrium temperatures approaching and sometimes exceeding 3000 K, orbiting A, F, and early-G type stars on orbits less than 0.03 AU (10x closer than Mercury is to the Sun). The most extreme example, KELT-9b, is the hottest known hot Jupiter with a measured dayside temperature of 4600 K. Many of the planets we model have recently attracted attention with high profile discoveries, including temperature inversions in WASP-33b and WASP-121, changing phase curve offsets possibly caused by magnetohydrodymanic effects in HAT-P-7b, and TiO in WASP-19b. Our modeling provides a look at the a priori expectations for these planets and helps us understand these recent discoveries. We show that, in the hottest cases, all molecules are dissociated down to relatively high pressures. These planets may have detectable temperature inversions, more akin to thermospheres than stratospheres in that an optical absorber like TiO or VO is not needed. Instead, the inversions are created by a lack of cooling in the IR combined with heating from atoms and ions at UV and blue optical wavelengths. We also reevaluate some of the assumptions that have been made in retrieval analyses of these planets.

  11. Modeling of hot-mix asphalt compaction : a thermodynamics-based compressible viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Compaction is the process of reducing the volume of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) by the application of external forces. As a result of compaction, the volume of air voids decreases, aggregate interlock increases, and interparticle friction increases. The qu...

  12. Studies of Ionic Photoionization Using Relativistic Random Phase Approximation and Relativistic Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ghousia Nasreen

    The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by positive ions is one of the fundamental processes of nature which occurs in every intensely hot environment. Due to the difficulties in producing sufficient densities of ions in a laboratory, there are very few measurements of ionic photoabsorption parameters. On the theoretical side, some calculations have been made of a few major photoionization parameters, but generally speaking, most of the work done so far has employed rather simple single particle models and any theoretical work which has adequately taken into account intricate atomic many-body and relativistic effects is only scanty. In the present work, several complex aspects of atomic/ionic photoabsorption parameters have been studied. Non -resonant photoionization in neon and argon isonuclear as well as isoelectronic sequences has been studied using a very sophisticated technique, namely the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). This technique takes into account relativistic effects as well as an important class of major many-body effects on the same footing. The present calculations confirmed that gross features of photoionization parameters calculated using simpler models were not an artifact of the simple model. Also, the present RRPA calculations on K^+ ion and neutral Ar brought out the relative importance of various many-body effects such the inter-channel coupling. Inter-channel coupling between discrete bound state photoexcitation channels from an inner atomic/ionic level and photoionization continuum channels from an outer atomic/ionic level leads to the phenomena of autoionization resonances in the photoionization process. These resonances lead to very complex effects in the atomic/ionic photoabsorption spectra. These resonances have been calculated and studied in the present work in the neon and magnesium isoelectronic sequences using the relativistic multi-channel quantum defect theory (RMQDT) within the framework of the RRPA. The

  13. Multiwavelength Observations of Relativistic Jets from General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Anantua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes a program intended to unify three burgeoning branches of the high-energy astrophysics of relativistic jets: general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD simulations of ever-increasing dynamical range, the microphysical theory of particle acceleration under relativistic conditions, and multiwavelength observations resolving ever-decreasing spatiotemporal scales. The process, which involves converting simulation output into time series of images and polarization maps that can be directly compared to observations, is performed by (1 self-consistently prescribing models for emission, absorption, and particle acceleration and (2 performing time-dependent polarized radiative transfer. M87 serves as an exemplary prototype for this investigation due to its prominent and well-studied jet and the imminent prospect of learning much more from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT observations this year. Synthetic observations can be directly compared with real observations for observational signatures such as jet instabilities, collimation, relativistic beaming, and polarization. The simplest models described adopt the standard equipartition hypothesis; other models calculate emission by relating it to current density or shear. These models are intended for application to the radio jet instead of the higher frequency emission, the disk and the wind, which will be subjects of future investigations.

  14. Collisional radiative model for Ar-O2 mixture plasma with fully relativistic fine structure cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, Gangwar, Reetesh Kumar; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    A collisional radiative (C-R) model has been developed to diagnose the rf generated Ar-O2 (0%-5%) mixture plasma at low temperatures. Since in such plasmas the most dominant process is an electron impact excitation process, we considered several electron impact fine structure transitions in an argon atom from its ground as well as excited states. The cross-sections for these transitions have been obtained using the reliable fully relativistic distorted wave theory. Processes which account for the coupling of argon with the oxygen molecules have been further added to the model. We couple our model to the optical spectroscopic measurements reported by Jogi et al. [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 335206 (2014)]. The plasma parameters, viz. the electron density (ne) and the electron temperature (Te) as a function of O2 concentration have been obtained using thirteen intense emission lines out of 3p54p → 3p54s transitions observed in their spectroscopic measurements. It is found that as the content of O2 in Ar increases from 0%-5%, Te increases in the range 0.85-1.7 eV, while the electron density decreases from 2.76 × 1012-2.34 × 1011 cm-3. The Ar-3p54s (1si) fine-structure level populations at our extracted plasma parameters are found to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the measurements. Furthermore, we have estimated the individual contributions coming from the ground state, 1si manifolds and cascade contributions to the population of the radiating Ar-3p54p (2pi) states as a function of a trace amount of O2. Such information is very useful to understand the importance of various processes occurring in the plasma.

  15. Methods in relativistic nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danos, M.; Gillet, V.; Cauvin, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book is intended to provide the methods and tools for performing actual calculations for finite many-body systems of bound relativistic constituent particles. The aim is to cover thoroughly the methodological aspects of the relativistic many-body problem for bound states while avoiding the presentation of specific models. The many examples contained in the later part of the work are meant to give concrete illustrations of how to actually apply the methods which are given in the first part. The basic framework of the approach is the lagrangian field theory solved in the time-independent Schroedinger picture. (Auth.)

  16. Deformation Characteristic and Constitutive Modeling of 2707 Hyper Duplex Stainless Steel under Hot Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of 2707 hyper duplex stainless steel (HDSS were investigated through hot compression tests in the temperature range of 900–1250 °C and strain rate range of 0.01–10 s−1. The results showed that the flow behavior strongly depended on strain rate and temperature, and flow stress increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. At lower temperatures, many precipitates appeared in ferrite and distributed along the deformation direction, which could restrain processing of discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX because of pinning grain boundaries. When the temperature increased to 1150 °C, the leading softening behaviors were dynamic recovery (DRV in ferrite and discontinuous DRX in austenite. When the temperature reached 1250 °C, softening behavior was mainly DRV in ferrite. The increase of strain rate was conducive to the occurrence of discontinuous DRX in austenite. A constitutive equation at peak strain was established and the results indicated that 2707 HDSS had a higher Q value (569.279 kJ·mol−1 than other traditional duplex stainless steels due to higher content of Cr, Mo, Ni, and N. Constitutive modeling considering strain was developed to model the hot deformation behavior of 2707 HDSS more accurately, and the correlation coefficient and average absolute relative error were 0.992 and 5.22%, respectively.

  17. On the accuracy of current TCAD hot carrier injection models in nanoscale devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaka, Alban; Rafhay, Quentin; Iellina, Matteo; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Clerc, Raphaël; Rideau, Denis; Garetto, Davide; Dornel, Erwan; Singer, Julien; Pananakakis, Georges; Tavernier, Clément; Jaouen, Hervé

    2010-12-01

    In this work, the hot electron injection models presently available for technology support have been investigated within the context of the development of advanced embedded non-volatile memories. The distribution functions obtained by these models (namely the Fiegna Model - FM [1], the Lucky Electron Model - LEM [2] and the recently implemented Spherical Harmonics Expansion of the Boltzman's Transport Equation - SHE [3]), have been systematically compared to rigorous Monte Carlo (MC) results [4], both in homogeneous and device conditions. Gate-to-drain current ratio and gate current density simulation has also been benchmarked in device simulations. Results indicate that local models such as FM, can partially capture the channel hot electron injection, at the price of model parameter adjustments. Moreover, at least in the device and field condition considered in this work, an overall better agreement with MC simulations has been obtained using the 1st order SHE, even without any particular fitting procedure. Extending the results presented in [3] by exploring shorter gate lengths and addressing the floating gate voltage dependence of the gate current, this work shows that the SHE method could contribute to bridge the gap between the rigorous but time consuming MC method and less rigorous but suitable TCAD local models.

  18. Cyberinfrastructure for Computational Relativistic Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Poster presented at the NSF Office of Cyberinfrastructure CyberBridges CAREER PI workshop. This poster discusses the computational challenges involved in the modeling of complex relativistic astrophysical systems. The Einstein Toolkit is introduced. It is an open-source community infrastructure for numerical relativity and computational astrophysics.

  19. Relativistic Model of Hamiltonian Renormalization for Bound States and Scattering Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    We test the renormalization group procedure for effective particles on a model of fermion–scalar interaction based on the Yukawa theory. The model is obtained by truncating the Yukawa theory to just two Fock sectors in the Dirac front form of Hamiltonian dynamics, a fermion, and a fermion and a boson, for the purpose of simple analytic calculation that exhibits steps of the procedure. (author)

  20. Dynamical initial-state model for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun; Schenke, Björn

    2018-02-01

    We present a fully three-dimensional model providing initial conditions for energy and net-baryon density distributions in heavy-ion collisions at arbitrary collision energy. The model includes the dynamical deceleration of participating nucleons or valence quarks, depending on the implementation. The duration of the deceleration continues until the string spanned between colliding participants is assumed to thermalize, which is either after a fixed proper time, or a fluctuating time depending on sampled final rapidities. Energy is deposited in space time along the string, which in general will span a range of space-time rapidities and proper times. We study various observables obtained directly from the initial-state model, including net-baryon rapidity distributions, two-particle rapidity correlations, as well as the rapidity decorrelation of the transverse geometry. Their dependence on the model implementation and parameter values is investigated. We also present the implementation of the model with 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamics, which involves the addition of source terms that deposit energy and net-baryon densities produced by the initial-state model at proper times greater than the initial time for the hydrodynamic simulation.

  1. STATISTIC MODELING OF DRYING KINETHIC OF SPINACH LEAVES USING MICROWAVE AND HOT AIR METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Nouri; Marzieh Vahdani; Shilan Rashidzadeh; Lukáš Hleba; Mohammad Ali Shariati

    2015-01-01

    The target of this study was to model of spinach leaves drying using microwave and hot air dryer. This test performed in combination treatment of temperatures (50°C, 60°C, and 70°C) and microwave (90, 180, 360, 600 and 900w) in 3 replications. Sample moisture measured within drying. All the results were fitted and analyzed with 8 mathematical models base on 3 parameters including determination (R2), Chi square(X2), root mean square errors(RSME). Results also revealed that temperature and micr...

  2. Modelling of hot surface ignition within gas turbines subject to flammable gas in the intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lea Duedahl; Nielsen, Kenny Krogh; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Controlling risks associated with fires and explosions from leaks of flammable fluids at oil and gas facilities is paramount to ensuring safe operations. The gas turbine is a significant potential source of ignition; however, the residual risk is still not adequately understood. A model has been...... but decreases with increase in initial mixture temperature and pressure. The model shows a great potential in reliable prediction of the risk of hot surface ignition within gas turbines in the oil and gas industry. In the future, a dedicated experimental study will be performed not only to improve...

  3. Economic Model Predictive Control for Hot Water Based Heating Systems in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadelrahman, M. A. Ahmed; Zong, Yi; Li, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study to optimize the heating energy costs in a residential building with varying electricity price signals based on an Economic Model Predictive Controller (EMPC). The investigated heating system consists of an air source heat pump (ASHP) incorporated with a hot water tank...... as active Thermal Energy Storage (TES), where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the ASHP electricity consumption and the building heating consumption utilizing a heat dynamic model of the building. The results show that the proposed EMPC can save the energy cost by load...

  4. Ductile failure analysis of high strength steel in hot forming based on micromechanical damage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The damage evolution of high strength steel at elevated temperature is investigated by using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN model. A hybrid method integrated thermal tensile test and numerical technique is employed to identify the damage parameters. The analysis results show that the damage parameters are different at different temperature as the variation of tested material microstructure. Furthermore, the calibrated damage parameters are implemented to simulate a bugling forming at elevated temperature. The experimental results show the availability of GTN damage model in analyzing sheet formability in hot forming.

  5. Transported PDF Modeling of Ethanol Spray in Hot-Diluted Coflow Flame

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, L.; Naud, B.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of one ethanol spray flame from the Delft Spray-in-Hot-Coflow (DSHC) database, which has been used to study Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion of liquid fuels (Correia Rodrigues et al. Combust. Flame 162(3), 759–773, 2015). A “Lagrangian-Lagrangian” approach is adopted where both the joint velocity-scalar Probability Density Function (PDF) for the continuous phase and the joint PDF of droplet properties are modeled and solv...

