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Sample records for model receiver operating

  1. Sensitivity to imputation models and assumptions in receiver operating characteristic analysis with incomplete data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Jale; Karabulut, Erdem; Yucel, Recai M

    Modern statistical methods using incomplete data have been increasingly applied in a wide variety of substantive problems. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, a method used in evaluating diagnostic tests or biomarkers in medical research, has also been increasingly popular problem in both its development and application. While missing-data methods have been applied in ROC analysis, the impact of model mis-specification and/or assumptions (e.g. missing at random) underlying the missing data has not been thoroughly studied. In this work, we study the performance of multiple imputation (MI) inference in ROC analysis. Particularly, we investigate parametric and non-parametric techniques for MI inference under common missingness mechanisms. Depending on the coherency of the imputation model with the underlying data generation mechanism, our results show that MI generally leads to well-calibrated inferences under ignorable missingness mechanisms.

  2. Approaches for delineating landslide hazard areas using receiver operating characteristic in an advanced calibrating precision soil erosion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Ghazvinei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is undesirable natural event that causes land degradation and desertification. Identify the erosion-prone areas is a major component of preventive measures. Recent landslide damages at different regions lead us to develop a model of the erosion susceptibility map using empirical method (RUSLE. A landslide-location map was established by interpreting satellite image. Field observation data was used to validate the intensity of soil erosion. Further, a correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the "Receiver Operating Characteristic" and frequency ratio. Results showed a satisfactory correlation between the prepared RUSLE-based soil erosion map and actual landslide distribution. The proposed model can effectively predict the landslide events in soil-erosion area. Such a reliable predictive model is an effective management facility for the regional landslide forecasting system.

  3. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve-based Prediction Model for Periodontal Disease Updated With the Calibrated Community Periodontal Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chiu-Wen; Ming-Fang Yen, Amy; Lai, Hongmin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng

    2017-07-28

    Background The accuracy of a prediction model for periodontal disease using the community periodontal index (CPI) has been undertaken by using an area receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve, but how the uncalibrated CPI, as measured by general dentists trained by periodontists in a large epidemiological study, required for constructing a prediction model that affects its performance has not been researched yet. Methods We conducted a two-stage design by first proposing a validation study to calibrate the CPI between a senior periodontal specialist and trained general dentists who measured CPIs in the main study of a nationwide survey. A Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression model was applied to estimate the non-updated and updated clinical weights used for building up risk scores. How the calibrated CPI affected the performance of the updated prediction model was quantified by comparing the AUROC curves between the original and the updated model. Results The estimates regarding the calibration of CPI obtained from the validation study were 66% and 85% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. After updating, the clinical weights of each predictor were inflated, and the risk score for the highest risk category was elevated from 434 to 630. Such an update improved the AUROC performance of the two corresponding prediction models from 62.6% (95% CI: 61.7%-63.6%) for the non-updated model to 68.9% (95% CI: 68.0%-69.6%) for the updated one, reaching a statistically significant difference (P periodontal disease as measured by the calibrated CPI derived from a large epidemiological survey.

  4. Summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) and hierarchical SROC models for analysis of diagnostic test evaluations of antibody ELISAs for paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren S

    2009-11-15

    Critical, systematic reviews of available diagnostic test evaluations are a meticulous approach to synthesize evidence about a diagnostic test. However, often the review finds that data quality is poor due to deficiencies in design and reporting of the test evaluations and formal statistical comparisons are discouraged. Even when only simple summary measures are appropriate, the strong correlation between sensitivity and specificity and their dependence on differences in diagnostic threshold across studies, creates the need for tools to summarise properties of the diagnostic test under investigation. This study presents summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) analysis as a means to synthesize information from diagnostic test evaluation studies. Using data from a review of diagnostic tests for ante mortem diagnosis of paratuberculosis as an illustration, SROC and hierarchical SROC (HSROC) analysis were used to estimate overall diagnostic accuracies of antibody ELISAs for bovine paratuberculosis while accounting for covariates: the target condition (infectious or infected) used in the test evaluation (one for the evaluation of Se and one for Sp); and the type of test (serum vs. milk). The methods gave comparable results (regarding the estimated diagnostic log odds ratio), considering the small sample size and the quality of data. The SROC analysis found a difference in the performance of tests when the target condition for evaluation of Se was infected rather than infectious, suggesting that ELISAs are not suitable for detecting infected cattle. However, the SROC model does not take differences in sample size between study units into account, whereas the HSROC allows for both between and within study variation. Considering the small sample size, more credibility should be given to the results of the HSROC. For both methods the area under the (H)SROC curve was calculated and results were comparable. The conclusion is that while the SROC is simpler and easier

  5. Thermal resistance model for CSP central receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, O. A. J.; Dinter, F.; Govender, S.

    2016-05-01

    The receiver design and heliostat field aiming strategy play a vital role in the heat transfer efficiency of the receiver. In molten salt external receivers, the common operating temperature of the heat transfer fluid or molten salt ranges between 285°C to 565°C. The optimum output temperature of 565°C is achieved by adjusting the mass flow rate of the molten salt through the receiver. The reflected solar radiation onto the receiver contributes to the temperature rise in the molten salt by means of heat transfer. By investigating published work on molten salt external receiver operating temperatures, corresponding receiver tube surface temperatures and heat losses, a model has been developed to obtain a detailed thermographic representation of the receiver. The steady state model uses a receiver flux map as input to determine: i) heat transfer fluid mass flow rate through the receiver to obtain the desired molten salt output temperature of 565°C, ii) receiver surface temperatures iii) receiver tube temperatures iv) receiver efficiency v) pressure drop across the receiver and vi) corresponding tube strain per panel.

  6. Astronomical Receiver Modelling Using Scattering Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    King, O G; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Taylor, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Proper modelling of astronomical receivers is vital: it describes the systematic errors in the raw data, guides the receiver design process, and assists data calibration. In this paper we describe a method of analytically modelling the full signal and noise behaviour of arbitrarily complex radio receivers. We use electrical scattering matrices to describe the signal behaviour of individual components in the receiver, and noise correlation matrices to describe their noise behaviour. These are combined to produce the full receiver model. We apply this approach to a specified receiver architecture: a hybrid of a continous comparison radiometer and correlation polarimeter designed for the C-Band All-Sky Survey. We produce analytic descriptions of the receiver Mueller matrix and noise temperature, and discuss how imperfections in crucial components affect the raw data. Many of the conclusions drawn are generally applicable to correlation polarimeters and continuous comparison radiometers.

  7. Temperature influences in receiver clock modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kan; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus; Schoenemann, Erik; Enderle, Werner

    2016-04-01

    In Precise Point Positioning (PPP), hardware delays at the receiver site (receiver, cables, antenna, …) are always difficult to be separated from the estimated receiver clock parameters. As a result, they are partially or fully contained in the estimated "apparent" clocks and will influence the deterministic and stochastic modelling of the receiver clock behaviour. In this contribution, using three years of data, the receiver clock corrections of a set of high-precision Hydrogen Masers (H-Masers) connected to stations of the ESA/ESOC network and the International GNSS Service (IGS) are firstly characterized concerning clock offsets, drifts, modified Allan deviations and stochastic parameters. In a second step, the apparent behaviour of the clocks is modelled with the help of a low-order polynomial and a known temperature coefficient (Weinbach, 2013). The correlations between the temperature and the hardware delays generated by different types of antennae are then analysed looking at daily, 3-day and weekly time intervals. The outcome of these analyses is crucial, if we intend to model the receiver clocks in the ground station network to improve the estimation of station-related parameters like coordinates, troposphere zenith delays and ambiguities. References: Weinbach, U. (2013) Feasibility and impact of receiver clock modeling in precise GPS data analysis. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.

  8. An animal model of amnesia that uses Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis to distinguish recollection from familiarity deficits in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, H; Fortin, N; Sauvage, M; Robitsek, R J; Farovik, A

    2010-07-01

    Here we review our development of an animal model of episodic memory and amnesia that employs a signal detection analyses to characterize recognition memory performance in rats. This approach aims to distinguish episodic recollection of studied items from mere familiarity for recently experienced stimuli, and then to examine the neural basis of these memory processes. Our findings on intact animals indicate that it is possible to distinguish independent components of recognition that are associated with features of recollection and familiarity in humans. Furthermore, we have found that damage limited to the hippocampus results in a selective deficit in recollection and not familiarity. Also, aging and prefrontal damage result in a similar pattern of impaired recollection and spared familiarity. However, whereas the recollection deficit following hippocampal damage can be attributed to the forgetting of studied materials, the impairment following prefrontal damage is due to false alarms, likely reflecting a deficit in source monitoring.

  9. Gaussian mixture models as flux prediction method for central receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, Annemarie; Gauché, Paul; Smit, Willie

    2016-05-01

    Flux prediction methods are crucial to the design and operation of central receiver systems. Current methods such as the circular and elliptical (bivariate) Gaussian prediction methods are often used in field layout design and aiming strategies. For experimental or small central receiver systems, the flux profile of a single heliostat often deviates significantly from the circular and elliptical Gaussian models. Therefore a novel method of flux prediction was developed by incorporating the fitting of Gaussian mixture models onto flux profiles produced by flux measurement or ray tracing. A method was also developed to predict the Gaussian mixture model parameters of a single heliostat for a given time using image processing. Recording the predicted parameters in a database ensures that more accurate predictions are made in a shorter time frame.

  10. Operator Spin Foam Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bahr, Benjamin; Kamiński, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as the main tool. An equivalence relation we impose in the set of the operator spin foams allows to split the faces and the edges of the foams. The consistency with that relation requires introduction of the (familiar for the BF theory) face amplitude. The operator spin foam models are defined quite generally. Imposing a maximal symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with demanding consistency with splitting the edges, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on Spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4d quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the EPRL or FK models. That makes...

  11. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  12. Energy Operation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-27

    Energy Operation Model (EOM) simulates the operation of the electric grid at the zonal scale, including inter-zonal transmission constraints. It generates the production cost, power generation by plant and category, fuel usage, and locational marginal price (LMP) with a flexible way to constrain the power production by environmental constraints, e.g. heat waves, drought conditions). Different from commercial software such as PROMOD IV where generator capacity and heat rate efficiency can only be adjusted on a monthly basis, EOM calculates capacity impacts and plant efficiencies based on hourly ambient conditions (air temperature and humidity) and cooling water availability for thermal plants. What is missing is a hydro power dispatch.

  13. Active Versus Passive: Receiver Model Transforms for Diffusive Molecular Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Noel, Adam; Makrakis, Dimitrios; Hafid, Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical comparison of the active and passive receiver models in diffusive molecular communication. In the active model, molecules are absorbed when they collide with the receiver surface. In the passive model, the receiver is a virtual boundary that does not affect molecule behavior. Two approaches are presented to derive transforms between the active and passive receiver signals. As an example, we unify the two models for an unbounded diffusion-only molecular communication system with a spherical receiver. As time increases in the three-dimensional system, the transform functions have constant scaling factors, such that the receiver models are effectively equivalent. Methods are presented to enable the transformation of stochastic simulations, which are used to verify the transforms and demonstrate that transforming the simulation of a passive receiver can be more efficient and more accurate than the direct simulation of an absorbing receiver.

  14. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.220 Non-conforming transmit/receive... operator acknowledging that the proposed operation of the subject non-conforming earth station with...

  15. Reducing cost with autonomous operations of the Deep Space Network radio science receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, S.; Anabtawi, A.; Connally, M.; Jongeling, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Radio Science Receiver system and the savings it has brought to mission operations. The design and implementation of remote and autonomous operations will be discussed along with the process of including user feedback along the way and lessons learned and procedures avoided.

  16. The Sender-Receiver Model and the Targeting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mark A.

    The goal of this paper is to describe how one classroom teacher uses the Sender-Receiver Communications Model to illustrate for students in a lively and memorable way the process of "targeting your audience" with medium and message. Students are used as examples of Receivers, or target audience, illustrating the potential range of…

  17. A brief history of free-response receiver operating characteristic paradigm data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dev P

    2013-07-01

    In the receiver operating characteristic paradigm the observer assigns a single rating to each image and the location of the perceived abnormality, if any, is ignored. In the free-response receiver operating characteristic paradigm the observer is free to mark and rate as many suspicious regions as are considered clinically reportable. Credit for a correct localization is given only if a mark is sufficiently close to an actual lesion; otherwise, the observer's mark is scored as a location-level false positive. Until fairly recently there existed no accepted method for analyzing the resulting relatively unstructured data containing random numbers of mark-rating pairs per image. This report reviews the history of work in this field, which has now spanned more than five decades. It introduces terminology used to describe the paradigm, proposed measures of performance (figures of merit), ways of visualizing the data (operating characteristics), and software for analyzing free-response receiver operating characteristic studies.

  18. Recollection is a continuous process: Evidence from plurality memory receiver operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D; Jeye, Brittany M; Dodson, Chad S

    2016-01-01

    Is recollection a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process? Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis can answer this question as the continuous model and the threshold model predict curved and linear recollection ROCs, respectively. As memory for plurality, an item's previous singular or plural form, is assumed to rely on recollection, the nature of recollection can be investigated by evaluating plurality memory ROCs. The present study consisted of four experiments. During encoding, words (singular or plural) or objects (single/singular or duplicate/plural) were presented. During retrieval, old items with the same plurality or different plurality were presented. For each item, participants made a confidence rating ranging from "very sure old", which was correct for same plurality items, to "very sure new", which was correct for different plurality items. Each plurality memory ROC was the proportion of same versus different plurality items classified as "old" (i.e., hits versus false alarms). Chi-squared analysis revealed that all of the plurality memory ROCs were adequately fit by the continuous unequal variance model, whereas none of the ROCs were adequately fit by the two-high threshold model. These plurality memory ROC results indicate recollection is a continuous process, which complements previous source memory and associative memory ROC findings.

  19. Operational Risk Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ANGHELACHE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Losses resulting from operational risk events from a complex interaction between organizational factors, personal and market participants that do not fit a simple classification scheme. Taking into account past losses (ex. Barings, Daiwa, etc. we can say that operational risk is a major financial losses in the banking sector, although until recently have been underestimated, considering that they are generally minor, note setting survival of a bank.

  20. Measuring diagnostic and predictive accuracy in disease management: an introduction to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel

    2006-04-01

    Diagnostic or predictive accuracy concerns are common in all phases of a disease management (DM) programme, and ultimately play an influential role in the assessment of programme effectiveness. Areas, such as the identification of diseased patients, predictive modelling of future health status and costs and risk stratification, are just a few of the domains in which assessment of accuracy is beneficial, if not critical. The most commonly used analytical model for this purpose is the standard 2 x 2 table method in which sensitivity and specificity are calculated. However, there are several limitations to this approach, including the reliance on a single defined criterion or cut-off for determining a true-positive result, use of non-standardized measurement instruments and sensitivity to outcome prevalence. This paper introduces the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis as a more appropriate and useful technique for assessing diagnostic and predictive accuracy in DM. Its advantages include; testing accuracy across the entire range of scores and thereby not requiring a predetermined cut-off point, easily examined visual and statistical comparisons across tests or scores, and independence from outcome prevalence. Therefore the implementation of ROC as an evaluation tool should be strongly considered in the various phases of a DM programme.

  1. Receiver operating characteristics of perceptrons : Influence of sample size and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freking, Ansgar; Biehl, Michael; Braun, Christian; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Meesmann, Malte

    1999-01-01

    In many practical classification problems it is important to distinguish false positive from false negative results when evaluating the performance of the classifier. This is of particular importance for medical diagnostic tests. In this context, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have b

  2. Thermal Model of a Dish Stirling Cavity-Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Gil; Carlos Monné; Nuria Bernal; Mariano Muñoz; Francisco Moreno

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal model for a dish Stirling cavity based on the finite differences method. This model is a theoretical tool to optimize the cavity in terms of thermal efficiency. One of the main outcomes of this work is the evaluation of radiative exchange using the radiosity method; for that purpose, the view factors of all surfaces involved have been accurately calculated. Moreover, this model enables the variation of the cavity and receiver dimensions and the materials to deter...

  3. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Retrieval System Receiver Trailer and Transport Trailer Operations and Maintenance Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DALE, R.N.

    2000-05-01

    A system to accommodate the removal of long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) from Hanford underground radioactive waste storage tanks was designed, procured, and demonstrated, via a project activity during the 1990s. The system is the Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS). LLCERS will be maintained and operated by Tank Farms Engineering and Operations organizations and other varied projects having a need for the system. The responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the LLCERS Receiver Trailer (RT) and Transport Trailer (TT) resides with the RPP Characterization Project Operations organization. The purpose of this document is to provide vendor supplied operating and maintenance (O & M) information for the RT and TT in a readily retrievable form. This information is provided this way instead of in a vendor information (VI) file to maintain configuration control of the operations baseline as described in RPP-6085, ''Configuration Management Plan for Long Length Contaminated Equipment Receiver and Transport Trailers''. Additional Operations Baseline documents are identified in RPP-6085.

  4. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model

  5. Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC Curves for Explosives Detection Using Different Sampling and Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimy Young

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reported for the first time are receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves constructed to describe the performance of a sorbent-coated disk, planar solid phase microextraction (PSPME unit for non-contact sampling of a variety of volatiles. The PSPME is coupled to ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs for the detection of volatile chemical markers associated with the presence of smokeless powders, model systems of explosives containing diphenylamine (DPA, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT and nitroglycerin (NG as the target analytes. The performance of the PSPME-IMS was compared with the widely accepted solid-phase microextraction (SPME, coupled to a GC-MS. A set of optimized sampling conditions for different volume containers (1–45 L with various sample amounts of explosives, were studied in replicates (n = 30 to determine the true positive rates (TPR and false positive detection rates (FPR for the different scenarios. These studies were obtained in order to construct the ROC curves for two IMS instruments (a bench-top and field-portable system and a bench top GC-MS system in low and high clutter environments. Both static and dynamic PSPME sampling were studied in which 10–500 mg quantities of smokeless powders were detected within 10 min of static sampling and 1 min of dynamic sampling.

  6. Bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB today primarily affects developing countries. In Africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. Also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for BTB in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. However, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for the implementation of local surveillance schemes and control measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected a slaughterhouse population of 954 Chadian cattle to single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT testing and two recently developed fluorescence polarization assays (FPA. Using a Bayesian modeling approach we computed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of each diagnostic test, the true disease prevalence in the sampled population and the disease status of all sampled animals in the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the sampled animals. In our Chadian setting, SICCT performed better if the cut-off for positive test interpretation was lowered from >4 mm (OIE standard cut-off to >2 mm. Using this cut-off, SICCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 89%, respectively. Both FPA tests showed sensitivities below 50% but specificities above 90%. The true disease prevalence was estimated at 8%. Altogether, 11% of the sampled animals showed gross visible tuberculous lesions. However, modeling of the BTB disease status of the sampled animals indicated that 72% of the suspected tuberculosis lesions detected during standard meat inspections were due to other pathogens than Mycobacterium bovis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for BTB diagnosis in a high incidence sub-Saharan African setting and demonstrate the practicability of our Bayesian approach for

  7. Thermal Model of a Dish Stirling Cavity-Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Gil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a thermal model for a dish Stirling cavity based on the finite differences method. This model is a theoretical tool to optimize the cavity in terms of thermal efficiency. One of the main outcomes of this work is the evaluation of radiative exchange using the radiosity method; for that purpose, the view factors of all surfaces involved have been accurately calculated. Moreover, this model enables the variation of the cavity and receiver dimensions and the materials to determine the optimal cavity design. The tool has been used to study the cavity optimization regarding geometry parameters and material properties. Receiver absorptivity has been identified as the most influential property of the materials. The optimal aperture height depends on the minimum focal space.

  8. RECEIVED SIGNAL STRENGTH INDICATION MODELING IN INDOOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Taira Procopio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify mathematical models that represent the relation between Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI and objects in an indoor Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Using the Least Squares Method, four linear models have been identified: The first one relates uplink RSSI and objects; the second one relates downlink RSSI and objects; the third one relates uplink RSSI and obstacles and the fourth one relates downlink RSSI and obstacles. The obtained results, characterized by small residual values, attest the validation of all four models.

  9. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  10. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  11. Adjusting for covariate effects on classification accuracy using the covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Holly; Pepe, Margaret S

    2009-06-01

    Recent scientific and technological innovations have produced an abundance of potential markers that are being investigated for their use in disease screening and diagnosis. In evaluating these markers, it is often necessary to account for covariates associated with the marker of interest. Covariates may include subject characteristics, expertise of the test operator, test procedures or aspects of specimen handling. In this paper, we propose the covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curve, a measure of covariate-adjusted classification accuracy. Nonparametric and semiparametric estimators are proposed, asymptotic distribution theory is provided and finite sample performance is investigated. For illustration we characterize the age-adjusted discriminatory accuracy of prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker for prostate cancer.

  12. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization...... published during the Ph.D. project. To put these articles into the general context of deformable template models and to pass on an overview of the deformable template model literature, the thesis starts with a compact survey of the deformable template model literature with special focus on representation....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  13. Model of human breathing reflected signal received by PN-UWB radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Mohamed; Rajan, Sreeraman; Bolic, Miodrag; Batkin, Izmail; Dajani, Hilmi R; Groza, Voicu Z

    2014-01-01

    Human detection is an integral component of civilian and military rescue operations, military surveillance and combat operations. Human detection can be achieved through monitoring of vital signs. In this article, a mathematical model of human breathing reflected signal received in PN-UWB radar is proposed. Unlike earlier published works, both chest and abdomen movements are considered for modeling the radar return signal along with the contributions of fundamental breathing frequency and its harmonics. Analyses of recorded reflected signals from three subjects in different postures and at different ranges from the radar indicate that ratios of the amplitudes of the harmonics contain information about posture and posture change.

  14. A mathematical prognosis model for pancreatic cancer patients receiving immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuefang; Xu, Jian-Xin

    2016-10-07

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer since it typically spreads rapidly and can seldom be detected in its early stage. Pancreatic cancer therapy is thus a challenging task, and appropriate prognosis or assessment for pancreatic cancer therapy is of critical importance. In this work, based on available clinical data in Niu et al. (2013) we develop a mathematical prognosis model that can predict the overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients who receive immunotherapy. The mathematical model incorporates pancreatic cancer cells, pancreatic stellate cells, three major classes of immune effector cells CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, helper T cells, and two major classes of cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The proposed model describes the dynamic interaction between tumor and immune cells. In order for the model to be able to generate appropriate prognostic results for disease progression, the distribution and stability properties of equilibria in the mathematical model are computed and analysed in absence of treatments. In addition, numerical simulations for disease progression with or without treatments are performed. It turns out that the median overall survival associated with CIK immunotherapy is prolonged from 7 to 13months compared with the survival without treatment, this is consistent with the clinical data observed in Niu et al. (2013). The validity of the proposed mathematical prognosis model is thus verified. Our study confirms that immunotherapy offers a better prognosis for pancreatic cancer patients. As a direct extension of this work, various new therapy methods that are under exploration and clinical trials could be assessed or evaluated using the newly developed mathematical prognosis model.

  15. [Impact of a pre-operative mobilisation program using the Viv-Arte training model based on kinesthetic mobilisation on mobility, pain, and post-operation length of stay of patients receiving an elective medial laparotomy: a prospective, randomised, controlled pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasenritter, Jörg; Eisenschink, Anna Maria; Kirchner, Elisabeth; Bauder-Missbach, Heidi; Brach, Michael; Veith, Jessica; Sander, Silvia; Panfil, Eva-Maria

    2009-02-01

    A medial incision is a common surgical technique to obtain access to the abdomen. Thereby, the muscles involved in movement are manipulated, leading to post-operative restrictions in mobility and pain determined by movement. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a pre-operative training session using the Viv-Arte model, which is based on kinesthetic mobilisation principles. The parameters to be measured were mobility, pain, and length of hospital stay for patients, who were undergoing elective medial laparotomy. In addition, the study tested the research design and to identify possible effect sizes. The method chosen was a prospective, randomised, controlled, and unblinded design. Twenty-seven patients were involved (median=63 years, 19 of the patients were male) who were to have a medial incision for cystectomy. The intervention involved pre-operative training of post-operative mobility techniques. Mobility was tested using the "Mobilitätstest für Patienten im Akutkrankenhaus (MOTPA) (Mobility test for patients in hospital)"; pain intensity was assessed using the visual analogue scale. The intervention and control groups were comparable for all variables. There were no significant differences in the two groups related to the objectives. It is possible that the study groups or the operationalisation were not appropriate for testing the effects of the intervention. It seems important to continue to develop instruments that are appropriate for measuring the effect of mobility-related interventions.

  16. Optimal algorithm for automatic detection of microaneurysms based on receiver operating characteristic curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Luo, Shuqian

    2010-11-01

    Microaneurysms (MAs) are the first manifestations of the diabetic retinopathy (DR) as well as an indicator for its progression. Their automatic detection plays a key role for both mass screening and monitoring and is therefore in the core of any system for computer-assisted diagnosis of DR. The algorithm basically comprises the following stages: candidate detection aiming at extracting the patterns possibly corresponding to MAs based on mathematical morphological black top hat, feature extraction to characterize these candidates, and classification based on support vector machine (SVM), to validate MAs. Feature vector and kernel function of SVM selection is very important to the algorithm. We use the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the distinguishing performance of different feature vectors and different kernel functions of SVM. The ROC analysis indicates the quadratic polynomial SVM with a combination of features as the input shows the best discriminating performance.

  17. 25 CFR 47.3 - How does a Bureau-operated school find out how much funding it will receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.3 How does a Bureau-operated school find out how much funding it will receive? The Office of Indian Education Programs (OIEP) will... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a Bureau-operated school find out how...

  18. Modelling of Transmitter & Receiver for VSAT Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjida Sharmin Mohona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite communication is an essential part of telecommunication systems which carrying large amount of data (internet, e-mail and telephone traffic in addition to TV signals. Very small aperture terminal (VSAT is widely used for these purposes. This paper aims to provide the framework of VSAT technology in the evolving context of satellite communications in terms of network configuration, services, economics and operational aspects. This paper presents the modelling and simulation aspects of communication blocks of VSAT which can be used in different types of network topology and also includes the numerical results simulated by MATLAB.

  19. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  20. Impact of varied center volume categories on volume-outcome relationship in children receiving ECMO for heart operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Seib, Paul M; Robertson, Michael J; Wilcox, Andrew; Gupta, Punkaj

    2016-09-01

    To study the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), different studies from different databases use different volume categories. The objective of this study was to evaluate if different center volume categories impact the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving ECMO for heart operations. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from an existing national database, the Pediatric Health Information System. Centers were classified into five different volume categories using different cut-offs and different variables. Mortality rates were compared between the varied volume categories using a mixed effects logistic regression model after adjusting for patient- and center-level risk factors. Data collection included demographic information, baseline characteristics, pre-ECMO risk factors, operation details, patient diagnoses, and center data. In unadjusted analysis, there was a significant relationship between center volume and mortality, with low-and medium-volume centers associated with higher mortality rates compared to high-volume centers in all volume categories, except the hierarchical clustering volume category. In contrast, there was no significant association between center-volume and mortality among all volume categories in adjusted analysis. We concluded that high-volume centers were not associated with improved outcomes for the majority of the categorization schemes despite using different cut-offs and different variables for volume categorization.

  1. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of images reconstructed with iterative expectation maximization algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Murase, Kenya [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan). Graduate School; Higashino, Hiroshi; Sogabe, Ichiro; Sakamoto, Kana

    2001-12-01

    The quality of images reconstructed by means of the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) and ordered subset (OS)-EM algorithms, was examined with parameters such as the number of iterations and subsets, then compared with the quality of images reconstructed by the filtered back projection method. Phantoms showing signals inside signals, which mimicked single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of cerebral blood flow and myocardial perfusion, and phantoms showing signals around the signals obtained by SPECT of bone and tumor were used for experiments. To determine signals for recognition, SPECT images in which the signals could be appropriately recognized with a combination of fewer iterations and subsets of different sizes and densities were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The results of ROC analysis were applied to myocardial phantom experiments and scintigraphy of myocardial perfusion. Taking the image processing time into consideration, good SPECT images were obtained by OS-EM at iteration No. 10 and subset 5. This study will be helpful for selection of parameters such as the number of iterations and subsets when using the ML-EM or OS-EM algorithms. (author)

  2. Multivariate normally distributed biomarkers subject to limits of detection and receiver operating characteristic curve inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Neil J; Schisterman, Enrique F; Vexler, Albert

    2013-07-01

    Biomarkers are of ever-increasing importance to clinical practice and epidemiologic research. Multiple biomarkers are often measured per patient. Measurement of true biomarker levels is limited by laboratory precision, specifically measuring relatively low, or high, biomarker levels resulting in undetectable levels below, or above, a limit of detection (LOD). Ignoring these missing observations or replacing them with a constant are methods commonly used although they have been shown to lead to biased estimates of several parameters of interest, including the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and regression coefficients. We developed asymptotically consistent, efficient estimators, via maximum likelihood techniques, for the mean vector and covariance matrix of multivariate normally distributed biomarkers affected by LOD. We also developed an approximation for the Fisher information and covariance matrix for our maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs). We apply these results to an ROC curve setting, generating an MLE for the area under the curve for the best linear combination of multiple biomarkers and accompanying confidence interval. Point and confidence interval estimates are scrutinized by simulation study, with bias and root mean square error and coverage probability, respectively, displaying behavior consistent with MLEs. An example using three polychlorinated biphenyls to classify women with and without endometriosis illustrates how the underlying distribution of multiple biomarkers with LOD can be assessed and display increased discriminatory ability over naïve methods. Properly addressing LODs can lead to optimal biomarker combinations with increased discriminatory ability that may have been ignored because of measurement obstacles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC to Determine Cut-Off Points of Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Weiss

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomarkers in disease prognosis continues to be an important investigation in many cancer studies. In order for these biomarkers to have practical application in clinical decision making regarding patient treatment and follow-up, it is common to dichotomize patients into those with low vs. high expression levels. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC of the ROC, sensitivity, specificity, as well as likelihood ratios were calculated to determine levels of growth factor biomarkers that best differentiate lung cancer cases versus control subjects. Selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 and EGFR membrane appear to have good discriminating power to differentiate control tissues versus uninvolved tissues from patients with lung cancer (AUC = 89% and 90%, respectively; while AUC increased to at least 90% for selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 membrane, EGFR membrane, and FASE when comparing between control versus carcinoma tissues from lung cancer cases. Using data from control subjects compared to patients with lung cancer, we presented a simple and intuitive approach to determine dichotomized levels of biomarkers and validated the value of these biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for cancer outcome.

  4. Design of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study of 10:1 lossy image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cary A.; Lane, David; Frank, Mark S.; Hardy, Michael E.; Haynor, David R.; Smith, Donald V.; Parker, James E.; Bender, Gregory N.; Kim, Yongmin

    1994-04-01

    The digital archiving system at Madigan Army Medical Center (MAMC) uses a 10:1 lossy data compression algorithm for most forms of computed radiography. A systematic study on the potential effect of lossy image compression on patient care has been initiated with a series of studies focused on specific diagnostic tasks. The studies are based upon the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method of analysis for diagnostic systems. The null hypothesis is that observer performance with approximately 10:1 compressed and decompressed images is not different from using original, uncompressed images for detecting subtle pathologic findings seen on computed radiographs of bone, chest, or abdomen, when viewed on a high-resolution monitor. Our design involves collecting cases from eight pathologic categories. Truth is determined by committee using confirmatory studies performed during routine clinical practice whenever possible. Software has been developed to aid in case collection and to allow reading of the cases for the study using stand-alone Siemens Litebox workstations. Data analysis uses two methods, ROC analysis and free-response ROC (FROC) methods. This study will be one of the largest ROC/FROC studies of its kind and could benefit clinical radiology practice using PACS technology. The study design and results from a pilot FROC study are presented.

  5. Visualization of the significance of Receiver Operating Characteristics based on confidence ellipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, Nicholas V.; Christopoulos, Stavros-Richard G.

    2014-03-01

    The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) is used for the evaluation of prediction methods in various disciplines like meteorology, geophysics, complex system physics, medicine etc. The estimation of the significance of a binary prediction method, however, remains a cumbersome task and is usually done by repeating the calculations by Monte Carlo. The FORTRAN code provided here simplifies this problem by evaluating the significance of binary predictions for a family of ellipses which are based on confidence ellipses and cover the whole ROC space. Catalogue identifier: AERY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11511 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 72906 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN. Computer: Any computer supporting a GNU FORTRAN compiler. Operating system: Linux, MacOS, Windows. RAM: 1Mbyte Classification: 4.13, 9, 14. Nature of problem: The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) is used for the evaluation of prediction methods in various disciplines like meteorology, geophysics, complex system physics, medicine etc. The estimation of the significance of a binary prediction method, however, remains a cumbersome task and is usually done by repeating the calculations by Monte Carlo. The FORTRAN code provided here simplifies this problem by evaluating the significance of binary predictions for a family of ellipses which are based on confidence ellipses and cover the whole ROC space. Solution method: Using the statistics of random binary predictions for a given value of the predictor threshold ɛt, one can construct the corresponding confidence ellipses. The envelope of these corresponding confidence ellipses is estimated when

  6. Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Analysis Reveals Superiority of Scale-Dependent Wavelet and Spectral Measures for Assessing Cardiac Dysfunction

    CERN Document Server

    Thurner, S; Lowen, S B; Teich, M C; Thurner, Stefan; Feurstein, Markus C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Teich, Malvin C.

    1998-01-01

    Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the suitability of various heart rate variability (HRV) measures for correctly classifying electrocardiogram records of varying lengths as normal or revealing the presence of heart failure. Scale-dependent HRV measures were found to be substantially superior to scale-independent measures (scaling exponents) for discriminating the two classes of data over a broad range of record lengths. The wavelet-coefficient standard deviation at a scale near 32 heartbeat intervals, and its spectral counterpart near 1/32 cycles per interval, provide reliable results using record lengths just minutes long. A jittered integrate-and-fire model built around a fractal Gaussian-noise kernel provides a realistic, though not perfect, simulation of heartbeat sequences.

  7. Crustal structure beneath northeast India inferred from receiver function modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Kajaljyoti; Bora, Dipok K.; Goyal, Ayush; Kumar, Raju

    2016-09-01

    We estimated crustal shear velocity structure beneath ten broadband seismic stations of northeast India, by using H-Vp/Vs stacking method and a non-linear direct search approach, Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA) technique followed by joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity and receiver function, calculated from teleseismic earthquakes data. Results show significant variations of thickness, shear velocities (Vs) and Vp/Vs ratio in the crust of the study region. The inverted shear wave velocity models show crustal thickness variations of 32-36 km in Shillong Plateau (North), 36-40 in Assam Valley and ∼44 km in Lesser Himalaya (South). Average Vp/Vs ratio in Shillong Plateau is less (1.73-1.77) compared to Assam Valley and Lesser Himalaya (∼1.80). Average crustal shear velocity beneath the study region varies from 3.4 to 3.5 km/s. Sediment structure beneath Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley shows 1-2 km thick sediment layer with low Vs (2.5-2.9 km/s) and high Vp/Vs ratio (1.8-2.1), while it is observed to be of greater thickness (4 km) with similar Vs and high Vp/Vs (∼2.5) in RUP (Lesser Himalaya). Both Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley show thick upper and middle crust (10-20 km), and thin (4-9 km) lower crust. Average Vp/Vs ratio in Assam Valley and Shillong Plateau suggest that the crust is felsic-to-intermediate and intermediate-to-mafic beneath Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley, respectively. Results show that lower crust rocks beneath the Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley lies between mafic granulite and mafic garnet granulite.

  8. Acousto-optic, point receiver hydrophone probe for operation up to 100 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, P A; Mu, C; Umchid, S; Daryoush, A; El-Sherif, M

    2005-12-01

    This work describes the results of initial evaluation of a wideband acousto-optic hydrophone probe designed to operate as point receiver in the frequency range up to 100 MHz. The hydrophone was implemented as a tapered fiber optic (FO) probe sensor with a tip diameter of approximately 7 microm. Such small physical dimensions of the sensor eliminate the need for spatial averaging corrections so that true pressure-time (p-t) waveforms can be faithfully recorded. The theoretical considerations that predicted the FO probe sensitivity to be equal to 4.3 mV/MPa are presented along with a brief description of the manufacturing process. The calibration results that verified the theoretically predicted sensitivity are also presented along with a brief description of the improvements being currently implemented to increase this sensitivity level by approximately 20 dB. The results of preliminary measurements indicate that the fiber optic probes will exhibit a uniform frequency response and a zero phase shift in the frequency range considered. These features might be very useful in rapid complex calibration i.e. determining both magnitude and phase response of other hydrophones by the substitution method. Also, because of their robust design and linearity, these fiber optic hydrophones could also meet the challenges posed by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and other therapeutic applications. Overall, the outcome of this work shows that when fully developed, the FO probes will be well suited for high frequency measurements of ultrasound fields and will be able to complement the data collected by the current finite aperture piezoelectric PVDF hydrophones.

