WorldWideScience

Sample records for model relativistic hot

  1. Investigations of instabilities in nuclear matter in stochastic relativistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.; Yilmaz, O.; Acar, F.; Danisman, B.; Er, N.; Gokalp, A.

    2011-01-01

    The spinodal instabilities for symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature are studied within different relativistic mean-field models in the semi-classical approximation and the relativistic results are compared with Skyrme type non-relativistic calculations. Qualitatively similar results appear in the unstable response of the system in both non-relativistic and relativistic descriptions. Furthermore, the early growth of baryon, scalar and current density correlation functions are calculated for hot symmetric nuclear matter.

  2. The case for the relativistic hot big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P. J. E.; Schramm, D. N.; Kron, R. G.; Turner, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    What has become the standard model in cosmology is described, and some highlights are presented of the now substantial range of evidence that most cosmologists believe convincingly establishes this model, the relativistic hot big bang cosmology. It is shown that this model has yielded a set of interpretations and successful predictions that substantially outnumber the elements used in devising the theory, with no well-established empirical contradictions. Brief speculations are made on how the open puzzles and work in progress might affect future developments in this field.

  3. Proton relativistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1995-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author)

  4. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  5. Relativistic ring models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujevic, Maximiliano [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Letelier, Patricio S.; Vogt, Daniel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao Cientifica. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Relativistic thick ring models are constructed using previously found analytical Newtonian potential-density pairs for flat rings and toroidal structures obtained from Kuzmin-Toomre family of discs. This was achieved by inflating previously constructed Newtonian ring potentials using the transformation |z|{yields}{radical}z{sup 2} + b{sup 2}, and then finding their relativistic analog. The models presented have infinite extension but the physical quantities decays very fast with the distance, and in principle, one could make a cut-off radius to consider it finite. In particular, we present systems with one ring, two rings and a disc with a ring. Also, the circular velocity of a test particle and its stability when performing circular orbits are presented in all these models. Using the Rayleigh criterion of stability of a fluid at rest in a gravitational field, we find that the different systems studied present a region of non-stability that appears in the intersection of the disc and the ring, and between the rings when they become thinner. (author)

  6. Relativistic stellar models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nordström exterior spacetime. The matching of nonstatic charged perfect fluid spheres to the Reissner–. Nordström exterior is restricted by the Bianchi identities as shown by Mahomed et al [1]. Static exact solutions may be used to model the interior ...

  7. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-29

    Apr 29, 2015 ... We review the transport models that are widely used to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We show that transport model analysis of two important and complementary observables, the anisotropic flow of bulk hadrons and suppression ...

  8. Relativistic model for statevector reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearle, P.

    1991-04-01

    A relativistic quantum field model describing statevector reduction for fermion states is presented. The time evolution of the states is governed by a Schroedinger equation with a Hamiltonian that has a Hermitian and a non-Hermitian part. In addition to the fermions, the Hermitian part describes positive and negative energy mesons of equal mass, analogous to the longitudinal and timelike photons of electromagnetism. The meson-field-sum is coupled to the fermion field. This ''dresses'' each fermion so that, in the extreme nonrelativistic limit (non-moving fermions), a fermion in a position eigenstate is also in an eigenstate of the meson-field-difference with the Yukawa-potential as eigenvalue. However, the fermions do not interact: this is a theory of free dressed fermions. It is possible to obtain a stationary normalized ''vacuum'' state which satisfies two conditions analogous to the gauge conditions of electromagnetism (i.e., that the meson-field-difference, as well as its time derivative, give zero when applied to the vacuum state), to any desired degree of accuracy. The non-Hermitian part of the Hamiltonian contains the coupling of the meson-field-difference to an externally imposed c-number fluctuating white noise field, of the CSL (Continuous Spontaneous Localization) form. This causes statevector reduction, as is shown in the extreme nonrelativistic limit. For example, a superposition of spatially separated wavepackets of a fermion will eventually be reduced to a single wavepacket: the meson-field-difference discriminates among the Yukawa-potential ''handles'' attached to each wavepacket, thereby selecting one wavepacket to survive by the CSL mechanism. Analysis beyond that given in this paper is required to see what happens when the fermions are allowed to move. (It is possible that the ''vacuum'' state becomes involved in the dynamics so that the ''gauge'' conditions can no longer be maintained.) It is shown how to incorporate these ideas into quantum

  9. Relativistic models of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, V.; Kim, E.J.; Cauvin, M.; Kohmura, T.; Ohnaka, S.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the relativistic field formalism for the description of nuclear structure has improved our understanding of fundamental nuclear mechanisms such as saturation or many body forces. We discuss some of these progresses, both in the semi-classical mean field approximation and in a quantized meson field approach. (author)

  10. Exact quantisation of the relativistic Hopfield model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belgiorno, F., E-mail: francesco.belgiorno@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo 32, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); INdAM-GNFM (Italy); Cacciatori, S.L., E-mail: sergio.cacciatori@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Piazza, F., E-mail: f.dallapiazza@gmail.com [Università “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Matematica, Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185, Roma (Italy); Doronzo, M., E-mail: m.doronzo@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, which entails the interaction of the quantum electromagnetic field with the matter dipole fields, represented by a mesoscopic polarisation field. A full quantisation of the model is provided in a covariant gauge, with the aim of maintaining explicit relativistic covariance. Breaking of the Lorentz invariance due to the intrinsic presence in the model of a preferred reference frame is also taken into account. Relativistic covariance forces us to deal with the unphysical (scalar and longitudinal) components of the fields, furthermore it introduces, in a more tricky form, the well-known dipole ghost of standard QED in a covariant gauge. In order to correctly dispose of this contribution, we implement a generalised Lautrup trick. Furthermore, causality and the relation of the model with the Wightman axioms are also discussed.

  11. Meson spectra using relativistic quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The complexity of QCD has led to the use of simpler, phenomenological models for hadrons, notably potential models. A short overview of the origin, rationale, merits and demerits of such models is given. Nonrelativistic models and scaling laws are discussed using the WKB technique for illustrative purposes. The failure of nonrelativistic models to describe the lighter mesons motivates the introduction of relativistic equations. Relativistic kinematics are incorporated into a Schroedinger formalism using equations derived by A. Barut, while two-body kinematics are brought into a one-body form via a substitution related to the Todorov equation. The potential used involves a semi-analytic solution to a harmonic oscillator modified by a spin-spin interaction term. The results seem to indicate that such a harmonic oscillator is unsuitable to describe diquark systems adequately

  12. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  13. A relativistic quark–diquark model for the nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relativistic kinetic energy correction are studied. Finally, charge form factor of the model ... isfactory results for the static properties of the nucleon and of its excited states. However, relativistic versions of the ... perturbative way the kinetic energy relativistic correction that was not considered previously. Furthermore, we use a ...

  14. Relativistic nuclear physics with the spectator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1988-01-01

    The spectator model, a general approach to the relativistic treatment of nuclear physics problems in which spectators to nuclear interactions are put on their mass-shell, will be defined nd described. The approach grows out of the relativistic treatment of two and three body systems in which one particle is off-shell, and recent numerical results for the NN interaction will be presented. Two meson-exchange models, one with only 4 mesons (π, σ, /rho/, ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with 6 mesons (π, σ, /rho/, ω, δ, and /eta/) but a pure γ 5 γ/sup mu/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rho/ 40 Cα elastic scattering observables. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Proton relativistic model; Modelo relativistico do proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1995-12-31

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author) 42 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Hydrodynamic modelling for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    progress on hydrodynamic modelling, investigation on the flow data and the extraction of the QGP shear viscosity in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. 2. Hydrodynamic modelling – a short introduction. 2.1 Viscous hydrodynamics. Relativistic hydrodynamics is a macroscopic tool to simulate the QGP fireball ...

  17. Modeling the Emission from Turbulent Relativistic Jets in Active ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present a numerical model developed to calculate observed fluxes of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. The observed flux of each turbulent eddy is dependent upon its variable Doppler boosting factor, computed as a function of the relativistic sum of the individual eddy and bulk jet velocities, and ...

  18. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transport model analysis of two important and complementary observables, the anisotropic flow of bulk hadrons and suppression of hadron yields at high transverse momentum, provide exciting new information on the properties of the plasma formed. Keywords. Quark-gluon plasma; transport models; flow; jet quenching.

  19. Relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model, which has been proposed recently in an astrophysical context. Assuming a constant distribution of protons inside the nucleus of finite size avoids severe divergence of the electron density with respect to a point-like nucleus. A formula for the nuclear radius is chosen to treat any element. The relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model matches the two asymptotic regimes, i.e., the non-relativistic and the ultra-relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi models. The equation of state is considered in detail. For each version of the finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model, the pressure, the kinetic energy, and the entropy are calculated. The internal energy and free energy are also considered. The thermodynamic consistency of the three models is considered by working from the free energy. The virial question is also studied in the three cases as well as the relationship with the density functional theory. The relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model is far more involved than the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi models that are very close to each other from a mathematical point of view.

  20. Relativistic mean field model for entrainment in general relativistic superfluid neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, G.L.; Joynt, R.

    2003-01-01

    General relativistic superfluid neutron stars have a significantly more intricate dynamics than their ordinary fluid counterparts. Superfluidity allows different superfluid (and superconducting) species of particles to have independent fluid flows, a consequence of which is that the fluid equations of motion contain as many fluid element velocities as superfluid species. Whenever the particles of one superfluid interact with those of another, the momentum of each superfluid will be a linear combination of both superfluid velocities. This leads to the so-called entrainment effect whereby the motion of one superfluid will induce a momentum in the other superfluid. We have constructed a fully relativistic model for entrainment between superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons using a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the nucleons and their interactions. In this context there are two notions of 'relativistic': relativistic motion of the individual nucleons with respect to a local region of the star (i.e. a fluid element containing, say, an Avogadro's number of particles), and the motion of fluid elements with respect to the rest of the star. While it is the case that the fluid elements will typically maintain average speeds at a fraction of that of light, the supranuclear densities in the core of a neutron star can make the nucleons themselves have quite high average speeds within each fluid element. The formalism is applied to the problem of slowly rotating superfluid neutron star configurations, a distinguishing characteristic being that the neutrons can rotate at a rate different from that of the protons

  1. Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions - a hot cocktail of hydrodynamics, resonances and jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrodin E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies of RHIC and LHC are considered. For comparison with data the HYDJET++ model, which contains the treatment of both soft and hard processes, is employed. The study focuses mainly on the interplay of ideal hydrodynamics, final state interactions and jets, and its influence on the development of harmonics of the anisotropic flow. It is shown that jets are responsible for violation of the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ scaling at LHC energies. The interplay between elliptic and triangular flows and their contribution to higher flow harmonics and dihadron angular correlations, including ridge, is also discussed.

  2. Calculation of relativistic model stars using Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to the Regge calculus, developed in a previous paper, is used in conjunction with the velocity potential version of relativistic fluid dynamics due to Schutz [1970, Phys. Rev., D, 2, 2762] to calculate relativistic model stars. The results are compared with those obtained when the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations are solved by other numerical methods. The agreement is found to be excellent. (author)

  3. Fractional Relativistic Yamaleev Oscillator Model and Its Dynamical Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shao-Kai; He, Jin-Man; Xu, Yan-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Tian

    2016-07-01

    In the paper we construct a new kind of fractional dynamical model, i.e. the fractional relativistic Yamaleev oscillator model, and explore its dynamical behaviors. We will find that the fractional relativistic Yamaleev oscillator model possesses Lie algebraic structure and satisfies generalized Poisson conservation law. We will also give the Poisson conserved quantities of the model. Further, the relation between conserved quantities and integral invariants of the model is studied and it is proved that, by using the Poisson conserved quantities, we can construct integral invariants of the model. Finally, the stability of the manifold of equilibrium states of the fractional relativistic Yamaleev oscillator model is studied. The paper provides a general method, i.e. fractional generalized Hamiltonian method, for constructing a family of fractional dynamical models of an actual dynamical system.

  4. The relativistic feedback discharge model of terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2012-02-01

    As thunderclouds charge, the large-scale fields may approach the relativistic feedback threshold, above which the production of relativistic runaway electron avalanches becomes self-sustaining through the generation of backward propagating runaway positrons and backscattered X-rays. Positive intracloud (IC) lightning may force the large-scale electric fields inside thunderclouds above the relativistic feedback threshold, causing the number of runaway electrons, and the resulting X-ray and gamma ray emission, to grow exponentially, producing very large fluxes of energetic radiation. As the flux of runaway electrons increases, ionization eventually causes the electric field to discharge, bringing the field below the relativistic feedback threshold again and reducing the flux of runaway electrons. These processes are investigated with a new model that includes the production, propagation, diffusion, and avalanche multiplication of runaway electrons; the production and propagation of X-rays and gamma rays; and the production, propagation, and annihilation of runaway positrons. In this model, referred to as the relativistic feedback discharge model, the large-scale electric fields are calculated self-consistently from the charge motion of the drifting low-energy electrons and ions, produced from the ionization of air by the runaway electrons, including two- and three-body attachment and recombination. Simulation results show that when relativistic feedback is considered, bright gamma ray flashes are a natural consequence of upward +IC lightning propagating in large-scale thundercloud fields. Furthermore, these flashes have the same time structures, including both single and multiple pulses, intensities, angular distributions, current moments, and energy spectra as terrestrial gamma ray flashes, and produce large current moments that should be observable in radio waves.

  5. Heavy baryon transitions in a relativistic three-quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Koerner, J.G.; Kroll, P.

    1997-01-01

    Exclusive semileptonic decays of bottom and charm baryons are considered within a relativistic three-quark model with a Gaussian shape for the baryon-three-quark vertex and standard quark propagators. We calculate the baryonic Isgur-Wise functions, decay rates, and asymmetry parameters. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Proton-proton virtual bremsstrahlung in a relativistic covariant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinus, GH; Scholten, O; Tjon, J

    1999-01-01

    Lepton-pair production (virtual bremsstrahlung) in proton-proton scattering is investigated using a relativistic covariant model. The effects of negative-energy slates and two-body currents are studied. These are shown to have large effects in some particular structure functions, even at the

  7. Modeling terrestrial gamma ray flashes produced by relativistic feedback discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports a modeling study of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) produced by relativistic feedback discharges. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes are intense energetic radiation originating from the Earth's atmosphere that has been observed by spacecraft. They are produced by bremsstrahlung interactions of energetic electrons, known as runaway electrons, with air atoms. An efficient physical mechanism for producing large fluxes of the runaway electrons to make the TGFs is the relativistic feedback discharge, where seed runaway electrons are generated by positrons and X-rays, products of the discharge itself. Once the relativistic feedback discharge becomes self-sustaining, an exponentially increasing number of relativistic electron avalanches propagate through the same high-field region inside the thundercloud until the electric field is partially discharged by the ionization created by the discharge. The modeling results indicate that the durations of the TGF pulses produced by the relativistic feedback discharge vary from tens of microseconds to several milliseconds, encompassing all durations of the TGFs observed so far. In addition, when a sufficiently large potential difference is available in thunderclouds, a self-propagating discharge known as the relativistic feedback streamer can be formed, which propagates like a conventional positive streamer. For the relativistic feedback streamer, the positive feedback mechanism of runaway electron production by the positrons and X-rays plays a similar role as the photoionization for the conventional positive streamer. The simulation results of the relativistic feedback streamer show that a sequence of TGF pulses with varying durations can be produced by the streamer. The relativistic streamer may initially propagate with a pulsed manner and turn into a continuous propagation mode at a later stage. Milliseconds long TGF pulses can be produced by the feedback streamer during its continuous propagation. However

  8. Multi module model for ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Magas, V K; Strottman, D D

    2001-01-01

    The Multi Module Model for Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is presented. It uses the Effective String Rope Model for the calculation of the initial stages of the reaction; the output of this model is used as the initial state for the subsequent one-fluid calculations. It is shown that such an initial state leads to the creation of the third flow component. The hydrodynamical evolution of the energy density distribution is also presented.

  9. Kinematic arguments against single relativistic shell models for GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Ramirez, E.; Sumner, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Two main types of models have been suggested to explain the long durations and multiple peaks of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). In one, there is a very quick release of energy at a central site resulting in a single relativistic shell that produces peaks in the time history through its interactions with the ambient material. In the other, the central site sporadically releases energy over hundreds of seconds forming a peak with each burst of energy. The authors show that the average envelope of emission and the presence of gaps in GRBs are inconsistent with a single relativistic shell. They estimate that the maximum fraction of a single shell that can produce gamma-rays in a GRB with multiple peaks is 10(exp (minus)3), implying that single relativistic shells require 10(exp 3) times more energy than previously thought. They conclude that either the central site of a GRB must produce (approx)10(exp 51) erg/s(exp (minus)1) for hundreds of seconds, or the relativistic shell must have structure on a scales the order of (radical)(epsilon)(Gamma)(exp (minus)1), where (Gamma) is the bulk Lorentz factor ((approximately)10(exp 2) to 10(exp 3)) and (epsilon) is the efficiency.

  10. Study of the properties of general relativistic Kink model (GRK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.C.S. de.

    1980-01-01

    The stability of the general relativistic Kink model (GRK) is studied. It is shown that the model is stable at least against radial perturbations. Furthermore, the Dirac field in the background of the geometry generated by the GRK is studied. It is verified that the GRK localizes the Dirac field, around the region of largest curvature. The physical interpretation of this system (the Dirac field in the GRK background) is discussed. (Author) [pt

  11. Modeling relativistic jets and cosmic-ray acceleration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globus, Noemie

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores various issues related to relativistic jets associated with black holes. Their formation as well as the acceleration and collimation processes, are studied using a fluid approximation within a global description of the flow. The general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic equations can be integrated using the 3+1 formalism, and the covariant equations can be transposed to a vectorial form, where the physical vectorial quantities are measured by an Eulerian observer comoving with the rotation, the so-called zero angular momentum observer. This formalism allows us to study the physics of the magnetosphere surrounding a Kerr black hole, i.e., the physics of a strongly magnetized plasma in differential rotation in curved space-time. This formalism enabled me to develop a self-similar meridional model in the Kerr metric that allows us to obtain relativistic jet solutions, and to describe the dynamics, and the geometry of the flow close to the rotational axis. In particular, I have investigated how the rotation of the black hole affects the collimation process. I have found solutions for T Tauri stars in the Newtonian approximation in order to study magnetic braking, and to compare them with their generalization in the Kerr metric. Relativistic jets could also be the seat of high-energy corpuscular and photon emission. In particular, gamma-ray bursts could be possible sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. This problem requires the use of a local description of the flow. Finally, we have investigated the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays in these shocks, taking into account the competition between relativistic Fermi acceleration and energy loss due to interaction with the gamma ray background, in order to ascertain whether the observed energies can be obtained in this way. (author)

  12. Properties of hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsene, Ionut Cristian

    2009-07-01

    In this thesis we tried to characterize a few aspects of the rich field of relativistic heavy ion collisions at intermediate and high energies. In chapter 2 we used two different microscopic string models, UrQMD and QGSM, to study the formation and evolution of the locally equilibrated matter in the central zone of heavy ion collisions at energies spanning from sq root sNN approx 4 GeV up to 17.3 GeV. The calculations were performed both in the cubic central cell of fixed volume V = 5 centre dot 5 centre dot 5 fm3 and for the instantly expanding volume of homogeneous energy density. To decide whether or not equilibrium is reached we used a traditional approach based on the fulfillment of the conditions of kinetic, thermal and chemical equilibrium. Both models favor the formation of equilibrated matter for a period of about 10 fm/c in which the matter expands isentropically with constant entropy per baryon. The square of the speed of sound c{sub s}2 has been found to vary in UrQMD from 0.13 at AGS to 0.15 at SPS energies and in QGSM from 0.11 at AGS to 0.15 at SPS. In both models the rise in c{sub s}2 slows down at sq rootsNN approx 9 GeV. Chapter 3 describes the HYDJET++ model as a superposition of the soft, hydrotype state and the hard state resulting from multi-parton fragmentation. Both states are treated independently. The hard part is an NN collision generator called PYQUEN which modifies the 'standard' jet event obtained with the PYTHIA generator and includes radiative and collisional energy loss for partons. Initial state effects like shadowing are included also. The soft part is the thermal hadronic state generated on the chemical and thermal freeze-out hypersurfaces obtained from the parametrization of relativistic hydrodynamics. We found that this model gives a good description of soft observables at top RHIC energy, like the p{sub T} spectrum, elliptic flow and HBT correlations. The hard part of the model describes well the high-p{sub T

  13. Uniform relativistic universe models with pressure. Part 2. Observational tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempec, J.; Krygier, B.

    1977-01-01

    The magnitude-redshift and angular diameter-redshift relations are discussed for the uniform (homogeneous and isotropic) relativistic Universe models with pressure. The inclusion of pressure into the energy-momentum tensor has given larger values of the deceleration parameter q. An increase of the deceleration parameter has led to the brightening of objects as well as to a little larger angular diameters. (author)

  14. New analytically solvable models of relativistic point interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesztesy, F.; Seba, P.

    1987-01-01

    Two new analytically solvable models of relativistic point interactions in one dimension (being natural extensions of the nonrelativistic δ-resp, δ'-interaction) are considered. Their spectral properties in the case of finitely many point interactions as well as in the periodic case are fully analyzed. Moreover the spectrum is explicitely determined in the case of independent, identically distributed random coupling constants and the analog of the Saxon and Huther conjecture concerning gaps in the energy spectrum of such systems is derived

  15. Equivalent Schemes of a Resistive Hot-Carrier Sensor for Measurements of the Parameters of Output Radiation of Relativistic Microwave Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goykhman, M. B.; Gromov, A. V.; Kovalev, N. F.; Palitsin, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed equivalent schemes of high-frequency hot-carrier detectors, which allow one to measure the parameters of output radiation of relativistic microwave generators with higher accuracy, as well as to solve the problems of optimization of the design of such detectors and the ways of connecting them into external circuits.

  16. Relativistic electron's butterfly pitch angle distribution modulated by localized background magnetic field perturbation driven by hot ring current ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Chen, Lunjin; Xie, Lun; Fu, Suiyan; Xia, Zhiyang; Pu, Zuyin

    2017-05-01

    Dayside modulated relativistic electron's butterfly pitch angle distributions (PADs) from ˜200 keV to 2.6 MeV were observed by Van Allen Probe B at L = 5.3 on 15 November 2013. They were associated with localized magnetic dip driven by hot ring current ion (60-100 keV proton and 60-200 keV helium and oxygen) injections. We reproduce the electron's butterfly PADs at satellite's location using test particle simulation. The simulation results illustrate that a negative radial flux gradient contributes primarily to the formation of the modulated electron's butterfly PADs through inward transport due to the inductive electric field, while deceleration due to the inductive electric field and pitch angle change also makes in part contribution. We suggest that localized magnetic field perturbation, which is a frequent phenomenon in the magnetosphere during magnetic disturbances, is of great importance for creating electron's butterfly PADs in the Earth's radiation belts.

  17. Modelling early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggieri M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we model early time dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color-electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism. The dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay is described by relativistic kinetic theory, taking into account the backreaction on the color field by solving self-consistently the kinetic and the field equations. Our main results concern isotropization and thermalization for a 1+1D expanding geometry. In case of small η/s (η/s ≲ 0.3 we find τisotropization ≈ 0.8 fm/c and τthermalization ≈ 1 fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics.

  18. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF TWO-SPECIES RELATIVISTIC FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Giambo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An interface-capturing method is used to deduce equations governingfluid motion in a relativistic two-species flow. These kind of methodscombine simple fluid flow equations, which are the balance law forparticle number and energy-momentum tensor conservation equationfor global fluid, the balance laws for particle number density of eachspecies, with extra equations. Since equations of multi-species relativistic fluid are not closed assigning laws of the state of each species, closure equations are necessarily introduced. A model based on the axiom of existence of a temperature and an entropy for the global fluid, which verify an equation analogous to that holding in the case of a simple fluid, is formulated. Weak discontinuities compatible with such kind of mixture are also studied.

  19. An approach to adjustment of relativistic mean field model parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Tuncay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Relativistic Mean Field (RMF model with a small number of adjusted parameters is powerful tool for correct predictions of various ground-state nuclear properties of nuclei. Its success for describing nuclear properties of nuclei is directly related with adjustment of its parameters by using experimental data. In the present study, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN method which mimics brain functionality has been employed for improvement of the RMF model parameters. In particular, the understanding capability of the ANN method for relations between the RMF model parameters and their predictions for binding energies (BEs of 58Ni and 208Pb have been found in agreement with the literature values.

  20. Exactly solvable relativistic model with the anomalous interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Elena; Messina, Antonino; Nikitin, A. G.

    2010-04-01

    A special class of Dirac-Pauli equations with time-like vector potentials of an external field is investigated. An exactly solvable relativistic model describing the anomalous interaction of a neutral Dirac fermion with a cylindrically symmetric external electromagnetic field is presented. The related external field is a superposition of the electric field generated by a charged infinite filament and the magnetic field generated by a straight line current. In the nonrelativistic approximation the considered model is reduced to the integrable Pron’ko-Stroganov model.

  1. On relativistic models of strange stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (za tan za − 1) (tan z − z)+(za + tan za) (1 + z tan z) . If ρa and m/a are specified, eqs (13), (7) and (11) determine parameters, R and the boundary radius a respectively. All the physical parameters of the models of this class are observed to be easily tractable using numerical procedures. Finch and Skea have shown that this ...

  2. Relativistic model for anisotropic strange stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Debabrata; Chowdhury, Sourav Roy; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Farook; Guha, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we attempt to find a singularity free solution of Einstein's field equations for compact stellar objects, precisely strange (quark) stars, considering Schwarzschild metric as the exterior spacetime. To this end, we consider that the stellar object is spherically symmetric, static and anisotropic in nature and follows the density profile given by Mak and Harko (2002) , which satisfies all the physical conditions. To investigate different properties of the ultra-dense strange stars we have employed the MIT bag model for the quark matter. Our investigation displays an interesting feature that the anisotropy of compact stars increases with the radial coordinate and attains its maximum value at the surface which seems an inherent property for the singularity free anisotropic compact stellar objects. In this connection we also perform several tests for physical features of the proposed model and show that these are reasonably acceptable within certain range. Further, we find that the model is consistent with the energy conditions and the compact stellar structure is stable with the validity of the TOV equation and Herrera cracking concept. For the masses below the maximum mass point in mass vs radius curve the typical behavior achieved within the framework of general relativity. We have calculated the maximum mass and radius of the strange stars for the three finite values of bag constant Bg.

  3. Relativistic Brownian motion: From a microscopic binary collision model to the Langevin equation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter (Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult.)

    2006-01-01

    The Langevin equation (LE) for the one-dimensional relativistic Brownian motion is derived from a microscopic collision model. The model assumes that a heavy point-like Brownian particle interacts with the lighter heat bath particles via elastic hard-core collisions. First, the commonly known, non-relativistic LE is deduced from this model, by taking into account the non-relativistic conservation laws for momentum and kinetic energy. Subsequently, this procedure is generalized to the relativi...

  4. Prediction Model for Relativistic Electrons at Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Lyatsky, Wladislaw

    2008-01-01

    We developed a new prediction model for forecasting relativistic (greater than 2MeV) electrons, which provides a VERY HIGH correlation between predicted and actually measured electron fluxes at geostationary orbit. This model implies the multi-step particle acceleration and is based on numerical integrating two linked continuity equations for primarily accelerated particles and relativistic electrons. The model includes a source and losses, and used solar wind data as only input parameters. We used the coupling function which is a best-fit combination of solar wind/interplanetary magnetic field parameters, responsible for the generation of geomagnetic activity, as a source. The loss function was derived from experimental data. We tested the model for four year period 2004-2007. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual values of the electron fluxes for whole four year period as well as for each of these years is stable and incredibly high (about 0.9). The high and stable correlation between the computed and actual electron fluxes shows that the reliable forecasting these electrons at geostationary orbit is possible.

  5. Relativistic nuclear matter with alternative derivative coupling models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, A.; Coelho, C.T.; Malheiro, M.

    1994-01-01

    Effective Lagrangians involving nucleons coupled to scalar and vector fields are investigated within the framework of relativistic mean-field theory. The study presents the traditional Walecka model and different kinds of scalar derivative coupling suggested by Zimanyi and Moszkowski. The incompressibility (presented in an analytical form), scalar potential, and vector potential at the saturation point of nuclear matter are compared for these models. The real optical potential for the models are calculated and one of the models fits well the experimental curve from-50 to 400 MeV while also gives a soft equation of state. By varying the coupling constants and keeping the saturation point of nuclear matter approximately fixed, only the Walecka model presents a first order phase transition of finite temperature at zero density. (author)

  6. Spectra of heavy-light mesons in a relativistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Bin; Lü, Cai-Dian

    2017-05-01

    The spectra and wave functions of heavy-light mesons are calculated within a relativistic quark model which is based on a heavy-quark expansion of the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter equation by applying the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. The kernel we choose is the standard combination of linear scalar and Coulombic vector. The effective Hamiltonian for heavy-light quark-antiquark system is calculated up to order 1/m_Q^2. Our results are in good agreement with available experimental data except for the anomalous D_{s0}^*(2317) and D_{s1}(2460) states. The newly observed heavy-light meson states can be accommodated successfully in the relativistic quark model with their assignments presented. The D_{sJ}^*(2860) can be interpreted as the |1^{3/2}D_1\\rangle and |1^{5/2}D_3\\rangle states being members of the 1D family with J^P=1^- and 3^-.

  7. Spectra of heavy-light mesons in a relativistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-Bin; Lue, Cai-Dian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    The spectra and wave functions of heavy-light mesons are calculated within a relativistic quark model which is based on a heavy-quark expansion of the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter equation by applying the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. The kernel we choose is the standard combination of linear scalar and Coulombic vector. The effective Hamiltonian for heavy-light quark-antiquark system is calculated up to order 1/m{sub Q}{sup 2}. Our results are in good agreement with available experimental data except for the anomalous D{sub s0}{sup *}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) states. The newly observed heavy-light meson states can be accommodated successfully in the relativistic quark model with their assignments presented. The D{sub sJ}{sup *}(2860) can be interpreted as the vertical stroke 1{sup 3/2}D{sub 1} right angle and vertical stroke 1{sup 5/2}D{sub 3} right angle states being members of the 1D family with J{sup P} = 1{sup -} and 3{sup -}. (orig.)

  8. Relativistic generalizations of simple pion-nucleon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic, partial wave N/D dispersion theory is developed for low energy pion-nucleon elastic scattering. The theory is simplified by treating crossing symmetry only to lowest order in the inverse nucleon mass. The coupling of elastic scattering to inelastic channels is included by taking the necessary inelasticity from experimental data. Three models are examined: pseudoscalar coupling of pions and nucleons, pseudovector coupling, and a model in which all intermediate antinucleons are projected out of the amplitude. The phase shifts in the dominant P 33 channel are quantitatively reproduced for P/sub lab/ 33 phase shifts. Thus a model of the pion-nucleon interaction which does not include antinucleon degrees of freedom is found to be unphysical

  9. A relativistic, meson exchange model of pion-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearces, B.C.; Jennings, B.K.

    1990-06-01

    A relativistic meson exchange approach to the pion-nucleon interaction is developed using a three-dimensional relativistic two-body propagator, and the results using different propagators are compared. The relativistic approach is able to describe low energy scattering up to 400 MeV above threshold, while preserving the soft pion theorems. The different propagators give similar results, as the form factors necessary to get a fit suppress much of the multiple scattering. (Author) (24 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.)

  10. A dynamical condition for a relativistic galaxy cluster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevese, D.; Vignato, A.

    1976-01-01

    In an attempt to give a coherent interpretation of the secondary maximum in the density distribution of clusters an approximate metric tensor proposed by other authors is used with the purpose of building a relativistic generalization of the isothermal models of galaxy clusters. Although such a generalization gives rise to oscillations in the density distribution, the quantitative agreement with the observational data is unsatisfactory. The analysis of the metric tensor used brings out the points (i) the approximation on which the metric is based is not suitable for describing an actual galaxy and (ii) the dynamical conditions of clusters require inclusion of a cosmological expansion, and of anisotropic distribution function in the phase-space. (Auth.)

  11. Modeling the Emission from Turbulent Relativistic Jets in Active ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-12

    Jul 12, 2014 ... that have either standard Kolmogorov or recently derived relativistic tur- bulence spectra. We also account .... to compare a relativistic turbulent spectrum with a standard Kolmogorov turbu- lence spectrum, since it provides a ..... Using 3300 timesteps, and accounting for a shift towards later times due to the ...

  12. Mathematical modeling of deformation during hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, D.; Stachowiak, R.G.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Brimacombe, J.K. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Processing Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The deformation that occurs in the roll bite during the hot rolling of steel, particularly the strain-rate and strain distribution, has been mathematically modeled using finite-element analysis. In this paper three different finite-element models are compared with one another and with industrial measurements. The first model is an Eulerian analysis based on the flow formulation method, while the second utilizes an Updated Lagrangian approach. The third model is based on a commercially available program DEFORM which also utilizes a Lagrangian reference frame. Model predictions of strain and strain-rate distribution, particularly near the surface of the slab, are strongly influenced by the treatment of friction at the boundary and the magnitude of the friction coefficient or shear factor. Roll forces predicted by the model have been compared with industrial rolling loads from a seven-stand hot-strip mill.

  13. A quantum relativistic integrable model as the continuous limit of the six-vertex model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    The six-vertex model in two-dimensional statistical mechanics is used to construct the L-matrix of a one-dimensional quantum relativistic integrable model through a continuous limit. This is the first step to extend the method used earlier by the author to construct quantum completely integrable systems from other well-known two-dimensional vertex models. (orig.)

  14. Chemical equilibrium relations used in the fireball model of relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fireball model of relativistic heavy-ion collision uses chemical equilibrium relations to predict cross sections for particle and composite productions. These relations are examined in a canonical ensemble model where chemical equilibrium is not explicitly invoked

  15. Structure of relativistic stellar configurations. Linear stellar model in GRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ureche, V.

    1980-01-01

    The equations which describe the hydrostatic equilibrium of a relativistic stellar configuration with a spherical symmetric gravitational field (without rotational, tidal or magnetic perturbations) are presented. With suitable transformations, the equations of mass continuity and of hydrostatic equilibrium are given in a non-dimensional form. With the obtained equations the homogeneous stellar model is studied. Instead of the general accepted condition R>(9/8)Rsub(g), the new stability conditions R(>=)(9/5)Rsub(g) and R(>=)(4/3)Rsub(g) were obtained, corresponding to the restrictions of the pressure P( 2 and respectively P( 2 . The linear stellar model, used by Stein for the study of the newtonian star structure, is transposed in the frame of GRT. In this case, for the equation of mass continuity an exact solution was obtained, while the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium was reduced to a numerical integrable form, with an adequate boundary restrictions of the pressure the stability criteria R> or approximately 1.85 Rsub(g) and respectively R> or approximately 1.49 Rsub(g) were obtained. (author)

  16. Isospin-dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean-field models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An

    2007-01-01

    Using various relativistic mean-field models, including the nonlinear ones with meson field self-interactions, those with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, and the point-coupling models without meson fields, we have studied the isospin-dependent bulk and single-particle properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, we have determined the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy from these different relativistic mean-field models and compare the results with the constra...

  17. Nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NoRD) model of cosmic ray propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, V V; Sibatov, R T

    2017-01-01

    The problem of physical interpretation of the nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NoRD model) for cosmic ray transport in the Galaxy is discussed. The model accounts for the turbulent character of the interstellar medium and the relativistic principle of the speed limitation. Involving fractional calculus and non-Gaussian Lévy statistics yields numerical results compatible with observation data. A special attention is paid to the knee problem. The relativistic speed limit requirement steepens theoretical background spectrum at certain energies, and the position of the break, its sharpness and slopes of asymptotes depend on D α ( E ) and α . (paper)

  18. A general relativistic hydrostatic model for a galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, R.; Pena, L.; Zamorano, N.

    1991-08-01

    The existence of huge amounts of mass laying at the center of some galaxies has been inferred by data gathered at different wavelengths. It seems reasonable then, to incorporate general relativity in the study of these objects. A general relativistic hydrostatic model for a galaxy is studied. We assume that the galaxy is dominated by the dark mass except at the nucleus, where the luminous matter prevails. It considers four different concentric spherically symmetric regions, properly matched and with a specific equation of state for each of them. It yields a slowly raising orbital velocity for a test particle moving in the background gravitational field of the dark matter region. In this sense we think of this model as representing a spiral galaxy. The dependence of the mass on the radius in cluster and field spiral galaxies published recently, can be used to fix the size of the inner luminous core. A vanishing pressure at the edge of the galaxy and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium everywhere generates a jump in the density and the orbital velocity at the shell enclosing the galaxy. This is a prediction of this model. The ratio between the size core and the shells introduced here are proportional to their densities. In this sense the model is scale invariant. It can be used to reproduce a galaxy or the central region of a galaxy. We have also compared our results with those obtained with the Newtonian isothermal sphere. The luminosity is not included in our model as an extra variable in the determination of the orbital velocity. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs

  19. Scattering of Ultra-relativistic Electrons in the Van Allen Radiation Belts Accounting for Hot Plasma Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing; Shprits, Yuri Y; Ni, Binbin; Zhelavskaya, Irina S

    2017-12-18

    Electron flux in the Earth's outer radiation belt is highly variable due to a delicate balance between competing acceleration and loss processes. It has been long recognized that Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves may play a crucial role in the loss of radiation belt electrons. Previous theoretical studies proposed that EMIC waves may account for the loss of the relativistic electron population. However, recent observations showed that while EMIC waves are responsible for the significant loss of ultra-relativistic electrons, the relativistic electron population is almost unaffected. In this study, we provide a theoretical explanation for this discrepancy between previous theoretical studies and recent observations. We demonstrate that EMIC waves mainly contribute to the loss of ultra-relativistic electrons. This study significantly improves the current understanding of the electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belt and also can help us understand the radiation environments of the exoplanets and outer planets.

  20. Classification of integrable two-dimensional models of relativistic field theory by means of computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of classification of two-dimensional relativistic field models (1) spinor; (2) essentially-nonlinear scalar) possessing higher conservation laws using the system of symbolic computer calculations are presented shortly

  1. Particle production in high energy collisions and the non-relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisovich, V.V.; Nyiri, J.

    1981-07-01

    The present review deals with multiparticle production processes at high energies using ideas which originate in the non-relativistic quark model. Consequences of the approach are considered and they are compared with experimental data. (author)

  2. A relativistic quark–diquark model for the nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3INFN, Sezione di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185, Roma, Italy. *Corresponding author. E-mail: Maurizio. ... perturbative way the kinetic energy relativistic correction that was not considered previously. Furthermore, we use a ... energy correction can give a good description of the baryonic spectrum. Finally, we calculate in the ...

  3. Relativistic models of a class of compact objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 4, Ganeshkhind P.O.,. Pune 411 007, India. ∗ ... are characterized by four parameters, namely, λ, k, A and R of geometrical significance related to ... of relativistic static non-singular analytic solutions in isotropic form describing the space- time of static ...

  4. Modelling the spectroscopic behaviour of hot molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    At elevated temperatures the molecules absorb and emit light in a very complicated fashion which is hard to characterise on the basis of laboraroty measurement. Computed line lists of molecule transitions therefore provide a vital input for models of hot atmospheres. I will describe the calculation and use of such line lists including the BT2 water line list [1], which contains some 500 million distinct rotation-vibration transitions. This linelist proved crucial in the detection of water in extrasolar planet HD189733b and has been used extensively in atmospheric modelling. Illustrations will be given at the meeting. A new linelist for the ammonia molecule has just been completed [2] which shows that standard compilations for this molecule need to be improved. Progress on a more extensive linelist for hot ammonia and linelists for other molecules will be discussed at the meeting. [1] R.J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G.J. Harris and R.N. Tolchenov, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 368, 1087-1094 (2006) [2] S.N. Yurchenko, R.J. Barber, A. Yachmenev, W. Theil, P. Jensen and J. Tennyson, J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 11845-11855 (2009).

  5. Quark-Parton Model and Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostenko Boris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to treat the asymptotic freedom and the quark confinement as a self-consistent problem in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics is realized. It is shown that the confinement of quarks induces a change of their helicities together with a simultaneous alteration of orbital momenta, so that the total angular momentum of each quark is conserved. This observation may cast light on the so-called proton spin puzzle after some additional numerical estimations.

  6. Systematics of light nuclei in a relativistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The results of relativistic mean field calculations for non-spherical nuclei are presented and discussed. The need for non-linear scalar meson self-couplings in order to describe the properties of s-d shell nuclei is emphasized along with the importance of self-consistency in calculations of magnetic moments of odd-mass nuclei. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Scattering of Ultra-relativistic Electrons in the Van Allen Radiation Belts Accounting for Hot Plasma Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Xing; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Ni, Binbin; Zhelavskaya, Irina S.

    2017-01-01

    Electron flux in the Earth’s outer radiation belt is highly variable due to a delicate balance between competing acceleration and loss processes. It has been long recognized that Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves may play a crucial role in the loss of radiation belt electrons. Previous theoretical studies proposed that EMIC waves may account for the loss of the relativistic electron population. However, recent observations showed that while EMIC waves are responsible for the signific...

  8. Relativistic Brownian motion: from a microscopic binary collision model to the Langevin equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter

    2006-11-01

    The Langevin equation (LE) for the one-dimensional relativistic Brownian motion is derived from a microscopic collision model. The model assumes that a heavy pointlike Brownian particle interacts with the lighter heat bath particles via elastic hard-core collisions. First, the commonly known, nonrelativistic LE is deduced from this model, by taking into account the nonrelativistic conservation laws for momentum and kinetic energy. Subsequently, this procedure is generalized to the relativistic case. There, it is found that the relativistic stochastic force is still delta correlated (white noise) but no longer corresponds to a Gaussian white noise process. Explicit results for the friction and momentum-space diffusion coefficients are presented and discussed.