  6. Bulk viscosity of hot dense Quark matter in the PNJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shisong; Guo Panpan; Zhang Le; Hou Defu

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the Kubo formula and the QCD low energy theorem, we study the the bulk viscosity of hot dense quark matter in the PNJL model from the equation of state. We show that the bulk viscosity has a sharp peak near the chiral phase transition, and that the ratio of bulk viscosity over entropy rises dramatically in the vicinity of the phase transition. These results agree with those from the lattice and other model calculations. In addition, we show that the increase of chemical potential raises the bulk viscosity. (authors)

  7. The Red Queen model of recombination hot-spot evolution: a theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrille, Thibault; Duret, Laurent; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2017-12-19

    In humans and many other species, recombination events cluster in narrow and short-lived hot spots distributed across the genome, whose location is determined by the Zn-finger protein PRDM9. To explain these fast evolutionary dynamics, an intra-genomic Red Queen model has been proposed, based on the interplay between two antagonistic forces: biased gene conversion, mediated by double-strand breaks, resulting in hot-spot extinction, followed by positive selection favouring new PRDM9 alleles recognizing new sequence motifs. Thus far, however, this Red Queen model has not been formalized as a quantitative population-genetic model, fully accounting for the intricate interplay between biased gene conversion, mutation, selection, demography and genetic diversity at the PRDM9 locus. Here, we explore the population genetics of the Red Queen model of recombination. A Wright-Fisher simulator was implemented, allowing exploration of the behaviour of the model (mean equilibrium recombination rate, diversity at the PRDM9 locus or turnover rate) as a function of the parameters (effective population size, mutation and erosion rates). In a second step, analytical results based on self-consistent mean-field approximations were derived, reproducing the scaling relations observed in the simulations. Empirical fit of the model to current data from the mouse suggests both a high mutation rate at PRDM9 and strong biased gene conversion on its targets.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms'. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Multifragmentation of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1990-10-01

    It is difficult to deposit a large amount (∼ 1 Gev) of excitation energy into a nucleus. And if one wants to deposit large excitation energy values, the best way consists of shooting a given target nucleus with several nucleons, which can be achieved by using intermediate energy (10-100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ions. Such very excited objects were named hot nuclei. The study of hot nuclei has been undertaken only for 7 years because intermediate energy heavy ion facilities were not available before. The game is then to determine the decay properties of such nuclei, their limits of existence. Their study is connected with general properties of nuclear matter: namely its equation of state. Of special interest, is the onset of a new decay mechanism: multifragmentation, which is the non-sequential disassembly of a hot nucleus into several light nuclei (often called intermediate-mass fragments or IMF) or particles. This paper, shows how this mechanism can reflect fundamental properties of nuclear matter, but also how its experimental signature is difficult to establish. Multifragmentation has also been studied by using very energetic projectiles (protons and heavy ions) in the relativistic or ultra-relativistic region. The multifragmentation question of hot nuclei is far from being solved. One knows that IMF production increases when the excitation energy brought into a system is strongly increased, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved and a clear onset for multifragmentation is not established

  9. Constitutive Model for Hot Deformation of the Cu-Zr-Ce Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Huili; Volinsky, Alex A.; Wang, Bingjie; Tian, Baohong; Liu, Yong; Song, Kexing

    2018-02-01

    Hot compressive deformation behavior of the Cu-Zr-Ce alloy has been investigated according to the hot deformation tests in the 550-900 °C temperature range and 0.001-10 s-1 strain rate range. Based on the true stress-true strain curves, the flow stress behavior of the Cu-Zr-Ce alloy was investigated. Microstructure evolution was observed by optical microscopy. Based on the experimental results, a constitutive equation, which reflects the relationships between the stress, strain, strain rate and temperature, has been established. Material constants n, α, Q and ln A were calculated as functions of strain. The equation predicting the flow stress combined with these materials constants has been proposed. The predicted stress is consistent with experimental stress, indicating that developed constitutive equation can adequately predict the flow stress of the Cu-Zr-Ce alloy. Dynamic recrystallization critical strain was determined using the work hardening rate method. According to the dynamic material model, the processing maps for the Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Ce alloy were obtained at 0.4 and 0.5 strain. Based on the processing maps and microstructure observations, the optimal processing parameters for the two alloys were determined, and it was found that the addition of Ce can promote the hot workability of the Cu-Zr alloy.

  10. Phase transitions in relativistic models: revisiting the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, D.P.; Providencia, C.

    2003-01-01

    We use the non-linear Walecka model in a Thomas-Fermi approximation to investigate the effects of the ρ-ω mixing term in infinite nuclear matter and in finite nuclei. For finite nuclei the contribution of the isospin mixing term is very large as compared with the expected value to solve the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly. (author)

  11. The spin predictions of the relativistic quark model for baryon decuplet production

    CERN Document Server

    Montvay, István

    1973-01-01

    Single-quark scattering contributions are considered in the case of ground-state decuplet baryon production. It is shown within the framework of an explicitly covariant approach that the spin consequences of the quark additivity assumption hold in the t-channel helicity frame independently of much of the details of the model. (12 refs).

  12. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in a relativistic quark model with chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.

    1987-01-01

    The nucleon electromagnetic form factors are computed in an independent quark model based on the Dirac equation. Corrections for centre-of-mass motion and pion-cloud effects are incorporated. Results for static quantities are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  13. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in a relativistic quark model with chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N; Das, M

    1987-05-01

    The nucleon electromagnetic form factors are computed in an independent quark model based on the Dirac equation. Corrections for centre-of-mass motion and pion-cloud effects are incorporated. Results for static quantities are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Magnetic moments of the nucleon octet in a relativistic quark model with chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Dash, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Incorporating the lowest-order pionic correction, the magnetic moments of the nucleon octet have been calculated in a chiral potential model. The potential, representing phenomenologically the nonperturbative gluon interactions including gluon self-couplings, is chosen with equally mixed scalar and vector parts in harmonic form. The results are in reasonable agreement with experiment

  15. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  16. Modeling Relativistic Electron Precipitation Bremsstrahlung X-Ray Intensities at 10-100 km Manned Vehicle Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L. Habsh; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Relativisitic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and space reuseable launch vehicles (sRLVs). The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremsstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.

  17. Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

  18. Prompt form of relativistic equations of motion in a model of singular lagrangian formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajda, R.P.; Duviryak, A.A.; Klyuchkovskij, Yu.B.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to develope the way of transition from equations of motion in singular lagrangian formalism to three-dimensional equations of Newton type in the prompt form of dynamics in the framework of c -2 parameter expansion (s. c. quasireltativistic approaches), as well as to find corresponding integrals of motion. The first quasirelativistifc approach for Dominici, Gomis, Longhi model was obtained and investigated

  19. On the physics of relativistic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-06-01

    A model of a strong, time-independent, and relativistic double layer is studied. Besides double layers having the electric field parallel to the current the model also describes a certain type of oblique double layers. The 'Langmuir condition' (ratio of ion current density to electron current density) as well as an expression for the potential drop of the double layer are derived. Furthermore, the distribution of charged particles, electric field, and potential within the double layer are clarified and discussed. It is found that the properties of relativistic double layers differ substantially from the properties of corresponding non-relativistic double layers. (Author)

  20. Damping width of giant dipole resonances of cold and hot nuclei: A macroscopic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenological macroscopic model of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) damping width of cold and hot nuclei with ground-state spherical and near-spherical shapes is developed. The model is based on a generalized Fermi liquid model which takes into account the nuclear surface dynamics. The temperature dependence of the GDR damping width is accounted for in terms of surface and volume components. Parameter-free expressions for the damping width and the effective deformation are obtained. The model is validated with GDR measurements of the following nuclides: 39,40 K, 42 Ca, 45 Sc, 59,63 Cu, 109-120 Sn, 147 Eu, 194 Hg, and 208 Pb, and is compared with the predictions of other models

  1. A model-dependent approach to the non-relativistic Lamb shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Valdes, J. F.; Bruce, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    The precise observation of the Lamb shift, between the 2s_{1/2} and 2p_{1/2} levels in hydrogen, was a genuine motivation for the development of modern quantum electrodynamics. According to Dirac theory, the 2s_{1/2} and 2p_{1/2} levels should have equal energies. However, "radiative corrections" due to the interaction between the atomic electron and the vacuum, shift the 2s_{1/2} level higher in energy by around 4.37493× 10^{-6} eV or 2π\\hbar× 1057.85 MHz relative to the 2p_{1/2} level. The measurement of Lamb and Retherford provided the stimulus for renormalization theory which has been so successful in handling troublesome divergences. The Lamb shift is still a central theme in atomic physics. W.E. Lamb was the first to see that this tiny shift, so elusive and hard to measure, would clarify in a fundamental way our thinking about particles and fields. In this article, the Lamb shift for the 2 s energy level in hydrogen is assessed for three different electron models by using the variational principle. It is then verified that this shift arises mostly from the interaction of a bound electron with the zero-point fluctuations of the free electromagnetic field (Welton's interpretation). We briefly comment on the construct validity of the proposed electron models.

  2. On the kinetic theory of parametric resonance in relativistic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ashry, M.Y.

    1982-08-01

    The instability of relativistic hot plasma located in high-frequency external electric field is studied. The dispersion relation, in the case when the plasma electrons have relativistic oscillatory motion, is obtained. It is shown that if the electron Deby's radius is less than the wave length of plasma oscillation and far from the resonance on the overtones of the external field frequency, the oscillation build-up is possible. It is also shown that taking into account the relativistic motion of electrons leads to a considerable decrease in the frequency at which the parametric resonance takes place. (author)

  3. Relativistic laser channeling in plasmas for fast ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, A. L.; Pukhov, A.; Kodama, R.; Yabuuchi, T.; Adumi, K.; Endo, K.; Freeman, R. R.; Habara, H.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kondo, K.; Kumar, G. R.; Matsuoka, T.; Mima, K.; Nagatomo, H.; Norimatsu, T.; Shorokhov, O.; Snavely, R.; Yang, X. Q.; Zheng, J.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    We report an experimental observation suggesting plasma channel formation by focusing a relativistic laser pulse into a long-scale-length preformed plasma. The channel direction coincides with the laser axis. Laser light transmittance measurement indicates laser channeling into the high-density plasma with relativistic self-focusing. A three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation reproduces the plasma channel and reveals that the collimated hot-electron beam is generated along the laser axis in the laser channeling. These findings hold the promising possibility of fast heating a dense fuel plasma with a relativistic laser pulse.

  4. KN s-wave phase shifts in the non-relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, B.; Labarsouque, J.

    1995-01-01

    The I=1 and 0 kaon-nucleon s-wave phase shifts have been calculated in a quark potential model using the resonating group method (RGM). The Hill-Wheeler equation has been solved numerically without any parametrization of the KN relative wave-function. The kaon and the nucleon wave-functions have been expanded as sums of several well-chosen gaussian functions, and the sensitivity of the results to the number of terms was analyzed carefully. The I=0 phase shifts are in agreement with the experimental data. In the I=1 channel too much repulsion is obtained, probably due to the lack of medium-range boson exchange type attraction. ((orig.))

  5. On the gluonic correction to lepton-pair decays in a relativistic quarkonium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1987-01-01

    The gluonic correction to the leptonic decay of the heavy vector meson is investigated by using the perturbation theory to the order α s . The on-mass-shell approximation is assumed for the constituent quarks so that we assure the gauge independence of the correction. The decay rates in the model based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation are also shown, in which the gluonic correction with a high-momentum cutoff is calculated for the off-shell quarks. It is shown that the static approximation to the correction factor (1 - 16α s /3π) is not adequate and the gluonic correction does not suppress but enhance the decay rates of the ground states for the c anti c and b anti b systems. (author)

  6. Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

  7. How "Hot Precursors" Modify Island Nucleation: A Rate-Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cifuentes, Josue R.; Einstein, T. L.; Pimpinelli, A.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a novel island nucleation and growth model explicitly including transient (ballistic) mobility of the monomers deposited at rate F , assumed to be in a hot precursor state before thermalizing. In limiting regimes, corresponding to fast (diffusive) and slow (ballistic) thermalization, the island density N obeys scaling N ∝Fα . In between is found a rich, complex behavior, with various distinctive scaling regimes, characterized by effective exponents αeff and activation energies that we compute exactly. Application to N (F ,T ) of recent organic-molecule deposition experiments yields an excellent fit.

  8. Application of thermodynamics and Wagner model on two problems in continuous hot-dip galvanizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huachu; He, Yanlin; Li, Lin

    2009-12-01

    Firstly in this paper, the influence of H 2 and water vapor content on selective oxidation occurred in continuous hot-dip galvanizing has been studied by thermodynamics and Wagner model, then, the Gibbs energy of each possible aluminothermic reducing reaction in zinc bath was calculated in order to judge the possibility of these reactions. It was found that oxides' amounts and oxidation type were greatly related to the H 2 and water content in the annealing atmosphere. And from the view of thermodynamics, surface oxides (MnO, Cr 2O 3, SiO 2 etc.) can be reduced by the effective Al in Zn bath.