  9. Covariate Adjustment in Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis for PSA in Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre DEMIR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Markers which are used for classification into two groups, such as patient / healthy, benign/malignant or prediction of optimal cut off value for diagnostic test and evaluating the performance of diagnostic tests is evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnostic test researches. In classification accuracy research, some variables such as gender and age, commonly is not similar in groups. In these cases, covariates should be considered to estimate in the area under ROC and covariate adjustment for ROC should be performed. This study aims to introduce methods in the literature for the effect of covariate adjustment and to present an application with sample from the health field. Material and Methods: In the study, we introduced methods used in the literatüre for covariate adjustment and prediction of the area under ROC curves as well as an application with data from the field of urology. In this study, 105 PSA (prostate specific antigen measurements were taken in order to examine the covariate effect for the age variable and to assess the diagnostic performance of PSA measurements with regard to pathologic methods. Results: Covariate effect were found statistically significant with 0.733 parameter estimation of the age in ROC curves analysis with PSA data (p<0.001. According to the methods (Non-parametric (empirical, non-parametric (normal, semi-parametric (empirical, parametric (normal that estimates of the area under ROC curves which is obtained without covariate effect were found 0.708, 0.629, 0.709 and 0.628, respectively, by using PSA measurements. Area under the curve that obtained by covariate adjustment were significantly lower as compared to the traditional ROC with estimation 0.580, 0.577, 0.582 and 0.579. Conclusion: Area under the ROC curves should be estimated with adjustment according to the covariates that could affect the markers value of diagnostic tests performed in concert with matching

  10. THE CRUSTAL STRUCTURE OF ELLESMERE ISLAND FROM RECEIVER FUNCTION MODELLING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Oakey, Gordon

    . Preliminary results give estimates of Moho depths and crustal velocity structure and these are discussed with a focus on the relationship to topography, regional geological units and fault zones. The receiver functions reveal crustal roots underneath the Victoria and Albert Mountains (45km) and the Grantland...

  11. Estimation of doses received by operators in the 1958 RB reactor accident using the MCNP5 computer code simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical simulation of the radiological consequences of the RB reactor reactivity excursion accident, which occurred on October 15, 1958, and an estimation of the total doses received by the operators were run by the MCNP5 computer code. The simulation was carried out under the same assumptions as those used in the 1960 IAEA-organized experimental simulation of the accident: total fission energy of 80 MJ released in the accident and the frozen positions of the operators. The time interval of exposure to high doses received by the operators has been estimated. Data on the RB1/1958 reactor core relevant to the accident are given. A short summary of the accident scenario has been updated. A 3-D model of the reactor room and the RB reactor tank, with all the details of the core, created. For dose determination, 3-D simplified, homogenised, sexless and faceless phantoms, placed inside the reactor room, have been developed. The code was run for a number of neutron histories which have given a dose rate uncertainty of less than 2%. For the determination of radiation spectra escaping the reactor core and radiation interaction in the tissue of the phantoms, the MCNP5 code was run (in the KCODE option and “mode n p e”, with a 55-group neutron spectra, 35-group gamma ray spectra and a 10-group electron spectra. The doses were determined by using the conversion of flux density (obtained by the F4 tally in the phantoms to doses using factors taken from ICRP-74 and from the deposited energy of neutrons and gamma rays (obtained by the F6 tally in the phantoms’ tissue. A rough estimation of the time moment when the odour of ozone was sensed by the operators is estimated for the first time and given in Appendix A.1. Calculated total absorbed and equivalent doses are compared to the previously reported ones and an attempt to understand and explain the reasons for the obtained differences has been made. A Root Cause Analysis of the accident was done and

  12. Comparing models of offensive cyber operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grant, T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available was performed, using as a springboard seven models of cyber- attack, and resulted in the development of what is described as a canonical model. Keywords: Offensive cyber operations; Process models; Rational reconstructions; Canonical models; Structured...

  13. Predictors of Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury: New Insight Using Receiver Operating Curve Indices and Bayesian Network Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Zador

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury remains a global health problem. Understanding the relative importance of outcome predictors helps optimize our treatment strategies by informing assessment protocols, clinical decisions and trial designs. In this study we establish importance ranking for outcome predictors based on receiver operating indices to identify key predictors of outcome and create simple predictive models. We then explore the associations between key outcome predictors using Bayesian networks to gain further insight into predictor importance.We analyzed the corticosteroid randomization after significant head injury (CRASH trial database of 10008 patients and included patients for whom demographics, injury characteristics, computer tomography (CT findings and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GCS were recorded (total of 13 predictors, which would be available to clinicians within a few hours following the injury in 6945 patients. Predictions of clinical outcome (death or severe disability at 6 months were performed using logistic regression models with 5-fold cross validation. Predictive performance was measured using standardized partial area (pAUC under the receiver operating curve (ROC and we used Delong test for comparisons. Variable importance ranking was based on pAUC targeted at specificity (pAUCSP and sensitivity (pAUCSE intervals of 90-100%. Probabilistic associations were depicted using Bayesian networks.Complete AUC analysis showed very good predictive power (AUC = 0.8237, 95% CI: 0.8138-0.8336 for the complete model. Specificity focused importance ranking highlighted age, pupillary, motor responses, obliteration of basal cisterns/3rd ventricle and midline shift. Interestingly when targeting model sensitivity, the highest-ranking variables were age, severe extracranial injury, verbal response, hematoma on CT and motor response. Simplified models, which included only these key predictors, had similar performance (pAUCSP = 0.6523, 95% CI: 0

  14. Receiver Prejudice and Model Ethnicity: Impact on Advertising Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsiu-Chen Sandra; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the effect of model ethnicity on prejudiced respondents, and thus on advertising effectiveness. Finds that, for the most part, use of Asian models does not cause prejudiced respondents to evaluate a product or advertisement more negatively than when White models are used. (SR)

  15. Receiver Prejudice and Model Ethnicity: Impact on Advertising Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsiu-Chen Sandra; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the effect of model ethnicity on prejudiced respondents, and thus on advertising effectiveness. Finds that, for the most part, use of Asian models does not cause prejudiced respondents to evaluate a product or advertisement more negatively than when White models are used. (SR)

  16. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Be lice dairy sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riggio, V.; Pesce, L.L.; Morreale, S.; Portolano, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would optimal

  17. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Be lice dairy sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riggio, V.; Pesce, L.L.; Morreale, S.; Portolano, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would

  18. The precision--recall curve overcame the optimism of the receiver operating characteristic curve in rare diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozenne, Brice; Subtil, Fabien; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Compare the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) vs. the area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) in summarizing the performance of a diagnostic biomarker according to the disease prevalence. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A simulation study was performed...

  19. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  20. 42 CFR Appendix to Part 54a - Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES Pt. 54a, App. Appendix to Part 54a—Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services Model Notice to Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services No provider of substance abuse services receiving Federal funds from the...

  1. Modeling human operator involvement in robotic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    A modeling approach is presented to describe complex manned robotic systems. The robotic system is modeled as a (highly) nonlinear, possibly time-varying dynamic system including any time delays in terms of optimal estimation, control and decision theory. The role of the human operator(s) is modeled

  2. ROTI-OPERATIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Barker,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The instructional model presented here is a combination of systems used by the United States Navy and R. F. Mager's Criteria Referenced Instruction Model for Analysis Design and Implementation. The author has taken what he believes is the best components from each system and established a working model.

  3. Detector evaluation for improved situational awareness: Receiver operator characteristic curve based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    In military and civilian operations good situational awareness is a prerequisite to make proper decisions. The situational awareness is among others based upon intelligence, threat analysis and detection, altogether element of the so-called DIM (detection, identification, monitoring) system. In case

  4. Detector evaluation for improved situational awareness: Receiver operator characteristic curve based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    In military and civilian operations good situational awareness is a prerequisite to make proper decisions. The situational awareness is among others based upon intelligence, threat analysis and detection, altogether element of the so-called DIM (detection, identification, monitoring) system. In case

  5. Solar optical codes evaluation for modeling and analyzing complex solar receiver geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowhair, Julius; Ortega, Jesus D.; Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford K.

    2014-09-01

    Solar optical modeling tools are valuable for modeling and predicting the performance of solar technology systems. Four optical modeling tools were evaluated using the National Solar Thermal Test Facility heliostat field combined with flat plate receiver geometry as a benchmark. The four optical modeling tools evaluated were DELSOL, HELIOS, SolTrace, and Tonatiuh. All are available for free from their respective developers. DELSOL and HELIOS both use a convolution of the sunshape and optical errors for rapid calculation of the incident irradiance profiles on the receiver surfaces. SolTrace and Tonatiuh use ray-tracing methods to intersect the reflected solar rays with the receiver surfaces and construct irradiance profiles. We found the ray-tracing tools, although slower in computation speed, to be more flexible for modeling complex receiver geometries, whereas DELSOL and HELIOS were limited to standard receiver geometries such as flat plate, cylinder, and cavity receivers. We also list the strengths and deficiencies of the tools to show tool preference depending on the modeling and design needs. We provide an example of using SolTrace for modeling nonconventional receiver geometries. The goal is to transfer the irradiance profiles on the receiver surfaces calculated in an optical code to a computational fluid dynamics code such as ANSYS Fluent. This approach eliminates the need for using discrete ordinance or discrete radiation transfer models, which are computationally intensive, within the CFD code. The irradiance profiles on the receiver surfaces then allows for thermal and fluid analysis on the receiver.

  6. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Modelling process plants during normal operation requires a set a basic assumptions to define the desired functionalities which lead to fullfillment of the operational goal(-s) for the plant. However during during start-up and shut down as well as during batch operation an ensemble of interrelate...

  7. Modeling and simulation with operator scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Serge; Rosinski, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Self-similar processes are useful in modeling diverse phenomena that exhibit scaling properties. Operator scaling allows a different scale factor in each coordinate. This paper develops practical methods for modeling and simulating stochastic processes with operator scaling. A simulation method for operator stable Levy processes is developed, based on a series representation, along with a Gaussian approximation of the small jumps. Several examples are given to illustrate practical applications. A classification of operator stable Levy processes in two dimensions is provided according to their exponents and symmetry groups. We conclude with some remarks and extensions to general operator self-similar processes.

  8. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.;

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed-b...

  9. Why operational risk modelling creates inverse incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, R.

    2015-01-01

    Operational risk modelling has become commonplace in large international banks and is gaining popularity in the insurance industry as well. This is partly due to financial regulation (Basel II, Solvency II). This article argues that operational risk modelling is fundamentally flawed, despite efforts

  10. Prediction of Group Delay Distribution Around Receiving Point Using Modified IRI Model and IGRF Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhaowen; WANG Gang; LI Weimin; YU Dapeng; Toyobur RAHMAN

    2011-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (IRI) model is generally accepted standard ionosphere model.It describes the ionosphere environment in quiet state and predicts the ionosphere parameters within a certain precision.In this paper,we have made a breakthrough in the application of the IRI model by modifying the model for regions of China.The main objectives of this modification are to construct the ionosphere parameters foF2 and M (3000) F2 by using the Chinese reference ionosphere (CRI)coefficients,appropriately increase hmE and hmF2 height,reduce the thickness of F layer,validate the parameter by the measured values,and solve the electron concentration distribution with quasi-parabolic segment (QPS).In this paper,3D ray tracing algorithm is constructed based on the modified IRI model and international geomagnetic reference field (IGRF) model.In short-wave propagation,it can be used to predict the electromagnetic parameters of the receiving point,such as the receiving area,maximum useable frequency (MUF) and the distribution of the group delay etc.,which can help to determine the suitability of the communication.As an example,we estimate the group delay distributions around Changchun in the detection from Qingdao to Changchun using the modified IRI model and IGRF model,and provide technical support for the short-wave communication between the two cities.

  11. Operator algebra of orbifold models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Vafa, C.; Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.

    1989-07-01

    We analyze the chiral properties of (orbifold) conformal field theories which are obtained from a given conformal field theory by modding out by a finite symmetry group. For a class of orbifolds, we derive the fusion rules by studying the modular transformation properties of the one-loop characters. The results are illustrated with explicit calculations of toroidal and c=1 models.

  12. Operational Models of Infrastructure Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    following the loss of these components. Although our exposition sometimes personifies the attacker, we emphasize that our purpose is simply to discover...following a catastrophic event.” Reed et al.(67) present resilience scoring met- rics and build on the work of Haimes(58) in using input-output...to simplify exposition —we have included much more complicated investment considerations in other such models), where it “costs” one unit of de- fense

  13. Validation of PAGE-B model in Asian chronic hepatitis B patients receiving entecavir or tenofovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Na; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Rim, Kyu Sung; Kim, Beom Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Seung Up

    2017-04-18

    A new hepatocellular carcinoma risk prediction model, PAGE-B, which includes age, gender and platelet count as constituent variables, has recently been proposed in Caucasian chronic hepatitis B patients. We validated PAGE-B model and compared its accuracy with that of conventional risk prediction models in Asian chronic hepatitis B patients. Chronic hepatitis B patients treated with entecavir or tenofovir were consecutively recruited. The performance of PAGE-B and three conventional risk prediction models (CU-HCC, GAG-HCC and REACH-B) were analysed. A total of 1092 chronic hepatitis B patients (668 men, 61.2%) were selected between August 2006 and January 2015. The mean age was 48 years. During the follow-up period (median, 43.6 months), 36 (3.3%) patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma. Older age (hazard ratio [HR]=1.077), male gender (HR=3.676) and lower platelet count (HR=0.984) were independent predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma development. The PAGE-B showed similar area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) to GAG-HCC and CU-HCC at 3 years (0.777 vs 0.793 and 0.743, respectively; all P>.05) and 5 years (0.799 vs 0.803 and 0.744, respectively; all P>.05), whereas the AUROCs of PAGE-B were significantly higher than those of the REACH-B (0.602 at 3 years and 0.572 at 5 years, P<.05). Our study demonstrated that PAGE-B is applicable to Asian chronic hepatitis B patients receiving ETV or TDF therapy. The PAGE-B showed similar predictive performance to GAG-HCC and CU-HCC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparing models of offensive cyber operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grant, T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available (CSIR), Pretoria, South Africa tj.grant@nlda.nl iburke@csir.co.za rvhheerden@csir.co.za Abstract: Cyber operations denote the response of governments and organisations to cyber crime, terrorism, and warfare. To date, cyber operations have been.... This could include responding to an (impending) attack by counter-attacking or by proactively neutralizing the source of an impending attack. A good starting point to improving understanding would be to model the offensive cyber operations process...

  15. Stochastic Modelling and Analysis of Warehouse Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Gong (Yeming)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis has studied stochastic models and analysis of warehouse operations. After an overview of stochastic research in warehouse operations, we explore the following topics. Firstly, we search optimal batch sizes in a parallel-aisle warehouse with online order arrivals. We employ a

  16. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas

    2010-01-01

    Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...... for intelligent operation and control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because of the lack...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system...

  17. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas

    2010-01-01

    Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...... for intelligent operation and control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because of the lack...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system...

  18. A Markov chain Monte Carlo with Gibbs sampling approach to anisotropic receiver function forward modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Erin A.; Long, Maureen D.; Moriarty, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Teleseismic receiver functions contain information regarding Earth structure beneath a seismic station. P-to-SV converted phases are often used to characterize crustal and upper-mantle discontinuities and isotropic velocity structures. More recently, P-to-SH converted energy has been used to interrogate the orientation of anisotropy at depth, as well as the geometry of dipping interfaces. Many studies use a trial-and-error forward modeling approach for the interpretation of receiver functions, generating synthetic receiver functions from a user-defined input model of Earth structure and amending this model until it matches major features in the actual data. While often successful, such an approach makes it impossible to explore model space in a systematic and robust manner, which is especially important given that solutions are likely non-unique. Here, we present a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with Gibbs sampling for the interpretation of anisotropic receiver functions. Synthetic examples are used to test the viability of the algorithm, suggesting that it works well for models with a reasonable number of free parameters (<˜20). Additionally, the synthetic tests illustrate that certain parameters are well constrained by receiver function data, while others are subject to severe trade-offs-an important implication for studies that attempt to interpret Earth structure based on receiver function data. Finally, we apply our algorithm to receiver function data from station WCI in the central United States. We find evidence for a change in anisotropic structure at mid-lithospheric depths, consistent with previous work that used a grid search approach to model receiver function data at this station. Forward modeling of receiver functions using model space search algorithms, such as the one presented here, provide a meaningful framework for interrogating Earth structure from receiver function data.

  19. Coupled optical/thermal/fluid analysis and design requirements for operation and testing of a supercritical CO2 solar receiver.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khivsara, Sagar [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalor (India)

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have evaluated closed-loop supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycles to be a higher energy-density system in comparison to conventional superheated steam Rankine systems. At turbine inlet conditions of 923K and 25 MPa, high thermal efficiency (~50%) can be achieved. Achieving these high efficiencies will make concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies a competitive alternative to current power generation methods. To incorporate a s-CO2 Brayton power cycle in a solar power tower system, the development of a solar receiver capable of providing an outlet temperature of 923 K (at 25 MPa) is necessary. To satisfy the temperature requirements of a s-CO2 Brayton cycle with recuperation and recompression, it is required to heat s-CO2 by a temperature of ~200 K as it passes through the solar receiver. Our objective was to develop an optical-thermal-fluid model to design and evaluate a tubular receiver that will receive a heat input ~1 MWth from a heliostat field. We also undertook the documentation of design requirements for the development, testing and safe operation of a direct s-CO2 solar receiver. The main purpose of this document is to serve as a reference and guideline for design and testing requirements, as well as to address the technical challenges and provide initial parameters for the computational models that will be employed for the development of s-CO2 receivers.

  20. GPS/GLONASS Combined Precise Point Positioning with Receiver Clock Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuhong; Chen, Xinghan; Guo, Fei

    2015-06-30

    Research has demonstrated that receiver clock modeling can reduce the correlation coefficients among the parameters of receiver clock bias, station height and zenith tropospheric delay. This paper introduces the receiver clock modeling to GPS/GLONASS combined precise point positioning (PPP), aiming to better separate the receiver clock bias and station coordinates and therefore improve positioning accuracy. Firstly, the basic mathematic models including the GPS/GLONASS observation equations, stochastic model, and receiver clock model are briefly introduced. Then datasets from several IGS stations equipped with high-stability atomic clocks are used for kinematic PPP tests. To investigate the performance of PPP, including the positioning accuracy and convergence time, a week of (1-7 January 2014) GPS/GLONASS data retrieved from these IGS stations are processed with different schemes. The results indicate that the positioning accuracy as well as convergence time can benefit from the receiver clock modeling. This is particularly pronounced for the vertical component. Statistic RMSs show that the average improvement of three-dimensional positioning accuracy reaches up to 30%-40%. Sometimes, it even reaches over 60% for specific stations. Compared to the GPS-only PPP, solutions of the GPS/GLONASS combined PPP are much better no matter if the receiver clock offsets are modeled or not, indicating that the positioning accuracy and reliability are significantly improved with the additional GLONASS satellites in the case of insufficient number of GPS satellites or poor geometry conditions. In addition to the receiver clock modeling, the impacts of different inter-system timing bias (ISB) models are investigated. For the case of a sufficient number of satellites with fairly good geometry, the PPP performances are not seriously affected by the ISB model due to the low correlation between the ISB and the other parameters. However, the refinement of ISB model weakens the

  1. A Comparison of Service Delivery Models for Special Education Middle School Students Receiving Moderate Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Mason, Keely S.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to improve academic performance for students receiving special education services, a large urban school district in Tennessee has implemented Integrated Service Delivery Model. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of students receiving instruction in self-contained classrooms to the performance of students…

  2. Interrelationships Between Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics Display, Binomial, Logit, and Bayes' Rule Probability of Detection Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Unknown risks are introduced into failure critical systems when probability of detection (POD) capabilities are accepted without a complete understanding of the statistical method applied and the interpretation of the statistical results. The presence of this risk in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community is revealed in common statements about POD. These statements are often interpreted in a variety of ways and therefore, the very existence of the statements identifies the need for a more comprehensive understanding of POD methodologies. Statistical methodologies have data requirements to be met, procedures to be followed, and requirements for validation or demonstration of adequacy of the POD estimates. Risks are further enhanced due to the wide range of statistical methodologies used for determining the POD capability. Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics (ROC) Display, simple binomial, logistic regression, and Bayes' rule POD methodologies are widely used in determining POD capability. This work focuses on Hit-Miss data to reveal the framework of the interrelationships between Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics Display, simple binomial, logistic regression, and Bayes' Rule methodologies as they are applied to POD. Knowledge of these interrelationships leads to an intuitive and global understanding of the statistical data, procedural and validation requirements for establishing credible POD estimates.

  3. Vertex operators in solvable lattice models

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O E; Miwa, T; Miki, K; Nakayashiki, A; Foda, Omar; Jimbo, Michio; Miwa, Tetsuji; Miki, Kei; Nakayashiki, Atsushi

    1994-01-01

    We formulate the basic properties of q-vertex operators in the context of the Andrews-Baxter-Forrester (ABF) series, as an example of face-interaction models, derive the q-difference equations satisfied by their correlation functions, and establish their connection with representation theory. We also discuss the q-difference equations of the Kashiwara-Miwa (KM) series, as an example of edge-interaction models. Next, the Ising model--the simplest special case of both ABF and KM series--is studied in more detail using the Jordan-Wigner fermions. In particular, all matrix elements of vertex operators are calculated.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of a developed Central Receiver Based on Evacuated Solar Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Basil. H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar central receiver plays a considerable role in the plant output power; it is one of the most important synthesis in the solar power tower plants. Its performance directly affects the efficiency of the entire solar power generation system. In this study, a new designed receiver model based on evacuated solar tube was proposed, and the dynamic characteristics of the developed receiver were investigated. In order to optimise and evaluate the dynamic characteristics of solar power plant components, the model investigates the solar radiation heat conversion process through the developed receiver, where the energy and mass conservation equations are used to determine the working fluid temperature and state through the receiver parts, beside the calculation and analysis of the thermal losses.

  5. Statistical modeling and analysis of the influence of antenna polarization error on received power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The problem of statistical modeling of antenna polarization error is studied and the statistical characteristics of antenna's received power are analyzed. A novel Stokes-vector-based method is presented to describe the conception of antenna's polarization purity. Statistical model of antenna's polarization error in polarization domain is then built up. When an antenna with polarization error of uniform distribution is illuminated by an arbitrary polarized incident field, the probability density of antenna's received power is derived analytically. Finally, a group of curves of deviation and standard deviation of received power are plotted numerically.

  6. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (Supplement 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P M

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.

  7. Thermal modeling of a pressurized air cavity receiver for solar dish Stirling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chongzhe; Zhang, Yanping; Falcoz, Quentin; Neveu, Pierre; Li, Jianlan; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-06-01

    A solar cavity receiver model for the dish collector system is designed in response to growing demand of renewable energy. In the present research field, no investigations into the geometric parameters of a cavity receiver have been performed. The cylindrical receiver in this study is composed of an enclosed bottom at the back, an aperture at the front, a helical pipe inside the cavity and an insulation layer on the external surface of the cavity. The influence of several critical receiver parameters on the thermal efficiency is analyzed in this paper: cavity inner diameter and cavity length. The thermal model in this paper is solved considering the cavity dimensions as variables. Implementing the model into EES, each parameter influence is separately investigated, and a preliminary optimization method is proposed.

  8. CORSICA modelling of ITER hybrid operation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Bulmer, R. H.; Campbell, D. J.; Casper, T. A.; LoDestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Snipes, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid operating mode observed in several tokamaks is characterized by further enhancement over the high plasma confinement (H-mode) associated with reduced magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) instabilities linked to a stationary flat safety factor (q ) profile in the core region. The proposed ITER hybrid operation is currently aiming at operating for a long burn duration (>1000 s) with a moderate fusion power multiplication factor, Q , of at least 5. This paper presents candidate ITER hybrid operation scenarios developed using a free-boundary transport modelling code, CORSICA, taking all relevant physics and engineering constraints into account. The ITER hybrid operation scenarios have been developed by tailoring the 15 MA baseline ITER inductive H-mode scenario. Accessible operation conditions for ITER hybrid operation and achievable range of plasma parameters have been investigated considering uncertainties on the plasma confinement and transport. ITER operation capability for avoiding the poloidal field coil current, field and force limits has been examined by applying different current ramp rates, flat-top plasma currents and densities, and pre-magnetization of the poloidal field coils. Various combinations of heating and current drive (H&CD) schemes have been applied to study several physics issues, such as the plasma current density profile tailoring, enhancement of the plasma energy confinement and fusion power generation. A parameterized edge pedestal model based on EPED1 added to the CORSICA code has been applied to hybrid operation scenarios. Finally, fully self-consistent free-boundary transport simulations have been performed to provide information on the poloidal field coil voltage demands and to study the controllability with the ITER controllers. Extended from Proc. 24th Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (San Diego, 2012) IT/P1-13.

  9. [Receiver operating characteristic analysis and the cost--benefit analysis in determination of the optimal cut-off point].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vránová, J; Horák, J; Krátká, K; Hendrichová, M; Kovaírková, K

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the use of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis within medicine is provided. A survey of the theory behind the analysis is offered together with a presentation on how to create a ROC curve and how to use Cost--Benefit analysis to determine the optimal cut-off point or threshold. The use of ROC analysis is exemplified in the "Cost--Benefit analysis" section of the paper. In these examples, it can be seen that the determination of the optimal cut-off point is mainly influenced by the prevalence and the severity of the disease, by the risks and adverse events of treatment or the diagnostic testing, by the overall costs of treating true and false positives (TP and FP), and by the risk of deficient or non-treatment of false negative (FN) cases.

  10. Experimental Design and Data Analysis in Receiver Operating Characteristic Studies: Lessons Learned from Reports in Radiology from 1997 to 20061

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Metz, Charles E.; Doi, Kunio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a broad perspective concerning the recent use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in medical imaging by reviewing ROC studies published in Radiology between 1997 and 2006 for experimental design, imaging modality, medical condition, and ROC paradigm. Materials and Methods: Two hundred ninety-five studies were obtained by conducting a literature search with PubMed with two criteria: publication in Radiology between 1997 and 2006 and occurrence of the phrase “receiver operating characteristic.” Studies returned by the query that were not diagnostic imaging procedure performance evaluations were excluded. Characteristics of the remaining studies were tabulated. Results: Two hundred thirty-three (79.0%) of the 295 studies reported findings based on observers' diagnostic judgments or objective measurements. Forty-three (14.6%) did not include human observers, with most of these reporting an evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system or functional data obtained with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The remaining 19 (6.4%) studies were classified as reviews or meta-analyses and were excluded from our subsequent analysis. Among the various imaging modalities, MR imaging (46.0%) and CT (25.7%) were investigated most frequently. Approximately 60% (144 of 233) of ROC studies with human observers published in Radiology included three or fewer observers. Conclusion: ROC analysis is widely used in radiologic research, confirming its fundamental role in assessing diagnostic performance. However, the ROC studies reported in Radiology were not always adequate to support clear and clinically relevant conclusions. © RSNA, 2009 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.2533081632/-/DC1 PMID:19864510

  11. MODELING OPERANT BEHAVIOR IN THE PARKINSONIAN RAT

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Irene; Reilly, Mark P; Sanabria, Federico; Posadas-Sánchez, Diana; Chavez, Claudia L.; Banerjee, Nikhil; Killeen, Peter; Castañeda, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR; Killeen, 1994) is a quantitative model of operant behavior that contains 3 parameters representing motor capacity (δ), motivation (a), and short term memory (λ). The present study applied MPR to characterize the effects of bilateral infusions of 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat, a model of Parkinson’s disease. Rats were trained to lever press under a 5-component fixed ratio (5, 15, 30, 60, and 100) schedule of food reinfo...

  12. Performance Analysis of Receive Diversity in Wireless Sensor Networks over GBSBE Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-hoon Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks have attracted a lot of attention recently. In this paper, we develop a channel model based on the elliptical model for multipath components involving randomly placed scatterers in the scattering region with sensors deployed on a field. We verify that in a sensor network, the use of receive diversity techniques improves the performance of the system. Extensive performance analysis of the system is carried out for both single and multiple antennas with the applied receive diversity techniques. Performance analyses based on variations in receiver height, maximum multipath delay and transmit power have been performed considering different numbers of antenna elements present in the receiver array, Our results show that increasing the number of antenna elements for a wireless sensor network does indeed improve the BER rates that can be obtained.

  13. Operation and modeling of the MOS transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Tsividis, Yannis

    2011-01-01

    Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor has become a standard in academia and industry. Extensively revised and updated, the third edition of this highly acclaimed text provides a thorough treatment of the MOS transistor - the key element of modern microelectronic chips.

  14. Business Intelligence Modeling in Launch Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Davis, Rodney D.

    2005-01-01

    This technology project is to advance an integrated Planning and Management Simulation Model for evaluation of risks, costs, and reliability of launch systems from Earth to Orbit for Space Exploration. The approach builds on research done in the NASA ARC/KSC developed Virtual Test Bed (VTB) to integrate architectural, operations process, and mission simulations for the purpose of evaluating enterprise level strategies to reduce cost, improve systems operability, and reduce mission risks. The objectives are to understand the interdependency of architecture and process on recurring launch cost of operations, provide management a tool for assessing systems safety and dependability versus cost, and leverage lessons learned and empirical models from Shuttle and International Space Station to validate models applied to Exploration. The systems-of-systems concept is built to balance the conflicting objectives of safety, reliability, and process strategy in order to achieve long term sustainability. A planning and analysis test bed is needed for evaluation of enterprise level options and strategies for transit and launch systems as well as surface and orbital systems. This environment can also support agency simulation .based acquisition process objectives. The technology development approach is based on the collaborative effort set forth in the VTB's integrating operations. process models, systems and environment models, and cost models as a comprehensive disciplined enterprise analysis environment. Significant emphasis is being placed on adapting root cause from existing Shuttle operations to exploration. Technical challenges include cost model validation, integration of parametric models with discrete event process and systems simulations. and large-scale simulation integration. The enterprise architecture is required for coherent integration of systems models. It will also require a plan for evolution over the life of the program. The proposed technology will produce

  15. Business intelligence modeling in launch operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Davis, Rodney D.

    2005-05-01

    The future of business intelligence in space exploration will focus on the intelligent system-of-systems real-time enterprise. In present business intelligence, a number of technologies that are most relevant to space exploration are experiencing the greatest change. Emerging patterns of set of processes rather than organizational units leading to end-to-end automation is becoming a major objective of enterprise information technology. The cost element is a leading factor of future exploration systems. This technology project is to advance an integrated Planning and Management Simulation Model for evaluation of risks, costs, and reliability of launch systems from Earth to Orbit for Space Exploration. The approach builds on research done in the NASA ARC/KSC developed Virtual Test Bed (VTB) to integrate architectural, operations process, and mission simulations for the purpose of evaluating enterprise level strategies to reduce cost, improve systems operability, and reduce mission risks. The objectives are to understand the interdependency of architecture and process on recurring launch cost of operations, provide management a tool for assessing systems safety and dependability versus cost, and leverage lessons learned and empirical models from Shuttle and International Space Station to validate models applied to Exploration. The systems-of-systems concept is built to balance the conflicting objectives of safety, reliability, and process strategy in order to achieve long term sustainability. A planning and analysis test bed is needed for evaluation of enterprise level options and strategies for transit and launch systems as well as surface and orbital systems. This environment can also support agency simulation based acquisition process objectives. The technology development approach is based on the collaborative effort set forth in the VTB's integrating operations, process models, systems and environment models, and cost models as a comprehensive disciplined

  16. A state-space model for estimating detailed movements and home range from acoustic receiver data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Weng, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    We present a state-space model for acoustic receiver data to estimate detailed movement and home range of individual fish while accounting for spatial bias. An integral part of the approach is the detection function, which models the probability of logging tag transmissions as a function...... is used to estimate home range and movement of a reef fish in the Pacific Ocean....

  17. The national operational environment model (NOEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, John J.; Romano, Brian; Geiler, Warren

    2011-06-01

    The National Operational Environment Model (NOEM) is a strategic analysis/assessment tool that provides insight into the complex state space (as a system) that is today's modern operational environment. The NOEM supports baseline forecasts by generating plausible futures based on the current state. It supports what-if analysis by forecasting ramifications of potential "Blue" actions on the environment. The NOEM also supports sensitivity analysis by identifying possible pressure (leverage) points in support of the Commander that resolves forecasted instabilities, and by ranking sensitivities in a list for each leverage point and response. The NOEM can be used to assist Decision Makers, Analysts and Researchers with understanding the inter-workings of a region or nation state, the consequences of implementing specific policies, and the ability to plug in new operational environment theories/models as they mature. The NOEM is built upon an open-source, license-free set of capabilities, and aims to provide support for pluggable modules that make up a given model. The NOEM currently has an extensive number of modules (e.g. economic, security & social well-being pieces such as critical infrastructure) completed along with a number of tools to exercise them. The focus this year is on modeling the social and behavioral aspects of a populace within their environment, primarily the formation of various interest groups, their beliefs, their requirements, their grievances, their affinities, and the likelihood of a wide range of their actions, depending on their perceived level of security and happiness. As such, several research efforts are currently underway to model human behavior from a group perspective, in the pursuit of eventual integration and balance of populace needs/demands within their respective operational environment and the capacity to meet those demands. In this paper we will provide an overview of the NOEM, the need for and a description of its main components

  18. Two-port network analysis and modeling of a balanced armature receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Allen, Jont B

    2013-07-01

    Models for acoustic transducers, such as loudspeakers, mastoid bone-drivers, hearing-aid receivers, etc., are critical elements in many acoustic applications. Acoustic transducers employ two-port models to convert between acoustic and electromagnetic signals. This study analyzes a widely-used commercial hearing-aid receiver ED series, manufactured by Knowles Electronics, Inc. Electromagnetic transducer modeling must consider two key elements: a semi-inductor and a gyrator. The semi-inductor accounts for electromagnetic eddy-currents, the 'skin effect' of a conductor (Vanderkooy, 1989), while the gyrator (McMillan, 1946; Tellegen, 1948) accounts for the anti-reciprocity characteristic [Lenz's law (Hunt, 1954, p. 113)]. Aside from Hunt (1954), no publications we know of have included the gyrator element in their electromagnetic transducer models. The most prevalent method of transducer modeling evokes the mobility method, an ideal transformer instead of a gyrator followed by the dual of the mechanical circuit (Beranek, 1954). The mobility approach greatly complicates the analysis. The present study proposes a novel, simplified and rigorous receiver model. Hunt's two-port parameters, the electrical impedance Ze(s), acoustic impedance Za(s) and electro-acoustic transduction coefficient Ta(s), are calculated using ABCD and impedance matrix methods (Van Valkenburg, 1964). The results from electrical input impedance measurements Zin(s), which vary with given acoustical loads, are used in the calculation (Weece and Allen, 2010). The hearing-aid receiver transducer model is designed based on energy transformation flow [electric→ mechanic→ acoustic]. The model has been verified with electrical input impedance, diaphragm velocity in vacuo, and output pressure measurements. This receiver model is suitable for designing most electromagnetic transducers and it can ultimately improve the design of hearing-aid devices by providing a simplified yet accurate, physically

  19. Assessment of stochastic models for GPS measurements with different types of receivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI BoFeng; SHEN YunZhong; XU PeiLiang

    2008-01-01

    The stochastic model plays an important role in parameter estimation. The optimal estimator in the sense of least squares can only be obtained by using the correct stochastic model and consequently guarantees the precise positioning in GPS applications. In this contribution, the GPS measurements, collected by different types of geodetic dual-frequency receiver pairs on ultra-short baselines with a sampling interval of 1 s, are used to address their stochastic models, which include the variances of all observation types, the relationship between the observation accuracy and its elevation angle, the time correlation, as well as the correlation between observation types. The results show that the commonly used stochastic model with the assumption that all the raw GPS measurements are independent with the same variance does not meet the need for precise positioning and the elevation-dependent weight model cannot work well for different receiver and observation types. The time correlation and cross correlation are significant as well. It is therefore concluded that the stochastic model is much associ-ated with the receiver and observation types and should be specified for the receiver and observation types.