  9. A finite Zitterbewegung model for relativistic quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-02-19

    Starting from steps of length h/mc and time intervals h/mc{sup 2}, which imply a quasi-local Zitterbewegung with velocity steps {plus minus}c, we employ discrimination between bit-strings of finite length to construct a necessary 3+1 dimensional event-space for relativistic quantum mechanics. By using the combinatorial hierarchy to label the strings, we provide a successful start on constructing the coupling constants and mass ratios implied by the scheme. Agreement with experiments is surprisingly accurate. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  10. A finite Zitterbewegung model for relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    Starting from steps of length h/mc and time intervals h/mc 2 , which imply a quasi-local Zitterbewegung with velocity steps ±c, we employ discrimination between bit-strings of finite length to construct a necessary 3+1 dimensional event-space for relativistic quantum mechanics. By using the combinatorial hierarchy to label the strings, we provide a successful start on constructing the coupling constants and mass ratios implied by the scheme. Agreement with experiments is surprisingly accurate. 22 refs., 1 fig

  11. A gauge model describing N relativistic particles bound by linear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    A relativistic model of N particles bound by linear forces is obtained by applying the gauging procedure to the linear canonical symmteries of a simple (rudimentary) nonrelativistic N-particle Lagrangian extended to relativistic phase space. The new (gauged) Lagrangian is formally Poincare invariant, the Hamiltonian is a linear combination of first-class constraints which are closed with respect to Pisson brackets and generate the localized canonical symmteries. The gauge potentials appear as the Lagrange multipliers of the constraints. Gauge fixing and quantization of the model are also briefly discussed. 11 refs

  12. Relativistic Disc Line: A Tool to Constrain Neutron Star Equation of State Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2017-09-01

    Relativistic iron Kα spectral emission line from the inner disc of a neutron star Low-Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) was first detected in 2007. This discovery opened up new ways to probe strong gravity and dense matter. The past decade has seen detections of such a line from many neutron star LMXBs, and confirmation of this line from the same source with several X-ray satellites. These have firmly established the new field of relativistic disc line from neutron star systems in only a decade or so. Fitting the shape of such a line with an appropriate general relativistic model provides the accretion disc inner edge radius to the stellar mass ratio. In this review, we briefly discuss how an accurate measurement of this ratio with a future larger area X-ray instrument can be used to constrain neutron star equation of state models.

  13. A relativistic model of the topological acceleration effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Jan J; Roukema, Boudewijn F; Buliński, Zbigniew P

    2012-01-01

    It has previously been shown heuristically that the topology of the Universe affects gravity, in the sense that a test particle near a massive object in a multiply connected universe is subject to a topologically induced acceleration that opposes the local attraction to the massive object. It is necessary to check if this effect occurs in a fully relativistic solution of the Einstein equations that has a multiply connected spatial section. A Schwarzschild-like exact solution that is multiply connected in one spatial direction is checked for analytical and numerical consistency with the heuristic result. The T 1 (slab-space) heuristic result is found to be relativistically correct. For a fundamental domain size of L, a slow-moving, negligible-mass test particle lying at distance x along the axis from the object of mass M to its nearest multiple image, where GM/c 2 3 )x, where ζ(3) is Apery's constant. For M ∼ 10 14 M sun and L ∼ 10-20h -1 Gpc, this linear expression is accurate to ±10% over h -1 Mpc/h -1 Gpc. Thus, at least in a simple example of a multiply connected universe, the topological acceleration effect is not an artefact of Newtonian-like reasoning, and its linear derivation is accurate over about three orders of magnitude in x. (paper)

  14. Differential regularization of a non-relativistic anyon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, D.Z.; Rius, N.

    1993-07-01

    Differential regularization is applied to a field theory of a non-relativistic charged boson field φ with λ(φ * φ) 2 self-interaction and coupling to a statistics-changing 0(1) Chern-Simons gauge field. Renormalized configuration-space amplitudes for all diagrams contributing to the φ * φ * φφ 4-point function, which is the only primitively divergent Green's function, are obtained up to 3-loop order. The renormalization group equations are explicitly checked, and the scheme dependence of the β-function is investigated. If the renormalization scheme is fixed to agree with a previous 1-loop calculation, the 2- and 3-loop contributions to β(λ, e) vanish, and β(λ, ε) itself vanishes when the ''self-dual'' condition relating λ to the gauge coupling e is imposed. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig

  15. Analytical model for relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Rodolfo H.; Gomez, Sergio S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple analytical model for calculating and rationalizing the main relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms. It provides good estimates for those corrections and their trends, in reasonable agreement with accurate four-component calculations and perturbation methods. The origin of the effects in deep core atomic orbitals is manifestly shown

  16. Analytical model for relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Rodolfo H. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400), Corrientes (Argentina)]. E-mail: rhromero@exa.unne.edu.ar; Gomez, Sergio S. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400), Corrientes (Argentina)

    2006-04-24

    We present a simple analytical model for calculating and rationalizing the main relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms. It provides good estimates for those corrections and their trends, in reasonable agreement with accurate four-component calculations and perturbation methods. The origin of the effects in deep core atomic orbitals is manifestly shown.

  17. Strange hadrons and antiprotons as probes of hot and dense nuclear matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; Seltsame Hadronen und Antiprotonen als Proben heisser und dichter Kernmaterie in relativistischen Schwerionenkollisionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Henry

    2010-09-15

    Strange particles play an important role as probes of relativistic heavy-ion collisions where hot and dense matter is studied. The focus of this thesis is on the production of strange particles within a transport model of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) type. Current data of the HADES Collaboration concerning K{sup {+-}} and {phi} spectra provide the appropriate experimental framework. Moreover, the double-strange hyperon {xi}{sup -} is analyzed below the free NN production threshold. Hadron multiplicities, transversemomentum and rapidity spectra are compared with recent experimental data. Further important issues are in-medium mass shifts, the nuclear equation of state as well as the mean field of nucleons. Besides the study of AA collisions a comparison with recent ANKE data regarding the {phi} yield in pA collisions is done. Transparency ratios are determined and primarily investigated for absorption of {phi} mesons by means of the BUU transport code. Thereby, secondary {phi} production channels, isospin asymmetry and detector acceptance are important issues. A systematic analysis is presented for different system sizes. The momentum integrated Boltzmann equations describe dense nuclear matter on a hadronic level appearing in the Big Bang as well as in little bangs, in the context of kinetic off-equilibrium dynamics. This theory is applied to antiprotons and numerically calculated under consideration of various expansion models. Here, the evolution of proton- and antiproton densities till freeze-out is analyzed for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions within a hadrochemic resonance gas model acting as a possible ansatz for solving the ''antiproton puzzle''. Furthermore, baryonic matter and antimatter is investigated in the early universe and the adiabatic path of cosmic matter is sketched in the QCD phase diagram. (orig.)

  18. Colour rope model for extreme relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Nielsen, H.B.; Knoll, J.

    1984-04-01

    Our goal is to investigate the possible cumulative effects of the colour fields of the observable meson multiplicity distribution in the central rapidity region in extreme relativistic heavy ion collisions. In the first Chapter we overview the space-time picture of the string formation in a central heavy ion collision. We take into account trivial geometrical factors in a straight line geometry. In the second Chapter we consider the colour chargation process of heavy ions as a random walk. We calculate the expectation value and the relative standard deviation of the total effective charge square. In the third Chapter we consider the stochastic decay of a K-fold string-rope to mesons by the Schwinger-mechanism. We calculate the expected lifetime of a K-fold string and the time for the first quark antiquark pair creation. In the fourth Chapter we deal with the meson production of a K-fold rope relative to that of a single string and hence we look for a scaling between A + A and p + p collisions. (orig./HSI)

  19. A generalized Jaynes-Cummings model: The relativistic parametric amplifier and a single trapped ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-Guillén, D., E-mail: dojedag@ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Cómputo, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Bátiz esq. Av. Miguel Othón de Mendizábal, Col. Lindavista, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Mota, R. D. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Unidad Culhuacán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Santa Ana No. 1000, Col. San Francisco Culhuacán, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04430 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Granados, V. D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    We introduce a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model and study some of its properties. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this model by using the tilting transformation and the squeezed number states of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. As physical applications, we connect this new model to two important and novelty problems: the relativistic parametric amplifier and the quantum simulation of a single trapped ion.

  20. Neutron-skin thickness of finite nuclei in relativistic mean-field models with chiral limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weizhou; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen

    2007-01-01

    We study several structure properties of finite nuclei using relativistic mean-field Lagrangians constructed according to the Brown-Rho scaling due to the chiral symmetry restoration at high densities. The models are consistent with current experimental constraints for the equations of state of symmetric matter at both normal and supranormal densities and of asymmetric matter at subsaturation densities. It is shown that these models can successfully describe the binding energies and charge radii of finite nuclei. Compared to calculations with usual relativistic mean-field models, these models give a reduced thickness of neutron skin in 208 Pb between 0.17 fm and 0.21 fm. The reduction of the predicted neutron skin thickness is found to be due to not only the softening of the symmetry energy but also the scaling property of ρ meson required by the partial restoration of chiral symmetry

  1. Non-relativistic model for interaction of dark particles with matter

    OpenAIRE

    Takibayev, Nurgali

    2014-01-01

    A non-relativistic quantum mechanical model for interaction of dark particles with matter is proposed; the model describes resonant amplification of effective interaction between two massive bodies at large distances between them. The phenomenon is explained by catalytic action by a third dark particle scattered at a system of two heavy bodies. It is shown that effective interaction between the heavy bodies is changed at large distances and can transform into repulsion contributing in that ca...

  2. Relativistic nuclear fluid dynamics and VUU kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molitoris, J.J.; Hahn, D.; Alonso, C.; Collazo, I.; D'Alessandris, P.; McAbee, T.; Wilson, J.; Zingman, J.

    1987-01-01

    Relativistic kinetic theory may be used to understand hot dense hadronic matter. We address the questions of collective flow and pion production in a 3 D relativistic fluid dynamic model and in the VUU microscopic theory. The GSI/LBL collective flow and pion data point to a stiff equation of state. The effect of the nuclear equation of state on the thermodynamic parameters is discussed. The properties of dense hot hadronic matter are studied in Au + Au collisions from 0.1 to 10 GeV/nucleon. 22 refs., 5 figs

  3. Project: Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gary, S. Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Kaijun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-17

    We present a summary of the FY12 activities for DTRA-funded project 'Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere'. We briefly review the outstanding scientific questions and discuss the work done in the last year to try to answer these questions. We then discuss the agenda for this Technical Meeting with the DTRA sponsors. In the last year, we have continued our efforts to understand artificial radiation belts from several different perspectives: (1) Continued development of Electron Source Model (ESM) and comparison to HANE test data; (2) Continued studies of relativistic electron scattering by waves in the natural radiation belts; (3) Began study of self-generated waves from the HANE electrons; and (4) Began modeling for the UCLA laser experiment.

  4. General relativistic hydrodynamics with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and modeling of accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Orhan

    We present a general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and model of an accretion disk around a black hole. To do this, the GRH equations are written in a conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations is done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. We use Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states to solve GRH equations. First, we carry out different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2 D and 3D. Second, we solve the GRH equations and use the general relativistic test problems to compare the numerical solutions with analytic ones. In order to this, we couple the flux part of general relativistic hydrodynamic equation with a source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time. The test problems examined include shock tubes, geodesic flows, and circular motion of particle around the black hole. Finally, we apply this code to the accretion disk problems around the black hole using the Schwarzschild metric at the background of the computational domain. We find spiral shocks on the accretion disk. They are observationally expected results. We also examine the star-disk interaction near a massive black hole. We find that when stars are grounded down or a hole is punched on the accretion disk, they create shock waves which destroy the accretion disk.

  5. Isospin-dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An

    2007-11-01

    Using various relativistic mean-field models, including nonlinear ones with meson field self-interactions, models with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, and point-coupling models without meson fields, we have studied the isospin-dependent bulk and single-particle properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, we have determined the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy from these different relativistic mean-field models and compared the results with the constraints recently extracted from analyses of experimental data on isospin diffusion and isotopic scaling in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions as well as from measured isotopic dependence of the giant monopole resonances in even-A Sn isotopes. Among the 23 parameter sets in the relativistic mean-field model that are commonly used for nuclear structure studies, only a few are found to give symmetry energies that are consistent with the empirical constraints. We have also studied the nuclear symmetry potential and the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. We find that both the momentum dependence of the nuclear symmetry potential at fixed baryon density and the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass in neutron-rich nuclear matter depend not only on the nuclear interactions but also on the definition of the nucleon optical potential.

  6. An introduction to relativistic processes and the standard model of electroweak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo Maria

    2006-01-01

    These notes are designed as a guide-line for a course in Elementary Particle Physics for undergraduate students. The purpose is providing a rigorous and self-contained presentation of the theoretical framework and of the phenomenological aspects of the physics of interactions among fundamental constituents of matter. The first part of the volume is devoted to the description of scattering processes in the context of relativistic quantum field theory. The use of the semi-classical approximation allows us to illustrate the relevant computation techniques in a reasonably small amount of space. Our approach to relativistic processes is original in many respects. The second part contains a detailed description of the construction of the standard model of electroweak interactions, with special attention to the mechanism of particle mass generation. The extension of the standard model to include neutrino masses is also described. We have included a number of detailed computations of cross sections and decay rates of...

  7. Relativistic three-body quark model of light baryons based on hypercentral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have treated the light baryons as a relativistic three-body bound system. Inspired by lattice QCD calculations, we treated baryons as a spin-independent three-quark system within a relativistic three-quark model based on the three-particle Klein-Gordon equation. We presented the analytical solution of three-body Klein-Gordon equation with employing the constituent quark model based on a hypercentral approach through which two- and three-body forces are taken into account. Herewith the average energy values of the up, down and strange quarks containing multiplets are reproduced. To describe the hyperfine structure of the baryon, the splittings within the SU(6)-multiplets are produced by the generalized Gürsey Radicati mass formula. The considered SU(6)-invariant potential is popular "Coulomb-plus-linear" potential and the strange and non-strange baryons spectra are in general well reproduced.

  8. Alterations to the relativistic Love-Franey model and their application to inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The fictitious axial-vector and tensor mesons for the real part of the relativistic Love-Franey interaction are removed. In an attempt to make up for this loss, derivative couplings are used for the π and ρ mesons. Such derivative couplings require the introduction of axial-vector and tensor contact term corrections. Meson parameters are then fit to free nucleon-nucleon scattering data. The resulting fits are comparable to those of the relativistic Love-Franey model provided that the contact term corrections are included and the fits are weighted over the physically significant quantity of twice the tensor minus the axial-vector Lorentz invariants. Failure to include contact term corrections leads to poor fits at higher energies. The off-shell behavior of this model is then examined by looking at several applications from inelastic proton-nucleus scattering

  9. Modelling properties of hard x-rays generated by the interaction between relativistic electrons and very intense laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper we presented a calculation model for high harmonic generation by relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. In this paper we present a similar model for the calculation of the energies of hard x-rays (20- 200 keV) resulted from the interaction between relativistic electrons (20-100 MeV) and very intense laser beams. Starting from the relativistic equations of motion of an electron in the electromagnetic field we show that the Lienard-Wiechert equation leads to electromagnetic waves whose frequencies are in the domain of hard x-rays. When the relativistic parameter of the laser beam is greater than unity, the model predicts the existence of harmonics of the above frequencies. Our theoretical values are in good agreement with experimental values of the x-ray energies from the literature and predict accurately their angular distribution.

  10. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  12. Deeply virtual Compton scattering in a relativistic quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzenberg, T.

    2007-09-15

    This thesis is mainly concerned with a model calculation for generalized parton distributions (GPDs). We calculate vectorial- and axial GPDs for the N{yields}N and N{yields}{delta} transition in the framework of a light front quark model. This requires the elaboration of a connection between transition amplitudes and GPDs. We provide the first quark model calculations for N{yields}{delta} GPDs. The examination of transition amplitudes leads to various model independent consistency relations. These relations are not exactly obeyed by our model calculation since the use of the impulse approximation in the light front quark model leads to a violation of Poincare covariance. We explore the impact of this covariance breaking on the GPDs and form factors which we determine in our model calculation and find large effects. The reference frame dependence of our results which originates from the breaking of Poincare covariance can be eliminated by introducing spurious covariants. We extend this formalism in order to obtain frame independent results from our transition amplitudes. (orig.)

  13. Relativistic electromagnetic mass models in spherically symmetric spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Ray, Saibal; Chatterjee, Vikram

    2016-10-01

    Under the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Maxwell spacetime of embedding class one we explore possibility of constructing electromagnetic mass model where mass and other physical parameters have purely electromagnetic origin (Lorentz in Proc. Acad. Sci. Amst. 6, 1904). This work is in continuation of our earlier investigation of Maurya et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 75:389, 2015a) where we developed an algorithm and found out three new solutions of electromagnetic mass model. In the present work we consider different metric potentials ν and λ and have analyzed them in a systematic way. It is observed that some of the previous solutions related to electromagnetic mass model are nothing but special cases of the presently obtained generalized solution set. We further verify the solution set and especially show that these are extremely applicable in the case of compact stars.

  14. Relativistic modeling of compact stars for anisotropic matter distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman)

    2017-05-15

    In this paper we have solved Einstein's field equations of spherically symmetric spacetime for anisotropic matter distribution by assuming physically valid expressions of the metric function e{sup λ} and radial pressure (p{sub r}). Next we have discussed the physical properties of the model in details by taking the radial pressure p{sub r} equal to zero at the boundary of the star. The physical analysis of the star indicates that its model parameters such as density, redshift, radial pressure, transverse pressure and anisotropy are well behaved. Also we have obtained the mass and radius of our compact star which are 2.29M {sub CircleDot} and 11.02 km, respectively. It is observed that the model obtained here for compact stars is compatible with the mass and radius of the strange star PSR 1937 +21. (orig.)

  15. Composite models of hadrons and relativistic bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The following problems are considered: what the constituents of the hadrons are; what their quantum numbers and their broken and unbroken symmetries are; what the dynamics of the constituents (equations, binding forces and the origin of symmetry violations) is. The most puzzling question is: why the constituents ''escape from freedom'' and are confined inside the hadrons; what experimentalists can report about the hadron constituents and their dynamics if not finding them. There are no final answers to all these questions. The achievements of quark model are described, some problems concerning the comparison of the quark model with experiment are considered. The attempt is also made to present alternative views on the same problems

  16. ePLAS modeling of hot electron transport in nail-wire targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.; Faehl, R.; Kirkpatrick, R.; Ma, T.; Wei, M. S.; Beg, F. N.; Key, M. H.; Stephens, R. B.

    2010-08-01

    Relativistic electron transport in short-pulse laser illuminated nail-wire and foil targets has been studied with the e-PLAS implicit/hybrid plasma simulation code in a cylindrical geometry. The intensities are typical of the Vulcan and Titan petawatt lasers (1.06 μm, 1.7×1020 W/cm2) in 10 μm diameter Gaussian spots, producing hot electrons at a relativistic γ = 3.4 according to Beg scaling, and with 20% absorption assumed. The targets are 200 μm long nail-headed copper wires 20 μm in diameter, and copper foils 120 μm thick. The code dumps energy at constant intensity for a picosecond at the critical surface into an isotropic relativistic Maxwellian particle-in-cell hot electron distribution. The emitted hot particles draw a cold electron return current scattering off the background ions taken as ionized at a fixed Z = 15. Transport of the hot electrons is impeded by the electric field from a Spitzer resistivity acting on the cold electron return current. Assumed emission angle is shown to seriously affect hot e- penetration in the wires.

  17. Nonequilibrium models of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoecker, H; Bratkovskaya, E L; Bleicher, M; Soff, S; Zhu, X

    2005-01-01

    We review the results from the various hydrodynamical and transport models on the collective flow observables from AGS to RHIC energies. A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 A GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the v 1 -flow and of the v 2 -flow at ∼10 A GeV; at 40 A GeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as evidence for a first-order phase transition at high baryon density ρ B . Moreover, the connection of the elliptic flow v 2 to jet suppression is examined. It is proven experimentally that the collective flow is not faked by minijet fragmentation. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially ( 1 , v 2 closer to beam rapidity is related to the occurrence of a high density first order phase transition in the RHIC data at 62.5, 130 and 200 A GeV

  18. Critical rotation of general-relativistic polytropic models revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroyannis, V.; Karageorgopoulos, V.

    2013-09-01

    We develop a perturbation method for computing the critical rotational parameter as a function of the equatorial radius of a rigidly rotating polytropic model in the "post-Newtonia approximation" (PNA). We treat our models as "initial value problems" (IVP) of ordinary differential equations in the complex plane. The computations are carried out by the code dcrkf54.f95 (Geroyannis and Valvi 2012 [P1]; modified Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg code of fourth and fifth order for solving initial value problems in the complex plane). Such a complex-plane treatment removes the syndromes appearing in this particular family of IVPs (see e.g. P1, Sec. 3) and allows continuation of the numerical integrations beyond the surface of the star. Thus all the required values of the Lane-Emden function(s) in the post-Newtonian approximation are calculated by interpolation (so avoiding any extrapolation). An interesting point is that, in our computations, we take into account the complete correction due to the gravitational term, and this issue is a remarkable difference compared to the classical PNA. We solve the generalized density as a function of the equatorial radius and find the critical rotational parameter. Our computations are extended to certain other physical characteristics (like mass, angular momentum, rotational kinetic energy, etc). We find that our method yields results comparable with those of other reliable methods. REFERENCE: V.S. Geroyannis and F.N. Valvi 2012, International Journal of Modern Physics C, 23, No 5, 1250038:1-15.

  19. Electromagnetic properties of light and heavy baryons in the relativistic quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicmorus Marinescu, Diana

    2007-06-14

    One of the main challenges of nowadays low-energy physics remains the description of the internal structure of hadrons, strongly connected to the electromagnetic properties of matter. In this vein, the success of the relativistic quark model in the analysis of the hadron structure constitutes a solid motivation for the study carried out throughout this work. The relativistic quark model is extended to the investigation of static electromagnetic properties of both heavy and light baryons. The bare contributions to the magnetic moments of the single-, double- and triple-heavy baryons are calculated. Moreover, the relativistic quark model allows the study of the electromagnetic properties of the light baryon octet incorporating meson cloud contributions in a perturbative manner. The long disputed values of the multipole ratios E2/M1 and C2/M1 and the electromagnetic form factors of the N{yields}{delta}{gamma} transition are successfully reproduced. The relativistic quark model can be viewed as a quantum field theory approach based on a phenomenological Lagrangian coupling light and heavy baryons to their constituent quarks. In our approach the baryon is a composite object of three constituent quarks, at least in leading order. The effective interaction Lagrangian is written in terms of baryon and constituent quark fields. The effective action preserves Lorentz covariance and gauge invariance. The main ingredients of the model are already introduced at the level of the interaction Lagrangian: the three-quark baryon currents, the Gaussian distribution of the constituent quarks inside the baryon and the compositeness condition which sets an upper limit for the baryon-quark vertex. The S-matrix elements are expressed by a set of Feynman quark-diagrams. The model contains only few parameters, namely, the cut-off parameter of the Gaussian quark distribution and the free quark propagator, which are unambiguously determined from the best fit to the data. The heavy quark limit

  20. Anisotropic flow fluctuations in hydro-inspired freeze-out model for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bravina, L V; Korotkikh, V L; Lokhtin, I P; Malinina, L V; Nazarova, E N; Petrushanko, S V; Snigirev, A M; Zabrodin, E E

    2015-01-01

    The possible mechanisms contributing to anisotropic flow fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed. The LHC data on event-by-event harmonic flow coefficients measured in PbPb collisions at center-of-mass energy 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair are analyzed and interpreted within the HYDJET++ model. To compare the model results with the experimental data the unfolding procedure is employed. It is shown that HYDJET++ correctly reproduces dynamical fluctuations of elliptic and triangular flows and related to it eccentricity fluctuations of the initial state.

  1. Electromagnetic properties of light and heavy baryons in the relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicmorus Marinescu, Diana

    2007-01-01

    One of the main challenges of nowadays low-energy physics remains the description of the internal structure of hadrons, strongly connected to the electromagnetic properties of matter. In this vein, the success of the relativistic quark model in the analysis of the hadron structure constitutes a solid motivation for the study carried out throughout this work. The relativistic quark model is extended to the investigation of static electromagnetic properties of both heavy and light baryons. The bare contributions to the magnetic moments of the single-, double- and triple-heavy baryons are calculated. Moreover, the relativistic quark model allows the study of the electromagnetic properties of the light baryon octet incorporating meson cloud contributions in a perturbative manner. The long disputed values of the multipole ratios E2/M1 and C2/M1 and the electromagnetic form factors of the N→Δγ transition are successfully reproduced. The relativistic quark model can be viewed as a quantum field theory approach based on a phenomenological Lagrangian coupling light and heavy baryons to their constituent quarks. In our approach the baryon is a composite object of three constituent quarks, at least in leading order. The effective interaction Lagrangian is written in terms of baryon and constituent quark fields. The effective action preserves Lorentz covariance and gauge invariance. The main ingredients of the model are already introduced at the level of the interaction Lagrangian: the three-quark baryon currents, the Gaussian distribution of the constituent quarks inside the baryon and the compositeness condition which sets an upper limit for the baryon-quark vertex. The S-matrix elements are expressed by a set of Feynman quark-diagrams. The model contains only few parameters, namely, the cut-off parameter of the Gaussian quark distribution and the free quark propagator, which are unambiguously determined from the best fit to the data. The heavy quark limit within this

  2. State vector reduction - 2: Elements of physical reality, nonlocality and stochasticity in relativistic dynamical reduction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Pearle, P.

    1991-02-01

    The problem of getting a relativistic generalization of the CSL dynamical reduction model, which has been presented in part I, is discussed. In so doing we have the opportunity to introduce the idea of a stochastically invariant theory. The theoretical model we present, that satisfies this kind of invariance requirement, offers us the possibility to reconsider, from a new point of view, some conceptually relevant issues such as nonlocality, the legitimacy of attributing elements of physical reality to physical systems and the problem of establishing causal relations between physical events. (author). Refs, 3 figs

  3. Models and methods for hot spot safety work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte

    2002-01-01

    and statistical methods less developed. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to improving "State of the art" in Denmark. Basis for the systematic hot spot safety work are the models describing the variation in accident counts on the road network. In the thesis hierarchical models disaggregated on time...... is the task of improving road safety through alterations of the geometrical and environmental characteristics of the existing road network. The presently applied models and methods in hot spot safety work on the Danish road network were developed about two decades ago, when data was more limited and software...... are derived. The proposed models are shown to describe variation in accident counts better than the models currently at use in Denmark. The parameters of the models are estimated for the national and regional road network using data from the Road Sector Information system, VIS. No specific accident models...

  4. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  5. Modelling and simulations in hot deformation of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, hot forming has been employed to provide shape to metals. Nowadays, however, hot working not only produces the desired geometry, but also the mechanical characteristics required. An understanding of the thermomechanical behaviour of metals, and particularly steels, is essential in the simulation and control of the hot forming operations. Moreover, a right prediction of the final properties needs from accurate descriptions of the microstructural features occurring during the shaping step. For this purpose, the determination of constitutive equations describing the stress σ - strain ε relationships at a given strain rate ε, temperature T and initial microstructure, is a useful task. In this sense, computer simulations of hot working processes proportionate a benchmark to engineers and researchers and allow decreasing the cost of developing products and processes. With regard to the prediction of the final microstructure, the simulation of the hot plastic deformation usually gives unsatisfactory results. This is due to the inadequate constitutive equations employed by the conventional and commercial software available to describe the hot flow behaviour. There are scarce models which couple the typical hot working variables (temperature, strain and strain rate) with microstructural characteristics such as grain size. In this review work is presented how the latter limitation can be overcome by using physical-based constitutive equations, some of which have been partially developed by the present authors, where account of the interaction between microstructure and processing variables is taken. Moreover, a practical derivation of the latter expressions on an AISI-304 steel is presented. To conclude, some examples of industrial applications of the latter approach are also presented. Copyright (2002) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  6. A NEW MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GENERAL RELATIVISTIC NEUTRINO HYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE. II. RELATIVISTIC EXPLOSION MODELS OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas, E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-09-01

    We present the first two-dimensional general relativistic (GR) simulations of stellar core collapse and explosion with the COCONUT hydrodynamics code in combination with the VERTEX solver for energy-dependent, three-flavor neutrino transport, using the extended conformal flatness condition for approximating the space-time metric and a ray-by-ray-plus ansatz to tackle the multi-dimensionality of the transport. For both of the investigated 11.2 and 15 M{sub Sun} progenitors we obtain successful, though seemingly marginal, neutrino-driven supernova explosions. This outcome and the time evolution of the models basically agree with results previously obtained with the PROMETHEUS hydro solver including an approximative treatment of relativistic effects by a modified Newtonian potential. However, GR models exhibit subtle differences in the neutrinospheric conditions compared with Newtonian and pseudo-Newtonian simulations. These differences lead to significantly higher luminosities and mean energies of the radiated electron neutrinos and antineutrinos and therefore to larger energy-deposition rates and heating efficiencies in the gain layer with favorable consequences for strong nonradial mass motions and ultimately for an explosion. Moreover, energy transfer to the stellar medium around the neutrinospheres through nucleon recoil in scattering reactions of heavy-lepton neutrinos also enhances the mentioned effects. Together with previous pseudo-Newtonian models, the presented relativistic calculations suggest that the treatment of gravity and energy-exchanging neutrino interactions can make differences of even 50%-100% in some quantities and is likely to contribute to a finally successful explosion mechanism on no minor level than hydrodynamical differences between different dimensions.

  7. Solution of the hyperon puzzle within a relativistic mean-field model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Maslov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The equation of state of cold baryonic matter is studied within a relativistic mean-field model with hadron masses and coupling constants depending on the scalar field. All hadron masses undergo a universal scaling, whereas the couplings are scaled differently. The appearance of hyperons in dense neutron star interiors is accounted for, however the equation of state remains sufficiently stiff if the reduction of the ϕ meson mass is included. Our equation of state matches well the constraints known from analyses of the astrophysical data and particle production in heavy-ion collisions.

  8. Multiple-collision model for pion production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A simple model for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is developed based on nucleon-nucleon data, nuclear density distribution, and the assumption of straight-line trajectories. Multiplicity distributions for total pion production and for negative-pion production are predicted for 40 Ar incident on a Pb 3 O 4 target at 1.8 GeV/nucleon. Production through intermediate baryon resonances reduces the high-multiplicity region but insufficiently to yield agreement with data. This implies the need for a coherent production mechanism

  9. Hadron spectra from a non-relativistic model with confining harmonic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuervo-Reyes Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadron spectra and other properties of quark systems are studied in the framework of a non-relativistic spinindependent phenomenological model. The chosen confining potential is harmonic, which allowed us to obtain analytical solutions for both meson and baryon (of equal constituent quarks spectra. The introduced parameters are fixed from the low-lying levels of heavy quark mesons. The requirement of flavor independence is imposed, and it restricts the possible choices of inter-quark potentials. The hyper-spherical coordinates are considered for the solution of the three-body problem.

  10. A new relativistic model for tidal stream evolution during tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Juan; Kesden, Michael

    2018-01-01

    When stars are tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, approximately half of their original mass becomes gravitationally bound and may eventually produce a tidal flare. The stellar debris evolves into streams that can self-intersect due to relativistic pericenter precession. Energy loss in these inelastic collisions both circularizes the stream and contributes to the tidal flare. Models of this process often assume that all elements of the tidal stream have the same specific energy and angular momentum as the most bound debris element. Real tidal debris possesses a distribution of binding energies, however, which grants it a distribution of orbits. We propose a new treatment for this debris, wherein we evolve the elements of the stream individually. We determine the radial distance (from the black hole) and the time (after the disruption) of the stream collisions as a function of black-hole mass under both Newtonian gravity (N+1PN) and general relativity (GR). We also use the Lane-Emden equation to account for the mass differences among the debris elements when calculating the energy loss in the inelastic collisions. For the N+1PN method, we evolve the stream using Newtonian orbital mechanics and apply pericenter precession after each pericenter passage using a first-order post-Newtonian approximation. Our relativistic method directly integrates the geodesic equations of motion. We see that the higher precession in the fully relativistic method results in more prompt collisions, and that assuming equal masses for the colliding debris elements greatly overestimates the energy loss resulting from these collisions. We also provide light curves for the corresponding flares and compare our predictions to those of previous models.

  11. Mathematical Model of Hot Metal Desulfurization by Powder Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cepeda Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a numerous number of studies on mathematical model of hot metal desulfurization by deep injection of calcium carbide, the research field as a whole is not well integrated. This paper presents a model that takes into account the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport processes to predict the sulfur levels in the hot metal throughout a blow. The model could be utilized to assess the influence of the treatment temperature, rate of injection, gas flow rate, and initial concentration of sulfur on the desulfurization kinetics. In the second part of this paper an analysis of the industrial data for injection of calcium carbide using this model is described. From a mathematical model that describes the characteristics of a system, it is possible to predict the behavior of the variables involved in the process, resulting in savings of time and money. Discretization is realized through the finite difference method combined with interpolation in the border domain by Taylor series.

  12. Description of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in a field theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, J.

    1984-08-01

    For the purpose of studying high energy heavy-ion collisions a self-consistent theory of relativistic nuclear fluid-dynamics coupled to classical meson fields is developed. The essential difference to the conventional fluid dynamic description arises from the coupling of meson fields to the nuclear fluid and from the non-linear relation for the effective baryon mass leading to a relativistic self-consistent description for the nuclear equation of state. The effects of different equations of state resulting from linear and nonlinear mean field approaches are studied in the event-by-event kinetic flow analysis of heavy ion collisions. The predictions for the symmetrical system Nb(Esub(Lab)=400 MeV/N)Nb are in good agreement with the experimental 4π-data. Investigating the phase structure in the linear mean field approach a phase transition occuring at Tapprox.=200 MeV for chemical potential μ=0 was found in this model. This transition is similar to recent QCD predictions. The model indicates a further phase transition at Tapprox.=20 MeV (baryon fluid to gas). There is, however, no correct description of the compressibility of nuclear matter in the linear mean field model. The extension to nonlinear scalar meson interaction allows for a correct description of the bulk properties of nuclear matter. It was found though that the phase transition is always present for reasonable values of the coupling constants. (orig./HSI) [de

  13. Semi-analytical wave functions in relativistic average atom model for high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghui; Duan Yaoyong; Kuai Bin

    2007-01-01

    The semi-analytical method is utilized for solving a relativistic average atom model for high-temperature plasmas. Semi-analytical wave function and the corresponding energy eigenvalue, containing only a numerical factor, are obtained by fitting the potential function in the average atom into hydrogen-like one. The full equations for the model are enumerated, and more attentions are paid upon the detailed procedures including the numerical techniques and computer code design. When the temperature of plasmas is comparatively high, the semi-analytical results agree quite well with those obtained by using a full numerical method for the same model and with those calculated by just a little different physical models, and the result's accuracy and computation efficiency are worthy of note. The drawbacks for this model are also analyzed. (authors)

  14. Modeling pulsations in hot stars with winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noels, Arlette; Godart, Melanie [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Liege (Belgium); Dupret, Marc-Antoine [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, LESIA (France)], E-mail: Arlette.Noels@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: ma.dupret@obspm.fr, E-mail: Melanie.Godart@ulg.ac.be

    2008-10-15

    The interaction pulsation/mass loss takes different aspects. Pulsations can trigger mass loss as in LBVs and Miras; on the other hand, mass loss can modify the driving conditions within the stars. But the most spectacular aspect is the effect on stellar models which, in turn, opens a royal way to asteroseismology to test physical conditions inside massive stars, such as the extent of convective cores or the appearance of new driving mechanisms. We start with a discussion on MS stars and their strange mode instabilities. We then move on to the excitation of the LBV phenomenon. WR stars and the newly observed MOST period in WR123 are discussed in view of the power of asteroseismology. We then turn to B supergiants, in particular HD163899, and show how asteroseismology can really probe convection, semiconvection and mass loss.

  15. Modeling pulsations in hot stars with winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noels, Arlette; Godart, Melanie; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2008-01-01

    The interaction pulsation/mass loss takes different aspects. Pulsations can trigger mass loss as in LBVs and Miras; on the other hand, mass loss can modify the driving conditions within the stars. But the most spectacular aspect is the effect on stellar models which, in turn, opens a royal way to asteroseismology to test physical conditions inside massive stars, such as the extent of convective cores or the appearance of new driving mechanisms. We start with a discussion on MS stars and their strange mode instabilities. We then move on to the excitation of the LBV phenomenon. WR stars and the newly observed MOST period in WR123 are discussed in view of the power of asteroseismology. We then turn to B supergiants, in particular HD163899, and show how asteroseismology can really probe convection, semiconvection and mass loss.

  16. Temperature-Corrected Model of Turbulence in Hot Jet Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Pao, S. Paul; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa

    2007-01-01

    An improved correction has been developed to increase the accuracy with which certain formulations of computational fluid dynamics predict mixing in shear layers of hot jet flows. The CFD formulations in question are those derived from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed by means of a two-equation model of turbulence, known as the k-epsilon model, wherein effects of turbulence are summarized by means of an eddy viscosity. The need for a correction arises because it is well known among specialists in CFD that two-equation turbulence models, which were developed and calibrated for room-temperature, low Mach-number, plane-mixing-layer flows, underpredict mixing in shear layers of hot jet flows. The present correction represents an attempt to account for increased mixing that takes place in jet flows characterized by high gradients of total temperature. This correction also incorporates a commonly accepted, previously developed correction for the effect of compressibility on mixing.

  17. The ρ - ω mass difference in a relativistic potential model with pion corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, B.E.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the ρ - ω mass difference is studied in the framework of the relativistic, harmonic, S+V independent quark model implemented by center-of-mass, one-gluon exchange and plon-cloud corrections stemming from the requirement of chiral symmetry in the (u,d) SU(2) flavour sector of the model. The plonic self-energy corrections with different intermediate energy states are instrumental of the analysis of the problem, which requires and appropriate parametrization of the mesonic sector different from that previously used to calculate the mass spectrum of the S-wave baryons. The right ρ - ω mass splitting is found, together with a satisfactory value for the mass of the pion, calculated as a bound-state of a quark-antiquark pair. An analogous discussion based on the cloudy-bag model is also presented. (author) [pt

  18. A relativistic self-consistent model for studying enhancement of space charge limited emission due to counter-streaming ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. C.; Verboncoeur, J.

    2016-10-01

    A maximum electron current transmitted through a planar diode gap is limited by space charge of electrons dwelling across the gap region, the so called space charge limited (SCL) emission. By introducing a counter-streaming ion flow to neutralize the electron charge density, the SCL emission can be dramatically raised, so electron current transmission gets enhanced. In this work, we have developed a relativistic self-consistent model for studying the enhancement of maximum transmission by a counter-streaming ion current. The maximum enhancement is found when the ion effect is saturated, as shown analytically. The solutions in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes are obtained and verified with 1-D particle-in-cell simulations. This self-consistent model is general and can also serve as a comparison for verification of simulation codes, as well as extension to higher dimensions.

  19. Relativistic MHD modeling of magnetized neutron stars, pulsar winds, and their nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Zanna, L.; Pili, A. G.; Olmi, B.; Bucciantini, N.; Amato, E.

    2018-01-01

    Neutron stars are among the most fascinating astrophysical sources, being characterized by strong gravity, densities about the nuclear one or even above, and huge magnetic fields. Their observational signatures can be extremely diverse across the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from the periodic and low-frequency signals of radio pulsars, up to the abrupt high-energy gamma-ray flares of magnetars, where energies of ∼ {10}46 {erg} are released in a few seconds. Fast-rotating and highly magnetized neutron stars are expected to launch powerful relativistic winds, whose interaction with the supernova remnants gives rise to the non-thermal emission of pulsar wind nebulae, which are known cosmic accelerators of electrons and positrons up to PeV energies. In the extreme cases of proto-magnetars (magnetic fields of ∼ {10}15 G and millisecond periods), a similar mechanism is likely to provide a viable engine for the still mysterious gamma-ray bursts. The key ingredient in all these spectacular manifestations of neutron stars is the presence of strong magnetic fields in their constituent plasma. Here we will present recent updates of a couple of state-of-the-art numerical investigations by the high-energy astrophysics group in Arcetri: a comprehensive modeling of the steady-state axisymmetric structure of rotating magnetized neutron stars in general relativity, and dynamical 3D MHD simulations of relativistic pulsar winds and their associated nebulae.

  20. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with massive silica deposits are plausible indicators on Mars of precipitation environments and aqueous chemistry. Theoretical model calculations are in reasonable agreement with independent experimental silica concentrations, which strengthens the validity of the new CHEMCHAU model. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Relativistic scalar-vector models of the N-N and N-nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper for the Proceedings of Conference an Anti-Nucleon and Nucleon-Nucleus Interactions summarizes work by the principal investigator and his collaborators on the nucleon-nucleon (N-N) and nucleon-nuclear (N-eta) interactions. It draws heavily on a paper presented at the Many Body Conference in Rome in 1972 but also includes a brief review of our phenomenological N-eta interaction studies. We first summarize our 48-49 generalized scalar-vector meson field theory model of the N-N interactions. This is followed by a brief description of our phenomenological work in the 50's on the N-eta interaction sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission (the present DOE). This work finally led to strong velocity dependent potentials with spin orbit and isospin terms for shell and optical model applications. This is followed by a section on the Emergence of One-Boson Exchange Models describing developments in the 60's of quantitative generalized one boson exchange potentials (GOBEP) including our purely relativistic N-N analyses. Then follows a section on the application of this meson field model to the N-eta interaction, in particular to spherical closed shell nuclei. This work was sponsored by AFOSR but funding was halted with the Mansfield amendment. We conclude with a discussion of subsequent collateral work by former colleagues and by others who have converged upon scalar-vector relativistic models of N-N, antiN-N, N-eta and antiN-eta interactions and some lessons learned from this extended endeavor. 61 refs

  2. A Model of Polarisation Rotations in Blazars from Kink Instabilities in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nalewajko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple model of polarisation rotation in optically thin relativistic jets of blazars. The model is based on the development of helical (kink mode of current-driven instability. A possible explanation is suggested for the observational connection between polarisation rotations and optical/gamma-ray flares in blazars, if the current-driven modes are triggered by secular increases of the total jet power. The importance of intrinsic depolarisation in limiting the amplitude of coherent polarisation rotations is demonstrated. The polarisation rotation amplitude is thus very sensitive to the viewing angle, which appears to be inconsistent with the observational estimates of viewing angles in blazars showing polarisation rotations. Overall, there are serious obstacles to explaining large-amplitude polarisation rotations in blazars in terms of current-driven kink modes.