  9. Self-organization of hot plasmas the canonical profile transport model

    CERN Document Server

    Dnestrovskij, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the author presents the Canonical Profile Transport Model or CPTM as a rather general mathematical framework to simulate plasma discharges.The description of hot plasmas in a magnetic fusion device is a very challenging task and many plasma properties still lack a physical explanation. One important property is plasma self-organization.It is very well known from experiments that the radial profile of the plasma pressure and temperature remains rather unaffected by changes of the deposited power or plasma density. The attractiveness of the CPTM is that it includes the effect o

  10. Phenomenological Model Describing the Formation of Peeling Defects on Hot-Rolled Duplex Stainless Steel 2205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-jun, Zhang; Hui, Zhang; Jing-tao, Han

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition, morphology, and microstructure of peeling defects formed on the surface of sheets from steel 2205 under hot rolling are studied. The microstructure of the surface is analyzed using scanning electron and light microscopy. The zones affected are shown to contain nonmetallic inclusions of types Al2O3 and CaO - SiO2 - Al2O3 - MgO in the form of streak precipitates and to have an unfavorable content of austenite, which causes decrease in the ductility of the area. The results obtained are used to derive a five-stage phenomenological model of formation of such defects.

  11. Modeling ethanol spray jet flame in hot-diluted coflow with transported PDF

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, L.; Naud, B.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    MILD Combustion, also known as flameless combustion, is attracting wide scientific interest due to its potential of high efficiency and low NOx emission. This paper focuses on the numerical modeling of one of the ethanol spray flame cases from the Delft Spray-in-Hot-Coflow (DSHC) burner, which has been used to study MILD oxidation of liquid fuels. The study has been carried out following the approach of dilute spray simulation. To properly account the turbulent two-phase flow system, a joint ...

  12. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  13. Rotating relativistic neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1991-07-21

    Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s{sup {minus}1} {le} {Omega}{sub K} {le} 9000 s{sup {minus}1}. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of {Omega}{sub K} must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder ({Lambda}) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.

  14. Topology of large-scale structure in seeded hot dark matter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaky, Matthew M.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1992-01-01

    The topology of the isodensity surfaces in seeded hot dark matter models, in which static seed masses provide the density perturbations in a universe dominated by massive neutrinos is examined. When smoothed with a Gaussian window, the linear initial conditions in these models show no trace of non-Gaussian behavior for r0 equal to or greater than 5 Mpc (h = 1/2), except for very low seed densities, which show a shift toward isolated peaks. An approximate analytic expression is given for the genus curve expected in linear density fields from randomly distributed seed masses. The evolved models have a Gaussian topology for r0 = 10 Mpc, but show a shift toward a cellular topology with r0 = 5 Mpc; Gaussian models with an identical power spectrum show the same behavior.

  15. Empirical Modeling on Hot Air Drying of Fresh and Pre-treated Pineapples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkankit Yardfon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study drying kinetics and determine empirical model of fresh pineapple and pre-treated pineapple with sucrose solution at different concentrations during drying. 3 mm thick samples were immersed into 30, 40 and 50 Brix of sucrose solution before hot air drying at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80°C. The empirical models to predict the drying kinetics were investigated. The results showed that the moisture content decreased when increasing the drying temperatures and times. Increase in sucrose concentration led to longer drying time. According to the statistical values of the highest coefficients (R2, the lowest least of chi-square (χ2 and root mean square error (RMSE, Logarithmic model was the best models for describing the drying behavior of soaked samples into 30, 40 and 50 Brix of sucrose solution.

  16. Relativistic quantum mechanics an introduction to relativistic quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Written by two of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model - including an award-winning former Director General of CERN - this textbook provides a completely up-to-date account of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. It describes the formal and phenomenological aspects of the standard model of particle physics, and is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying both theoretical and experimental physics.

  17. Relativistic quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1983-01-01

    on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)

  18. How Hot Precursor Modify Island Nucleation: A Rate-Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cifuentes, Josue; Einstein, T. L.; Pimpinelli, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    We describe the analysis, based on rate equations, of the hot precursor model mentioned in the previous talk. Two key parameters are the competing times of ballistic monomers decaying into thermalized monomers vs. being captured by an island, which naturally define a ``thermalization'' scale for the system. We interpret the energies and dimmensionless parameters used in the model, and provide both an implicit analytic solution and a convenient asymptotic approximation. Further analysis reveals novel scaling regimes and nonmonotonic crossovers between them. To test our model, we applied it to experiments on parahexaphenyl (6P) on sputtered mica. With the resulting parameters, the curves derived from our analytic treatment account very well for the data at the 4 different temperatures. The fit shows that the high-flux regime corresponds not to ALA (attachment-limited aggregation) or HMA (hot monomer aggregation) but rather to an intermediate scaling regime related to DLA (diffusion-limited aggregation). We hope this work stimulates further experimental investigations. Work at UMD supported by NSF CHE 13-05892.

  19. Modeling of the flow behavior of SAE 8620H combing microstructure evolution in hot forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaobin; Wang, Baoyu; Tang, Xuefeng

    2017-10-01

    With the development of net-shape forming technology, hot forming process is widely applied to manufacturing gear parts, during which, materials suffer severe plastic distortion and microstructure changes continually. In this paper, to understand and model the flow behavior and microstructure evolution, SAE 8620H, a widely used gear steel, is selected as the object and the flow behavior and microstructure evolution are observed by an isothermal hot compression tests at 1273-1373 K with a strain rate of 0.1-10 s-1. Depending on the results of the compression test, a set of internal-state-variable based unified constitutive equations is put forward to describe the flow behavior and microstructure evaluation of SAE 8620H. Moreover, the evaluation of the dislocation density and the fraction of dynamic recrystallization based on the theory of thermal activation is modeled and reincorporated into the constitutive law. The material parameters in the constitutive model are calculated based on the measured flow stress and dynamic recrystallization fraction. The predicted flow stress under different deformation conditions has a good agreement with the measured results.

  20. Partonic transverse momenta in non-relativistic hyper-central quark potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakonos, F.K.; Kaplis, N.K.; Maintas, X.N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impact of three-body forces on the transverse-momentum distribution of partons inside the proton. This is achieved by considering the three-body problem in a class of hyper-central quark potential models. Solving the corresponding Schroedinger equation, we determine the quark wave function in the proton and with appropriate transformations and projections we find the transverse-momentum distribution of a single quark. In each case the parameters of the quark potentials are adjusted in order to sufficiently describe observable properties of the proton. Using a factorization ansatz, we incorporate the obtained transverse-momentum distribution in a perturbative QCD scheme for the calculation of the cross-section for prompt photon production in pp collisions. A large set of experimental data is fitted using as a single free parameter the mean partonic transverse momentum. The dependence of left angle k T right angle on the collision characteristics (initial energy and transverse momentum of the final photon) is much smoother when compared with similar results found in the literature using a Gaussian distribution for the partonic transverse momenta. Within the considered class of hyper-central quark potentials the one with the weaker dependence on the hyper-radius is preferred for the description of the data since it leads to the smoothest mean partonic transverse-momentum profile. We have repeated all the calculations using a two-body potential of the same form as the optimal (within the considered class) hyper-central potential in order to check if the presence of three-body forces is supported by the experimental data. Our analysis indicates that three-body forces influence significantly the form of the parton transverse-momentum distribution and consequently lead to an improved description of the considered data. (orig.)

  1. grim: A Flexible, Conservative Scheme for Relativistic Fluid Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL, 61801 (United States); Foucart, Francois, E-mail: manic@illinois.edu, E-mail: gammie@illinois.edu, E-mail: fvfoucart@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Hot, diffuse, relativistic plasmas such as sub-Eddington black-hole accretion flows are expected to be collisionless, yet are commonly modeled as a fluid using ideal general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). Dissipative effects such as heat conduction and viscosity can be important in a collisionless plasma and will potentially alter the dynamics and radiative properties of the flow from that in ideal fluid models; we refer to models that include these processes as Extended GRMHD. Here we describe a new conservative code, grim, that enables all of the above and additional physics to be efficiently incorporated. grim combines time evolution and primitive variable inversion needed for conservative schemes into a single step using an algorithm that only requires the residuals of the governing equations as inputs. This algorithm enables the code to be physics agnostic as well as flexibility regarding time-stepping schemes. grim runs on CPUs, as well as on GPUs, using the same code. We formulate a performance model and use it to show that our implementation runs optimally on both architectures. grim correctly captures classical GRMHD test problems as well as a new suite of linear and nonlinear test problems with anisotropic conduction and viscosity in special and general relativity. As tests and example applications, we resolve the shock substructure due to the presence of dissipation, and report on relativistic versions of the magneto-thermal instability and heat flux driven buoyancy instability, which arise due to anisotropic heat conduction, and of the firehose instability, which occurs due to anisotropic pressure (i.e., viscosity). Finally, we show an example integration of an accretion flow around a Kerr black hole, using Extended GRMHD.

  2. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills

  3. Kinetic Modeling of Radiative Turbulence in Relativistic Astrophysical Plasmas: Particle Acceleration and High-Energy Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John

    In the near future, next-generation telescopes, covering most of the electromagnetic spectrum, will provide a view into the very earliest stages of galaxy formation. To accurately interpret these future observations, accurate and high-resolution simulations of the first stars and galaxies are vital. This proposal is centered on the formation of the first galaxies in the Universe and their observational signatures in preparation for these future observatories. This proposal has two overall goals: 1. To simulate the formation and evolution of a statistically significant sample of galaxies during the first billion years of the Universe, including all relevant astrophysics while resolving individual molecular clouds, in various cosmological environments. These simulations will utilize a sophisticated physical model of star and black hole formation and feedback, including radiation transport and magnetic fields, which will lead to the most realistic and resolved predictions for the early universe; 2. To predict the observational features of the first galaxies throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, allowing for optimal extraction of galaxy and dark matter halo properties from their photometry, imaging, and spectra; The proposed research plan addresses a timely and relevant issue to theoretically prepare for the interpretation of future observations of the first galaxies in the Universe. A suite of adaptive mesh refinement simulations will be used to follow the formation and evolution of thousands of galaxies observable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) that will be launched during the second year of this project. The simulations will have also tracked the formation and death of over 100,000 massive metal-free stars. Currently, there is a gap of two orders of magnitude in stellar mass between the smallest observed z > 6 galaxy and the largest simulated galaxy from "first principles", capturing its entire star formation history. This project will eliminate this

  4. COLLAPSING HOT MOLECULAR CORES: A MODEL FOR THE DUST SPECTRUM AND AMMONIA LINE EMISSION OF THE G31.41+0.31 HOT CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Mayra; Anglada, Guillem; Lizano, Susana; D'Alessio, Paola

    2009-01-01

    We present a model aimed to reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) as well as the ammonia line emission of the G31.41+0.31 hot core. The hot core is modeled as an infalling envelope onto a massive star that is undergoing an intense accretion phase. We assume an envelope with a density and velocity structure resulting from the dynamical collapse of a singular logatropic sphere. The stellar and envelope physical properties are determined by fitting the observed SED. From these physical conditions, the emerging ammonia line emission is calculated and compared with subarcsecond resolution VLA data of the (4,4) transition taken from the literature. The only free parameter in this line fitting is the ammonia abundance. The observed intensities of the main and satellite ammonia (4,4) lines and their spatial distribution can be well reproduced provided the steep increase of the gas-phase ammonia abundance in the hotter (>100 K), inner regions of the core produced by the sublimation of icy mantles where ammonia molecules are trapped is taken into account. The model predictions for the (2,2), (4,4), and (5,5) transitions, obtained with the same set of parameters, are also reasonably in agreement, given the observational uncertainties, with the single-dish spectra of the region available in the literature. The best fit is obtained for a model with a central star of ∼25M sun , a mass accretion rate of ∼3 x 10 -3 M sun yr -1 , and a total luminosity of ∼2 x 10 5 L sun . The outer radius of the envelope is 30,000 AU, where kinetic temperatures as high as ∼40 K are reached. The gas-phase ammonia abundance ranges from ∼2 x 10 -8 in the outer region to ∼3 x 10 -6 in the inner region. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the dust and molecular line data of a hot molecular core, including subarcsecond resolution data that spatially resolve the structure of the core, have been simultaneously explained by a detailed, physically self

  5. Simulation Programs for Ph.D. Study of Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin

    1999-01-01

    The design of solar domestic hot water system is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. This report presents the detaile...... programs or units that were developed in the Ph.D study of " Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems"....