  20. Robust Boolean Operation for Sculptured Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To enhance the ability of current modeling system, an uniformed representation is designed to represent wire-frame, solid, surface models. We present an algorithm for Boolean operation between the models under this representation. Accuracy, efficiency and robustness are the main consideration. The geometric information is represented with trimmed parametric patches and trimmed parametric splines. The topological information is represented with an extended half-edge data structure. In the process of intersection calculation, hierarchy intersection method is applied for unified classification. Tracing the intersection curve to overcome degenerate cases that occur frequently in practice. The algorithm has been implemented as the modeling kernel of a feature based modeling system named GS-CAD98, which was developed on Windows/NT platform.

  1. Disease prediction models and operational readiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney D Corley

    Full Text Available The objective of this manuscript is to present a systematic review of biosurveillance models that operate on select agents and can forecast the occurrence of a disease event. We define a disease event to be a biological event with focus on the One Health paradigm. These events are characterized by evidence of infection and or disease condition. We reviewed models that attempted to predict a disease event, not merely its transmission dynamics and we considered models involving pathogens of concern as determined by the US National Select Agent Registry (as of June 2011. We searched commercial and government databases and harvested Google search results for eligible models, using terms and phrases provided by public health analysts relating to biosurveillance, remote sensing, risk assessments, spatial epidemiology, and ecological niche modeling. After removal of duplications and extraneous material, a core collection of 6,524 items was established, and these publications along with their abstracts are presented in a semantic wiki at http://BioCat.pnnl.gov. As a result, we systematically reviewed 44 papers, and the results are presented in this analysis. We identified 44 models, classified as one or more of the following: event prediction (4, spatial (26, ecological niche (28, diagnostic or clinical (6, spread or response (9, and reviews (3. The model parameters (e.g., etiology, climatic, spatial, cultural and data sources (e.g., remote sensing, non-governmental organizations, expert opinion, epidemiological were recorded and reviewed. A component of this review is the identification of verification and validation (V&V methods applied to each model, if any V&V method was reported. All models were classified as either having undergone Some Verification or Validation method, or No Verification or Validation. We close by outlining an initial set of operational readiness level guidelines for disease prediction models based upon established Technology

  2. Disease Prediction Models and Operational Readiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Pullum, Laura L.; Hartley, David M.; Benedum, Corey M.; Noonan, Christine F.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Lancaster, Mary J.

    2014-03-19

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this manuscript is to present a systematic review of biosurveillance models that operate on select agents and can forecast the occurrence of a disease event. One of the primary goals of this research was to characterize the viability of biosurveillance models to provide operationally relevant information for decision makers to identify areas for future research. Two critical characteristics differentiate this work from other infectious disease modeling reviews. First, we reviewed models that attempted to predict the disease event, not merely its transmission dynamics. Second, we considered models involving pathogens of concern as determined by the US National Select Agent Registry (as of June 2011). Methods: We searched dozens of commercial and government databases and harvested Google search results for eligible models utilizing terms and phrases provided by public health analysts relating to biosurveillance, remote sensing, risk assessments, spatial epidemiology, and ecological niche-modeling, The publication date of search results returned are bound by the dates of coverage of each database and the date in which the search was performed, however all searching was completed by December 31, 2010. This returned 13,767 webpages and 12,152 citations. After de-duplication and removal of extraneous material, a core collection of 6,503 items was established and these publications along with their abstracts are presented in a semantic wiki at http://BioCat.pnnl.gov. Next, PNNL’s IN-SPIRE visual analytics software was used to cross-correlate these publications with the definition for a biosurveillance model resulting in the selection of 54 documents that matched the criteria resulting Ten of these documents, However, dealt purely with disease spread models, inactivation of bacteria, or the modeling of human immune system responses to pathogens rather than predicting disease events. As a result, we systematically reviewed 44 papers and the

  3. Contrasting two models of academic self-efficacy--domain-specific versus cross-domain--in children receiving and not receiving special instruction in mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas; Hesser, Hugo; Träff, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    In social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is domain-specific. An alternative model, the cross-domain influence model, would predict that self-efficacy beliefs in one domain might influence performance in other domains. Research has also found that children who receive special instruction are not good at estimating their performance. The aim was to test two models of how self-efficacy beliefs influence achievement, and to contrast children receiving special instruction in mathematics with normally-achieving children. The participants were 73 fifth-grade children who receive special instruction and 70 children who do not receive any special instruction. In year four and five, the children's skills in mathematics and reading were assessed by national curriculum tests, and in their fifth year, self-efficacy in mathematics and reading were measured. Structural equation modeling showed that in domains where children do not receive special instruction in mathematics, self-efficacy is a mediating variable between earlier and later achievement in the same domain. Achievement in mathematics was not mediated by self-efficacy in mathematics for children who receive special instruction. For normal achieving children, earlier achievement in the language domain had an influence on later self-efficacy in the mathematics domain, and self-efficacy beliefs in different domains were correlated. Self-efficacy is mostly domain specific, but may play a different role in academic performance depending on whether children receive special instruction. The results of the present study provided some support of the Cross-Domain Influence Model for normal achieving children. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Estimated cumulative radiation dose received by diagnostic imaging during staging and treatment of operable Ewing sarcoma 2005-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Boel [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Section, Bergen (Norway); Boye, Kjetil [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen; Aukland, Stein Magnus [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paediatric Section, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Trovik, Clement [University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Section, Bergen (Norway); Biermann, Martin [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-01-15

    Patients with Ewing sarcoma are subject to various diagnostic procedures that incur exposure to ionising radiation. To estimate the radiation doses received from all radiologic and nuclear imaging episodes during diagnosis and treatment, and to determine whether {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT) is a major contributor of radiation. Twenty Ewing sarcoma patients diagnosed in Norway in 2005-2012 met the inclusion criteria (age <30 years, operable disease, uncomplicated chemotherapy and surgery, no metastasis or residual disease within a year of diagnosis). Radiation doses from all imaging during the first year were calculated for each patient. The mean estimated cumulative radiation dose for all patients was 34 mSv (range: 6-70), radiography accounting for 3 mSv (range: 0.2-12), CT for 13 mSv (range: 2-28) and nuclear medicine for 18 mSv (range: 2-47). For the patients examined with PET-CT, the mean estimated cumulative effective dose was 38 mSv, of which PET-CT accounted for 14 mSv (37%). There was large variation in number and type of examinations performed and also in estimated cumulative radiation dose. The mean radiation dose for patients examined with PET-CT was 23% higher than for patients not examined with PET-CT. (orig.)

  5. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Belice dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Valentina; Pesce, Lorenzo L; Morreale, Salvatore; Portolano, Baldassare

    2013-06-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would optimally discriminate between healthy and infected udders. Milk samples (n=1357) were collected from 684 sheep in four flocks. The prevalence of infection, as determined by positive bacterial culture was 0.36, 87.7% of which were minor and 12.3% major pathogens. Of the culture negative samples, 83.7% had an SCCCMT results were evaluated, the estimated area under the ROC curve was greater for glands infected with major compared to minor pathogens (0.88 vs. 0.73), whereas the area under the curve considering all pathogens was similar to the one for minor pathogens (0.75). The estimated optimal thresholds were 3.00 (CMT), 2.81 (SCS for the whole sample), 2.81 (SCS for minor pathogens), and 3.33 (SCS for major pathogens). These correctly classified, respectively, 69.0%, 73.5%, 72.6% and 91.0% of infected udders in the samples. The CMT appeared only to discriminate udders infected with major pathogens. In this population, SCS appeared to be the best indirect test of the bacteriological status of the udder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek; Skiba, Elzbieta; Tobolczyk, Jolanta; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta; Kaczmarski, Maciej

    2005-12-07

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of potent serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. We determined the serum level of apolipoprotein A-I (APO A-I), haptoglobin (HPT) and a-2 macroglobulin (A2M) with an automatic nephelometer in 63 children (age range 4-17 years, mean 10 years) with biopsy-verified chronic HBeAg-positive hepatitis B. Fibrosis stage and inflammation grade were assessed in a blinded fashion according to Batts and Ludwig. We defined mild liver fibrosis as a score < or =2 and advanced fibrosis as a score equal to 3. ROC analysis was used to calculate the power of the assays to detect advanced liver fibrosis (AccuROC, Canada). Serum concentrations of APO A-I, HPT and A2M were not significantly different in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared to controls. However, APO A-I level of 1.19 ng/L had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 60.7% (AUC = 0.7117, P = 0.035) to predict advanced fibrosis. All other serum biochemical markers and their combination did not allow a useful prediction. None of these markers was a good predictor of histologic inflammation. Apolipoprotein A-I may be a suitable serum marker to predict advanced liver fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis B.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn; El(z)bieta Skiba; Jolanta Tobolczyk; Maria El(z)bieta Sobaniec-Lotowska; Maciej Kaczmarski

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of potent serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.METHODS: We determined the serum level of apolipoprotein A-I (APO A-I), haptoglobin (HPT) and a-2macroglobulin (A2M) with an automatic nephelometer in 63 children (age range 4-17 years, mean 10 years)with biopsy-verified chronic HBeAg-positive hepatitis B.Fibrosis stage and inflammation grade were assessed in a blinded fashion according to Batts and Ludwig. We defined mild liver fibrosis as a score ≤2 and advanced fibrosis as a score equal to 3. ROC analysis was used to calculate the power of the assays to detect advanced liver fibrosis (AccuROC, Canada).RESULTS: Serum concentrations of APO A-I, HPT and A2M were not significantly different in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared to controls. However, APO A-I level of 1.19 ng/L had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 60.7% (AUC = 0.7117, P = 0.035) to predict advanced fibrosis. All other serum biochemical markers and their combination did not allow a useful prediction.None of these markers was a good predictor of histologic inflammation.CONCLUSION: Apolipoprotein A-I may be a suitable serum marker to predict advanced liver fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis B.

  8. Using a Behavior Modeling Approach to Teach Students the Art of Providing and Receiving Verbal Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Using a behavior modeling approach, this study examined how students' perceived self-efficacy improved as they developed, delivered, and evaluated professional presentations. Using journal entries and a self-efficacy assessment, students' perceived self-efficacy increased as they learned to provide and receive verbal peer feedback, and to stage…

  9. Using a Behavior Modeling Approach to Teach Students the Art of Providing and Receiving Verbal Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Using a behavior modeling approach, this study examined how students' perceived self-efficacy improved as they developed, delivered, and evaluated professional presentations. Using journal entries and a self-efficacy assessment, students' perceived self-efficacy increased as they learned to provide and receive verbal peer feedback, and to stage…

  10. Study and modeling of a pressurized air receiver to power a micro gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiogou, Baye A.; Thiam, Ababacar; Mbow, Cheikh; Stouffs, Pascal; Azilinon, Dorothé

    2016-05-01

    In the present work a solar receiver with reticulated porous ceramic foam bounded by two concentric cylinders, horizontal axis and length L is selected and studied. A receiver pre-sizing study based on the optimization work of Hischier allowed us to find the dimensions and the receiver input variables. We have developed a mathematical model based on the Representative elementary volume to model the flow and heat transfer within the absorber. The numerical solution of equations set was obtained with FLUENT. The power of 75 kW wanted in this study is obtained with a thermal efficiency equal to 87%. The fields of temperature and velocities from the simulation are analyzed and it is clear from this study that the temperature profiles show the excellent ability of the receiver to transfer the heat to the fluid. The influences of the porosity and mass flow on the thermal efficiency are analyzed also. It emerges from this study that the mass flow rate and porosity are very critical parameters on the thermal performance of the receiver.

  11. The linearity response of the Planck-LFI flight model receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Villa, F; Terenzi, L; Cuttaia, F; Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P.Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C; Lapolla, P M [Thales Alenia Space - Italia, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O [CNR, Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Via Roberto Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Artal, E [Departamento de Ingenieria de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Davis, R; Kettle, D [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Frailis, M; Galeotta, S [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Gregorio, A [Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Dipartimenti di fisica Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Hughes, N; Jukkala, P; Kilpiae, V-H [DA-Design Oj, Keskuskatu 29, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Laaninen, M, E-mail: aniello.mennella@fisica.unimi.i [Ylinen Electronics Oy, Teollisuustie 9A, FIN-02700 Kauniainen (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper we discuss the linearity response of the Planck-LFI receivers, with particular reference to signal compression measured on the 30 and 44 GHz channels. In the article we discuss the various sources of compression and present a model that accurately describes data measured during tests performed with individual radiomeric chains. After discussing test results we present the best parameter set representing the receiver response and discuss the impact of non linearity on in-flight calibration, which is shown to be negligible.

  12. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc

    2007-01-01

    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  13. BELA receiver performance modeling over the BepiColombo mission lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Kurt; Thomas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Performance modeling of the BepiColombo laser altimeter (BELA) receiver has been performed in the context of return pulse detection probability and measurement accuracies. Models have been extended beyond earlier work [Gunderson, K., Thomas, N., Rohner, M., 2006. A laser altimeter performance model and its application to BELA. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, 3308-3319] to explore the receiver response to time-varying orbital conditions and potential instrument component degradations over the mission lifetime. New signal processing derivations are presented, and the set of measurement accuracy predictions has been broadened to include albedo and return pulse width in addition to range accuracy. Two detector gain optimization derivations are also described and applied as guides towards the identification of a preferred performance enhancing strategy.

  14. Behavioral modeling and simulation of multi-standard RF receivers using MATLAB/SIMULINK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Alonso; del Río, Rocío; de la Rosa, José M.

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a SIMULINK block set for the behavioral modeling and high-level simulation of RF receiver frontends. The toolbox includes a library with the main RF circuit models that are needed to implement wireless transceivers, namely: low noise amplifiers, mixers, oscillators, filters and programmable gain amplifiers. There is also a library including other blocks like the antenna, duplexer filter and switches, required to implement reconfigurable architectures. Behavioral models of building blocks include the main ideal functionality as well as the following non-idealities: thermal noise characterized by the Noise Figure (NF) and the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and nonlinearity expressed by the input-referred 2nd- and 3rd-order intercept points, IIP II and IIP 3, respectively. In addition to these general parameters, some block specific errors have been also included, like oscillator phase noise and mixer offset. These models have been incorporated into the SIMULINK environment making an extensive use of C-coded S-functions and reducing the number of library block elements. This approach reduces the simulation time while keeping high accuracy, what makes the proposed toolbox very appropriate to be combined with an optimizer for the automated high-level synthesis of radio receivers. As an application of the capabilities of the presented toolbox, a multi-standard Direct-Conversion Receiver (DCR) intended for 4G telecom systems is modeled and simulated considering the building-block requirements for the different standards.

  15. Aspect Ratio of Receiver Node Geometry based Indoor WLAN Propagation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Udaykumar; Bapat, Vishram N.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents validation of indoor wireless local area network (WLAN) propagation model for varying rectangular receiver node geometry. The rectangular client node configuration is a standard node arrangement in computer laboratories of academic institutes and research organizations. The model assists to install network nodes for the better signal coverage. The proposed model is backed by wide ranging real time received signal strength measurements at 2.4 GHz. The shadow fading component of signal propagation under realistic indoor environment is modelled with the dependency on varying aspect ratio of the client node geometry. The developed new model is useful in predicting indoor path loss for IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN. The new model provides better performance in comparison to well known International Telecommunication Union and free space propagation models. It is shown that the proposed model is simple and can be a useful tool for indoor WLAN node deployment planning and quick method for the best utilisation of the office space.

  16. Aspect Ratio of Receiver Node Geometry based Indoor WLAN Propagation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Udaykumar; Bapat, Vishram N.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents validation of indoor wireless local area network (WLAN) propagation model for varying rectangular receiver node geometry. The rectangular client node configuration is a standard node arrangement in computer laboratories of academic institutes and research organizations. The model assists to install network nodes for the better signal coverage. The proposed model is backed by wide ranging real time received signal strength measurements at 2.4 GHz. The shadow fading component of signal propagation under realistic indoor environment is modelled with the dependency on varying aspect ratio of the client node geometry. The developed new model is useful in predicting indoor path loss for IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN. The new model provides better performance in comparison to well known International Telecommunication Union and free space propagation models. It is shown that the proposed model is simple and can be a useful tool for indoor WLAN node deployment planning and quick method for the best utilisation of the office space.

  17. Operational modal analysis by updating autoregressive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, V. H.; Thomas, M.; Lakis, A. A.; Marcouiller, L.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents improvements of a multivariable autoregressive (AR) model for applications in operational modal analysis considering simultaneously the temporal response data of multi-channel measurements. The parameters are estimated by using the least squares method via the implementation of the QR factorization. A new noise rate-based factor called the Noise rate Order Factor (NOF) is introduced for use in the effective selection of model order and noise rate estimation. For the selection of structural modes, an orderwise criterion called the Order Modal Assurance Criterion (OMAC) is used, based on the correlation of mode shapes computed from two successive orders. Specifically, the algorithm is updated with respect to model order from a small value to produce a cost-effective computation. Furthermore, the confidence intervals of each natural frequency, damping ratio and mode shapes are also computed and evaluated with respect to model order and noise rate. This method is thus very effective for identifying the modal parameters in case of ambient vibrations dealing with modern output-only modal analysis. Simulations and discussions on a steel plate structure are presented, and the experimental results show good agreement with the finite element analysis.

  18. Machine learning-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for crisp and fuzzy classification of DNA microarrays in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Leif E; Coleman, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to obtain classification area under the curve (AUC) as a function of feature standardization, fuzzification, and sample size from nine large sets of cancer-related DNA microarrays. Classifiers used included k nearest neighbor (kNN), näive Bayes classifier (NBC), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), learning vector quantization (LVQ1), logistic regression (LOG), polytomous logistic regression (PLOG), artificial neural networks (ANN), particle swarm optimization (PSO), constricted particle swarm optimization (CPSO), kernel regression (RBF), radial basis function networks (RBFN), gradient descent support vector machines (SVMGD), and least squares support vector machines (SVMLS). For each data set, AUC was determined for a number of combinations of sample size, total sum[-log(p)] of feature t-tests, with and without feature standardization and with (fuzzy) and without (crisp) fuzzification of features. Altogether, a total of 2,123,530 classification runs were made. At the greatest level of sample size, ANN resulted in a fitted AUC of 90%, while PSO resulted in the lowest fitted AUC of 72.1%. AUC values derived from 4NN were the most dependent on sample size, while PSO was the least. ANN depended the most on total statistical significance of features used based on sum[-log(p)], whereas PSO was the least dependent. Standardization of features increased AUC by 8.1% for PSO and -0.2% for QDA, while fuzzification increased AUC by 9.4% for PSO and reduced AUC by 3.8% for QDA. AUC determination in planned microarray experiments without standardization and fuzzification of features will benefit the most if CPSO is used for lower levels of feature significance (i.e., sum[-log(p)] ~ 50) and ANN is used for greater levels of significance (i.e., sum[-log(p)] ~ 500). When only standardization of features is performed, studies are likely to benefit most by using CPSO for low levels

  19. A More Complete Model for TCP Connections Established between One Server and Many Receivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINYu; CHENGShiduan; WUHaitao; WANGChonggang

    2003-01-01

    Different from previous TCP (transmis-sion control program) modeling works, this paper presents a more complete analytical model of multiple TCP con-nections established between a busy server and multiple receivers under two distinct cases: the case there is suffi-cient bandwidth and the case there is a bandwidth bottle-neck link between the server and receivers. In the former case, the server will become the bottleneck of the whole system, and TCP behaviors are different from the model presented before. However, in the latter case, multiple TCP connections will share the bandwidth of the bottle-neck link. Based on the analysis of working flows in the system and a M/G/1 queueing model, the RTT and long-term TCP throughput formulae are derived in terms of number of TCPs, packet loss rate, and end-to-end delay.And the effect of maximum window size is also investi-gated. The simulation results confirm that new model is more accurate than previous model.

  20. Use of an operational model evaluation system for model intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, K. T., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is a centralized emergency response system used to assess the impact from atmospheric releases of hazardous materials. As part of an on- going development program, new three-dimensional diagnostic windfield and Lagrangian particle dispersion models will soon replace ARAC`s current operational windfield and dispersion codes. A prototype model performance evaluation system has been implemented to facilitate the study of the capabilities and performance of early development versions of these new models relative to ARAC`s current operational codes. This system provides tools for both objective statistical analysis using common performance measures and for more subjective visualization of the temporal and spatial relationships of model results relative to field measurements. Supporting this system is a database of processed field experiment data (source terms and meteorological and tracer measurements) from over 100 individual tracer releases.

  1. Evaluation of creep-fatigue life-prediction models for the solar central receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzak, J. M.; Hughes, D. A.

    1981-09-01

    The applicability of several creep fatigue models to life prediction of boiler tubes in a solar central receiver (SCR) was evaluated. The SCR boiler tubes will experience compressive strain dwell loading with hold times up to 6 to 8 hours at temperatures where time dependent deformation will occur. The evaluation criteria include the ability of the model to account for mean stress effects and to be practical in the long life, small strain range regime. A correlation between maximum tensile stress and fatigue life is presented. Using this correlation, compressive dwell behavior is predicted based on continuous cycling data. The limits of this predictive scheme are addressed.

  2. The commercial cycle from the viewpoint of operant behavioral economics: effects of price discounts on revenues received from services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barreiros Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between supply and demand generates commercial cycles. Operant behavioral economics explain that these cycles are shaped by three-term bilateral contingencies – situations that create supply and demand responses and which, in turn, generate reinforcing or punitive consequences that can maintain or mitigate these. Research shows how the commercial cycle of a company occurs and investigates how price discounts affect basic and differentiated service revenues according to seasonality. Based on a longitudinal design, two time-series analyses were performed using the ARIMA model, while another was carried out using a Generalized Estimating Equations divided into seasonal combinations. The results show, among other things, (1 that a company handles most of the marketing context strategies and programmed consequences of services used by consumers, creating a new commercial situation for the company, (2 the effects of price discounts on sophisticated services have a positive impact and produce higher revenues during the low season, while those related to basic services have a greater impact and produce greater revenue during the high season; and (3 the seasonality of the greatest purchasing intensity exerts a more positive influence on revenues than the seasonality of demand characterized by heterogeneous reinforcements. These findings are useful for the administration of price discounts to generate maximum revenue and make it possible to have a better understanding of the way the commercial cycle of a company functions.

  3. A secure operational model for mobile payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tao-Ku

    2014-01-01

    Instead of paying by cash, check, or credit cards, customers can now also use their mobile devices to pay for a wide range of services and both digital and physical goods. However, customers' security concerns are a major barrier to the broad adoption and use of mobile payments. In this paper we present the design of a secure operational model for mobile payments in which access control is based on a service-oriented architecture. A customer uses his/her mobile device to get authorization from a remote server and generate a two-dimensional barcode as the payment certificate. This payment certificate has a time limit and can be used once only. The system also provides the ability to remotely lock and disable the mobile payment service.

  4. A Secure Operational Model for Mobile Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Ku Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Instead of paying by cash, check, or credit cards, customers can now also use their mobile devices to pay for a wide range of services and both digital and physical goods. However, customers’ security concerns are a major barrier to the broad adoption and use of mobile payments. In this paper we present the design of a secure operational model for mobile payments in which access control is based on a service-oriented architecture. A customer uses his/her mobile device to get authorization from a remote server and generate a two-dimensional barcode as the payment certificate. This payment certificate has a time limit and can be used once only. The system also provides the ability to remotely lock and disable the mobile payment service.

  5. Optical property characterization of molten salt mixtures for thermal modeling of volumetrically absorbing solar receiver applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault-Friend, Melanie; McKrell, Thomas; Baglietto, Emilio; Gil, Antoni; Slocum, Alexander H.; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    A method for experimentally determining the attenuation coefficient of high temperature semi-transparent liquids for volumetrically absorbing solar receiver applications was developed. The method was used to measure the attenuation coefficient over a broad spectral range in a 40 wt. % KNO3:60 wt. % NaNO3 binary nitrate molten salt mixture (solar salt). The measured absorption bands extend over 98% of the re-emission spectrum of the salt, indicating that thermal redistribution within the salt itself via radiative participating media effects is negligible. In addition, the effects of the salt's purity and thermal decomposition on the optical properties were also investigated and the light penetration depth is shown to vary significantly in the presence of impurities. The implications of these results for solar receiver design and modeling are discussed.

  6. FMCW CSAR Doppler shifting correction and the layover phenomenon analysising at a new received signal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Depeng; Qu, Yi; Xie, Yuehui

    2016-10-01

    Because of go-stop mode not applying to FMCW CSAR (frequency modulated continuous wave circular synthetic aperture radar), received signal include Doppler shifting result from the radar fly in one period, which have a bad effect on the quality of imaging in wide-field FMCW CSAR. However the compensation functions of liner SAR are not suitable for CSAR. To solve the problem, the paper rebuild a received mode and elicit the Doppler shifting. At the same time, based on the model, the paper analysis the layover phenomenon while obtaining two-dimensional (2D) representations of 3D large scenes due to the wide-field FMCW CSAR and simulate the phenomenon. By the simulation, the effect of the layover can be expressed clearly.

  7. Comprehensive Reactive Receiver Modeling for Diffusive Molecular Communication Systems: Reversible Binding, Molecule Degradation, and Finite Number of Receptors

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadzadeh, Arman; Burkovski, Andreas; Schober, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of receiver modeling in molecular communication systems. We consider the diffusive molecular communication channel between a transmitter nano-machine and a receiver nano-machine in a fluid environment. The information molecules released by the transmitter nano-machine into the environment can degrade in the channel via a first-order degradation reaction and those that reach the receiver nano-machine can participate in a reversible bimolecular reaction with receiver receptor proteins. Thereby, we distinguish between two scenarios. In the first scenario, we assume that the entire surface of the receiver is covered by receptor molecules. We derive a closed-form analytical expression for the expected received signal at the receiver, i.e., the expected number of activated receptors on the surface of the receiver. Then, in the second scenario, we consider the case where the number of receptor molecules is finite and the uniformly distributed receptor molecules cover the receiver surfa...

  8. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios: improvements over traditional methods for the evaluation and application of veterinary clinical pathology tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Greiner, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves provide a cutoff-independent method for the evaluation of continuous or ordinal tests used in clinical pathology laboratories. The area under the curve is a useful overall measure of test accuracy and can be used to compare different tests (or differ...

  9. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves as a technique for meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of duplex ultrasonography in peripheral arterial disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deVries, SO; Hunink, MGM; Polak, JF

    1996-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives. We summarized and compared the diagnostic performance of duplex and color-guided duplex ultrasonography in the evaluation of peripheral arterial disease. We present our research as an example of the use of summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in a meta-ana

  10. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle trans

  11. Dynamic modeling of a solar receiver/thermal energy storage system based on a compartmented dense gas fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Roberto; Chirone, Roberto; Chirone, Riccardo; Salatino, Piero

    2017-06-01

    Fluidized beds may be considered a promising option to collection and storage of thermal energy of solar radiation in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems thanks to their excellent thermal properties in terms of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient and thermal diffusivity and to the possibility to operate at much higher temperature. A novel concept of solar receiver for combined heat and power (CHP) generation consisting of a compartmented dense gas fluidized bed has been proposed to effectively accomplish three complementary tasks: collection of incident solar radiation, heat transfer to the working fluid of the thermodynamic cycle and thermal energy storage. A dynamical model of the system laid the basis for optimizing collection of incident radiative power, heat transfer to the steam cycle, storage of energy as sensible heat of bed solids providing the ground for the basic design of a 700kWth demonstration CSP plant.

  12. Performance of Cooperative Eigenvalue Spectrum Sensing with a Realistic Receiver Model under Impulsive Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan A. Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a unified comparison of the performance of four detection techniques for centralized data-fusion cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks under impulsive noise, namely, the eigenvalue-based generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT, the maximum-minimum eigenvalue detection (MMED, the maximum eigenvalue detection (MED, and the energy detection (ED. We consider two system models: an implementation-oriented model that includes the most relevant signal processing tasks realized by a real cognitive radio receiver, and the theoretical model conventionally adopted in the literature. We show that under the implementation-oriented model, GLRT and MMED are quite robust under impulsive noise, whereas the performance of MED and ED is drastically degraded. We also show that performance under the conventional model can be too pessimistic if impulsive noise is present, whereas it can be too optimistic in the absence of this impairment. We also discuss the fact that impulsive noise is not such a severe problem when we take into account the more realistic implementation-oriented model.

  13. Heat exchanger modelling in central receiver solar power plant using dense particle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Gómez-García, Fabrisio; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel; Benoit, Hadrien; Flamant, Gilles

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a detailed thermodynamic model for a heat exchanger (HX) working with a dense particle suspension (DPS) as heat transfer fluid (HTF) in the solar loop and water-steam as working fluid is presented. HX modelling is based on fluidized bed (FB) technology and its design has been conceived to couple solar plant using DPS as HTF and storage media with Rankine cycle for power generation. Using DPS as heat transfer fluid allows extending operating temperature range what will help to reduce thermal energy storage costs favoring higher energy densities but will also allow running power cycle at higher temperature what will increase its efficiency. Besides HX modelling description, this model will be used to reproduce solar plant performance under steady state and transient conditions.

  14. Assessing the predictive performance of risk-based water quality criteria using decision error estimates from receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Douglas B

    2012-10-01

    Field data relating aquatic ecosystem responses with water quality constituents that are potential ecosystem stressors are being used increasingly in the United States in the derivation of water quality criteria to protect aquatic life. In light of this trend, there is a need for transparent quantitative methods to assess the performance of models that predict ecological conditions using a stressor-response relationship, a response variable threshold, and a stressor variable criterion. Analysis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC analysis) has a considerable history of successful use in medical diagnostic, industrial, and other fields for similarly structured decision problems, but its use for informing water quality management decisions involving risk-based environmental criteria is less common. In this article, ROC analysis is used to evaluate predictions of ecological response variable status for 3 water quality stressor-response data sets. Information on error rates is emphasized due in part to their common use in environmental studies to describe uncertainty. One data set is comprised of simulated data, and 2 involve field measurements described previously in the literature. These data sets are also analyzed using linear regression and conditional probability analysis for comparison. Results indicate that of the methods studied, ROC analysis provides the most comprehensive characterization of prediction error rates including false positive, false negative, positive predictive, and negative predictive errors. This information may be used along with other data analysis procedures to set quality objectives for and assess the predictive performance of risk-based criteria to support water quality management decisions.

  15. Development of steady-state model for MSPT and detailed analyses of receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Minoru; Sonoda, Masanori; Hino, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    Molten salt parabolic trough system (MSPT) uses molten salt as heat transfer fluid (HTF) instead of synthetic oil. The demonstration plant of MSPT was constructed by Chiyoda Corporation and Archimede Solar Energy in Italy in 2013. Chiyoda Corporation developed a steady-state model for predicting the theoretical behavior of the demonstration plant. The model was designed to calculate the concentrated solar power and heat loss using ray tracing of incident solar light and finite element modeling of thermal energy transferred into the medium. This report describes the verification of the model using test data on the demonstration plant, detailed analyses on the relation between flow rate and temperature difference on the metal tube of receiver and the effect of defocus angle on concentrated power rate, for solar collector assembly (SCA) development. The model is accurate to an extent of 2.0% as systematic error and 4.2% as random error. The relationships between flow rate and temperature difference on metal tube and the effect of defocus angle on concentrated power rate are shown.

  16. Developing Operator Models for UAV Search Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertuccelli, L.F.; Beckers, N.W.M.; Cummings, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    With the increased use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), it is envisioned that UAV operators will become high level mission supervisors, responsible for information management and task planning. In the context of search missions, operators supervising a large number of UAVs can become overwhelmed

  17. Analysis of operating model of electronic invoice colombian Colombian electronic billing analysis of the operational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has been one of the first countries to introduce electronic billing process on a voluntary basis, from a traditional to a digital version. In this context, the article analyzes the electronic billing process implemented in Colombia and the advantages. Methodological research is applied, qualitative, descriptive and documentary; where the regulatory framework and the conceptualization of the model is identified; the process of adoption of electronic billing is analyzed, and finally the advantages and disadvantages of its implementation is analyzed. The findings indicate that the model applied in Colombia to issue an electronic billing in sending and receiving process, is not complex, but it requires a small adequate infrastructure and trained personnel to reach all sectors, especially the micro and business which is the largest business network in the country.

  18. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of tumor growth kinetics in medullary thyroid cancer patients receiving cabozantinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Dale R; Wada, David R; Jumbe, Nelson L; Lacy, Steven A; Nguyen, Linh T

    2016-04-01

    Nonlinear mixed effects models were developed to describe the relationship between cabozantinib exposure and target lesion tumor size in a phase III study of patients with progressive metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. These models used cabozantinib exposure estimates from a previously published population pharmacokinetic model for cabozantinib in cancer patients that was updated with data from healthy-volunteer studies. Semi-mechanistic models predict well for tumors with static, increasing, or decreasing growth over time, but they were not considered adequate for predicting tumor sizes in medullary thyroid cancer patients, among whom an early reduction in tumor size was followed by a late stabilization phase in those receiving cabozantinib. A semi-empirical tumor model adequately predicted tumor profiles that were assumed to have a net growth rate constant that was piecewise continuous in the regions of 0-110 and 110-280 days. Emax models relating average concentration to average change in tumor size predicted that an average concentration of 79 and 58 ng/ml, respectively, would yield 50% of the maximum possible tumor reduction during the first 110 days of dosing and during the subsequent 110-280 days of dosing. Simulations of tumor responses showed that daily doses of 60 mg or greater are expected to provide a similar tumor reduction. Both model evaluation of observed data and simulation results suggested that the two protocol-defined cabozantinib dose reductions from 140 to 100 mg/day and from 100 to 60 mg/day are not projected to result in a marked reduction in target lesion regrowth.

  19. Characterization and Modeling of Received Signal Strength and Charging Time for Wireless Energy Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthman Baroudi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks can provide effective means for monitoring and controlling a wide range of applications. Recently, tremendous effort was directed towards devising sensors powered from ambient sources such as heat, wind, and vibration. Wireless energy transfer is another source that has attractive features that make it a promising candidate for supplying power to wireless sensor nodes. This paper is concerned with characterizing and modeling the charging time and received signal strength indicator for wireless energy transfer system. These parameters play a vital role in deciding the geometry of sensor network and the routing protocols to be deployed. The development of communication protocols for wireless-powered wireless sensor networks is also improved with the knowledge of such models. These two quantities were computed from data acquired at various coordinates of the harvester relative to a fixed position of RF energy source. Data was acquired for indoor and outdoor scenarios using the commercially available PowerCast energy harvester and evaluation board. Mathematical models for both indoor and outdoor environments were developed and analyzed. A few guidelines on how to use these models were suggested. Finally, the possibility of harvesting the energy from the ambient RF power to energize wireless sensor nodes was also investigated.

  20. Source-receiver two-way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding-reflector modelling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-10-08

    Most modern seismic imaging methods separate input data into parts (shot gathers). We develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield forward or backward in time. This approach has the potential for generating accurate images free of artiefacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high-order partial differential equations in the source-receiver time domain. The fourth-order nature of the extrapolation in time leads to four solutions, two of which correspond to the incoming and outgoing P-waves and reduce to the zero-offset exploding-reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. A challenge for implementing two-way time extrapolation is an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity can be avoided by limiting the range of wavenumbers treated in a spectral-based extrapolation. Using spectral methods based on the low-rank approximation of the propagation symbol, we extrapolate only the desired solutions in an accurate and efficient manner with reduced dispersion artiefacts. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach.