  3. Relativistic phase effect in modeling interactions between ultraintense laser beams and electrons plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Alexandru; Stancalie, Viorica

    2017-06-01

    In a series of previous papers we proved an accurate connection between quantum and classical equations in the case of electrodynamic systems. We have used this connection to elaborate simplified models for systems composed of very intense laser beams and electrons or atoms. These models are in good agreement with numerous experimental data from literature. In this paper we develop the above approach for the new field of interactions between ultraintense laser beams, having intensities in the range 1018 - 1022 W/cm2, and electron plasmas. We show that in this case new effects take place, such as the fact that the variation of the phase of the field at the point where the electron is situated, decreases when the intensity of the field increases, due to a strong relativistic behavior. This effect leads to an aperiodic behavior of the radiations generated by above interactions, and to a possible new method for solitary waves generation.

  4. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity

  5. Relativistic effects on plasma expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad, E-mail: mdjebli@usthb.dz [USTHB, Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, B.P. 32 Bab-Ezzouar, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-07-15

    The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.

  6. Numerically calibrated model for propagation of a relativistic unmagnetized jet in dense media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard; Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud

    2018-03-01

    Relativistic jets reside in high-energy astrophysical systems of all scales. Their interaction with the surrounding media is critical as it determines the jet evolution, observable signature, and feedback on the environment. During its motion the interaction of the jet with the ambient media inflates a highly pressurized cocoon, which under certain conditions collimates the jet and strongly affects its propagation. Recently, Bromberg et al. (2011b) derived a general simplified (semi)analytic solution for the evolution of the jet and the cocoon in case of an unmagnetized jet that propagates in a medium with a range of density profiles. In this work we use a large suite of 2D and 3D relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in order to test the validity and accuracy of this model. We discuss the similarities and differences between the analytic model and numerical simulations and also, to some extent, between 2D and 3D simulations. Our main finding is that although the analytic model is highly simplified, it properly predicts the evolution of the main ingredients of the jet-cocoon system, including its temporal evolution and the transition between various regimes (e.g., collimated to uncollimated). The analytic solution predicts a jet head velocity that is faster by a factor of about 3 compared to the simulations, as long as the head velocity is Newtonian. We use the results of the simulations to calibrate the analytic model which significantly increases its accuracy. We provide an applet that calculates semi-analytically the propagation of a jet in an arbitrary density profile defined by the user at http://www.astro.tau.ac.il/ ore/propagation.html.

  7. Contribution to the modelling and multi-scale numerical simulation of kinetic electron transport in hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, J.

    2012-01-01

    This research thesis stands at the crossroad of plasma physics, numerical analysis and applied mathematics. After an introduction presenting the problematic and previous works, the author recalls some basis of classical kinetic models for plasma physics (collisionless kinetic theory and Vlasov equation, collisional kinetic theory with the non-relativistic Maxwell-Fokker-Plansk system) and describes the fundamental properties of the collision operators such as conservation laws, entropy dissipation, and so on. He reports the improvement of a deterministic numerical method to solve the non-relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system coupled with Fokker-Planck-Landau type operators. The efficiency of each high order scheme is compared. The evolution of the hot spot is studied in the case of thermonuclear reactions in the centre of the pellet in a weakly collisional regime. The author focuses on the simulation of the kinetic electron collisional transport in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) between the laser absorption zone and the ablation front. A new approach is then introduced to reduce the huge computation time obtained with kinetic models. In a last chapter, the kinetic continuous equation in spherical domain is described and a new model is chosen for collisions in order to preserve collision properties

  8. Physical processes in relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The continuum emission in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extend to 100 keV and beyond (e.g. Rothschild et al. 1983). In thermal models of the continuum emission this implies temperatures above 10 9 K or kT of order mc 2 . In such a plasma the electrons are at least mildly relativistic and furthermore the particles and the photons are energetic enough to produce electron-positron pairs. The physics of such hot plasmas has only recently been studied in any detail and here we review the results of those studies. Significant electron-positron pair production may also occur in non-thermal models of the continuum emission if the optical depth to photon-photon pair production is greater than unity. We review the few results obtained regarding this interesting but not very well studied possibility. First, however, we briefly discuss the processes taking place in relativistic plasmas and the standard models for the continuum emission from AGNs. We then summarize the effects pair production have on these models and the observational implications of the presence of electron-positron pairs. (orig./WL)

  9. Distribution functions for a family of general-relativistic hypervirial models in the collisionless regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauy, Henrique Matheus; Ramos-Caro, Javier

    2018-03-01

    By considering the Einstein-Vlasov system for static spherically symmetric distributions of matter, we show that configurations with constant anisotropy parameter β , leading to asymptotically flat spacetimes, have necessarily a distribution function (DF) of the form F =l-2 βξ (ɛ ) , where ɛ =E /m and l =L /m are the relativistic energy and angular momentum per unit rest mass, respectively. We exploit this result to obtain DFs for the general relativistic extension of the hypervirial family introduced by Nguyen and Lingam [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 436, 2014 (2013), 10.1093/mnras/stt1719], which Newtonian potential is given by ϕ (r )=-ϕo/[1 +(r /a )n]1 /n (a and ϕo are positive free parameters, n =1 ,2 ,… ). Such DFs can be written in the form Fn=ln -2ξn(ɛ ) . For odd n , we find that ξn is a polynomial of order 2 n +1 in ɛ , as in the case of the Hernquist model (n =1 ), for which F1∝l-1(2 ɛ -1 ) (ɛ-1 ) 2 . For even n , we can write ξn in terms of incomplete beta functions (Plummer model, n =2 , is an example). Since we demand that F ≥0 throughout the phase space, the particular form of each ξn leads to restrictions for the values of ϕo. For example, for the Hernquist model we find that 0 ≤ϕo≤2 /3 , i.e., an upper bounding value less than the one obtained for Nguyen and Lingam (0 ≤ϕo≤1 ), based on energy conditions.

  10. A Prerecognition Model for Hot Topic Discovery Based on Microblogging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tongyu

    2014-01-01

    The microblogging is prevailing since its easy and anonymous information sharing at Internet, which also brings the issue of dispersing negative topics, or even rumors. Many researchers have focused on how to find and trace emerging topics for analysis. When adopting topic detection and tracking techniques to find hot topics with streamed microblogging data, it will meet obstacles like streamed microblogging data clustering, topic hotness definition, and emerging hot topic discovery. This paper schemes a novel prerecognition model for hot topic discovery. In this model, the concepts of the topic life cycle, the hot velocity, and the hot acceleration are promoted to calculate the change of topic hotness, which aims to discover those emerging hot topics before they boost and break out. Our experiments show that this new model would help to discover potential hot topics efficiently and achieve considerable performance. PMID:25254235

  11. Linking accretion flow and particle acceleration in jets - II. Self-similar jet models with full relativistic MHD gravitational mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polko, P.; Meier, D.L.; Markoff, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new, semi-analytic formalism to model the acceleration and collimation of relativistic jets in a gravitational potential. The gravitational energy density includes the kinetic, thermal and electromagnetic mass contributions. The solutions are close to self-similar throughout the

  12. Spectroscopy of light baryons in a semi-relativistic constituent three-quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A. A.

    We studied the non-strange baryon spectroscopy by presenting a simple semi-relativistic constituent three-quark model. Assuming a separation of the interaction potential in terms of a leading SU(6) symmetric component and a subleading SU(6) breaking term, we treated the baryons as a spin-independent three-quark system and presented the analytical solution for the problem. Using perturbative and approximative approaches in order to deal with problematic linear confining term in SU(6)-invariant interaction, we obtained analytical formulas for energy levels and the hyperradial wave functions and the average energy values of the nonstrange resonances are reproduced. To describe the hyperfine structure of the baryon, the splittings within the SU(6)-multiplets are produced by the perturbative spin- and isospin-dependent terms. The resulting description of the baryon spectrum for both approaches are given and compared with the experimental spectrum.

  13. Relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamic models for AGN jet propagation and deceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We present grid-adaptive computational studies of both magnetized and unmagnetized jet flows, with significantly relativistic bulk speeds, as appropriate for AGN jets. Our relativistic jet studies shed light on the observationally established classification of Fanaroff-Riley galaxies, where the

  14. The Standard Model Higgs as the origin of the hot Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa, Daniel G.

    2017-04-10

    If the Standard Model (SM) Higgs is weakly coupled to the inflationary sector, the Higgs is expected to be universally in the form of a condensate towards the end of inflation. The Higgs decays rapidly after inflation -- via non-perturbative effects -- into an out-of-equilibrium distribution of SM species, which thermalize soon afterwards. If the post-inflationary equation of state of the universe is stiff, $w \\simeq +1$, the SM species eventually dominate the total energy budget. This provides a natural origin for the relativistic thermal plasma of SM species, required for the onset the `hot Big Bang' era. The viability of this scenario requires the inflationary Hubble scale $H_*$ to be lower than the instability scale for Higgs vacuum decay, the Higgs not to generate too large curvature perturbations at cosmological scales, and the SM dominance to occur before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We show that successful reheating into the SM can only be obtained in the presence of a non-minimal coupling to gravity $\\x...

  15. Model Atmospheres and Transit Spectra for Hot Rocky Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Roxana

    We propose to build a versatile set of self-consistent atmospheric models for hot rocky exoplanets and use them to predict their transit and eclipse spectra. Hot rocky exoplanets will form the majority of small planets in close-in orbits to be discovered by the TESS and Kepler K2 missions, and offer the best opportunity for characterization with current and future instruments. We will use fully non-grey radiative-convective atmospheric structure codes with cloud formation and vertical mixing, combined with a self-consistent treatment of gas chemistry above the magma ocean. Being in equilibrium with the surface, the vaporized rock material can be a good tracer of the bulk composition of the planet. We will derive the atmospheric structure and escape rates considering both volatile-free and volatile bearing compositions, which reflect the diversity of hot rocky planet atmospheres. Our models will inform follow- up observations with JWST and ground-based instruments, aid the interpretation of transit and eclipse spectra, and provide a better understanding of volatile loss in these atmospheres. Such results will help refine our picture of rocky planet formation and evolution. Planets in ultra-short period (USP) orbits are a special class of hot rocky exoplanets. As shown by Kepler, these planets are generally smaller than 2 Earth radii, suggesting that they are likely to be rocky and could have lost their volatiles through photo-evaporation. Being close to their host stars, these planets are ultra-hot, with estimated temperatures of 1000-3000 K. A number of USP planets have been already discovered (e.g. Kepler-78 b, CoRoT-7 b, Kepler-10 b), and this number is expected to grow by confirming additional planet candidates. The characterization of planets on ultra-short orbits is advantageous due to the larger number of observable transits, and the larger transit signal in the case of an evaporating atmosphere. Much advance has been made in understanding and characterizing

  16. Models of hot galactic coronae around early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Tucker, W.

    1994-01-01

    We have computed simple non-steady state models of X-ray-emitting, hot galactic coronae which are observed around early-type galaxies. Our models, appropriate for elliptical galaxies, include the effect of the formation of new stars which occurs as the gas radiatively cools and the effect of supernova explosions which serve to heat the cooling gas component from which the stars are forming. We develop scaling relations for the galaxy parameters including the optical galaxy as well as a dark matter halo which we use to generate galaxy models spanning a range of absolute magnitudes from -19.5 to -22.5. We compare our models to a sample of approximately 150 galaxies with measured X-ray luminosities. We show that our simple model does exhibit the observed correlation between X-ray and optical luminosity. However, the model cannot explain the broad range in X-ray luminosity at a given optical luminosity.

  17. Relativistic GLONASS and geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurova, E. M.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Karpik, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    GNSS technology is playing a major role in applications to civil, industrial and scientific areas. Nowadays, there are two fully functional GNSS: American GPS and Russian GLONASS. Their data processing algorithms have been historically based on the Newtonian theory of space and time with only a few relativistic effects taken into account as small corrections preventing the system from degradation on a fairly long time. Continuously growing accuracy of geodetic measurements and atomic clocks suggests reconsidering the overall approach to the GNSS theoretical model based on the Einstein theory of general relativity. This is essentially more challenging but fundamentally consistent theoretical approach to relativistic space geodesy. In this paper, we overview the basic principles of the relativistic GNSS model and explain the advantages of such a system for GLONASS and other positioning systems. Keywords: relativistic GLONASS, Einstein theory of general relativity.

  18. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  19. Relativistic quark model and behaviour of the meson electromagnetic form factors at small and intermediate momentum transfer Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, A.S.; Esaybegyan, S.V.; Ter-Isaakyan, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    In a model of hadrons composed of relativistic quarks a description of meson static characteristics and pion electromagnetic form factor in the range of small and intermediate values of momentum transfer 0 2 2 have obtained. It is shown that in such a model the data available on the pion electromagnetic form factor may be described basing on a simplest quark without gluon exchange. The contribution of a one-gluon exchange diagram in such a model cannot exceed 30%

  20. Residence time modeling of hot melt extrusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Elena; Podhaisky, Helmut; Ely, David; Thommes, Markus

    2013-11-01

    The hot melt extrusion process is a widespread technique to mix viscous melts. The residence time of material in the process frequently determines the product properties. An experimental setup and a corresponding mathematical model were developed to evaluate residence time and residence time distribution in twin screw extrusion processes. The extrusion process was modeled as the convolution of a mass transport process described by a Gaussian probability function, and a mixing process represented by an exponential function. The residence time of the extrusion process was determined by introducing a tracer at the extruder inlet and measuring the tracer concentration at the die. These concentrations were fitted to the residence time model, and an adequate correlation was found. Different parameters were derived to characterize the extrusion process including the dead time, the apparent mixing volume, and a transport related axial mixing. A 2(3) design of experiments was performed to evaluate the effect of powder feed rate, screw speed, and melt viscosity of the material on the residence time. All three parameters affect the residence time of material in the extruder. In conclusion, a residence time model was developed to interpret experimental data and to get insights into the hot melt extrusion process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermous, Rachid, E-mail: rfermous@usthb.dz; Djebli, Mourad, E-mail: mdjebli@usthb.dz [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, USTHB, B.P. 32 Bab-Ezzouar, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  2. A collisional-radiative average atom model for hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsnyai, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    A collisional-radiative 'average atom' (AA) model is presented for the calculation of opacities of hot plasmas not in the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The electron impact and radiative rate constants are calculated using the dipole oscillator strengths of the average atom. A key element of the model is the photon escape probability which at present is calculated for a semi infinite slab. The Fermi statistics renders the rate equation for the AA level occupancies nonlinear, which requires iterations until the steady state. AA level occupancies are found. Detailed electronic configurations are built into the model after the self-consistent non-LTE AA state is found. The model shows a continuous transition from the non-LTE to the LTE state depending on the optical thickness of the plasma. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  3. Hot flow stress models of the steel C45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Opěla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flows stress of the steel C45 were predicted on the basis of experimentally obtained flow stress curves, using uniaxial hot compression tests on the plastometer HDS-20, by two completely different types of mathematical models, moreover with comparison to a model comprised in the FEM database of the FORGE software. The tests were carried out within the temperature range from 900 to 1 280 °C, at the strain rate from 0,1 to 100 s-1 and deformations up to 1,0. It follows from the results of flow stress prediction that models designed on the basis of experimental measurements have much better information capability than the generated model implemented into the database of the FORGE software, however, their extrapolation for larger deformations is limited.

  4. Liquid-gas phase transition in strange hadronic matter with relativistic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, James R.; Gulminelli, F.; Menezes, Débora P.

    2016-02-01

    Background: The advent of new dedicated experimental programs on hyperon physics is rapidly boosting the field, and the possibility of synthesizing multiple strange hypernuclei requires the addition of the strangeness degree of freedom to the models dedicated to nuclear structure and nuclear matter studies at low energy. Purpose: We want to settle the influence of strangeness on the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Because of the large uncertainties concerning the hyperon sector, we do not aim at a quantitative estimation of the phase diagram but rather at a qualitative description of the phenomenology, as model independent as possible. Method: We analyze the phase diagram of low-density matter composed of neutrons, protons, and Λ hyperons using a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. We largely explore the parameter space to pin down generic features of the phase transition, and compare the results to ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Results: We show that the liquid-gas phase transition is only slightly quenched by the addition of hyperons. Strangeness is seen to be an order parameter of the phase transition, meaning that dilute strange matter is expected to be unstable with respect to the formation of hyperclusters. Conclusions: More quantitative results within the RMF model need improved functionals at low density, possibly fitted to ab initio calculations of nuclear and Λ matter.

  5. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  6. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  7. Biophysical model of prokaryotic diversity in geothermal hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klales, Anna; Duncan, James; Nett, Elizabeth Janus; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies of photosynthetic bacteria living in geothermal hot spring environments have revealed surprisingly complex ecosystems with an unexpected level of genetic diversity. One case of particular interest involves the distribution along hot spring thermal gradients of genetically distinct bacterial strains that differ in their preferred temperatures for reproduction and photosynthesis. In such systems, a single variable, temperature, defines the relevant environmental variation. In spite of this, each region along the thermal gradient exhibits multiple strains of photosynthetic bacteria adapted to several distinct thermal optima, rather than a single thermal strain adapted to the local environmental temperature. Here we analyze microbiology data from several ecological studies to show that the thermal distribution data exhibit several universal features independent of location and specific bacterial strain. These include the distribution of optimal temperatures of different thermal strains and the functional dependence of the net population density on temperature. We present a simple population dynamics model of these systems that is highly constrained by biophysical data and by physical features of the environment. This model can explain in detail the observed thermal population distributions, as well as certain features of population dynamics observed in laboratory studies of the same organisms. © 2012 American Physical Society

  8. Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.

    1989-01-01

    Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova

  9. Modeling relativistic soliton interactions in overdense plasmas: a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminos, E; Sánchez-Arriaga, G; Saxena, V; Kourakis, I

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of localized solutions of the relativistic cold-fluid plasma model in the small but finite amplitude limit, for slightly overcritical plasma density. Adopting a multiple scale analysis, we derive a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation that describes the evolution of the envelope of circularly polarized electromagnetic field. Retaining terms up to fifth order in the small perturbation parameter, we derive a self-consistent framework for the description of the plasma response in the presence of localized electromagnetic field. The formalism is applied to standing electromagnetic soliton interactions and the results are validated by simulations of the full cold-fluid model. To lowest order, a cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a focusing nonlinearity is recovered. Classical quasiparticle theory is used to obtain analytical estimates for the collision time and minimum distance of approach between solitons. For larger soliton amplitudes the inclusion of the fifth-order terms is essential for a qualitatively correct description of soliton interactions. The defocusing quintic nonlinearity leads to inelastic soliton collisions, while bound states of solitons do not persist under perturbations in the initial phase or amplitude.

  10. Cluster radioactive decay within the preformed cluster model using relativistic mean-field theory densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Patra, S. K.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the (ground-state) cluster radioactive decays within the preformed cluster model (PCM) of Gupta and collaborators [R. K. Gupta, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, Varenna, edited by E. Gadioli (Ricerca Scientifica ed Educazione Permanente, Milano, 1988), p. 416; S. S. Malik and R. K. Gupta, Phys. Rev. C 39, 1992 (1989)]. The relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory is used to obtain the nuclear matter densities for the double folding procedure used to construct the cluster-daughter potential with M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction including exchange effects. Following the PCM approach, we have deduced empirically the preformation probability P 0 emp from the experimental data on both the α- and exotic cluster-decays, specifically of parents in the trans-lead region having doubly magic 208 Pb or its neighboring nuclei as daughters. Interestingly, the RMF-densities-based nuclear potential supports the concept of preformation for both the α and heavier clusters in radioactive nuclei. P 0 α(emp) for α decays is almost constant (∼10 -2 -10 -3 ) for all the parent nuclei considered here, and P 0 c(emp) for cluster decays of the same parents decrease with the size of clusters emitted from different parents. The results obtained for P 0 c(emp) are reasonable and are within two to three orders of magnitude of the well-accepted phenomenological model of Blendowske-Walliser for light clusters.

  11. First results from the use of the relativistic and slim disc model SLIMULX in XSPEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Garcia, M. D.; Bursa, M.; Dovčiak, M.; Fabrika, S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Karas, V.

    2017-07-01

    Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are accreting black holes for which their X-ray properties have been seen to be different to the case of stellar-mass black hole binaries. For most of the cases their intrinsic energy spectra are well described by a cold accretion disc (thermal) plus a curved high-energy emission components. The mass of the black hole (BH) derived from the thermal disc component is usually in the range of 100-1000 solar masses, which have led to the idea that this might represent strong evidence of the Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBH), proposed to exist by theoretical studies but with no firm detection (as a class) so far. Recent theoretical and observational developments are leading towards the idea that these sources are instead stellar-mass BHs accreting at an unusual super-Eddington regime. In this paper we briefly describe the model SLIMULX that can be used in XSPEC for the fit of thermal spectra of slim discs around stellar mass BHs in the super-Eddington regime. This model consistently takes all relativistic effects into account. We present the obtained results from the fit of the X-ray spectra from NGC 5408 X—1.

  12. Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.

  13. Modelling hot electron generation in short pulse target heating experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sircombe N.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Target heating experiments planned for the Orion laser facility, and electron beam driven fast ignition schemes, rely on the interaction of a short pulse high intensity laser with dense material to generate a flux of energetic electrons. It is essential that the characteristics of this electron source are well known in order to inform transport models in radiation hydrodynamics codes and allow effective evaluation of experimental results and forward modelling of future campaigns. We present results obtained with the particle in cell (PIC code EPOCH for realistic target and laser parameters, including first and second harmonic light. The hot electron distributions are characterised and their implications for onward transport and target heating are considered with the aid of the Monte-Carlo transport code THOR.

  14. Relativistic approach to nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Giai; Bouyssy, A.

    1987-03-01

    Some recent works related with relativistic models of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock are recalled and illustrated by some examples. The problem of isoscalar current and magnetic moments of odd nuclei is discussed. The application of the relativistic model to the nuclear response function is examined

  15. Simulations of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions within relativistic mean-field two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Y.B.; Russkikh, V.N.; Pokrovsky, Y.E. Kurchatov; Ivanov, Y.B.; Russkikh, V.N.; Polrovsky, Y.E.; Henning, P.A.; Henning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional realization of the relativistic mean-field 2-fluid model is described. The first results of analyzing the inclusive data on the yield of nuclear fragments and pions, as well as the Plastic-Ball rapidity distributions of nuclear fragments are presented. For comparison, the calculations within the conventional relativistic hydrodynamical model with the same mean fields are also performed. It is found that all the analysed observables, except the pion spectra, appeared to be fairly insensitive to the nuclear EOS. The sensitivity to the nuclear stopping power is slightly higher. The original sensitivity of the rapidity distributions to the stopping power is smeared out by the Plastic-Ball filter and selection criterion. Nevertheless, one can conclude that the stopping power induced by the Cugnon cross-sections is not quite sufficient for a more adequate reproduction of the experimental data. (authors)

  16. Effects of anisotropy on gravitational infall in galaxy clusters using an exact general relativistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxel, M.A.; Peel, Austin; Ishak, Mustapha, E-mail: troxel@utdallas.edu, E-mail: austin.peel@utdallas.edu, E-mail: mishak@utdallas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75083 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We study the effects and implications of anisotropies at the scale of galaxy clusters by building an exact general relativistic model of a cluster using the inhomogeneous and anisotropic Szekeres metric. The model is built from a modified Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile. We compare this to a corresponding spherically symmetric structure in the Lemaȋtre-Tolman (LT) model and quantify the impact of introducing varying levels of anisotropy. We examine two physical measures of gravitational infall — the growth rate of density and the velocity of the source dust in the model. We introduce a generalization of the LT dust velocity profile for the Szekeres metric and demonstrate its consistency with the growth rate of density. We find that the growth rate of density in one substructure increases by 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.75% for 5%, 10%, and 15% levels of introduced anisotropy, which is measured as the fractional displaced mass relative to the spherically symmetric case. The infall velocity of the dust is found to increase by 2.5, 10, and 20 km s{sup −1} (0.5%, 2%, and 4.5%), respectively, for the same three levels of anisotropy. This response to the anisotropy in a structure is found to be strongly nonlinear with respect to the strength of anisotropy. These relative velocities correspond to an equivalent increase in the total mass of the spherically symmetric structure of 1%, 3.8%, and 8.4%, indicating that not accounting for the presence of anisotropic mass distributions in cluster models can strongly bias the determination of physical properties like the total mass.

  17. Physicochemical model for reactive sputtering of hot target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalov, Viktor I., E-mail: vishapovalov@mail.ru; Karzin, Vitaliy V.; Bondarenko, Anastasia S.

    2017-02-05

    A physicochemical model for reactive magnetron sputtering of a metal target is described in this paper. The target temperature in the model is defined as a function of the ion current density. Synthesis of the coating occurs due to the surface chemical reaction. The law of mass action, the Langmuir isotherm and the Arrhenius equation for non-isothermal conditions were used for mathematical description of the reaction. The model takes into consideration thermal electron emission and evaporation of the target surface. The system of eight algebraic equations, describing the model, was solved for the tantalum target sputtered in the oxygen environment. It was established that the hysteresis effect disappears with the increase of the ion current density. - Highlights: • When model is applied for a cold target, hysteresis width is proportional to the ion current density. • Two types of processes of hot target sputtering are possible, depending on the current density: with and without the hysteresis. • Sputtering process is dominant at current densities less than 50 A/m{sup 2} and evaporation can be neglected. • For current densities over 50 A/m{sup 2} the hysteresis width reaches its maximum and the role of evaporation increases.

  18. Relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luciano, Rezzolla

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...

  19. An introduction to relativistic processes and the standard model of electroweak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo Maria

    2014-01-01

    These lectures are meant to be a reference and handbook for an introductory course in Theoretical Particle Physics, suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. Their purpose is to reconcile theoretical rigour and completeness with a careful analysis of more phenomenological aspects of the physics. They aim at filling the gap between quantum field theory textbooks and purely phenomenological treatments of fundamental interactions. The first part provides an introduction to scattering in relativistic quantum field theory. Thanks to an original approach to relativistic processes, the relevant computational techniques are derived cleanly and simply in the semi-classical approximation. The second part contains a detailed presentation of the gauge theory of electroweak interactions with particular focus to the processes of greatest phenomenological interest. The main novelties of the present second edition are a more complete discussion of relativistic scattering theory and an expansion of ...

  20. Hot Deformation Behavior and a Two-Stage Constitutive Model of 20Mn5 Solid Steel Ingot during Hot Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft forging due to its strength, toughness, and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under a high temperature were not studied. For this article, hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850–1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01 s−1–1 s−1 were conducted using a Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. Flow stress-strain curves and microstructure after hot compression were obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relationship and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 solid steel ingot.

  1. Hot Deformation Behavior and a Two-Stage Constitutive Model of 20Mn5 Solid Steel Ingot during Hot Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Ma, Qing-Xian; Luo, Jian-Bin

    2018-03-16

    20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft forging due to its strength, toughness, and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under a high temperature were not studied. For this article, hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850-1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01 s -1 -1 s -1 were conducted using a Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. Flow stress-strain curves and microstructure after hot compression were obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relationship and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 solid steel ingot.

  2. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  3. Massive neutron stars and Λ-hypernuclei in relativistic mean field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting-Ting; Xia, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Shi-Sheng; Smith, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    Based on relativistic mean field (RMF) models, we study finite Λ-hypernuclei and massive neutron stars. The effective N-N interactions PK1 and TM1 are adopted, while the N-Λ interactions are constrained by reproducing the binding energy of Λ-hyperon at 1s orbit of {}{{Λ }}{}40{Ca}. It is found that the Λ-meson couplings follow a simple relation, indicating a fixed Λ potential well for symmetric nuclear matter at saturation densities, i.e., around {V}{{Λ }}=-29.786 {MeV}. With those interactions, a large mass range of Λ-hypernuclei can be described well. Furthermore, the masses of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 can be attained adopting the Λ-meson couplings {g}{{σ }{{Λ }}}/{g}{{σ }N}≳ 0.73, {g}{{ω }{{Λ }}}/{g}{{ω }N}≳ 0.80 for PK1 and {g}{{σ }{{Λ }}}/{g}{{σ }N}≳ 0.81, {g}{{ω }{{Λ }}}/{g}{{ω }N}≳ 0.90 for TM1, respectively. This resolves the hyperon puzzle without introducing any additional degrees of freedom. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11525524, 11505157, 11375022, 11705163, 11621131001), National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834400), the Physics Research and Development Program of Zhengzhou University (32410017) and the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The computation for this work was supported by the HPC Cluster of SKLTP/ITP-CAS and the Supercomputing Center, CNIC, of the CAS

  4. Relativistic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  5. Relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastero-Gil, M.

    2015-01-01

    Relativistic cosmology is nothing but the study of the evolution of our universe expanding from the General Theory of Relativity, which describes the gravitational interaction at any scale and given its character far-reaching is the force that dominate the evolution of the universe. (Author)

  6. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Price, R H

    1993-01-01

    Work reported in the workshop on relativistic astrophysics spanned a wide varicy of topics. Two specific areas seemed of particular interest. Much attention was focussed on gravitational wave sources, especially on the waveforms they produce, and progress was reported in theoretical and observational aspects of accretion disks.

  7. General relativistic modelling of the negative reverberation X-ray time delays in AGN(star)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Papadakis, I.E.; Dovčiak, Michal; McHardy, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 439, č. 4 (2014), s. 3931-3950 ISSN 0035-8711 Grant - others:STFC(GB) ST/G003084/1 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * black hole physics * relativistic processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.107, year: 2014

  8. Dynamic fracture and hot-spot modeling in energetic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Nicolò; Duarte, Camilo A.; Koslowski, Marisol

    2018-02-01

    Defects such as cracks, pores, and particle-matrix interface debonding affect the sensitivity of energetic materials by reducing the time-to-ignition and the threshold pressure to initiate an explosion. Frictional sliding of preexisting cracks is considered to be one of the most important causes of localized heating. Therefore, understanding the dynamic fracture of crystalline energetic materials is of extreme importance to assess the reliability and safety of polymer-bonded explosives. Phase field damage model simulations, based on the regularization of the crack surface as a diffuse delta function, are used to describe crack propagation in cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine crystals embedded in a Sylgard matrix. A thermal transport model that includes heat generation by friction at crack interfaces is coupled to the solution of crack propagation. 2D and 3D dynamic compression simulations are performed with different boundary velocities and initial distributions of cracks and interface defects to understand their effect on crack propagation and heat generation. It is found that, at an impact velocity of 400 m/s, localized damage at the particle-binder interface is of key importance and that the sample reaches temperatures high enough to create a hot-spot that will lead to ignition. At an impact velocity of 10 m/s, preexisting cracks advanced inside the particle, but the increase of temperature will not cause ignition.

  9. 2D Relativistic MHD simulations of the Kruskal-Schwarzschild instability in a relativistic striped wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan; Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2018-03-01

    We study the linear and non-linear development of the Kruskal-Schwarzchild instability in a relativisitically expanding striped wind. This instability is the generalization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of a magnetic field. It has been suggested to produce a self-sustained acceleration mechanism in strongly magnetized outflows found in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and micro-quasars. The instability leads to magnetic reconnection, but in contrast with steady-state Sweet-Parker reconnection, the dissipation rate is not limited by the current layer's small aspect ratio. We performed two-dimensional (2D) relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations featuring two cold and highly magnetized (1 ≤ σ ≤ 103) plasma layers with an anti-parallel magnetic field separated by a thin layer of relativistically hot plasma with a local effective gravity induced by the outflow's acceleration. Our simulations show how the heavier relativistically hot plasma in the reconnecting layer drips out and allows oppositely oriented magnetic field lines to reconnect. The instability's growth rate in the linear regime matches the predictions of linear stability analysis. We find turbulence rather than an ordered bulk flow near the reconnection region, with turbulent velocities up to ˜0.1c, largely independent of model parameters. However, the magnetic energy dissipation rate is found to be much slower, corresponding to an effective ordered bulk velocity inflow into the reconnection region vin = βinc of 10-3 ≲ βin ≲ 5 × 10-3. This occurs due to the slow evacuation of hot plasma from the current layer, largely because of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability experienced by the dripping plasma. 3D RMHD simulations are needed to further investigate the non-linear regime.

  10. Non-relativistic supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    The most general one- and two-body hamiltonian invariant under galilean supersymmetry is constructed in superspace. The corresponding Feynman rules are given for the superfield Green functions. As demonstrated by a simple example, it is straightforward to construct models in which the supersymmetry is spontaneously broken by the non-relativistic vacuum. (orig.)

  11. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  12. Development of the RETRAN hot spot model for KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yo Han; Kim, Yong Deog; Lee, Chang Sup

    2004-01-01

    Under the funding of Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), the research center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO), has been developed the in-house non-loss-of-coolant accident (non-LOCA) analysis methodology for Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNP). To develop the methodology, the related documents of EPRI and vendors were examined and the methodologies of some foreign utilities were reviewed also to compensate for lack of capabilities. In fact, one of the major goals of the project is to build the code and methodology systems to replace the restricted codes by U. S. Government mentioned in the Technical Transfer Agreement between KEPCO and ABB-CE. To achieve the goal, KEPRI has developed the methodology based on general-purpose system codes, such as RETRAN, RELAP and MASTER. Despite the efforts, some functional weaks were raised from the users. So, KEPRI has developed the RETRAN hot spot model (HSM) to compensate some functions used for the estimation of the fuel temperature and enthalpy, cladding surface temperature, etc. In current methodology for KSNP, the parameters are calculated with STRIKIN-II code, which is one of the restricted codes. In this paper the development of HSM is described. And to estimate the feasibility of the model, the rod ejection accident (REA) was analyzed and the results were compared with those calculated by STRIKIN-II code. Through the feasibility study, it was concluded that the developed model showed the acceptable results and could be used further works

  13. Relativistic Planck-scale polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer quantum mechanics has been studied as a simplified picture that reflects some of the key properties of Loop Quantum Gravity; however, while the fate of relativistic symmetries in Loop Quantum Gravity is still not established, it is usually assumed that the discrete polymer structure should lead to a breakdown of relativistic symmetries. We here focus for simplicity on a one-spatial-dimension polymer model and show that relativistic symmetries are deformed, rather than being broken. The specific type of deformed relativistic symmetries which we uncover appears to be closely related to analogous descriptions of relativistic symmetries in some noncommutative spacetimes. This also contributes to an ongoing effort attempting to establish whether the “quantum-Minkowski limit” of Loop Quantum Gravity is a noncommutative spacetime.

  14. Relativistic klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.

    1989-03-01

    Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Universal Quantum Computing:. Third Gen Prototyping Utilizing Relativistic `Trivector' R-Qubit Modeling Surmounting Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Richard L.; Kauffman, Louis H.; Giandinoto, Salvatore

    2013-09-01

    We postulate bulk universal quantum computing (QC) cannot be achieved without surmounting the quantum uncertainty principle, an inherent barrier by empirical definition in the regime described by the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory - the last remaining hurdle to bulk QC. To surmount uncertainty with probability 1, we redefine the basis for the qubit utilizing a unique form of M-Theoretic Calabi-Yau mirror symmetry cast in an LSXD Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with an inherent `Feynman synchronization backbone'. This also incorporates a relativistic qubit (r-qubit) providing additional degrees of freedom beyond the traditional Block 2-sphere qubit bringing the r-qubit into correspondence with our version of Relativistic Topological Quantum Field Theory (RTQFT). We present a 3rd generation prototype design for simplifying bulk QC implementation.

  16. Gravitation relativiste

    CERN Document Server

    Hakim, Rémi

    1994-01-01

    Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.

  17. First results from the use of the relativistic and slim disc model SLIMULX in XSPEC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caballero-García, María Dolores; Bursa, Michal; Dovčiak, Michal; Fabrika, S.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Karas, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 84-93 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E13012 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312789 - STRONGGRAVITY Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion-discs * black hole physics * relativistic processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  18. Relativistic Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; Markovic, Dragoljub

    1997-06-01

    Preface; Prologue: Conference overview Bernard Carr; Part I. The Universe At Large and Very Large Redshifts: 2. The size and age of the Universe Gustav A. Tammann; 3. Active galaxies at large redshifts Malcolm S. Longair; 4. Observational cosmology with the cosmic microwave background George F. Smoot; 5. Future prospects in measuring the CMB power spectrum Philip M. Lubin; 6. Inflationary cosmology Michael S. Turner; 7. The signature of the Universe Bernard J. T. Jones; 8. Theory of large-scale structure Sergei F. Shandarin; 9. The origin of matter in the universe Lev A. Kofman; 10. New guises for cold-dark matter suspects Edward W. Kolb; Part II. Physics and Astrophysics Of Relativistic Compact Objects: 11. On the unification of gravitational and inertial forces Donald Lynden-Bell; 12. Internal structure of astrophysical black holes Werner Israel; 13. Black hole entropy: external facade and internal reality Valery Frolov; 14. Accretion disks around black holes Marek A. Abramowicz; 15. Black hole X-ray transients J. Craig Wheeler; 16. X-rays and gamma rays from active galactic nuclei Roland Svensson; 17. Gamma-ray bursts: a challenge to relativistic astrophysics Martin Rees; 18. Probing black holes and other exotic objects with gravitational waves Kip Thorne; Epilogue: the past and future of relativistic astrophysics Igor D. Novikov; I. D. Novikov's scientific papers and books.

  19. Non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres of hot stars. 2: Hot, metal-rich white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.

    1995-01-01

    We present several model atmospheres for a typical hot metal-rich DA white dwarf, T(sub eff) = 60,000 K, log g = 7.5. We consider pure hydrogen models, as well as models with various abundances of two typical 'trace' elements-carbon and iron. We calculte a number of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE models, taking into account the effect of numerous lines of these elements on the atmospheric structure. We demostrate that while the non-LTE effects are notvery significant for pure hydrogen models, except for describing correctly the central emission in H-alpha they are essential for predicting correctly the ionization balance of metals, such as carbon and iron. Previously reported discrepancies in LTE abundances determinations using C III and C IV lines are easily explained by non-LTE effects. We show that if the iron abundance is larger than 10(exp -5), the iron line opacity has to be considered not only for the spectrum synthesis, but also in the model construction itself. For such metal abundances, non-LTE metal line-blanketed models are needed for detailed abundance studies of hot, metal-rich white dwarfs. We also discuss the predicted Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum and show that it is very sensitive to metal abundances, as well as to non-LTE effects.

  20. Temperature-dependent relativistic microscopic optical potential and the mean free path of a nucleon based on Walecka's model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Zhuo Yizhong

    1994-01-01

    The relativistic microscopic optical potential, the Schroedinger equivalent potential, and mean free paths of a nucleon at finite temperature in nuclear matter and finite nuclei are studied based on Walecka's model and thermo-field dynamics. We let only the Hartree-Fock self-energy of a nucleon represent the real part of the microscopic optical potential and the fourth order of meson exchange diagrams, i.e. the polarization diagrams represent the imaginary part of the microscopic optical potential in nuclear matter. The microscopic optical potential of finite nuclei is obtained by means of the local density approximation. (orig.)

  1. Two-component relativistic density functional theory modeling of the adsorption of element 114(eka-lead) on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; van Wüllen, Christoph; Rykova, Elena A; Titov, Anatoly V

    2010-04-28

    A cluster modeling of the interaction of an eka-Pb atom with the stable Au(111) surface using accurate small-core relativistic pseudopotentials and two-component non-collinear DFT is reported. The results obtained with two different types of exchange-correlation functionals (generalized-gradient and hybrid) are generally consistent and give rise to E114/Au(111) adsorption energy estimates within the range 0.4-0.5 eV. Substantial differences between the E114-Au and Pb-Au interactions are further corroborated.

  2. Adiabatic modeling of the relativistic electron fluxes during the storm main phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.-J.; Rostoker, G.; Kamide, Y.

    Satellite observations have shown that flux variations of outer belt relativistic electrons exhibit a strong radial dependence during the storm main phase. This L dependence can be characterized as small decreases (or at times increases) near the inner edge of the belt and large decreases in its outer region. This paper examines the characteristic radial dependence in terms of the fully adiabatic response of relativistic electrons to magnetic field perturbations. We calculate storm time electron fluxes by adiabatically evolving quiet time values, using Lionville's theorem and the conservation of the three adiabatic invariants. In an adiabatic process, the main phase electron fluxes are affected by the radial structure of magnetic field perturbations and the spatial and energy dependence of the quiet time electron distribution. In response to the field perturbations, adiabatic flux changes become larger at higher L shells where electrons can experience strong deceleration and considerable radial displacement. We conclude that a fully adiabatic treatment can reproduce the overall pattern of the observed radial dependence of relativistic electron fluxes during the storm main phase, although this does not deny the importance of non-adiabatic processes during individual geomagnetic storms.

  3. Modeling of the interaction of a volumetric metallic metamaterial structure with a relativistic electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Lu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the design of a volumetric metamaterial (MTM structure and its interaction with a relativistic electron beam. This novel structure has promising applications in particle beam diagnostics, acceleration, and microwave generation. The volumetric MTM has a cubic unit cell allowing structures of arbitrary size to be configured as an array of identical cells. This structure allows the exploration of the properties of a metamaterial structure without having to consider substrates or other supporting elements. The dispersion characteristics of the unit cell are obtained using eigenmode simulations in the hfss code and also using an effective medium theory with spatial dispersion. Good agreement is obtained between these two approaches. The lowest-order mode of the MTM structure is found to have a negative group velocity in all directions of propagation. The frequency spectrum of the radiation from a relativistic electron beam passing through the MTM structure is calculated analytically and also calculated with the cst code, with very good agreement. The radiation pattern from the relativistic electron beam is found to be backward Cherenkov radiation, which is a promising tool for particle diagnostics. Calculations are also presented for the application of a MTM-based wakefield accelerator as a possible all-metal replacement for the conventional dielectric wakefield structure. The proposed structure may also be useful for MTM-based vacuum electron devices for microwave generation and amplification.