  6. Thermal hydrodynamic modeling and simulation of hot-gas duct for next-generation nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Injun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungdeok; Kim, Chansoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bai, Cheolho; Hong, Sungyull [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jaesool, E-mail: jshim@ynu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Thermal hydrodynamic nonlinear model is presented to examine a hot gas duct (HGD) used in a fourth-generation nuclear power reactor. • Experiments and simulation were compared to validate the nonlinear porous model. • Natural convection and radiation are considered to study the effect on the surface temperature of the HGD. • Local Nusselt number is obtained for the optimum design of a possible next-generation HGD. - Abstract: A very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is a fourth-generation nuclear power reactor that requires an intermediate loop that consists of a hot-gas duct (HGD), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), and a process heat exchanger for massive hydrogen production. In this study, a mathematical model and simulation were developed for the HGD in a small-scale nitrogen gas loop that was designed and manufactured by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. These were used to investigate the effect of various important factors on the surface of the HGD. In the modeling, a porous model was considered for a Kaowool insulator inside the HGD. The natural convection and radiation are included in the model. For validation, the modeled external surface temperatures are compared with experimental results obtained while changing the inlet temperatures of the nitrogen working fluid. The simulation results show very good agreement with the experiments. The external surface temperatures of the HGD are obtained with respect to the porosity of insulator, emissivity of radiation, and pressure of the working fluid. The local Nusselt number is also obtained for the optimum design of a possible next-generation HGD.

  7. Photons from Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, S

    2000-01-01

    It is believed that a novel state of matter - Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) will be transiently produced if normal hadronic matter is subjected to sufficiently high temperature and/or density. We have investigated the possibility of QGP formation in the ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions through the electromagnetic probes - photons and dileptons. The formulation of the real and virtual photon production rate from strongly interacting matter is studied in the framework of Thermal Field Theory. Since signals from the QGP will pick up large backgrounds from hadronic matter we have performed a detailed study of the changes in the hadronic properties induced by temperature within the ambit of the Quantum Hadrodynamic model, gauged linear and non-linear sigma models, hidden local symmetry approach and QCD sum rule approach. The possibility of observing the direct thermal photons and lepton pairs from quark gluon plasma has been contrasted with that from hot hadronic matter with and without medium effects for va...

  8. Particle-in-cell studies of laser-driven hot spots and a statistical model for mesoscopic properties of Raman backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, B.J.; Yin, L.; Bowers, K.J.; Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Fernandez, J.C.; Daughton, W.

    2006-01-01

    The authors use explicit particle-in-cell simulations to model stimulated scattering processes in media with both solitary and multiple laser hot spots. These simulations indicate coupling among hot spots, whereby scattered light, plasma waves, and hot electrons generated in one laser hot spot may propagate to neighboring hot spots, which can be destabilized to enhanced backscatter. A nonlinear statistical model of a stochastic beam exhibiting this coupled behavior is described here. Calibration of the model using particle-in-cell simulations is performed, and a threshold is derived for 'detonation' of the beam to high reflectivity. (authors)

  9. Modeling Single Occupant Vehicle Behavior in High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-14

    High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are in operation, under construction, and planned for in several major metropolitan areas. The premise behind HOT lanes is to allow single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to access high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes (and theo...

  10. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  11. STATISTIC MODELING OF DRYING KINETHIC OF SPINACH LEAVES USING MICROWAVE AND HOT AIR METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nouri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The target of this study was to model of spinach leaves drying using microwave and hot air dryer. This test performed in combination treatment of temperatures (50°C, 60°C, and 70°C and microwave (90, 180, 360, 600 and 900w in 3 replications. Sample moisture measured within drying. All the results were fitted and analyzed with 8 mathematical models base on 3 parameters including determination (R2, Chi square(X2, root mean square errors(RSME. Results also revealed that temperature and microwave power effectively reduce the drying time when increase. Drying occurs in degrading stage; moreover the comparison of results exhibited that Page and Two sentences models were fitted appropriately to estimate moisture changing and drying description. Regarding all the results, it is cleared that microwave method is an appropriate method in spinach drying as a result of reducing drying temperature and its high efficiency.

  12. Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-05-01

    The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr

  13. Hydraulic modelling for analysis of the hot water layer stability in research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo

    1995-01-01

    Pool reactors are research reactors, which allow easy access to the core and are simple to operate. Reactors of this kind operating at power levels higher than about one megawatt need a hot water layer at the surface of the pool, in order to keep surface activity below acceptable levels and enable free access to the upper part of the reactor. This work presents similitude criteria derived by dimensional analysis and by non dimensioning the basic equations to analyze this layer's stability in a reduced scale model. The flow in the reactor is complex. It is impossible to consider all the phenomena with a single similitude criterion. The best would be to construct several models considering all the similitude criteria and then combine the results. Economical reasons and available time in the majority of the cases are a restrain to this procedure. Then, the most important criteria to the considered phenomenon must be chosen in order to give the best results. This work identifies three similitude criteria that were considered important to analyze the pool reactor's hot water layer stability. (author)

  14. The Gravitational Field in the Relativistic Uniform Model within the Framework of the Covariant Theory of Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Fedosin, Sergey G.

    2018-01-01

    For the relativistic uniform system with an invariant mass density the exact expressions are determined for the potentials and strengths of the gravitational field, the energy of particles and fields. It is shown that, as in the classical case for bodies with a constant mass density, in the system with a zero vector potential of the gravitational field, the energy of the particles, associated with the scalar field potential, is twice as large in the absolute value as the energy defined by the...

  15. Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-12-01

    These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.

  16. Towards relativistic quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.

  17. Relativistic Coulomb Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear fission reactions induced by the electromagnetic field of relativistic nuclei are studied for energies relevant to present and future relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Cross sections are calculated for U-238 and Pu-239 fission induced by C-12, Si-28, Au-197, and U-238 projectiles. It is found that some of the cross sections can exceed 10 b.

  18. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  19. Cold and hot model investigation of flow and mixing in a multi-jet flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagot, P.R. [Petrobras Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sobiesiak, A. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Grandmaison, E.W. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Centre for Advanced Gas Combustion Technology

    2003-07-01

    The oil and gas industry commonly disposes of hydrocarbon wastes by flaring. This study simulated several features of industrial offshore flares in a multi-jet burner. Cold and hot flow experiments were performed. Twenty-four nozzles mounted on radial arms originating from a central fuel plenum were used in the burner design. In an effort to improve the mixing and radiation characteristics of this type of burner, an examination of the effect of various mixing-altering devices on the nozzle exit ports was performed. Flow visualization studies of the cold and hot flow systems were presented, along with details concerning temperature, gas composition and radiation levels from the burner models. The complex flow pattern resulting when multiple jets are injected into a cross flow stream were demonstrated with the flow visualization studies from the cold model. The trajectory followed by the leading edge jet for the reference case and the ring attachments was higher but similar to the simple round jet in a cross flow. The precessing jets and the cone attachments were more strongly deflected by the cross flow with a higher degree of mixing between the jets in the nozzle region. For different firing rates, flow visualization, gas temperature, gas composition and radiative heat flux measurements were performed in the hot model studies. Flame trajectories, projected side view areas and volumes increased with firing rates for all nozzle configurations and the ring attachment flare had the smallest flame volume. The gas temperatures reached maximum values at close to 30 per cent of the flame length and the lowest gas temperature was observed for the flare model with precessing jets. For the reference case nozzle, nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations were in the 30 to 45 parts per million (ppm) range. The precessing jet model yielded NOx concentrations in the 22 to 24 ppm range, the lowest obtained. There was a linear dependence between the radiative heat flux from the flames

  20. Two views on the Bjorken scenario for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Maire, Antonin

    2011-01-01

    The sketch describes the Bjorken scenario foreseen for the collision of ultra-relativistic heavy-ions, leading to the creation of strongly-interacting hot and dense deconfined matter, the so-called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).

  1. Lower Silurian `hot shales' in North Africa and Arabia: regional distribution and depositional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüning, S.; Craig, J.; Loydell, D. K.; Štorch, P.; Fitches, B.

    2000-03-01

    Lowermost Silurian organic-rich (`hot') shales are the origin of 80-90% of Palaeozoic sourced hydrocarbons in North Africa and also played a major role in petroleum generation on the Arabian Peninsula. In most cases, the shales were deposited directly above upper Ordovician (peri-) glacial sandstones during the initial early Silurian transgression that was a result of the melting of the late Ordovician icecap. Deposition of the main organic-rich shale unit in the North African/Arabian region was restricted to the earliest Silurian Rhuddanian stage ( acuminatus, atavus and probably early cyphus graptolite biozones). During this short period (1-2 m.y.), a favourable combination of factors existed which led to the development of exceptionally strong oxygen-deficiency in the area. In most countries of the study area, the post-Rhuddanian Silurian shales are organically lean and have not contributed to petroleum generation. The distribution and thickness of the basal Silurian `hot' shales have been mapped in detail for the whole North African region, using logs from some 300 exploration wells in Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. In addition, all relevant, accessible published and unpublished surface and subsurface data of the lower Silurian shales in North Africa and Arabia have been reviewed, including sedimentological, biostratigraphic and organic geochemical data. The lowermost Silurian hot shales of northern Gondwana are laterally discontinuous and their distribution and thickness were controlled by the early Silurian palaeorelief which was shaped mainly by glacial processes of the late Ordovician ice age and by Pan-African and Infracambrian compressional and extensional tectonism. The thickest and areally most extensive basal Silurian organic-rich shales in North Africa occur in Algeria, Tunisia and western Libya, while on the Arabian Peninsula they are most prolific in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Jordan and Iraq. The hot shales were not deposited in Egypt, which was a

  2. Modeling and Optimization of a High-Tc Hot-Electron Superconducting Mixer for Terahertz Applicaitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; Gaidis, M. C.; Burns, M. J.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Delin, K. A.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a YBa(sub 2)Cu(sub 3)O(sub 7-(kronecker delta))(YBCO) hot-electron bolometer (HEB) quasioptical mixer for a 2.5 heterodyne receiver is discussed. The modeled device is a submicron bridge made from a 10 nm thick film on a high thermal conductance substrate. The mixer performance expected for this device is analyzed in the framework of a two-temperature model which includes heating both of the electrons and the lattice. Also, the contribution of heat diffusion from the film through the substrate and from the film to the normal metal contacts is evaluated....a single sideband temperature of less than 2000k is predicted.

  3. State parameter-based modelling of microstructure evolution in micro-alloyed steel during hot forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buken, H; Kozeschnik, E

    2016-01-01

    In steel production, thermo-mechanical treatment at elevated temperatures is an inevitable step for controlling the microstructure and, thus, the mechanical-technological properties of the final product. One of the main goals in modelling microstructure evolution is the prediction of progress and interaction of hardening and softening mechanism at temperatures, where reheating, hot rolling, finish rolling and coiling are typically carried out. The main mechanisms that need to be accounted for are precipitation, grain growth, solute drag, recovery, recrystallization and phase transformation, which are to be described as functions of temperature, external loading and chemical composition of the material. In the present work, we present a new approach for dealing with these problems and apply it to the thermal and mechanical loading of microalloyed steel. Within this model, we quantitatively predict, for instance, the phenomenon of recrystallization stop in the presence of precipitation. The computational treatment is verified against experimental data from literature, where good agreement is achieved. (paper)

  4. COMPUTER MODELING OF STRAINS ON PHASE BOUNDARIES IN DUCTILE CAST IRON AT HOT EXTRUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Pokrovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer modeling of the strain distribution in the structure of ductile iron with ferrite-pearlite matrix and inclusions of spherical graphite dependence on increasing degree of deformation during direct hot extrusion was researched. Using a software system of finite-element analysis ANSYS the numerical values of the strains at the phase boundaries: ferrite-perlite, graphiteferrite and also inside the graphite inclusions were defined. The analysis of the strain distribution in the investigated structures was performed and local zones of increased strains were discovered. The results of modeling are compared with metallographic analysis and fracture patterns. The obtained results could be used in the prediction of fracture zones in the cast iron products. 

  5. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  6. Generalizable occupant-driven optimization model for domestic hot water production in NZEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, H.; D’Oca, S.; Delmastro, C.; Lodeweyckx, S.; Corgnati, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Smart meter data for domestic hot water consumption is collected for 46 NZEB. • Reinforcement learning optimizes energy consumed while constrained on user comfort. • Online optimization models learn occupant behaviour and system thermodynamics. • Offline generalizable models calibrate dynamically the storage vessel operation. • Real world application of the active controls resulted in energy savings of 27%. - Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate improved energy efficiency for domestic hot water (DHW) production in residential buildings. This is done by deriving data-driven optimal heating schedules (used interchangeably with policies) automatically. The optimization leverages actively learnt occupant behaviour and models for thermodynamics of the storage vessel to operate the heating mechanism – an air-source heat pump (ASHP) in this case – at the highest possible efficiency. The proposed algorithm, while tested on an ASHP, is essentially decoupled from the heating mechanism making it sufficiently robust to generalize to other types of heating mechanisms as well. Simulation results for this optimization based on data from 46 Net-Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) in the Netherlands are presented. These show a reduction of energy consumption for DHW by 20% using a computationally inexpensive heuristic approach, and 27% when using a more intensive hybrid ant colony optimization based method. The energy savings are strongly dependent on occupant comfort level. This is demonstrated in real-world settings for a low-consumption house where active control was performed using heuristics for 3.5 months and resulted in energy savings of 27% (61 kW h). It is straightforward to extend the same models to perform automatic demand side management (ADSM) by treating the DHW vessel as a flexibility bearing device.