  1. Operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukkonen, J.; Balk, T.; Schultz, D.M.; Baklanov, A.; Klein, T.; Miranda, A.I.; Monteiro, A.; Hirtl, M.; Tarvainen, V.; Boy, M.; Peuch, V.H.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Finardi, S.; Sofiev, M.; Sokhi, R.; Lehtinen, K.; Karatzas, K.; San José, R.; Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Schaap, M.; Reimer, E.; Jakobs, H.; Eben, K.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed

  2. Modelling Metrics for Mine Counter Measure Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Refs [22][25]) that was initially developed at DRDC Atlantic and was recently upgraded at DRDC CORA under the Technology Investment Fund (TIF) project...and Yip H. Autonomous underwater vehicles conducting mine countermeasure operations, DRDC CORA TM 2008-42, Oct 08, 54 pages. [14] Nguyen, B. U. and...Contract Report, Jun 06. 46 DRDC-RDDC-2014-R58 List of symbols/abbreviations/acronyms/initialisms CAF Canadian Forces CORA Centre for Operational

  3. Simple nonlinearity evaluation and modeling of low-noise amplifiers with application to radio astronomy receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, F J; Pascual, J P; de la Fuente, M L; Artal, E; Portilla, J

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a comparative nonlinear analysis of low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) under different stimuli for use in astronomical applications. Wide-band Gaussian-noise input signals, together with the high values of gain required, make that figures of merit, such as the 1 dB compression (1 dBc) point of amplifiers, become crucial in the design process of radiometric receivers in order to guarantee the linearity in their nominal operation. The typical method to obtain the 1 dBc point is by using single-tone excitation signals to get the nonlinear amplitude to amplitude (AM-AM) characteristic but, as will be shown in the paper, in radiometers, the nature of the wide-band Gaussian-noise excitation signals makes the amplifiers present higher nonlinearity than when using single tone excitation signals. Therefore, in order to analyze the suitability of the LNA's nominal operation, the 1 dBc point has to be obtained, but using realistic excitation signals. In this work, an analytical study of compression effects in amplifiers due to excitation signals composed of several tones is reported. Moreover, LNA nonlinear characteristics, as AM-AM, total distortion, and power to distortion ratio, have been obtained by simulation and measurement with wide-band Gaussian-noise excitation signals. This kind of signal can be considered as a limit case of a multitone signal, when the number of tones is very high. The work is illustrated by means of the extraction of realistic nonlinear characteristics, through simulation and measurement, of a 31 GHz back-end module LNA used in the radiometer of the QUIJOTE (Q U I JOint TEnerife) CMB experiment.

  4. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaqing Wu; Rui Song; Youan Wang; Feng Chen; Shubin Li

    2015-01-01

    The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT) and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the ...

  5. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  6. Data Scaling for Operational Risk Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. Na; L. Couto Miranda; J.H. van den Berg (Jan); M. Leipoldt

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn 2004, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision defined Operational Risk (OR) as the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from external events. After publication of the new capital accord containing this dfinition, statistical

  7. Data Scaling for Operational Risk Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. Na; L. Couto Miranda; J.H. van den Berg (Jan); M. Leipoldt

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn 2004, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision defined Operational Risk (OR) as the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from external events. After publication of the new capital accord containing this dfinition, statistical pro

  8. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  9. Delineating a Retesting Zone Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis on Serial QuantiFERON Tuberculosis Test Results in US Healthcare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Thanassi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To find a statistically significant separation point for the QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube (QFT interferon gamma release assay that could define an optimal “retesting zone” for use in serially tested low-risk populations who have test “reversions” from initially positive to subsequently negative results. Method. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC to analyze retrospective data collected from 3 major hospitals, we searched for predictors of reversion until statistically significant separation points were revealed. A confirmatory regression analysis was performed on an additional sample. Results. In 575 initially positive US healthcare workers (HCWs, 300 (52.2% had reversions, while 275 (47.8% had two sequential positive tests. The most statistically significant (Kappa = 0.48, chi-square = 131.0, P<0.001 separation point identified by the ROC for predicting reversion was the tuberculosis antigen minus-nil (TBag-nil value at 1.11 International Units per milliliter (IU/mL. The second separation point was found at TBag-nil at 0.72 IU/mL (Kappa = 0.16, chi-square = 8.2, P<0.01. The model was validated by the regression analysis of 287 HCWs. Conclusion. Reversion likelihood increases as the TBag-nil approaches the manufacturer's cut-point of 0.35 IU/mL. The most statistically significant separation point between those who test repeatedly positive and those who revert is 1.11 IU/mL. Clinicians should retest low-risk individuals with initial QFT results < 1.11 IU/mL.

  10. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 02: Radiogenomic Modeling of Normal Tissue Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Hypofractionated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, J [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jeyaseelan, K; Ybarra, N; David, M; Faria, S; Souhami, L; Cury, F; Duclos, M; El Naqa, I [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC Canada (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Inter-patient radiation sensitivity variability has recently been shown to have a genetic component. This genetic component may play a key role in explaining the fluctuating rates of radiation-induced toxicities (RITs). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have thus far yielded inconsistent results in delineating RITs while copy number variations (CNVs) have not yet been investigated for such purposes. We explore a radiogenomic modeling approach to investigate the association of CNVs and SNPs, along with clinical and dosimetric variables, in radiation induced rectal bleeding (RB) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in prostate cancer patients treated with curative hypofractionated irradiation. A cohort of 62 prostate cancer patients who underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy (66 Gy in 22 fractions) between 2002 to 2010 were retrospectively genotyped for CNV and SNP rs5489 in the xrcc1 DNA repair gene. Late toxicity rates for RB grade 2 and 3 and grade 3 alone were 29.0% and 12.9%, respectively. ED toxicity was found to be 62.9%. Radiogenomic model performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) and resampling by cross-validation. Binary variables were evaluated using Chi-squared contingency table analysis and multivariate models by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). Ten patients were found to have three copies of xrcc1 CNV (RB: χ{sup 2}=14.6, p<0.001 and ED: χ{sup 2}=4.88, p=0.0272) and twelve had heterozygous rs25489 SNP (RB: χ{sup 2}=0.278, p=0.599 and ED: χ{sup 2}=0.112, p=0.732). Radiogenomic modeling yielded significant, cross-validated NTCP models for RB (AUC=0.665) and ED (AUC=0.754). These results indicate that CNVs may be potential predictive biomarkers of both late ED and RB.

  11. Vector operations for modelling data-conversion procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    This article presents a set of vector operations that permit effective modelling of operations from extended relational algebra for implementations of variable-construction procedures in data-conversion processors. Vector operations are classified, and test results are given for the ARIUS UP and other popular database management systems for PC`s. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Coalition Modeling in Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Generally, the high cost of military operations, reduced military budgets after the cold war, global economies, and the need for international legitimacy...addition, there has been a global increase in civil/ethnic strife which cause complex emergency (Lynch: 4). Furthermore, since these emergencies generally...notional scenario has been scaled back for demonstration purposes. These scenarios are solved using Xpress by Dash Optimization which is a commercial

  13. Pseudo-Differential Operators and Integrable Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sedra, M B

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the theory of pseudo-differential operators in the study of non linear integrable systems is point out. Principally, the algebra $\\Xi $ of nonlinear (local and nonlocal) differential operators, acting on the ring of analytic functions $u_{s}(x, t)$, is studied. It is shown in particular that this space splits into several classes of subalgebras $\\Sigma_{jr}, j=0,\\pm 1, r=\\pm 1$ completely specified by the quantum numbers: $s$ and $(p,q)$ describing respectively the conformal weight (or spin) and the lowest and highest degrees. The algebra ${\\huge \\Sigma}_{++}$ (and its dual $\\Sigma_{--}$) of local (pure nonlocal) differential operators is important in the sense that it gives rise to the explicit form of the second hamiltonian structure of the KdV system and that we call also the Gelfand-Dickey Poisson bracket. This is explicitly done in several previous studies, see for the moment \\cite{4, 5, 14}. Some results concerning the KdV and Boussinesq hierarchies are derived explicitly.

  14. Integration of Dynamic Models in Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    This work addresses the various model interactions in real-time to make an efficient internet based decision making tool for Shuttle launch. The decision making tool depends on the launch commit criteria coupled with physical models. Dynamic interaction between a wide variety of simulation applications and techniques, embedded algorithms, and data visualizations are needed to exploit the full potential of modeling and simulation. This paper also discusses in depth details of web based 3-D graphics and applications to range safety. The advantages of this dynamic model integration are secure accessibility and distribution of real time information to other NASA centers.

  15. Mapping Relational Operations onto Hypergraph Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    . However, the hypergraph model is non-tabular; thus, loses the simplicity of the relational model. In this study, we consider the means to convert a relational model into a hypergraph model in two layers. At the bottom layer, each relational tuple can be considered as a star graph centered where the primary key node is surrounded by non-primary key attributes. At the top layer, each tuple is a hypernode, and a relation is a set of hypernodes. We presented a reference implementation of relational operators (project, rename, select, inner join, natural join, left join, right join, outer join and Cartesian join on a hypergraph model. Using a simple example, we demonstrate that a relation and relational operators can be implemented on this hypergraph model.

  16. An operator calculus for surface and volume modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The mathematical techniques which form the foundation for most of the surface and volume modeling techniques used in practice are briefly described. An outline of what may be termed an operator calculus for the approximation and interpolation of functions of more than one independent variable is presented. By considering the linear operators associated with bivariate and multivariate interpolation/approximation schemes, it is shown how they can be compounded by operator multiplication and Boolean addition to obtain a distributive lattice of approximation operators. It is then demonstrated via specific examples how this operator calculus leads to practical techniques for sculptured surface and volume modeling.

  17. Organizational effectiveness of coalition operations' headquarters : A theoretical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogler-Bisig, E.; Blais, A.R.; Hof, T.; Tresch, T.S.; Seiler, S.; Yanakiev, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This article describes a theoretical model that allows understanding, explaining, and measuring the perceived organizational effectiveness of multinational coalition operations' headquarters. Design/methodology/approach - The proposed model is based on subject matter experts' opinions and

  18. Modeling and optimization of laser cutting operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadallah Mohamed Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser beam cutting is one important nontraditional machining process. This paper optimizes the parameters of laser beam cutting parameters of stainless steel (316L considering the effect of input parameters such as power, oxygen pressure, frequency and cutting speed. Statistical design of experiments is carried in three different levels and process responses such as average kerf taper (Ta, surface roughness (Ra and heat affected zones are measured accordingly. A response surface model is developed as a function of the process parameters. Responses predicted by the models (as per Taguchi’s L27OA are employed to search for an optimal combination to achieve desired process yield. Response Surface Models (RSMs are developed for mean responses, S/N ratio, and standard deviation of responses. Optimization models are formulated as single objective optimization problem subject to process constraints. Models are formulated based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and optimized using Matlab developed environment. Optimum solutions are compared with Taguchi Methodology results. As such, practicing engineers have means to model, analyze and optimize nontraditional machining processes. Validation experiments are carried to verify the developed models with success.

  19. GPS satellite and receiver instrumental biases estimation using least squares method for accurate ionosphere modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Sasibhushana Rao

    2007-10-01

    The positional accuracy of the Global Positioning System (GPS)is limited due to several error sources.The major error is ionosphere.By augmenting the GPS,the Category I (CAT I)Precision Approach (PA)requirements can be achieved.The Space-Based Augmentation System (SBAS)in India is known as GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN).One of the prominent errors in GAGAN that limits the positional accuracy is instrumental biases.Calibration of these biases is particularly important in achieving the CAT I PA landings.In this paper,a new algorithm is proposed to estimate the instrumental biases by modelling the TEC using 4th order polynomial.The algorithm uses values corresponding to a single station for one month period and the results confirm the validity of the algorithm.The experimental results indicate that the estimation precision of the satellite-plus-receiver instrumental bias is of the order of ± 0.17 nsec.The observed mean bias error is of the order − 3.638 nsec and − 4.71 nsec for satellite 1 and 31 respectively.It is found that results are consistent over the period.

  20. Deterministic operations research models and methods in linear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rader, David J

    2013-01-01

    Uniquely blends mathematical theory and algorithm design for understanding and modeling real-world problems Optimization modeling and algorithms are key components to problem-solving across various fields of research, from operations research and mathematics to computer science and engineering. Addressing the importance of the algorithm design process. Deterministic Operations Research focuses on the design of solution methods for both continuous and discrete linear optimization problems. The result is a clear-cut resource for understanding three cornerstones of deterministic operations resear

  1. Nonlinear Model Identification from Operating Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    34, Submitted July 1979 to Proc. IEEE. [13] Wellstead , P., "Model Order Identification Using an Auxillary System," Proc. IEEE, vol. 123, No. 12, December...C and Systems, Nov. 1979 . I I ~I lt( -~ I -l.. .... .. . ... . .. . . , _. . - -"

  2. Theoretical model of smooth disk operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, K.

    1985-02-01

    Aes a theoretical model is analyzed for coal cutting by disk cutters mounted on a helical cutting drum of a shearer loader. The model is based on the assumption that failure of coal cohesion is caused by crushing and separation of coal grains from a coal face and that coal cutting resistance depends on its contact strength as well as cutting depth and cutting angle. 1 reference.

  3. 八达岭太阳能塔式热发电吸热器水动力特性仿真研究%Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Operation Security Study of Solar Receiver for Badaling Solar Tower Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高维; 徐蕙; 徐二树; 余强

    2012-01-01

    This paper took overheating cavity receiver of Badaling 1 MW solar power tower plant as study object, developed a hydrodynamic simulation model for receiver based on the working principle of the superheating cavity receiver, simulated the hydrodynamic characteristics of cavity receiver, and obtained the change law of working medium mass flow in different heating surfaces with solar radiation. The results can provide some guidance to design the receiver system and to formulate the control and operating strategy for solar power tower plant.%本文以八达岭塔式太阳能热发电实验电站腔式吸热器为研究对象,根据吸热器的结构和工作原理,利用热力学定律建立了吸热器系统水动力仿真数学模型,模拟了吸热器蒸发受热面系统内工质的流动,通过吸热器水动力的仿真实验从而得到在不同的太阳辐照强度下吸热器蒸发受热面入口流量的分配规律。论文结论对实际太阳能热发电站吸热器的设计及安全运行具有指导意义。

  4. Evaluation of hemoglobin performance in the assessment of iron stores in feto-maternal pairs in a high-risk population: receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Jaime-Pérez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: By applying receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the objective of this study was to see whether hemoglobin levels reflect body iron stores in a group of pregnant women at term who, by using serum ferritin as the reference test, had a high pre-test prob- ability of having iron deficiency anemia. Likewise, we evaluated the ability of hemoglobin and maternal serum ferritin levels to predict iron deficiency anemia in newborns. Methods: Hemoglobin and serum ferritin were measured in 187 pregnant women at term belonging to a group with a high pre-test probability of iron deficiency anemia and their newborns. Women with Hb <11.0 g/dL and newborns with cord Hb <13.0 g/dL were classified as anemic. A serum ferritin <12.0 µg/L in women and a cord blood serum ferritin <35.0 µg/L were considered to reflect empty iron stores. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was applied to select the cut-off points that better reflected iron stores. Results: The Hb cut-off point selected by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in women was <11.5 g/dL (sensitivity: 60.82, specificity: 53.33%, Youden Index: 0.450. Most of the newborns had normal Hb which precluded this analysis. Maternal Hb <11.0 g/dL was the cut-off point that best reflected iron deficiency anemia in newborns (sensitivity: 55.88%, specificity: 57.24%, Youden Index: 0.217. The best cut-off point of maternal serum ferritin to reflect empty iron stores in newborns was <6.0 µg/L (sensitivity: 76.47%, specificity: 31.58%, Youden Index: 0.200. Conclusion: Hemoglobin concentration performed poorly to detect iron deficiency anemia in women at term with high risk for iron deficiency and their newborns.

  5. Evaluation of hemoglobin performance in the assessment of iron stores in feto-maternal pairs in a high-risk population: receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; García-Arellano, Gisela; Méndez-Ramírez, Nereida; González-Llano, Óscar; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective By applying receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the objective of this study was to see whether hemoglobin levels reflect body iron stores in a group of pregnant women at term who, by using serum ferritin as the reference test, had a high pre-test probability of having iron deficiency anemia. Likewise, we evaluated the ability of hemoglobin and maternal serum ferritin levels to predict iron deficiency anemia in newborns. Methods Hemoglobin and serum ferritin were measured in 187 pregnant women at term belonging to a group with a high pre-test probability of iron deficiency anemia and their newborns. Women with Hb <11.0 g/dL and newborns with cord Hb <13.0 g/dL were classified as anemic. A serum ferritin <12.0 μg/L in women and a cord blood serum ferritin <35.0 μg/L were considered to reflect empty iron stores. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was applied to select the cut-off points that better reflected iron stores. Results The Hb cut-off point selected by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in women was <11.5 g/dL (sensitivity: 60.82, specificity: 53.33%, Youden Index: 0.450). Most of the newborns had normal Hb which precluded this analysis. Maternal Hb <11.0 g/dL was the cut-off point that best reflected iron deficiency anemia in newborns (sensitivity: 55.88%, specificity: 57.24%, Youden Index: 0.217). The best cut-off point of maternal serum ferritin to reflect empty iron stores in newborns was <6.0 μg/L (sensitivity: 76.47%, specificity: 31.58%, Youden Index: 0.200). Conclusion Hemoglobin concentration performed poorly to detect iron deficiency anemia in women at term with high risk for iron deficiency and their newborns. PMID:26041420

  6. Cardiac modeling using active appearance models and morphological operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Bernhard; Hanser, Friedrich; Seger, Michael; Hintermueller, Christoph; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Fischer, Gerald; Muehlthaler, Hannes; Trieb, Thomas; Tilg, Bernhard

    2005-04-01

    We present an approach for fast reconstructing of cardiac myocardium and blood masses of a patient's heart from morphological image data, acquired either MRI or CT, in order to estimate numerically the spread of electrical excitation in the patient's atria and ventricles. The approach can be divided into two main steps. During the first step the ventricular and atrial blood masses are extracted employing Active Appearance Models (AAM). The left and right ventricular blood masses are segmented automatically after providing the positions of the apex cordis and the base of the heart. Because of the complex geometry of the atria the segmentation process of the atrial blood masses requires more information as the ventricular blood mass segmentation process of the ventricles. We divided, for this reason, the left and right atrium into three divisions of appearance. This proved sufficient for the 2D AAM model to extract the target blood masses. The base of the heart, the left upper and left lower pulmonary vein from its first up to its last appearance in the image stack, and the right upper and lower pulmonary vein have to be marked. After separating the volume data into these divisions the 2D AAM search procedure extracts the blood masses which are the main input for the second and last step in the myocardium extraction pipeline. This step uses morphologically-based operations in order to extract the ventricular and atrial myocardium either directly by detecting the myocardium in the volume block or by reconstructing the myocardium using mean model information, in case the algorithm fails to detect the myocardium.

  7. Modeling of useful operating life of radioelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevlyudova V. V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the possibility of using the laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics to determine the relationship between controlled parameters of radioelectronics and the displayed environment, as well as the construction of a deterministic model of the processes of manufacturing defects development. This possibility is based on the observed patterns of change in the amount of content area, in accordance with the principles of behavior of the thermodynamic parameters characterizing the state of the real environment (entropy, the quantity of heat, etc.. The equation for the evolution of the technical state of radioelectronics is based on the deterministic kinetic model of the processes occurring in the multi-component environment, and on the observation model, which takes into account the errors caused by external influences instability and uncertainty.

  8. Modeling Optimal Scheduling for Pumping System to Minimize Operation Cost and Enhance Operation Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Luo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional pump scheduling models neglect the operation reliability which directly relates with the unscheduled maintenance cost and the wear cost during the operation. Just for this, based on the assumption that the vibration directly relates with the operation reliability and the degree of wear, it could express the operation reliability as the normalization of the vibration level. The characteristic of the vibration with the operation point was studied, it could be concluded that idealized flow versus vibration plot should be a distinct bathtub shape. There is a narrow sweet spot (80 to 100 percent BEP to obtain low vibration levels in this shape, and the vibration also follows similar law with the square of the rotation speed without resonance phenomena. Then, the operation reliability could be modeled as the function of the capacity and rotation speed of the pump and add this function to the traditional model to form the new. And contrast with the tradition method, the result shown that the new model could fix the result produced by the traditional, make the pump operate in low vibration, then the operation reliability could increase and the maintenance cost could decrease.

  9. Shuttle operations simulation model programmers'/users' manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    The prospective user of the shuttle operations simulation (SOS) model is given sufficient information to enable him to perform simulation studies of the space shuttle launch-to-launch operations cycle. The procedures used for modifying the SOS model to meet user requirements are described. The various control card sequences required to execute the SOS model are given. The report is written for users with varying computer simulation experience. A description of the components of the SOS model is included that presents both an explanation of the logic involved in the simulation of the shuttle operations cycle and a description of the routines used to support the actual simulation.

  10. Operational Plan Ontology Model for Interconnection and Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, F.; Sun, Y. K.; Shi, H. Q.

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the assistant decision-making system’s bottleneck of processing the operational plan data and information, this paper starts from the analysis of the problem of traditional expression and the technical advantage of ontology, and then it defines the elements of the operational plan ontology model and determines the basis of construction. Later, it builds up a semi-knowledge-level operational plan ontology model. Finally, it probes into the operational plan expression based on the operational plan ontology model and the usage of the application software. Thus, this paper has the theoretical significance and application value in the improvement of interconnection and interoperability of the operational plan among assistant decision-making systems.

  11. The operator algebra of orbifold models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Vafa, Cumrun; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman

    1989-09-01

    We analyze the chiral properties of (orbifold) conformal field theories which are obtained from a given conformal field theory by modding out by a finite symmetry group. For a class of orbifolds, we derive the fusion rules by studying the modular transformation properties of the one-loop characters. The results are illustrated with explicit calculations of toroidal and c=1 models.

  12. Background Error Correlation Modeling with Diffusion Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    functions defined on the orthogonal curvilin- ear grid of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) [28] set up in the Monterrey Bay (Fig. 4). The number N...H2 = [1 1; 1−1], the HMs with order N = 2n, n= 1,2... can be easily constructed. HMs with N = 12,20 were constructed ” manually ” more than a century

  13. Features in geometric receiver shapes modelling bat-like directivity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarato, Francesco; Andrews, Heather; Windmill, James F C; Jackson, Joseph; Pierce, Gareth; Gachagan, Anthony

    2015-09-03

    The directional properties of bat ears as receivers is a current area of interest in ultrasound research. This paper presents a new approach to analyse the relationship between morphological features and acoustical properties of the external ear of bat species. The beam pattern of Rousettus leschenaultii's right ear is measured and compared to that of receiver structures whose design is inspired by the bat ear itself and made of appropriate geometric shapes. The regular shape of these receivers makes it possible to control the key reception parameters and thus to understand the effect on the associated beam pattern of the parameters themselves. Measurements show one receiver structure has a beam pattern very similar to that of R. leschenaultii's ear, thus explaining the function of individual parts constituting its ear. As it is applicable to all bat species, this approach can provide a useful tool to investigate acoustics in bats, and possibly other mammals.

  14. Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations (LLEGO) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    LLEGO is a model for understanding recurring launch and landing operations costs at Kennedy Space Center for human space flight. Launch and landing operations are often referred to as ground processing, or ground operations. Currently, this function is specific to the ground operations for the Space Shuttle Space Transportation System within the Space Shuttle Program. The Constellation system to follow the Space Shuttle consists of the crewed Orion spacecraft atop an Ares I launch vehicle and the uncrewed Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Constellation flight and ground systems build upon many elements of the existing Shuttle flight and ground hardware, as well as upon existing organizations and processes. In turn, the LLEGO model builds upon past ground operations research, modeling, data, and experience in estimating for future programs. Rather than to simply provide estimates, the LLEGO model s main purpose is to improve expenses by relating complex relationships among functions (ground operations contractor, subcontractors, civil service technical, center management, operations, etc.) to tangible drivers. Drivers include flight system complexity and reliability, as well as operations and supply chain management processes and technology. Together these factors define the operability and potential improvements for any future system, from the most direct to the least direct expenses.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Shuttle Launch and Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    The simulation and modeling test bed is based on a mockup of a space flight operations control suitable to experiment physical, procedural, software, hardware and psychological aspects of space flight operations. The test bed consists of a weather expert system to advise on the effect of weather to the launch operations. It also simulates toxic gas dispersion model, impact of human health risk, debris dispersion model in 3D visualization. Since all modeling and simulation is based on the internet, it could reduce the cost of operations of launch and range safety by conducting extensive research before a particular launch. Each model has an independent decision making module to derive the best decision for launch.

  16. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays and the user`s prospective model of a system. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming and its use in expanding design choices from the operator`s perspective image. The contents of this paper focuses on the studies and how they are applicable to the safety of operating reactors.

  17. On the Spectrum of a Model Operator in Fock Space

    CERN Document Server

    Rasulov, Tulkin H; Hasanov, Mahir

    2008-01-01

    A model operator $H$ associated to a system describing four particles in interaction, without conservation of the number of particles, is considered. We describe the essential spectrum of $H$ by the spectrum of the channel operators and prove the Hunziker-van Winter-Zhislin (HWZ) theorem for the operator $H.$ We also give some variational principles for boundaries of the essential spectrum and interior eigenvalues.

  18. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  19. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  20. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  1. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  2. Quantitative modelling in design and operation of food supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van P.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades food supply systems not only got interest of food technologists but also from the field of Operations Research and Management Science. Operations Research (OR) is concerned with quantitative modelling and can be used to get insight into the optimal configuration and opera

  3. Models for estimation of land remote sensing satellites operational efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurenkov, Vladimir I.; Kucherov, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of estimation of land remote sensing satellites operational efficiency. Appropriate mathematical models have been developed. Some results obtained with the help of the software worked out in Delphi programming support environment are presented.

  4. Aviation Shipboard Operations Modeling and Simulation (ASOMS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:It is the mission of the Aviation Shipboard Operations Modeling and Simulation (ASOMS) Laboratory to provide a means by which to virtually duplicate products...

  5. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  6. Fuzzy Control Strategies in Human Operator and Sport Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana T; Markovic, Sasa

    2009-01-01

    The motivation behind mathematically modeling the human operator is to help explain the response characteristics of the complex dynamical system including the human manual controller. In this paper, we present two different fuzzy logic strategies for human operator and sport modeling: fixed fuzzy-logic inference control and adaptive fuzzy-logic control, including neuro-fuzzy-fractal control. As an application of the presented fuzzy strategies, we present a fuzzy-control based tennis simulator.

  7. Operational research models in warehouse design and planning

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Carla A. S.; Carvalho, Sameiro; Pereira, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    The design and operation of a warehouse involve many challenging decision problems. In this paper, a literature review on warehousing models is presented. Authors start with a hierarchy of decision problems encountered in setting up warehouse design and planning processes. Next, some operational research decision models and solution algorithms supporting decision making at each discussed level are presented. The aim is to link academic researchers and warehouse practitioners, explaining what ...

  8. Marine Vessel Models in Changing Operational Conditions - A Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Sørensen, Asgeir; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    conditions (VOC). However, since marine systems operate in changing VOCs, there is a need to adapt the models. To date, there is no theory available to describe a general model valid across different VOCs due to the complexity of the hydrodynamic involved. It is believed that system identification could......This tutorial paper provides an introduction, from a systems perspective, to the topic of ship motion dynamics of surface ships. It presents a classification of parametric models currently used for monitoring and control of marine vessels. These models are valid for certain vessel operational...

  9. Quantum current operators; 3, Commutative quantum current operators semi-infinite construction and functional models

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, J; Ding, Jintai; Feigin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    We construct a commutative current operator $\\bar x^+(z)$ inside $U_q(\\hat{\\frak sl}(2))$. With this operator and the condition of quantum integrability on the quantum current of $U_q(\\hat{\\frak sl}(2))$, we derive the quantization of the semi-infinite construction of integrable modules of The quantization of the functional models for $\\hat{\\frak sl}(2)$ are also given.

  10. Transformer real-time reliability model based on operating conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian; CHENG Lin; SUN Yuan-zhang

    2007-01-01

    Operational reliability evaluation theory reflects real-time reliability level of power system. The component failure rate varies with operating conditions. The impact of real-time operating conditions such as ambient temperature and transformer MVA (megavolt-ampere) loading on transformer insulation life is studied in this paper. The formula of transformer failure rate based on the winding hottest-spot temperature (HST) is given. Thus the real-time reliability model of transformer based on operating conditions is presented. The work is illustrated using the 1979 IEEE Reliability Test System. The changes of operating conditions are simulated by using hourly load curve and temperature curve, so the curves of real-time reliability indices are obtained by using operational reliability evaluation.

  11. Usefulness of pinhole collimator in differential diagnosis of metastatic disease and degenerative joint disease in the vertebrae; Evaluation by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Kawahara, Syunji; Ishibashi, Akihiko; Tamura, Kohei; Tsukatani, Yasushi; Fujii, Hiroshi (Okura National Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)); Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1989-11-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of pinhole collimator (PHC) imaging combined with an X-ray for vertebral metastasis, our prospective study has employed receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis in 21 patients, 11 with osseous metastasis and 15 with degenerative joint disease in the lumbar vertebrae. PHC imaging provided better anatomic information on the extent of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP accumulation. PHC vertebral scintigraphy had a considerable impact on the decision-making process, although with variations and not very satisfactory results among the physicians with little experience. Our study suggests that PHC imaging and X-ray film are useful in differentiating between osseous metastasis and degenerative joint disease in the vertebra. (author).

  12. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  13. Diagnostic sensitivity of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in esophageal carcinoma (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Bagaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal carcinomas are very lethal disease relatively unresponsive to therapy. The continued development of new and more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens offers hope that in the future, this carcinoma may be amenable to either more effective palliative treatment or possibly increased cure. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the marker with best diagnostic sensitivity in esophageal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG levels were assessed in healthy subjects (n = 50 and patients (n = 50 initially diagnosed of esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic examination and biopsy before receiving any therapy. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 10.0 (SPSS Inc. USA and MedCalc to estimate mean ± standard deviation, the significance of the observed differences (P value, for calculating sensitivity and for plotting receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, AFP, and β-HCG detected in esophagus cancer was 38%, 18%, 10%, and 26% respectively. Conclusion: From the above studied markers, CEA has the highest sensitivity followed by β-HCG, CA19-9 and AFP. Although the sensitivity of tumor markers in esophagus cancer is low, they may be useful additional parameter in the prediction of neoplasms involved at the early stage of tumor growth.

  14. Modeling and simulation of longwall scraper conveyor considering operational faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenacewicz, Krzysztof; Katunin, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The paper provides a description of analytical model of a longwall scraper conveyor, including its electrical, mechanical, measurement and control actuating systems, as well as presentation of its implementation in the form of computer simulator in the Matlab®/Simulink® environment. Using this simulator eight scenarios typical of usual operational conditions of an underground scraper conveyor can be generated. Moreover, the simulator provides a possibility of modeling various operational faults and taking into consideration a measurement noise generated by transducers. The analysis of various combinations of scenarios of operation and faults with description is presented. The simulator developed may find potential application in benchmarking of diagnostic systems, testing of algorithms of operational control or can be used for supporting the modeling of real processes occurring in similar systems.

  15. Multiple-Echo Suppression Modeling and Experimental Verification for Acoustic Transmission along Periodic Drillstring Using Dual Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the oil industry, the accompanied reverberation is a major constraint in the transmission rate and distance because the drillstring is a heterogeneous assembly. Based on the transient impulse responses in uplink and downlink channels, an improved simplified echo suppression model with two acoustic receivers is presented in consideration of position optimization of single acoustic receiver. Then the acoustic receiving characteristics of transmitted signals in a length-limited periodic drillstring channel are obtained in single- and dual-receiver modes. An additive downward white Gaussian noise is also introduced in the channel. Moreover, an experimental rig is established by using a rotatable electromagnetic vibration exciter and two piezoelectric accelerometers, which are spaced one-quarter wavelength apart along a 6.3-meter simulated periodic drillstring. The ASK-, FSK-, and PSK-modulated square-wave pulse sequences at a transmission rate of 200 bit/s are applied to the simulated drillstring at a rotation speed of 0, 80, and 140 r/min, respectively. The experimental results show that the dual-receiver mode can exhibit a significantly improved average error bit ratio, which is approximately 2.5 to 3 times lower than that of the single-receiver mode, especially under the conditions of higher rotation speeds.

  16. Conformity of the time and root characteristics received at modeling of linear systems in the environment of MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Borodenko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses conformity of the time and root characteristics received at modeling of linear systems in the environment of MATLAB, to each other and to the standard approach. The author studies conditions of reception of false or inexact results at the analysis of regulation quality on the transition characteristic.

  17. Operator function modeling: Cognitive task analysis, modeling and intelligent aiding in supervisory control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of task-analytic models and intelligent aids for operators in the control of complex dynamic systems, specifically aerospace systems, are studied. Three related activities are included: (1) the models of operator decision making in complex and predominantly automated space systems were used and developed; (2) the Operator Function Model (OFM) was used to represent operator activities; and (3) Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert), a stand-alone knowledge-based system was developed, that interacts with a human operator in a manner similar to a human assistant in the control of aerospace systems. OFMspert is an architecture for an operator's assistant that uses the OFM as its system and operator knowledge base and a blackboard paradigm of problem solving to dynamically generate expectations about upcoming operator activities and interpreting actual operator actions. An experiment validated the OFMspert's intent inferencing capability and showed that it inferred the intentions of operators in ways comparable to both a human expert and operators themselves. OFMspert was also augmented with control capabilities. An interface allowed the operator to interact with OFMspert, delegating as much or as little control responsibility as the operator chose. With its design based on the OFM, OFMspert's control capabilities were available at multiple levels of abstraction and allowed the operator a great deal of discretion over the amount and level of delegated control. An experiment showed that overall system performance was comparable for teams consisting of two human operators versus a human operator and OFMspert team.

  18. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  19. Ergonomics applications of a mechanical model of the human operator in power hand tool operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hua; Radwin, Robert; Nembhard, David

    2005-02-01

    Applications of a new model for predicting power threaded-fastener-driving tool operator response and capacity to react against impulsive torque reaction forces are explored for use in tool selection and ergonomic workplace design. The model is based on a mechanical analog of the human operator, with parameters dependent on work location (horizontal and vertical distances); work orientation (horizontal and vertical); and tool shape (in-line, pistol grip, and right angle); and is stratified by gender. This model enables prediction of group means and variances of handle displacement and force for a given tool configuration. Response percentiles can be ascertained for specific tool operations. For example, a sample pistol grip nutrunner used on a horizontal surface at 30 cm in front of the ankles and 140 cm above the floor results in a predicted mean handle reaction displacement of 39.0 (SD=28.1) mm for males. Consequently 63%of the male users exceed a 30 mm handle displacement limit. When a right angle tool of similar torque output is used instead, the model predicted that only 4.6%of the male tool users exceed a 30 mm handle displacement. A method is described for interpolating individual subject model parameters at any given work location using linear combinations in relation to the range of modeled factors. Additional examples pertinent to ergonomic workstation design and tool selection are provided to demonstrate how the model can be used to aid tool selection and workstation design.