  4. College students' role models, learning style preferences, and academic achievement in collaborative teaching: absolute versus relativistic thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the perspective of postformal operations, this study investigated whether college students' role models (technical teachers vs. lecturing teachers) and preferred learning styles (experience-driven mode vs. theory-driven mode) in collaborative teaching courses would be moderated by their cognitive development (absolute thinking vs. relativistic thinking) and examine whether academic achievement of students would be contingent upon their preferred learning styles. Two hundred forty-four college students who have taken the technical courses with collaborative teaching participated in this study. The results showed that those participants with absolute thinking perceived the modeling advantage of technical teachers was greater than that of lecturing teachers, preferred the experience-driven mode over the theory-driven mode, and displayed differential academic achievement between technical courses and general courses. On the other hand, the students with relativistic thinking revealed no difference in perceived modeling advantage of role models, learning styles preferences, and academic achievement between two categories of courses. In addition, this research indicates that college students' preferred learning styles would interact with course category (technical courses vs. general courses) to display differential academic achievement. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  5. Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…

  6. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  7. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  8. Spin rotation function in a microscopic non-relativistic optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauhoff, W.

    1984-01-01

    A microscopic optical potential, which is calculated non-relativistically with a density-dependent effective force, is used to calculate cross-section, polarization and spin-rotation function for elastic proton scattering from 40 Ca at 160 MeV and 497 MeV. At 160 MeV, the agreement to the data is comparable to phenomenological fits, and the spin-rotation can be used to distinguish between microscopic and Woods-Saxon potentials. A good fit to the spin-rotation function results at 497 MeV, whereas the polarization data are not well reproduced

  9. Solvable light-front model of the electromagnetic form factor of the relativistic two-body bound state in 1+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankiewicz, L.; Sawicki, M.

    1989-01-01

    Within a relativistically correct yet analytically solvable model of light-front quantum mechanics we construct the electromagnetic form factor of the two-body bound state and we study the validity of the static approximation to the full form factor. Upon comparison of full form factors calculated for different values of binding energy we observe an unexpected effect that for very strongly bound states further increase in binding leads to an increase in the size of the bound system. A similar effect is found for another quantum-mechanical model of relativistic dynamics

  10. Validity of the relativistic phase shift model for the extrinsic spin Hall effect in dilute metal alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Herschbach, C; Fedorov, D V; Gradhand, M; Mertig, I

    2014-07-09

    Recently, a generalized relativistic phase shift model was proposed (Fedorovet al 2013 Phys. Rev. B 88 085116) for the description of the skew-scattering contribution to the spin Hall effect caused by impurities. Here, we inspect this model by means of a systematic comparison with the results of first-principles calculations performed for several metallic host systems with different substitutional impurities. It is found that for its proper application, the differences between impurity and host phase shifts should be used as input parameters. Generally, the model provides good qualitative agreement with ab initio results for hosts with a free-electron-like Fermi surface and a relatively weak spin-orbit coupling, but fails otherwise.

  11. CORONA, JET, AND RELATIVISTIC LINE MODELS FOR SUZAKU/RXTE/CHANDRA-HETG OBSERVATIONS OF THE CYGNUS X-1 HARD STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Trowbridge, Sarah N.; Davis, John E.; Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Joern; Markoff, Sera B.; Maitra, Dipankar; Tramper, Frank; Pottschmidt, Katja; Coppi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Using Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have conducted a series of four simultaneous observations of the galactic black hole candidate Cyg X-1 in what were historically faint and spectrally hard 'low states'. Additionally, all of these observations occurred near superior conjunction with our line of sight to the X-ray source passing through the dense phases of the 'focused wind' from the mass donating secondary. One of our observations was also simultaneous with observations by the Chandra-High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). These latter spectra are crucial for revealing the ionized absorption due to the secondary's focused wind. Such absorption is present and must be accounted for in all four spectra. These simultaneous data give an unprecedented view of the 0.8-300 keV spectrum of Cyg X-1, and hence bear upon both corona and X-ray emitting jet models of black hole hard states. Three models fit the spectra well: coronae with thermal or mixed thermal/non-thermal electron populations and jets. All three models require a soft component that we fit with a low temperature disk spectrum with an inner radius of only a few tens of GM/c 2 . All three models also agree that the known spectral break at 10 keV is not solely due to the presence of reflection, but each gives a different underlying explanation for the augmentation of this break. Thus, whereas all three models require that there is a relativistically broadened Fe line, the strength and inner radius of such a line is dependent upon the specific model, thus making premature line-based estimates of the black hole spin in the Cyg X-1 system. We look at the relativistic line in detail, accounting for the narrow Fe emission and ionized absorption detected by HETG. Although the specific relativistic parameters of the line are continuum dependent, none of the broad line fits allow for an inner disk radius that is >40 GM/c 2 .

  12. Hot money and China's stock market volatility: Further evidence using the GARCH-MIDAS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu; Yu, Qianwen; Liu, Jing; Cao, Yang

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the influence of hot money on the return and volatility of the Chinese stock market using a nonlinear Granger causality test and a new GARCH-class model based on mixed data sampling regression (GARCH-MIDAS). The empirical results suggest that no linear or nonlinear causality exists between the growth rate of hot money and the Chinese stock market return, implying that the Chinese stock market is not driven by hot money and vice versa. However, hot money has a significant positive impact on the long-term volatility of the Chinese stock market. Furthermore, the dependence between the long-term volatility caused by hot money and the total volatility of the Chinese stock market is time-variant, indicating that huge volatilities in the stock market are not always triggered by international speculation capital flow and that Chinese authorities should further focus on more systemic reforms in the trading rules and on effectively regulating the stock market.

  13. Relativistic electron influence on sanitary-model microorganisms and antibiotics in model samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.S.; Berezhna, I.V.; Kovpik, O.F.; Babych, E.M.; Voliansky, Yu.L.; Sklar, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    A series of the investigations of the electron beam influence on sanitary-model test cultures and antibiotics in model solutions has been carried out. For each of the test objects, the authors have found the boundary doses of the absorbed radiation. The higher doses cause the sharp increase in the bactericidal influence, which becomes complete. The sanitary-bactericidal indices of the water samples remain sable during 6 days. The samples of antibiotics in various concentrations (from 100 UA) have been irradiated. It is proved that the substratum processing by the beam (in the regimes 30 kGy) causes diminution and complete neutralization of the antibacterial activity in all probes of the samples

  14. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  15. Relativistic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Kunyang

    2018-02-01

    The “Breakthrough Starshot” aims at sending near-speed-of-light cameras to nearby stellar systems in the future. Due to the relativistic effects, a transrelativistic camera naturally serves as a spectrograph, a lens, and a wide-field camera. We demonstrate this through a simulation of the optical-band image of the nearby galaxy M51 in the rest frame of the transrelativistic camera. We suggest that observing celestial objects using a transrelativistic camera may allow one to study the astronomical objects in a special way, and to perform unique tests on the principles of special relativity. We outline several examples that suggest transrelativistic cameras may make important contributions to astrophysics and suggest that the Breakthrough Starshot cameras may be launched in any direction to serve as a unique astronomical observatory.

  16. Relativistic brachistochrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harris F.; Bender, Carl M.

    1986-02-01

    The trajectory joining two points a1 and a2, which minimizes the transit time for a particle, initially at rest, to fall in a uniform gravitational field from a1 to a2, is called the brachistochrone. Johann Bernoulli was the first to find an analytical form for the brachistochrone; in 1696, he discovered that the trajectory is a cycloid. In this paper the relativistic generalization of this classic problem is presented. Four separate curves are actually identified: a particle falling in both a uniform electric and uniform gravitational field is considered. The curves that minimize the times of flight measured by an observer in a laboratory in which a1 and a2 are fixed and also the curves that minimize the proper times of flight are found.

  17. Modeling heterogeneous high explosive burn with an explicit hot-spot process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, P.K.; Johnson, J.N.; Forest, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    We present a method of treating high explosive burn with a multi-step process which includes the hot-spot excitation, decomposition, and the propagation of reaction into the region outside the hot spots. The basic features of this model are the separation of the thermal-mechanical and chemical processes, and the partition of the explosive into hot spots and the region exclusive of the hot spots. The thermal-mechanical aspects are formulated in a way similar to the chemical process. The combined processes lead to a set of rate equations for the mass fractions of reactants, intermediate states, and final products. The rates are expressed initially in terms of general characteristic times, but with specific phenomenological correlations introduced in the final model. Computational examples are given of simulated flyer plate impacts, short-shock initiation, corner turning, and shock desensitization. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  18. The model of a flat (Euclidean) expansive homogeneous and isotropic relativistic universe in the light of the general relativity, quantum mechanics, and observations

    OpenAIRE

    Skalsky, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that the relativistic universe is homogeneous and isotropic, we can unambiguously determine its model and physical properties, which correspond with the Einstein general theory of relativity (and with its two special partial solutions: Einstein special theory of relativity and Newton gravitation theory), quantum mechanics, and observations, too.

  19. Hot metal temperature prediction in blast furnace using advanced model based on fuzzy logic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.D.; Obeso, F.; Mochon, J.; Barea, R.; Jimenez, J.

    2007-05-15

    The present work presents a model based on fuzzy logic tools to predict and simulate the hot metal temperature in a blast furnace (BF). As input variables this model uses the control variables of a current BF such as moisture, pulverised coal injection, oxygen addition, mineral/coke ratio and blast volume, and it yields as a result of the hot metal temperature. The variables employed to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by current sensors of a Spanish BF In the model training stage the adaptive neurofuzzy inference system and the subtractive clustering algorithms have been used.

  20. Modeling Skin Injury from Hot Rice Porridge Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgrim Log

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes skin burns from spills of hot rice and milk products. The traditional Norwegian rice porridge serves as an example. By testing spills on objects emulating an arm, it was concluded that spills were seldom thinner than 3 mm, and stayed in place due to the viscosity of the porridge for more than one minute. The Pennes bioheat equation was solved numerically for such spills, including heat conduction to the skin and convective heat losses from the porridge surface. Temperatures were analyzed in the porridge and skin layers, and the resulting skin injury was calculated based on the basal layer temperature. Parameters influencing burn severity, such as porridge layer thickness, porridge temperature, removal of the porridge and thermal effects of post scald tempered (15 °C water cooling were analyzed. The spilled porridge resulted in a prolonged heat supply to the skin, and the skin injury developed significantly with time. The porridge temperature turned out to be the most important injury parameter. A 70 °C porridge temperature could develop superficial partial-thickness burns. Porridge temperatures at processing temperatures nearly instantly developed severe burns. It was demonstrated that prompt removal of the hot porridge significantly reduced the injury development. The general advice is to avoid serving porridge and similar products at temperatures above 65 °C and, if spilled on the skin, to remove it quickly. After such scald incidents, it is advised to cool the injured area by tempered water for a prolonged period to stimulate healing.

  1. [The interaction of soil micromycetes with "hot" particles in a model system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, N N; Lashko, T N; Redchits, T I; Vasilevskaia, A I; Borisiuk, L G; Siniavskaia, O I; Gavriliuk, V I; Muzalev, P N

    1991-01-01

    A model system which permits observing for a long time and fixing interaction of fungi with a radiation source has been created on the basis of an isolated "hot" particle, deficient mineral medium (saccharose content 60 mg/l) and suspension of fungal conidia. Five species (six strains) of micromycetes isolated from radionuclide-contaminated soils and fifteen "hot" particles have been tested. It has been found out for the first time that Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium roseo-purpureum are able actively overgrow "hot" particles whose radioactivity did not exceed 3.1-1.0(-7) Ci by gamma-spectrum and to destroy them 50-150 days later. Certain changes in morphology of fungi-destructors of "hot" particles are revealed. A problem on ecological significance of the found phenomenon is discussed.

  2. Modeling Relativistic Electron Precipitation Bremsstrahlung X-Ray Intensities at 10-100 km Manned Vehicle Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, K.; Williams, A.

    2013-12-01

    Relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV) altitudes. The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symmetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremmstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry that relies on sRLVs with a nominal apogee of 100 km. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.

  3. Quest of halo in 31Ne using Glauber model formalism with deformed relativistic mean field density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mahesh K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of radio active ion beam (RIB) explored the structure of exotic nuclei, which are away from the β stability line. Such nuclei with weak binding lie at the limit of stability and exhibit some fascinating phenomena. One of them is the formation of one or more nucleon halo structure. It is well established that the interaction cross section of halo nuclei like 11 Li, 11 Be and 19 C show anomalously large interaction cross sections and matter radius than that of their neighboring nuclei. Some recent investigations for 31 Ne predict that has a halo nature. The first experimental evidence also suggests 31 Ne as a halo candidate. The isotope 31 Ne having N=21, which breaks the shell closer structure as a consequence of deformation associated with the strong intruder configuration and having special interest, because it lie at island of inversion. Here we apply the well known Glauber approach with conjunction of deformed relativistic mean field densities of projectile and target nuclei. It is to be noted that Panda et al has done the similar calculation using a spherical density

  4. The Pore Collapse “Hot-Spots” Model Coupled with Brittle Damage for Solid Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the building of a numerical pore collapse model with “hot-spots” formation for the impacted damage explosives. According to damage mechanical evolution of brittle material, the one-dimensional elastic-viscoplastic collapse model was improved to incorporate the impact damage during the dynamic collapse of pores. The damage of explosives was studied using the statistical crack mechanics (SCRAM. The effects of the heat conduction and the chemical reaction were taken into account in the formation of “hot-spots.” To verify the improved model, numerical simulations were carried out for different pressure states and used to model a multiple-impact experiment. The results show that repeated weak impacts can lead to the collapse of pores and the “hot-spots” may occur due to the accumulation of internal defects accompanied by the softening of explosives.

  5. PACIAE 2.0: An updated parton and hadron cascade model (program) for the relativistic nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Ben-Hao; Zhou, Dai-Mei; Yan, Yu-Liang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Feng, Sheng-Qin; Dong, Bao-Guo; Cai, Xu

    2012-02-01

    We have updated the parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE for the relativistic nuclear collisions, from based on JETSET 6.4 and PYTHIA 5.7 to based on PYTHIA 6.4, and renamed as PACIAE 2.0. The main physics concerning the stages of the parton initiation, parton rescattering, hadronization, and hadron rescattering were discussed. The structures of the programs were briefly explained. In addition, some calculated examples were compared with the experimental data. It turns out that this model (program) works well. Program summaryProgram title: PACIAE version 2.0 Catalogue identifier: AEKI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 297 523 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 051 274 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 Computer: DELL Studio XPS and others with a FORTRAN 77 or GFORTRAN compiler Operating system: Unix/Linux RAM: 1 G words Word size: 64 bits Classification: 11.2 Nature of problem: The Monte Carlo simulation of hadron transport (cascade) model is successful in studying the observables at final state in the relativistic nuclear collisions. However the high p suppression, the jet quenching (energy loss), and the eccentricity scaling of v etc., observed in high energy nuclear collisions, indicates the important effect of the initial partonic state on the final hadronic state. Therefore better parton and hadron transport (cascade) models for the relativistic nuclear collisions are highly required. Solution method: The parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE is originally based on the JETSET 7.4 and PYTHIA 5.7. The PYTHIA model has been updated to PYTHIA 6.4 with the additions of new physics, the improvements in existing physics, and the

  6. A thermo-electro-mechanical simulation model for hot wire cutting of EPS foam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Kiril; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermo-electro-mechanical mathematical model describing the effects taking place within a Ni-Cr20% wire used in a hot-wire cutting process for free forming and rapid prototyping of expanded polystyrene (EPS) is investigated and simulated. The model implements and solves three semi...... cutting of EPS in contact with a cutting tool made of an electrically heated metal wire attached to a robot device. The finite difference method is used to solve the coupled equations in the two environments (domains) in which the hot-wire operates, namely air and EPS. The model is calibrated against...

  7. Scattering in relativistic particle mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bievre, S.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis the authors studied scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. He uses the results to analyze gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. A general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics is presented and the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e., those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group are studied. The second part of the analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Using general geometric arguments, gauge invariance of the scattering transformation in the Todorov-Komar Hamiltonian constraint model is proved. Finally, quantization of the models is discussed

  8. On unique parameters and unified formal form of hot-wire anemometric sensor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LigePza, P.

    2005-01-01

    This note reviews the extensively adopted equations used as models of hot-wire anemometric sensors. An unified formal form of the mathematical model of a hot-wire anemometric sensor with otherwise defined parameters is proposed. Those parameters, static and dynamic, have simple physical interpretation and can be easily determined. They show directly the range of sensor application. They determine the metrological properties of the given sensor in the actual medium. Hence, the parameters' values might be ascribed to each sensor in the given medium and be quoted in manufacturers' catalogues, supplementing the sensor specifications. Because of their simple physical interpretation, those parameters allow the direct comparison of the fundamental metrological properties of various sensors and selection of the optimal sensor for the given research measurement application. The parameters are also useful in modeling complex hot-wire systems

  9. Calculation of the radiative opacity of laser-produced plasmas using a relativistic-screened hydrogenic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubiano, J.G.; Florido, R.; Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J.M.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we use a relativistic-screened hydrogenic model to compute the radiative opacity of laser-produced plasmas. The model is based on a set of screening charges which allow one to easily calculate atomic properties of isolated ions. These screened charges have been fitted to a fourth-order polynomial depending on the nuclear charge Z for ground and single excited states of ions belonging to the isoelectronic sequences comprised between He-like to U-like. In the opacity model used, ionic populations are obtained by solving the Saha equation including degeneracy corrections. Bound-bound transitions are determined using a Voigt profile for line shape, which includes natural, collisional, Doppler and UTA widths. Bound-free and free-free opacities are evaluated using the Kramer cross-sections with appropriate corrections. Scattering processes are computed through the use of the Thomson formula with corrections. The results are compared with other screened hydrogenic models and more sophisticated self-consistent codes

  10. Mathematical modeling of hot air/electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying kinetics of mushroom slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghian Dinani, Somayeh; Hamdami, Nasser; Shahedi, Mohammad; Havet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot air/EHD drying behavior of thin layer mushroom slices was evaluated. • A new empirical model was proposed for drying kinetics modeling of mushroom slices. • The new model presents excellent predictions for hot air/EHD drying of mushroom. - Abstract: Researches about mathematical modeling of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying are rare. In this study, hot air combined with electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying behavior of thin layer mushroom slices was evaluated in a laboratory scale dryer at voltages of 17, 19, and 21 kV and electrode gaps of 5, 6, and 7 cm. The drying curves were fitted to ten different mathematical models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Two-term exponential, Midilli and Kucuk, Wang and Singh, Weibull and Parabolic models) and a proposed new empirical model to select a suitable drying equation for drying mushroom slices in a hot air combined with EHD dryer. Coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis and the models were compared based on their coefficient of determination (R 2 ), sum of square errors (SSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between experimental and predicted moisture ratios. According to the results, the proposed model that contains only three parameters provided the best fit with the experimental data. It was closely followed by the Midilli and Kucuk model that contains four parameters. Therefore, the proposed model can present comfortable usage and excellent predictions for the moisture content changes of mushroom slices in the hot air combined with EHD drying system

  11. Mathematical model for the strip temperature evolution on a continuous finishing hot mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurri, C.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work is to construct a mathematical model to describe the strip temperature evolution at a continuous finishing hot rolling mill. the model predicts in a satisfactory way the strip temperature, with a finishing one (exit of stand 6) with a deviation of + 6,5 degree centigrade for a mean temperature drop of 150 degree centigrade at the continuous finishing hot mill and a mean error of 4.3 %. It also predicts a coiler temperature with a difference of + 9,2 degree centigrade a mean temperature drop of 240 degree centigrade in the cooling table and a mean error of 3.8%. (Author) 16 refs

  12. Infrared polar brightenings on Jupiter. V - A thermal equilibrium model for the north polar hot spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halthore, Rangasayi; Burrows, Adam; Caldwell, John

    1988-01-01

    Voyager IRIS instrument records of the IR hydrocarbon emissions from Jupiter's north polar region are presently studied to determine the spatial and other characteristics of the north polar hot spot. Attention is given to a thermal equilibrium model that exploits the asymmetry found in 7.8-micron emission of stratospheric methane with respect to system III longitude in order to estimate stratospheric zonal wind velocity. This model accurately predicts the observed asymmetry in acetylene's 13.6-micron emission; this requires, however, enhanced acetylene abundance in the hot spot, as well as ethane depletion. Energetic charged particles are suggested to be the most probable cause of these effects.

  13. Experimental Validation of a Domestic Stratified Hot Water Tank Model in Modelica for Annual Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    The use of stratified hot water tanks in solar energy systems - including ORC systems - as well as heat pump systems is paramount for a better performance of these systems. However, the availability of effective and reliable models to predict the annual performance of stratified hot water tanks...... coupled with energy system solutions is limited. In this poster, a discretized model of a stratified tank developed in Modelica is presented. The physical phenoma to be considered are the thermal transfers by conduction and convection – stratification, heat loss to ambient, charging and discharging...

  14. Model Of Relaxation Of Residual Stresses In Hot-Rolled Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenin A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses in hot-rolled strips are of practical importance when the laser cutting of these strip is applied. The factors influencing the residual stresses include the non uniform distribution of elastic-plastic deformations, phase transformation occurring during cooling and stress relaxation during rolling and cooling. The latter factor, despite its significant effect on the residual stress, is scarcely considered in the scientific literature. The goal of the present study was development of a model of residual stresses in hot-rolled strips based on the elastic-plastic material model, taking into account the stress relaxation.

  15. Relativistic quark-diquark model of baryons with a spin-isospin transition interaction: Non-strange baryon spectrum and nucleon magnetic moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanctis, M. de [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Ferretti, J. [Universita La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); INFN, Roma (Italy); Santopinto, E.; Vassallo, A. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    The relativistic interacting quark-diquark model of baryons, recently developed, is here extended introducing in the mass operator a spin-isospin transition interaction. This refined version of the model is used to calculate the non-strange baryon spectrum. The results are compared to the present experimental data. A preliminary calculation of the magnetic moments of the proton and neutron is also presented. (orig.)

  16. Mathematical-Artificial Neural Network Hybrid Model to Predict Roll Force during Hot Rolling of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, S.; Sengupta, P. P.; Singh, A. P.; Marik, A. K.; Talukdar, P.

    2013-07-01

    Accurate prediction of roll force during hot strip rolling is essential for model based operation of hot strip mills. Traditionally, mathematical models based on theory of plastic deformation have been used for prediction of roll force. In the last decade, data driven models like artificial neural network have been tried for prediction of roll force. Pure mathematical models have accuracy limitations whereas data driven models have difficulty in convergence when applied to industrial conditions. Hybrid models by integrating the traditional mathematical formulations and data driven methods are being developed in different parts of world. This paper discusses the methodology of development of an innovative hybrid mathematical-artificial neural network model. In mathematical model, the most important factor influencing accuracy is flow stress of steel. Coefficients of standard flow stress equation, calculated by parameter estimation technique, have been used in the model. The hybrid model has been trained and validated with input and output data collected from finishing stands of Hot Strip Mill, Bokaro Steel Plant, India. It has been found that the model accuracy has been improved with use of hybrid model, over the traditional mathematical model.

  17. Predictive Models for Photovoltaic Electricity Production in Hot Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabar H. Yousif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of finding a correct forecast equation for photovoltaic electricity production from renewable sources is an important matter, since knowing the factors affecting the increase in the proportion of renewable energy production and reducing the cost of the product has economic and scientific benefits. This paper proposes a mathematical model for forecasting energy production in photovoltaic (PV panels based on a self-organizing feature map (SOFM model. The proposed model is compared with other models, including the multi-layer perceptron (MLP and support vector machine (SVM models. Moreover, a mathematical model based on a polynomial function for fitting the desired output is proposed. Different practical measurement methods are used to validate the findings of the proposed neural and mathematical models such as mean square error (MSE, mean absolute error (MAE, correlation (R, and coefficient of determination (R2. The proposed SOFM model achieved a final MSE of 0.0007 in the training phase and 0.0005 in the cross-validation phase. In contrast, the SVM model resulted in a small MSE value equal to 0.0058, while the MLP model achieved a final MSE of 0.026 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989, which indicates a strong relationship between input and output variables. The proposed SOFM model closely fits the desired results based on the R2 value, which is equal to 0.9555. Finally, the comparison results of MAE for the three models show that the SOFM model achieved a best result of 0.36156, whereas the SVM and MLP models yielded 4.53761 and 3.63927, respectively. A small MAE value indicates that the output of the SOFM model closely fits the actual results and predicts the desired output.

  18. Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and ...

  19. Relativistic Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Pham Mau Quam: Problemes mathematiques en hydrodynamique relativiste; A. Lichnerowicz: Ondes de choc, ondes infinitesimales et rayons en hydrodynamique et magnetohydrodynamique relativistes; A.H. Taub: Variational principles in general relativity; J. Ehlers: General relativistic kinetic theory of gases; K. Marathe: Abstract Minkowski spaces as fibre bundles; and, G. Boillat: Sur la propagation de la chaleur en relativite.

  20. Massive neutron star with strangeness in a relativistic mean-field model with a high-density cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Hu, Jinniu; Liu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The properties of neutron stars with the strangeness degree of freedom are studied in the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model via including a logarithmic interaction as a function of the scalar meson field. This interaction, named the σ -cut potential, can largely reduce the attractive contributions of the scalar meson field at high density without any influence on the properties of nuclear structure around the normal saturation density. In this work, the TM1 parameter set is chosen as the RMF interaction, while the strengths of σ -cut potential are constrained by the properties of finite nuclei so that we can obtain a reasonable effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The hyperons Λ ,Σ , and Ξ are considered in neutron stars within this framework, whose coupling constants with mesons are determined by the latest hyperon-nucleon and Λ -Λ potentials extracted from the available experimental data of hypernuclei. The maximum mass of neutron star can be larger than 2 M⊙ with these hyperons in the present framework. Furthermore, the nucleon mass at high density will be saturated due to this additional σ -cut potential, which is consistent with the conclusions obtained by other calculations such as Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory and quark mean-field model.

  1. Hot News Recommendation System from Heterogeneous Websites Based on Bayesian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyou Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most current news recommendations are suitable for news which comes from a single news website, not for news from different heterogeneous news websites. Previous researches about news recommender systems based on different strategies have been proposed to provide news personalization services for online news readers. However, little research work has been reported on utilizing hundreds of heterogeneous news websites to provide top hot news services for group customers (e.g., government staffs. In this paper, we propose a hot news recommendation model based on Bayesian model, which is from hundreds of different news websites. In the model, we determine whether the news is hot news by calculating the joint probability of the news. We evaluate and compare our proposed recommendation model with the results of human experts on the real data sets. Experimental results demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of our method. We also implement this model in hot news recommendation system of Hangzhou city government in year 2013, which achieves very good results.

  2. Hot news recommendation system from heterogeneous websites based on bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Liu, Ningzhong; Zhao, Zhengkang

    2014-01-01

    The most current news recommendations are suitable for news which comes from a single news website, not for news from different heterogeneous news websites. Previous researches about news recommender systems based on different strategies have been proposed to provide news personalization services for online news readers. However, little research work has been reported on utilizing hundreds of heterogeneous news websites to provide top hot news services for group customers (e.g., government staffs). In this paper, we propose a hot news recommendation model based on Bayesian model, which is from hundreds of different news websites. In the model, we determine whether the news is hot news by calculating the joint probability of the news. We evaluate and compare our proposed recommendation model with the results of human experts on the real data sets. Experimental results demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of our method. We also implement this model in hot news recommendation system of Hangzhou city government in year 2013, which achieves very good results.

  3. Hot News Recommendation System from Heterogeneous Websites Based on Bayesian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Liu, Ningzhong; Zhao, Zhengkang

    2014-01-01

    The most current news recommendations are suitable for news which comes from a single news website, not for news from different heterogeneous news websites. Previous researches about news recommender systems based on different strategies have been proposed to provide news personalization services for online news readers. However, little research work has been reported on utilizing hundreds of heterogeneous news websites to provide top hot news services for group customers (e.g., government staffs). In this paper, we propose a hot news recommendation model based on Bayesian model, which is from hundreds of different news websites. In the model, we determine whether the news is hot news by calculating the joint probability of the news. We evaluate and compare our proposed recommendation model with the results of human experts on the real data sets. Experimental results demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of our method. We also implement this model in hot news recommendation system of Hangzhou city government in year 2013, which achieves very good results. PMID:25093207

  4. Simulation of hot forming processes of refractory metals using porous metal plasticity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parteder, E.; Riedel, H.; Sun, D.-Z.

    2001-01-01

    In this work two models for predicting the densification behavior of sintered refractory metals during hot working operations are presented. It is known from experiments and cell model calculations that the pore shape change has a significant influence on the densification behavior. Therefore this effect should be included in a continuum constitutive description. The first model presented is a phenomenological extension of the Gurson model, the second one is the model of Gologanu, Leblond and Devaux, which was implemented as a user material model into the finite-element-code ABAQUS. The numerical results are compared with the density distribution of a tapered disk made of pure molybdenum after the hot forming operation. (author)

  5. A Unified Physical Model for Creep and Hot Working of Al-Mg Solid Solution Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Spigarelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of the dependence of steady-state creep rate on applied stress and temperature is almost invariably based on the Norton equation or on derived power-law relationships. In hot working, the Norton equation does not work, and is therefore usually replaced with the Garofalo (sinh equation. Both of these equations are phenomenological in nature and can be seldom unambiguously related to microstructural parameters, such as dislocation density, although early efforts in this sense led to the introduction of the “natural power law” with exponent 3. In an attempt to overcome this deficiency, a recent model with sound physical basis has been successfully used to describe the creep response of fcc metals, such as copper. The main advantage of this model is that it does not require any data fitting to predict the strain rate dependence on applied stress and temperature, which is a particularly attractive peculiarity when studying the hot workability of metals. Thus, the model, properly modified to take into account solid solution strengthening effects, has been here applied to the study of the creep and hot-working of simple Al-Mg single phase alloys. The model demonstrated an excellent accuracy in describing both creep and hot working regimes, still maintaining its most important feature, that is, it does not require any fitting of the experimental data.

  6. Polycarbonate as an Elasto-Plastic Material Model for Simulation of the Microstructure Hot Imprint Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokas Šakalys

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal imprint process of polymer micro-patterning is widely applied in areas such as manufacturing of optical parts, solar energy, bio-mechanical devices and chemical chips. Polycarbonate (PC, as an amorphous polymer, is often used in thermoforming processes because of its good replication characteristics. In order to obtain replicas of the best quality, the imprint parameters (e.g., pressure, temperature, time, etc. must be determined. Therefore finite element model of the hot imprint process of lamellar periodical microstructure into PC has been created using COMSOL Multiphysics. The mathematical model of the hot imprint process includes three steps: heating, imprinting and demolding. The material properties of amorphous PC strongly depend on the imprint temperature and loading pressure. Polycarbonate was modelled as an elasto-plastic material, since it was analyzed below the glass transition temperature. The hot imprint model was solved using the heat transfer and the solid stress-strain application modes with thermal contact problem between the mold and polycarbonate. It was used for the evaluation of temperature and stress distributions in the polycarbonate during the hot imprint process. The quality of the replica, by means of lands filling ratio, was determined as well.

  7. Economic Model Predictive Control for Hot Water Based Heating Systems in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadelrahman, M. A. Ahmed; Zong, Yi; Li, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study to optimize the heating energy costs in a residential building with varying electricity price signals based on an Economic Model Predictive Controller (EMPC). The investigated heating system consists of an air source heat pump (ASHP) incorporated with a hot water tank...

  8. Testing the Performance and Accuracy of the RELXILL Model for the Relativistic X-Ray Reflection from Accretion Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Kishalay; García, Javier A.; Steiner, James F.; Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-12-01

    The reflection spectroscopic model RELXILL is commonly implemented in studying relativistic X-ray reflection from accretion disks around black holes. We present a systematic study of the model’s capability to constrain the dimensionless spin and ionization parameters from ∼6000 Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simulations of a bright X-ray source employing the lamp-post geometry. We employ high-count spectra to show the limitations in the model without being confused with limitations in signal-to-noise. We find that both parameters are well-recovered at 90% confidence with improving constraints at higher reflection fraction, high spin, and low source height. We test spectra across a broad range—first at 106–107 and then ∼105 total source counts across the effective 3–79 keV band of NuSTAR, and discover a strong dependence of the results on how fits are performed around the starting parameters, owing to the complexity of the model itself. A blind fit chosen over an approach that carries some estimates of the actual parameter values can lead to significantly worse recovery of model parameters. We further stress the importance to span the space of nonlinear-behaving parameters like {log} ξ carefully and thoroughly for the model to avoid misleading results. In light of selecting fitting procedures, we recall the necessity to pay attention to the choice of data binning and fit statistics used to test the goodness of fit by demonstrating the effect on the photon index Γ. We re-emphasize and implore the need to account for the detector resolution while binning X-ray data and using Poisson fit statistics instead while analyzing Poissonian data.

  9. Equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean-field models with chiral limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weizhou; Li Baozn; Chen Liewen

    2007-01-01

    Using in-medium hadron properties according to the Brown-Rho scaling due to the chiral symmetry restoration at high densities and considering naturalness of the coupling constants, we have newly constructed several relativistic mean-field Lagrangians with chiral limits. The model parameters are adjusted such that the symmetric part of the resulting equation of state at supra-normal densities is consistent with that required by the collective flow data from high energy heavy-ion reactions, while the resulting density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities agrees with that extracted from the recent isospin diffusion data from intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions. The resulting equations of state have the special feature of being soft at intermediate densities but stiff at high densities naturally. With these constrained equations of state, it is found that the radius of a 1.4M o canonical neutron star is in the range of 11.9 km≤R≤13.1 km, and the maximum neutron star mass is around 2.0M o close to the recent observations

  10. Modelling of Damage During Hot Forging of Ingots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Ductile damage modelling in the ingot forging process is discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of both coupled and uncoupled ductile damage models are presented. Some uncoupled damage models are examined in greater detail regarding their applicability to different processes, where hydrostatic...... compression as well as tension, combined with shear stresses, are present. It is shown that the numerical implementation can influence the results substantially and therefore lead to software user dependent conclusions. It may be advantageous for the user of commercial finite element programs to base...... the damage analysis on the Cockcroft & Latham criterion, since this with changing cut-off value does not inconsistently change the location of damage, in contradiction to the other investigated criteria, and since it is able to predict damage in processes, which are slightly compressive....

  11. Multiwavelength Observations of Relativistic Jets from General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Anantua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes a program intended to unify three burgeoning branches of the high-energy astrophysics of relativistic jets: general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD simulations of ever-increasing dynamical range, the microphysical theory of particle acceleration under relativistic conditions, and multiwavelength observations resolving ever-decreasing spatiotemporal scales. The process, which involves converting simulation output into time series of images and polarization maps that can be directly compared to observations, is performed by (1 self-consistently prescribing models for emission, absorption, and particle acceleration and (2 performing time-dependent polarized radiative transfer. M87 serves as an exemplary prototype for this investigation due to its prominent and well-studied jet and the imminent prospect of learning much more from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT observations this year. Synthetic observations can be directly compared with real observations for observational signatures such as jet instabilities, collimation, relativistic beaming, and polarization. The simplest models described adopt the standard equipartition hypothesis; other models calculate emission by relating it to current density or shear. These models are intended for application to the radio jet instead of the higher frequency emission, the disk and the wind, which will be subjects of future investigations.

  12. Methods in relativistic nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danos, M.; Gillet, V.; Cauvin, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book is intended to provide the methods and tools for performing actual calculations for finite many-body systems of bound relativistic constituent particles. The aim is to cover thoroughly the methodological aspects of the relativistic many-body problem for bound states while avoiding the presentation of specific models. The many examples contained in the later part of the work are meant to give concrete illustrations of how to actually apply the methods which are given in the first part. The basic framework of the approach is the lagrangian field theory solved in the time-independent Schroedinger picture. (Auth.)

  13. Recent Progress on the Description of Relativistic Spin: Vector Model of Spinning Particle and Rotating Body with Gravimagnetic Moment in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Deriglazov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent results on development of vector models of spin and apply them to study the influence of spin-field interaction on the trajectory and precession of a spinning particle in external gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The formalism is developed starting from the Lagrangian variational problem, which implies both equations of motion and constraints which should be presented in a model of spinning particle. We present a detailed analysis of the resulting theory and show that it has reasonable properties on both classical and quantum level. We describe a number of applications and show how the vector model clarifies some issues presented in theoretical description of a relativistic spin: (A one-particle relativistic quantum mechanics with positive energies and its relation with the Dirac equation and with relativistic Zitterbewegung; (B spin-induced noncommutativity and the problem of covariant formalism; (C three-dimensional acceleration consistent with coordinate-independence of the speed of light in general relativity and rainbow geometry seen by spinning particle; (D paradoxical behavior of the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Tulczyjew-Dixon equations of a rotating body in ultrarelativistic limit, and equations with improved behavior.

  14. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  15. The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms for the classical relativistic electrodynamics models revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubov, N.N.; Bogolyubov, N.N.; Prykarpatsky, A.K.; Prykarpatsky, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and the aspects of the quantization via the Dirac procedure related to them. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach developed in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. The Dirac-type quantization procedure for the considered alternative electrodynamics models, based on the obtained canonical Hamiltonian formulations, is developed

  16. Theoretical modelling of hot gas ingestion through turbine rim seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Owen

    2012-12-01

    The nozzle guide vanes create three-dimensional (3D variations in the distribution of pressure in the mainstream annulus and the turbine blades create unsteady effects. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is both time-consuming and expensive for these 3D unsteady flows, and engine designers tend to use correlations or simple models to predict ingress. This paper describes the application of simple ‘orifice models’, the analytical solutions of which can be used to calculate the sealing effectiveness of turbine rim seals. The solutions agree well with available data for externally-induced ingress, where the effects of rotation are negligible, for rotationally-induced ingress, where the effects of the external flow are small, and for combined ingress, where the effects of both external flow and rotation are significant.

  17. A relativistic core–envelope model on pseudospheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A core–envelope model for superdense matter distribution with the feature – core consisting of anisotropic fluid distribution and envelope with isotropic fluid distribution is reported on the background of pseudospheroidal space-time. The physical plausibility of the model is examined analytically and numerically.

  18. Relativistic Model of Hamiltonian Renormalization for Bound States and Scattering Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    We test the renormalization group procedure for effective particles on a model of fermion–scalar interaction based on the Yukawa theory. The model is obtained by truncating the Yukawa theory to just two Fock sectors in the Dirac front form of Hamiltonian dynamics, a fermion, and a fermion and a boson, for the purpose of simple analytic calculation that exhibits steps of the procedure. (author)

  19. Dynamical initial-state model for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun; Schenke, Björn

    2018-02-01

    We present a fully three-dimensional model providing initial conditions for energy and net-baryon density distributions in heavy-ion collisions at arbitrary collision energy. The model includes the dynamical deceleration of participating nucleons or valence quarks, depending on the implementation. The duration of the deceleration continues until the string spanned between colliding participants is assumed to thermalize, which is either after a fixed proper time, or a fluctuating time depending on sampled final rapidities. Energy is deposited in space time along the string, which in general will span a range of space-time rapidities and proper times. We study various observables obtained directly from the initial-state model, including net-baryon rapidity distributions, two-particle rapidity correlations, as well as the rapidity decorrelation of the transverse geometry. Their dependence on the model implementation and parameter values is investigated. We also present the implementation of the model with 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamics, which involves the addition of source terms that deposit energy and net-baryon densities produced by the initial-state model at proper times greater than the initial time for the hydrodynamic simulation.

  20. Hot Deformation Behavior and Constitutive Modeling of Alloy 800H Considering Effectsof Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rui; Zheng, Qi; Tang, Zhending; Yao, Yongquan; Xu, Guifang; Li, Dongsheng; Cheng, Xiaonong

    2017-05-01

    High-temperature single-pass compression experiments were conducted on alloy 800H using a Gleeble 3500 thermal-mechanical simulation testing machine, and hot deformation behaviors at temperatures of 1,000-1,150 °C and strain rates of 0.01-1 s-1 were investigated. The results revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior occurred more easily under deformation conditions with relatively low strain rates and high deformation temperatures. By taking the influence of strain on the hot deformation behavior into consideration, a strain-dependent hyperbolic sine constitutive model was constructed. Based on this revised constitutive model, flow stress during deformation was predicted. The linear relation between the predicted value and the experimental result was as high as 0.99648, and the absolute average relative error was 2.019 %. Thus, it was demonstrated that the strain-dependent analysis provided a constitutive model that was able to precisely predict flow stress under experimental conditions.