  7. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar [Department of Biotechnology, Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur, Rayagada 765 022, Odisha (India); Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das, E-mail: pkdmvu@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis.

  8. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis

  9. Uncertainty Evaluation of the SFR Subchannel Thermal-Hydraulic Modeling Using a Hot Channel Factors Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Rock; Cho, Chung Ho; Kim, Sang Ji

    2011-01-01

    In an SFR core analysis, a hot channel factors (HCF) method is most commonly used to evaluate uncertainty. It was employed to the early design such as the CRBRP and IFR. In other ways, the improved thermal design procedure (ITDP) is able to calculate the overall uncertainty based on the Root Sum Square technique and sensitivity analyses of each design parameters. The Monte Carlo method (MCM) is also employed to estimate the uncertainties. In this method, all the input uncertainties are randomly sampled according to their probability density functions and the resulting distribution for the output quantity is analyzed. Since an uncertainty analysis is basically calculated from the temperature distribution in a subassembly, the core thermal-hydraulic modeling greatly affects the resulting uncertainty. At KAERI, the SLTHEN and MATRA-LMR codes have been utilized to analyze the SFR core thermal-hydraulics. The SLTHEN (steady-state LMR core thermal hydraulics analysis code based on the ENERGY model) code is a modified version of the SUPERENERGY2 code, which conducts a multi-assembly, steady state calculation based on a simplified ENERGY model. The detailed subchannel analysis code MATRA-LMR (Multichannel Analyzer for Steady-State and Transients in Rod Arrays for Liquid Metal Reactors), an LMR version of MATRA, was also developed specifically for the SFR core thermal-hydraulic analysis. This paper describes comparative studies for core thermal-hydraulic models. The subchannel analysis and a hot channel factors based uncertainty evaluation system is established to estimate the core thermofluidic uncertainties using the MATRA-LMR code and the results are compared to those of the SLTHEN code

  10. Dissociation of 1P states in hot QCD Medium Using Quasi-Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilima, Indrani; Agotiya, Vineet Kumar

    2018-03-01

    We extend the analysis of a very recent work [1] to study the dissociation phenomenon of 1P states of the charmonium and bottomonium spectra (χc and χb) in a hot QCD medium using Quasi-Particle Model. This study employed a medium modified heavy quark potential which has quite different form in the sense that it has a lomg range Coulombic tail in addition to the Yukawa term even above the deconfinement temperature. Then we study the flavor dependence of their binding energies and explore the nature of dissociation temperatures by employing the Quasi-Particle debye mass for pure gluonic and full QCD case. Interestingly, the dissociation temperatures obtained by employing EoS1 and EoS2 with the Γ criterion, is closer to the upper bound of the dissociation temperatures which are obtained by the dissolution of a given quarkonia state by the mean thermal energy of the quasi-partons in the hot QCD/QGP medium.

  11. (RN) pair production by photons in a hot Maxwellian plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, E.

    2004-01-01

    The production of electron-positron pairs by photons in the Coulomb Field of electrons and positrons (triplet production) in hot thermal plasmas is investigated. The pair production rate for this process is calculated as a function of the photon energy and compared with the rate of photon-nucleus pair production for semi-relativistic and relativistic plasma temperatures. (author)

  12. Relativistic charged fluids: hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbasch, F.; Bonnaud, G.

    1991-10-01

    This report gives a rigorous and consistent hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a charged fluid and the basis equations, in a relativistic context. This study should lead to a reliable model, as much analytical as numerical, of relativistic plasmas which will appear in the interaction of a strong laser field with a plasma. For simplicity, we limited our study to a perfect fluid or, in other words, we disregarded the energy dissipation processes inside the fluid [fr

  13. Dechanneling function for relativistic axially channeled electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralev, V.A.; Telegin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Behaviour of the x(t) dechanneling function depending on the depth is theoretically studied. Theoretical consideration of x(t) for axial channeled relativistic electrons in anisotropic medium results in two-dimensional kinetic equation with mixed derivatives of the parabolic type. The kinetic equation in the approximation of the continuous Lindchard model for relativistic axial channeled electrons is numerically solved. The depth dependence of the x(t) dechanneling function is obtained [ru

  14. Relativistic Light Sails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipping, David, E-mail: dkipping@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.

  15. Relativistic Light Sails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipping, David

    2017-01-01

    One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.

  16. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  17. Relativistic beaming and quasar statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, M.J.L.; Browne, I.W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The statistical predictions of a unified scheme for the radio emission from quasars are explored. This scheme attributes the observed differences between flat- and steep-spectrum quasars to projection and the effects of relativistic beaming of the emission from the nuclear components. We use a simple quasar model consisting of a compact relativistically beamed core with spectral index zero and unbeamed lobes, spectral index - 1, to predict the proportion of flat-spectrum sources in flux-limited samples selected at different frequencies. In our model this fraction depends on the core Lorentz factor, γ and we find that a value of approximately 5 gives satisfactory agreement with observation. In a similar way the model is used to construct the expected number/flux density counts for flat-spectrum quasars from the observed steep-spectrum counts. Again, good agreement with the observations is obtained if the average core Lorentz factor is about 5. Independent estimates of γ from observations of superluminal motion in quasars are of the same order of magnitude. We conclude that the statistical properties of quasars are entirely consistent with the predictions of simple relativistic-beam models. (author)

  18. Volatility smile as relativistic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura

    2017-06-01

    We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.

  19. A library of ATMO forward model transmission spectra for hot Jupiter exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Jayesh M.; Mayne, Nathan; Sing, David K.; Drummond, Benjamin; Tremblin, Pascal; Amundsen, David S.; Evans, Thomas; Carter, Aarynn L.; Spake, Jessica; Baraffe, Isabelle; Nikolov, Nikolay; Manners, James; Chabrier, Gilles; Hebrard, Eric

    2018-03-01

    We present a grid of forward model transmission spectra, adopting an isothermal temperature-pressure profile, alongside corresponding equilibrium chemical abundances for 117 observationally significant hot exoplanets (equilibrium temperatures of 547-2710 K). This model grid has been developed using a 1D radiative-convective-chemical equilibrium model termed ATMO, with up-to-date high-temperature opacities. We present an interpretation of observations of 10 exoplanets, including best-fitting parameters and χ2 maps. In agreement with previous works, we find a continuum from clear to hazy/cloudy atmospheres for this sample of hot Jupiters. The data for all the 10 planets are consistent with subsolar to solar C/O ratio, 0.005 to 10 times solar metallicity and water rather than methane-dominated infrared spectra. We then explore the range of simulated atmospheric spectra for different exoplanets, based on characteristics such as temperature, metallicity, C/O ratio, haziness and cloudiness. We find a transition value for the metallicity between 10 and 50 times solar, which leads to substantial changes in the transmission spectra. We also find a transition value of C/O ratio, from water to carbon species dominated infrared spectra, as found by previous works, revealing a temperature dependence of this transition point ranging from ˜0.56 to ˜1-1.3 for equilibrium temperatures from ˜900 to ˜2600 K. We highlight the potential of the spectral features of HCN and C2H2 to constrain the metallicities and C/O ratios of planets, using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observations. Finally, our entire grid (˜460 000 simulations) is publicly available and can be used directly with the JWST simulator PandExo for planning observations.

  20. A Library of ATMO Forward Model Transmission Spectra for Hot Jupiter Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Jayesh M.; Mayne, Nathan; Sing, David K.; Drummond, Benjamin; Tremblin, Pascal; Amundsen, David S.; Evans, Thomas; Carter, Aarynn L.; Spake, Jessica; Baraffe, Isabelle; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present a grid of forward model transmission spectra, adopting an isothermal temperature-pressure profile, alongside corresponding equilibrium chemical abundances for 117 observationally significant hot exoplanets (equilibrium temperatures of 547-2710 K). This model grid has been developed using a 1D radiative-convective-chemical equilibrium model termed ATMO, with up-to-date high-temperature opacities. We present an interpretation of observations of 10 exoplanets, including best-fitting parameters and X(exp 2) maps. In agreement with previous works, we find a continuum from clear to hazy/cloudy atmospheres for this sample of hot Jupiters. The data for all the 10 planets are consistent with subsolar to solar C/O ratio, 0.005 to 10 times solar metallicity and water rather than methane-dominated infrared spectra. We then explore the range of simulated atmospheric spectra for different exoplanets, based on characteristics such as temperature, metallicity, C/O ratio, haziness and cloudiness. We find a transition value for the metallicity between 10 and 50 times solar, which leads to substantial changes in the transmission spectra. We also find a transition value of C/O ratio, from water to carbon species dominated infrared spectra, as found by previous works, revealing a temperature dependence of this transition point ranging from approximately 0.56 to approximately 1-1.3 for equilibrium temperatures from approximately 900 to approximately 2600 K. We highlight the potential of the spectral features of HCN and C2H2 to constrain the metallicities and C/O ratios of planets, using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observations. Finally, our entire grid (approximately 460 000 simulations) is publicly available and can be used directly with the JWST simulator PandExo for planning observations.

  1. Fast-electron-relaxation measurement for laser-solid interaction at relativistic laser intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Shepherd, R.; Chung, H. K.; Kemp, A.; Hansen, S. B.; Wilks, S. C.; Ping, Y.; Widmann, K.; Fournier, K. B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dyer, G.; Faenov, A.; Pikuz, T.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the fast-electron-relaxation time in short-pulse (0.5 ps) laser-solid interactions for laser intensities of 10 17 , 10 18 , and 10 19 W/cm 2 , using a picosecond time-resolved x-ray spectrometer and a time-integrated electron spectrometer. We find that the laser coupling to hot electrons increases as the laser intensity becomes relativistic, and that the thermalization of fast electrons occurs over time scales on the order of 10 ps at all laser intensities. The experimental data are analyzed using a combination of models that include Kα generation, collisional coupling, and plasma expansion

  2. Theory of a relativistic peniotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhurakhovskii, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A normalized mathematical model for describing the motion of electrons in a relativistic peniotron with smoothly varying magnetostatic field, which provides a state of exact gyroresonance along the entire length of the device, is constructed. The results of computer calculations of the energetics of this device are presented and an example of an effective choice of its parameterse corresponding to high electronic efficiency of a one-velocity flow are presented

  3. The Effect of Process and Model Parameters in Temperature Prediction for Hot Stamping of Boron Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element models of the hot stamping and cold die quenching process for boron steel sheet were developed using either rigid or elastic tools. The effect of tool elasticity and process parameters on workpiece temperature was investigated. Heat transfer coefficient between blank and tools was modelled as a function of gap and contact pressure. Temperature distribution and thermal history in the blank were predicted, and thickness distribution of the blank was obtained. Tests were carried out and the test results are used for the validation of numerical predictions. The effect of holding load and the size of cooling ducts on temperature distribution during the forming and the cool die quenching process was also studied by using two models. The results show that higher accuracy predictions of blank thickness and temperature distribution during deformation were obtained using the elastic tool model. However, temperature results obtained using the rigid tool model were close to those using the elastic tool model for a range of holding load.

  4. Competition of circularly polarized laser modes in the modulation instability of hot magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri Javan, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the problem of modulation instability of an intense laser beam in the hot magnetized plasma. The propagation of intense circularly polarized laser beam along the external magnetic field is considered using a relativistic fluid model. The nonlinear equation describing the interaction of laser pulse with magnetized hot plasma is derived in the quasi-neutral approximation, which is valid for hot plasma. Nonlinear dispersion equation for hot plasma is obtained. For left- and right-hand polarizations, the growth rate of instability is achieved and the effect of temperature, external magnetic field, and kind of polarization on the growth rate is considered. It is observed that for the right-hand polarization, increase of magnetic field leads to the increasing of growth rate. Also for the left-hand polarization, increase of magnetic field inversely causes decrease of the growth rate.