  20. Estimation of pump operational state with model-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, Tero; Tamminen, Jussi; Ahola, Jero; Viholainen, Juha; Aranto, Niina [Institute of Energy Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Kestilae, Juha [ABB Drives, P.O. Box 184, FI-00381 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    Pumps are widely used in industry, and they account for 20% of the industrial electricity consumption. Since the speed variation is often the most energy-efficient method to control the head and flow rate of a centrifugal pump, frequency converters are used with induction motor-driven pumps. Although a frequency converter can estimate the operational state of an induction motor without external measurements, the state of a centrifugal pump or other load machine is not typically considered. The pump is, however, usually controlled on the basis of the required flow rate or output pressure. As the pump operational state can be estimated with a general model having adjustable parameters, external flow rate or pressure measurements are not necessary to determine the pump flow rate or output pressure. Hence, external measurements could be replaced with an adjustable model for the pump that uses estimates of the motor operational state. Besides control purposes, modelling the pump operation can provide useful information for energy auditing and optimization purposes. In this paper, two model-based methods for pump operation estimation are presented. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimation methods are analyzed. The applicability of the methods is verified by laboratory measurements and tests in two pilot installations. Test results indicate that the estimation methods can be applied to the analysis and control of pump operation. The accuracy of the methods is sufficient for auditing purposes, and the methods can inform the user if the pump is driven inefficiently. (author)

  1. INTELLECTUAL MODEL FORMATION OF RAILWAY STATION WORK DURING THE TRAIN OPERATION EXECUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Lavrukhin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this research work is to develop an intelligent technology for determination of the optimal route of freight trains administration on the basis of the technical and technological parameters. This will allow receiving the operational informed decisions by the station duty officer regarding to the train operation execution within the railway station. Metodology. The main elements of the research are the technical and technological parameters of the train station during the train operation. The methods of neural networks in order to form the self-teaching automated system were put in the basis of the generated model of train operation execution. Findings. The presented model of train operation execution at the railway station is realized on the basis of artificial neural networks using learning algorithm with a «teacher» in Matlab environment. The Matlab is also used for the immediate implementation of the intelligent automated control system of the train operation designed for the integration into the automated workplace of the duty station officer. The developed system is also useful to integrate on workplace of the traffic controller. This proposal is viable in case of the availability of centralized traffic control on the separate section of railway track. Originality. The model of train station operation during the train operation execution with elements of artificial intelligence was formed. It allows providing informed decisions to the station duty officer concerning a choice of rational and a safe option of reception and non-stop run of the trains with the ability of self-learning and adaptation to changing conditions. This condition is achieved by the principles of the neural network functioning. Practical value. The model of the intelligent system management of the process control for determining the optimal route receptionfor different categories of trains was formed.In the operational mode it offers the possibility

  2. Categorical model of structural operational semantics for imperative language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Steingartner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Definition of programming languages consists of the formal definition of syntax and semantics. One of the most popular semantic methods used in various stages of software engineering is structural operational semantics. It describes program behavior in the form of state changes after execution of elementary steps of program. This feature makes structural operational semantics useful for implementation of programming languages and also for verification purposes. In our paper we present a new approach to structural operational semantics. We model behavior of programs in category of states, where objects are states, an abstraction of computer memory and morphisms model state changes, execution of a program in elementary steps. The advantage of using categorical model is its exact mathematical structure with many useful proved properties and its graphical illustration of program behavior as a path, i.e. a composition of morphisms. Our approach is able to accentuate dynamics of structural operational semantics. For simplicity, we assume that data are intuitively typed. Visualization and facility of our model is  not only  a  new model of structural operational semantics of imperative programming languages but it can also serve for education purposes.

  3. Dimension Seven Operators in Standard Model with Right handed Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Subhaditya

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we evaluate all the dimension seven operators involving Standard Model (SM) fields and SM gauge symmetry including right handed neutrinos. We also indicate those operators potentially tree generated (PTG) and those which will be loop generated (LG), so that we know where to look for new physics (NP) contributions in observable effects. We indicate limits on NP scale from the current data to each of the PTG operators without right handed neutrinos. We also calculate the reach of NP scale from two of the operators which produce same sign dilepton at the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Our list seems to be consistent with earlier efforts where operators of same dimension have been worked out without right handed neutrinos.

  4. Quantum dimensions from local operator excitations in the Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Caputa, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    We compare the time evolution of entanglement measures after local operator excitation in the critical Ising model with predictions from conformal field theory. For the spin operator and its descendants we find that Renyi entropies of a block of spins increase by a constant that matches the logarithm of the quantum dimension of the conformal family. However, for the energy operator we find a small constant contribution that differs from the conformal field theory answer equal to zero. We argue that the mismatch is caused by the subtleties in the identification between the local operators in conformal field theory and their lattice counterpart. Our results indicate that evolution of entanglement measures in locally excited states not only constraints this identification, but also can be used to extract non-trivial data about the conformal field theory that governs the critical point. We generalize our analysis to the Ising model away from the critical point, states with multiple local excitations, as well as t...

  5. Modeled and experimental results of an omnidirectional free-space optical receiver architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Lovell, Gregory L.; Finch, Michael F.

    2017-03-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communications provide point-to-point connectivity while offering many advantages in size, weight, and power as compared to radio frequency. It has the potential to provide fiber-optic data rates without the need for lengthy fiber cables. Omnidirectional FSO, also known as O-FSO systems, provide a non-line-of-sight option for data communications. They are gaining popularity in short-distance networks. Most existing O-FSO links range from 1 to 100 m and present experimental/simulated data rates ranging between 5 kb/s and 1 Mb/s. A 2.5-Gb/s O-FSO system was recently reported with a range of 25 cm. This paper employs a fiber bundle as an O-FSO receiver. The energy collected by the receiver is related to the acceptance cone of each fiber. The fiber bundle integrates the optical power gathered by the individual fibers and couples it to the photodetector. Experimental data rates approaching 100 kb/s over a meter long system are presented, whereas simulated results support a data rate up to 52 Mb/s for distances approaching a kilometer. Theoretical and experimental optical power versus range is also presented for the proposed O-FSO architecture, using on-off keying.

  6. GPS receivers timing data processing using neural networks: optimal estimation and errors modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, M R

    2007-10-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a network of satellites, whose original purpose was to provide accurate navigation, guidance, and time transfer to military users. The past decade has also seen rapid concurrent growth in civilian GPS applications, including farming, mining, surveying, marine, and outdoor recreation. One of the most significant of these civilian applications is commercial aviation. A stand-alone civilian user enjoys an accuracy of 100 meters and 300 nanoseconds, 25 meters and 200 nanoseconds, before and after Selective Availability (SA) was turned off. In some applications, high accuracy is required. In this paper, five Neural Networks (NNs) are proposed for acceptable noise reduction of GPS receivers timing data. The paper uses from an actual data collection for evaluating the performance of the methods. An experimental test setup is designed and implemented for this purpose. The obtained experimental results from a Coarse Acquisition (C/A)-code single-frequency GPS receiver strongly support the potential of methods to give high accurate timing. Quality of the obtained results is very good, so that GPS timing RMS error reduce to less than 120 and 40 nanoseconds, with and without SA.

  7. The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model. Operations Handbook for the Analytic Process Model Demonstration Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Research Note 86-06 THE COMPUTER-AIDED ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL : OPERATIONS HANDBOOK FOR THE ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL DE ONSTRATION PACKAGE Ronald G...ic Process Model ; Operations Handbook; Tutorial; Apple; Systems Taxonomy Mod--l; Training System; Bradl1ey infantry Fighting * Vehicle; BIFV...8217. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * - ~ . - - * m- .. . . . . . . item 20. Abstract -continued companion volume-- "The Analytic Process Model for

  8. VERIFICATION OF GEAR DYNAMIC MODEL IN DIFFERENT OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz PERUŃ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of verification of the drive system dynamic model with gear. Tests were carried out on the real object in different operating conditions. For the same assumed conditions were also carried out simulation studies. Comparison of the results obtained from those two series of tests helped determine the suitability of the model and verify the possibility of replacing experimental research by simulations with use of dynamic model.

  9. Q-operators in the six-vertex model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Mangazeev

    2014-09-01

    Here we use a different strategy and construct Q-operators as integral operators with factorized kernels based on the original Baxter's method used in the solution of the eight-vertex model. We compare this approach with the method developed in [1] and find the explicit connection between two constructions. We also discuss a reduction to the case of finite-dimensional representations with (half-integer spins.

  10. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota, E-mail: dburchart@gig.eu; Fugiel, Agata, E-mail: afugiel@gig.eu; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna, E-mail: kczaplicka@gig.eu; Turek, Marian, E-mail: mturek@gig.eu

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  11. Source‐receiver two‐way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding‐reflector modeling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2010-10-17

    While most of the modern seismic imaging methods perform imaging by separating input data into parts (shot gathers), we develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield backward in time. While computationally extensive, this approach has the potential of generating accurate images, free of artifacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high‐order partial differential equations in source‐receiver‐time domain. The fourth order nature of the extrapolation in time has four solutions two of which correspond to the ingoing and outgoing P‐waves and reduces to the zero‐offset exploding‐reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. Using asymptotic approximations, we develop an approach to extrapolating the full prestack wavefield forward or backward in time.

  12. Modelled operation of the Shetlands Islands power system comparing computational and human operators` load forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.C. [University Coll. of North Wales, Menai Bridge (United Kingdom). School of Ocean Science; Infield, D.G. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering

    1995-11-01

    A load forecasting technique, based upon an autoregressive (AR) method is presented. Its use for short term load forecasting is assessed by direct comparison with real forecasts made by human operators of the Lerwick power station on the Shetland Islands. A substantial improvement in load prediction, as measured by a reduction of RMS error, is demonstrated. Shetland has a total installed capacity of about 68 MW, and an average load (1990) of around 20 MW. Although the operators could forecast the load for a few distinct hours better than the AR method, results from simulations of the scheduling and operation of the generating plant show that the AR forecasts provide increased overall system performance. A detailed model of the island power system, which includes plant scheduling, was run using the AR and Lerwick operators` forecasts as input to the scheduling routine. A reduction in plant cycling, underloading and fuel consumption was obtained using the AR forecasts rather than the operators` forecasts in simulations over a 28 day study period. It is concluded that the load forecasting method presented could be of benefit to the operators of such mesoscale power systems. (author)

  13. Testing and optical modeling of novel concentrating solar receiver geometries to increase light trapping and effective solar absorptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowhair, Julius; Ho, Clifford K.; Ortega, Jesus D.; Christian, Joshua M.; Andraka, Charles E.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating solar power receivers are comprised of panels of tubes arranged in a cylindrical or cubical shape on top of a tower. The tubes contain heat-transfer fluid that absorbs energy from the concentrated sunlight incident on the tubes. To increase the solar absorptance, black paint or a solar selective coating is applied to the surface of the tubes. However, these coatings degrade over time and must be reapplied, which reduces the system performance and increases costs. This paper presents an evaluation of novel receiver shapes and geometries that create a light-trapping effect, thereby increasing the effective solar absorptance and efficiency of the solar receiver. Several prototype shapes were fabricated from Inconel 718 and tested in Sandia's solar furnace at an irradiance of ~30 W/cm2. Photographic methods were used to capture the irradiance distribution on the receiver surfaces. The irradiance profiles were compared to results from raytracing models. The effective solar absorptance was also evaluated using the ray-tracing models. Results showed that relative to a flat plate, the new geometries could increase the effective solar absorptance from 86% to 92% for an intrinsic material absorptance of 86%, and from 60% to 73% for an intrinsic material absorptance of 60%.

  14. Constrained Overcomplete Analysis Operator Learning for Cosparse Signal Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Yaghoobi, Mehrdad; Gribonval, Remi; Davies, Mike E

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning a low-dimensional signal model from a collection of training samples. The mainstream approach would be to learn an overcomplete dictionary to provide good approximations of the training samples using sparse synthesis coefficients. This famous sparse model has a less well known counterpart, in analysis form, called the cosparse analysis model. In this new model, signals are characterised by their parsimony in a transformed domain using an overcomplete (linear) analysis operator. We propose to learn an analysis operator from a training corpus using a constrained optimisation framework based on L1 optimisation. The reason for introducing a constraint in the optimisation framework is to exclude trivial solutions. Although there is no final answer here for which constraint is the most relevant constraint, we investigate some conventional constraints in the model adaptation field and use the uniformly normalised tight frame (UNTF) for this purpose. We then derive a practical lear...

  15. A clinical model for quality of life assessment in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, M C; King, M T; Machin, D; Hansen, H H

    2000-01-01

    The pattern of symptoms experienced by cancer patients during chemotherapy is very complex. Consequently, quality of life (QOL) assessment has to be carefully planned to capture clinically relevant changes. A clinical model of changes in symptoms experienced by symptomatic metastatic patients during several courses of chemotherapy has been developed. The model differentiates cancer-related symptoms, acute side-effects, chronic side-effects and symptoms not related to cancer. The model was used to predict changes in each of these four symptom groups. Three time points were selected (post-cycle 2, pre-cycle 3, post-cycle 5) and an appropriate window around each time point was set. The model predictions were tested empirically with 56 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 plus disease specific items during a six-cycle course of chemotherapy. The changes observed in the sample were in accordance with the changes predicted by the clinical model. Results from patients who did not complete the questionnaire within the specified time windows tended to dilute the findings from the group who did. A clinical model is useful in the planning of QOL assessments in order to capture clinically relevant effects. Such models also facilitate the interpretation of QOL studies, particularly when cyclic short-term effects and chronic side-effects are overlaid on disease symptoms, as is the case with chemotherapy for cancer.

  16. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment.

  17. 2.5D real waveform and real noise simulation of receiver functions in 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, B. H.; Balling, N.

    There are several reasons why a real-data receiver function differs from the theoretical receiver function in a 1D model representing the stratification under the seismometer. Main reasons are ambient noise, spectral deficiencies in the impinging P-waveform, and wavefield propagation in laterally...... seismometer is simulated individually through the following steps: A 2D section is extracted from the 3D model along the direction towards the hypocentre. A properly slanted plane or curved impulsive wavefront is propagated through this 2D section, resulting in noise free and spectrally complete synthetic...... seismometer data. The real vertical component signal is taken as a proxy of the real impingent wavefield, so by convolution and subsequent addition of real ambient noise recorded just before the P-arrival we get synthetic vertical and horizontal component data which very closely match the spectral signal...

  18. Neural Networks for Hydrological Modeling Tool for Operational Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Divya; Jain, Ashu

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological models are useful in many water resources applications such as flood control, irrigation and drainage, hydro power generation, water supply, erosion and sediment control, etc. Estimates of runoff are needed in many water resources planning, design development, operation and maintenance activities. Runoff is generally computed using rainfall-runoff models. Computer based hydrologic models have become popular for obtaining hydrological forecasts and for managing water systems. Rainfall-runoff library (RRL) is computer software developed by Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology (CRCCH), Australia consisting of five different conceptual rainfall-runoff models, and has been in operation in many water resources applications in Australia. Recently, soft artificial intelligence tools such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have become popular for research purposes but have not been adopted in operational hydrological forecasts. There is a strong need to develop ANN models based on real catchment data and compare them with the conceptual models actually in use in real catchments. In this paper, the results from an investigation on the use of RRL and ANNs are presented. Out of the five conceptual models in the RRL toolkit, SimHyd model has been used. Genetic Algorithm has been used as an optimizer in the RRL to calibrate the SimHyd model. Trial and error procedures were employed to arrive at the best values of various parameters involved in the GA optimizer to develop the SimHyd model. The results obtained from the best configuration of the SimHyd model are presented here. Feed-forward neural network model structure trained by back-propagation training algorithm has been adopted here to develop the ANN models. The daily rainfall and runoff data derived from Bird Creek Basin, Oklahoma, USA have been employed to develop all the models included here. A wide range of error statistics have been used to evaluate the performance of all the models

  19. Dynamic and adaptive policy models for coalition operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh; Calo, Seraphin; Chakraborty, Supriyo; Bertino, Elisa; Williams, Chris; Tucker, Jeremy; Rivera, Brian; de Mel, Geeth R.

    2017-05-01

    It is envisioned that the success of future military operations depends on the better integration, organizationally and operationally, among allies, coalition members, inter-agency partners, and so forth. However, this leads to a challenging and complex environment where the heterogeneity and dynamism in the operating environment intertwines with the evolving situational factors that affect the decision-making life cycle of the war fighter. Therefore, the users in such environments need secure, accessible, and resilient information infrastructures where policy-based mechanisms adopt the behaviours of the systems to meet end user goals. By specifying and enforcing a policy based model and framework for operations and security which accommodates heterogeneous coalitions, high levels of agility can be enabled to allow rapid assembly and restructuring of system and information resources. However, current prevalent policy models (e.g., rule based event-condition-action model and its variants) are not sufficient to deal with the highly dynamic and plausibly non-deterministic nature of these environments. Therefore, to address the above challenges, in this paper, we present a new approach for policies which enables managed systems to take more autonomic decisions regarding their operations.

  20. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Kreutz, K.; Milman, M.

    1988-01-01

    A powerful new spatial operator algebra for modeling, control, and trajectory design of manipulators is discussed along with its implementation in the Ada programming language. Applications of this algebra to robotics include an operator representation of the manipulator Jacobian matrix; the robot dynamical equations formulated in terms of the spatial algebra, showing the complete equivalence between the recursive Newton-Euler formulations to robot dynamics; the operator factorization and inversion of the manipulator mass matrix which immediately results in O(N) recursive forward dynamics algorithms; the joint accelerations of a manipulator due to a tip contact force; the recursive computation of the equivalent mass matrix as seen at the tip of a manipulator; and recursive forward dynamics of a closed chain system. Finally, additional applications and current research involving the use of the spatial operator algebra are discussed in general terms.

  1. Comparison of operation optimization methods in energy system modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    , possibilities for decoupling production constraints may be valuable. Introduction of heat pumps in the district heating network may pose this ability. In order to evaluate if the introduction of heat pumps is economically viable, we develop calculation methods for the operation patterns of each of the used...... energy technologies. In the paper, three frequently used operation optimization methods are examined with respect to their impact on operation management of the combined technologies. One of the investigated approaches utilises linear programming for optimisation, one uses linear programming with binary...... operation constraints, while the third approach uses nonlinear programming. In the present case the non-linearity occurs in the boiler efficiency of power plants and the cv-value of an extraction plant. The linear programming model is used as a benchmark, as this type is frequently used, and has the lowest...

  2. Perspective Biological Markers for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Advantages of the Use of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves in Evaluating Marker Sensitivity and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provvidenza M. Abruzzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Recognized causes of ASD include genetic factors, metabolic diseases, toxic and environmental factors, and a combination of these. Available tests fail to recognize genetic abnormalities in about 70% of ASD children, where diagnosis is solely based on behavioral signs and symptoms, which are difficult to evaluate in very young children. Although it is advisable that specific psychotherapeutic and pedagogic interventions are initiated as early as possible, early diagnosis is hampered by the lack of nongenetic specific biological markers. In the past ten years, the scientific literature has reported dozens of neurophysiological and biochemical alterations in ASD children; however no real biomarker has emerged. Such literature is here reviewed in the light of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis, a very valuable statistical tool, which evaluates the sensitivity and the specificity of biomarkers to be used in diagnostic decision making. We also apply ROC analysis to some of our previously published data and discuss the increased diagnostic value of combining more variables in one ROC curve analysis. We also discuss the use of biomarkers as a tool for advancing our understanding of nonsyndromic ASD.

  3. [Comparison of LCD and CRT monitors for detection of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases on digital chest radiographs by using receiver operating characteristic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ryuji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Shimonobou, Toshiaki; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Hashida, Masahiro; Awai, Kazuo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Doi, Kunio

    2006-05-20

    Soft copy reading of digital images has been practiced commonly in the PACS environment. In this study, we compared liquid-crystal display (LCD) and cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors for detection of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases on digital chest radiographs by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Digital chest images with a 1000x1000 matrix size and a 8 bit grayscale were displayed on LCD/CRT monitor with 2M pixels in each observer test. Eight and ten radiologists participated in the observer tests for detection of nodules and interstitial diseases, respectively. In each observer test, radiologists marked their confidence levels for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules or interstitial diseases. The detection performance of radiologists was evaluated by ROC analyses. The average Az values (area under the ROC curve) in detecting pulmonary nodules with LCD and CRT monitors were 0.792 and 0.814, respectively. In addition, the average Az values in detecting interstitial diseases with LCD and CRT monitors were 0.951 and 0.953, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between LCD and CRT for both detection of pulmonary nodules (P=0.522) and interstitial lung diseases (P=0.869). Therefore, we believe that the LCD monitor instead of the CRT monitor can be used for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases in digital chest images.

  4. A receiver operating characteristic analysis approach for the assessment of the separation of female Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Todd A; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Papachristos, Dimitrios P

    2009-10-01

    Average fecundity rates and survival are the main components of fitness estimates in studies comparing performance of insect populations. Reproduction is inherently age related in most insect species, and age-specific offspring production is very important in determining fitness components. However, comparison of age-specific reproduction rates are not straight forward and most studies limit analyses to comparisons of average fecundity rates and survival as the main components of the performance of insect populations. We develop a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve approach to compare lifetime oviposition distributions. We use empirical data of a study of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations, where each fly's lifetime oviposition distribution was recorded for samples studied in natural and artificial oviposition substrates. Currently, there exists no routinely used methodology for the comparison of oviposition distributions and assessment of their separation. ROC analysis is regularly used in two-sample problems in medical biostatistics when the main task is depiction and quantification of the separation of the empirical distributions from which the data arise. Adaptation of such an analysis to our data has shown that age-specific egg-laying distributions can differ, whereas average fecundity rates do not. Therefore, ROC analysis provides a method of gaining insight in the biological process of egg-laying patterns in relatively long-lived insects with many practical and theoretical implications in entomological experimentation.

  5. Disadvantages of using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to assess imaging tests: A discussion and proposal for an alternative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Altman, Douglas G. [University of Oxford, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Mallett, Susan [University of Oxford, Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    The objectives are to describe the disadvantages of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) to measure diagnostic test performance and to propose an alternative based on net benefit. We use a narrative review supplemented by data from a study of computer-assisted detection for CT colonography. We identified problems with ROC AUC. Confidence scoring by readers was highly non-normal, and score distribution was bimodal. Consequently, ROC curves were highly extrapolated with AUC mostly dependent on areas without patient data. AUC depended on the method used for curve fitting. ROC AUC does not account for prevalence or different misclassification costs arising from false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Change in ROC AUC has little direct clinical meaning for clinicians. An alternative analysis based on net benefit is proposed, based on the change in sensitivity and specificity at clinically relevant thresholds. Net benefit incorporates estimates of prevalence and misclassification costs, and it is clinically interpretable since it reflects changes in correct and incorrect diagnoses when a new diagnostic test is introduced. ROC AUC is most useful in the early stages of test assessment whereas methods based on net benefit are more useful to assess radiological tests where the clinical context is known. Net benefit is more useful for assessing clinical impact. (orig.)

  6. Prediction of Abdominal Visceral Obesity From Body Mass Index,Waist Circumference and Waist-hip Ratio in Chinese Adults:Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-PING JIA; JUN-XI LU; KUN-SAN XIANG; YU-QIAN BAO; HUI-JUAN LU; LEI CHEN

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) measurements in diagnosing abdominal visceral obesity. Methods BMI, WC, and WHR were assessed in 690 Chinese adults (305 men and 385women) and compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and used to determine the threshold point for each anthropometric parameter. Results 1) MRI showed that 61.7% of overweight/obese individuals (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and 14.2% of normal weight (BMI<25kg/m2) individuals had abdominal visceral obesity (VA≥ 100 cm2). 2) VA was positively correlated with each anthropometric variable, of which WC showed the highest correlation (r=0.73-0.77,P<0.001 ). 3) The best cut-off points for assessing abdominal visceral obesity were as followed: BMI of 26 kg/m2, WC of 90 cm, and WHR of 0.93, with WC being the most sensitive and specific factor. 4)Among subjects with BMI≥28 kg/m2 or WC≥95 cm, 95% of men and 90% of women appeared to have abdominal visceral obesity. Conclusion Measurements of BMI, WC, and WHR can be used in the prediction of abdominal visceral obesity, of which WC was the one with better accuracy.

  7. Effect of non-linearity of a predictor on the shape and magnitude of its receiver-operating-characteristic curve in predicting a binary outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok M

    2017-08-31

    Area under a receiver-operating-characteristic (AUROC) curve is widely used in medicine to summarize the ability of a continuous predictive marker to predict a binary outcome. This study illustrated how a U-shaped or inverted U-shaped continuous predictor would affect the shape and magnitude of its AUROC curve in predicting a binary outcome by comparing the ROC curves of the worst first 24-hour arterial pH values of 9549 consecutive critically ill patients in predicting hospital mortality before and after centering the predictor by its mean or median. A simulation dataset with an inverted U-shaped predictor was used to assess how this would affect the shape and magnitude of the AUROC curve. An asymmetrical U-shaped relationship between pH and hospital mortality, resulting in an inverse-sigmoidal ROC curve, was observed. The AUROC substantially increased after centering the predictor by its mean (0.611 vs 0.722, difference = 0.111, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.087-0.135), and was further improved after centering by its median (0.611 vs 0.745, difference = 0.133, 95%CI 0.110-0.157). A sigmoidal-shaped ROC curve was observed for an inverted U-shaped predictor. In summary, a non-linear predictor can result in a biphasic-shaped ROC curve; and centering the predictor can reduce its bias towards null predictive ability.

  8. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  9. Mathematical modelling of unglazed solar collectors under extreme operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, M.; Perers, Bengt; Eicher, S.

    2015-01-01

    average temperature levels at the evaporator. Simulation of these systems requires a collector model that can take into account operation at very low temperatures (below freezing) and under various weather conditions, particularly operation without solar irradiation.A solar collector mathematical model......Combined heat pumps and solar collectors got a renewed interest on the heating system market worldwide. Connected to the heat pump evaporator, unglazed solar collectors can considerably increase their efficiency, but they also raise the coefficient of performance of the heat pump with higher...... was found due to the condensation phenomenon and up to 40% due to frost under no solar irradiation. This work also points out the influence of the operating conditions on the collector's characteristics.Based on experiments carried out at a test facility, every heat flux on the absorber was separately...

  10. Simulation Modeling and Analysis of Operator-Machine Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on a simulation model of a semiconductor manufacturer, operator-machine ratio (OMR) analysis is made using work study and time study. Through sensitivity analysis, it is found that labor utilization decreases with the increase of lot size.Meanwhile, it is able to identify that the OMR for this company should be improved from 1∶3 to 1∶5. An application result shows that the proposed model can effectively improve the OMR by 33%.

  11. Computational Modeling in Support of the National Ignition Facilty Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, M J; Haynam, C A; Williams, W H

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser performance and automated control of the laser setup process are crucial to the project's success. These functions will be performed by two closely coupled computer code: the virtual beamline (VBL) and the laser performance operations model (LPOM).

  12. Computational Modeling in Support of National Ignition Facility Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M J; Sacks, R A; Haynam, C A; Williams, W H

    2001-10-23

    Numerical simulation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser performance and automated control of laser setup process are crucial to the project's success. These functions will be performed by two closely coupled computer codes: the virtual beamline (VBL) and the laser operations performance model (LPOM).

  13. Modeling of reservoir operation in UNH global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, Alexander; Prusevich, Alexander; Frolking, Steve; Glidden, Stanley; Lammers, Richard; Wisser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Climate is changing and river flow is an integrated characteristic reflecting numerous environmental processes and their changes aggregated over large areas. Anthropogenic impacts on the river flow, however, can significantly exceed the changes associated with climate variability. Besides of irrigation, reservoirs and dams are one of major anthropogenic factor affecting streamflow. They distort hydrological regime of many rivers by trapping of freshwater runoff, modifying timing of river discharge and increasing the evaporation rate. Thus, reservoirs is an integral part of the global hydrological system and their impacts on rivers have to be taken into account for better quantification and understanding of hydrological changes. We developed a new technique, which was incorporated into WBM-TrANS model (Water Balance Model-Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems) to simulate river routing through large reservoirs and natural lakes based on information available from freely accessible databases such as GRanD (the Global Reservoir and Dam database) or NID (National Inventory of Dams for US). Different formulations were applied for unregulated spillway dams and lakes, and for 4 types of regulated reservoirs, which were subdivided based on main purpose including generic (multipurpose), hydropower generation, irrigation and water supply, and flood control. We also incorporated rules for reservoir fill up and draining at the times of construction and decommission based on available data. The model were tested for many reservoirs of different size and types located in various climatic conditions using several gridded meteorological data sets as model input and observed daily and monthly discharge data from GRDC (Global Runoff Data Center), USGS Water Data (US Geological Survey), and UNH archives. The best results with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient in the range of 0.5-0.9 were obtained for temperate zone of Northern Hemisphere where most of large

  14. Quantum dimensions from local operator excitations in the Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputa, Paweł; Rams, Marek M.

    2017-02-01

    We compare the time evolution of entanglement measures after local operator excitation in the critical Ising model with predictions from conformal field theory. For the spin operator and its descendants we find that Rényi entropies of a block of spins increase by a constant that matches the logarithm of the quantum dimension of the conformal family. However, for the energy operator we find a small constant contribution that differs from the conformal field theory answer equal to zero. We argue that the mismatch is caused by the subtleties in the identification between the local operators in conformal field theory and their lattice counterpart. Our results indicate that evolution of entanglement measures in locally excited states not only constraints this identification, but also can be used to extract non-trivial data about the conformal field theory that governs the critical point. We generalize our analysis to the Ising model away from the critical point, states with multiple local excitations, as well as the evolution of the relative entropy after local operator excitation and discuss universal features that emerge from numerics.

  15. 2.5D S-wave velocity model of the TESZ area in northern Poland from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde-Piorko, Monika; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Receiver function (RF) locally provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and information about the shear wave (S-wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. The data recorded by "13 BB Star" broadband seismic stations (Grad et al., 2015) and by few PASSEQ broadband seismic stations (Wilde-Piórko et al., 2008) are analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in northern Poland. The TESZ is one of the most prominent suture zones in Europe separating the young Palaeozoic platform from the much older Precambrian East European craton. Compilation of over thirty deep seismic refraction and wide angle reflection profiles, vertical seismic profiling in over one hundred thousand boreholes and magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric and thermal methods allowed for creation a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model down to 60 km depth in the area of Poland (Grad et al. 2016). On the other hand the receiver function methods give an opportunity for creation the S-wave velocity model. Modified ray-tracing method (Langston, 1977) are used to calculate the response of the structure with dipping interfaces to the incoming plane wave with fixed slowness and back-azimuth. 3D P-wave velocity model are interpolated to 2.5D P-wave velocity model beneath each seismic station and synthetic back-azimuthal sections of receiver function are calculated for different Vp/Vs ratio. Densities are calculated with combined formulas of Berteussen (1977) and Gardner et al. (1974). Next, the synthetic back-azimuthal sections of RF are compared with observed back-azimuthal sections of RF for "13 BB Star" and PASSEQ seismic stations to find the best 2.5D S-wave models down to 60 km depth. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  16. Operational ocean models in the Adriatic Sea: a skill assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chiggiato

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS project, the performance of regional numerical ocean forecasting systems is assessed by means of model-model and model-data comparison. Three different operational systems considered in this study are: the Adriatic REGional Model (AREG; the Adriatic Regional Ocean Modelling System (AdriaROMS and the Mediterranean Forecasting System General Circulation Model (MFS-GCM. AREG and AdriaROMS are regional implementations (with some dedicated variations of POM and ROMS, respectively, while MFS-GCM is an OPA based system. The assessment is done through standard scores. In situ and remote sensing data are used to evaluate the system performance. In particular, a set of CTD measurements collected in the whole western Adriatic during January 2006 and one year of satellite derived sea surface temperature measurements (SST allow to asses a full three-dimensional picture of the operational forecasting systems quality during January 2006 and to draw some preliminary considerations on the temporal fluctuation of scores estimated on surface quantities between summer 2005 and summer 2006.

    The regional systems share a negative bias in simulated temperature and salinity. Nonetheless, they outperform the MFS-GCM in the shallowest locations. Results on amplitude and phase errors are improved in areas shallower than 50 m, while degraded in deeper locations, where major models deficiencies are related to vertical mixing overestimation. In a basin-wide overview, the two regional models show differences in the local displacement of errors. In addition, in locations where the regional models are mutually correlated, the aggregated mean squared error was found to be smaller, that is a useful outcome of having several operational systems in the same region.

  17. Object-oriented model of railway stations operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Kozachenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this article is improvement of the railway stations functional model; it leads to time expenditure cut for formalization technological processes of their work through the use of standard elements of technology. Methodology. Some technological operations, executives and technology objects are considered as main elements of the railway station functioning. Queuing techniques were used as the methods of research, simulation, finite state machines and object-oriented analysis. Findings. Formal data structures were developed as the result of research that can allow simulating the operation of the railway station with any degree of detail. In accordance with the principles of object-oriented approach in the developed model, separate elements of station technology are presented jointly with a description of their behavior. The proposed model is implemented as a software package. Originality. Functional model of railway stations was improved through the application of object-oriented approach to data management. It allow to create libraries of elementary technological processes and reduce time expenditure for formalization the technology of stations work. Practical value. Using of software package that it was developed on the base of proposed model will reduce time expenditure of technologists in order to obtain technical and operational assessment of projected and existing rail stations.

  18. A consistent collinear triad approximation for operational wave models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J. E.; Smit, P. B.; Janssen, T. T.; Holthuijsen, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    In shallow water, the spectral evolution associated with energy transfers due to three-wave (or triad) interactions is important for the prediction of nearshore wave propagation and wave-driven dynamics. The numerical evaluation of these nonlinear interactions involves the evaluation of a weighted convolution integral in both frequency and directional space for each frequency-direction component in the wave field. For reasons of efficiency, operational wave models often rely on a so-called collinear approximation that assumes that energy is only exchanged between wave components travelling in the same direction (collinear propagation) to eliminate the directional convolution. In this work, we show that the collinear approximation as presently implemented in operational models is inconsistent. This causes energy transfers to become unbounded in the limit of unidirectional waves (narrow aperture), and results in the underestimation of energy transfers in short-crested wave conditions. We propose a modification to the collinear approximation to remove this inconsistency and to make it physically more realistic. Through comparison with laboratory observations and results from Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed modified collinear model is consistent, remains bounded, smoothly converges to the unidirectional limit, and is numerically more robust. Our results show that the modifications proposed here result in a consistent collinear approximation, which remains bounded and can provide an efficient approximation to model nonlinear triad effects in operational wave models.

  19. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  20. Operational ocean models in the Adriatic Sea: a skill assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chiggiato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System project (MFS sub-regional and regional numerical ocean forecasting systems performance are assessed by mean of model-model and model-data comparison. Three different operational systems have been considered in this study: the Adriatic REGional Model (AREG; the AdriaROMS and the Mediterranean Forecasting System general circulation model (MFS model. AREG and AdriaROMS are regional implementations (with some dedicated variations of POM (Blumberg and Mellor, 1987 and ROMS (Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005 respectively, while MFS model is based on OPA (Madec et al., 1998 code. The assessment has been done by means of standard scores. The data used for operational systems assessment derive from in-situ and remote sensing measurements. In particular a set of CTDs covering the whole western Adriatic, collected in January 2006, one year of SST from space born sensors and six months of buoy data. This allowed to have a full three-dimensional picture of the operational forecasting systems quality during January 2006 and some preliminary considerations on the temporal fluctuation of scores estimated on surface (or near surface quantities between summer 2005 and summer 2006. In general, the regional models are found to be colder and fresher than observations. They eventually outperform the large scale model in the shallowest locations, as expected. Results on amplitude and phase errors are also much better in locations shallower than 50 m, while degraded in deeper locations, where the models tend to have a higher homogeneity along the vertical column compared to observations. In a basin-wide overview, the two regional models show some dissimilarities in the local displacement of errors, something suggested by the full three-dimensional picture depicted using CTDs, but also confirmed by the comparison with SSTs. In locations where the regional models are mutually correlated, the aggregated mean

  1. Quantum hidden Markov models based on transition operation matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewa, Michał; Gawron, Piotr; Głomb, Przemysław; Kurzyk, Dariusz

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we extend the idea of quantum Markov chains (Gudder in J Math Phys 49(7):072105 [3]) in order to propose quantum hidden Markov models (QHMMs). For that, we use the notions of transition operation matrices and vector states, which are an extension of classical stochastic matrices and probability distributions. Our main result is the Mealy QHMM formulation and proofs of algorithms needed for application of this model: Forward for general case and Vitterbi for a restricted class of QHMMs. We show the relations of the proposed model to other quantum HMM propositions and present an example of application.