  1. Accurate anisotropic material modelling using only tensile tests for hot and cold forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abspoel, M.; Scholting, M. E.; Lansbergen, M.; Neelis, B. M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate material data for simulations require a lot of effort. Advanced yield loci require many different kinds of tests and a Forming Limit Curve (FLC) needs a large amount of samples. Many people use simple material models to reduce the effort of testing, however some models are either not accurate enough (i.e. Hill’48), or do not describe new types of materials (i.e. Keeler). Advanced yield loci describe the anisotropic materials behaviour accurately, but are not widely adopted because of the specialized tests, and data post-processing is a hurdle for many. To overcome these issues, correlations between the advanced yield locus points (biaxial, plane strain and shear) and mechanical properties have been investigated. This resulted in accurate prediction of the advanced stress points using only Rm, Ag and r-values in three directions from which a Vegter yield locus can be constructed with low effort. FLC’s can be predicted with the equations of Abspoel & Scholting depending on total elongation A80, r-value and thickness. Both predictive methods are initially developed for steel, aluminium and stainless steel (BCC and FCC materials). The validity of the predicted Vegter yield locus is investigated with simulation and measurements on both hot and cold formed parts and compared with Hill’48. An adapted specimen geometry, to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution in the Gleeble hot tensile test, was used to measure the mechanical properties needed to predict a hot Vegter yield locus. Since for hot material, testing of stress states other than uniaxial is really challenging, the prediction for the yield locus adds a lot of value. For the hot FLC an A80 sample with a homogeneous temperature distribution is needed which is due to size limitations not possible in the Gleeble tensile tester. Heating the sample in an industrial type furnace and tensile testing it in a dedicated device is a good alternative to determine the necessary parameters for the FLC

  2. On the physics of relativistic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-06-01

    A model of a strong, time-independent, and relativistic double layer is studied. Besides double layers having the electric field parallel to the current the model also describes a certain type of oblique double layers. The 'Langmuir condition' (ratio of ion current density to electron current density) as well as an expression for the potential drop of the double layer are derived. Furthermore, the distribution of charged particles, electric field, and potential within the double layer are clarified and discussed. It is found that the properties of relativistic double layers differ substantially from the properties of corresponding non-relativistic double layers. (Author)

  3. Higher harmonics of azimuthal anisotropy in relativistic heavy ion collisions in HYDJET++ model

    CERN Document Server

    Bravina, L V; Eyyubova, G. Kh.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Lokhtin, I.P.; Malinina, L.V.; Petrushanko, S.V.; Snigirev, A.M.; Zabrodin, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    The LHC data on azimuthal anisotropy harmonics from PbPb collisions at center-of-mass energy 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair are analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the HYDJET++ model. The cross-talk of elliptic $v_2$ and triangular $v_3$ flow in the model generates both even and odd harmonics of higher order. Comparison with the experimental data shows that this mechanism is able to reproduce the $p_{\\rm T}$ and centrality dependencies of quadrangular flow $v_4$, and also the basic trends for pentagonal $v_5$ and hexagonal $v_6$ flows.

  4. The spin predictions of the relativistic quark model for baryon decuplet production

    CERN Document Server

    Montvay, István

    1973-01-01

    Single-quark scattering contributions are considered in the case of ground-state decuplet baryon production. It is shown within the framework of an explicitly covariant approach that the spin consequences of the quark additivity assumption hold in the t-channel helicity frame independently of much of the details of the model. (12 refs).

  5. On the MIT Bag Model in the Non-relativistic Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizabalaga, N.; Le Treust, L.; Raymond, N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is devoted to the spectral investigation of the MIT bag model, that is, the Dirac operator on a smooth and bounded domain of R^3 with certain boundary conditions. When the mass m goes to {±∞}, we provide spectral asymptotic results.

  6. Modeling Relativistic Electron Precipitation Bremsstrahlung X-Ray Intensities at 10-100 km Manned Vehicle Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L. Habsh; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Relativisitic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and space reuseable launch vehicles (sRLVs). The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremsstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.

  7. A Microstructure Evolution Model for Hot Rolling of a Mo-TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongsheng; Fazeli, F.; Militzer, M.; Poole, W. J.

    2007-04-01

    A comprehensive study of microstructure evolution for a Mo-TRIP (transformation-induced-plasticity) steel under hot strip rolling conditions has been conducted. This investigation includes austenite grain growth during reheating, deformation behavior, and static recrystallization kinetics of austenite as well as the effect of cooling rate and austenite conditioning on the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) behavior. The physically based Kocks Mecking model has been employed to describe the deformation behavior of austenite, while the Johnson Mehl Avrami Kolmogorov (JMAK) approach has been used to predict static recrystallization, and an empirical equation has been formulated for the recrystallized austenite grain size. Ferrite transformation start is described by a model considering early growth of corner nucleated ferrite. The fraction of ferrite transformed from austenite during continuous cooling is predicted by the semiempirical JMAK approach in combination with Scheil’s equation of additivity. The effect of carbon enrichment on ferrite transformation kinetics is explicitly included in the model. In addition, a phenomenological model for the bainite formation has been proposed. Martensite transformation start is described by an empirical equation taking into account carbon enrichment of remaining austenite. Finally, the entire hot strip rolling and controlled cooling process have been simulated by hot torsion tests, and the optimum coiling temperatures for the formation of TRIP microstructures have been determined.

  8. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  9. New global loss model of energetic and relativistic electrons based on Van Allen Probes measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ksenia Orlova; Yuri Shprits; Maria Spasojevic

    2016-01-01

    The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument on the Van Allen Probes provides a vast quantity of fully resolved wave measurements below L = 5.5, a critical region for radiation belt acceleration and loss. EMFISIS data show that plasmaspheric hiss waves can be observed at frequencies as low as 20 Hz and provide three-component magnetic field measurements that can be directly used for electron scattering calculations. Updated models of hiss proper...

  10. Prompt form of relativistic equations of motion in a model of singular lagrangian formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajda, R.P.; Duviryak, A.A.; Klyuchkovskij, Yu.B.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to develope the way of transition from equations of motion in singular lagrangian formalism to three-dimensional equations of Newton type in the prompt form of dynamics in the framework of c -2 parameter expansion (s. c. quasireltativistic approaches), as well as to find corresponding integrals of motion. The first quasirelativistifc approach for Dominici, Gomis, Longhi model was obtained and investigated

  11. Rotating relativistic neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1991-07-21

    Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s{sup {minus}1} {le} {Omega}{sub K} {le} 9000 s{sup {minus}1}. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of {Omega}{sub K} must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder ({Lambda}) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.

  12. Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated mathematical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samaraseker; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1998-09-30

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a join research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American steel makers.

  13. A model-dependent approach to the non-relativistic Lamb shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Valdes, J. F.; Bruce, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    The precise observation of the Lamb shift, between the 2s_{1/2} and 2p_{1/2} levels in hydrogen, was a genuine motivation for the development of modern quantum electrodynamics. According to Dirac theory, the 2s_{1/2} and 2p_{1/2} levels should have equal energies. However, "radiative corrections" due to the interaction between the atomic electron and the vacuum, shift the 2s_{1/2} level higher in energy by around 4.37493× 10^{-6} eV or 2π\\hbar× 1057.85 MHz relative to the 2p_{1/2} level. The measurement of Lamb and Retherford provided the stimulus for renormalization theory which has been so successful in handling troublesome divergences. The Lamb shift is still a central theme in atomic physics. W.E. Lamb was the first to see that this tiny shift, so elusive and hard to measure, would clarify in a fundamental way our thinking about particles and fields. In this article, the Lamb shift for the 2 s energy level in hydrogen is assessed for three different electron models by using the variational principle. It is then verified that this shift arises mostly from the interaction of a bound electron with the zero-point fluctuations of the free electromagnetic field (Welton's interpretation). We briefly comment on the construct validity of the proposed electron models.

  14. Self-Consistent Atmosphere Models of the Most Extreme Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothringer, Joshua; Barman, Travis

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed look at self-consistent PHOENIX atmosphere models of the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters known to exist. These hot Jupiters typically have equilibrium temperatures approaching and sometimes exceeding 3000 K, orbiting A, F, and early-G type stars on orbits less than 0.03 AU (10x closer than Mercury is to the Sun). The most extreme example, KELT-9b, is the hottest known hot Jupiter with a measured dayside temperature of 4600 K. Many of the planets we model have recently attracted attention with high profile discoveries, including temperature inversions in WASP-33b and WASP-121, changing phase curve offsets possibly caused by magnetohydrodymanic effects in HAT-P-7b, and TiO in WASP-19b. Our modeling provides a look at the a priori expectations for these planets and helps us understand these recent discoveries. We show that, in the hottest cases, all molecules are dissociated down to relatively high pressures. These planets may have detectable temperature inversions, more akin to thermospheres than stratospheres in that an optical absorber like TiO or VO is not needed. Instead, the inversions are created by a lack of cooling in the IR combined with heating from atoms and ions at UV and blue optical wavelengths. We also reevaluate some of the assumptions that have been made in retrieval analyses of these planets.

  15. Quantum fluid model of coherent stimulated radiation by a dense relativistic cold electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, L. F.; Serbeto, A.; Tsui, K. H. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niterói, RJ 24210-346 (Brazil); Mendonça, J. T.; Galvão, R. M. O. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Using a quantum fluid model, the linear dispersion relation for FEL pumped by a short wavelength laser wiggler is deduced. Subsequently, a new quantum corrected resonance condition is obtained. It is shown that, in the limit of low energy electron beam and low frequency pump, the quantum recoil effect can be neglected, recovering the classical FEL resonance condition, k{sub s}=4k{sub w}γ{sup 2}. On the other hand, for short wavelength and high energy electron beam, the quantum recoil effect becomes strong and the resonance condition turns into k{sub s}=2√(k{sub w}/λ{sub c})γ{sup 3/2}, with λ{sub c} being the reduced Compton wavelength. As a result, a set of nonlinear coupled equations, which describes the quantum FEL dynamics as a three-wave interaction, is obtained. Neglecting wave propagation effects, this set of equations is solved numerically and results are presented.

  16. Modeling of hot-mix asphalt compaction : a thermodynamics-based compressible viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Compaction is the process of reducing the volume of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) by the application of external forces. As a result of compaction, the volume of air voids decreases, aggregate interlock increases, and interparticle friction increases. The qu...

  17. Relativistic pseudospin symmetry and shell model Hamiltonians that conserve pseudospin symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginocchio, Joseph N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-21

    Professor Akito Arima and his colleagues discovered 'pseudospin' doublets forty-one years ago in spherical nuclei. These doublets were subsequently discovered in deformed nuclei. We show that pseudospin symmetry is an SU(2) symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian which occurs when the scalar and vector potentials are opposite in sign but equal in magnitude. This symmetry occurs independent of the shape of the nucleus: spherical, axial deformed, triaxial, and gamma unstable. We survey some of the evidence that pseudospin symmetry is approximately conserved for a Dirac Hamiltonian with realistic scalar and vector potentials by examining the energy spectra, the lower components of the Dirac eigenfunctions, the magnetic dipole and Gamow-Teller transitions in nuclei, the upper components of the Dirac eigenfunctions, and nucleon-nucleus scattering. We shall also suggest that pseudospin symmetry may have a fundamental origin in chiral symmetry breaking by examining QCD sum rules. Finally we derive the shell model Hamiltonians which conserve pseudospin and show that they involve tensor interactions.

  18. grim: A Flexible, Conservative Scheme for Relativistic Fluid Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL, 61801 (United States); Foucart, Francois, E-mail: manic@illinois.edu, E-mail: gammie@illinois.edu, E-mail: fvfoucart@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Hot, diffuse, relativistic plasmas such as sub-Eddington black-hole accretion flows are expected to be collisionless, yet are commonly modeled as a fluid using ideal general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). Dissipative effects such as heat conduction and viscosity can be important in a collisionless plasma and will potentially alter the dynamics and radiative properties of the flow from that in ideal fluid models; we refer to models that include these processes as Extended GRMHD. Here we describe a new conservative code, grim, that enables all of the above and additional physics to be efficiently incorporated. grim combines time evolution and primitive variable inversion needed for conservative schemes into a single step using an algorithm that only requires the residuals of the governing equations as inputs. This algorithm enables the code to be physics agnostic as well as flexibility regarding time-stepping schemes. grim runs on CPUs, as well as on GPUs, using the same code. We formulate a performance model and use it to show that our implementation runs optimally on both architectures. grim correctly captures classical GRMHD test problems as well as a new suite of linear and nonlinear test problems with anisotropic conduction and viscosity in special and general relativity. As tests and example applications, we resolve the shock substructure due to the presence of dissipation, and report on relativistic versions of the magneto-thermal instability and heat flux driven buoyancy instability, which arise due to anisotropic heat conduction, and of the firehose instability, which occurs due to anisotropic pressure (i.e., viscosity). Finally, we show an example integration of an accretion flow around a Kerr black hole, using Extended GRMHD.

  19. Partonic transverse momenta in non-relativistic hyper-central quark potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakonos, F.K.; Kaplis, N.K.; Maintas, X.N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impact of three-body forces on the transverse-momentum distribution of partons inside the proton. This is achieved by considering the three-body problem in a class of hyper-central quark potential models. Solving the corresponding Schroedinger equation, we determine the quark wave function in the proton and with appropriate transformations and projections we find the transverse-momentum distribution of a single quark. In each case the parameters of the quark potentials are adjusted in order to sufficiently describe observable properties of the proton. Using a factorization ansatz, we incorporate the obtained transverse-momentum distribution in a perturbative QCD scheme for the calculation of the cross-section for prompt photon production in pp collisions. A large set of experimental data is fitted using as a single free parameter the mean partonic transverse momentum. The dependence of left angle k T right angle on the collision characteristics (initial energy and transverse momentum of the final photon) is much smoother when compared with similar results found in the literature using a Gaussian distribution for the partonic transverse momenta. Within the considered class of hyper-central quark potentials the one with the weaker dependence on the hyper-radius is preferred for the description of the data since it leads to the smoothest mean partonic transverse-momentum profile. We have repeated all the calculations using a two-body potential of the same form as the optimal (within the considered class) hyper-central potential in order to check if the presence of three-body forces is supported by the experimental data. Our analysis indicates that three-body forces influence significantly the form of the parton transverse-momentum distribution and consequently lead to an improved description of the considered data. (orig.)

  20. Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-05-01

    The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr

  1. Kinetic Modeling of Radiative Turbulence in Relativistic Astrophysical Plasmas: Particle Acceleration and High-Energy Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John

    In the near future, next-generation telescopes, covering most of the electromagnetic spectrum, will provide a view into the very earliest stages of galaxy formation. To accurately interpret these future observations, accurate and high-resolution simulations of the first stars and galaxies are vital. This proposal is centered on the formation of the first galaxies in the Universe and their observational signatures in preparation for these future observatories. This proposal has two overall goals: 1. To simulate the formation and evolution of a statistically significant sample of galaxies during the first billion years of the Universe, including all relevant astrophysics while resolving individual molecular clouds, in various cosmological environments. These simulations will utilize a sophisticated physical model of star and black hole formation and feedback, including radiation transport and magnetic fields, which will lead to the most realistic and resolved predictions for the early universe; 2. To predict the observational features of the first galaxies throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, allowing for optimal extraction of galaxy and dark matter halo properties from their photometry, imaging, and spectra; The proposed research plan addresses a timely and relevant issue to theoretically prepare for the interpretation of future observations of the first galaxies in the Universe. A suite of adaptive mesh refinement simulations will be used to follow the formation and evolution of thousands of galaxies observable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) that will be launched during the second year of this project. The simulations will have also tracked the formation and death of over 100,000 massive metal-free stars. Currently, there is a gap of two orders of magnitude in stellar mass between the smallest observed z > 6 galaxy and the largest simulated galaxy from "first principles", capturing its entire star formation history. This project will eliminate this

  2. Application of a Model for Quenching and Partitioning in Hot Stamping of High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Yanan; Rolfe, Bernard; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yisheng

    2018-04-01

    Application of quenching and partitioning process in hot stamping has proven to be an effective method to improve the plasticity of advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs). In this study, the hot stamping and partitioning process of advanced high-strength steel 30CrMnSi2Nb is investigated with a hot stamping mold. Given the specific partitioning time and temperature, the influence of quenching temperature on the volume fraction of microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the above steel are studied in detail. In addition, a model for quenching and partitioning process is applied to predict the carbon diffusion and interface migration during partitioning, which determines the retained austenite volume fraction and final properties of the part. The predicted trends of the retained austenite volume fraction agree with the experimental results. In both cases, the volume fraction of retained austenite increases first and then decreases with the increasing quenching temperature. The optimal quenching temperature is approximately 290 °C for 30CrMnSi2Nb with the partition conditions of 425 °C and 20 seconds. It is suggested that the model can be used to help determine the process parameters to obtain retained austenite as much as possible.

  3. Towards relativistic quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.

  4. On the accuracy of current TCAD hot carrier injection models in nanoscale devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaka, Alban; Rafhay, Quentin; Iellina, Matteo; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Clerc, Raphaël; Rideau, Denis; Garetto, Davide; Dornel, Erwan; Singer, Julien; Pananakakis, Georges; Tavernier, Clément; Jaouen, Hervé

    2010-12-01

    In this work, the hot electron injection models presently available for technology support have been investigated within the context of the development of advanced embedded non-volatile memories. The distribution functions obtained by these models (namely the Fiegna Model - FM [1], the Lucky Electron Model - LEM [2] and the recently implemented Spherical Harmonics Expansion of the Boltzman's Transport Equation - SHE [3]), have been systematically compared to rigorous Monte Carlo (MC) results [4], both in homogeneous and device conditions. Gate-to-drain current ratio and gate current density simulation has also been benchmarked in device simulations. Results indicate that local models such as FM, can partially capture the channel hot electron injection, at the price of model parameter adjustments. Moreover, at least in the device and field condition considered in this work, an overall better agreement with MC simulations has been obtained using the 1st order SHE, even without any particular fitting procedure. Extending the results presented in [3] by exploring shorter gate lengths and addressing the floating gate voltage dependence of the gate current, this work shows that the SHE method could contribute to bridge the gap between the rigorous but time consuming MC method and less rigorous but suitable TCAD local models.

  5. Modeling the effects of friction and geometry on deformation path during hot rolling of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzekwa, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.; Beaudoin, A.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In this work, a parametric study of hot rolling is conducted. The effect of friction model, friction coefficient, roll gap geometry and temperature on the deformation rate field is demonstrated. This parameter space is restricted to a region which is tractable, yet provides considerable variety in the features of non-uniform deformation developed in rolling. The degree and nature of redundant work (shearing) is contrasted for different stream-line locations within the bite. Recommendations for the application of material models in analysis of rolling is made with consideration of the simulation predictions.

  6. Ductile failure analysis of high strength steel in hot forming based on micromechanical damage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The damage evolution of high strength steel at elevated temperature is investigated by using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN model. A hybrid method integrated thermal tensile test and numerical technique is employed to identify the damage parameters. The analysis results show that the damage parameters are different at different temperature as the variation of tested material microstructure. Furthermore, the calibrated damage parameters are implemented to simulate a bugling forming at elevated temperature. The experimental results show the availability of GTN damage model in analyzing sheet formability in hot forming.

  7. The Red Queen model of recombination hot-spot evolution: a theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrille, Thibault; Duret, Laurent; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2017-12-19

    In humans and many other species, recombination events cluster in narrow and short-lived hot spots distributed across the genome, whose location is determined by the Zn-finger protein PRDM9. To explain these fast evolutionary dynamics, an intra-genomic Red Queen model has been proposed, based on the interplay between two antagonistic forces: biased gene conversion, mediated by double-strand breaks, resulting in hot-spot extinction, followed by positive selection favouring new PRDM9 alleles recognizing new sequence motifs. Thus far, however, this Red Queen model has not been formalized as a quantitative population-genetic model, fully accounting for the intricate interplay between biased gene conversion, mutation, selection, demography and genetic diversity at the PRDM9 locus. Here, we explore the population genetics of the Red Queen model of recombination. A Wright-Fisher simulator was implemented, allowing exploration of the behaviour of the model (mean equilibrium recombination rate, diversity at the PRDM9 locus or turnover rate) as a function of the parameters (effective population size, mutation and erosion rates). In a second step, analytical results based on self-consistent mean-field approximations were derived, reproducing the scaling relations observed in the simulations. Empirical fit of the model to current data from the mouse suggests both a high mutation rate at PRDM9 and strong biased gene conversion on its targets.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms'. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Relativistic stellar models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We obtain a class of solutions to the Einstein–Maxwell equations describing charged static spheres. Upon specifying particular forms for one of the gravitational potentials and the electric field intensity, the condition for pressure isotropy is transformed into a hypergeometric equation with two free parameters.

  9. Relativistic Light Sails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipping, David, E-mail: dkipping@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.

  10. Relativistic Light Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David

    2017-06-01

    One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot, we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.

  11. Constitutive Model for Hot Deformation of the Cu-Zr-Ce Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Huili; Volinsky, Alex A.; Wang, Bingjie; Tian, Baohong; Liu, Yong; Song, Kexing

    2018-02-01

    Hot compressive deformation behavior of the Cu-Zr-Ce alloy has been investigated according to the hot deformation tests in the 550-900 °C temperature range and 0.001-10 s-1 strain rate range. Based on the true stress-true strain curves, the flow stress behavior of the Cu-Zr-Ce alloy was investigated. Microstructure evolution was observed by optical microscopy. Based on the experimental results, a constitutive equation, which reflects the relationships between the stress, strain, strain rate and temperature, has been established. Material constants n, α, Q and ln A were calculated as functions of strain. The equation predicting the flow stress combined with these materials constants has been proposed. The predicted stress is consistent with experimental stress, indicating that developed constitutive equation can adequately predict the flow stress of the Cu-Zr-Ce alloy. Dynamic recrystallization critical strain was determined using the work hardening rate method. According to the dynamic material model, the processing maps for the Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Ce alloy were obtained at 0.4 and 0.5 strain. Based on the processing maps and microstructure observations, the optimal processing parameters for the two alloys were determined, and it was found that the addition of Ce can promote the hot workability of the Cu-Zr alloy.

  12. On the origin of relativistic bond contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, T.; Snijders, J.G.; Baerends, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    The origin of the well-established relativistic bond contractions is investigated in the Au 2 , AuH and AuCl model systems. It is shown that, contrary to popular belief, this contraction is not caused ba relativistic orbital contractions. Rather it has to be ascribed to a relaxation of kinetic repulsion, which is quite independent of changes in the form of the orbitals. (orig.)

  13. Dechanneling function for relativistic axially channeled electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralev, V.A.; Telegin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Behaviour of the x(t) dechanneling function depending on the depth is theoretically studied. Theoretical consideration of x(t) for axial channeled relativistic electrons in anisotropic medium results in two-dimensional kinetic equation with mixed derivatives of the parabolic type. The kinetic equation in the approximation of the continuous Lindchard model for relativistic axial channeled electrons is numerically solved. The depth dependence of the x(t) dechanneling function is obtained [ru

  14. Constitutive behavior modeling of steels under hot-rolling conditions. Materials reliability series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y.W.; Tobler, R.L.; Filla, B.J.; Coakley, K.J.

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop constitutive equations that predict the stress-strain curves of steels as functions of hot-rolling process variables, such as temperature, strain rate, and microstructural features. Eight steels, A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, HSLA-80/Ti-Nb and two interstitial-free (IF) grades, were selectively tested at temperatures in the range from 900 to 1200 degrees C, strain rates from 1 to 50/s, and austenite grain sizes from 0.012 to 0.29 mm. The data were analyzed to support the development of constitutive models. Models for predicting stress-strain behaviors for the eight steel grades have been developed. Model predictions correlate well with the experimental data, indicating that the models adequately describe the stress-strain behaviors of various steel grades under hot-rolling conditions. Model predictions for A36 and DQSK are further validated with high strain-rate (up to 150/s) data obtained at CANMET.

  15. Volatility smile as relativistic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura

    2017-06-01

    We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.

  16. Relativistic beaming and quasar statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, M.J.L.; Browne, I.W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The statistical predictions of a unified scheme for the radio emission from quasars are explored. This scheme attributes the observed differences between flat- and steep-spectrum quasars to projection and the effects of relativistic beaming of the emission from the nuclear components. We use a simple quasar model consisting of a compact relativistically beamed core with spectral index zero and unbeamed lobes, spectral index - 1, to predict the proportion of flat-spectrum sources in flux-limited samples selected at different frequencies. In our model this fraction depends on the core Lorentz factor, γ and we find that a value of approximately 5 gives satisfactory agreement with observation. In a similar way the model is used to construct the expected number/flux density counts for flat-spectrum quasars from the observed steep-spectrum counts. Again, good agreement with the observations is obtained if the average core Lorentz factor is about 5. Independent estimates of γ from observations of superluminal motion in quasars are of the same order of magnitude. We conclude that the statistical properties of quasars are entirely consistent with the predictions of simple relativistic-beam models. (author)

  17. Two views on the Bjorken scenario for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Maire, Antonin

    2011-01-01

    The sketch describes the Bjorken scenario foreseen for the collision of ultra-relativistic heavy-ions, leading to the creation of strongly-interacting hot and dense deconfined matter, the so-called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).

  18. A THREE-PHASE CHEMICAL MODEL OF HOT CORES: THE FORMATION OF GLYCINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrod, Robin T.

    2013-01-01

    A new chemical model is presented that simulates fully coupled gas-phase, grain-surface, and bulk-ice chemistry in hot cores. Glycine (NH 2 CH 2 COOH), the simplest amino acid, and related molecules such as glycinal, propionic acid, and propanal, are included in the chemical network. Glycine is found to form in moderate abundance within and upon dust-grain ices via three radical-addition mechanisms, with no single mechanism strongly dominant. Glycine production in the ice occurs over temperatures ∼40-120 K. Peak gas-phase glycine fractional abundances lie in the range 8 × 10 –11 -8 × 10 –9 , occurring at ∼200 K, the evaporation temperature of glycine. A gas-phase mechanism for glycine production is tested and found insignificant, even under optimal conditions. A new spectroscopic radiative-transfer model is used, allowing the translation and comparison of the chemical-model results with observations of specific sources. Comparison with the nearby hot-core source NGC 6334 IRS1 shows excellent agreement with integrated line intensities of observed species, including methyl formate. The results for glycine are consistent with the current lack of a detection of this molecule toward other sources; the high evaporation temperature of glycine renders the emission region extremely compact. Glycine detection with ALMA is predicted to be highly plausible, for bright, nearby sources with narrow emission lines. Photodissociation of water and subsequent hydrogen abstraction from organic molecules by OH, and NH 2 , are crucial to the buildup of complex organic species in the ice. The inclusion of alternative branches within the network of radical-addition reactions appears important to the abundances of hot-core molecules; less favorable branching ratios may remedy the anomalously high abundance of glycolaldehyde predicted by this and previous models.

  19. Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

  20. Damping width of giant dipole resonances of cold and hot nuclei: A macroscopic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenological macroscopic model of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) damping width of cold and hot nuclei with ground-state spherical and near-spherical shapes is developed. The model is based on a generalized Fermi liquid model which takes into account the nuclear surface dynamics. The temperature dependence of the GDR damping width is accounted for in terms of surface and volume components. Parameter-free expressions for the damping width and the effective deformation are obtained. The model is validated with GDR measurements of the following nuclides: 39,40 K, 42 Ca, 45 Sc, 59,63 Cu, 109-120 Sn, 147 Eu, 194 Hg, and 208 Pb, and is compared with the predictions of other models

  1. General relativistic collapse of textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrer, R.; Heusler, M.; Jetzer, P.; Straumann, N.

    1991-01-01

    We present an exact self-similar solution of the coupled Einstein-σ model equations which describes the general relativistic collapse of global textures. In one coordinate system the texture geometry has a simple interpretation in terms of a deficit solid angle. We also briefly discuss the behavior of matter and light in this geometry. In particular we show that the weak field approximation for the metric perturbations of flat space texture solutions is quantitatively quite reliable. (orig.)

  2. Constraining Roche-Lobe Overflow Models Using the Hot-Subdwarf Wide Binary Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Joris; Vučković, Maja

    2017-12-01

    One of the important issues regarding the final evolution of stars is the impact of binarity. A rich zoo of peculiar, evolved objects are born from the interaction between the loosely bound envelope of a giant, and the gravitational pull of a companion. However, binary interactions are not understood from first principles, and the theoretical models are subject to many assumptions. It is currently agreed upon that hot subdwarf stars can only be formed through binary interaction, either through common envelope ejection or stable Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF) near the tip of the red giant branch (RGB). These systems are therefore an ideal testing ground for binary interaction models. With our long term study of wide hot subdwarf (sdB) binaries we aim to improve our current understanding of stable RLOF on the RGB by comparing the results of binary population synthesis studies with the observed population. In this article we describe the current model and possible improvements, and which observables can be used to test different parts of the interaction model.

  3. Nucleon relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qingbiao; Feng Dachun; Zhuo Yizhong

    1991-01-01

    In this talk, both the phenomenological and microscopic nucleon relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies En=20-1000 MeV has been obtained through automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical potential (RMOP) is studied by utilizing effective lagrangian based on popular Walecka model. Through comparison between the theoretical results and experimental data we have shed some insight into both the RMOP and RPOP. We have concluded that both the phenomenological and microscopic relativistic optical potentials proposed here can be extensively used for intermediate energy nucleon data evaluation. Further improvement concerning how to combine the phenomenological potential with the microscopic one in order to reduce the number of free parameters appearing in RPOP is suggested. (author). 33 refs, 24 figs

  4. Slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars with relativistic entrainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron stars that are cold enough should have two or more superfluids or supercondutors in their inner crusts and cores. The implication of superfluidity or superconductivity for equilibrium and dynamical neutron star states is that each individual particle species that forms a condensate must have its own, independent number density current and equation of motion that determines that current. An important consequence of the quasiparticle nature of each condensate is the so-called entrainment effect; i.e., the momentum of a condensate is a linear combination of its own current and those of the other condensates. We present here the first fully relativistic modeling of slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with entrainment that is accurate to the second-order in the rotation rates. The stars consist of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and a highly degenerate, relativistic gas of electrons. We use a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the equation of state of the matter and the entrainment. We determine the effect of a relative rotation between the neutrons and protons on a star's total mass, shape, and Kepler, mass-shedding limit

  5. Covariant kinetic theory for effective fugacity quasiparticle model and first order transport coefficients for hot QCD matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sukanya; Chandra, Vinod

    2018-02-01

    An effective relativistic kinetic theory has been constructed for an interacting system of quarks, antiquarks and gluons within a quasiparticle description of hot QCD medium at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential, where the interactions are encoded in the gluon and quark effective fugacities with nontrivial energy dispersions. The local conservations of stress-energy tensor and number current require the introduction of a mean field term in the transport equation which produces non-vanishing contribution to the first order transport coefficients. Such contribution has been observed to be significant for the temperatures which are closer to the QCD transition temperature, however, induces negligible contributions beyond a few times the transition temperature. As an implication, impact of the mean field contribution on the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity of a hot QCD medium in the presence of binary, elastic collisions among the constituents, has been investigated. Visible effects have been observed for the temperature regime closer to the QCD transition temperature.

  6. Relativistic Kinetic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.

    2017-02-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  7. Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

  8. Colonization of components of a model hot water system by Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, G M; Locci, R

    1985-02-01

    A model hot water distribution network was seeded with a virulent strain of Legionella pneumophila serotype 1. Ten weeks after inoculation, components of the system, which include aluminium discs, copper, stainless steel, silicone tubing, rubber and glass beads, were examined for colonization by L. pneumophila. The samples were stained with fluorescein-labelled antibodies to the strain and were examined with scanning electron microscopy. Colonization, which was accompanied by copious quantities of a slime-like debris, was heaviest on the rubber and least on the copper. Adherence to silicone tubing and stainless steel was observed.

  9. Self-organization of hot plasmas the canonical profile transport model

    CERN Document Server

    Dnestrovskij, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the author presents the Canonical Profile Transport Model or CPTM as a rather general mathematical framework to simulate plasma discharges.The description of hot plasmas in a magnetic fusion device is a very challenging task and many plasma properties still lack a physical explanation. One important property is plasma self-organization.It is very well known from experiments that the radial profile of the plasma pressure and temperature remains rather unaffected by changes of the deposited power or plasma density. The attractiveness of the CPTM is that it includes the effect o

  10. Topology of large-scale structure in seeded hot dark matter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaky, Matthew M.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1992-01-01

    The topology of the isodensity surfaces in seeded hot dark matter models, in which static seed masses provide the density perturbations in a universe dominated by massive neutrinos is examined. When smoothed with a Gaussian window, the linear initial conditions in these models show no trace of non-Gaussian behavior for r0 equal to or greater than 5 Mpc (h = 1/2), except for very low seed densities, which show a shift toward isolated peaks. An approximate analytic expression is given for the genus curve expected in linear density fields from randomly distributed seed masses. The evolved models have a Gaussian topology for r0 = 10 Mpc, but show a shift toward a cellular topology with r0 = 5 Mpc; Gaussian models with an identical power spectrum show the same behavior.

  11. Modelling of hot surface ignition within gas turbines subject to flammable gas in the intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lea Duedahl; Nielsen, Kenny Krogh; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    successfully developed and implemented in the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS CFX. This model is based on a combination of standard models, User Defined Functions (UDFs) and the CFX Expression Language (CEL). Prediction of ignition is based on a set of criteria to be fulfilled while......Controlling risks associated with fires and explosions from leaks of flammable fluids at oil and gas facilities is paramount to ensuring safe operations. The gas turbine is a significant potential source of ignition; however, the residual risk is still not adequately understood. A model has been...... but decreases with increase in initial mixture temperature and pressure. The model shows a great potential in reliable prediction of the risk of hot surface ignition within gas turbines in the oil and gas industry. In the future, a dedicated experimental study will be performed not only to improve...

  12. Modeling of the flow behavior of SAE 8620H combing microstructure evolution in hot forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaobin; Wang, Baoyu; Tang, Xuefeng

    2017-10-01

    With the development of net-shape forming technology, hot forming process is widely applied to manufacturing gear parts, during which, materials suffer severe plastic distortion and microstructure changes continually. In this paper, to understand and model the flow behavior and microstructure evolution, SAE 8620H, a widely used gear steel, is selected as the object and the flow behavior and microstructure evolution are observed by an isothermal hot compression tests at 1273-1373 K with a strain rate of 0.1-10 s-1. Depending on the results of the compression test, a set of internal-state-variable based unified constitutive equations is put forward to describe the flow behavior and microstructure evaluation of SAE 8620H. Moreover, the evaluation of the dislocation density and the fraction of dynamic recrystallization based on the theory of thermal activation is modeled and reincorporated into the constitutive law. The material parameters in the constitutive model are calculated based on the measured flow stress and dynamic recrystallization fraction. The predicted flow stress under different deformation conditions has a good agreement with the measured results.

  13. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  14. Double Relativistic Electron Accelerating Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltanat Sadykova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the possibility of generation of thin dense relativistic electron layers is shown using the analytical and numerical modeling of laser pulse interaction with ultra-thin layers. It was shown that the maximum electron energy can be gained by optimal tuning between the target width, intensity and laser pulse duration. The optimal parameters were obtained from a self-consistent system of Maxwell equations and the equation of motion of electron layer. For thin relativistic electron layers, the gaining of maximum electron energies requires a second additional overdense plasma layer, thus cutting the laser radiation off the plasma screen at the instant of gaining the maximum energy (DREAM-schema.

  15. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Ryazanov, Mikhail Ivanovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results. (orig.)

  16. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results.

  17. Spontaneous photon emission from a non-relativistic free charged particle in collapse models: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, A.; Donadi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the photon emission rate of a non-relativistic charged particle interacting with an external classical noise through its position. Both the particle and the electromagnetic field are quantized. Under only the dipole approximation, the equations of motion can be solved exactly for a free particle, or a particle bounded by an harmonic potential. The physical quantity we will be interested in is the spectrum of the radiation emitted by the particle, due to the interaction with the noise. We will highlight several properties of the spectrum and clarify some issues appearing in the literature, regarding the exact mathematical formula of a spectrum for a free particle.

  18. COLLAPSING HOT MOLECULAR CORES: A MODEL FOR THE DUST SPECTRUM AND AMMONIA LINE EMISSION OF THE G31.41+0.31 HOT CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Mayra; Anglada, Guillem; Lizano, Susana; D'Alessio, Paola

    2009-01-01

    We present a model aimed to reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) as well as the ammonia line emission of the G31.41+0.31 hot core. The hot core is modeled as an infalling envelope onto a massive star that is undergoing an intense accretion phase. We assume an envelope with a density and velocity structure resulting from the dynamical collapse of a singular logatropic sphere. The stellar and envelope physical properties are determined by fitting the observed SED. From these physical conditions, the emerging ammonia line emission is calculated and compared with subarcsecond resolution VLA data of the (4,4) transition taken from the literature. The only free parameter in this line fitting is the ammonia abundance. The observed intensities of the main and satellite ammonia (4,4) lines and their spatial distribution can be well reproduced provided the steep increase of the gas-phase ammonia abundance in the hotter (>100 K), inner regions of the core produced by the sublimation of icy mantles where ammonia molecules are trapped is taken into account. The model predictions for the (2,2), (4,4), and (5,5) transitions, obtained with the same set of parameters, are also reasonably in agreement, given the observational uncertainties, with the single-dish spectra of the region available in the literature. The best fit is obtained for a model with a central star of ∼25M sun , a mass accretion rate of ∼3 x 10 -3 M sun yr -1 , and a total luminosity of ∼2 x 10 5 L sun . The outer radius of the envelope is 30,000 AU, where kinetic temperatures as high as ∼40 K are reached. The gas-phase ammonia abundance ranges from ∼2 x 10 -8 in the outer region to ∼3 x 10 -6 in the inner region. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the dust and molecular line data of a hot molecular core, including subarcsecond resolution data that spatially resolve the structure of the core, have been simultaneously explained by a detailed, physically self

  19. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  20. Thermal hydrodynamic modeling and simulation of hot-gas duct for next-generation nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Injun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungdeok; Kim, Chansoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bai, Cheolho; Hong, Sungyull [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jaesool, E-mail: jshim@ynu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Thermal hydrodynamic nonlinear model is presented to examine a hot gas duct (HGD) used in a fourth-generation nuclear power reactor. • Experiments and simulation were compared to validate the nonlinear porous model. • Natural convection and radiation are considered to study the effect on the surface temperature of the HGD. • Local Nusselt number is obtained for the optimum design of a possible next-generation HGD. - Abstract: A very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is a fourth-generation nuclear power reactor that requires an intermediate loop that consists of a hot-gas duct (HGD), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), and a process heat exchanger for massive hydrogen production. In this study, a mathematical model and simulation were developed for the HGD in a small-scale nitrogen gas loop that was designed and manufactured by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. These were used to investigate the effect of various important factors on the surface of the HGD. In the modeling, a porous model was considered for a Kaowool insulator inside the HGD. The natural convection and radiation are included in the model. For validation, the modeled external surface temperatures are compared with experimental results obtained while changing the inlet temperatures of the nitrogen working fluid. The simulation results show very good agreement with the experiments. The external surface temperatures of the HGD are obtained with respect to the porosity of insulator, emissivity of radiation, and pressure of the working fluid. The local Nusselt number is also obtained for the optimum design of a possible next-generation HGD.

  1. Modeling Single Occupant Vehicle Behavior in High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-14

    High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are in operation, under construction, and planned for in several major metropolitan areas. The premise behind HOT lanes is to allow single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to access high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes (and theo...

  2. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  3. STATISTIC MODELING OF DRYING KINETHIC OF SPINACH LEAVES USING MICROWAVE AND HOT AIR METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nouri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The target of this study was to model of spinach leaves drying using microwave and hot air dryer. This test performed in combination treatment of temperatures (50°C, 60°C, and 70°C and microwave (90, 180, 360, 600 and 900w in 3 replications. Sample moisture measured within drying. All the results were fitted and analyzed with 8 mathematical models base on 3 parameters including determination (R2, Chi square(X2, root mean square errors(RSME. Results also revealed that temperature and microwave power effectively reduce the drying time when increase. Drying occurs in degrading stage; moreover the comparison of results exhibited that Page and Two sentences models were fitted appropriately to estimate moisture changing and drying description. Regarding all the results, it is cleared that microwave method is an appropriate method in spinach drying as a result of reducing drying temperature and its high efficiency.

  4. Hydraulic modelling for analysis of the hot water layer stability in research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo

    1995-01-01

    Pool reactors are research reactors, which allow easy access to the core and are simple to operate. Reactors of this kind operating at power levels higher than about one megawatt need a hot water layer at the surface of the pool, in order to keep surface activity below acceptable levels and enable free access to the upper part of the reactor. This work presents similitude criteria derived by dimensional analysis and by non dimensioning the basic equations to analyze this layer's stability in a reduced scale model. The flow in the reactor is complex. It is impossible to consider all the phenomena with a single similitude criterion. The best would be to construct several models considering all the similitude criteria and then combine the results. Economical reasons and available time in the majority of the cases are a restrain to this procedure. Then, the most important criteria to the considered phenomenon must be chosen in order to give the best results. This work identifies three similitude criteria that were considered important to analyze the pool reactor's hot water layer stability. (author)

  5. Hot Deformation Behavior of Alloy 800H at Intermediate Temperatures: Constitutive Models and Microstructure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y.; Di, H. S.; Misra, R. D. K.; Zhang, Jiecen

    2014-12-01

    The hot deformation behavior of a Fe-Ni-Cr austenitic Alloy 800H was explored in the intermediate temperature range of 825-975 °C and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1. The study indicates that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred at 875-975 °C for strain rates of 0.01-0.1 s-1 and adiabatic heating generated at high strain rates accelerated the DRX process. Based on the experimental data, the Johnson-Cook, modified Johnson-Cook, and Arrhenius-type constitutive models were established to predict the flow stress during hot deformation. A comparative study was made on the accuracy and effectiveness of the above three developed models. The microstructure analysis indicated that all the deformation structures exhibited elongated grains and evidence of some degree of DRX. The multiple DRX at 975 °C and 0.01 s-1 led to an increase in the intensity of {001} "cube" texture component and a significant reduction in the intensity of {011} "brass" component. Additionally, the average values of grain average misorientation and grain orientation spread for deformed microstructure were inversely proportional to the fraction of DRX.

  6. Constitutive Modeling of Hot Deformation Behavior of High-Strength Armor Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Madhu, Vemuri

    2016-05-01

    The hot isothermal compression tests of high-strength armor steel under a wide range of deformation temperatures (1100-1250 °C) and strain rates of (0.001-1/s) were performed. Based on the experimental data, constitutive models were established using the original Johnson-Cook (JC) model, modified JC model, and strain-compensated Arrhenius model, respectively. The modified JC model considers the coupled effects of strain hardening, strain rate hardening, and thermal softening. Moreover, the prediction accuracy of these developed models was determined by estimating the correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The results demonstrate that the flow behavior of high-strength armor steel is considerably influenced by the strain rate and temperature. The original JC model is inadequate to provide good description on the flow stress at evaluated temperatures. The modified JC model and strain-compensated Arrhenius model significantly enhance the predictability. It is also observed from the microstructure study that at low strain rates (0.001-0.01/s) and high temperatures (1200-1250 °C), a typical dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurs.