  5. Slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars with relativistic entrainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron stars that are cold enough should have two or more superfluids or supercondutors in their inner crusts and cores. The implication of superfluidity or superconductivity for equilibrium and dynamical neutron star states is that each individual particle species that forms a condensate must have its own, independent number density current and equation of motion that determines that current. An important consequence of the quasiparticle nature of each condensate is the so-called entrainment effect; i.e., the momentum of a condensate is a linear combination of its own current and those of the other condensates. We present here the first fully relativistic modeling of slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with entrainment that is accurate to the second-order in the rotation rates. The stars consist of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and a highly degenerate, relativistic gas of electrons. We use a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the equation of state of the matter and the entrainment. We determine the effect of a relative rotation between the neutrons and protons on a star's total mass, shape, and Kepler, mass-shedding limit

  6. Application of thermodynamics and Wagner model on two problems in continuous hot-dip galvanizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Huachu; He Yanlin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, No.149 Yanchang Road Shanghai 200072 (China); Li Lin, E-mail: liling@shu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, No.149 Yanchang Road Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Firstly in this paper, the influence of H{sub 2} and water vapor content on selective oxidation occurred in continuous hot-dip galvanizing has been studied by thermodynamics and Wagner model, then, the Gibbs energy of each possible aluminothermic reducing reaction in zinc bath was calculated in order to judge the possibility of these reactions. It was found that oxides' amounts and oxidation type were greatly related to the H{sub 2} and water content in the annealing atmosphere. And from the view of thermodynamics, surface oxides (MnO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2} etc.) can be reduced by the effective Al in Zn bath.

  7. Spontaneous photon emission from a non-relativistic free charged particle in collapse models: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, A.; Donadi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the photon emission rate of a non-relativistic charged particle interacting with an external classical noise through its position. Both the particle and the electromagnetic field are quantized. Under only the dipole approximation, the equations of motion can be solved exactly for a free particle, or a particle bounded by an harmonic potential. The physical quantity we will be interested in is the spectrum of the radiation emitted by the particle, due to the interaction with the noise. We will highlight several properties of the spectrum and clarify some issues appearing in the literature, regarding the exact mathematical formula of a spectrum for a free particle.

  8. Shrinkage modeling of concrete reinforced by palm fibres in hot dry environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchiche, Hamida; Kriker, Abdelouahed

    2017-02-01

    The cement materials, such as concrete and conventional mortar present very little resistance to traction and cracking, these hydraulic materials which induces large withdrawals on materials and cracks in structures. The hot dry environments such as: the Saharan regions of Algeria, Indeed, concrete structures in these regions are very fragile, and present high shrinkage. Strengthening of these materials by fibers can provide technical solutions for improving the mechanical performance. The aim of this study is firstly, to reduce the shrinkage of conventional concrete with its reinforcement with date palm fibers. In fact, Algeria has an extraordinary resources in natural fibers (from Palm, Abaca, Hemp) but without valorization in practical areas, especially in building materials. Secondly, to model the shrinkage behavior of concrete was reinforced by date palm fibers. In the literature, several models for still fiber concrete were founded but few are offers for natural fiber concretes. To do so, a still fiber concretes model of YOUNG - CHERN was used. According to the results, a reduction of shrinkage with reinforcement by date palm fibers was showed. A good ability of molding of shrinkage of date palm reinforced concrete with YOUNG - CHERN Modified model was obtained. In fact, a good correlation between experimental data and the model data was recorded.

  9. Hot nuclear matter in the modified quark-meson coupling model with quark-quark correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakout, I.; Jaqaman, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Short-range quark-quark correlations in hot nuclear matter are examined within the modified quark-meson coupling (MQMC) model by adding repulsive scalar and vector quark-quark interactions. Without these correlations, the bag radius increases with the baryon density. However, when the correlations are introduced the bag size shrinks as the bags overlap. Also as the strength of the scalar quark-quark correlation is increased, the decrease of the effective nucleon mass M* N with the baryonic density is slowed down and tends to saturate at high densities. Within this model we study the phase transition from the baryon-meson phase to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase with the latter modelled as an ideal gas of quarks and gluons inside a bag. Two models for the QGP bag parameter are considered. In one case, the bag is taken to be medium-independent and the phase transition from the hadron phase to QGP is found to occur at five to eight times ordinary nuclear matter density for temperatures less than 60 MeV. For lower densities, the transition takes place at a higher temperature, reaching up to 130 MeV at zero density. In the second case, the QGP bag parameter is considered to be medium-dependent as in the MQMC model for the hadronic phase. In this case, it is found that the phase transition occurs at much lower densities. (author)

  10. Steady state model for the thermal regimes of shells of airships and hot air balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchev, Oleg A.

    1992-10-01

    A steady state model of the temperature regime of airships and hot air balloons shells is developed. The model includes three governing equations: the equation of the temperature field of airships or balloons shell, the integral equation for the radiative fluxes on the internal surface of the shell, and the integral equation for the natural convective heat exchange between the shell and the internal gas. In the model the following radiative fluxes on the shell external surface are considered: the direct and the earth reflected solar radiation, the diffuse solar radiation, the infrared radiation of the earth surface and that of the atmosphere. For the calculations of the infrared external radiation the model of the plane layer of the atmosphere is used. The convective heat transfer on the external surface of the shell is considered for the cases of the forced and the natural convection. To solve the mentioned set of the equations the numerical iterative procedure is developed. The model and the numerical procedure are used for the simulation study of the temperature fields of an airship shell under the forced and the natural convective heat transfer.

  11. On the synthesis of resonance lines in dynamical models of structured hot-star winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, J.; Owocki, S. P.; Fullerton, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    We examine basic issues involved in synthesizing resonance-line profiles from 1-D, dynamical models of highly structured hot-star winds. Although these models exhibit extensive variations in density as well as velocity, the density scale length is still typically much greater than the Sobolev length. The line transfer is thus treated using a Sobolev approach, as generalized by Rybicki & Hummer (1978) to take proper account of the multiple Sobolev resonances arising from the nonmonotonic velocity field. The resulting reduced-lambda-matrix equation describing nonlocal coupling of the source function is solved by iteration, and line profiles are then derived from formal solution integration using this source function. Two more approximate methods that instead use either a stationary or a structured, local source function yield qualitatively similar line-profiles, but are found to violate photon conservation by 10% or more. The full results suggest that such models may indeed be able to reproduce naturally some of the qualitative properties long noted in observed UV line profiles, such as discrete absorption components in unsaturated lines, or the blue-edge variability in saturated lines. However, these particular models do not yet produce the black absorption troughs commonly observed in saturated lines, and it seems that this and other important discrepancies (e.g., in acceleration time scale of absorption components) may require development of more complete models that include rotation and other 2-D and/or 3-D effects.

  12. Relativistic Kinetic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.

    2017-02-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  13. Development and modeling of hot tearing test in TIG welding of aluminum alloy 6056

    OpenAIRE

    Niel , Aurélie; Fras , Gilles; Deschaux-Beaume , Frédéric; Bordreuil , Cyril

    2010-01-01

    International audience; TIG welding process is widely used in the aeronautic industry. However, the increase of productivity which generally require an increase of welding speed is limited by the appearance of defects, such as hot tearing. This study focuses on the analysis of hot tearing in TIG welding on a 6056 aluminum alloy, used in aircraft manufacturing. Thanks to the developpement of an original hot tearing test and to numerical simulation of welding process, the influence of various p...

  14. Radiative leptonic decay: B{sup -}{yields}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}}{gamma} in a relativistic independent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India); Naimuddin, Sk; Dash, P C [Department of Physics, Prananath Autonomous College, Khurda-752057 (India); Kar, Susmita [Department of Physics, North Orissa University, Baripada-757003 (India)

    2008-01-01

    We study the radiative leptonic decay, B{sup -}{yields}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}}{gamma}, in the framework of a relativistic independent quark model, based on the confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. As expected, we find that the photon emission in this decay overcomes the so-called helicity suppression inevitable in the case of pure leptonic decay (B{sup -}{yields}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}}). Our result for the branching ratio is Br(B{sup -}{yields}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}}{gamma})=1.70x10{sup -6}, which is comparable with other model predictions within the current experimental upper limit. The photon energy spectrum predicted in the model is slightly asymmetric with the peak value around 1.45 GeV, which should render it quite accessible to experimental analysis.

  15. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results.

  16. Double Relativistic Electron Accelerating Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltanat Sadykova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the possibility of generation of thin dense relativistic electron layers is shown using the analytical and numerical modeling of laser pulse interaction with ultra-thin layers. It was shown that the maximum electron energy can be gained by optimal tuning between the target width, intensity and laser pulse duration. The optimal parameters were obtained from a self-consistent system of Maxwell equations and the equation of motion of electron layer. For thin relativistic electron layers, the gaining of maximum electron energies requires a second additional overdense plasma layer, thus cutting the laser radiation off the plasma screen at the instant of gaining the maximum energy (DREAM-schema.

  17. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Ryazanov, Mikhail Ivanovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results. (orig.)

  18. A 3D coupled hydro-mechanical granular model for the prediction of hot tearing formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistaninia, M; Drezet, J-M; Rappaz, M; Phillion, A B

    2012-01-01

    A new 3D coupled hydro-mechanical granular model that simulates hot tearing formation in metallic alloys is presented. The hydro-mechanical model consists of four separate 3D modules. (I) The Solidification Module (SM) is used for generating the initial solid-liquid geometry. Based on a Voronoi tessellation of randomly distributed nucleation centers, this module computes solidification within each polyhedron using a finite element based solute diffusion calculation for each element within the tessellation. (II) The Fluid Flow Module (FFM) calculates the solidification shrinkage and deformation-induced pressure drop within the intergranular liquid. (III) The Semi-solid Deformation Module (SDM) is used to simulate deformation of the granular structure via a combined finite element / discrete element method. In this module, deformation of the solid grains is modeled using an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive law. (IV) The Failure Module (FM) is used to simulate crack initiation and propagation with the fracture criterion estimated from the overpressure required to overcome the capillary forces at the liquid-gas interface. The FFM, SDM, and FM are coupled processes since solid deformation, intergranular flow, and crack initiation are deeply linked together. The granular model predictions have been validated against bulk data measured experimentally and calculated with averaging techniques.

  19. A study on die wear model of warm and hot forgings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. H.; Park, I. W.; Jae, J. S.; Kang, S. S.

    1998-05-01

    Factors influencing service lives of tools in warm and hot forging processes are wear, mechanical fatigue, plastic deformation and thermal fatigue, etc. Wear is the predominant factor for tool failure among these. To predict tool life by wear, Archard's model where hardness is considered as constant or function of temperature is generally applied. Usually hardness of die is a function of not only temperature but operating time of die. To consider softening of die by repeated operation it is necessary to express hardness of die by a function of temperature and time. In this study wear coefficients were measured for various temperatures and heat treatment for H13 tool steel. Also by experiment of reheating of die, die softening curves were obtained. From experimental results, relationships between tempering parameters and hardness were established to investigate effects of hardness decrease by the effect of temperatures and time. Finally modified Archard's wear model in which hardness is considered to be a function of main tempering curve was proposed. And finite element analyses were conducted by adopting suggested wear model. By comparisons of simulations and real profiles of worn die, proposed wear model was verified.

  20. Ignition conditions relaxation for central hot-spot ignition with an ion-electron non-equilibrium model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Liu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    We present an ion-electron non-equilibrium model, in which the hot-spot ion temperature is higher than its electron temperature so that the hot-spot nuclear reactions are enhanced while energy leaks are considerably reduced. Theoretical analysis shows that the ignition region would be significantly enlarged in the hot-spot rhoR-T space as compared with the commonly used equilibrium model. Simulations show that shocks could be utilized to create and maintain non-equilibrium conditions within the hot spot, and the hot-spot rhoR requirement is remarkably reduced for achieving self-heating. In NIF high-foot implosions, it is observed that the x-ray enhancement factors are less than unity, which is not self-consistent and is caused by assuming Te =Ti. And from this non-consistency, we could infer that ion-electron non-equilibrium exists in the high-foot implosions and the ion temperature could be 9% larger than the equilibrium temperature.

  1. Plasma relativistic microwave electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru

  2. Hot model of formation of galaxies: galaxy sizes and the origin of the stellar component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchkov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Within the framework of the ''hot'' model of the formation of galaxies, a mechanism proposed is by which a protogalaxy transforms into a stellar system. It gives a quantitative relation between the mass and size of galaxy which well fits in with the observational relation; also it specifies two characteristic values of mass which coincide with masses of stars and globular clusters. It is shown that a ''hot protogalaxy'' (T ∼ 10 7 K) contracting under the gravity of a massive dark halo attains a critical size and fragments into separate clouds via thermal instability. The clouds form a collisionless system which collapses quasiadiabatically and reaches the equilibrium after its size decreases approximately by a factor of two. This defines the final zero of the system:R S ∼ 10 (M S /10 11 M sun ) 1/2 kpc. It is close to the sizes of elliptical galaxies and halos of spiral galaxies, and agree with the Faber-Jackson relation. The instability forms clouds with temperatures T c ' ∼ 10 4 K and T c ∼ (10-10 2 ) K. The sharp temperature and density change caused by the cloud formation leads to a sharp change of the Jeans mass. It value drops to M J ∼ 10 5 M sun for the clouds with T c ∼ 10 4 K, and to M J ' ∼ (10 -1 -10) M sun for the clouds with T c ' ∼ (10-10 2 ) K. This may explain why the mass spectrum of galactic objects is rather sharply peaked at two values corresponding to stellar mass and globular cluster mass

  3. The relativistic rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.

  4. Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Franklin S.