  2. eWaterCycle: A global operational hydrological forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick; Bierkens, Marc; Donchyts, Gennadii; Drost, Niels; Hut, Rolf; Sutanudjaja, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Development of an operational hyper-resolution hydrological global model is a central goal of the eWaterCycle project (www.ewatercycle.org). This operational model includes ensemble forecasts (14 days) to predict water related stress around the globe. Assimilation of near-real time satellite data is part of the intended product that will be launched at EGU 2015. The challenges come from several directions. First, there are challenges that are mainly computer science oriented but have direct practical hydrological implications. For example, we aim to make use as much as possible of existing standards and open-source software. For example, different parts of our system are coupled through the Basic Model Interface (BMI) developed in the framework of the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS). The PCR-GLOBWB model, built by Utrecht University, is the basic hydrological model that is the engine of the eWaterCycle project. Re-engineering of parts of the software was needed for it to run efficiently in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment, and to be able to interface using BMI, and run on multiple compute nodes in parallel. The final aim is to have a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km, which is currently 10 x 10km. This high resolution is computationally not too demanding but very memory intensive. The memory bottleneck becomes especially apparent for data assimilation, for which we use OpenDA. OpenDa allows for different data assimilation techniques without the need to build these from scratch. We have developed a BMI adaptor for OpenDA, allowing OpenDA to use any BMI compatible model. To circumvent memory shortages which would result from standard applications of the Ensemble Kalman Filter, we have developed a variant that does not need to keep all ensemble members in working memory. At EGU, we will present this variant and how it fits well in HPC environments. An important step in the eWaterCycle project was the coupling between the hydrological and

  3. Is received dose from ingested soil independent of soil PAH concentrations?-Animal model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rachel E; James, Kyle; Cave, Mark; Wickstrom, Mark; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability from ingested soils will vary between soils; however, the nature of this variation is not well characterized. A juvenile swine model was used to link external exposure to internal benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and anthracene exposure following oral PAH ingestion of 27 different impacted site soils, soots, or spiked artificial soils. Internal exposure of BaP and anthracene, represented by area under the plasma-time curve, did not relate to soil concentration in impacted site soils, but did relate in spiked artificial soil. Point of departure modeling identified soil PAH concentrations greater than 1900 mg kg(-1) as the point where area under the curve becomes proportional to external dose. A BaP internal exposure below 1900 mg kg(-1) had an upper 95% confidence interval estimate of 33% of external exposure. Weak relationships between soil:simulated gastrointestinal fluid PAH partitioning and area under the curve values suggest that differences in internal PAH exposure between soils may not be dominated by differences in PAH partitioning. The data seem to best support exposure assessment assuming constant internal PAH exposure below soil concentrations of 1900 mg kg(-1) . However, because constant internal exposure would challenge several existing paradigms, a bioavailability estimate of 33% of the external exposure is suggested as a likely workable solution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2261-2269. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Towards operational modeling and forecasting of the Iberian shelves ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinho Marta-Almeida

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest on physical and biogeochemical oceanic hindcasts and forecasts from a wide range of users and businesses. In this contribution we present an operational biogeochemical forecast system for the Portuguese and Galician oceanographic regions, where atmospheric, hydrodynamic and biogeochemical variables are integrated. The ocean model ROMS, with a horizontal resolution of 3 km, is forced by the atmospheric model WRF and includes a Nutrients-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus biogeochemical module (NPZD. In addition to oceanographic variables, the system predicts the concentration of nitrate, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus (mmol N m(-3. Model results are compared against radar currents and remote sensed SST and chlorophyll. Quantitative skill assessment during a summer upwelling period shows that our modelling system adequately represents the surface circulation over the shelf including the observed spatial variability and trends of temperature and chlorophyll concentration. Additionally, the skill assessment also shows some deficiencies like the overestimation of upwelling circulation and consequently, of the duration and intensity of the phytoplankton blooms. These and other departures from the observations are discussed, their origins identified and future improvements suggested. The forecast system is the first of its kind in the region and provides free online distribution of model input and output, as well as comparisons of model results with satellite imagery for qualitative operational assessment of model skill.

  5. operational modelling and forecasting of the Iberian shelves ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta-Almeida, M.; Reboreda, R.; Rocha, C.; Dubert, J.; Nolasco, R.; Cordeiro, N.; Luna, T.; Rocha, A.; Silva, J. Lencart e.; Queiroga, H.; Peliz, A.; Ruiz-Villarreal, M.

    2012-04-01

    There is a growing interest on physical and biogeochemical oceanic hindcasts and forecasts from a wide range of users and businesses. In this contribution we present an operational biogeochemical forecast system for the Portuguese and Galician oceanographic regions, where atmospheric, hydrodynamic and biogeochemical variables are integrated. The ocean model ROMS, with a horizontal resolution of 3 km, is forced by the atmospheric model WRF and includes a NPZD biogeochemical module. In addition to oceanographic variables, the system predicts the concentration of nitrate, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus (mmolN m-3). Model results are compared against radar currents and remote sensed SST and chlorophyll. Quantitative skill assessment during a summer upwelling period shows that our modelling system adequately represents the surface circulation over the shelf including the observed spatial variability and trends of temperature and chlorophyll concentration. Additionally, the skill assessment also shows some deficiencies like the overestimation of upwelling circulation and consequently, of the duration and intensity of the phytoplankton blooms. These and other departures from the observations are discussed, their origins identified and future improvements suggested. The forecast system is the first of its kind in the region and provides free online distribution of model input and output, as well as comparisons of model results with satellite imagery for qualitative operational assessment of model skill.

  6. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING TRADE-OFF MODEL FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Distributed processing Trade-off Model for Electric Utility Operation is based upon a study performed for the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This study presented a technique that addresses the question of trade-offs between expanding a communications network or expanding the capacity of distributed computers in an electric utility Energy Management System (EMS). The technique resulted in the development of a quantitative assessment model that is presented in a Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet environment. The model gives EMS planners a macroscopic tool for evaluating distributed processing architectures and the major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within these architectures. The model inputs (which may be varied according to application and need) include geographic parameters, data flow and processing workload parameters, operator staffing parameters, and technology/economic parameters. The model's outputs are total cost in various categories, a number of intermediate cost and technical calculation results, as well as graphical presentation of Costs vs. Percent Distribution for various parameters. The model has been implemented on an IBM PC using the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet environment and was developed in 1986. Also included with the spreadsheet model are a number of representative but hypothetical utility system examples.

  7. Modeling and Zoning Solar Energy Received at the Earth's Surface in Arid and Semiarid Regions of Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam gholamnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Solar radiation (Rs energy received at the Earth's surface is measured usingclimatological variables in horizontal surface and is widely used in various fields. Domination of hot and dry climates especially in the central regions of Iran results from decreasing cloudiness and precipitation and increasing sunshine hours, which shows the high potential of solar energy in Iran. There is a reasonable climatic field and solar radiation in most of regions and seasons which have provided an essential and suitable field to use and extend new and pure energy. Materials and Methods: One of the common methods to estimate the solar energy received by the earthis usingtemperature variables in any place . An empirical model is proposed to estimate the solar energy as a function of other climatic variables (maximum temperature recorded in 50 climatological, conventional stations; this model is helpful inextending the climatological solar-energy estimation in the study area. The mean values of both measured and estimated solar energy wereobjectively mapped to fill the observation gaps and reduce the noise associated with inhomogeneous statistics and estimation errors. This analysis and the solar irradiation estimation method wereapplied to 50 different climatologicalstations in Iran for monthly data during1980–2005. The main aim of this study wasto map and estimate the solar energy received in four provinces of Yazd, Esfahan, Kerman and Khorasan-e-Jonoubi.The data used in this analysis and its processing, as well as the formulation of an empirical model to estimate the climatological incident of solar energy as a function of other climatic variables, which is complemented with an objective mapping to obtain continuous solar-energy maps. Therefore, firstly the Rswasestimated using a valid model for 50 meteorological stations in which the amounts of solar radiation weren't recorded for arid and semi-arid areas in Iran. Then, the appropriate method

  8. A receiver operated curve-based evaluation of change in sensitivity and specificity of cotinine urinalysis for detecting active tobacco use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has been associated with various carcinomas including lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach, and cervix. Biomarkers such as concentration of cotinine in the blood, urine, or saliva have been used as objective measures to distinguish nonusers and users of tobacco products. A change in the cut-off value of urinary cotinine to detect active tobacco use is associated with a change in sensitivity and sensitivity of detection. Aim: The current study aimed at assessing the impact of using different cut-off thresholds of urinary cotinine on sensitivity and specificity of detection of smoking and smokeless tobacco product use among psychiatric patients. Settings and Design: All the male subjects attending the psychiatry out-patient department of the tertiary care multispecialty teaching hospital constituted the sample frame for the current study in a cross-sectionally. Materials and Methods: Quantitative urinary cotinine assay was done by using ELISA kits of Calbiotech. Inc., USA. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve to assess the sensitivity and specificity of various cut-off values of urinary cotinine to identify active smokers and users of smokeless tobacco products. Results: ROC analysis of urinary cotinine levels in detection of self-reported smoking provided the area under curve (AUC of 0.434. Similarly, the ROC analysis of urinary cotinine levels in detection of self-reported smoking revealed AUC of 0.44. The highest sensitivity and specificity of 100% for smoking were detected at the urinary cut-off value greater than or equal to 2.47 ng/ml. Conclusions: The choice of cut-off value of urinary cotinine used to distinguish nonusers form active users of tobacco products impacts the sensitivity as well as specificity of detection.

  9. Evaluation of the image quality of ink-jet printed paper copies of digital chest radiographs as compared with film: a receiver operating characteristic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttkens, K; Kirkhorn, T; Kehler, M; Andersson, B; Ebbesen, A; Hochbergs, P; Jarlman, O; Lindberg, C G; Holmer, N G

    1994-05-01

    Paper copies of digital radiographs printed with the continuous ink-jet technique have proved to be of a high enough quality for demonstration purposes. We present a study on the image quality of ink-jet printed paper copies of digital chest radiographs, based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Eighty-three digital radiographs of a chest phantom with simulated tumors in the mediastinum and right lung, derived from a computed radiography (CR) system were presented in two series of hard copies as ink-jet printed paper copies and as laser recorded film. The images, with a matrix of 1,760 x 2,140 pixels, were printed with a spatial resolution of 10 pixels/mm in the CR film recorder as well as in the ink-jet printer. On film, every image was recorded in two versions, one optimized for the mediastinum and one for the lungs. On paper, only one image was printed; this constituted an effort to optimize both the mediastinum and the lungs. The ink-jet printed images, printed on a matt coated paper, were viewed as on-sight images with reflected light. The examinations were reviewed by six radiologists, and ROC curves were constructed. No significant difference was found between the performance of film and that of ink-jet paper prints. Because the cost for a paper copy is only a tenth of that of film, remarkable cost reductions can be achieved by using the ink jet technique instead. Our results show that further quality studies of ink-jet printed images are worthwhile.

  10. Reliability of overbite depth indicator (ODI and anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI in the assessment of different vertical and sagittal dental malocclusions: a receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Fatima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Differential diagnosis of skeletal and dental relationships is crucial for planning orthodontic treatment. Overbite depth indicator (ODI and anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI had been introduced in the past for assessment of vertical and sagittal jaw relationships, respectively. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reliability of ODI and APDI in overbite and Angle malocclusions, as well as assess their diagnostic reliability among males and females of different age groups. Material and Methods: This study was conducted using pretreatment dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 90 subjects. For ODI, subjects were divided into three groups based on overbite (normal overbite, open bite and deep bite. Likewise, the same subjects were divided for APDI into three groups, based on Angle's malocclusion classification (dental Class I, II and III malocclusions. Mann-Whitney U test was applied for comparison of study parameters regarding sex and different age groups. The mean values of ODI and APDI were compared among study groups by means of Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunnet T3 tests. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was applied to test diagnostic reliability. Results: Insignificant differences were found for ODI and APDI angles, particularly in regards to sex and age. Significant intergroup differences were found in different overbite groups and Angle's classification for ODI and APDI, respectively (p < 0.001. ROC showed 91% and 88% constancy with dental pattern in ODI and APDI, respectively. Conclusions: ODI can reliably differentiate deep bite versus normal overbite and deep bite versus open bite. APDI can reliably differentiate dental Class I, II and III malocclusions.

  11. Transparent settlement model between mobile network operator and mobile voice over Internet protocol operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzango Pangani Mfupe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in technology have enabled network-less mobile voice over internet protocol operator (MVoIPO to offer data services (i.e. voice, text and video to mobile network operator's (MNO's subscribers through an application enabled on subscriber's user equipment using MNO's packet-based cellular network infrastructure. However, this raises the problem of how to handle interconnection settlements between the two types of operators, particularly how to deal with users who now have the ability to make ‘free’ on-net MVoIP calls among themselves within the MNO's network. This study proposes a service level agreement-based transparent settlement model (TSM to solve this problem. The model is based on concepts of achievement and reward, not violation and punishment. The TSM calculates the MVoIPO's throughput distribution by monitoring the variations of peaks and troughs at the edge of a network. This facilitates the determination of conformance and non-conformance levels to the pre-set throughput thresholds and, subsequently, the issuing of compensation to the MVoIPO by the MNO as a result of generating an economically acceptable volume of data traffic.

  12. Ethical issues in engineering models: an operations researcher's reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijnen, J

    2011-09-01

    This article starts with an overview of the author's personal involvement--as an Operations Research consultant--in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the modelers, the clients, and the public at large. The article further presents an overview of codes of ethics in a variety of disciples. It discusses the role of mathematical models, focusing on the validation of these models' assumptions. Documentation of these model assumptions needs special attention. Some ethical norms and values may be quantified through the model's multiple performance measures, which might be optimized. The uncertainty about the validity of the model leads to risk or uncertainty analysis and to a search for robust models. Ethical questions may be pressing in military models, including war games. However, computer games and the related experimental economics may also provide a special tool to study ethical issues. Finally, the article briefly discusses whistleblowing. Its many references to publications and websites enable further study of ethical issues in modeling.

  13. Operational Space Weather Models: Trials, Tribulations and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Thompson, D. C.; Zhu, L.

    2009-12-01

    There are many empirical, physics-based, and data assimilation models that can probably be used for space weather applications and the models cover the entire domain from the surface of the Sun to the Earth’s surface. At Utah State University we developed two physics-based data assimilation models of the terrestrial ionosphere as part of a program called Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM). One of the data assimilation models is now in operational use at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) in Omaha, Nebraska. This model is a Gauss-Markov Kalman Filter (GAIM-GM) model, and it uses a physics-based model of the ionosphere and a Kalman filter as a basis for assimilating a diverse set of real-time (or near real-time) measurements. The physics-based model is the Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM), which is global and covers the E-region, F-region, and topside ionosphere from 90 to 1400 km. It takes account of five ion species (NO+, O2+, N2+, O+, H+), but the main output of the model is a 3-dimensional electron density distribution at user specified times. The second data assimilation model uses a physics-based Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Model (IPM) and an ensemble Kalman filter technique as a basis for assimilating a diverse set of real-time (or near real-time) measurements. This Full Physics model (GAIM-FP) is global, covers the altitude range from 90 to 30,000 km, includes six ions (NO+, O2+, N2+, O+, H+, He+), and calculates the self-consistent ionospheric drivers (electric fields and neutral winds). The GAIM-FP model is scheduled for delivery in 2012. Both of these GAIM models assimilate bottom-side Ne profiles from a variable number of ionosondes, slant TEC from a variable number of ground GPS/TEC stations, in situ Ne from four DMSP satellites, line-of-sight UV emissions measured by satellites, and occultation data. Quality control algorithms for all of the data types are provided as an integral part of the GAIM models and these models take account of

  14. Operations and support cost modeling using Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit

    1989-01-01

    Systems for future missions will be selected with life cycle costs (LCC) as a primary evaluation criterion. This reflects the current realization that only systems which are considered affordable will be built in the future due to the national budget constaints. Such an environment calls for innovative cost modeling techniques which address all of the phases a space system goes through during its life cycle, namely: design and development, fabrication, operations and support; and retirement. A significant portion of the LCC for reusable systems are generated during the operations and support phase (OS). Typically, OS costs can account for 60 to 80 percent of the total LCC. Clearly, OS costs are wholly determined or at least strongly influenced by decisions made during the design and development phases of the project. As a result OS costs need to be considered and estimated early in the conceptual phase. To be effective, an OS cost estimating model needs to account for actual instead of ideal processes by associating cost elements with probabilities. One approach that may be suitable for OS cost modeling is the use of the Markov Chain Process. Markov chains are an important method of probabilistic analysis for operations research analysts but they are rarely used for life cycle cost analysis. This research effort evaluates the use of Markov Chains in LCC analysis by developing OS cost model for a hypothetical reusable space transportation vehicle (HSTV) and suggests further uses of the Markov Chain process as a design-aid tool.

  15. Optimizing Biorefinery Design and Operations via Linear Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, Michael; Batan, Liaw; Lamers, Patrick; Hartley, Damon; Biddy, Mary; Tao, Ling; Tan, Eric

    2017-03-28

    The ability to assess and optimize economics of biomass resource utilization for the production of fuels, chemicals and power is essential for the ultimate success of a bioenergy industry. The team of authors, consisting of members from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), has developed simple biorefinery linear programming (LP) models to enable the optimization of theoretical or existing biorefineries. The goal of this analysis is to demonstrate how such models can benefit the developing biorefining industry. It focuses on a theoretical multi-pathway, thermochemical biorefinery configuration and demonstrates how the biorefinery can use LP models for operations planning and optimization in comparable ways to the petroleum refining industry. Using LP modeling tools developed under U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (DOE-BETO) funded efforts, the authors investigate optimization challenges for the theoretical biorefineries such as (1) optimal feedstock slate based on available biomass and prices, (2) breakeven price analysis for available feedstocks, (3) impact analysis for changes in feedstock costs and product prices, (4) optimal biorefinery operations during unit shutdowns / turnarounds, and (5) incentives for increased processing capacity. These biorefinery examples are comparable to crude oil purchasing and operational optimization studies that petroleum refiners perform routinely using LPs and other optimization models. It is important to note that the analyses presented in this article are strictly theoretical and they are not based on current energy market prices. The pricing structure assigned for this demonstrative analysis is consistent with $4 per gallon gasoline, which clearly assumes an economic environment that would favor the construction and operation of biorefineries. The analysis approach and examples provide valuable insights into the usefulness of analysis tools for

  16. Globally nilpotent differential operators and the square Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostan, A [INRIA Rocquencourt, Domaine de Voluceau, BP 105 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex (France); Boukraa, S [LPTHIRM and Departement d' Aeronautique, Universite de Blida (Algeria); Hassani, S; Zenine, N [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, BP 399, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Maillard, J-M [LPTMC, CNRS, Universite de Paris, Tour 24, 4eme etage, Case 121, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Weil, J-A [LACO, XLIM, Universite de Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France)], E-mail: alin.bostan@inria.fr, E-mail: boukraa@mail.univ-blida.dz, E-mail: maillard@lptmc.jussieu.fr, E-mail: jacques-arthur.weil@unilim.fr, E-mail: njzenine@yahoo.com

    2009-03-27

    We recall various multiple integrals with one parameter, related to the isotropic square Ising model, and corresponding, respectively, to the n-particle contributions of the magnetic susceptibility, to the (lattice) form factors, to the two-point correlation functions and to their {lambda}-extensions. The univariate analytic functions defined by these integrals are holonomic and even G-functions: they satisfy Fuchsian linear differential equations with polynomial coefficients and have some arithmetic properties. We recall the explicit forms, found in previous work, of these Fuchsian equations, as well as their Russian-doll and direct sum structures. These differential operators are selected Fuchsian linear differential operators, and their remarkable properties have a deep geometrical origin: they are all globally nilpotent, or, sometimes, even have zero p-curvature. We also display miscellaneous examples of globally nilpotent operators emerging from enumerative combinatorics problems for which no integral representation is yet known. Focusing on the factorized parts of all these operators, we find out that the global nilpotence of the factors (resp. p-curvature nullity) corresponds to a set of selected structures of algebraic geometry: elliptic curves, modular curves, curves of genus five, six,..., and even a remarkable weight-1 modular form emerging in the three-particle contribution {chi}{sup (3)} of the magnetic susceptibility of the square Ising model. Noticeably, this associated weight-1 modular form is also seen in the factors of the differential operator for another n-fold integral of the Ising class, {phi}{sup (3)}{sub H}, for the staircase polygons counting, and in Apery's study of {zeta}(3). G-functions naturally occur as solutions of globally nilpotent operators. In the case where we do not have G-functions, but Hamburger functions (one irregular singularity at 0 or {infinity}) that correspond to the confluence of singularities in the scaling limit

  17. Modeling the fate of a photoproduct of ketoprofen in urban rivers receiving wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanamoto, Seiya; Hasegawa, Eisuke; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2016-12-15

    Photoproducts of pharmaceuticals have been studied in order not to overlook their potential risks to aquatic organisms. However, no studies have verified an equation for predicting the fate of photoproducts in aquatic environment (Poiger equation) by field measurements, leaving uncertainties in its practical utility. Therefore, we conducted this study to test the applicability of the Poiger equation to 3-ethylbenzophenone (EBP), a photoproduct of ketoprofen (KTP). Photolysis experiments determined the fraction of KTP transformed into EBP as 0.744±0.074 and the quantum yield of EBP degradation as 0.000418±0.000090. Field studies in urban rivers and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) revealed that EBP was produced by sunlight, mainly in the rivers, but also appreciably in outdoor primary and secondary clarifiers in the WWTPs. We developed a model in the secondary clarifiers, disinfection tanks, and rivers by incorporating the Poiger equation, which was effective at predicting the concentrations of EBP in the river waters and wastewaters. Thus, our first trial of verification by field measurements enhanced the practical utility of the Poiger equation, though further study including several photoproducts should be conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  19. Research on Operation Security of Solar Thermal Tower Power Plant Receiver%塔式太阳能热发电吸热器运行安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高维; 徐蕙; 徐二树; 余强

    2013-01-01

    The Superheating cavity receiver of Badaling 1MW solar thermal power plant had produced successfully superheated steam in August 2011. Because the direct normal irradiation value is changing with time, flux density on each evaporating heating surfaces is different and Superheater has occurred deformation. According to structure of evaporating heating surfaces of Badaling 1 MW solar thermal power plant receiver, a 7-channel evaporator heating surface dynamic simulation model is developed. This model could better simulate the dynamic characteristics of receiver. Basis on the model, this paper analyzed the operation security of the overheating cavity receiver. For evaporative heating surfaces, the most dangerous working condition is a sudden increase in solar irradiance at the high load; for superheator, the most dangerous working condition is a sudden decrease in the turbine regulating valve at the high load.%八达岭1MW塔式太阳能腔式吸热器已于2011年8月成功生产出过热蒸汽.由于太阳辐照随时间变化的特点,腔式吸热器各受热面能流密度分布极不均匀.为了研究腔式吸热器的运行安全性,文中根据八达岭1MW塔式太阳能过热型腔式吸热器蒸发受热面的结构形式,建立了7通道蒸发受热面动态仿真数学模型.该模型能够反映不同蒸发受热面工质流量随能流密度变化的规律性,更好地模拟吸热器动态特性.在此基础上,通过仿真实验分析了过热型腔式吸热器运器运行安全性.对于蒸发受热面,最危险的工况是在高负荷时太阳辐照突然增强;对于过热受热面,最危险的工况是,高负荷时汽轮机调节汽门突然关小.

  20. Assessment of Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts from Operational NWP Models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiano, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Previous work has shown that satellite and numerical model estimates of precipitation have complimentary strengths, with satellites having greater skill at detecting convective precipitation events and model estimates having greater skill at detecting stratiform precipitation. This is due in part to the challenges associated with retrieving stratiform precipitation from satellites and the difficulty in resolving sub-grid scale processes in models. These complimentary strengths can be exploited to obtain new merged satellite/model datasets, and several such datasets have been constructed using reanalysis data. Whilst reanalysis data are stable in a climate sense, they also have relatively coarse resolution compared to the satellite estimates (many of which are now commonly available at quarter degree resolution) and they necessarily use fixed forecast systems that are not state-of-the-art. An alternative to reanalysis data is to use Operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model estimates, which routinely produce precipitation with higher resolution and using the most modern techniques. Such estimates have not been combined with satellite precipitation and their relative skill has not been sufficiently assessed beyond model validation. The aim of this work is to assess the information content of the models relative to satellite estimates with the goal of improving techniques for merging these data types. To that end, several operational NWP precipitation forecasts have been compared to satellite and in situ data and their relative skill in forecasting precipitation has been assessed. In particular, the relationship between precipitation forecast skill and other model variables will be explored to see if these other model variables can be used to estimate the skill of the model at a particular time. Such relationships would be provide a basis for determining weights and errors of any merged products.

  1. Model for Determining Fixed Costs for the Winter Service Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Glad

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available From the season 2005!06 a new dynamic model for the operationof the Winter Service in the Republic of Croatia will beused. The old model was based on three levels of readiness, andthe roads were categorised primarily according to their administrativedistribution. The new dynamic model has three levelsof readiness, while the first level is further divided into two servicelevels. The road is classified to a certain readiness and servicelevel according to the traffic, climate and economic conditions.The new model splits the cost structure into fixed and variablecosts. The investor wants to keep the fixed costs at a minimal/eve~ which will guarantee proper readiness for quick intervention.The investor wants to ensure a technological infrastructurefor quality cleaning of roads is created. The capitalcompanies want larger fixed costs to ensure certain profit, anddefined fixed costs enable them to asses the profitability of theWinter Service operation. Such structure fonils the followingrelationship: in mild winters the capital companies "profit" andthe investor "loses", and vice versa for cold winters. Mathematically,such relationship should be treated as a finite strategictwo-player game.This paper will show the model needed to forecast fixedcosts in the new dynamic model for operation of Winter Ser·vice, through consideration of connection of linear programmingand the matrix game theory, to study the problem in parallel,from the standpoint of both players.

  2. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  3. A comprehensive operational semantics of the SCOOP programming model

    CERN Document Server

    Morandi, Benjamin; Meyer, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Operational semantics has established itself as a flexible but rigorous means to describe the meaning of programming languages. Oftentimes, it is felt necessary to keep a semantics small, for example to facilitate its use for model checking by avoiding state space explosion. However, omitting many details in a semantics typically makes results valid for a limited core language only, leaving a wide gap towards any real implementation. In this paper we present a full-fledged semantics of the concurrent object-oriented programming language SCOOP (Simple Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming). The semantics has been found detailed enough to guide an implementation of the SCOOP compiler and runtime system, and to detect and correct a variety of errors and ambiguities in the original informal specification and prototype implementation. In our formal specification, we use abstract data types with preconditions and axioms to describe the state, and introduce a number of special run-time operations to model the runti...

  4. WEB-BASED VIRTUAL CNC MACHINE MODELING AND OPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A CNC simulation system based on internet for operation training of manufacturing facility and manufacturing process simulation is proposed. Firstly, the system framework and a rapid modeling method of CNC machine tool are studied under the virtual environment based on PolyTrans and CAD software. Then, a new method is proposed to enhance and expand the interactive ability of virtual reality modeling language(VRML) by attaining communication among VRML, JavaApplet, JavaScript and Html so as to realize the virtual operation for CNC machine tool. Moreover, the algorithm of material removed simulation based on VRML Z-map is presented. The advantages of this algorithm include less memory requirement and much higher computation. Lastly, the CNC milling machine is taken as an illustrative example for the prototype development in order to validate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  5. Assessment model of dam operation risk based on monitoring data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Although the dams produce remarkable social and economic benefits,the threat made by unsafe dams to the life and property of people who live in the lower river area is un-negligible.Based on the monitoring data which reflect the safety condition of dams,the risk degree concept is proposed and the analysis system and model for evaluating risk degree (rate) are established in this paper by combining the reliability theory and field monitoring data.The analysis method for risk degree is presented based on Bayesian approach.A five-grade risk degree system for dam operation risk and corresponding risk degree is put forward according to the safety condition of dams.The operation risks of four cascade dams on some river are analyzed by the model and approach presented here and the result is adopted by the owner.

  6. Optimization of Operations Resources via Discrete Event Simulation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, B.; Morris, D.; White, N.; Unal, R.

    1996-01-01

    The resource levels required for operation and support of reusable launch vehicles are typically defined through discrete event simulation modeling. Minimizing these resources constitutes an optimization problem involving discrete variables and simulation. Conventional approaches to solve such optimization problems involving integer valued decision variables are the pattern search and statistical methods. However, in a simulation environment that is characterized by search spaces of unknown topology and stochastic measures, these optimization approaches often prove inadequate. In this paper, we have explored the applicability of genetic algorithms to the simulation domain. Genetic algorithms provide a robust search strategy that does not require continuity and differentiability of the problem domain. The genetic algorithm successfully minimized the operation and support activities for a space vehicle, through a discrete event simulation model. The practical issues associated with simulation optimization, such as stochastic variables and constraints, were also taken into consideration.

  7. Modelling of Reservoir Operations using Fuzzy Logic and ANNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Coerver, B.; Rutten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Today, almost 40.000 large reservoirs, containing approximately 6.000 km3 of water and inundating an area of almost 400.000 km2, can be found on earth. Since these reservoirs have a storage capacity of almost one-sixth of the global annual river discharge they have a large impact on the timing, volume and peaks of river discharges. Global Hydrological Models (GHM) are thus significantly influenced by these anthropogenic changes in river flows. We developed a parametrically parsimonious method to extract operational rules based on historical reservoir storage and inflow time-series. Managing a reservoir is an imprecise and vague undertaking. Operators always face uncertainties about inflows, evaporation, seepage losses and various water demands to be met. They often base their decisions on experience and on available information, like reservoir storage and the previous periods inflow. We modeled this decision-making process through a combination of fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks in an Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). In a sensitivity analysis, we compared results for reservoirs in Vietnam, Central Asia and the USA. ANFIS can indeed capture reservoirs operations adequately when fed with a historical monthly time-series of inflows and storage. It was shown that using ANFIS, operational rules of existing reservoirs can be derived without much prior knowledge about the reservoirs. Their validity was tested by comparing actual and simulated releases with each other. For the eleven reservoirs modelled, the normalised outflow, , was predicted with a MSE of 0.002 to 0.044. The rules can be incorporated into GHMs. After a network for a specific reservoir has been trained, the inflow calculated by the hydrological model can be combined with the release and initial storage to calculate the storage for the next time-step using a mass balance. Subsequently, the release can be predicted one time-step ahead using the inflow and storage.

  8. Simulation of primary static recrystallization with cellular operator model

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Prantik

    2005-01-01

    1. Based on the modified cellular automata approach of Reher [60] a cellular operator model has been developed that is capable of accounting for spatial and temporal inhomogeneity on a finer scale. For this a scalable subgrid automaton is introduced that allows for a high spatial resolution on demand and still high computational efficiency. The scalable subgrid permits to track the minute changes of growth front during recrystallization owing to local variations of boundary mobility and net d...

  9. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency.

  10. Dunkl operator, integrability, and pairwise scattering in rational Calogero model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanyan, David

    2017-05-01

    The integrability of the Calogero model can be expressed as zero curvature condition using Dunkl operators. The corresponding flat connections are non-local gauge transformations, which map the Calogero wave functions to symmetrized wave functions of the set of N free particles, i.e. it relates the corresponding scattering matrices to each other. The integrability of the Calogero model implies that any k-particle scattering is reduced to successive pairwise scatterings. The consistency condition of this requirement is expressed by the analog of the Yang-Baxter relation.

  11. Weather modeling and forecasting of PV systems operation

    CERN Document Server

    Paulescu, Marius; Gravila, Paul; Badescu, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a substantial increase of grid-feeding photovoltaic applications, thus raising the importance of solar electricity in the energy mix. This trend is expected to continue and may even increase. Apart from the high initial investment cost, the fluctuating nature of the solar resource raises particular insertion problems in electrical networks. Proper grid managing demands short- and long-time forecasting of solar power plant output. Weather modeling and forecasting of PV systems operation is focused on this issue. Models for predicting the state of the sky, nowc

  12. Operational dynamic modeling transcending quantum and classical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Denys I; Cabrera, Renan; Lompay, Robert R; Ivanov, Misha Yu; Rabitz, Herschel A

    2012-11-09

    We introduce a general and systematic theoretical framework for operational dynamic modeling (ODM) by combining a kinematic description of a model with the evolution of the dynamical average values. The kinematics includes the algebra of the observables and their defined averages. The evolution of the average values is drawn in the form of Ehrenfest-like theorems. We show that ODM is capable of encompassing wide-ranging dynamics from classical non-relativistic mechanics to quantum field theory. The generality of ODM should provide a basis for formulating novel theories.

  13. Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yudong; Borrelli, Francesco; Hencey, Brandon; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Haves, Philip

    2010-06-29

    A model-based predictive control (MPC) is designed for optimal thermal energy storage in building cooling systems. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. Typically the chillers are operated at night to recharge the storage tank in order to meet the building demands on the following day. In this paper, we build on our previous work, improve the building load model, and present experimental results. The experiments show that MPC can achieve reduction in the central plant electricity cost and improvement of its efficiency.

  14. Communicating Sustainability: An Operational Model for Evaluating Corporate Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Siano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in corporate sustainability has increased rapidly in recent years and has encouraged organizations to adopt appropriate digital communication strategies, in which the corporate website plays a key role. Despite this growing attention in both the academic and business communities, models for the analysis and evaluation of online sustainability communication have not been developed to date. This paper aims to develop an operational model to identify and assess the requirements of sustainability communication in corporate websites. It has been developed from a literature review on corporate sustainability and digital communication and the analysis of the websites of the organizations included in the “Global CSR RepTrak 2015” by the Reputation Institute. The model identifies the core dimensions of online sustainability communication (orientation, structure, ergonomics, content—OSEC, sub-dimensions, such as stakeholder engagement and governance tools, communication principles, and measurable items (e.g., presence of the materiality matrix, interactive graphs. A pilot study on the websites of the energy and utilities companies included in the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index 2015 confirms the applicability of the OSEC framework. Thus, the model can provide managers and digital communication consultants with an operational tool that is useful for developing an industry ranking and assessing the best practices. The model can also help practitioners to identify corrective actions in the critical areas of digital sustainability communication and avoid greenwashing.

  15. Model validity and frequency band selection in operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Siu-Kui

    2016-12-01

    Experimental modal analysis aims at identifying the modal properties (e.g., natural frequencies, damping ratios, mode shapes) of a structure using vibration measurements. Two basic questions are encountered when operating in the frequency domain: Is there a mode near a particular frequency? If so, how much spectral data near the frequency can be included for modal identification without incurring significant modeling error? For data with high signal-to-noise (s/n) ratios these questions can be addressed using empirical tools such as singular value spectrum. Otherwise they are generally open and can be challenging, e.g., for modes with low s/n ratios or close modes. In this work these questions are addressed using a Bayesian approach. The focus is on operational modal analysis, i.e., with 'output-only' ambient data, where identification uncertainty and modeling error can be significant and their control is most demanding. The approach leads to 'evidence ratios' quantifying the relative plausibility of competing sets of modeling assumptions. The latter involves modeling the 'what-if-not' situation, which is non-trivial but is resolved by systematic consideration of alternative models and using maximum entropy principle. Synthetic and field data are considered to investigate the behavior of evidence ratios and how they should be interpreted in practical applications.

  16. New Calculations in Dirac Gaugino Models: Operators, Expansions, and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    In this work we calculate important one loop SUSY-breaking parameters in models with Dirac gauginos, which are implied by the existence of heavy messenger fields. We find that these SUSY-breaking effects are all related by a small number of parameters, thus the general theory is tightly predictive. In order to make the most accurate analyses of one loop effects, we introduce calculations using an expansion in SUSY breaking messenger mass, rather than relying on postulating the forms of effective operators. We use this expansion to calculate one loop contributions to gaugino masses, non-holomorphic SM adjoint masses, new A-like and B-like terms, and linear terms. We also test the Higgs potential in such models, and calculate one loop contributions to the Higgs mass in certain limits of R-symmetric models, finding a very large contribution in many regions of the $\\mu$-less MSSM, where Higgs fields couple to standard model adjoint fields.

  17. Addressing the Challenges of Distributed Hydrologic Modeling for Operational Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Yamagata, K.; Kobor, J.; Fontenot, E.

    2008-05-01

    Operational forecasting systems must provide reliable, accurate and timely flood forecasts for a range of catchments from small rapidly responding mountain catchments and urban areas to large, complex but more slowly responding fluvial systems. Flood forecasting systems have evolved from simple forecasting for flood mitigation to real-time decision support systems for real-time reservoir operations for water supply, navigation, hydropower, for managing environmental flows and habitat protection, cooling water and water quality forecasting. These different requirements lead to a number of challenges in applying distributed modelling in an operational context. These challenges include, the often short time available for forecasting that requires a trade-off between model complexity and accuracy on the one hand and on the other hand the need for efficient calculations to reduce the computation times. Limitations in the data available in real-time require modelling tools that can not only operate on a minimum of data but also take advantage of new data sources such as weather radar, satellite remote sensing, wireless sensors etc. Finally, models must not only accurately predict flood peaks but also forecast low flows and surface water-groundwater interactions, water quality, water temperature, optimal reservoir levels, and inundated areas. This paper shows how these challenges are being addressed in a number of case studies. The central strategy has been to develop a flexible modelling framework that can be adapted to different data sources, different levels of complexity and spatial distribution and different modelling objectives. The resulting framework allows amongst other things, optimal use of grid-based precipitation fields from weather radar and numerical weather models, direct integration of satellite remote sensing, a unique capability to treat a range of new forecasting problems such as flooding conditioned by surface water-groundwater interactions. Results

  18. Effect of an Educational-Supportive Program Based on Roy Adaptation Model on Marital Satisfaction in Mastectomy Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Shahed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding nurses' significant role in improving quality of marital life in mastectomy patients and their families, implication of the adaptation model can help nurses reaching this goal. Aim: This study aimed to determine Effect of an educational-supportive program based on Roy This quasi-experimental study was performed on 69 mastectomy patients receiving chemotherapy in 2013 in clinical services in Tehran, Iran. The samples were randomly allocated to two groups. The data collection instrument was ENRICH Marital Satisfaction scale (2011. In the experimental group, maladaptive behaviors and their stimuli were determined by the questionnaire, and then adaptive strategies were implemented in 45 days. The program was based on support (patients instruction, peer group, weblog, meeting with the participants’ spouses, and three-month follow-up using behaviors checklist. Control group patients received the regular treatment sessions. T-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and Chi-square tests were run, using SPSS version 19. Results: In experimental group, paired sample t-test reflected an increase in marital satisfaction from 24.7±2.6 before to 32.9±3.5 after the intervention (P=0.03. However, no significant differences were observed in the control group from 26/7±4/6 before to 26/5±4/8 after the intervention in this regard (P=0/63.   Implications for Practice: Roy Adaptation Model can be used as a framework for designing educational-supportive programs to improve quality of marital life in mastectomy patients receiving chemotherapy.