  7. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  8. Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, I.

    1985-01-01

    An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored

  9. Hot Money

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Chari; Patrick Kehoe

    1997-01-01

    Recent empirical work on financial crises documents that crises tend to occur when macroeconomic fundamentals are weak; but even after conditioning on an exhaustive list of fundamentals, a sizable random component to crises and associated capital flows remains. We develop a model of herd behavior consistent with these observations. Informational frictions together with standard debt default problems lead to volatile capital flows resembling hot money and financial crises. We show that repayin...

  10. Competition of circularly polarized laser modes in the modulation instability of hot magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri Javan, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the problem of modulation instability of an intense laser beam in the hot magnetized plasma. The propagation of intense circularly polarized laser beam along the external magnetic field is considered using a relativistic fluid model. The nonlinear equation describing the interaction of laser pulse with magnetized hot plasma is derived in the quasi-neutral approximation, which is valid for hot plasma. Nonlinear dispersion equation for hot plasma is obtained. For left- and right-hand polarizations, the growth rate of instability is achieved and the effect of temperature, external magnetic field, and kind of polarization on the growth rate is considered. It is observed that for the right-hand polarization, increase of magnetic field leads to the increasing of growth rate. Also for the left-hand polarization, increase of magnetic field inversely causes decrease of the growth rate.

  11. Production of charm quarks in a parton cascade model for relativistic heavy ion collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Dinesh K.; Bass, Steffen A.; Chatterjee, Rupa

    2017-12-01

    We study the production and dynamics of heavy quarks in the parton cascade model for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The model is motivated by the QCD parton picture and describes the dynamics of an ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision in terms of cascading partons which undergo scattering and multiplication while propagating. We focus on the dynamics of charm quark production and evolution in p +p and Au + Au collisions for several different interaction scenarios, viz., collisions only between primary partons without radiation of gluons, multiple collisions without radiation of gluons, and multiple collisions with radiation of gluons, allowing us to isolate the contributions of parton rescattering and radiation to charm production. We also discuss results of an eikonal approximation of the collision which provides a valuable comparison with minijet calculations and clearly brings out the importance of multiple collisions.

  12. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  13. COMPUTER MODELING OF STRAINS ON PHASE BOUNDARIES IN DUCTILE CAST IRON AT HOT EXTRUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Pokrovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer modeling of the strain distribution in the structure of ductile iron with ferrite-pearlite matrix and inclusions of spherical graphite dependence on increasing degree of deformation during direct hot extrusion was researched. Using a software system of finite-element analysis ANSYS the numerical values of the strains at the phase boundaries: ferrite-perlite, graphiteferrite and also inside the graphite inclusions were defined. The analysis of the strain distribution in the investigated structures was performed and local zones of increased strains were discovered. The results of modeling are compared with metallographic analysis and fracture patterns. The obtained results could be used in the prediction of fracture zones in the cast iron products. 

  14. Unified constitutive modelling for two-phase lamellar titanium alloys at hot forming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a set of mechanism based unified viscoplastic constitutive equations have been established for two-phase titanium alloys with initial lamellar microstructure, which models the softening mechanisms of the alloys in hot forming conditions. The dislocation density, rotation and globularization of lamellar α-phase and their effects on flow behaviour can also be modelled. The values of material constants in the equation set have been calibrated, according to stress-strain curves and globularization fractions of lamellar α-phase obtained from compression tests at a range of temperatures and strain rates, using a genetic algorithm (GA based optimisation method. Based on the determined constitutive equations, flow stress and globularization evolution of Ti-17 and TA15 alloys at different temperatures and strain rates were predicted. Good agreements between the experimental and computed results were obtained.

  15. Generalizable occupant-driven optimization model for domestic hot water production in NZEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, H.; D’Oca, S.; Delmastro, C.; Lodeweyckx, S.; Corgnati, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Smart meter data for domestic hot water consumption is collected for 46 NZEB. • Reinforcement learning optimizes energy consumed while constrained on user comfort. • Online optimization models learn occupant behaviour and system thermodynamics. • Offline generalizable models calibrate dynamically the storage vessel operation. • Real world application of the active controls resulted in energy savings of 27%. - Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate improved energy efficiency for domestic hot water (DHW) production in residential buildings. This is done by deriving data-driven optimal heating schedules (used interchangeably with policies) automatically. The optimization leverages actively learnt occupant behaviour and models for thermodynamics of the storage vessel to operate the heating mechanism – an air-source heat pump (ASHP) in this case – at the highest possible efficiency. The proposed algorithm, while tested on an ASHP, is essentially decoupled from the heating mechanism making it sufficiently robust to generalize to other types of heating mechanisms as well. Simulation results for this optimization based on data from 46 Net-Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) in the Netherlands are presented. These show a reduction of energy consumption for DHW by 20% using a computationally inexpensive heuristic approach, and 27% when using a more intensive hybrid ant colony optimization based method. The energy savings are strongly dependent on occupant comfort level. This is demonstrated in real-world settings for a low-consumption house where active control was performed using heuristics for 3.5 months and resulted in energy savings of 27% (61 kW h). It is straightforward to extend the same models to perform automatic demand side management (ADSM) by treating the DHW vessel as a flexibility bearing device.

  16. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar [Department of Biotechnology, Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur, Rayagada 765 022, Odisha (India); Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das, E-mail: pkdmvu@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis.

  17. Non-LTE Models for the Thermal Structure of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi; Lavvas, Panayiotis

    2017-10-01

    Numerous models exist for the thermal structure of the lower and upper atmospheres of hot Jupitersbut the middle atmosphere has yet to be investigated in detail. We present the first calculations forthe thermal structure of hot Jupiter atmospheres from 1 mbar to 1 nbar, a region that is critical to theformation of observable spectral features, especially the strong resonance lines of alkali metals. Themodels connect the LTE region at the high pressure with the thermosphere at the low pressure. Animportant goal of this research is the description of the sharp temperature gradient that leads to thehigh thermospheric temperatures and is a critical factor in establishing atmospheric escape rates. Thecalculations include thermal conduction, UV heating, and radiative transfer in the molecular bands androtational lines of H2O. The radiative transfer calculations treat departures from LTE, that becomeimportant at pressures less than ~1 microbar. We will discuss the interplay between radiative transferin vibrational bands, that experience non-LTE effects, and rotational lines, which do not. The implicationsfor interpretation of Na I transit depths on HD189733B will be discussed and well as the connectionwith atmospheric escape rates.

  18. European Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Chris [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency gas-burning hot water heating takes advantage of a condensing heat exchanger to deliver improved combustion efficiency over a standard non-condensing configuration. The water heating is always lower than the gas heating value. In contrast, Gas Absorption Heat Pump (GAHP) hot water heating combines the efficiency of gas burning with the performance increase from a heat pump to offer significant gas energy savings. An ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system can maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. In this work, a GAHP commercial water heating system was compared to a condensing gas storage system for a range of locations and climate zones across Europe. The thermodynamic performance map of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system was used in a building energy modeling software that could also incorporate the changing ambient air temperature and water mains temperature for a specific location, as well as a full-service restaurant water draw pattern.

  19. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  20. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aucar, I. Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S.; Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C.

    2014-01-01

    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH + (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH + systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found

  1. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucar, I. Agustín, E-mail: agustin.aucar@conicet.gov.ar; Gomez, Sergio S., E-mail: ssgomez@exa.unne.edu.ar [Institute for Modeling and Technological Innovation, IMIT (CONICET-UNNE) and Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Northeastern University of Argentina, Avenida Libertad 5400, W3404AAS Corrientes (Argentina); Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C. [Physics Department, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires and IFIBA CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-21

    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH{sup +} (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH{sup +} systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found.

  2. A library of ATMO forward model transmission spectra for hot Jupiter exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Jayesh M.; Mayne, Nathan; Sing, David K.; Drummond, Benjamin; Tremblin, Pascal; Amundsen, David S.; Evans, Thomas; Carter, Aarynn L.; Spake, Jessica; Baraffe, Isabelle; Nikolov, Nikolay; Manners, James; Chabrier, Gilles; Hebrard, Eric

    2018-03-01

    We present a grid of forward model transmission spectra, adopting an isothermal temperature-pressure profile, alongside corresponding equilibrium chemical abundances for 117 observationally significant hot exoplanets (equilibrium temperatures of 547-2710 K). This model grid has been developed using a 1D radiative-convective-chemical equilibrium model termed ATMO, with up-to-date high-temperature opacities. We present an interpretation of observations of 10 exoplanets, including best-fitting parameters and χ2 maps. In agreement with previous works, we find a continuum from clear to hazy/cloudy atmospheres for this sample of hot Jupiters. The data for all the 10 planets are consistent with subsolar to solar C/O ratio, 0.005 to 10 times solar metallicity and water rather than methane-dominated infrared spectra. We then explore the range of simulated atmospheric spectra for different exoplanets, based on characteristics such as temperature, metallicity, C/O ratio, haziness and cloudiness. We find a transition value for the metallicity between 10 and 50 times solar, which leads to substantial changes in the transmission spectra. We also find a transition value of C/O ratio, from water to carbon species dominated infrared spectra, as found by previous works, revealing a temperature dependence of this transition point ranging from ˜0.56 to ˜1-1.3 for equilibrium temperatures from ˜900 to ˜2600 K. We highlight the potential of the spectral features of HCN and C2H2 to constrain the metallicities and C/O ratios of planets, using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observations. Finally, our entire grid (˜460 000 simulations) is publicly available and can be used directly with the JWST simulator PandExo for planning observations.

  3. Relativistic and non-relativistic studies of nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, MK; Tjon, JA

    2002-01-01

    We point out that the differences between the results of the non-relativistic lowest order Brueckner theory (LOBT) and the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis predominantly arise from two sources. Besides effects from a nucleon mass modification M* in nuclear medium we have in a relativistic

  4. Relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolschin, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This course is a concise introduction to the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics. It is concipated as one-semester, two-hour arrangement for bachelor and master students; some of the advanced parts can be also of interest or promovings. Primary adressates are studyings from the fourth semester upwards, which have already worked out the basic course of quantum mechanics and want beyond to get to know relativistic wave equations. In the introduction I draw first the development, the result of which was the establishment of Lorentz-invariant relativistic wave equations by Schroedinger, Klein, Gordon, and Dirac. After a chapter about the connection to the Galilei-invariant nonrelativistic quantum mechanics follow the presentations of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac and the study of the Dirac theory in view of invariances concerning parity, charge conjugation, ant time-reversal transformation. A short introduction to the principles of quantum field theory, especially quantum electrodynamics, follows.

  5. Relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, Lawrence P

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...

  6. Relativistic theories of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Aldo

    1978-01-01

    The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...

  7. Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering

    2017-03-01

    This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.

  8. A Prerecognition Model for Hot Topic Discovery Based on Microblogging Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Tongyu; Yu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    The microblogging is prevailing since its easy and anonymous information sharing at Internet, which also brings the issue of dispersing negative topics, or even rumors. Many researchers have focused on how to find and trace emerging topics for analysis. When adopting topic detection and tracking techniques to find hot topics with streamed microblogging data, it will meet obstacles like streamed microblogging data clustering, topic hotness definition, and emerging hot topic discovery. This pap...

  9. Springback analysis of AA5754 after hot stamping: Experiments and FE modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, A; Zhong, K; El Fakir, O; Sun, C; Wang, L; Lin, J; Dean, TA

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the springback of the aluminium alloy AA5754 under hot stamping conditions was characterised under stretch and pure bending conditions. It was found that elevated temperature stamping was beneficial for springback reduction, particularly when using hot dies. Using cold dies, the flange springback angle decreased by 9.7 % when the blank temperature was increased from 20 to 450 ?C, compared to the 44.1 % springback reduction when hot dies were used. Various other forming conditio...

  10. Relativistic deuteron wave function on light front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of the one boson exchange model the approximate analytical expression for the deuteron wave function (WF) at relativistic relative momenta is obtained. WF depends on extra variable having the form of a unit vector and is determined by six functions instead of two ones (S-and D-waves) in the nonrelativistic case. At moderate momenta the WF is matched with WF in the Reid model. It is emphasized the importance of indication of the qualitative observed phenomena associated with change of parametrization and spin structure of relativistic deuteron WF

  11. The Work Function Associated with Ultra-relativistic Electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Following an extremely interesting idea (Schieber 1984), published long ago, the work function associated with the emission of ultra-relativistic electrons from magnetically deformed metallic crystal (mainly iron) at the outer crust of a magnetar is obtained using relativistic version of Thomas–Fermi type model for electron ...

  12. Parallel, grid-adaptive approaches for relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.; van Marle, A. J.; Delmont, P.; Vlasis, A.; van der Holst, B.

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics provide continuum fluid descriptions for gas and plasma dynamics throughout the visible universe. We present an overview of state-of-the-art modeling in special relativistic regimes, targeting strong shock-dominated flows with speeds approaching the speed

  13. Biquaternions and relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogush, A.A.; Kurochkin, Yu.A.; Fedorov, F.I.

    1979-01-01

    The problems concerning the use of quaternion interpretation of the Lorentz group vector parametrization are considered for solving relativistic kinematics problems. A vector theory convenient for describing the characteristic features of the Lobachevsky space is suggested. The kinematics of elementary particle scattering is investigated on the basis of this theory. A synthesis of vector parametrization and of quaternion calculation has been shown to lead to natural formulation of the theory of vectors in the three-dimensional Lobachevsky space, realized on mass hyperboloids of relativistic particles

  14. Relativistic Scott correction for atoms and molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovej, Jan Philip; Sørensen, Thomas Østergaard; Spitzer, Wolfgang Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    We prove the first correction to the leading Thomas-Fermi energy for the ground state energy of atoms and molecules in a model where the kinetic energy of the electrons is treated relativistically. The leading Thomas-Fermi energy, established in [25], as well as the correction given here, are of ......We prove the first correction to the leading Thomas-Fermi energy for the ground state energy of atoms and molecules in a model where the kinetic energy of the electrons is treated relativistically. The leading Thomas-Fermi energy, established in [25], as well as the correction given here......, are of semiclassical nature. Our result on atoms and molecules is proved from a general semiclassical estimate for relativistic operators with potentials with Coulomb-like singularities. This semiclassical estimate is obtained using the coherent state calculus introduced in [36]. The paper contains a unified treatment...

  15. Chaotic distributions for relativistic particles

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Dawan; Wennberg, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    We study a modified Kac model where the classical kinetic energy is replaced by an arbitrary energy function $\\phi(v)$, $v \\in \\mathbb{R}$. The aim of this paper is to show that the uniform density with respect to the microcanonical measure is $Ce^{-z_0\\phi(v)}$-chaotic, $C,z_0 \\in \\mathbb{R}_+$. The kinetic energy for relativistic particles is a special case. A generalization to the case $v\\in \\mathbb{R}^d$ which involves conservation momentum is also formally discussed.

  16. Focusing of relativistic electron beams by a solid cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M; Sheng, Z M; Ma, Y Y; Li, Y T; Yuan, X H; Zhang, J

    2008-01-01

    A scheme for focusing relativistic electron beams has been proposed by use of a solid cone based upon two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We compare the transport of hot electrons, produced during the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulse with the targets, through the cone shape target and a flat target. It is found that relativistic electrons can be confined and focused effectively in the cone target case, where both the electron density and temperature have been increased more significantly than the flat target case

  17. General Relativistic Radiation MHD Simulations of Supercritical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star: Modeling of Ultraluminous X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohsuga, Ken, E-mail: takahashi@cfca.jp, E-mail: ken.ohsuga@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-08-10

    By performing 2.5-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate supercritical accretion onto a non-rotating, magnetized neutron star, where the magnetic field strength of dipole fields is 10{sup 10} G on the star surface. We found the supercritical accretion flow consists of two parts: the accretion columns and the truncated accretion disk. The supercritical accretion disk, which appears far from the neutron star, is truncated at around ≃3 R {sub *} ( R {sub *} = 10{sup 6} cm is the neutron star radius), where the magnetic pressure via the dipole magnetic fields balances with the radiation pressure of the disks. The angular momentum of the disk around the truncation radius is effectively transported inward through magnetic torque by dipole fields, inducing the spin up of a neutron star. The evaluated spin-up rate, ∼−10{sup −11} s s{sup −1}, is consistent with the recent observations of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars. Within the truncation radius, the gas falls onto a neutron star along the dipole fields, which results in a formation of accretion columns onto the northern and southern hemispheres. The net accretion rate and the luminosity of the column are ≃66 L {sub Edd}/ c {sup 2} and ≲10 L {sub Edd}, where L {sub Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the light speed. Our simulations support a hypothesis whereby the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars are powered by the supercritical accretion onto the magnetized neutron stars.

  18. THE ORIGIN OF THE HOT GAS IN THE GALACTIC HALO: CONFRONTING MODELS WITH XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.; Kwak, Kyujin; Joung, M. Ryan; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2010-01-01

    We compare the predictions of three physical models for the origin of the hot halo gas with the observed halo X-ray emission, derived from 26 high-latitude XMM-Newton observations of the soft X-ray background between l = 120 0 and l = 240 0 . These observations were chosen from a much larger set of observations as they are expected to be the least contaminated by solar wind charge exchange emission. We characterize the halo emission in the XMM-Newton band with a single-temperature plasma model. We find that the observed halo temperature is fairly constant across the sky (∼(1.8-2.4) x 10 6 K), whereas the halo emission measure varies by an order of magnitude (∼0.0005-0.006 cm -6 pc). When we compare our observations with the model predictions, we find that most of the hot gas observed with XMM-Newton does not reside in isolated extraplanar supernova (SN) remnants-this model predicts emission an order of magnitude too faint. A model of an SN-driven interstellar medium, including the flow of hot gas from the disk into the halo in a galactic fountain, gives good agreement with the observed 0.4-2.0 keV surface brightness. This model overpredicts the halo X-ray temperature by a factor of ∼2, but there are a several possible explanations for this discrepancy. We therefore conclude that a major (possibly dominant) contributor to the halo X-ray emission observed with XMM-Newton is a fountain of hot gas driven into the halo by disk SNe. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that the extended hot halo of accreted material predicted by disk galaxy formation models also contributes to the emission.

  19. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  20. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) Model Developments for P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Sears; J. Xu

    2001-08-30

    Powder Metallurgy (P/M) Alloy 690N{sub 2}, the P/M derivative of Inconel 690 (IN 690), has been shown to have a higher elevated temperature yield strength and superior stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance than IN 690. The property improvements seen in P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2} are due to interstitial nitrogen strengthening and precipitation hardening resulting from the formation of fine titanium/chromium--carbo-nitrides. The application of P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2} has had limited use, because of the high costs involved in producing wrought products from powder. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) modeling to produce near net shapes should provide a more economical route for exploiting the benefits of Alloy 690N{sub 2}. The efforts involved in developing and verifying the P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2} HIP model are disclosed. Key to the deployment of HIP modeling is the development of the method to fabricate HIP powder containers via laser powder deposition.

  1. Mathematical Heat Transfer Model of Surface Quenching Process for Hot Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Wang, Qian; Li, Yugang; Zhang, Shaoda; Yan, Chen

    Online surface quenching technology has been developed for the hot charging process to prevent the surface cracks in high strength low-alloy steel slabs. In this paper, a two-dimensional heat transfer model of surface quenching process was presented. This finite element model includes nonlinear thermodynamic properties, by which the slab temperature distributions were computed. The model predicted temperatures show reasonable agreement with the measurements. The effects of the water flow rate and slab movement velocity on temperature variation during the quenching and subsequent tempering process were investigated. The result shows that the temperature drop increases but the tempering temperature changes slightly with increasing water flow rate and decreasing slab velocity. Keeping the slab movement velocity at 1.2-2.1m/min and the water flow rate at 55-70m3/h, the slab surface experiences a temperature drop of 400-600°C firstly, then recovers above 650°C, the quenching and energy-saving effect are remarkable.

  2. Microstructure evolution and modeling of 2024 aluminum alloy sheets during hot deformation under different stress states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Zhao, Ting

    2018-01-01

    In this work, specimens of the 2024 aluminum alloy sheet were compressed and stretched along the original rolling direction at elevated temperatures. The microstructure evolution was investigated by characterizing the metallographic structures via electron backscattered diffraction technology before and after deformation. It was found that while recrystallization occurred in the compressed specimens, it was not observed to the same extent in the stretched specimens. This difference in the grain morphology has been attributed to the different movement behaviors of the grain boundaries, i.e., their significant migration in the compression deformation and the transformation from low-angle to high-angle boundaries observed mainly during tension deformation. The empirical model, which can describe the grain size evolution during compression, is not suitable in the case of tension, and therefore, a new model which ignores the detailed recrystallization process has been proposed. This model provides a description of the grain size change during hot deformation and can be used to predict the grain size in the plastic deformation process.

  3. Relativistic configuration interaction approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (and requirement for) ab-initio calculation of electronic structure providing a high level of reliability and accuracy in accounting for both relativistic and correlation effects associated with these properties has gained importance. In this paper, we will compute one of the P, T-odd interaction constants, the so-called Wd, which is.

  4. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  5. Relativistic Coulomb excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, A.; Alder, K.

    1979-01-01

    Coulomb excitation of both target and projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated including the lowest order correction for the deviation from a straight line trajectory. Explicit results for differential and total cross sections are given in the form of tables and figures. (Auth.)

  6. Relativistic elementary atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowczynski, S.

    1989-01-01

    The physics of relativistic elementary atoms,i.e. of Coulomb bound states of elementary particles, like positronium, pionium or an atom of μ + π - , is presented. The atom lifetimes and processes, in which the atoms are produced, are discussed. The interaction of the atoms with matter is also described. A simple derivation of most results is given. 33 refs. (author)

  7. The Relativistic Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  8. Constitutive modeling of hot horming of austenitic stainless steel 316LN by accounting for recrystallization in the dislocation evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooiker, Harmen; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2016-01-01

    Hot compression test data taken from Zhang [1] of metastable austenitic stainless steel AISI 316LN over a range of strain rates and temperatures shows typical dynamic recovery and recrystallization behavior. It is proposed to model this behavior by incorporating not only the hardening and recovery

  9. Numerical Modeling of Reactive Multiphase Flow for FCC and Hot Gas Desulfurization Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Aubrey L. [WSU Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (USA)

    2005-07-01

    This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.

  10. Improvements in Thermal Performance of Mango Hot-water Treatment Equipments: Data Analysis, Mathematical Modelling and Numerical-computational Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder M. Mendoza Orbegoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mango is one of the most popular and best paid tropical fruits in worldwide markets, its exportation is regulated within a phytosanitary quality control for killing the “fruit fly”. Thus, mangoes must be subject to hot-water treatment process that involves their immersion in hot water over a period of time. In this work, field measurements, analytical and simulation studies are developed on available hot-water treatment equipment called “Original” that only complies with United States phytosanitary protocols. These approaches are made to characterize the fluid-dynamic and thermal behaviours that occur during the mangoes’ hot-water treatment process. Then, analytical model and Computational fluid dynamics simulations are developed for designing new hot-water treatment equipment called “Hybrid” that simultaneously meets with both United States and Japan phytosanitary certifications. Comparisons of analytical results with data field measurements demonstrate that “Hybrid” equipment offers a better fluid-dynamic and thermal performance than “Original” ones.

  11. Relativistic stars in vector-tensor theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Ryotaro; Minamitsuji, Masato; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2018-04-01

    We study relativistic star solutions in second-order generalized Proca theories characterized by a U (1 )-breaking vector field with derivative couplings. In the models with cubic and quartic derivative coupling, the mass and radius of stars become larger than those in general relativity for negative derivative coupling constants. This phenomenon is mostly attributed to the increase of star radius induced by a slower decrease of the matter pressure compared to general relativity. There is a tendency that the relativistic star with a smaller mass is not gravitationally bound for a low central density and hence is dynamically unstable, but that with a larger mass is gravitationally bound. On the other hand, we show that the intrinsic vector-mode couplings give rise to general relativistic solutions with a trivial field profile, so the mass and radius are not modified from those in general relativity.

  12. Neutron relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qing-biao; Feng Da-chun; Zhuo Yi-zhong

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, both the phenomenological and microscopic neutron relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies E n =20--1000 MeV has been obtained through an automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical potential (RMOP) is studied by utilizing the effective Lagrangian based on the popular Walecka model. Through comparison between the theoretical results and experimental data we shed some insight into both the RMOP and RPOP. Further improvement concerning how to combine the phenomenological potential with the microscopic one in order to reduce the number of free parameters appearing in the RPOP is suggested

  13. Hot spot model of MagLIF implosions: Nernst term effect on magnetic flux losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Rubio, Fernando; Sanz Recio, Javier; Betti, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    An analytical model of a collisional plasma being compressed by a cylindrical liner is proposed and solved in a magnetized liner inertial fusion-like context. The implosion is assumed to be isobaric, and the magnetic diffusion is confined to a thin layer near the liner. Both unmagnetized and magnetized plasma cases are considered. The model reduces to a system of two partial differential equations for temperature and magnetic field. Special attention is given to the effect of the Nernst term on the evolution of the magnetic field. Scaling laws for temperature, magnetic field, hot spot mass increase and magnetic field losses are obtained. The temperature and magnetic field spatial profiles tend to a self-similar state. It is found that when the Nernst term is taken into account, the magnetic field is advected towards the liner, and the magnetic flux losses are independent of the magnetic Lewis number. Research supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Project No. ENE2014-54960R. Acknowledgements to the Laboratory of Laser Energetics (Rochester) for its hospitality.

  14. Evolutionary models of hot subdwarf B stars with radiative levitation of iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilmis, Nurdan

    2012-01-01

    A B type hot subdwarf star is a very blue horizontal branch star which has a core mass around 0.5 solar mass; and a very thin inert hydrogen envelope. It has colors corresponding to those of a B star in which the Balmer lines are abnormally broad for the color as compared to population I main sequence B stars. SdB stars are puzzling in a number of ways; the theories about their origin and evolution have difficulty explaining the large amount of mass that has to be lost prior to or at the start of core He-burning to attain a very thin envelope. Their peculiar surface abundances are not yet explained by any diffusion processes. First discovered in a Palomar survey undertaken in 1947, B type hot subdwarfs got attention after the discovery of their short period p-mode and long period g-mode oscillations. The potential of asteroseismology gives hope to put the pieces of the sdB puzzle together. The pulsations are explained by a Z-bump mechanism due to enhancement of heavy elements in the location in the star where driving of the pulsations occur. Therefore, it is important to make models of heavy metal abundance profiles during the sdB phase to determine the pulsation modes accurately. Fe is believed to be the major contributor to opacity in the driving zone. In this thesis, we present the results from our evolutionary calculations which take into account radiative levitation of Fe in addition to gravitational settling, thermal and elemental diffusion. Our method is an advance on previous calculations that are non-evolutionary static models in which equilibrium Fe profiles are determined by assuming a balance between gravity and the radiative force, ignoring other diffusive processes. In our work, we also incorporate mass loss and thermohaline convection which reduce the effectiveness of radiative levitation in enhancing the Fe abundance. Our model has a mass of 0.47 solar mass and with T eff = 27 000 K and log g = 5.6. It is derived from an evolutionary sequence that

  15. A metastable equilibrium model for the relative abundances of microbial phyla in a hot spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as "Bison Pool" in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that

  16. A Metastable Equilibrium Model for the Relative Abundances of Microbial Phyla in a Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as “Bison Pool” in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that depend on both the

  17. New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    General relativity; exact solution; embedding class I; anisotropy; compact star. Abstract. Anewexact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropicmassive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of ...

  18. New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anewexact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropicmassive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two ...

  19. A phenomenological model of thermal-hydraulics of convective boiling during the quenching of hot rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Nelson, R.

    1991-01-01

    After completion of the thermal-hydraulic model developed in a companion paper, the authors performed developmental assessment calculation of the model using steady-state and transient post-critical heat flux (CHF) data. This paper discusses the results of those calculations. The overall interfacial drag model predicted reasonable drag coefficients for both the nucleate boiling and the inverted annular flow (IAF) regimes. The predicted pressure drops agreed reasonably well with the measured data of two transient experiments, CCTF Run 14 and a Lehigh reflood test. The thermal-hydraulic model for post-CHF convective heat transfer predicted the rewetting velocities reasonably well for both experiments. The predicted average slope of the wall temperature traces for these tests showed reasonable agreement with the measured data, indicating that the transient-calculated precursory cooling rates agreed with measured data. The hot-patch model, in conjunction with the other thermal-hydraulic models, was capable of modeling the Winfrith post-CHF hot-patch experiments. The hot-patch model kept the wall temperatures at the specified levels in the hot-patch regions and did not allow any quench-front propagation from either the bottom or the top of the test section. The interfacial heat-transfer model tended to slightly underpredict the vapor temperatures. The maximum difference between calculated and measured vapor temperatures was 20%, with a 10% difference for the remainder of the runs considered. The wall-to-fluid heat transfer was predicted reasonably well, and the predicted wall temperatures were in reasonable agreement with measured data with a maximum relative error of less than 13%

  20. Modeling and Simulating Material Behavior during Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) Stamping of Aluminium Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Abu-Farha, Fadi

    2016-08-01

    Hot blank - cold die (HB-CD) stamping, non-isothermal hot stamping, of aluminium alloy sheets offers great opportunities for high production rates at low cost, while overcoming limited material formability issues. Yet developing an accurate model that can describe the complex material behavior over the wide ranging conditions of HB-CD stamping (temperatures ranging between 25 and 350 °C) is challenging. Moreover, validation of the developed models under transient conditions is problematic. This work presents he results of a comprehensive characterization, material modeling, FE simulation and experimental validation effort to capture the behavior of an aluminium alloy sheet during HB-CD stamping. In particular, we highlight the integration between temperature measurements (thermography) and strain measurements (digital image correlation) for the accurate validation of model predictions of non-isothermal material deformation.

  1. Kinetic analysis of thermally relativistic flow with dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Kojiro

    2011-01-01

    Nonequilibrium flow of thermally relativistic matter with dissipation is considered in the framework of the relativistic kinetic theory. As an object of the analysis, the supersonic rarefied flow of thermally relativistic matter around the triangle prism is analyzed using the Anderson-Witting model. Obtained numerical results indicate that the flow field changes in accordance with the flow velocity and temperature of the uniform flow owing to both effects derived from the Lorentz contraction and thermally relativistic effects, even when the Mach number of the uniform flow is fixed. The profiles of the heat flux along the stagnation streamline can be approximated on the basis of the relativistic Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) law except for a strong nonequilibrium regime such as the middle of the shock wave and the vicinity of the wall, whereas the profile of the heat flux behind the triangle prism cannot be approximated on the basis of the relativistic NSF law owing to rarefied effects via the expansion behind the triangle prism. Additionally, the heat flux via the gradient of the static pressure is non-negligible owing to thermally relativistic effects. The profile of the dynamic pressure is different from that approximated on the basis of the NSF law, which is obtained by the Eckart decomposition. Finally, variations of convections of the mass and momentum owing to the effects derived from the Lorentz contraction and thermally relativistic effects are numerically confirmed.

  2. A model study of the Eastern Mediterranean ozone levels during the hot summer of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodnebrog, Ø.; Solberg, S.; Stordal, F.; Svendby, T. M.; Simpson, D.; Gauss, M.; Hilboll, A.; Pfister, G. G.; Turquety, S.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2012-03-01

    The hot summer of 2007 in Southeast Europe has been studied using two regional atmospheric chemistry models; WRF-Chem and EMEP MSC-W. The region was struck by three heat waves and a number of forest fire episodes, greatly affecting air pollution levels. We have focused on ozone and its precursors using state-of-the-art inventories for anthropogenic, biogenic and forest fire emissions. The models have been evaluated against measurement data, and processes leading to ozone formation have been quantified. Heat wave episodes are projected to occur more frequently in a future climate, and therefore this study also makes a contribution to climate change research. The plume from the Greek forest fires in August 2007 is clearly seen in satellite observations of CO and NO2 columns, showing extreme levels of CO in and downwind of the fires. Model simulations reflect the location and influence of the fires relatively well, but the modelled magnitude of CO in the plume core is too low. Most likely, this is caused by underestimation of CO in the emission inventories, suggesting that the CO/NOx ratios of fire emissions should be re-assessed. Moreover, higher maximum values are seen in WRF-Chem than in EMEP MSC-W, presumably due to differences in plume rise altitudes as the first model emits a larger fraction of the fire emissions in the lowermost model layer. The model results are also in fairly good agreement with surface ozone measurements. Biogenic VOC emissions reacting with anthropogenic NOx emissions are calculated to contribute significantly to the levels of ozone in the region, but the magnitude and geographical distribution depend strongly on the model and biogenic emission module used. During the July and August heat waves, ozone levels increased substantially due to a combination of forest fire emissions and the effect of high temperatures. We found that the largest temperature impact on ozone was through the temperature dependence of the biogenic emissions, closely

  3. Role of the pressure anisotropy in the relativistic pulsar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asseo, E.; Beaufils, D. (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique)

    1983-01-01

    We generalize the hot relativistic MHD wind analysis to include the anisotropy of the pressure created in the pulsar wind by the strong magnetic field. Even with anisotropy the relativistic MHD equations integrate. In a very intense magnetic field, the motion of relativistic particles becomes rapidly one-dimensional in the direction of the field due to the very important radiative losses. Consequently, their distribution function becomes also one-dimensional and the component of the pressure, in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, decrease. In the limit Psub(perpendicular to)approx.=0, Psub(parallel)not=0 we obtain a solution for the fluid flow which, starting at the neutron star surface, reaches smoothly infinity.

  4. Role of the pressure anisotropy in the relativistic pulsar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseo, E.; Beaufils, D.

    1983-01-01

    The hot relativistic MHD wind analysis is generalized to include the anisotropy of the pressure created in the pulsar wind by the strong magnetic field. Even with anisotropy the relativistic MHD equations integrate. In a very intense magnetic field, the motion of relativistic particles becomes rapidly one dimensional in the direction of the field due to the very important radiative losses. Consequently, their distribution function becomes also one-dimensional and the component of the pressure, in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, decrease. In the limit the transverse component of P approximately 0 the longitudinal component of P not equal 0 we obtain a solution for the fluid flow which, starting at the neutron star surface, reaches smoothly infinity.

  5. Microstructure Evolution and Flow Stress Model of a 20Mn5 Hollow Steel Ingot during Hot Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Ma, Qing-Xian; Luo, Jian-Bin

    2018-03-21

    20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft due to its good performance of strength, toughness and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under high temperature were not studied. In this study, the hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850-1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01/s-1/s are conducted using Gleeble thermal and mechanical simulation machine. And the flow stress curves and microstructure after hot compression are obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relation and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 hollow steel ingot.

  6. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big

  7. Numerical modelling by the Stokes--DEM coupled simulation for a roof at hot magma chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, M.; Nishiura, D.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of a granular media has been suggested to play an important role in a reheated magma chamber by a hot intrusion (e.g. Burgisser and Bergantz, 2011). Although several mechanisms, such as Rayleigh Taylor instability, unzipping, and rhythmic convection (e.g. Shibano et.al. 2012, 2013), have been proposed for characterizing upward migration process in a crystalline magma chamber, their contributions in the long geodynamical time scale are not clear yet. Thus we perform numerical simulations to investigate the thermal evolution of the magma chamber with basal intrusion in three dimensions. In order to solve high-viscosity fluid and particle dynamics for modelling a melt--crystal jammed state of the magma, we have developed a coupled Stokes--DEM simulation code with two key techniques: formulation of particle motion without inertia and semi-implicit treatment of particle motion in the fluid equation (Furuichi and Nishiura 2014). Our simulation can successfully handle sinking particles in a high-viscosity fluid. We examine different types of the granular media heated from the bottom with varying parameters. We especially focus on pattern of the settling particles against the melt density contrast between upper and lower region.

  8. Chemical Modeling for Predicting the Abundances of Certain Aldimines and Amines in Hot Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Milan; Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Bhat, Bratati; Etim, Emmanuel E.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2018-02-01

    We consider six isomeric groups ({{CH}}3{{N}}, {{CH}}5{{N}}, {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}5{{N}}, {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}7{{N}}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}7{{N}}, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}9{{N}}) to review the presence of amines and aldimines within the interstellar medium (ISM). Each of these groups contains at least one aldimine or amine. Methanimine ({{CH}}2{NH}) from {{CH}}3{{N}} and methylamine ({{CH}}3{{NH}}2) from {{CH}}5{{N}} isomeric group were detected a few decades ago. Recently, the presence of ethanimine ({{CH}}3{CHNH}) from {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}5{{N}} isomeric group has been discovered in the ISM. This prompted us to investigate the possibility of detecting any aldimine or amine from the very next three isomeric groups in this sequence: {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}7{{N}}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}7{{N}}, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}9{{N}}. We employ high-level quantum chemical calculations to estimate accurate energies of all the species. According to enthalpies of formation, optimized energies, and expected intensity ratio, we found that ethylamine (precursor of glycine) from {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}7{{N}} isomeric group, (1Z)-1-propanimine from {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}7{{N}} isomeric group, and trimethylamine from {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}9{{N}} isomeric group are the most viable candidates for the future astronomical detection. Based on our quantum chemical calculations and from other approximations (from prevailing similar types of reactions), a complete set of reaction pathways to the synthesis of ethylamine and (1Z)-1-propanimine is prepared. Moreover, a large gas-grain chemical model is employed to study the presence of these species in the ISM. Our modeling results suggest that ethylamine and (1Z)-1-propanimine could efficiently be formed in hot-core regions and could be observed with present astronomical facilities. Radiative transfer modeling is also implemented to additionally aid their discovery in interstellar space.

  9. The relativistic gravity train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Max

    2018-05-01

    The gravity train that takes 42.2 min from any point A to any other point B that is connected by a straight-line tunnel through Earth has captured the imagination more than most other applications in calculus or introductory physics courses. Brachystochron and, most recently, nonlinear density solutions have been discussed. Here relativistic corrections are presented. It is discussed how the corrections affect the time to fall through Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, a neutron star, and—the ultimate limit—the difference in time measured by a moving, a stationary and the fiducial observer at infinity if the density of the sphere approaches the density of a black hole. The relativistic gravity train can serve as a problem with approximate and exact analytic solutions and as numerical exercise in any introductory course on relativity.

  10. Relativistic studies in actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, P.; Gonis, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this review the theoretical background is given for a relativistic description for actinide systems. A short introduction is given of the density functional theory which forms the basis for a fully relativistic single-particle theory. A section on the Dirac Hamiltonian is followed by a brief summary on group theoretical concepts. Single site scattering is presented such that formal extensions to the case of the presence of an internal (external) magnetic field and/or anisotropic scattering are evident. Multiple scattering is discussed such that it can readily be applied also to the problem of dislocations. In connection with the problem of selfconsistency particular attention is drawn to the use of complex energies. Finally the various theoretical aspects discussed are illustrated through the results of numerical calculations. 101 refs.; 37 figs.; 5 tabs

  11. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  12. Relativistic models of thin disks immersed in a Robertson-Walker type spacetime Modelos relativistas de discos delgados inmersos en un espacio-tiempo tipo Robertson-Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo García Reyes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the well known “displace, cut and reflect” method used to generate disks from given solutions of Einstein field equations, we construct some relativistic models of time dependent thin disks of infinite extension made of a perfect fluid based on the Robertson-Walker metric. Two simple families of models of disks based on Robertson-Walker solutions admitting Matter and Ricci collineations are presented. We obtain disks that are in agreement with all the energy conditions.Usando el método de “desplazamiento, corte y reflexión” se construyen algunos modelos relativistas exactas de soluciones que representan discos delgados de extensión infinita, dependientes del tiempo y hechos de un fluido perfecto, basados en la métrica de Robertson-Walker. Se presentan dos familias simples de modelos de discos basados sobre el espacio tiempo de Robertson-Walker que admiten colineaciones de Ricci y de materia. Se obtienen modelos de discos que satisfacen todas las condiciones de energía.

  13. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s−1 at peak, rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ∼ 2 − 5, created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  14. Report of seminar on relativistic approach to nuclear reaction and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    A seminar on 'Relativistic Approach to Nuclear Reaction and Nuclear Structure' was held in 1985 at Osaka University. This booklet includes twenty-four reports given at the seminar, which deal with: Conventional Nonrelativistic Description of Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Spin-Orbit Interactions; Relativistic Approach to Nuclear Structure; Atomic and Molecular Structure Calculations; Electromagnetic Interaction in Nucleus and Relativistic Effect; Nuclear Magnetic Moment in the Relativistic Mean Field Theory, Effective Mass and Particle-Vibration Coupling in the Relativistic σ-ω Model; Gauge Invariance in Relativistic Many-Body Theory; Relativistic Description of Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction in Review; σ-Particle in NN Interaction; Nuclear Optical Potentials Based on the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Approach; Elastic Backscattering and Optical Potential; Description of Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Reactions; Dirac Phenomenology at E(p) = 65 MeV; Relativistic Impulse Approximation; Reaction Studies with Intermediate Energy Deuterons at SATURNE; Folding Model for Intermediate-Energy Deutron Scattering; Folding Model for Polarized Deutron Scattering at 700 MeV; Dirac Approach Problems and a Different Viewpoint; Relativistic Approach and EMC Effect; Quasielastic Electron Scattering; Response Function of Quasielastic Electron Scattering; Relativistic Hartree Response Function for Quasielastic Electron Scattering on 12 C and 40 Ca; Backflow-, Retardation- and Relativistic Effects on the Longitudinal Response Function of Nuclear Matter; Pion-Photoproduction in the σ-ω Model. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Pion production in relativistic collisions of nuclear drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, C.T.; Wilson, J.R.; McAbee, T.L.; Zingman, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    In a continuation of the long-standing effort of the nuclear physics community to model atomic nuclei as droplets of a specialized nuclear fluid, we have developed a hydrodynamic model for simulating the collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic speeds. Our model couples ideal relativistic hydrodynamics with a new Monte Carlo treatment of dynamic pion production and tracking. The collective flow for low-energy (200 MeV/N) collisions predicted by this model compares favorably with results from earlier hydrodynamic calculations which used quite different numerical techniques. Our pion predictions at these lower energies appear to differ, however, from the experimental data on pion multiplicities. In this case of ultra-relativistic (200 GeV/N) collisions, our hydrodynamic model has produced baryonic matter distributions which are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental data. These results may shed some light on the sensitivity of relativistic collision data to the nuclear equation of state. 20 refs., 12 figs

  16. Relativistic treatment of mesonic contributions to quasielastic (e,e')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, P.G.; Butler, M.N.