    2006-01-01

    The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.

  5. Relativistic Quantum Revivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, P.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum revivals are now a well-known phenomena within nonrelativistic quantum theory. In this Letter we display the effects of relativity on revivals and quantum carpets. It is generally believed that revivals do not occur within a relativistic regime. Here we show that while this is generally true, it is possible, in principle, to set up wave packets with specific mathematical properties that do exhibit exact revivals within a fully relativistic theory.

  6. Relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, Gilberto M

    2013-01-01

    A relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric is studied within the framework of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields, where Marle’s model for the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is employed. The transport coefficients of the bulk and shear viscosities and thermal conductivity are determined from the Chapman–Enskog method. It is shown that the transport coefficients depend on the gravitational potential. Expressions for the transport coefficients in the presence of weak gravitational fields in the non-relativistic (low temperature) and ultra-relativistic (high temperature) limiting cases are given. Apart from the temperature gradient the heat flux has two relativistic terms. The first one, proposed by Eckart, is due to the inertia of energy and represents an isothermal heat flux when matter is accelerated. The other, suggested by Tolman, is proportional to the gravitational potential gradient and indicates that—in the absence of an acceleration field—a state of equilibrium of a relativistic gas in a gravitational field can be attained only if the temperature gradient is counterbalanced by a gravitational potential gradient. (paper)

  7. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  8. Cost modelling of electricity producing hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal systems in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, P.S.

    1992-03-01

    A detailed and comprehensive cost model for Hot Dry Rock (HDR) electricity producing systems has been developed in this study. The model takes account of the major aspects of the HDR system, parameterized in terms of the main physical and cost parameters of the resource and the utilization system. A doublet configuration is assumed, and the conceptual HDR system which is defined in the study is based upon the UK Department of Energy (DEn) HDR geothermal R and D programme. The model has been used to calculate the costs of HDR electricity for a UK defined base case which represents a consensus view of what might be achieved in Cornwall in the long term. At 14.2 p/kWh (1988 costs) this cost appears to be unacceptably high. A wide-ranging sensitivity study has also been carried out on the main resource, geometrical, and operational parameters of the HDR system centred around the UK base case. The sensitivity study shows the most important parameters to be thermal gradient and depth. (Author)

  9. Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, I.

    1985-01-01

    An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored

  10. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of hot air drying of coconut coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, J A K M; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Drying kinetics of coir pith was studied and the properties of compressed coir pith discs were analyzed. Coir pith particles were oven dried in the range of temperatures from 100 to 240 °C and the rehydration ability of compressed coir pith was evaluated by finding the volume expansion. The optimum drying temperature was found to be 140 °C. Hot air drying was carried out to examine the drying kinetics by allowing the coir pith particles to fluidize and circulate inside the drying chamber. Particle motion within the drying chamber closely resembled the particle motion in a flash dryer. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase from 1.18 × 10(-8) to 1.37 × 10(-8) m(2)/s with the increase of air velocity from 1.4 to 2.5 m/s respectively. Correlation analysis and residual plots were used to determine the adequacy of existing mathematical models for describing the drying behavior of coir pith. The empirical models, Wang and Singh model and Linear model, were found to be adequate for accurate prediction of drying behavior of coir pith. A new model was proposed by modifying the Wang and Singh model and considering the effect of air velocity. It gave the best correlation between observed and predicted moisture ratio with high value of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and lower values of root mean square error, reduced Chi square (χ(2)) and mean relative deviation (E%).

  11. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  12. On the hot cracking susceptibility of a semisolid aluminium 6061 weld: Application of a coupled solidification- thermomechanical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajani, H R Zareie; Phillion, A B

    2015-01-01

    A coupled solidification-thermomechanical model is presented that investigates the hot tearing susceptibility of an aluminium 6061 semisolid weld. Two key phenomena are considered: excessive deformation of the semisolid weld, initiating a hot tear, and the ability of the semisolid weld to heal the hot tear by circulation of the molten metal. The model consists of two major modules: weld solidification and thermomechanical analysis. 1) By means of a multi-scale model of solidification, the microstructural evolution of the semisolid weld is simulated in 3D. The semisolid structure, which varies as a function of welding parameters, is composed of solidifying grains and a network of micro liquid channels. The weld solidification module is utilized to obtain the solidification shrinkage. The size of the micro liquid channels is used as an indicator to assess the healing ability of the semisolid weld. 2) Using the finite element method, the mechanical interaction between the weld pool and the base metal is simulated to capture the transient force field deforming the semisolid weld. Thermomechanical stresses and shrinkage stresses are both considered in the analysis; the solidification contractions are extracted from the weld solidification module and applied to the deformation simulation as boundary conditions. Such an analysis enables characterization of the potential for excessive deformation of the weld. The outputs of the model are used to study the effect of welding parameters including welding current and speed, and also welding constraint on the hot cracking susceptibility of an aluminium alloy 6061 semisolid weld. (paper)

  13. Improvements in Thermal Performance of Mango Hot-water Treatment Equipments: Data Analysis, Mathematical Modelling and Numerical-computational Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder M. Mendoza Orbegoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mango is one of the most popular and best paid tropical fruits in worldwide markets, its exportation is regulated within a phytosanitary quality control for killing the “fruit fly”. Thus, mangoes must be subject to hot-water treatment process that involves their immersion in hot water over a period of time. In this work, field measurements, analytical and simulation studies are developed on available hot-water treatment equipment called “Original” that only complies with United States phytosanitary protocols. These approaches are made to characterize the fluid-dynamic and thermal behaviours that occur during the mangoes’ hot-water treatment process. Then, analytical model and Computational fluid dynamics simulations are developed for designing new hot-water treatment equipment called “Hybrid” that simultaneously meets with both United States and Japan phytosanitary certifications. Comparisons of analytical results with data field measurements demonstrate that “Hybrid” equipment offers a better fluid-dynamic and thermal performance than “Original” ones.

  14. Relativistic bound state wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micu, L.

    2005-01-01

    A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is

  15. Hot carrier degradation and a new lifetime prediction model in ultra-deep sub-micron pMOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Xiao-Yi; Liu Hong-Xia; Zhang Kai; Zhang Yue; Zheng Xue-Feng; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue

    2013-01-01

    The hot carrier effect (HCE) of an ultra-deep sub-micron p-channel metal—oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (pMOSFET) is investigated in this paper. Experiments indicate that the generation of positively charged interface states is the predominant mechanism in the case of the ultra-deep sub-micron pMOSFET. The relation of the pMOSFET hot carrier degradation to stress time (t), channel width (W), channel length (L), and stress voltage (V d ) is then discussed. Based on the relation, a lifetime prediction model is proposed, which can predict the lifetime of the ultra-deep sub-micron pMOSFET accurately and reflect the influence of the factors on hot carrier degradation directly. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. 2.5-dimensional numerical modeling of the formation of a plasma channel due to ion redistribution during the propagation of a finite sequence of relativistic electron bunches through high-density and low-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, V.I.; Karas, I.V.; Levchenko, V.D.; Sigov, Yu.S.; Fainberg, Ya.B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of numerical simulations of the excitation of wake fields in high- and low-density plasmas are presented. The propagation of relativistic electron bunches in a plasma is described by a closed set of relativistic Vlasov equations for two spatial coordinates and three velocity coordinates for each plasma component and the nonlinear Maxwell equations for self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Numerical modeling shows that, under ordinary experimental conditions (when the length and radius of the bunch are much less than the skin depth), the radius of the bunches propagating in a plasma varies over a wide range. In this case, the dynamics of both the plasma and the bunches is nonlinear. The radial redistribution of the plasma ions in self-consistent fields leads to the formation of a plasma channel. Incorporating this phenomenon is important for studying the propagation of relativistic electron bunches in a plasma

  17. Relativistic pseudopotential model for superheavy elements: applications to chemistry of eka-Hg and eka-Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsevskii, Andrei V [Institute of Hydrogen Energetics and Plasma Technologies, Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation); Wuellen, C van [Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern (Germany); Titov, A V [B P Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-31

    Relativistic pseudopotential approach to the electronic structure simulation of superheavy elements (SHE) compounds is presented. Advanced formulations of this approach leaving both valence and outer-core electronic shells for explicit treatment give rise to simple and efficient computational techniques ensuring highly accurate description of most chemical properties of SHE. At present, the errors due to the use of approximate methods for solving the correlation problem for a subsystem of valence electrons are much larger than those stemming from the pseudopotential approximation itself. Recent applications to the studies of the chemistry of elements 112 (eka-Hg) and 114 (eka-Pb) are reviewed; properties of these elements and their lighter homologues, Hg and Pb, are compared.

  18. Application of the relativistic mean-field mass model to the r-process and the influence of mass uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Montes, F.; Geng, L. S.; Geissel, H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Meng, J.

    2008-01-01

    A new mass table calculated by the relativistic mean-field approach with the state-dependent BCS method for the pairing correlation is applied for the first time to study r-process nucleosynthesis. The solar r-process abundance is well reproduced within a waiting-point approximation approach. Using an exponential fitting procedure to find the required astrophysical conditions, the influence of mass uncertainty is investigated. The r-process calculations using the FRDM, ETFSI-Q, and HFB-13 mass tables have been used for that purpose. It is found that the nuclear physical uncertainty can significantly influence the deduced astrophysical conditions for the r-process site. In addition, the influence of the shell closure and shape transition have been examined in detail in the r-process simulations

  19. Acoustic geometry for general relativistic barotropic irrotational fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt; Molina-ParIs, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    'Acoustic spacetimes', in which techniques of differential geometry are used to investigate sound propagation in moving fluids, have attracted considerable attention over the last few decades. Most of the models currently considered in the literature are based on non-relativistic barotropic irrotational fluids, defined in a flat Newtonian background. The extension, first to special relativistic barotropic fluid flow and then to general relativistic barotropic fluid flow in an arbitrary background, is less straightforward than it might at first appear. In this paper, we provide a pedagogical and simple derivation of the general relativistic 'acoustic spacetime' in an arbitrary (d+1)-dimensional curved-space background.

  20. Asteroseismic Constraints on the Models of Hot B Subdwarfs: Convective Helium-Burning Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Green, Elizabeth M.; Arnett, W. David

    2017-10-01

    Asteroseismology of non-radial pulsations in Hot B Subdwarfs (sdB stars) offers a unique view into the interior of core-helium-burning stars. Ground-based and space-borne high precision light curves allow for the analysis of pressure and gravity mode pulsations to probe the structure of sdB stars deep into the convective core. As such asteroseismological analysis provides an excellent opportunity to test our understanding of stellar evolution. In light of the newest constraints from asteroseismology of sdB and red clump stars, standard approaches of convective mixing in 1D stellar evolution models are called into question. The problem lies in the current treatment of overshooting and the entrainment at the convective boundary. Unfortunately no consistent algorithm of convective mixing exists to solve the problem, introducing uncertainties to the estimates of stellar ages. Three dimensional simulations of stellar convection show the natural development of an overshooting region and a boundary layer. In search for a consistent prescription of convection in one dimensional stellar evolution models, guidance from three dimensional simulations and asteroseismological results is indispensable.

  1. Charge and current orders in the spin-fermion model with overlapping hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Pavel A.; Efetov, Konstantin B.

    2018-04-01

    Experiments carried over the last years on the underdoped cuprates have revealed a variety of symmetry-breaking phenomena in the pseudogap state. Charge-density waves, breaking of C4 rotational symmetry as well as time-reversal symmetry breaking have all been observed in several cuprate families. In this regard, theoretical models where multiple nonsuperconducting orders emerge are of particular interest. We consider the recently introduced [Volkov and Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 93, 085131 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.085131] spin-fermion model with overlapping `hot spots' on the Fermi surface. Focusing on the particle-hole instabilities we obtain a rich phase diagram with the chemical potential relative to the dispersion at (0 ,π );(π ,0 ) and the Fermi surface curvature in the antinodal regions being the control parameters. We find evidence for d-wave Pomeranchuk instability, d-form factor charge density waves, as well as commensurate and incommensurate staggered bond current phases similar to the d-density wave state. The current orders are found to be promoted by the curvature. Considering the appropriate parameter range for the hole-doped cuprates, we discuss the relation of our results to the pseudogap state and incommensurate magnetic phases of the cuprates.