  19. Patient Decisions to Receive Secondary Pharmacogenomic Findings and Development of a Multidisciplinary Practice Model to Integrate Results Into Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, J Kevin; Shealy, Amy; Schreiber, Allison; Coleridge, Marissa; Noss, Ryan; Natowicz, Marvin; Moran, Rocio; Moss, Timothy; Erwin, Angelika; Eng, Charis

    2017-07-27

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) has the potential of identifying secondary findings that are predictive of poor pharmacotherapy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate patients' wishes regarding the reporting of secondary pharmacogenomic findings. WES results (n = 106 patients) were retrospectively reviewed to determine the number of patients electing to receive secondary pharmacogenomic results. Phenotypes were assigned based on Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines. The percent of patients with a predicted phenotype associated with a gene-based CPIC dosing recommendation was determined. Ninety-nine patients (93.4%) elected to receive secondary pharmacogenomic findings. For each gene-drug pair analyzed, the number of patients with an actionable phenotype ranged from two (2%) to 43 patients (43.4%). Combining all gene-drug pairs, 84 unique patients (84.8%) had an actionable phenotype. A prospective multidisciplinary practice model was developed for integrating secondary pharmacogenomic findings into clinical practice. Our model highlights a unique collaboration between physician-geneticists, pharmacists, and genetic counselors. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  20. MPS Solidification Model. Volume 2: Operating guide and software documentation for the unsteady model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    The operation of solidification Model 2 is described and documentation of the software associated with the model is provided. Model 2 calculates the macrosegregation in a rectangular ingot of a binary alloy as a result of unsteady horizontal axisymmetric bidirectional solidification. The solidification program allows interactive modification of calculation parameters as well as selection of graphical and tabular output. In batch mode, parameter values are input in card image form and output consists of printed tables of solidification functions. The operational aspects of Model 2 that differ substantially from Model 1 are described. The global flow diagrams and data structures of Model 2 are included. The primary program documentation is the code itself.

  1. Island operation - modelling of a small hydro power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarp, Stefan

    2000-02-01

    Simulation is a useful tool for investigating a system behaviour. It is a way to examine operating situations without having to perform them in reality. If someone for example wants to test an operating situation where the system possibly will demolish, a computer simulation could be a both cheaper and safer way than to do the test in reality. This master thesis performs and analyses a simulation, modelling an electronic power system. The system consists of a minor hydro power station, a wood refining industry, and interconnecting power system components. In the simulation situation the system works in a so called island operation. The thesis aims at making a capacity analysis of the current system. Above all, the goal is to find restrictions in load power profile of the consumer, under given circumstances. The computer software used in simulations is Matlab and its additional program PSB (Power System Blockset). The work has been carried out in co-operation with the power supplier Skellefteaa Kraft, where the problem formulation of this master thesis was founded.

  2. Energy balance model of a SOFC cogenerator operated with biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van herle, Jan; Maréchal, F.; Leuenberger, S.; Favrat, D.

    A small cogeneration system based on a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) fed on the renewable energy source biogas is presented. An existing farm biogas production site (35 m 3 per day), currently equipped with a SOFC demonstration stack, is taken for reference. A process flow diagram was defined in a software package allowing to vary system operating parameters like the fuel inlet composition, reforming technology, stack temperature and stack current (or fuel conversion). For system reforming simplicity, a base case parameter set was defined as the fuel inlet of 60% CH 4:40% CO 2 mixed with air in a 1:1 ratio, together with 800 °C operating temperature and 80% fuel conversion. A model stack, consisting of 100 series elements of anode supported electrolyte cells of 100 cm 2 each, was calculated to deliver 3.1 kW el and 5.16 kW th from an input of 1.5 N m 3/h of biogas (8.95 kW LHV), corresponding to 33.8 and 57.6% electrical and thermal efficiencies (Lower Heating Values (LHVs)), respectively. The incidence on the efficiencies of the model system was examined by the variation of a number of parameters such as the CO 2 content in the biogas, the amount of air addition to the biogas stream, the addition of steam to the fuel inlet, the air excess ratio λ and the stack operating temperature, and the results discussed.

  3. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Laxemar. The inflow calculations were accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handled the impact of different deposition hole rejection criteria. The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled

  4. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  5. Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    3D-CEMBS is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea and have been developed within the grant, wchich is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Reasearch. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain (J.K. Moore et. al., 2002) and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The model is configured at two horizontal resolutions, approximately 9km and 2km (1/12° and 1/48° respectively). The model bathymetry is represented as 21 vertical levels and the thickness of the first four layers were chosen to be five metres. 3D-CEMBS model grid is based on stereographic coordinates, but equator of these coordinates is in the centre of the Baltic Sea (rotated stereographic coordinates) and we can assume that shape of the cells are square and they are identical. Currently model works in a operational state. The model creates 48-hour forecasts every 6 hours (or when new atmospheric dataset is available). Prognostic variables such as temperature, salinity, ice cover, currents, sea surface height and phytoplankton concentration are presented online on a the website and are available for registered users. Also time series for any location are accessible. This work was carried out in support of grant No NN305 111636 and No NN306 353239 - the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research. The partial support for this study was

  6. Using Model-Based Reasoning for Autonomous Instrument Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike; Rilee, M.; Truszkowski, W.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    of environmental hazards, frame the problem of constructing autonomous science instruments. we are developing a model of the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) that is currently flying on board the Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. LENA is a particle detector that uses high voltage electrostatic optics and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to image neutral atom emissions from the denser regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. As with most spacecraft borne science instruments, phenomena in addition to neutral atoms are detected by LENA. Solar radiation and energetic particles from Earth's radiation belts are of particular concern because they may help generate currents that may compromise LENA's long term performance. An explicit model of the instrument response has been constructed and is currently in use on board IMAGE to dynamically adapt LENA to the presence or absence of energetic background radiations. The components of LENA are common in space science instrumentation, and lessons learned by modelling this system may be applied to other instruments. This work demonstrates that a model-based approach can be used to enhance science instrument effectiveness. Our future work involves the extension of these methods to cover more aspects of LENA operation and the generalization to other space science instrumentation.

  7. MODELLING AND EVALUATION OF OPERATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS OF MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG LIU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aiming to connect previous research in global competitiveness analysis. Research is based on doing numerous case studies and creating analytical models to evaluate the overall competitiveness, which is a novel concept by integrating the evaluation of manufacturing strategy and transformational leadership including technology level together. The empirical studies are focused to case companies in China especially Chinese State-Owned Manufacturing Enterprise (CSOME. The main emphasises of this research are manufacturing strategy and transformational leadership for CSOME. We have brought the influence of “China effect” to study how it will impact the operational competitiveness of CSOME on top of their manufacturing strategy and transformational leadership.

  8. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Gyro Temperature Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J. N.; Noonan, C. H.; Garrick, J.

    1996-01-01

    The geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 1/M series of spacecraft are geostationary weather satellites that use the latest in weather imaging technology. The inertial reference unit package onboard consists of three gyroscopes measuring angular velocity along each of the spacecraft's body axes. This digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) is calibrated and used to maintain spacecraft attitude during orbital delta-V maneuvers. During the early orbit support of GOES-8 (April 1994), the gyro drift rate biases exhibited a large dependency on gyro temperature. This complicated the calibration and introduced errors into the attitude during delta-V maneuvers. Following GOES-8, a model of the DIRA temperature and drift rate bias variation was developed for GOES-9 (May 1995). This model was used to project a value of the DIRA bias to use during the orbital delta-V maneuvers based on the bias change observed as the DIRA warmed up during the calibration. The model also optimizes the yaw reorientation necessary to achieve the correct delta-V pointing attitude. As a result, a higher accuracy was achieved on GOES-9 leading to more efficient delta-V maneuvers and a propellant savings. This paper summarizes the: Data observed on GOES-8 and the complications it caused in calibration; DIRA temperature/drift rate model; Application and results of the model on GOES-9 support.

  9. Operational Testing of Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Srishti; Paul, Pranesh Kumar; Singh, Rajendra; Mishra, Ashok; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Raghavendra P.

    2017-04-01

    Incorporation of the concept of transposability in model testing is one of the prominent ways to check the credibility of a hydrological model. Successful testing ensures ability of hydrological models to deal with changing conditions, along with its extrapolation capacity. For a newly developed model, a number of contradictions arises regarding its applicability, therefore testing of credibility of model is essential to proficiently assess its strength and limitations. This concept emphasizes to perform 'Hierarchical Operational Testing' of Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM), a newly developed surface water-groundwater coupled model, under PRACRITI-2 program initiated by Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad. SHM aims at sustainable water resources management using remote sensing data from Indian satellites. It consists of grid cells of 5km x 5km resolution and comprises of five modules namely: Surface Water (SW), Forest (F), Snow (S), Groundwater (GW) and Routing (ROU). SW module (functions in the grid cells with land cover other than forest and snow) deals with estimation of surface runoff, soil moisture and evapotranspiration by using NRCS-CN method, water balance and Hragreaves method, respectively. The hydrology of F module is dependent entirely on sub-surface processes and water balance is calculated based on it. GW module generates baseflow (depending on water table variation with the level of water in streams) using Boussinesq equation. ROU module is grounded on a cell-to-cell routing technique based on the principle of Time Variant Spatially Distributed Direct Runoff Hydrograph (SDDH) to route the generated runoff and baseflow by different modules up to the outlet. For this study Subarnarekha river basin, flood prone zone of eastern India, has been chosen for hierarchical operational testing scheme which includes tests under stationary as well as transitory conditions. For this the basin has been divided into three sub-basins using three flow

  10. Hysteresis Modeling in Magnetostrictive Materials Via Preisach Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological characterization of hysteresis in magnetostrictive materials is presented. Such hysteresis is due to both the driving magnetic fields and stress relations within the material and is significant throughout, most of the drive range of magnetostrictive transducers. An accurate characterization of the hysteresis and material nonlinearities is necessary, to fully utilize the actuator/sensor capabilities of the magnetostrictive materials. Such a characterization is made here in the context of generalized Preisach operators. This yields a framework amenable to proving the well-posedness of structural models that incorporate the magnetostrictive transducers. It also provides a natural setting in which to develop practical approximation techniques. An example illustrating this framework in the context of a Timoshenko beam model is presented.

  11. Learning obstacle avoidance with an operant behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnisky, D A; Zanutto, B S

    2004-01-01

    Artificial intelligence researchers have been attracted by the idea of having robots learn how to accomplish a task, rather than being told explicitly. Reinforcement learning has been proposed as an appealing framework to be used in controlling mobile agents. Robot learning research, as well as research in biological systems, face many similar problems in order to display high flexibility in performing a variety of tasks. In this work, the controlling of a vehicle in an avoidance task by a previously developed operant learning model (a form of animal learning) is studied. An environment in which a mobile robot with proximity sensors has to minimize the punishment for colliding against obstacles is simulated. The results were compared with the Q-Learning algorithm, and the proposed model had better performance. In this way a new artificial intelligence agent inspired by neurobiology, psychology, and ethology research is proposed.

  12. Operational modal analysis modeling, Bayesian inference, uncertainty laws

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Siu-Kui

    2017-01-01

    This book presents operational modal analysis (OMA), employing a coherent and comprehensive Bayesian framework for modal identification and covering stochastic modeling, theoretical formulations, computational algorithms, and practical applications. Mathematical similarities and philosophical differences between Bayesian and classical statistical approaches to system identification are discussed, allowing their mathematical tools to be shared and their results correctly interpreted. Many chapters can be used as lecture notes for the general topic they cover beyond the OMA context. After an introductory chapter (1), Chapters 2–7 present the general theory of stochastic modeling and analysis of ambient vibrations. Readers are first introduced to the spectral analysis of deterministic time series (2) and structural dynamics (3), which do not require the use of probability concepts. The concepts and techniques in these chapters are subsequently extended to a probabilistic context in Chapter 4 (on stochastic pro...

  13. New calculations in Dirac gaugino models: operators, expansions, and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda M.; Goodman, Jessica

    2015-07-01

    In this work we calculate important one loop SUSY-breaking parameters in models with Dirac gauginos, which are implied by the existence of heavy messenger fields. We find that these SUSY-breaking effects are all related by a small number of parameters, thus the general theory is tightly predictive. In order to make the most accurate analyses of one loop effects, we introduce calculations using an expansion in SUSY breaking messenger mass, rather than relying on postulating the forms of effective operators. We use this expansion to calculate one loop contributions to gaugino masses, non-holomorphic SM adjoint masses, new A-like and B-like terms, and linear terms. We also test the Higgs potential in such models, and calculate one loop contributions to the Higgs mass in certain limits of R-symmetric models, finding a very large contribution in many regions of the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.], where Higgs fields couple to standard model adjoint fields.

  14. Wild Fire Emissions for the NOAA Operational HYSPLIT Smoke Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. C.; ONeill, S. M.; Ruminski, M.; Shafran, P.; McQueen, J.; DiMego, G.; Kondragunta, S.; Gorline, J.; Huang, J. P.; Stunder, B.; Stein, A. F.; Stajner, I.; Upadhayay, S.; Larkin, N. K.

    2015-12-01

    Particulate Matter (PM) generated from forest fires often lead to degraded visibility and unhealthy air quality in nearby and downstream areas. To provide near-real time PM information to the state and local agencies, the NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) operational HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) smoke modeling system (NWS/HYSPLIT smoke) provides the forecast of smoke concentration resulting from fire emissions driven by the NWS North American Model 12 km weather predictions. The NWS/HYSPLIT smoke incorporates the U.S. Forest Service BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework (BlueSky) to provide smoke fire emissions along with the input fire locations from the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS)'s Hazard Mapping System fire and smoke detection system. Experienced analysts inspect satellite imagery from multiple sensors onboard geostationary and orbital satellites to identify the location, size and duration of smoke emissions for the model. NWS/HYSPLIT smoke is being updated to use a newer version of USFS BlueSky. The updated BlueSky incorporates the Fuel Characteristic Classification System version 2 (FCCS2) over the continental U.S. and Alaska. FCCS2 includes a more detailed description of fuel loadings with additional plant type categories. The updated BlueSky also utilizes an improved fuel consumption model and fire emission production system. For the period of August 2014 and June 2015, NWS/HYSPLIT smoke simulations show that fire smoke emissions with updated BlueSky are stronger than the current operational BlueSky in the Northwest U.S. For the same comparisons, weaker fire smoke emissions from the updated BlueSky were observed over the middle and eastern part of the U.S. A statistical evaluation of NWS/HYSPLIT smoke predicted total column concentration compared to NOAA NESDIS GOES EAST Aerosol Smoke Product retrievals is underway. Preliminary results show that using the newer version

  15. Chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Saito, Hana [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences

    2016-03-15

    Tensor network (TN) methods, in particular the Matrix Product States (MPS) ansatz, have proven to be a useful tool in analyzing the properties of lattice gauge theories. They allow for a very good precision, much better than standard Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for the models that have been studied so far, due to the possibility of reaching much smaller lattice spacings. The real reason for the interest in the TN approach, however, is its ability, shown so far in several condensed matter models, to deal with theories which exhibit the notorious sign problem in MC simulations. This makes it prospective for dealing with the non-zero chemical potential in QCD and other lattice gauge theories, as well as with real-time simulations. In this paper, using matrix product operators, we extend our analysis of the Schwinger model at zero temperature to show the feasibility of this approach also at finite temperature. This is an important step on the way to deal with the sign problem of QCD. We analyze in detail the chiral symmetry breaking in the massless and massive cases and show that the method works very well and gives good control over a broad range of temperatures, essentially from zero to infinite temperature.

  16. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Forsmark. The inflow calculations are accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handles the impact of parameter heterogeneity, different deposition hole rejection criteria, and the SFR facility (the repository for short-lived radioactive waste located approximately 1 km to the north of the investigated candidate area for a final repository at Forsmark). The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled.

  17. Chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with Matrix Product Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Jansen, Karl; Saito, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Tensor network (TN) methods, in particular the Matrix Product States (MPS) ansatz, have proven to be a useful tool in analyzing the properties of lattice gauge theories. They allow for a very good precision, much better than standard Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for the models that have been studied so far, due to the possibility of reaching much smaller lattice spacings. The real reason for the interest in the TN approach, however, is its ability, shown so far in several condensed matter models, to deal with theories which exhibit the notorious sign problem in MC simulations. This makes it prospective for dealing with the non-zero chemical potential in QCD and other lattice gauge theories, as well as with real-time simulations. In this paper, using matrix product operators, we extend our analysis of the Schwinger model at zero temperature to show the feasibility of this approach also at finite temperature. This is an important step on the way to deal with the sign problem of QCD. We analyze in detail the chir...

  18. Chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl; Saito, Hana

    2016-05-01

    Tensor network (TN) methods, in particular the matrix product states (MPS) ansatz, have proven to be a useful tool in analyzing the properties of lattice gauge theories. They allow for a very good precision, much better than standard Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for the models that have been studied so far, due to the possibility of reaching much smaller lattice spacings. The real reason for the interest in the TN approach, however, is its ability, shown so far in several condensed matter models, to deal with theories which exhibit the notorious sign problem in MC simulations. This makes it prospective for dealing with the nonzero chemical potential in QCD and other lattice gauge theories, as well as with real-time simulations. In this paper, using matrix product operators, we extend our analysis of the Schwinger model at zero temperature to show the feasibility of this approach also at finite temperature. This is an important step on the way to deal with the sign problem of QCD. We analyze in detail the chiral symmetry breaking in the massless and massive cases and show that the method works very well and gives good control over a broad range of temperatures, essentially from zero to infinite temperature.

  19. Analytic Thermoelectric Couple Modeling: Variable Material Properties and Transient Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan A.; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2015-01-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of the operation of a thermoelectric couple a set of analytic solutions have been derived for a variable material property couple and a transient couple. Using an analytic approach, as opposed to commonly used numerical techniques, results in a set of useful design guidelines. These guidelines can serve as useful starting conditions for further numerical studies, or can serve as design rules for lab built couples. The analytic modeling considers two cases and accounts for 1) material properties which vary with temperature and 2) transient operation of a couple. The variable material property case was handled by means of an asymptotic expansion, which allows for insight into the influence of temperature dependence on different material properties. The variable property work demonstrated the important fact that materials with identical average Figure of Merits can lead to different conversion efficiencies due to temperature dependence of the properties. The transient couple was investigated through a Greens function approach; several transient boundary conditions were investigated. The transient work introduces several new design considerations which are not captured by the classic steady state analysis. The work helps to assist in designing couples for optimal performance, and also helps assist in material selection.

  20. Thermal evolution of the Schwinger model with Matrix Product Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bañuls, M C; Cirac, J I; Jansen, K; Saito, H

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the suitability of tensor network techniques for describing the thermal evolution of lattice gauge theories. As a benchmark case, we have studied the temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model, using matrix product operators to approximate the thermal equilibrium states for finite system sizes with non-zero lattice spacings. We show how these techniques allow for reliable extrapolations in bond dimension, step width, system size and lattice spacing, and for a systematic estimation and control of all error sources involved in the calculation. The reached values of the lattice spacing are small enough to capture the most challenging region of high temperatures and the final results are consistent with the analytical prediction by Sachs and Wipf over a broad temperature range.

  1. Thermal evolution of the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Frankfurt am Main Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing (NIC); Jansen, K.; Saito, H. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing (NIC)

    2015-10-15

    We demonstrate the suitability of tensor network techniques for describing the thermal evolution of lattice gauge theories. As a benchmark case, we have studied the temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model, using matrix product operators to approximate the thermal equilibrium states for finite system sizes with non-zero lattice spacings. We show how these techniques allow for reliable extrapolations in bond dimension, step width, system size and lattice spacing, and for a systematic estimation and control of all error sources involved in the calculation. The reached values of the lattice spacing are small enough to capture the most challenging region of high temperatures and the final results are consistent with the analytical prediction by Sachs and Wipf over a broad temperature range.

  2. Modeling motive activation in the Operant Motives Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, J. Malte; Lang, Jonas W. B.; Engeser, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The Operant Motive Test (OMT) is a picture-based procedure that asks respondents to generate imaginative verbal behavior that is later coded for the presence of affiliation, power, and achievement-related motive content by trained coders. The OMT uses a larger number of pictures and asks...... respondents to provide more brief answers than earlier and more traditional picture-based implicit motive measures and has therefore become a frequently used measurement instrument in both research and practice. This article focuses on the psychometric response mechanism in the OMT and builds on recent...... measures (Lang, 2014) and reports the first analysis of which we are aware that applies this model to OMT data (N = 633) and studies dynamic motive activation in the OMT. Results of this analysis yielded evidence for dynamic motive activation in the OMT and showed that simulated IRT reliabilities based...

  3. A 12 GHz satellite video receiver: Low noise, low cost prototype model for TV reception from broadcast satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreha, M. A.; Baprawski, J. G.; Chamaneria, C. N.; Ferry, S. J.; Keithly, G.; Kuklin, H. S.; Lockyear, W. H.; Schifter, L. H.; Swanberg, N. E.; Swift, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    A 12-channel synchronous phase lock video receiver consisting of an outdoor downconverter unit and an indoor demodulator unit was developed to provide both low noise performance and low cost in production quantities of 1000 units. The prototype receiver can be mass produced at a cost under $1540 without sacrificing system performance. The receiver also has the capability of selecting any of the twelve assigned satellite broadcast channels in the frequency range 11.7 to 12.2 GHz.

  4. Operative and diagnostic hysteroscopy: A novel learning model combining new animal models and virtual reality simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Alfred; Rubod, Chrystèle; Borghesi, Yves; Kerbage, Yohan; Schreiber, Elie Servan; Azaïs, Henri; Garabedian, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is one of the most common gynaecological procedure. Training for diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy can be achieved through numerous previously described models like animal models or virtual reality simulation. We present our novel combined model associating virtual reality and bovine uteruses and bladders. End year residents in obstetrics and gynaecology attended a full day workshop. The workshop was divided in theoretical courses from senior surgeons and hands-on training in operative hysteroscopy and virtual reality Essure(®) procedures using the EssureSim™ and Pelvicsim™ simulators with multiple scenarios. Theoretical and operative knowledge was evaluated before and after the workshop and General Points Averages (GPAs) were calculated and compared using a Student's T test. GPAs were significantly higher after the workshop was completed. The biggest difference was observed in operative knowledge (0,28 GPA before workshop versus 0,55 after workshop, pTeaching operative and diagnostic hysteroscopy is essential. Managing this training through a full day workshop using a combined animal model and virtual reality simulation is an efficient model not described before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Realistic modeling of clinical laboratory operation by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W; Braun, S L; Hanssmann, F; Liebl, F; Berchtold, G; Blaschke, H; Eckert, M; Hoffmann, G E; Klose, S

    1994-06-01

    An important objective of laboratory management is to adjust the laboratory's capability to the needs of patients' care as well as economy. The consequences of management may be changes in laboratory organization, equipment, or personnel planning. At present only one's individual experience can be used for making such decisions. We have investigated whether the techniques of operations research could be transferred to a clinical laboratory and whether an adequate simulation model of the laboratory could be realized. First we listed and documented the system design and the process flow for each single laboratory request. These input data were linked by the simulation model (programming language SIMSCRIPT II.5). The output data (turnaround times, utilization rates, and analysis of queue length) were validated by comparison with the current performance data obtained by tracking specimen flow. Congruence of the data was excellent (within +/- 4%). In planning experiments we could study the consequences of changes in order entry, staffing, and equipment on turnaround times, utilization, and queue lengths. We conclude that simulation can be a valuable tool for better management decisions.

  6. OFMspert - Inference of operator intentions in supervisory control using a blackboard architecture. [operator function model expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Rubin, Kenneth S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors proposes an architecture for an expert system that can function as an operator's associate in the supervisory control of a complex dynamic system. Called OFMspert (operator function model (OFM) expert system), the architecture uses the operator function modeling methodology as the basis for the design. The authors put emphasis on the understanding capabilities, i.e., the intent referencing property, of an operator's associate. The authors define the generic structure of OFMspert, particularly those features that support intent inferencing. They also describe the implementation and validation of OFMspert in GT-MSOCC (Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center), a laboratory domain designed to support research in human-computer interaction and decision aiding in complex, dynamic systems.

  7. Measuring and Modeling Solute Transport in the Rootzone: Protecting the Receiving Water Environments of the Coral Atolls of Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, B. E.; van der Velde, M.; Green, S. R.; Gee, G. W.; Manu, V.; Menoniti, V.; Vanclooster, M.

    2005-05-01

    Intensification of agriculture on the raised coral atolls of the Tongan archipelago, notably through squash-pumpkin production, has lead to increased use of agrichemicals. Agrichemicals, both fertilisers and pesticides, pose a risk to these fragile environments. Sustainable land-management practices are needed for small-island developing states. On Tongatapu, solutes leaving the rootzone of the squash can rapidly find their way to the underlying freshwater lenses. These lenses are hydraulically linked to the internal lagoon, and the fringing reefs. We have used buried, non-suction fluxmeters to monitor both the quantity and quality of drainage leaving the rootzone of squash. Fertiliser is traditionally applied at planting. During establishment of the squash in 2003, some 350 mm of rain fell, with 70 % of this leaving the rootzone of this permeable soil as drainage. The concentration of nitrate-N in the drainage water was measured at around 50 mg-N/L. All of the initial fertiliser dressing had been lost, along with N mineralised from the plowed-in grass. Pesticides are needed in humid tropical environments to control weeds, pests and diseases. These chemicals can leach though the rootzone to contaminate receiving waters. We modeled the transport and fate of the presticides used in squash production, and we developed a Decision Support Tool (DST). Our DST can be used to select the best pesticides for local conditions, to tailor practices for minimising leaching losses below the rootzone, and to avoid the build-up of residues in the soil. This project, funded by the European Union and NZAID, took a multi-disciplinary approach through measurement and modeling protocols. Our DST enabled us to engage the wider community and stakeholders. There has been increased awareness of the impacts and risks associated with productive land management in the fragile hydrological environments of this small-island developing state.

  8. Remote Sensing and Modeling for Improving Operational Aquatic Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California’s water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  9. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...... for the Japanese fast breeder reactor plant MONJU....

  10. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...

  11. Multi-reader multi-case studies using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve as a measure of diagnostic accuracy: systematic review with a focus on quality of data reporting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaworn Dendumrongsup

    Full Text Available We examined the design, analysis and reporting in multi-reader multi-case (MRMC research studies using the area under the receiver-operating curve (ROC AUC as a measure of diagnostic performance.We performed a systematic literature review from 2005 to 2013 inclusive to identify a minimum 50 studies. Articles of diagnostic test accuracy in humans were identified via their citation of key methodological articles dealing with MRMC ROC AUC. Two researchers in consensus then extracted information from primary articles relating to study characteristics and design, methods for reporting study outcomes, model fitting, model assumptions, presentation of results, and interpretation of findings. Results were summarized and presented with a descriptive analysis.Sixty-four full papers were retrieved from 475 identified citations and ultimately 49 articles describing 51 studies were reviewed and extracted. Radiological imaging was the index test in all. Most studies focused on lesion detection vs. characterization and used less than 10 readers. Only 6 (12% studies trained readers in advance to use the confidence scale used to build the ROC curve. Overall, description of confidence scores, the ROC curve and its analysis was often incomplete. For example, 21 (41% studies presented no ROC curve and only 3 (6% described the distribution of confidence scores. Of 30 studies presenting curves, only 4 (13% presented the data points underlying the curve, thereby allowing assessment of extrapolation. The mean change in AUC was 0.05 (-0.05 to 0.28. Non-significant change in AUC was attributed to underpowering rather than the diagnostic test failing to improve diagnostic accuracy.Data reporting in MRMC studies using ROC AUC as an outcome measure is frequently incomplete, hampering understanding of methods and the reliability of results and study conclusions. Authors using this analysis should be encouraged to provide a full description of their methods and results.

  12. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition...... of the process plant, its function and its structural elements. The paper explains how the means-end concepts of MFM can be used to provide formalized definitions of plant operation modes. The paper will introduce the mode types defined by MFM and show how selected operation modes can be represented...

  13. Variable-mass Thermodynamics Calculation Model for Gas-operated Automatic Weapon%Variable-mass Thermodynamics Calculation Model for Gas-operated Automatic Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建彬; 吕小强

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the fact that the energy and mass exchange phenomena exist between barrel and gas-operated device of the automatic weapon, for describing its interior ballistics and dynamic characteristics of the gas-operated device accurately, a new variable-mass thermodynamics model is built. It is used to calculate the automatic mechanism velocity of a certain automatic weapon, the calculation results coincide with the experimental results better, and thus the model is validated. The influences of structure parameters on gas-operated device' s dynamic characteristics are discussed. It shows that the model is valuable for design and accurate performance prediction of gas-operated automatic weapon.

  14. Calibration and Extension of a Discrete Event Operations Simulation Modeling Multiple Un-Manned Aerial Vehicles Controlled by a Single Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    CALIBRATION AND EXTENSION OF A DISCRETE EVENT OPERATIONS SIMULATION MODELING MULTIPLE UN-MANNED AERIAL VEHICLES...DISCRETE EVENT OPERATIONS SIMULATION MODELING MULTIPLE UN-MANNED AERIAL VEHICLES CONTROLLED BY A SINGLE OPERATOR THESIS Presented to the...ENV-13-M-34 CALIBRATION AND EXTENSION OF A DISCRETE EVENT OPERATIONS SIMULATION MODELING MULTIPLE UN-MANNED AERIAL VEHICLES CONTROLLED BY

  15. Artificial Systems and Models for Risk Covering Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenţiu Mihai Treapăt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainly, this paper focuses on the roles of artificial intelligence based systems and especially on risk-covering operations. In this context, the paper comes with theoretical explanations on real-life based examples and applications. From a general perspective, the paper enriches its value with a wide discussion on the related subject. The paper aims to revise the volatilities’ estimation models and the correlations between the various time series and also by presenting the Risk Metrics methodology, as explained is a case study. The advantages that the VaR estimation offers, consist of its ability to quantitatively and numerically express the risk level of a portfolio, at a certain moment in time and also the risk of on open position (in titles, in FX, commodities or granted loans, belonging to an economic agent or even individual; hence, its role in a more efficient capital allocation, in the assumed risk delimitation, and also as a performance measurement instrument. In this paper and the study case that completes our work, we aim to prove how we can prevent considerable losses and even bankruptcies if VaR is known and applied accordingly. For this reason, the universities inRomaniashould include or increase their curricula with the study of the VaR model as an artificial intelligence tool. The simplicity of the presented case study, most probably, is the strongest argument of the current work because it can be understood also by the readers that are not necessarily very experienced in the risk management field.

  16. Modeling and Control for Islanding Operation of Active Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Saleem, Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Along with the increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in distribution systems, there are more resources for system operators to improve the operation and control of the whole system and enhance the reliability of electricity supply to customers. The distribution systems with DG...... are able to operate in is-landing operation mode intentionally or unintentionally. In order to smooth the transition from grid connected operation to islanding operation for distribution systems with DG, a multi-agent based controller is proposed to utilize different re-sources in the distribution systems...... to stabilize the frequency. Different agents are defined to represent different resources in the distribution systems. A test platform with a real time digital simulator (RTDS), an OPen Connectivity (OPC) protocol server and the multi-agent based intelligent controller is established to test the proposed multi...

  17. Model Structure Analysis of Model-based Operation of Petroleum Reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doren, J.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    The demand for petroleum is expected to increase in the coming decades, while the production of petroleum from subsurface reservoirs is becoming increasingly complex. To meet the demand petroleum reservoirs should be operated more efficiently. Physics-based petroleum reservoir models that describe t

  18. Model Structure Analysis of Model-based Operation of Petroleum Reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doren, J.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    The demand for petroleum is expected to increase in the coming decades, while the production of petroleum from subsurface reservoirs is becoming increasingly complex. To meet the demand petroleum reservoirs should be operated more efficiently. Physics-based petroleum reservoir models that describe

  19. JELO: A Model of Joint Expeditionary Logistics Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    copy Office of the Chief of Naval Operations N42 2000 Navy Pentagon Washington, D.C. 20350-2000 12. Captain James Stewart ............................................................................ electronic

  20. From pre-operative cardiac modeling to intra-operative virtual environments for surgical guidance: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linte, Cristian A.; Wierzbicki, Marcin; Moore, John; Wedlake, Christopher; Wiles, Andrew D.; Bainbridge, Daniel; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Peters, Terry M.

    2008-03-01

    As part of an ongoing theme in our laboratory on reducing morbidity during minimally-invasive intracardiac procedures, we developed a computer-assisted intervention system that provides safe access inside the beating heart and sufficient visualization to deliver therapy to intracardiac targets while maintaining the efficacy of the procedure. Integrating pre-operative information, 2D trans-esophageal ultrasound for real-time intra-operative imaging, and surgical tool tracking using the NDI Aurora magnetic tracking system in an augmented virtual environment, our system allows the surgeons to navigate instruments inside the heart in spite of the lack of direct target visualization. This work focuses on further enhancing intracardiac visualization and navigation by supplying the surgeons with detailed 3D dynamic cardiac models constructed from high-resolution pre-operative MR data and overlaid onto the intra-operative imaging environment. Here we report our experience during an in vivo porcine study. A feature-based registration technique previously explored and validated in our laboratory was employed for the pre-operative to intra-operative mapping. This registration method is suitable for in vivo interventional applications as it involves the selection of easily identifiable landmarks, while ensuring a good alignment of the pre-operative and intra-operative surgical targets. The resulting augmented reality environment fuses the pre-operative cardiac model with the intra-operative real-time US images with approximately 5 mm accuracy for structures located in the vicinity of the valvular region. Therefore, we strongly believe that our augmented virtual environment significantly enhances intracardiac navigation of surgical instruments, while on-target detailed manipulations are performed under real-time US guidance.

  1. Operator function modeling: An approach to cognitive task analysis in supervisory control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    In a study of models of operators in complex, automated space systems, an operator function model (OFM) methodology was extended to represent cognitive as well as manual operator activities. Development continued on a software tool called OFMdraw, which facilitates construction of an OFM by permitting construction of a heterarchic network of nodes and arcs. Emphasis was placed on development of OFMspert, an expert system designed both to model human operation and to assist real human operators. The system uses a blackboard method of problem solving to make an on-line representation of operator intentions, called ACTIN (actions interpreter).