    1988-03-01

    Meson exchange currents play an important role in the description of observables in electron scattering. The authors use a relativistic model with pseudovector pion coupling to study the exchange current contributions, with emphasis on quasielastic kinematics. Starting with the Lagrangian for nucleons interacting with a scalar and vector mason along with pseudovector coupling to pions, they derive the one and two-body electromagnetic currents. They then calculate the longitudinal and transverse pieces of the quasielastic cross section for various nuclei and kinematics. The effects of meson exchange currents are found to be much more important in a relativistic model than in a non-relativistic one

  17. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist model demonstrates that nocturnal hot flashes interrupt objective sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Crawford, Sybil; Economou, Nicole; Kim, Semmie; Regan, Susan; Hall, Janet E; White, David

    2013-12-01

    Sleep interruption is often reported by women with hot flashes and night sweats (or vasomotor symptoms, VMS). Although women report that VMS awaken them, polysomnography (PSG) studies have not consistently supported this contention. We mimicked menopause using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) to investigate whether VMS increase awakenings and wake after sleep onset (WASO). VMS, serum estradiol, and at-home PSGs (two pretreatment, two posttreatment) were measured before and after 4 weeks on GnRHa. Regression models were used to determine the effect of increasing VMS frequency on awakenings and WASO, as measured objectively and subjectively. Twenty-nine healthy women (mean 27.3 y). Academic medical center. Depot GnRHa (leuprolide 3.75-mg). Serum estradiol was rapidly and uniformly suppressed on GnRHa. Persistent VMS were reported by 69% of women. The number of nighttime VMS correlated directly with the degree of sleep disturbance. Each additional reported nighttime VMS was associated with a 62% increase from baseline in PSG-measured WASO (P = 0.007), a 3% increase in awakenings (P = 0.05), and 6% increase in %N1 sleep (P = 0.02). Nighttime VMS were also associated with increased perceived WASO (312%; P = 0.02), awakenings (16%; P = 0.007), Insomnia Severity Index (P = 0.03), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P = 0.03) scores, and decreased perceived sleep efficiency (P = 0.01). Objectively recorded nighttime VMS correlated with PSG-measured WASO (rs = 0.45, P = 0.02). This menopause model demonstrates that nighttime vasomotor symptoms correlate with increased sleep fragmentation. These findings are consistent with a specific contribution of vasomotor symptoms to polysomnography-measured sleep interruption suggesting that nighttime vasomotor symptoms interrupt sleep in the setting of menopause.

  18. Modeling heat stress effect on Holstein cows under hot and dry conditions: selection tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabaño, M J; Bachagha, K; Ramón, M; Díaz, C

    2014-12-01

    Data from milk recording of Holstein-Friesian cows together with weather information from 2 regions in Southern Spain were used to define the models that can better describe heat stress response for production traits and somatic cell score (SCS). Two sets of analyses were performed, one aimed at defining the population phenotypic response and the other at studying the genetic components. The first involved 2,514,762 test-day records from up to 5 lactations of 128,112 cows. Two models, one fitting a comfort threshold for temperature and a slope of decay after the threshold, and the other a cubic Legendre polynomial (LP) model were tested. Average (TAVE) and maximum daily temperatures were alternatively considered as covariates. The LP model using TAVE as covariate showed the best goodness of fit for all traits. Estimated rates of decay from this model for production at 25 and 34°C were 36 and 170, 3.8 and 3.0, and 3.9 and 8.2g/d per degree Celsius for milk, fat, and protein yield, respectively. In the second set of analyses, a sample of 280,958 test-day records from first lactations of 29,114 cows was used. Random regression models including quadratic or cubic LP regressions (TEM_) on TAVE or a fixed threshold and an unknown slope (DUMMY), including or not cubic regressions on days in milk (DIM3_), were tested. For milk and SCS, the best models were the DIM3_ models. In contrast, for fat and protein yield, the best model was TEM3. The DIM3DUMMY models showed similar performance to DIM3TEM3. The estimated genetic correlations between the same trait under cold and hot temperatures (ρ) indicated the existence of a large genotype by environment interaction for fat (ρ=0.53 for model TEM3) and protein yield (ρ around 0.6 for DIM3TEM3) and for SCS (ρ=0.64 for model DIM3TEM3), and a small genotype by environment interaction for milk (ρ over 0.8). The eigendecomposition of the additive genetic covariance matrix from model TEM3 showed the existence of a dominant

  19. Modeling of the hot flow behavior of advanced ultra-high strength steels (A-UHSS) microalloyed with boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejía, I., E-mail: imejia@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio “U”, Ciudad Universitaria, 58066 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Altamirano, G.; Bedolla-Jacuinde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio “U”, Ciudad Universitaria, 58066 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Cabrera, J.M. [Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB – Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Av. de las Bases de Manresa, 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2014-07-29

    In this research work, modeling of the hot flow behavior was carried out in a low carbon advanced ultra-high strength steels (A-UHSS) microalloyed with different amounts of boron (14, 33, 82, 126 and 214 ppm). For this purpose, experimental stress–strain data of uniaxial hot-compression tests over a wide range of temperatures (1223, 1273, 1323 and 1373 K (950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C)) and strain rates (10{sup −3}, 10{sup −2} and 10{sup −1} s{sup −1}) were used. The stress–strain relationships as a function of temperature and strain rate were successfully described on the basis of the approach proposed by Estrin, Mecking, and Bergström, together with the classical Avrami equation and the conventional hyperbolic sine function. The analysis of the modeling parameters of the hot flow curves shows that boron additions to A-UHSS play a major role in softening mechanisms rather than on hardening. The peak stress (σ{sub p}) and steady-state stress (σ{sub ss}) values show a decreasing trend with increasing boron content, which indicates that boron additions promote a solid solution softening effect additional to that produced by DRX. The time for 50% recrystallization (t{sub 50%}) tends to increase with boron additions, revealing that boron additions cause a delay of the DRX kinetics during hot deformation. Similarly, the presence of boron in the steel decreases the apparent activation energy for recrystallization (Q{sub t}), indicating that boron additions accelerate the onset of DRX. The constitutive equations developed in this way provided an excellent description of the experimental hot flow curves.

  20. Variational thermodynamics of relativistic thin disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C.; Lopez-Monsalvo, Cesar S.; Quevedo, Hernando

    2015-12-01

    We present a relativistic model describing a thin disk system composed of two fluids. The system is surrounded by a halo in the presence of a non-trivial electromagnetic field. We show that the model is compatible with the variational multifluid thermodynamics formalism, allowing us to determine all the thermodynamic variables associated with the matter content of the disk. The asymptotic behavior of these quantities indicates that the single fluid interpretation should be abandoned in favor of a two-fluid model.

  1. Relativistic extension of a charge-conservative finite element solver for time-dependent Maxwell-Vlasov equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, D.-Y.; Moon, H.; Omelchenko, Y. A.; Teixeira, F. L.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate modeling of relativistic particle motion is essential for physical predictions in many problems involving vacuum electronic devices, particle accelerators, and relativistic plasmas. A local, explicit, and charge-conserving finite-element time-domain (FETD) particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm for time-dependent (non-relativistic) Maxwell-Vlasov equations on irregular (unstructured) meshes was recently developed by Moon et al. [Comput. Phys. Commun. 194, 43 (2015); IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1353 (2016)]. Here, we extend this FETD-PIC algorithm to the relativistic regime by implementing and comparing three relativistic particle-pushers: (relativistic) Boris, Vay, and Higuera-Cary. We illustrate the application of the proposed relativistic FETD-PIC algorithm for the analysis of particle cyclotron motion at relativistic speeds, harmonic particle oscillation in the Lorentz-boosted frame, and relativistic Bernstein modes in magnetized charge-neutral (pair) plasmas.

  2. Relativistic simulation of the Vlasov equation for plasma expansion into vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Abbasi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this study, relativistic Vlasov simulation of plasma for expansion of collisionless plasma for into vacuum is presented. The model is based on 1+1 dimensional phase space and electrostatic approximation. For this purpose, the electron dynamics is studied by the relativistic Vlasov equation. Regardless of the ions temperature, fluid equations are used for their dynamics. The initial electrons distribution function is the relativistic Maxwellian. The results show that due to the electrons relativistic temperature, the process of the plasma expansion takes place faster, the resulting electric field is stronger and the ions are accelerated to higher velocities, in comparison to the non-relativistic case.

  3. Analytical modeling of the temporal evolution of hot spot temperatures in silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, Sven; Rajsrima, Narong; Geisemeyer, Ino; Fertig, Fabian; Greulich, Johannes Michael; Rein, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    We present an approach to predict the equilibrium temperature of hot spots in crystalline silicon solar cells based on the analysis of their temporal evolution right after turning on a reverse bias. For this end, we derive an analytical expression for the time-dependent heat diffusion of a breakdown channel that is assumed to be cylindrical. We validate this by means of thermography imaging of hot spots right after turning on a reverse bias. The expression allows to be used to extract hot spot powers and radii from short-term measurements, targeting application in inline solar cell characterization. The extracted hot spot powers are validated at the hands of long-term dark lock-in thermography imaging. Using a look-up table of expected equilibrium temperatures determined by numerical and analytical simulations, we utilize the determined hot spot properties to predict the equilibrium temperatures of about 100 industrial aluminum back-surface field solar cells and achieve a high correlation coefficient of 0.86 and a mean absolute error of only 3.3 K.

  4. Possible Relativistic Definitions of Parallax, Proper Motion and Radial Velocity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klioner, S

    2000-01-01

    .... In this paper, the authors briefly describe a relativistic model of space-based optical positional observations valid at a high level of accuracy, and suggest definitions of parallax, proper motion...

  5. Bose-Einstein condensation in the relativistic ideal Bose gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, M; de Llano, M; Baker, George A

    2007-11-16

    The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) critical temperature in a relativistic ideal Bose gas of identical bosons, with and without the antibosons expected to be pair-produced abundantly at sufficiently hot temperatures, is exactly calculated for all boson number densities, all boson point rest masses, and all temperatures. The Helmholtz free energy at the critical BEC temperature is lower with antibosons, thus implying that omitting antibosons always leads to the computation of a metastable state.

  6. Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

  7. Modelling of hot air chamber designs of a continuous flow grain dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lotte Strange; Poulsen, Mathias; Sørensen, Kim

    2018-01-01

    The pressure loss, flow distribution and temperature distribution of a number of designs of the hot air chamber in a continuous flow grain dryer, were investigated using CFD. The flow in the dryer was considered as steady state, compressible and turbulent. It is essential that the grain...... is uniformly dried as uneven drying can result in damage to the end-product during storage. The original commercial design was modified with new guide vanes at the inlets to reduce the pressure loss and to ensure a uniform flow to the line burner in the hot air chamber. The new guide vane design resulted...... in a 10% reduction in pressure loss and a γ-value of 0.804. Various design changes of the hot air chamber were analysed in terms of pressure loss and temperature distribution with the aim of a temperature variation of 5 K at the outlet ducts. An obstruction design was analysed, which improved mixing...

  8. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen......Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  9. HOT 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen......Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  10. The hot big bang and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. [Departments of Physics and of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States)]|[NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The hot big-bang cosmology provides a reliable accounting of the Universe from about 10{sup {minus}2} sec after the bang until the present, as well as a robust framework for speculating back to times as early as 10{sup {minus}43} sec. Cosmology faces a number of important challenges; foremost among them are determining the quantity and composition of matter in the Universe and developing a detailed and coherent picture of how structure (galaxies, clusters of galaxies, superclusters, voids, great walls, and so on) developed. At present there is a working hypothesis{emdash}cold dark matter{emdash}which is based upon inflation and which, if correct, would extend the big bang model back to 10{sup {minus}32} sec and cast important light on the unification of the forces. Many experiments and observations, from CBR anisotropy experiments to Hubble Space Telescope observations to experiments at Fermilab and CERN, are now putting the cold dark matter theory to the test. At present it appears that the theory is viable only if the Hubble constant is smaller than current measurements indicate (around 30 km s{sup {minus}1} Mpc{sup {minus}1}), or if the theory is modified slightly, e.g., by the addition of a cosmological constant, a small admixture of hot dark matter (5 eV {open_quote}{open_quote}worth of neutrinos{close_quote}{close_quote}), more relativistic particle or a tilted spectrum of density perturbations.

  11. Relativistic wave mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Corinaldesi, Ernesto

    1963-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat

  12. HOT 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet....

  13. Modelling the void deformation and closure by hot forging of ingot castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Kotas, Petr

    2012-01-01

    After solidification and cooling cast ingots contain voids due to improper feeding and volume shrinkage. Such voids are normally unwanted, so besides of forming the ingot to the desired shape, one of the purposes of the post processing of the ingot by hot forging is to close such voids by mechani...

  14. Constraining supernova models using the hot gas in clusters of galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Plaa, J.; Werner, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484778X; Bleeker, J.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071892176; Vink, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182880559; Kaastra, J.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070911134; Mendes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Context: The hot X-ray emitting gas in clusters of galaxies is a very large repository of metals produced by supernovae. During the evolution of clusters, billions of supernovae eject their material into this Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM). Aims: We aim to accurately measure the abundances in the ICM of

  15. Analytical modelling of visco-elastic behaviour of hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the revision of the South African Pavement Design Method (SAPDM), laboratory testing was conducted to obtain the dynamic (Complex) modulus |E*| of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) samples. Dynamic modulus gives an indication of linear visco-elastic...

  16. Relativistic non-Hamiltonian mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2010-01-01

    Relativistic particle subjected to a general four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u μ u μ + c 2 = 0, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, four-forces are non-potential, and the relativistic particle is a non-Hamiltonian system in four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We consider non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems in relativistic mechanics. Covariant forms of the principle of stationary action and the Hamilton's principle for relativistic mechanics of non-Hamiltonian systems are discussed. The equivalence of these principles is considered for relativistic particles subjected to potential and non-potential forces. We note that the equations of motion which follow from the Hamilton's principle are not equivalent to the equations which follow from the variational principle of stationary action. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are not compatible in the case of systems with nonholonomic constraint and the potential forces. The principle of stationary action for relativistic particle subjected to non-potential forces can be used if the Helmholtz conditions are satisfied. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are equivalent only for a special class of relativistic non-Hamiltonian systems.

  17. 'Antigravity' Propulsion and Relativistic Hyperdrive

    OpenAIRE

    Felber, Franklin S.

    2006-01-01

    Exact payload trajectories in the strong gravitational fields of compact masses moving with constant relativistic velocities are calculated. The strong field of a suitable driver mass at relativistic speeds can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest to a speed significantly faster than the driver, a condition called hyperdrive. Hyperdrive thresholds and maxima are calculated as functions of driver mass and velocity.

  18. The Hot Serial Cereal Experiment for modeling wheat response to temperature: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martre, P.; Kimball, B.A.; Ottman, M.J.; Wall, G.W.; White, J.; Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Cammarano, D.; Maiorano, Andrea; Supit, I.

    2017-01-01

    The data set reported here includes the part of a Hot Serial Cereal Experiment (HSC) experiment recently used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat models and quantify their response to temperature. The HSC experiment was conducted in an open-field in a semiarid

  19. Relativistic centrifugal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.

    2018-03-01

    Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.

  20. Modeling the hot-dense plasma of the solar interior in and out of thermal equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Hsuan

    The developments in helioseismology ensure a wealth of studies in solar physics. In particular, with the high precision of the observations of helioseismology, a high-quality solar model is mandated, since even the tiny deviations between a model and the real Sun can be detected. One crucial ingredient of any solar model is the thermodynamics of hot-dense plasmas, in particular the equation of state. This has motivated efforts to develop sophisticated theoretical equations of state (EOS). It is important to realize that for the conditions of solar-interior plasmas, there are no terrestrial laboratory experiments; the only observational constraints come from helioseismology. Among the most successful EOS is so called OPAL EOS, which is part of the Opacity Project at Livermore. It is based on an activity expansion of the quantum plasma, and realized in the so-called "physical picture". One of its main competitor is the so called MHD EOS, which is part of the international Opacity Project (OP), a non-classified multi-country consortium. The approach of MHD is via the so-called "chemical picture". Since OPAL is the most accurate equation of state so far, there has been a call for a public-domain version of it. However, the OPAL code remains proprietary, and its "emulation" makes sense. An additional reason for such a project is that the results form OPAL can only be accessed via tables generated by the OPAL team. Their users do not have the flexibility to change the chemical composition from their end. The earlier MHD-based OPAL emulator worked well with its modifications of the MHD equation of state, which is the Planck-Larkin partition function and its corresponding scattering terms. With this modification, MHD can serve as a OPAL emulator with all the flexibility and accessibility. However, to build a really user-friendly OPAL emulator one should consider CEFF-based OPAL emulator. CEFF itself is already widely used practical EOS which can be easily implemented

  1. Pore annihilation in a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy during hot isostatic pressing: Experiment and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epishin, Alexander; Fedelich, Bernard; Link, Thomas; Feldmann, Titus; Svetlov, Igor L.

    2013-01-01

    Pore annihilation during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was investigated in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4 experimentally by interrupted HIP tests at 1288 °C/103 MPa. The kinetics of pore annihilation was determined by density measurement and quantitative metallography. Transmission electron microscopy of a HIPed specimen showed that the pores shrink via dislocation movement on octahedral glide planes. Theoretically pore closure under HIP condition was modelled by the finite element method using crystal plasticity and large strain theories. The modelling gives a similar kinetics of pore annihilation as observed experimentally, however somewhat higher annihilation rate

  2. Modeling of the filling and cooling processes of hot fuel mains in Liquid Fuel Rocket Power Plant (LFRPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisnyakov, V. F.; Pokrishkin, V. V.; Serebryansky, V. N.

    A mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes during filling and cooling of hot fuel mains of the Liquid Fuel Rocket Power Plant (LFRPP), which allows to define a mass consumption and distribution of two-phase flow parameters by the length of pipeline. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data, taken during filling of the main with a supply of liquid oxygen from the tank into the combustion chamber. Also, the results of modeling of hydrogen main dynamic characteristics of LFRPP in the same conditions are given.

  3. Relativistic fluid formulation and theory of intense relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A new general relativistic fluid formulation has been obtained for intense relativistic electron beams (IREB) with arbitrarily high relativistic mass factor γ. This theory is valid for confined IREB equilibria such as those found inside high energy accelerators as well as in the pinched and ion-focused regimes of beam propagation in plasma channels. The new relativistic fluid formulation is based on the covariant relativistic fluid formulation of Newcomb with the parameter lambda identical to 1, in order to allow for realistic confined equilibria. The resulting equilibrium constraints require that the beam has a slow rotational velocity around its direction of propagation and that the off-diagonal thermal stress element, associated with these two directions of motion, be nonzero. The effective betatron oscillation frequency of the fluid elements of the beam is modified by the radial gradient and anisotropies in the thermal stress elements of the beam fluid. The wave equation, for sausage, hose and filamentation excitations on the relativistic fluid beam, is found to be formally identical to that obtained from the Vlasov equation approach, hence phase-mixing damping is a generic and self-consistent correlate of the new relativistic fluid formulation

  4. Modeling of Work Hardening During Hot Rolling of Vanadium and Niobium Microalloyed Steels in the Low Temperature Austenite Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalimba, Stephen Akonda; Mostert, Roelf; Stumpf, Waldo; Siyasiya, Charles; Banks, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    This work extends the application of the well-established Estrin and Mecking (EM) work-hardening model in unstable low temperature austenite region. The interaction between work hardening, recovery and softening attributed to recrystallization and transformation to ferrite under dynamic conditions is considered. Experimental parameters were varied to study the effects of strain, strain rate and temperature during hot rolling in the low temperature austenite region. Hot compression tests were performed two microalloyed steels—one containing V and the other Nb—at strain rates between 0.1 and 10 s-1 over a temperature range of 750-1000 °C. A model is presented that describes the influence of dynamic recovery on flow behavior in the unstable austenite region. The modified work-hardening model incorporates an additional fitting parameter to the EM model and is dependent on the recovery and softening rates. The new model improved prediction in the unstable austenite region, while the original EM model gave better correlation at relatively higher temperatures when dynamic recrystallization is dominant or at relatively lower temperatures when only dynamic recrystallization to ferrite was the softening mechanism.

  5. Enhanced transport of relativistic electrons through nanochannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient transport of fast electrons driven by intense laser solid interaction depends crucially on optimal target design. We demonstrate a hybrid target design that incorporates two important features—efficient generation of relativistic electrons and their unimpeded transport in dense media. The target was fabricated on a porous alumina base consisting of an array of sublambda cylindrical holes partially filled with Cu nanorods, such that light field propagates in the hollow channels, located ahead of the metallic fillings. The hollow array acts as an efficient source of hot electrons when driven by relativistically intense, femtosecond laser pulses and shows a 60-fold enhancement in electron flux compared to a solid target. This enhancement is ascribed to an increased penetration of laser through subwavelength pores and enhanced local electric fields. The metal doped part facilitates efficient transport of the generated electrons, due to its large background conductivity. A 4-fold enhancement in target rear side electron flux is observed compared with unfilled porous alumina.

  6. A relativistic theory for continuous measurement of quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.

    1990-04-01

    A formal theory for the continuous measurement of relativistic quantum fields is proposed. The corresponding scattering equations were derived. The proposed formalism reduces to known equations in the Markovian case. Two recent models for spontaneous quantum state reduction have been recovered in the framework of this theory. A possible example of the relativistic continuous measurement has been outlined in standard Quantum Electrodynamics. The continuous measurement theory possesses an alternative formulation in terms of interacting quantum and stochastic fields. (author) 23 refs

  7. Relativistic effects on the modulational instability of electron plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is justified as we are considering ultra-cold plasma with weakly relativistic effect. Moreover, it must also be kept in mind that the quantum relativistic plasma is a growing field of research in which models are also being developed. We now use the following normalization: x → xωpe/VFe, t → tωpe, φ → eφ/2kBTFe, nj → nj ...

  8. Development of Numerical Model for Water Cooling Boiling Heat Transfer on a Moving Hot Steel Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Il Seouk [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Most of the scientific results for boiling heat transfer have been reached through experimentation. This paper focuses on the boiling heat transfer on the moving hot plate with a fully numerical approach. The simulation was conducted only in a very high temperature region (over the Leidenfrost temperature) where the film boiling can be kept steadily on the plate. Actually this phenomenon could be occurred in steel making process, especially the strip cooling process in hot rolling plant. However, the theoretical or numerical setup for boiling heat transfer is acutely required in the nuclear engineering part too. Thus in this paper, the results developing the fully numerical approach for boiling heat transfer during the study of steel plate cooling will be presented

  9. Novel effect of berberine on thermoregulation in mice model induced by hot and cold environmental stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fei Jiang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of berberine (BBR on thermoregulation in mice exposed to hot (40°C and cold (4°C environmental conditions. Four groups of mice were assembled with three different dosages of BBR (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg and normal saline (control. In room temperature, our largest dosage of BBR (0.8 mg/kg can reduce rectal temperatures (Tc of normal mice. In hot conditions, BBR can antagonize the increasing core body temperature and inhibit the expression of HSP70 and TNFα in mice; conversely, in cold conditions, BBR can antagonize the decreasing core body temperature and enhance the expression of TRPM8. This study demonstrates the dual ability of BBR in maintaining thermal balance, which is of great relevance to the regulation of HSP70, TNFα and TRPM8.

  10. Novel effect of berberine on thermoregulation in mice model induced by hot and cold environmental stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Fei; Wang, Yu-Gang; Hu, Jun; Lei, Fan; Kheir, Michael M; Wang, Xin-Pei; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Yuan, Zhi-Yi; Lu, Xi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Du, Feng; Du, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of berberine (BBR) on thermoregulation in mice exposed to hot (40°C) and cold (4°C) environmental conditions. Four groups of mice were assembled with three different dosages of BBR (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg) and normal saline (control). In room temperature, our largest dosage of BBR (0.8 mg/kg) can reduce rectal temperatures (Tc) of normal mice. In hot conditions, BBR can antagonize the increasing core body temperature and inhibit the expression of HSP70 and TNFα in mice; conversely, in cold conditions, BBR can antagonize the decreasing core body temperature and enhance the expression of TRPM8. This study demonstrates the dual ability of BBR in maintaining thermal balance, which is of great relevance to the regulation of HSP70, TNFα and TRPM8.

  11. Novel Effect of Berberine on Thermoregulation in Mice Model Induced by Hot and Cold Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fan; Kheir, Michael M.; Wang, Xin-Pei; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Yuan, Zhi-Yi; Lu, Xi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Du, Feng; Du, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of berberine (BBR) on thermoregulation in mice exposed to hot (40°C) and cold (4°C) environmental conditions. Four groups of mice were assembled with three different dosages of BBR (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg) and normal saline (control). In room temperature, our largest dosage of BBR (0.8 mg/kg) can reduce rectal temperatures (Tc) of normal mice. In hot conditions, BBR can antagonize the increasing core body temperature and inhibit the expression of HSP70 and TNFα in mice; conversely, in cold conditions, BBR can antagonize the decreasing core body temperature and enhance the expression of TRPM8. This study demonstrates the dual ability of BBR in maintaining thermal balance, which is of great relevance to the regulation of HSP70, TNFα and TRPM8. PMID:23335996

  12. Energetic, Relativistic and Ultra-Relativistic Electrons: Comparison of Long-term VERB Code Simulations with Van Allen Probes Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, A.; Shprits, Y.; Orlova, K.; Kellerman, A. C.; Subbotin, D.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we compare long-term simulations performed by the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code with observations from the MagEIS and REPT instruments on the Van Allen Probes. The model takes into account radial, energy, pitch-angle and mixed diffusion, losses into the atmosphere, and magnetopause shadowing. We consider the energetic (>100 KeV), relativistic (~0.5-1 MeV) and ultra-relativistic (>2 MeV) electrons. One year of relativistic electron measurements (μ=700 MeV/G) from October 1, 2012 to October 1, 2013 are well reproduced by the simulation during a period of the various geomagnetic activity. However, for ultra-relativistic energies (μ=3500 MeV/G), the VERB code simulation overestimates electron phase space density (PSD). These results indicate that an additional loss mechanism is operational and efficient for these high energies. We discuss possible solutions for improving the modeling of the radiation belts dynamics.

  13. Thermalhydraulic phenomena governing the quenching of hot rods, and existing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestion, D. [CEA-Grenoble, DEN/DTP/SMTH (France)

    2001-07-01

    After a core dry-out and a period of rod clad overheating, which might occur in some postulated accidental sequences in a PWR, the actuation of safety injections allows to quench the hot rods. Both thermal and mechanical processes control the phenomenon of quenching. Quenching first requires that liquid water is present to release the heat stored in the rod. When water is present, a pre-cooling of the clad is also required before quenching. (author)

  14. Parameter Calibration of GTN Damage Model and Formability Analysis of 22MnB5 in Hot Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liang; Liu, Wenquan; Wang, Dantong; Hu, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Hot forming of high strength steel at elevated temperatures is an attractive technology to achieve the lightweight of vehicle body. The mechanical behavior of boron steel 22MnB5 strongly depends on the variation of temperature which makes the process design more difficult. In this paper, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is used to study the formability of 22MnB5 sheet at different temperatures. Firstly, the rheological behavior of 22MnB5 is analyzed through a series of hot tensile tests at a temperature range of 600-800 °C. Then, a detailed process to calibrate the damage parameters is given based on the response surface methodology and genetic algorithm method. The GTN model together with the damage parameters calibrated is then implemented to simulate the deformation and damage evolution of 22MnB5 in the process of high-temperature Nakazima test. The capability of the GTN model as a suitable tool to evaluate the sheet formability is confirmed by comparing experimental and calculated results. Finally, as a practical application, the forming limit diagram of 22MnB5 at 700 °C is constructed using the Nakazima simulation and Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) model, respectively. And the simulation integrated GTN model shows a higher reliability by comparing the predicted results of these two approaches with the experimental ones.

  15. Relativistic Fluid Dynamics: Physics for Many Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comer Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The relativistic fluid is a highly successful model used to describe the dynamics of many-particle, relativistic systems. It takes as input basic physics from microscopic scales and yields as output predictions of bulk, macroscopic motion. By inverting the process, an understanding of bulk features can lead to insight into physics on the microscopic scale. Relativistic fluids have been used to model systems as “small” as heavy ions in collisions, and as large as the Universe itself, with “intermediate” sized objects like neutron stars being considered along the way. The purpose of this review is to discuss the mathematical and theoretical physics underpinnings of the relativistic (multiple fluid model. We focus on the variational principle approach championed by Brandon Carter and his collaborators, in which a crucial element is to distinguish the momenta that are conjugate to the particle number density currents. This approach differs from the “standard” text-book derivation of the equations of motion from the divergence of the stress-energy tensor in that one explicitly obtains the relativistic Euler equation as an “integrability” condition on the relativistic vorticity. We discuss the conservation laws and the equations of motion in detail, and provide a number of (in our opinion interesting and relevant applications of the general theory.

  16. Estimates of paramters of hot electrons during beam heating of plasma in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyzman, B. N.; Yerofeev, V. I.

    1986-02-01

    The dynamics of high-energy electrons formed in Langmuir turbulence and excited in a plasma by a relativistic electron beam is examined. The density perturbations that cause waves to move from one region of the phase space to another, and to maintain balance between pumping and attenuation, are assumed to be generated by the high frequency pressure of the Langmuir waves themselves. A kinetic equation is derived for the excitation, attenuation, and elastic scattering of Langmuir waves. The concentration and characteristic energy of the hot electrons is found within the framework of the proposed model. The estimates are compared with the results of experiments conducted on the INAR and GOL-1 installations.

  17. Heavy baryon spectroscopy with relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarce, A.; Garcilazo, H.; Vijande, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comparative Faddeev study of heavy baryon spectroscopy with nonrelativistic and relativistic kinematics. We show results for different standard hyperfine interactions with both kinematics in an attempt to learn about the light quark dynamics. We highlight the properties of particular states accessible in nowadays laboratories that would help in discriminating between different dynamical models. The advance in the knowledge of light quark dynamics is a key tool for the understanding of the existence of exotic hadrons.

  18. Flow Stress and Mathematical Model for DRX Evolution of Semi-continuous Cast AZ80 Alloy During Hot Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Haicheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using electromagnetic fields application ways, AZ80 magnesium alloy is semi-continuously cast into billets with diameter of 165 mm. And the dynamic recrystallization (DRX evolution of the semi-continuous cast AZ80 magnesium alloy during hot compression has been experimentally studied on Gleeble 2000 thermal-mechanical simulator, at temperatures from 260 to 410 °C and strain rates from 0.001 to 10s-1. It is found that the chief microstructure evolution is dynamic recrystallization, and the effect of deformation process parameters on DRX evolution is analyzed. The mathematical models including critical recrystallization model, kinetics model and grain size model of DRX are established and the results show good agreement between experiments and the models.

  19. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ''Physics Research Progress'', is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given

  20. Elementary relativistic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemenov, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Coulomb interaction which occurs in the final state between two particles with opposite charges allows for creation of the bound state of these particles. In the case when particles are generated with large momentum in lab frame, the Lorentz factors of the bound state will also be much larger than one. The relativistic velocity of the atoms provides the opportunity to observe bound states of (π + μ - ), (π + π - ) and (π + K - ) with a lifetime as short as 10 -16 s, and to measure their parameters. The ultrarelativistic positronium atoms (A 2e ) allow us to observe the e.ect of superpenetration in matter, to study the effects caused by the formation time of A 2e from virtual e + e - pairs and to investigate the process of transformation of two virtual particles into the bound state

  1. Directed flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions within the PHSD transport approach and 3FD hydrodynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchakovski, V. P.; Cassing, W.; Ivanov, Y. B.; Toneev, V. D.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze recent STAR data for the directed flow of protons, antiprotons and charged pions obtained within the beam energy scan program within the Parton-Hadron-String- Dynamics (PHSD) transport model and the 3-Fluid hydroDynamics (3FD) approach. We clarify the role of partonic degrees of freedom in the kinetic PHSD approach. The PHSD results, simulating a partonic phase and its coexistence with a hadronic one, are roughly consistent with data. The hydrodynamic results are obtained for two EoS, a pure hadronic EoS and an EoS with a crossover type transition. The latter case is favored by the STAR experimental data. Special attention is paid to the description of antiproton directed flow based on the balance of pp\\bar annihilation and the inverse processes for Np\\bar pair creation from multi-meson interactions. Generally, a semi-qualitative agreement between the measured data and model results supports the idea of a crossover type quark-hadron transition which softens the nuclear EoS.

  2. Scaling of Magnetic Reconnection in Relativistic Collisionless Pair Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Guo, Fan; Daughton, William; Li, Hui; Hesse, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the scaling of the inflow speed of collisionless magnetic reconnection in electron-positron plasmas from the non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic limit. In the anti-parallel configuration, the inflow speed increases with the upstream magnetization parameter sigma and approaches the speed of light when sigma is greater than O(100), leading to an enhanced reconnection rate. In all regimes, the divergence of the pressure tensor is the dominant term responsible for breaking the frozen-in condition at the x-line. The observed scaling agrees well with a simple model that accounts for the Lorentz contraction of the plasma passing through the diffusion region. The results demonstrate that the aspect ratio of the diffusion region, modified by the compression factor of proper density, remains approximately 0.1 in both the non-relativistic and relativistic limits.

  3. Relativistic Electron Pitch Angle Distributions in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Reiner; Zhao, Hong; Reeves, Geoff; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Mike; Kanekal, Shri; Baker, Dan; Jaynes, Allison

    2017-04-01

    Relativistic electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) in the trapped inner region of the magnetosphere are a sensitive measure of many processes that govern the dynamics of these particles. We report here on statistical observations of relativistic electron PADs from the REPT (Relativistic Electron/Proton Telescope) instrument aboard the Van Allen Probes mission, which show an unexpected dawn/dusk asymmetry that seems to be a persistent feature during quiet times of Dst > -20 nT. The observed PADs show a more peaked pancake distribution at dusk compared to dawn for energies above 1.8 MeV only. Energies from a few 100 KeV to 1 m,eV do NOT show these asymmetries, ruling out magnetic field model effects. These observations hint at persistent processes that can act on relativistic electrons on timescales on the order of the outer radiation belt drift period (10 minutes).

  4. Lattice Boltzmann scheme for relativistic fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, M.; Boghosian, B.; Herrmann, H. J.; Succi, S.

    2009-01-01

    A Lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically verified through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic shock-wave propagation in viscous quark-gluon plasmas. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the main advantages of Lattice Boltzmann methods to the relativistic context, which seems particularly useful for the simulation of relativistic fluids in complicated geometries.

  5. General relativistic self-similar waves that induce an anomalous acceleration into the standard model of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Smoller, Joel

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the Einstein equations in Standard Schwarzschild Coordinates close to form a system of three ordinary differential equations for a family of spherically symmetric, self-similar expansion waves, and the critical ($k=0$) Friedmann universe associated with the pure radiation phase of the Standard Model of Cosmology (FRW), is embedded as a single point in this family. Removing a scaling law and imposing regularity at the center, we prove that the family reduces to an implicitly defined one parameter family of distinct spacetimes determined by the value of a new {\\it acceleration parameter} $a$, such that $a=1$ corresponds to FRW. We prove that all self-similar spacetimes in the family are distinct from the non-critical $k\

  6. Modeling of mass transfer performance of hot-air drying of sweet potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Aishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the transfer characteristics of the sweet potato drying process, a laboratory convective hot air dryer was applied to study the influences of drying temperature, hot air velocity and thickness of sweet potato slice on the drying process. The experimental data of moisture ratio of sweet potato slices were used to fit the mathematical models, and the effective diffusion coefficients were calculated. The result showed that temperature, velocity and thickness influenced the drying process significantly. The Logarithmic model showed the best fit to experimental drying data for temperature and the Wang and Singh model were found to be the most satisfactory for velocity and thickness. It was also found that, with the increase of temperature from 60 to 80°C, the effective moisture diffusion coefficient varied from 2.962×10-10 to 4.694×10-10 m2×s-1, and it fitted the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy was 23.29 kJ×mol-1; with the increase of hot air velocity from 0.423 to 1.120 m×s-1, the values of effective moisture diffusion coefficient varied from 2.877×10-10 to 3.760×10-10 m2•s-1; with the increase of thickness of sweet potato slice from 0.002 m to 0.004 m, the values of effective moisture diffusion coefficient varied from 3.887×10-10 to 1.225×10-9 m2•s-1.

  7. Generic stability of dissipative non-relativistic and relativistic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ván, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The linear stability of the homogeneous equilibrium of non-relativistic fluids with mass flux and special relativistic fluids with the absolute value of the energy vector as internal energy is investigated. It is proved that the equilibrium is asymptotically stable in both cases due to purely thermodynamic restrictions; the only requirements are the thermodynamic stability and the non-negativity of the transport coefficients

  8. Potential Energy Flexibility for a Hot-Water Based Heating System in Smart Buildings Via Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Awadelrahman M. A.; Zong, Yi; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2017-01-01

    water tank as active thermal energy storage, where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the heat pump electricity consumption and the building heating consumption. A sensitivity analysis for the system flexibility is examined. The results revealed that the proposed......This paper studies the potential of shifting the heating energy consumption in a residential building to low price periods based on varying electricity price signals suing Economic Model Predictive Control strategy. The investigated heating system consists of a heat pump incorporated with a hot...

  9. Core Flooding Experiments and Reactive Transport Modeling of Seasonal Heat Storage in the Hot Deep Gassum Sandstone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmslykke, Hanne D.; Kjøller, Claus; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal storage of excess heat in hot deep aquifers is considered to optimize the usage of commonly available energy sources. The chemical effects of heating the Gassum Sandstone Formation to up to 150 degrees C is investigated by combining laboratory core flooding experiments with petrographic...... analysis and geochemical modeling. Synthetic formation water is injected into two sets of Gassum Formation samples at 25, 50 (reservoir temperature), 100, and 150 degrees C with a velocity of 0.05 and 0.1 PV/h, respectively. Results show a significant increase in the aqueous concentration of silicium...

  10. HOT 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  11. HOT 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  12. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    is low (for instance during the night), taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas...... produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown...... that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab...

  13. Modelling and experimental validation of the hot-gas defrost process of an air-cooled evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopazo, J. Alberto; Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Uhia, Francisco J.; Diz, Ruben [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No 9, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    A detailed transient simulation model has been developed to predict and evaluate the performance of the hot-gas defrost process of an air-coil evaporator. In the model, the defrost process is subdivided into six stages: preheating, tube frost melting start, fin frost melting start, air presence, tube-fin water film and dry-heating. In each stage, the control volume is subdivided into systems represented by a single node, which has the representative properties of the system. A finite difference approach was used to solve the model equations. The results include the time required to defrost, the distribution of the energy during defrost process, the instantaneous refrigerant properties and the instantaneous fin and tube temperature distribution. The results are compared with experimental data obtained in a local storage facility under actual operating conditions and also using data available in the literature. The model results substantially agree with the experimental data in both cases. (author)

  14. Exact Relativistic Magnetized Haloes around Rotating Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Gutiérrez-Piñeres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamics of magnetic fields in galaxies is one of important problems in formation and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we present the exact relativistic treatment of a rotating disk surrounded by a magnetized material halo. The features of the halo and disk are described by the distributional energy-momentum tensor of a general fluid in canonical form. All the relevant quantities and the metric and electromagnetic potentials are exactly determined by an arbitrary harmonic function only. For instance, the generalized Kuzmin-disk potential is used. The particular class of solutions obtained is asymptotically flat and satisfies all the energy conditions. Moreover, the motion of a charged particle on the halo is described. As far as we know, this is the first relativistic model describing analytically the magnetized halo of a rotating disk.

  15. Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Leitao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.

  16. Hot Soak

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwater, H.

    2005-01-01

    The DVD is documentation of Hot Soak, as performed at the Queen’s Hotel, Penzance, Cornwall in an en suite bathroom, for Tract: Live Art Festival, 2006, curated by Art Surgery/ Newlyn Art Gallery. Hot Soak was originally made for home, London, 2005. This piece marries an everyday environment (bathroom) with extraordinary materials (ice cubes/ dress bleeding red into water) creating the surreal. Sontag’s understanding of camp as a love of the unnatural, artifice and exaggeration, can be ci...

  17. SCALING LAW OF RELATIVISTIC SWEET-PARKER-TYPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro; Masada, Youhei; Matsumoto, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Relativistic Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection is investigated by relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations. As an initial setting, we assume anti-parallel magnetic fields and a spatially uniform resistivity. A perturbation imposed on the magnetic fields triggers magnetic reconnection around a current sheet, and the plasma inflows into the reconnection region. The inflows are then heated due to ohmic dissipation in the diffusion region and finally become relativistically hot outflows. The outflows are not accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (i.e., Lorentz factor ≅ 1), even when the magnetic energy dominates the thermal and rest mass energies in the inflow region. Most of the magnetic energy in the inflow region is converted into the thermal energy of the outflow during the reconnection process. The energy conversion from magnetic to thermal energy in the diffusion region results in an increase in the plasma inertia. This prevents the outflows from being accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds. We find that the reconnection rate R obeys the scaling relation R≅S -0.5 , where S is the Lundquist number. This feature is the same as that of non-relativistic reconnection. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Lyubarsky for Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection.

  18. Conductivity of a relativistic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.

    1989-03-01

    The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Conductivity of a relativistic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.