  2. Hot spot model of MagLIF implosions: Nernst term effect on magnetic flux losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Rubio, Fernando; Sanz Recio, Javier; Betti, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    An analytical model of a collisional plasma being compressed by a cylindrical liner is proposed and solved in a magnetized liner inertial fusion-like context. The implosion is assumed to be isobaric, and the magnetic diffusion is confined to a thin layer near the liner. Both unmagnetized and magnetized plasma cases are considered. The model reduces to a system of two partial differential equations for temperature and magnetic field. Special attention is given to the effect of the Nernst term on the evolution of the magnetic field. Scaling laws for temperature, magnetic field, hot spot mass increase and magnetic field losses are obtained. The temperature and magnetic field spatial profiles tend to a self-similar state. It is found that when the Nernst term is taken into account, the magnetic field is advected towards the liner, and the magnetic flux losses are independent of the magnetic Lewis number. Research supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Project No. ENE2014-54960R. Acknowledgements to the Laboratory of Laser Energetics (Rochester) for its hospitality.

  3. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucar, I. Agustín, E-mail: agustin.aucar@conicet.gov.ar; Gomez, Sergio S., E-mail: ssgomez@exa.unne.edu.ar [Institute for Modeling and Technological Innovation, IMIT (CONICET-UNNE) and Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Northeastern University of Argentina, Avenida Libertad 5400, W3404AAS Corrientes (Argentina); Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C. [Physics Department, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires and IFIBA CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-21

    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH{sup +} (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH{sup +} systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found.

  4. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aucar, I. Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S.; Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C.

    2014-01-01

    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH + (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH + systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found

  5. A Metastable Equilibrium Model for the Relative Abundances of Microbial Phyla in a Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as “Bison Pool” in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that depend on both the

  6. A phenomenological model of thermal-hydraulics of convective boiling during the quenching of hot rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Nelson, R.

    1991-01-01

    After completion of the thermal-hydraulic model developed in a companion paper, the authors performed developmental assessment calculation of the model using steady-state and transient post-critical heat flux (CHF) data. This paper discusses the results of those calculations. The overall interfacial drag model predicted reasonable drag coefficients for both the nucleate boiling and the inverted annular flow (IAF) regimes. The predicted pressure drops agreed reasonably well with the measured data of two transient experiments, CCTF Run 14 and a Lehigh reflood test. The thermal-hydraulic model for post-CHF convective heat transfer predicted the rewetting velocities reasonably well for both experiments. The predicted average slope of the wall temperature traces for these tests showed reasonable agreement with the measured data, indicating that the transient-calculated precursory cooling rates agreed with measured data. The hot-patch model, in conjunction with the other thermal-hydraulic models, was capable of modeling the Winfrith post-CHF hot-patch experiments. The hot-patch model kept the wall temperatures at the specified levels in the hot-patch regions and did not allow any quench-front propagation from either the bottom or the top of the test section. The interfacial heat-transfer model tended to slightly underpredict the vapor temperatures. The maximum difference between calculated and measured vapor temperatures was 20%, with a 10% difference for the remainder of the runs considered. The wall-to-fluid heat transfer was predicted reasonably well, and the predicted wall temperatures were in reasonable agreement with measured data with a maximum relative error of less than 13%

  7. A NEW MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GENERAL RELATIVISTIC NEUTRINO HYDRODYNAMICS CODE OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE. III. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNALS FROM SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the gravitational wave (GW) signal of the post-bounce evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), employing for the first time relativistic, two-dimensional explosion models with multi-group, three-flavor neutrino transport based on the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. The waveforms reflect the accelerated mass motions associated with the characteristic evolutionary stages that were also identified in previous works: a quasi-periodic modulation by prompt post-shock convection is followed by a phase of relative quiescence before growing amplitudes signal violent hydrodynamical activity due to convection and the standing accretion shock instability during the accretion period of the stalled shock. Finally, a high-frequency, low-amplitude variation from proto-neutron star (PNS) convection below the neutrinosphere appears superimposed on the low-frequency trend associated with the aspherical expansion of the SN shock after the onset of the explosion. Relativistic effects in combination with detailed neutrino transport are shown to be essential for quantitative predictions of the GW frequency evolution and energy spectrum, because they determine the structure of the PNS surface layer and its characteristic g-mode frequency. Burst-like high-frequency activity phases, correlated with sudden luminosity increase and spectral hardening of electron (anti-)neutrino emission for some 10 ms, are discovered as new features after the onset of the explosion. They correspond to intermittent episodes of anisotropic accretion by the PNS in the case of fallback SNe. We find stronger signals for more massive progenitors with large accretion rates. The typical frequencies are higher for massive PNSs, though the time-integrated spectrum also strongly depends on the model dynamics.

  8. A Distributed Lag Autoregressive Model of Geostationary Relativistic Electron Fluxes: Comparing the Influences of Waves, Seed and Source Electrons, and Solar Wind Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Laura; Engebretson, Mark; Clilverd, Mark; Rodger, Craig; Lessard, Marc; Gjerloev, Jesper; Reeves, Geoffrey

    2018-05-01

    Relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit depends on enhancement and loss processes driven by ultralow frequency (ULF) Pc5, chorus, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, seed electron flux, magnetosphere compression, the "Dst effect," and substorms, while solar wind inputs such as velocity, number density, and interplanetary magnetic field Bz drive these factors and thus correlate with flux. Distributed lag regression models show the time delay of highest influence of these factors on log10 high-energy electron flux (0.7-7.8 MeV, Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites). Multiple regression with an autoregressive term (flux persistence) allows direct comparison of the magnitude of each effect while controlling other correlated parameters. Flux enhancements due to ULF Pc5 and chorus waves are of equal importance. The direct effect of substorms on high-energy electron flux is strong, possibly due to injection of high-energy electrons by the substorms themselves. Loss due to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is less influential. Southward Bz shows only moderate influence when correlated processes are accounted for. Adding covariate compression effects (pressure and interplanetary magnetic field magnitude) allows wave-driven enhancements to be more clearly seen. Seed electrons (270 keV) are most influential at lower relativistic energies, showing that such a population must be available for acceleration. However, they are not accelerated directly to the highest energies. Source electrons (31.7 keV) show no direct influence when other factors are controlled. Their action appears to be indirect via the chorus waves they generate. Determination of specific effects of each parameter when studied in combination will be more helpful in furthering modeling work than studying them individually.

  9. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big

  10. Simplified model for the thermo-hydraulic simulation of the hot channel of a PWR type nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belem, J.A.T.

    1993-09-01

    The present work deals with the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the hot channel of a standard PWR type reactor utilizing a simplified mathematical model that considers constant the water mass flux during single-phase flow and reduction of the flow when the steam quality is increasing in the channel (two-phase flow). The model has been applied to the Angra-1 reactor and it has proved satisfactory when compared to other ones. (author). 25 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Development of two-dimensional hot pool model and analysis of the ULOHS accident in KALIMER design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, K. S.; Hahn, H. D

    2000-10-01

    In the new version of HP2D program, the variation model of the hot pool sodium level is added so that the temperature and velocity profiles can be predicted more accurately than old version. To verify and validate the developed new version model, comparison of the MONJU experimental data with the predicted one is performed and analyzed. And also the ULOHS(Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink) accident in the KALIMER design is performed and analyzed.

  12. Development of two-dimensional hot pool model and analysis of the ULOHS accident in KALIMER design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, K. S.; Hahn, H. D.

    2000-10-01

    In the new version of HP2D program, the variation model of the hot pool sodium level is added so that the temperature and velocity profiles can be predicted more accurately than old version. To verify and validate the developed new version model, comparison of the MONJU experimental data with the predicted one is performed and analyzed. And also the ULOHS(Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink) accident in the KALIMER design is performed and analyzed

  13. Microstructure Evolution and Flow Stress Model of a 20Mn5 Hollow Steel Ingot during Hot Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Ma, Qing-Xian; Luo, Jian-Bin

    2018-03-21

    20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft due to its good performance of strength, toughness and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under high temperature were not studied. In this study, the hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850-1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01/s-1/s are conducted using Gleeble thermal and mechanical simulation machine. And the flow stress curves and microstructure after hot compression are obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relation and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 hollow steel ingot.

  14. System Response Analysis of Rod Ejection Accident for APR1400 Using KNAP Hot Spot Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Ha, Sang-Jun; Jun, Hwang-Yong

    2006-01-01

    Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) has been developed the non-loss-of-coolant accident (non- LOCA) analysis methodology, called as the Korea Non- LOCA Analysis Package (KNAP), for the typical Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) plants. Considering current licensing methodology conducted by ABB-CE, however, the KNAP could be applied to Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) also. In spite of some difference in design concepts of two plant types, there is a close resemblance between their nuclear steam supply systems (NSSS). So, in this study, the rod ejection accident (REA) event was analyzed using KNAP hot spot model (HSM) for APR1400 to estimate the feasibility of the application and the results were compared with those given in APR1400 Standard Safety Analysis Report (SSAR), which were calculated using the CESEC-III and STRIKIN-II code of ABB-CE. Through the study, it was concluded that the KNAP could be applicable to APR1400 on the view point of REA

  15. Cost modelling of electricity-producing hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal systems in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, P.; Harrison, R.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive cost model for Hot Dry Rock (HDR) electricity producing systems has been developed in this study. The model takes account of the major aspects of the HDR system, parameterized in terms of the main physical and cost parameters of the resource and the utilization system. A doublet configuration is assumed, and the conceptual HDR system which is defined in the study is based upon the UK Department of Energy (DEn) HDR geothermal R and D programme. The model has been used to calculate the costs of HDR electricity for a UK defined base case which represents a consensus view of what might be achieved in Cornwall in the long term. At 14.2 p/kWh (1988 costs) this cost appears to be unacceptably high. A wide-ranging sensitivity study has also been carried out on the main resource, geometrical, and operational parameters of the HDR system centred around the UK base case. The sensitivity study shows the most important parameters to be thermal gradient and depth. The geometrical arrangement and the shape of the reservoir constitute major uncertainties in HDR systems. Their effect on temperature has a major influence on system performance, and therefore a range of theoretically possible geometries have been studied and the importance of geometrical effects on HDR electricity costs assessed. The most cost effective HDR arrangement in terms of optimized volumes and flow rates has been investigated for a world-wide range of thermal settings. The main conclusions from this study suggests that for HDR electricity to be economic, thermal gradients of 55 o C/km and above, well depths of 5 km or less, and production fluid temperatures of 210 o C and above are required. (UK)

  16. A PWR hot-rod model: Relap5/mod3.2.2.{gamma} as a subchannel code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsten, I.C.; Jones, J.R. [British Energy, Barnwood, Gloucester (United Kingdom); Kimber, G.R. [Atomic Energy Authority Technology, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom); Page, R. [National Nuclear Corp. Ltd., Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The use of the PWR transient analysis code RELAP5 for detailed assessment of Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) has previously implied coupling it in some way to a subchannel code, either by direct code-to-code coupling or by transferring core boundary conditions to the subchannel code. This paper shows an alternative by using a group of subchannels modelled in RELAP5 to represent a hot rod. The model consists of three parallel channels, each more refined than its neighbour: The first channel represents a quadrant of the core; the second a quadrant on a fuel assembly and the final channel represents a passage adjacent to a single fuel pin. The model is intended for use as part of point kinetics assessments and each channel is assigned a radial form factor designed to conservatively represent the hottest fuel pins in the reactor core. The main outputs from the model are minimum Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) and clad oxidation for the hot rod (lead pin). The DNBR results from the hot-rod model are benchmarked against the subchannel code COBRA 3-CP and the results are presented in this paper. Some of the modelling problems that needed to be resolved are also highlighted. (author)

  17. Relativistic and non-relativistic studies of nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, MK; Tjon, JA

    2002-01-01

    We point out that the differences between the results of the non-relativistic lowest order Brueckner theory (LOBT) and the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis predominantly arise from two sources. Besides effects from a nucleon mass modification M* in nuclear medium we have in a relativistic

  18. Hot hadronic matter in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Dykema, P.G.; Gleeson, A.M.

    1977-04-01

    A fully relativistic equation of state for hot baryonic matter was used to investigate the strong interaction contribution to the equation of motion of the Friedmann universe. A pronounced softening of the equation of state is observed near nuclear density. The significance of the results is analyzed in terms of analytic solutions for the Friedmann cosmology

  19. Relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1998-12-01

    These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.)

  20. Relativistic solitons and pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpman, V I [Inst. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio-Wave Propagation, Moscow; Norman, C A; ter Haar, D; Tsytovich, V N

    1975-05-01

    A production mechanism for stable electron bunches or sheets of localized electric fields is investigated which may account for pulsar radio emission. Possible soliton phenomena in a one-dimensional relativistic plasma are analyzed, and it is suggested that the motion of a relativistic soliton, or ''relaton'', along a curved magnetic-field line may produce radio emission with the correct polarization properties. A general MHD solution is obtained for relatons, the radiation produced by a relativistic particle colliding with a soliton is evaluated, and the emission by a soliton moving along a curved field line is estimated. It is noted that due to a number of severe physical restrictions, curvature radiation is not a very likely solution to the problem of pulsar radio emission. (IAA)