    1989-03-01

    The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Two-phase flow experiments in a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Tobias; Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Deendarlianto

    2011-09-01

    In order to investigate the two-phase flow behaviour in a complex reactor-typical geometry and to supply suitable data for CFD code validation, a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor was built at FZD. The hot leg model is operated in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform high-pressure experiments under pressure equilibrium with the inside atmosphere of the chamber. This technique makes it possible to visualise the two-phase flow through large windows, also at reactor-typical pressure levels. In order to optimise the optical observation possibilities, the test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section. Experiments were performed with air and water at 1.5 and 3.0 bar at room temperature as well as with steam and water at 15, 30 and 50 bar and the corresponding saturation temperature (i.e. up to 264 C). The total of 194 runs are divided into 4 types of experiments covering stationary co-current flow, counter-current flow, flow without water circulation and transient counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments. This report provides a detailed documentation of the experiments including information on the experimental setup, experimental procedure, test matrix and on the calibration of the measuring devices. The available data is described and data sheets were arranged for each experiment in order to give an overview of the most important parameters. For the cocurrent flow experiments, water level histograms were arranged and used to characterise the flow in the hot leg. In fact, the form of the probability distribution was found to be sensitive to the boundary conditions and, therefore, is useful for the CFD comparison. Furthermore, the flooding characteristics of the hot leg model plotted in terms of the classical Wallis parameter or Kutateladze number were found to fail to properly correlate the data of the air/water and steam/water series. Therefore, a modified Wallis parameter is proposed, which

  1. Two-phase flow experiments in a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Tobias; Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Deendarlianto

    2011-09-15

    In order to investigate the two-phase flow behaviour in a complex reactor-typical geometry and to supply suitable data for CFD code validation, a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor was built at FZD. The hot leg model is operated in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform high-pressure experiments under pressure equilibrium with the inside atmosphere of the chamber. This technique makes it possible to visualise the two-phase flow through large windows, also at reactor-typical pressure levels. In order to optimise the optical observation possibilities, the test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section. Experiments were performed with air and water at 1.5 and 3.0 bar at room temperature as well as with steam and water at 15, 30 and 50 bar and the corresponding saturation temperature (i.e. up to 264 C). The total of 194 runs are divided into 4 types of experiments covering stationary co-current flow, counter-current flow, flow without water circulation and transient counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments. This report provides a detailed documentation of the experiments including information on the experimental setup, experimental procedure, test matrix and on the calibration of the measuring devices. The available data is described and data sheets were arranged for each experiment in order to give an overview of the most important parameters. For the cocurrent flow experiments, water level histograms were arranged and used to characterise the flow in the hot leg. In fact, the form of the probability distribution was found to be sensitive to the boundary conditions and, therefore, is useful for the CFD comparison. Furthermore, the flooding characteristics of the hot leg model plotted in terms of the classical Wallis parameter or Kutateladze number were found to fail to properly correlate the data of the air/water and steam/water series. Therefore, a modified Wallis parameter is proposed, which

  2. Airflow Model Testing to Determine the Distribution of Hot Gas Flow and O/F Ratio Across the Space Shuttle Main Engine Main Injector Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahorter, L.; Chik, J.; McDaniels, D.; Dill, C.

    1990-01-01

    Engine 0209, the certification engine for the new Phase 2+ Hot Gas Manifold (HGM), showed severe deterioration of the Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) liner during hot fire tests. One theory on the cause of the damage held that uneven local distribution of the fuel rich hot gas flow through the main injector assembly was producing regions of high oxidizer/fuel (O/F) ratio near the wall of the MCC liner. Airflow testing was proposed to measure the local hot gas flow rates through individual injector elements. The airflow tests were conducted using full scale, geometrically correct models of both the current Phase 2 and the new Phase 2+ HGMs. Different main injector flow shield configurations were tested for each HGM to ascertain their effect on the pressure levels and distribution of hot gas flow. Instrumentation located on the primary faceplate of the main injector measured hot gas flow through selected injector elements. These data were combined with information from the current space shuttle main engine (SSME) power balances to produce maps of pressure, hot gas flow rate, and O/F ratio near the main injector primary plate. The O/F distributions were compared for the different injector and HGM configurations.

  3. Stochastic oscillations of general relativistic disks described by a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4

    explanations for IDV in the Introduction Section. Such as the models based on spots, flares, and spiral shocks in accretion disks, Doppler boosted relativistic jet model, interstellar scintillation model, and deterministic non-linear system model, etc. The concerned references are also added. 2) A reference must be given for ...

  4. Relativistic soliton-like collisionless ionization wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefiev, Alexey; McCormick, Matthew; Quevedo, Hernan; Bengtson, Roger; Ditmire, Todd

    2014-10-01

    It has been observed in recent experiments with laser-irradiated gas jets that a plasma filament produced by the laser and containing energetic electrons can launch a relativistic ionization wave into ambient gas. Here we present a self-consistent theory that explains how a collisionless ionization wave can propagate in a self-sustaining regime. A population of hot electrons necessarily generates a sheath electric field at the plasma boundary. This field penetrates the ambient gas, ionizing the gas atoms and thus causing the plasma boundary to expand. We show that the motion of the newly generated electrons can form a potential well adjacent to the plasma boundary. The outwards motion of the well causes a bunch of energetic electrons to become trapped, while allowing the newly generated electrons to escape into the plasma without retaining much energy. The resulting soliton-like ionizing field structure propagates outwards with a bunch of hot electrons that maintain a strong sheath field despite significant plasma expansion. We also present 1D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations that illustrate the described mechanism. The simulations were performed using HPC resources provided by the Texas Advanced Computing Center. This work was supported by NNSA Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512 and U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-FG02-04ER54742.

  5. High density nuclear Mach shock waves in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.; Hofmann, J.; Scheid, W.; Greiner, W.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of high density nuclear Mach shock waves in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and related phenomena, as density isomers, highly isobaric and hot nuclear matter, pionization and granulation of dense matter, compressibility and soundwaves in nuclear matter, are discussed

  6. Relativistic multiwave Cerenkov generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaev, S. P.; Kanavets, V. I.; Klimov, A. I.; Koshelev, V. I.; Cherepenin, V. A.

    1983-11-01

    The design and operation of a multiwave Cerenkov generator using a relativistic electron beam are reported. The device comprises a 3-cm-radius tubular graphite cathode fed with a 1-microsec 1-2.5-MW pulse from a Marx generator; a 5.6-cm-radius anode; an increasing 14-32-kG magnetic field; a 3.4-cm-aperture-radius graphite collimating iris; a stainless-steel semitoroidal-iris-loaded slow-wave structure of maximum length 48.6 cm, inside radius 4.2 cm, iris aperture radius 3.0 cm, iris minor radius 3 mm, and period 1.5 cm; a stainless-steel cone collector; and a vacuum-tight 60-cm-radius window. At 2.5 MV and 21 kG, output power at wavelength 3.15 + or - 0.1 cm is measured as about 5 GW, with baseline pulse length 30-50 nsec and efficiency up to about 10 percent.

  7. Practical Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2015-07-17

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Alice wishes to commit a secret bit to Bob. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through an asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is, however, possible when Alice and Bob each split into several agents exchanging classical information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. In this Letter we first revisit a previously proposed scheme [C. Crépeau et al., Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 7073, 407 (2011)] that realizes bit commitment using only classical communication. We prove that the protocol is secure against quantum adversaries for a duration limited by the light-speed communication time between the locations of the agents. We then propose a novel multiround scheme based on finite-field arithmetic that extends the commitment time beyond this limit, and we prove its security against classical attacks. Finally, we present an implementation of these protocols using dedicated hardware and we demonstrate a 2 ms-long bit commitment over a distance of 131 km. By positioning the agents on antipodal points on the surface of Earth, the commitment time could possibly be extended to 212 ms.

  8. Relativistic Disc Line: A Tool to Constrain Neutron Star Equation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudip Bhattacharyya

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... Relativistic iron Kα spectral emission line from the inner disc of a neutron star Low-Mass X- ray Binary (LMXB) was first detected in ... relativistic iron lines, quiescent emissions and tim- ing features due to orbital motion, ..... model among the two, and is a field theoretical chiral sigma model for neutron-rich ...

  9. Modeling Polarized Emission from Black Hole Jets: Application to M87 Core Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mościbrodzka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We combine three-dimensional general-relativistic numerical models of hot, magnetized Advection Dominated Accretion Flows around a supermassive black hole and the corresponding outflows from them with a general relativistic polarized radiative transfer model to produce synthetic radio images and spectra of jet outflows. We apply the model to the underluminous core of M87 galaxy. The assumptions and results of the calculations are discussed in context of millimeter observations of the M87 jet launching zone. Our ab initio polarized emission and rotation measure models allow us to address the constrains on the mass accretion rate onto the M87 supermassive black hole.

  10. Statistical thermodynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montakhab, Afshin; Ghodrat, Malihe; Barati, Mahmood

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we study a fully relativistic model of a two-dimensional hard-disk gas. This model avoids the general problems associated with relativistic particle collisions and is therefore an ideal system to study relativistic effects in statistical thermodynamics. We study this model using molecular-dynamics simulation, concentrating on the velocity distribution functions. We obtain results for x and y components of velocity in the rest frame (Gamma) as well as the moving frame (Gamma;{'}) . Our results confirm that Jüttner distribution is the correct generalization of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. We obtain the same "temperature" parameter beta for both frames consistent with a recent study of a limited one-dimensional model. We also address the controversial topic of temperature transformation. We show that while local thermal equilibrium holds in the moving frame, relying on statistical methods such as distribution functions or equipartition theorem are ultimately inconclusive in deciding on a correct temperature transformation law (if any).

  11. Ion-acoustic envelope modes in a degenerate relativistic electron-ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKerr, M.; Kourakis, I. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    A self-consistent relativistic two-fluid model is proposed for one-dimensional electron-ion plasma dynamics. A multiple scales perturbation technique is employed, leading to an evolution equation for the wave envelope, in the form of a nonlinear Schrödinger type equation (NLSE). The inclusion of relativistic effects is shown to introduce density-dependent factors, not present in the non-relativistic case—in the conditions for modulational instability. The role of relativistic effects on the linear dispersion laws and on envelope soliton solutions of the NLSE is discussed.

  12. Relativistic Spinning Particle without Grassmann Variables and the Dirac Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Deriglazov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the relativistic particle model without Grassmann variables which, being canonically quantized, leads to the Dirac equation. Classical dynamics of the model is in correspondence with the dynamics of mean values of the corresponding operators in the Dirac theory. Classical equations for the spin tensor are the same as those of the Barut-Zanghi model of spinning particle.

  13. On propagators of nonlocal relativistic diffusion of galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchaikin, V. V.; Sibatov, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    This report discusses a new model of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy. In contrast to the known models based on the principles of Brownian motion, the proposed model agrees with the relativistic principle of speed limitation and takes into account the large-scale turbulence of the interstellar medium, justifying introduction of fractional differential operators.

  14. Decoherence and discrete symmetries in deformed relativistic kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Models of deformed Poincaré symmetries based on group valued momenta have long been studied as effective modifications of relativistic kinematics possibly capturing quantum gravity effects. In this contribution we show how they naturally lead to a generalized quantum time evolution of the type proposed to model fundamental decoherence for quantum systems in the presence of an evaporating black hole. The same structures which determine such generalized evolution also lead to a modification of the action of discrete symmetries and of the CPT operator. These features can in principle be used to put phenomenological constraints on models of deformed relativistic symmetries using precision measurements of neutral kaons.

  15. VEBA relativistic electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.K.; Ury, M.

    1975-01-01

    The VEBA high-current, relativistic electron accelerator was designed and constructed at NRL for applications in the study of high-power microwave sources. To meet the requirements of this study, the accelerator was designed for operation in either a short (60 nsec) or long (2.2 μsec) pulse mode. The short-pulse mode has been in operation for nearly two years and has proven to be an extremely reliable design. The design of the long-pulse mode is now complete and component fabrication will soon be underway. The pulse-forming network in the short-pulse mode is an unbalanced, water Blumlein with an output impedance of 9.2 Ω. The Blumlein is pulse charged by a 17 stage Marx generator which has a series capacitance of 29.4 nF. By transmission along a tapered coaxial line, the output pulse is transformed to 20 Ω, and the voltage developed across a matched load increases to a maximum of 2.3 MV. The proposed conversion to the long-pulse mode will require the Blumlein and transformer sections be removed and the diode assembly be attached directly to the oversized Marx tank. The direct coupling between the Marx and the Blumlein will then be replaced by two nested water capacitors, which are shunted by spiral inductors. When coupled in series with the Marx, this output filter will form a three-section, voltage-fed, Guillemin (type A), pulse-forming network with a characteristic impedance of 40 Ω and a maximum output voltage of 0.9 MV. (auth)

  16. Relativistic theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This work presents an unambiguous construction of the relativistic theory of gravity (RTG) in the framework of relativity and the geometrization principle. The gauge principle has been formulated, and the Lagrangian density of the gravitational field has thus been constructed. This theory explains the totality of the available experimental data on the solar system and predicts the existence of gravitational waves of the Faraday-Maxwell type. According to the RTG, the Universe is infinite and ''flat'', hence it follows that its matter density should be equal to its critical density. Therefore, an appreciable ''hidden mass'' exceeding the presently observed mass of the matter almost 40-fold should exist in the Universe in some form of the matter or other. In accordance with the RTG, a massive body having a finite density ceases to contract under gravitational forces within a finite interval of proper time. From the viewpoint of an external reference frame, the brightness of the body decreases exponentially (it is getting darker), but nothing extraordinary happens in this case because its density always remains finite and, for example, for a body with the mass of about 10 8 M 0 it is equal to 2 g/cm 3 . That is why it follows from the RTG that there could be no object whatsoever (black holes) in which gravitational collapse of matter develops to an infinite density. As has been shown, the presence of a cosmological term necessarily requires the introduction of a term with an explicit dependence on the Minkowski metrics. For the long-range gravitational forces the cosmological constant vanishes

  17. Relativistic electron transport in wire and foil targets driven by intense short pulse lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M.; Freeman, R. R.; Hill, J.; van Woerkom, L. D.

    2006-10-01

    We model intense laser driven electron transport in wires and foils with the new implicit hybrid code e-PLAS. We focus on background plasma heating for Fast Ignitor applications. The model tracks collisional relativistic PIC electrons undergoing scatter and drag in a background plasma of colliding cold electron and ion Eulerian fluids. Application to 10 μm diameter, 250 μm long, fully ionized carbon wires with an attached cone [Kodama et al. Nature 432 1005 (2004)], exposed to 1 ps, 10^19 W/cm^2 pulses in a 30 μm centered spot, directly calculates resistive Joule heating of the background electrons in the wire to 1.7 KeV. 150 MG magnetic fields arise at the wire surfaces corresponding to hot electron flow outside the wire and a return electron flow just within it. Shorter wires (25 μm) exhibit hot electron recycling. Preliminary simulations indicate that reduction of the cone to a 30 μm diameter nail head produces little change in these results. We also report on tapered wires, wires attached to foils, and the modifying effects of pre-plasma on electron transport into the foils.

  18. Hot flushes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are considered to be the cardinal symptoms of menopause, and are ... progestogen, is the most widely studied and most effective treatment option for the relief of menopause-related vasomotor .... clinical situations, such as in women with hypertension,.

  19. Hot flushes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural menopause is diagnosed in women who have had menses for one year, i.e. one year after the final menstrual period.1 After menopause, up to 85% of women experience vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, as well as other menopausal symptoms, including vaginal dryness and discomfort.1 ...

  20. Photons from quark gluon plasma and hot hadronic matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The productions of real photons from quark gluon plasma and hot hadronic matter formed after the nucleus–nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies are discussed. The effects of the spectral shift of the hadrons at finite temperature on the production of photons are investigated. On the basis of the present ...

  1. Standard model of WWER-440 fuel rod for Transuranus and its application for RELAP5 hot channel validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatala, B.; Cvan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Within the PECO European Commission project of 'Extension of the validation matrix of the TRANSURANUS code' is developed a generic model of WWER-440 fuel rod. The model is intended to be applied for both realistic and licensing, conservative analysis. For such an application the TRANSURANUS code would be complementary tool to generally used system codes, e.g. RELAP5, providing realistic, more detailed insight into processes and safety criteria, relevant to the fuel rod. The paper presents general description of the model for TRANSURANUS code, brief discussion of approaches used in TRANSURANUS and RELAP5 code safety analysis, accompanied with information about RELAP5 model (whole scope unit model, used for licensing analysis). The existing model for RELAP5 code for WWER-440/V-213 Bohunice V2 unit is checked and modified in hot channel part to allow transparent comparison with the TRANSURANUS code. The results from comparison calculations of the both codes are presented for fresh fuel and quasi steady state scenario and are in good agreement, almost identical. These results might be used as a basis for transient analysis

  2. Non-Relativistic Superstring Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2007-12-14

    We construct a supersymmetric version of the 'critical' non-relativistic bosonic string theory [1] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc CFT which is the super partner of the {beta}{gamma} CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of Type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are non-chiral. We further consider 'noncritical' generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical non-relativistic string theory and the lightlike Linear Dilaton theory.

  3. Relativistic description of deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The author has shown that relativistic Hartree calculations using parameters that have been fit to the properties of nuclear matter can provide a good description of both spherical and axially deformed nuclei. The quantitative agreement with experiment is equivalent to that which was obtained in non-relativistic calculations using Skyrme interactions. The equilibrium deformation is strongly correlated with the size of the spin-orbit splitting, and that parameter sets which give roughly the correct value for this splitting provide the best agreement with the quadrupole moments in the s-d shell. Finally, for closed shell +/- 1 nuclei, it was shown that the self-consistent calculations are able to reproduce the experimental magnetic moments. This was not possible in relativistic calculations which include only the effects of the valence orbital

  4. A Hydrogen Peroxide Hot-Jet Simulator for Wind-Tunnel Tests of Turbojet-Exit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runckel, Jack F.; Swihart, John M.

    1959-01-01

    A turbojet-engine-exhaust simulator which utilizes a hydrogen peroxide gas generator has been developed for powered-model testing in wind tunnels with air exchange. Catalytic decomposition of concentrated hydrogen peroxide provides a convenient and easily controlled method of providing a hot jet with characteristics that correspond closely to the jet of a gas turbine engine. The problems associated with simulation of jet exhausts in a transonic wind tunnel which led to the selection of a liquid monopropellant are discussed. The operation of the jet simulator consisting of a thrust balance, gas generator, exit nozzle, and auxiliary control system is described. Static-test data obtained with convergent nozzles are presented and shown to be in good agreement with ideal calculated values.

  5. Calculation of fusion gain in fast ignition with magnetic target by relativistic electrons and protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvazian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast ignition is a new method for inertial confinement fusion (ICF in which the compression and ignition steps are separated. In the first stage, fuel is compressed by laser or ion beams. In the second phase, relativistic electrons are generated by pettawat laser in the fuel. Also, in the second phase 5-35 MeV protons can be generated in the fuel. Electrons or protons can penetrate in to the ultra-dense fuel and deposit their energy in the fuel . More recently, cylindrical rather than spherical fuel chambers with magnetic control in the plasma domain have been also considered. This is called magnetized target fusion (MTF. Magnetic field has effects on relativistic electrons energy deposition rate in fuel. In this work, fast ignition method in cylindrical fuel chambers is investigated and transportation of the relativistic electrons and protons is calculated using MCNPX and FLUKA codes with 0. 25 and 0. 5 tesla magnetic field in single and dual hot spot. Furthermore, the transfer rate of relativistic electrons and high energy protons to the fuel and fusion gain are calculated. The results show that the presence of external magnetic field guarantees higher fusion gain, and relativistic electrons are much more appropriate objects for ignition. MTF in dual hot spot can be considered as an appropriate substitution for the current ICF techniques.

  6. Summer hot snaps and winter conditions: modelling white syndrome outbreaks on Great Barrier Reef corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Heron

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under increasing pressure in a changing climate, one such threat being more frequent and destructive outbreaks of coral diseases. Thermal stress from rising temperatures has been implicated as a causal factor in disease outbreaks observed on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and elsewhere in the world. Here, we examine seasonal effects of satellite-derived temperature on the abundance of coral diseases known as white syndromes on the Great Barrier Reef, considering both warm stress during summer and deviations from mean temperatures during the preceding winter. We found a high correlation (r(2 = 0.953 between summer warm thermal anomalies (Hot Snap and disease abundance during outbreak events. Inclusion of thermal conditions during the preceding winter revealed that a significant reduction in disease outbreaks occurred following especially cold winters (Cold Snap, potentially related to a reduction in pathogen loading. Furthermore, mild winters (i.e., neither excessively cool nor warm frequently preceded disease outbreaks. In contrast, disease outbreaks did not typically occur following warm winters, potentially because of increased disease resistance of the coral host. Understanding the balance between the effects of warm and cold winters on disease outbreak will be important in a warming climate. Combining the influence of winter and summer thermal effects resulted in an algorithm that yields both a Seasonal Outlook of disease risk at the conclusion of winter and near real-time monitoring of Outbreak Risk during summer. This satellite-derived system can provide coral reef managers with an assessment of risk three-to-six months in advance of the summer season that can then be refined using near-real-time summer observations. This system can enhance the capacity of managers to prepare for and respond to possible disease outbreaks and focus research efforts to increase understanding of environmental impacts on coral disease in

  7. General Relativistic Mean Field Theory for rotating nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madokoro, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Matsuzaki, Masayuki

    1998-03-01

    The {sigma}-{omega} model Lagrangian is generalized to an accelerated frame by using the technique of general relativity which is known as tetrad formalism. We apply this model to the description of rotating nuclei within the mean field approximation, which we call General Relativistic Mean Field Theory (GRMFT) for rotating nuclei. The resulting equations of motion coincide with those of Munich group whose formulation was not based on the general relativistic transformation property of the spinor fields. Some numerical results are shown for the yrast states of the Mg isotopes and the superdeformed rotational bands in the A {approx} 60 mass region. (author)

  8. Effect of EMIC Wave Normal Angle Distribution on Relativistic Electron Scattering Based on the Newly Developed Self-consistent RC/EMIC Waves Model by Khazanov et al. [2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gallagher, D. L.; Gamayunov, K.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the effects of EMIC waves on RC ion and RB electron dynamics strongly depend on such particle/wave characteristics as the phase-space distribution function, frequency, wave-normal angle, wave energy, and the form of wave spectral energy density. Therefore, realistic characteristics of EMIC waves should be properly determined by modeling the RC-EMIC waves evolution self-consistently. Such a selfconsistent model progressively has been developing by Khaznnov et al. [2002-2006]. It solves a system of two coupled kinetic equations: one equation describes the RC ion dynamics and another equation describes the energy density evolution of EMIC waves. Using this model, we present the effectiveness of relativistic electron scattering and compare our results with previous work in this area of research.

  9. Frontiers in relativistic celestial mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic celestial mechanics – investigating the motion celestial bodies under the influence of general relativity – is a major tool of modern experimental gravitational physics. With a wide range of prominent authors from the field, this two-volume series consists of reviews on a multitude of advanced topics in the area of relativistic celestial mechanics – starting from more classical topics such as the regime of asymptotically-flat spacetime, light propagation and celestial ephemerides, but also including its role in cosmology and alternative theories of gravity as well as modern experiments in this area.

  10. SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS WITH GRAVITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hyerim [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.

  11. Special Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2016-12-01

    Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.

  12. Multibaryon interactions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Having discussed the basic notions and quantities used when considering multibaryon interactions in the relativistic range, attention is focussed on particle production in the region of limiting fragmentation of nuclei which is kinematically forbidden for one-nucleon collisions (the cumulative region). Multibaryon configurations responsible for the cumulative effect are examined with especial reference to the possible existence of metastable multiquark systems, for example of dibaryons. Finally the present status and perspectives of studies in the field of relativistic nuclear physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research are discussed. (UK)

  13. General-relativistic celestial mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, H.-J.

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental principles of general relativistic dynamics are deduced from Einstein's field equations and one- and two-particle problems in relativistic celestial mechanics are considered. Different opinions as to the physical meaning of calculations of gravitational radiation for double stars are discussed. It is shown that these different opinions are based on different interpretations of Einstein's gravitational equations as generally covariant determinations of the space-time metric and as gauge-invariant tensor field equations in a given space-time background.

  14. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based microstructural prediction model for 22MnB5 boron steel during tailored hot stamping

    OpenAIRE

    Chokshi, Prasun; Dashwood, R. J.; Hughes, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    Because of demand for lower emissions and better crashworthiness, the use of hot stamped 22MnB5 boron steel has greatly increased in manufacturing of automobile components. However, for many applications it is required that only certain regions in hot stamped parts are fully hardened whereas other regions need be more ductile. The innovative process of tailored hot stamping does this by controlling the localized microstructures through tailored cooling rates by dividing the tooling into heate...

  15. RADIATION SPECTRAL SYNTHESIS OF RELATIVISTIC FILAMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Haugboelle, Troels; Medvedev, Mikhail V.; Nordlund, Ake

    2010-01-01

    Radiation from many astrophysical sources, e.g., gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei, is believed to arise from relativistically shocked collisionless plasmas. Such sources often exhibit highly transient spectra evolving rapidly compared with source lifetimes. Radiation emitted from these sources is typically associated with nonlinear plasma physics, complex field topologies, and non-thermal particle distributions. In such circumstances, a standard synchrotron paradigm may fail to produce accurate conclusions regarding the underlying physics. Simulating spectral emission and spectral evolution numerically in various relativistic shock scenarios is then the only viable method to determine the detailed physical origin of the emitted spectra. In this Letter, we present synthetic radiation spectra representing the early stage development of the filamentation (streaming) instability of an initially unmagnetized plasma, which is relevant for both collisionless shock formation and reconnection dynamics in relativistic astrophysical outflows as well as for laboratory astrophysics experiments. Results were obtained using a highly efficient in situ diagnostics method, based on detailed particle-in-cell modeling of collisionless plasmas. The synthetic spectra obtained here are compared with those predicted by a semi-analytical model for jitter radiation from the filamentation instability, the latter including self-consistent generated field topologies and particle distributions obtained from the simulations reported upon here. Spectra exhibit dependence on the presence-or the absence-of an inert plasma constituent, when comparing baryonic plasmas (i.e., containing protons) with pair plasmas. The results also illustrate that considerable care should be taken when using lower-dimensional models to obtain information about the astrophysical phenomena generating observed spectra.

  16. Relativistic three-particle dynamical equations: II. Application to the trinucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.

    1993-11-01

    The contribution of relativistic dynamics on the neutron-deuteron scattering length and triton binding energy is calculated employing five sets tri nucleon potential models and four types of three-dimensional relativistic three-body equations suggested in the preceding paper. The relativistic correction to binding energy may vary a lot and even change sign depending on the relativistic formulation employed. The deviations of these observables from those obtained in nonrelativistic models follow the general universal trend of deviations introduced by off- and on-shell variations of two- and three-nucleon potentials in a nonrelativistic model calculation. Consequently, it will be difficult to separate unambiguously the effect of off-and on-shell variations of two and three-nucleon potentials on low-energy three-nucleon observables from the effect of relativistic dynamics. (author)

  17. Quasi-relativistic fermions and dynamical flavour oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean; Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce new Lorentz-symmetry violating kinematics for a four-fermion interaction model, where dynamical mass generation is allowed, irrespectively of the strength of the coupling. In addition, these kinematics lead to a quasi-relativistic dispersion relation, in the sense that it is relativistic in both the infrared and the ultraviolet, but not in an intermediate regime, characterized by the mass $M$. For two fermions, we show that a flavour-mixing mass matrix is generated dynamically, and the Lorentz symmetric limit $M\\to\\infty$ leads to two free relativistic fermions, with flavour oscillations. This model, valid for either Dirac or Majorana fermions, can describe any set of phenomenological values for the eigen masses and the mixing angle.

  18. The relativistic Scott correction for atoms and molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovej, Jan Philip; Sørensen, Thomas Østergaard; Spitzer, Wolfgang L.

    2010-01-01

    We prove the first correction to the leading Thomas-Fermi energy for the ground state energy of atoms and molecules in a model where the kinetic energy of the electrons is treated relativistically. The leading Thomas-Fermi energy, established in [25], as well as the correction given here, are of ......We prove the first correction to the leading Thomas-Fermi energy for the ground state energy of atoms and molecules in a model where the kinetic energy of the electrons is treated relativistically. The leading Thomas-Fermi energy, established in [25], as well as the correction given here......, are of semiclassical nature. Our result on atoms and molecules is proved from a general semiclassical estimate for relativistic operators with potentials with Coulomb-like singularities. This semiclassical estimate is obtained using the coherent state calculus introduced in [36]. The paper contains a unified treatment...

  19. The relativistic Scott correction for atoms and molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovej, Jan Philip; Sørensen, Thomas Østergaard; Spitzer, Wolfgang L.

    We prove the first correction to the leading Thomas-Fermi energy for the ground state energy of atoms and molecules in a model where the kinetic energy of the electrons is treated relativistically. The leading Thomas-Fermi energy, established in [25], as well as the correction given here are of s......We prove the first correction to the leading Thomas-Fermi energy for the ground state energy of atoms and molecules in a model where the kinetic energy of the electrons is treated relativistically. The leading Thomas-Fermi energy, established in [25], as well as the correction given here...... are of semi-classical nature. Our result on atoms and molecules is proved from a general semi-classical estimate for relativistic operators with potentials with Coulomb-like singularities. This semi-classical estimate is obtained using the coherent state calculus introduced in [36]. The paper contains...

  20. Quarkonium and hydrogen spectra with spin-dependent relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    was introduced with the help of perturbative QCD. A phenomenological model presented here introduces spin directly into the Laplacian and takes into account other relativistic effects right into the foundation of the theory and not as a per- turbative attachment. The model explains hydrogen and heavy quarkonium with.

  1. Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin

    1999-01-01

    model of distribution network is developed and simulations are carried out for typical designed circulation type of distribution networks. For dynamic simulation of thermosyphon and drain-back solar DHW systems, thermosyphon loop model and drain-back tank model are put forward. Based on the simulations......, several recommendations are given for optimum design of such types of systems....

  2. Radiatively-driven general relativistic jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukesh K. Vyas

    2018-02-10

    Feb 10, 2018 ... Abstract. We use moment formalism of relativistic radiation hydrodynamics to obtain equations of motion of radial jets and solve them using polytropic equation of state of the relativistic gas. We consider curved space- time around black holes and obtain jets with moderately relativistic terminal speeds.

  3. Relativistic generalization of strong plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.-L.

    1982-01-01

    Two fundamental electrostatic modes of an unmagnetized plasma, namely, ion acoustic mode and Langumir mode are studied. Previous theories are generalized to include the effect of relativistic mass variations. The existence of relativistic ion acoustic solitons is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that simple, relativistic Langumir solitons do not exist in a infinite plasma. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Apparent unambiguousness of relativistic time dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    It is indicated on the definite analogy between the dependence of visible sizes of relativistic objects and period of the wave, emitted by the moving source from the observation conditions ('retradition factor'). It is noted that the definition of time for moving extended objects, led to relativistic dilation, corresponds to the definition of the relativistic (radar) length led to the 'elongation formula'. 10 refs

  5. Relativistic thermal plasmas - Effects of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S.; Lightman, A. P.

    1983-01-01

    Processes and equilibria in finite, relativistic, thermal plasmas are investigated, taking into account electron-positron creation and annihilation, photon production by internal processes, and photon production by a magnetic field. Inclusion of the latter extends previous work on such plasmas. The basic relations for thermal, Comptonized synchrotron emission are analyzed, including emission and absorption without Comptonization, Comptonized thermal synchrotron emission, and the Comptonized synchrotron and bremsstrahlung luminosities. Pair equilibria are calculated, including approximations and dimensionless parameters, the pair balance equation, maximum temperatures and field strengths, and individual models and cooling curves.

  6. Modelling of Hot Water Storage Tank for Electric Grid Integration and Demand Response Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    , selection of a proper model is equally important. The results obtained from comparison of two models (when input to the model is thermal energy demand) are present with their significance and advantages for grid integration and demand response. Models mathematics are shown in detail with the validation......District heating (DH), based on electric boilers, when integrated into electric network has potential of flexible load with direct/indirect storage to increase the dynamic stability of the grid in terms of power production and consumption with wind and solar. The two different models of electric...... boilers for grid integration are investigated: single mass model (with uniform temperature inside tank) and two mass model (with ideal single stratified layers). In order to investigate the influence of demand response and grid voltage quality with the measurable parameter of electrical boiler in practice...

  7. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis.......HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  8. Modeling and computation of heat exchanges in the configuration of an impinging jet on a hot plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, N.; Mimouni, S. [EDF R and D MFTT I81, 78 - Chatou (France); Simonin, O. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), 31 - Toulouse (France); Gardin, P. [IRSID/THEMEF, 57 - Mazieres les Metz (France); Seiler, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique (DTP/SETEX/LTEM), 38 (France)

    2003-07-01

    The knowledge of the metal temperature history is essential, especially when strip leave the rolling mill, to get adequate final mechanical properties of steel. Some experiments have yet been carried out on the heat transfer associated with the impingement of a planar (1*9 mm{sup 2}) subcooled (5-16 K) water jet on a heated plate. Complete boiling curves were then obtained at different locations from the stagnation point and it was observed a phenomenon of 'shoulder of flux' in the transition boiling region near the impingement point. The aim of this work is to compute the heat flux transferred between a very hot plate and a subcooled liquid under a planar impinging jet to obtain the transient temperature distribution in the plate. To achieve this goal, a physical modelling of the phenomenon of 'shoulder of flux' has been carried out. This modelling is based on the assumption that the apparition of periodic bubble oscillations at the wall surface is due to the hydrodynamic fragmentation by the jet. The relation derived from this modelling is validated against experimental results from the literature obtained for a wide range of jet velocity, subcooling and jet diameter. This model is implemented in the new multiphase flow solver developed by EDF 'SATURNE polyphasique'. Numerical results are then compared to experimental heat fluxes obtained on previous experiments. (authors)

  9. Experimental investigations on turbulent mixing of hot upward flow and cold downward flow inside a chimney model of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Samiran, E-mail: samiran_sengupta@yahoo.co.in [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ghosh, Aniruddha [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, C. [Research Reactor Maintenance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vijayan, P.K. [Reactor Design & Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, R.C. [Reactor Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulated mixing of hot upward and cold downward flows in a chimney of a reactor. • Experiments in chimney model (2:9 scale) at Reynolds number (Re)—1.5 to 4.5 × 10{sup 5}. • Hot upward flow comes out of the chimney when bypass flow ratio (R) is zero. • Increase in ratio (R) reduces jet height, vortex spread height and temperature front height. • Effects of Re, chimney height and temperature differential are not significant. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to study the turbulent mixing of hot upward flow and cold downward flow inside a scaled down model of chimney structure of a pool type nuclear research reactor. Open pool type nuclear reactors often use this type of chimney structures to prevent mixing of radioactive core outlet water directly into the reactor pool so that radiation field at the reactor pool top can be kept to a lower limit. The chimney structure is designed to facilitate guiding of the radioactive water towards the two outlet nozzles of the chimney and simultaneously allows drawing water from the reactor pool through the chimney top opening. The present work aims at studying flow mixing behaviour of hot and cold water inside a 2/9th scaled down model of the chimney structure experimentally. The ratio between the cold downward flow and the hot upward flow is varied between 0 and 0.15 to predict the extent of suppression of the hot upward flow within the chimney region for various bypass flow ratios. The Reynolds number of the hot upward flow considered in the experiment is about 1.5 × 10{sup 5} which corresponds to a flow rate of about 500 l min{sup −1}. The upward jet height and the temperature distribution were predicted from the experiment. It was observed that increase in bypass flow ratio reduces the upward jet height of hot water. Experiments were also carried out by increasing the flow rate to 1000 and 1500 l min{sup −1} corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 3 × 10{sup 5} and 4.5 × 10{sup 5

  10. Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo-Pump Inducer Dynamic Environment Characterization through Water Model and Hot-Fire Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Patrick; Patton, Marc; Schwartz, Alan; Stanton, David

    2006-01-01

    The Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (LPOTP) inducer on the Block II configuration Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) experienced blade leading edge ripples during hot firing. This undesirable condition led to a minor redesign of the inducer blades. This resulted in the need to evaluate the performance and the dynamic environment of the redesign, relative to the current configuration, as part of the design acceptance process. Sub-scale water model tests of the two inducer configurations were performed, with emphasis on the dynamic environment due to cavitation induced vibrations. Water model tests were performed over a wide range of inlet flow coefficient and pressure conditions, representative of the scaled operating envelope of the Block II SSME, both in flight and in ground hot-fire tests, including all power levels. The water test hardware, facility set-up, type and placement of instrumentation, the scope of the test program, specific test objectives, data evaluation process and water test results that characterize and compare the two SSME LPOTP inducers are discussed. In addition, dynamic characteristics of the two water models were compared to hot fire data from specially instrumented ground tests. In general, good agreement between the water model and hot fire data was found, which confirms the value of water model testing for dynamic characterization of rocket engine turbomachinery.

  11. The multiwavelength spectrum of NGC 3115: hot accretion flow properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ivan; Nemmen, Rodrigo; Wong, Ka-Wah; Wu, Qingwen; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2018-04-01

    NGC 3115 is the nearest galaxy hosting a billion solar mass black hole and is also a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN). X-ray observations of this LLAGN are able to spatially resolve the hot gas within the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole. These observations make NGC 3115 an important test bed for black hole accretion theory in galactic nuclei since they constrain the outer boundary conditions of the hot accretion flow. We present a compilation of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of the nucleus of NGC 3115 from radio to X-rays. We report the results from modelling the observed SED with radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. The radio emission can be well-explained by synchrotron emission from the RIAF without the need for contribution from a relativistic jet. We obtain a tight constraint on the RIAF density profile, ρ (r) ∝ r^{-0.73 _{-0.02} ^{+0.01}}, implying that mass-loss through subrelativistic outflows from the RIAF is significant. The lower frequency radio observation requires the synchrotron emission from a non-thermal electron population in the RIAF, similarly to Sgr A*.

  12. Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postavaru, Octavian

    2010-12-08

    In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)

  13. Nonthermal radio emission from hot star winds: Its origin and physical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan; White, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Nonthermal radio emission has been observed from some of the most luminous hot star winds. It is understood to be synchrotron radiation of the relativistic electrons in the winds. To understand how the electrons are accelerated to such high energies and to correctly explain the observed radio flux and spectra require an exhaustive investigation of all the relevant physical processes involved and possibly point to a complex wind structure. In this paper we discuss the logical path toward a comprehensive model of the nonthermal radio emission from hot star winds. Based on the available observational data and fundamental theoretical considerations, we found that the only physically viable and self-consistent scenario is: the nonthermal radio emission is synchrotron radiation of relativistic electrons the electrons are accelerated by shocks via the first-order Fermi mechanism the acceleration has to be in situ in the radio emitting region and the shocks formed at the base of the winds have to propagate to beyond the radio photosphere.

  14. Computer system for identification of tool wear model in hot forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkus Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to create a methodology that will enable effective and reliable prediction of the tool wear. The idea of the hybrid model, which accounts for various mechanisms of tool material deterioration, is proposed in the paper. The mechanisms, which were considered, include abrasive wear, adhesive wear, thermal fatigue, mechanical fatigue, oxidation and plastic deformation. Individual models of various complexity were used for separate phenomena and strategy of combination of these models in one hybrid system was developed to account for the synergy of various mechanisms. The complex hybrid model was built on the basis of these individual models for various wear mechanisms. The individual models expanded from phenomenological ones for abrasive wear to multi-scale methods for modelling micro cracks initiation and propagation utilizing virtual representations of granular microstructures. The latter have been intensively developed recently and they form potentially a powerful tool that allows modelling of thermal and mechanical fatigue, accounting explicitly for the tool material microstructure.

  15. Modelling the Cast Component Weight in Hot Chamber Die Casting using Combined Taguchi and Buckingham's π Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder

    2018-02-01

    Hot chamber (HC) die casting process is one of the most widely used commercial processes for the casting of low temperature metals and alloys. This process gives near-net shape product with high dimensional accuracy. However in actual field environment the best settings of input parameters is often conflicting as the shape and size of the casting changes and one have to trade off among various output parameters like hardness, dimensional accuracy, casting defects, microstructure etc. So for online inspection of the cast components properties (without affecting the production line) the weight measurement has been established as one of the cost effective method (as the difference in weight of sound and unsound casting reflects the possible casting defects) in field environment. In the present work at first stage the effect of three input process parameters (namely: pressure at 2nd phase in HC die casting; metal pouring temperature and die opening time) has been studied for optimizing the cast component weight `W' as output parameter in form of macro model based upon Taguchi L9 OA. After this Buckingham's π approach has been applied on Taguchi based macro model for the development of micro model. This study highlights the Taguchi-Buckingham based combined approach as a case study (for conversion of macro model into micro model) by identification of optimum levels of input parameters (based on Taguchi approach) and development of mathematical model (based on Buckingham's π approach). Finally developed mathematical model can be used for predicting W in HC die casting process with more flexibility. The results of study highlights second degree polynomial equation for predicting cast component weight in HC die casting and suggest that pressure at 2nd stage is one of the most contributing factors for controlling the casting defect/weight of casting.

  16. Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Andrei; Gehrels, Neil; Krawczynski, Henric; Lemoine, Martin; Pelletier, Guy; Pohl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this review we confront the current theoretical understanding of particle acceleration at relativistic outflows with recent observational results on various source classes thought to involve such outflows, e.g. gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and pulsar wind nebulae. We highlight the possible contributions of these sources to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  17. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned

  18. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  19. Thermal effects in relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldo, C.; Fedele, R.; Angelis, U. de; Bingham, R.

    1990-11-01

    A kinetic approach is used for a description of a plasma in the presence of a large amplitude wave (ie relativistic electrons). The case of a ''small'' momentum spread around an average momentum is considered and corrections to the cold plasma case (zero spread) are given. (author)

  20. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.

    2011-01-01

    of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...