  2. Operators and representation theory canonical models for algebras of operators arising in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, PET

    1987-01-01

    Historically, operator theory and representation theory both originated with the advent of quantum mechanics. The interplay between the subjects has been and still is active in a variety of areas.This volume focuses on representations of the universal enveloping algebra, covariant representations in general, and infinite-dimensional Lie algebras in particular. It also provides new applications of recent results on integrability of finite-dimensional Lie algebras. As a central theme, it is shown that a number of recent developments in operator algebras may be handled in a particularly e

  3. Incorporating Worker-Specific Factors in Operations Management Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Larco Martinelli (Jose)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo add value, manufacturing and service operations depend on workers to do the job. As a result, the performance of these operations is ultimately dependent on the performance of individual workers. Simultaneously, workers are major stakeholders of the firm. Workers spend a considerabl

  4. Initial evaluation of a canine stifle arthrotomy post-operative pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, A; Bledsoe, D; Wall, S; Davidson, G; Lascelles, B D X

    2015-06-01

    Most models of acute post-operative orthopedic pain involve the injection of a clinically irrelevant pro-inflammatory agent. The ideal model should, however, be clinically relevant and allow full functional recovery of enrolled animals after research is completed. This study explored the validity of a model employing arthrotomy and objectively measured limb use. Six purpose-bred Beagles underwent arthrotomies on each stifle with a washout period in between. Using a randomized crossover design, each dog received placebo and an extended-release buprenorphine (ER-Bup) preparation. Static and dynamic ground reaction forces (GRFs) were measured prior to and for 72 h following surgery using a pressure sensitive walkway (PSW). GRFs for each hind limb were compared using difference (delta), and symmetry indices (SI). The effects of surgery and of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures ANCOVA. The results indicated significantly decreased limb use compared to baseline for placebo, and significantly increased limb use in the ER-Bup group over placebo at all times for % bodyweight distribution (%BWdistrib), peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI). There was a significant treatment by time interaction for velocity (P = 0.03) and %BWdistrib (P = 0.01, 0.003). Overall, the data show that reduced limb use was present for at least 72 h following arthrotomy. In addition, the use of the ER-Bup analgesic decreased lameness, confirming the validity of this approach as a model of post-operative pain. Subjective assessments did not detect the pain-inducing effects of arthrotomy or pain-alleviating effects of treatment, and subjective measures of procedural pain in research dogs need to be developed.

  5. Development of an operator`s mental model acquisition system. 1. Estimation of a physical mental model acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Mitsuru; Mizoguchi, Riichirou [Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a technical survey of acquisition method of an operator`s understanding for functions and structures of his target nuclear plant. This method is to play a key role in the information processing framework to support on-training operators in forming their knowledge of the nuclear plants. This kind of technical framework is aiming at enhancing human operator`s ability to cope with anomaly plant situations which are difficult to expect from preceding experiences or engineering surveillance. In these cases, cause identifications and responding operation selections are desired to made not only empirically but also based on thoughts about possible phenomena to take place within the nuclear plant. This report focuses on a particular element technique, defined as `explanation-based knowledge acquisition`, as the candidate technique to potentially be extended to meet the requirement written above, and discusses about applicability to the learning support system and about necessary improvements, to identify future technical developments. (author)

  6. A multi-factorial genetic model for prognostic assessment of high risk melanoma patients receiving adjuvant interferon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ena Wang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: IFNa was the first cytokine to demonstrate anti-tumor activity in advanced melanoma. Despite the ability of high-dose IFNa reducing relapse and mortality by up to 33%, large majority of patients experience side effects and toxicity which outweigh the benefits. The current study attempts to identify genetic markers likely to be associated with benefit from IFN-a2b treatment and predictive for survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We tested the association of variants in FOXP3 microsatellites, CTLA4 SNPs and HLA genotype in 284 melanoma patients and their association with prognosis and survival of melanoma patients who received IFNa adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: Univariate survival analysis suggested that patients bearing either the DRB1*15 or HLA-Cw7 allele suffered worse OS while patients bearing either HLA-Cw6 or HLA-B44 enjoyed better OS. DRB1*15 positive patients suffered also worse RFS and conversely HLA-Cw6 positive patients had better RFS. Multivariate analysis revealed that a five-marker genotyping signature was prognostic of OS independent of disease stage. In the multivariate Cox regression model, HLA-B38 (p = 0.021, HLA-C15 (p = 0.025, HLA-C3 (p = 0.014, DRB1*15 (p = 0.005 and CT60*G/G (0.081 were significantly associated with OS with risk ratio of 0.097 (95% CI, 0.013-0.709, 0.387 (95% CI, 0.169-0.889, 0.449 (95% CI, 0.237-0.851, 1.948 (95% CI, 1.221-3.109 and 1.484 (95% IC, 0.953-2.312 respectively. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that gene polymorphisms relevant to a biological occurrence are more likely to be informative when studied in concert to address potential redundant or conflicting functions that may limit each gene individual contribution. The five markers identified here exemplify this concept though prospective validation in independent cohorts is needed.

  7. User-driven health care: answering multidimensional information needs in individual patients utilizing post-EBM approaches: an operational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rakesh; Maniam, Jayanthy; Lee, Edwin Wen Huo; Gopal, Premalatha; Umakanth, Shashikiran; Dahiya, Sumit; Ahmed, Sayeed

    2008-10-01

    The hypothesis in the conceptual model was that a user-driven innovation in presently available information and communication technology infrastructure would be able to meet patient and health professional users information needs and help them attain better health outcomes. An operational model was created to plan a trial on a sample diabetic population utilizing a randomized control trial design, assigning one randomly selected group of diabetics to receive electronic information intervention and analyse if it would improve their health outcomes in comparison with a matched diabetic population who would only receive regular medical intervention. Diabetes was chosen for this particular trial, as it is a major chronic illness in Malaysia as elsewhere in the world. It is in essence a position paper for how the study concept should be organized to stimulate wider discussion prior to beginning the study.

  8. Collective operations in a file system based execution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Pravin; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2013-02-19

    A mechanism is provided for group communications using a MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system. A master application creates a multi-pipe synthetic file in the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system, the master application indicating a multi-pipe operation to be performed. The master application then writes a header-control block of the multi-pipe synthetic file specifying at least one of a multi-pipe synthetic file system name, a message type, a message size, a specific destination, or a specification of the multi-pipe operation. Any other application participating in the group communications then opens the same multi-pipe synthetic file. A MULTI-PIPE file system module then implements the multi-pipe operation as identified by the master application. The master application and the other applications then either read or write operation messages to the multi-pipe synthetic file and the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system module performs appropriate actions.

  9. Technology Reference Model (TRM) Reports: Technology/Operating System Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The One VA Enterprise Architecture (OneVA EA) is a comprehensive picture of the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) operations, capabilities and services and the...

  10. The UNIX Operating System: A Model for Software Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernighan, Brian W.; Morgan, Samuel P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes UNIX time-sharing operating system, including the program environment, software development tools, flexibility and ease of change, portability and other advantages, and five applications and three nonapplications of the system. (JN)

  11. A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukkonen, J.; Olsson, T.; Schultz, D.M.; Baklanov, A.; Klein, T.; Miranda, A.I.; Monteiro, A.; Hirtl, M.; Tarvainen, V.; Boy, M.; Peuch, V.-H.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Finardi, S.; Sofiev, M.; Sokhi, R.; Lehtinen, K.E.J.; Karatzas, K.; San José, R.; Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Schaap, M.; Reimer, E.; Jakobs, H.; Eben, K.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed

  12. Methodology to evaluate the performance of simulation models for alternative compiler and operating system configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulation modelers increasingly require greater flexibility for model implementation on diverse operating systems, and they demand high computational speed for efficient iterative simulations. Additionally, model users may differ in preference for proprietary versus open-source software environment...

  13. An experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.

    2012-05-01

    Results obtained from an experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode are presented. The obtained empirical dependence for calculating the power of heat exchangers operating in the steam condensation mode is presented.

  14. Upcrowding energy co-operatives - Evaluating the potential of crowdfunding for business model innovation of energy co-operatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Mathias Georg; Jovanović, Tanja; Voigt, Kai-Ingo

    2017-08-01

    Practice and theory have proven the relevance of energy co-operatives for civic participation in the energy turnaround. However, due to a still low awareness and changing regulation, there seems an unexploited potential of utilizing the legal form 'co-operative' in this context. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the crowdfunding implementation in the business model of energy co-operatives in order to cope with the mentioned challenges. Based on a theoretical framework, we derive a Business Model Innovation (BMI) through crowdfunding including synergies and differences. A qualitative study design, particularly a multiple-case study of energy co-operatives, was chosen to prove the BMI and to reveal barriers. The results show that although most co-operatives are not familiar with crowdfunding, there is strong potential in opening up predominantly local structures to a broader group of members. Building on this, equity-based crowdfunding is revealed to be suitable for energy co-operatives as BMI and to accompany other challenges in the same way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis Methods and Models for Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    methods are called for. TNO report I TNO-DV 2006 A228 9 /22 Efect Figure I Effect Based Operations framework. In practice, Figure 1 is useful when trying to...11, 111, IV, V Re-establishing communications Transport support (drivers, vehicles) Support to crowd and Riot Control (CRC) operations Support to... communicate opponent opponent intel gewonnen Verkennings- Reconnaissance Waarnemen terrein Observe terrain Inlichtingen over Gathered intel on patrouille

  16. A knowledge based model of electric utility operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-11

    This report consists of an appendix to provide a documentation and help capability for an analyst using the developed expert system of electric utility operations running in CLIPS. This capability is provided through a separate package running under the WINDOWS Operating System and keyed to provide displays of text, graphics and mixed text and graphics that explain and elaborate on the specific decisions being made within the knowledge based expert system.

  17. Analyzing Differences in Operational Disease Definitions Using Ontological Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Peelen, Linda; Klein, Michel; Schlobach, Stefan; Keizer, de, Rob J.W.; Peek, Niels

    2007-01-01

    In medicine, there are many diseases which cannot be precisely characterized but are considered as natural kinds. In the communication between health care professionals, this is generally not problematic. In biomedical research, however, crisp definitions are required to unambiguously distinguish patients with and without the disease. In practice, this results in different operational definitions being in use for a single disease. This paper presents an approach to compare different operation...

  18. Analyzing Differences in Operational Disease Definitions Using Ontological Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Peelen, Linda; Klein, Michel; Schlobach, Stefan; Keizer, de, M.; Peek,Niels

    2007-01-01

    In medicine, there are many diseases which cannot be precisely characterized but are considered as natural kinds. In the communication between health care professionals, this is generally not problematic. In biomedical research, however, crisp definitions are required to unambiguously distinguish patients with and without the disease. In practice, this results in different operational definitions being in use for a single disease. This paper presents an approach to compare different operation...

  19. The crust and mantle beneath the Siberian provinces: a preliminary model based on new receiver function analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans;

    2012-01-01

    The new receiver function (RF) study complements the existing seismic data on the crustal and upper mantle structure at the margins of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin. So far, RF studies of Siberia have been largely restricted to the Baikal rift zone (Gao et al., 2004; Liu and Gao...

  20. Integrating Operational Energy Implications into System-Level Combat Effects Modeling: Assessing the Combat Effectiveness and Fuel Use of ABCT 2020 and Current ABCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Endy M. Daehner, John Matsumura, Thomas J. Herbert , Jeremy R. Kurz, Keith Walters Integrating Operational Energy Implications into System-Level... George Guthridge, and Megan Corso for their clear guid- ance and assistance throughout the study. We also received valuable information and insights from...helped with processing modeling and simulation outputs. Laura Novacic and Donna Mead provided invaluable administrative assistance and help with

  1. Preliminary Hybrid Modeling of the Panama Canal: Operations and Salinity Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the initial modeling of water salinity and its diffusion into the lakes during lock operation on the Panama Canal. A hybrid operational model was implemented using the AnyLogic software simulation environment. This was accomplished by generating an operational discrete-event simulation model and a continuous simulation model based on differential equations, which modeled the salinity diffusion in the lakes. This paper presents that unique application and includes the effective integration of lock operations and its impact on the environment.

  2. Verilog-A Device Models for Cryogenic Temperature Operation of Bulk Silicon CMOS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Akin; Potbhare, Siddharth; Goldsman, Neil; Holloway, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Verilog-A based cryogenic bulk CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) compact models are built for state-of-the-art silicon CMOS processes. These models accurately predict device operation at cryogenic temperatures down to 4 K. The models are compatible with commercial circuit simulators. The models extend the standard BSIM4 [Berkeley Short-channel IGFET (insulated-gate field-effect transistor ) Model] type compact models by re-parameterizing existing equations, as well as adding new equations that capture the physics of device operation at cryogenic temperatures. These models will allow circuit designers to create optimized, reliable, and robust circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  3. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure has been developed to extend atomic oxygen modeling capability to include shadowing and reflections. The model uses average exposure conditions established by the direct exposure model and extends the application of these conditions to treat surfaces of arbitrary shape and orientation.

  4. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    OpenAIRE

    L. C. Rietveld; Borger, K.J.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; G. I. M. Worm

    2008-01-01

    For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a un...

  5. Representing Operational Knowledge of PWR Plant by Using Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    situation and support operational decisions. This paper will provide a general MFM model of the primary side in a standard Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor ( PWR ) system including sub - systems of Reactor Coolant System, Rod Control System, Chemical and Volume Control System, emergency heat removal......The aim of this paper is to explore the capability of representing operational knowledge by using Multilevel Flow Modelling ( MFM ) methodology. The paper demonstrate s how the operational knowledge can be inserted into the MFM models and be used to evaluate the plant state, identify the current...... systems. And the sub - systems’ functions will be decomposed into sub - models according to different operational situations. An operational model will be developed based on the operating procedure by using MFM symbols and this model can be used to implement coordination rules for organize the utilizati...

  6. A Novel Stress-Diathesis Model to Predict Risk of Post-operative Delirium: Implications for Intra-operative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée El-Gabalawy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk assessment for post-operative delirium (POD is poorly developed. Improved metrics could greatly facilitate peri-operative care as costs associated with POD are staggering. In this preliminary study, we develop a novel stress-diathesis model based on comprehensive pre-operative psychiatric and neuropsychological testing, a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI carbon dioxide (CO2 stress test, and high fidelity measures of intra-operative parameters that may interact facilitating POD.Methods: The study was approved by the ethics board at the University of Manitoba and registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02126215. Twelve patients were studied. Pre-operative psychiatric symptom measures and neuropsychological testing preceded MRI featuring a BOLD MRI CO2 stress test whereby BOLD scans were conducted while exposing participants to a rigorously controlled CO2 stimulus. During surgery the patient had hemodynamics and end-tidal gases downloaded at 0.5 hz. Post-operatively, the presence of POD and POD severity was comprehensively assessed using the Confusion Assessment Measure –Severity (CAM-S scoring instrument on days 0 (surgery through post-operative day 5, and patients were followed up at least 1 month post-operatively.Results: Six of 12 patients had no evidence of POD (non-POD. Three patients had POD and 3 had clinically significant confusional states (referred as subthreshold POD; ST-POD (score ≥ 5/19 on the CAM-S. Average severity for delirium was 1.3 in the non-POD group, 3.2 in ST-POD, and 6.1 in POD (F-statistic = 15.4, p < 0.001. Depressive symptoms, and cognitive measures of semantic fluency and executive functioning/processing speed were significantly associated with POD. Second level analysis revealed an increased inverse BOLD responsiveness to CO2 pre-operatively in ST-POD and marked increase in the POD groups when compared to the non-POD group. An association was also noted for

  7. Vehicular pollution modeling using the operational street pollution model (OSPM) for Chembur, Mumbai (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Awkash; Ketzel, Matthias; Patil, Rashmi S.

    2016-01-01

    Megacities in India such as Mumbai and Delhi are among the most polluted places in the world. In the present study, the widely used operational street pollution model (OSPM) is applied for assessing pollutant loads in the street canyons of Chembur, a suburban area just outside Mumbai city. Chembur...... is both industrialized and highly congested with vehicles. There are six major street canyons in this area, for which modeling has been carried out for NOx and particulate matter (PM). The vehicle emission factors for Indian cities have been developed by Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI...

  8. Computer-Aided Transformation of PDE Models: Languages, Representations, and a Calculus of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    Computer-aided transformation of PDE models: languages, representations, and a calculus of operations A domain-specific embedded language called...languages, representations, and a calculus of operations Report Title A domain-specific embedded language called ibvp was developed to model initial...Computer-aided transformation of PDE models: languages, representations, and a calculus of operations 1 Vision and background Physical and engineered systems

  9. A Dynamic Pricing Model for Coordinated Sales and Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fleischmann (Moritz); J.M. Hall (Joseph); D.F. Pyke (David)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractRecent years have seen advances in research and management practice in the area of pricing, and particularly in dynamic pricing and revenue management. At the same time, researchers and managers have made dramatic improvements in operations and supply chain management. The interactions b

  10. Evaluation of computer flow modelling in operating theatres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemaire, A.D.; Ham, P.J.; Luscuere, P.G.

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays most Operating Theatres (OT's) in the Netherlands have a certain standard configuration to guarantee good control of airflows and by doing so keep the risk of infections from airborne contaminants low. It is, however, the question if this risk is low enougii. A correct answer can only be fo

  11. Modeling of operating history of the research nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naymushin, A.; Chertkov, Yu; Shchurovskaya, M.; Anikin, M.; Lebedev, I.

    2016-06-01

    The results of simulation of the IRT-T reactor operation history from 2012 to 2014 are presented. Calculations are performed using continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCU-PTR. Comparison is made between calculation and experimental data for the critical reactor.

  12. Interagency Cooperation: A Regional Model for Overseas Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    for Kurd refugees during Operation Provide Comfort. 2. Major Miguel I. Becerril , USA, Manager, Theater Deployment Program, "FACT SI-I~.P.T...Statement before the Senate Armed Services Committee, Washington, 2 March 1994, 14. 5. Becerril . 6. Colonel Norman R. Flemens, USA, Force, Deputy Director

  13. Steam boilers: process models for improved operation and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahnert, F.

    2007-01-01

    Biomass combustion can be an economic way to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions, which are a main suspect of the so-called greenhouse effect. In order to promote a widespread utilization of biomass combustion, operational problems like fuel treatment, slagging, fouling and corrosion have

  14. Modelling and operation of reactors for enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony

    to increase profits while reducing operating cost, as well as meeting government and regulatory pressures for processes to be environmentally friendly and sustainable. Current applications of biocatalysts, more specifically, enzymes for large scale bulk production of chemicals have been successfully applied...

  15. Modeling and Management of Variation in the Operating Theatre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Stepaniak (Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAfter having worked in the profit industry, I continued my career in 2004 as a manager of operating rooms (ORs) in a large general teaching hospital in Rotterdam. My experiences in industry management taught me to work efficiently, effectively and to excel in service to every customer an

  16. Steam boilers: process models for improved operation and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahnert, F.

    2007-01-01

    Biomass combustion can be an economic way to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions, which are a main suspect of the so-called greenhouse effect. In order to promote a widespread utilization of biomass combustion, operational problems like fuel treatment, slagging, fouling and corrosion have t

  17. International Training for Peace Support Operations: Models, Assessments, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    UN Operating Techniques • Political Education and Law • Fighting Irregular Forces (supplementary instruction may be required) Focus shift to...Methodology • Political Education and Law • Selecting Commanders and Personnel • Personnel Welfare Platoon Commanders Course Complementary...checkpoints, patrolling, observation posts, and force protection • Political Education (Discussion of mandates and ROE) • Fighting

  18. Model-based Optimization of Oil Recovery: Robust Operational Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Essen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The process of depleting an oil reservoir can be poured into an optimal control problem with the objective to maximize economic performance over the life of the field. Despite its large potential, life-cycle optimization has not yet found its way into operational environments. The objective of this t

  19. Achieving a System Operational Availability Requirement (ASOAR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    ASOAR requires only system and end item level input data, not Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) Input data. ASOAR usage provides concepts for major logistics...the Corp/Theater ADP Service Center II (CTASC II) to a systen operational availabilty goal. The CTASC II system configuration had many redundant types

  20. Simplified models for estimating isothermal operating characteristics of food extruders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L; Rockwood, J

    1985-09-01

    A model of isothermal food extruder performance is described. Inferences about alternative extruder screw designs and their performance are drawn from the model. The model suggests that thread depth or diameter compression screws are superior in performance to a pitch compression screw. The advantage gained from using diameter compression screws is paid for with significantly higher rates of energy dissipation. The use of the model to characterize screws having both a compression zone and metering zone is described.

  1. Information theory-based approach for modeling the cognitive behavior of NPP operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    An NPP system consists of three important components: the machine system, operators, and MMI. Through the MMI, operators monitor and control the plant system. The cognitive model of NPP operators has become a target of modeling by cognitive engineers due to their work environment: complex, uncertain, and safe critical. We suggested the contextual model for the cognitive behavior of NPP operator and the mathematical fundamentals based on information theory which can quantify the model. The demerit of the methodology using the information theory is that it cannot evaluate the correctness and quality of information. Therefore, the validation through the experiment is needed.

  2. Extending the Standard Model Effective Field Theory with the Complete Set of Dimension-7 Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Lehman, Landon

    2014-01-01

    We present a complete list of the independent dimension-7 operators that are constructed using the Standard Model degrees of freedom and are invariant under the Standard Model gauge group. This list contains only 20 independent operators; far fewer than the 63 operators available at dimension 6. All of these dimension-7 operators contain fermions and violate lepton number, and 7 of the 20 violate baryon number as well. This result extends the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) and allows a more detailed exploration of the structure and properties of possible deformations from the Standard Model Lagrangian.

  3. Extending the standard model effective field theory with the complete set of dimension-7 operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Landon

    2014-12-01

    We present a complete list of the independent dimension-7 operators that are constructed using the standard model degrees of freedom and are invariant under the standard model gauge group. This list contains only 20 independent operators, far fewer than the 63 operators available at dimension 6. All of these dimension-7 operators contain fermions and violate lepton number, and 7 of the 20 violate baryon number as well. This result extends the standard model effective field theory and allows a more detailed exploration of the structure and properties of possible deformations from the standard model Lagrangian.

  4. Modeling of biopharmaceutical processes. Part 2: Process chromatography unit operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; McCue, Justin; Engel, Philip;

    2008-01-01

    Process modeling can be a useful tool to aid in process development, process optimization, and process scale-up. When modeling a chromatography process, one must first select the appropriate models that describe the mass transfer and adsorption that occurs within the porous adsorbent...

  5. Adjustments of the TaD electron density reconstruction model with GNSS-TEC parameters for operational application purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belehaki Anna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Validation results on the latest version of TaD model (TaDv2 show realistic reconstruction of the electron density profiles (EDPs with an average error of 3 TECU, similar to the error obtained from GNSS-TEC calculated paremeters. The work presented here has the aim to further improve the accuracy of the TaD topside reconstruction, adjusting the TEC parameter calculated from TaD model with the TEC parameter calculated by GNSS transmitting RINEX files provided by receivers co-located with the Digisondes. The performance of the new version is tested during a storm period demonstrating further improvements in respect to the previous version. Statistical comparison of modeled and observed TEC confirms the validity of the proposed adjustment. A significant benefit of the proposed upgrade is that it facilitates the real-time implementation of TaD. The model needs a reliable measure of the scale height at the peak height, which is supposed to be provided by Digisondes. Oftenly, the automatic scaling software fails to correctly calculate the scale height at the peak, Hm, due to interferences in the receiving signal. Consequently the model estimated topside scale height is wrongly calculated leading to unrealistic results for the modeled EDP. The proposed TEC adjustment forces the model to correctly reproduce the topside scale height, despite the inaccurate values of Hm. This adjustment is very important for the application of TaD in an operational environment.

  6. Quantitative, steady-state properties of Catania's computational model of the operant reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, John P; McDowell, J J

    2011-05-01

    Catania (2005) found that a computational model of the operant reserve (Skinner, 1938) produced realistic behavior in initial, exploratory analyses. Although Catania's operant reserve computational model demonstrated potential to simulate varied behavioral phenomena, the model was not systematically tested. The current project replicated and extended the Catania model, clarified its capabilities through systematic testing, and determined the extent to which it produces behavior corresponding to matching theory. Significant departures from both classic and modern matching theory were found in behavior generated by the model across all conditions. The results suggest that a simple, dynamic operant model of the reflex reserve does not simulate realistic steady state behavior.

  7. Modeling and dynamic simulation of receiver in a solar tower power station%塔式太阳能电站接收器的建模及动态仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛玲霞; 李佳燕; 赵豫红

    2016-01-01

    太阳能接收器是塔式太阳能电站的重要组成部分,是光热转换的重要部件,因此接收器的建模和仿真对实现电站的平稳运行具有重要意义。根据能量守恒、质量守恒定律,对以美国Solar Two电站接收器为原型的高温熔盐接收器吸热管进行空间离散化,建立了接收器分段集总参数模型。模型稳态仿真结果与Solar Two电站接收器测试结果的对比验证了模型的正确性。通过接收器动态仿真,分析了输入变化和接收器接收能量不均匀时的传热特性,可为定日镜场聚焦策略以及电站安全运行的研究提供依据。%The receiver is an important part for photothermal conversion in the solar tower power station. Thus, modeling and simulation of the receiver is extremely significant for the safety and steady-operation of the plant. The sectional lumped parameter model of the molten salt receiver, whose prototype is Solar Two located in USA, is established by the space discretization of the heat tubes according to the law of conservation of energy and mass. The validity of the model is verified through the comparisons between the test results of the receiver in Solar Two plant and the simulation results. The heat transfer characteristics of the receiver in the cases where the inputs change and the received energy distribution isn’t uniform are analyzed by the transient simulation, which can provide the foundation for the investigation of the aiming points strategy and safe operation of the station.

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS MODELING AIMING TO IMPROVE ITS OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mihajlović

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling procedure of one real technological system. In this study, thecopper extraction from the copper flotation waste generated at the Bor Copper Mine (Serbia, werethe object of modeling. Sufficient data base for statistical modeling was constructed using theorthogonal factorial design of the experiments. Mathematical model of investigated system wasdeveloped using the combination of linear and multiple linear statistical analysis approach. Thepurpose of such a model is obtaining optimal states of the system that enable efficient operationsmanagement. Besides technological and economical, ecological parameters of the process wereconsidered as crucial input variables.

  9. Reduction of convective losses in solar cavity receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Graham; Pye, John; Kaufer, Martin; Abbasi-Shavazi, Ehsan; Zhang, Jack; McIntosh, Adam; Lindley, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Two design innovations are reported that can help improve the thermal performance of a solar cavity receiver. These innovations utilise the natural variation of wall temperature inside the cavity and active management of airflow in the vicinity of the receiver. The results of computational fluid dynamics modelling and laboratory-scale experiments suggest that the convective loss from a receiver can be reduced substantially by either mechanism. A further benefit is that both radiative and overall thermal losses from the cavity may be reduced. Further work to assess the performance of such receiver designs under operational conditions is discussed.

  10. Establishment and evaluation of operation function model for cascade hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ming JI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Toward solving the actual operation problems of cascade hydropower stations under hydrologic uncertainty, this paper presents the process of extraction of statistical characteristics from long-term optimal cascade operation, and proposes a monthly operation function algorithm for the actual operation of cascade hydropower stations through the identification, processing, and screening of available information during long-term optimal operation. Applying the operation function to the cascade hydropower stations on the Jinshajiang-Yangtze River system, the modeled long-term electric generation is shown to have high precision and provide benefits. Through comparison with optimal operation, the simulation results show that the operation function proposed retains the characteristics of optimal operation. Also, the inadequacies and attribution of the algorithm are discussed based on case study, providing decision support and reference information for research on large-scale cascade operation work.

  11. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  12. Empirical LTE Smartphone Power Model with DRX Operation for System Level Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Noël, Laurent; Mogensen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    An LTE smartphone power model is presented to enable academia and industry to evaluate users’ battery life on system level. The model is based on empirical measurements on a smartphone using a second generation LTE chipset, and the model includes functions of receive and transmit data rates...

  13. 76 FR 81360 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Operation Without Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... G280 Airplane, Operation Without Normal Electrical Power AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... associated with operation without normal electrical power. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not... Model G280 will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with operation without...

  14. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  15. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  16. Intelligent decision-making models for production and retail operations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of intelligent decision-making techniques and discusses their application in production and retail operations. Manufacturing and retail enterprises have stringent standards for using advanced and reliable techniques to improve decision-making processes, since these processes have significant effects on the performance of relevant operations and the entire supply chain. In recent years, researchers have been increasingly focusing attention on using intelligent techniques to solve various decision-making problems. The opening chapters provide an introduction to several commonly used intelligent techniques, such as genetic algorithm, harmony search, neural network and extreme learning machine. The book then explores the use of these techniques for handling various production and retail decision-making problems, such as production planning and scheduling, assembly line balancing, and sales forecasting.

  17. Modelling Reliability-adaptive Multi-system Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uwe K. Rakowsky

    2006-01-01

    This contribution discusses the concept of Reliability-Adaptive Systems (RAS) to multi-system operation. A fleet of independently operating systems and a single maintenance unit are considered. It is the objective in this paper to increase overall performance or workload respectively by avoiding delay due to busy maintenance units. This is achieved by concerted and coordinated derating of individual system performance, which increases reliability. Quantification is carried out by way of a convolution-based approach. The approach is tailored to fleets of ships, aeroplanes, spacecraft, and vehicles (trains, trams, buses, cars, trucks, etc.) - Finally, the effectiveness of derating is validated using different criteria. The RAS concept makes sense if average system output loss due to lowered performance level (yielding longer time to failure) is smaller than average loss due to waiting for maintenance in a non-adaptive case.

  18. Performance outlook of the SCRAP receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkoll, Matti; von Backström, Theodor W.; Harms, Thomas M.

    2016-05-01

    A combined cycle (CC) concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides significant potential to achieve an efficiency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A CC CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of effectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream of a gas turbine. The small number of pressurized air receivers demonstrated to date have practical limitations, when operating at high temperatures and pressures. As yet, a robust, scalable and efficient system has to be developed and commercialized. A novel receiver system, the Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) concept has been proposed to comply with these requirements. The SCRAP system is conceived as a solution for an efficient and robust pressurized air receiver that could be implemented in CC CSP concepts or standalone solar Brayton cycles without a bottoming Rankine cycle. The presented work expands on previous publications on the thermal modeling of the receiver system. Based on the analysis of a single heat transfer element (spike), predictions for its thermal performance can be made. To this end the existing thermal model was improved by heat transfer characteristics for the jet impingement region of the spike tip as well as heat transfer models simulating the interaction with ambient. While the jet impingement cooling effect was simulated employing a commercial CFD code, the ambient heat transfer model was based on simplifying assumptions in order to employ empirical and analytical equations. The thermal efficiency of a spike under design conditions (flux 1.0 MW/m2, air outlet temperature just below 800 °C) was calculated at approximately 80 %, where convective heat losses account for 16.2 % of the absorbed radiation and radiative heat losses for a lower 2.9 %. This effect is due to peak surface temperatures occurring at the root of the spikes. It can thus be concluded that the geometric

  19. Cyber physical modeling of distributed resources for distribution system operations

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Bonvini, Marco; Matanza, Javier; Yin, Rongxin; LIU, ZHENHUA; Nouidui, Thierry; Kara, Emre C.; Parmar, Rajiv; Lorenzetti, David; Wetter, Michael; Kiliccote, Sila

    2015-01-01

    Co-simulation platforms are necessary to study the interactions of complex systems integrated in future smart grids. The Virtual Grid Integration Laboratory (VirGIL) is a modular co-simulation platform designed to study interactions between demand response strategies, building comfort, communication networks, and power system operation. This paper presents the coupling of power systems, buildings, communications and control under a master algorithm. There are two objectives. First, to use a m...

  20. Modeling the Effects of Cyber Operations on Kinetic Battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    representation. This approach restricts us to a very specific range, but may help to gain insight. We represent blue color when Blue force wins, and...red color when Red force wins. The parameters are fixed as Table 3 except two analyzed ones, which are specified in the figure. The parameters are... candle light at night. But, as was stated before, anything electronic or related to electronics can be affected by a cyber operation. Cyber Forces A

  1. Operational results from a physical power prediction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    This paper will describe a prediction system which predicts the expected power output of a number of wind farms. The system is automatic and operates on-line. The paper will quantify the accuracy of the predictions and will also give examples of the performance for specific storm events. An actual implementation of the system will be described and the robustness demonstrated. (au) 11 refs.

  2. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  3. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Borger

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a unit is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes. Using this library, a hydraulic model was set up and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek.

  4. Forward Modeling of Receiver Functions to Determine Crustal Structure of the Eastern Limb in TheBushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, E.; Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.; Durrheim, R. J.; Raveloson, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Bushveld Igneous Complex contains the largest layered mafic intrusion on Earth, about the size of England, and has been exploited for metals such as platinum since the 1950s. Several igneous bodies within and around the complex have been dated from 2.06 Ga, possibly representing a single massive magmatic event. The Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Igneous Complex intruded into the Transvaal sedimentary sequence, with associated volcanic rocks of the Rooiberg Group forming the roof and part of the floor. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the Rustenburg Layered Suite is a continuous bowl-shaped formation or if it is made up of two separate dipping sheets that crop out in the western and eastern limbs. If the intrusion is connected at depth, then the Moho (crust-mantle boundary) would most likely be depressed due to the weight of the 7-8km of mafic material injected into the crust. Seismic stations were installed in the eastern and northern Bushveld in 2015 to collect teleseismic data. The use of receiver functions derived from seismic data collected since 2015 has helped determine the subsurface crustal structure of the Bushveld. Receiver functions have been used to trace the contact between the high-density mafic lower zone and the low-density Transvaal sediments. The new data gathered show the Moho boundary at about 47 km, and a 5.0 Gaussian width shows a backswing consistent with a mafic-sedimentary boundary at 8km.

  5. Estimating numerical errors due to operator splitting in global atmospheric chemistry models: Transport and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana, Mauricio; Zhang, Lin; Yantosca, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present upper bounds for the numerical errors introduced when using operator splitting methods to integrate transport and non-linear chemistry processes in global chemical transport models (CTM). We show that (a) operator splitting strategies that evaluate the stiff non-linear chemistry operator at the end of the time step are more accurate, and (b) the results of numerical simulations that use different operator splitting strategies differ by at most 10%, in a prototype one-dimensional non-linear chemistry-transport model. We find similar upper bounds in operator splitting numerical errors in global CTM simulations.

  6. The CAESAR project: Experimental and modeling investigations of methane reforming in a CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver on a parabolic dish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, J.F.; Hogan, R.E. Jr.; Skocypec, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US); Buck, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. of Technical Thermodynamics

    1993-07-01

    A joint US/Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) project has successfully tested a unique solar-driven chemical reactor in the CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver (CAESAR) experiment. The CAESAR test was a {open_quotes}proof-of-concept{close_quotes} demonstration of carbon-dioxide reforming of methane in a commercial-scale, solar, volumetric receiver/reactor on a parabolic dish concentrator. The CAESAR design; test facility and instrumentation; thermal and chemical tests; and analysis of test results are presented in detail. Numerical models for the absorber and the receiver are developed and predicted performance is compared with test data. Post test analyses to assess the structural condition of the absorber and the effectiveness of the rhodium catalyst are presented. Unresolved technical issues are identified and future development efforts are recommended.

  7. A structural model of anti-anti-[sigma] inhibition by a two-component receiver domain: the PhyR stress response regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrou, Julien; Foreman, Robert; Fiebig, Aretha; Crosson, Sean (UC)

    2012-05-09

    PhyR is a hybrid stress regulator conserved in {alpha}-proteobacteria that contains an N-terminal {sigma}-like (SL) domain and a C-terminal receiver domain. Phosphorylation of the receiver domain is known to promote binding of the SL domain to an anti-{sigma} factor. PhyR thus functions as an anti-anti-{sigma} factor in its phosphorylated state. We present genetic evidence that Caulobacter crescentus PhyR is a phosphorylation-dependent stress regulator that functions in the same pathway as {sigma}{sup T} and its anti-{sigma} factor, NepR. Additionally, we report the X-ray crystal structure of PhyR at 1.25 {angstrom} resolution, which provides insight into the mechanism of anti-anti-{sigma} regulation. Direct intramolecular contact between the PhyR receiver and SL domains spans regions {sigma}{sub 2} and {sigma}{sub 4}, likely serving to stabilize the SL domain in a closed conformation. The molecular surface of the receiver domain contacting the SL domain is the structural equivalent of {alpha}4-{beta}5-{alpha}5, which is known to undergo dynamic conformational change upon phosphorylation in a diverse range of receiver proteins. We propose a structural model of PhyR regulation in which receiver phosphorylation destabilizes the intramolecular interaction between SL and receiver domains, thereby permitting regions {sigma}{sub 2} and {sigma}{sub 4} in the SL domain to open about a flexible connector loop and bind anti-{sigma} factor.

  8. A structural model of anti-anti-[sigma];#963; inhibition by a two-component receiver domain: the PhyR stress response regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrou, Julien; Foreman, Robert; Fiebig, Aretha; Crosson, Sean (UC)

    2012-03-30

    PhyR is a hybrid stress regulator conserved in {alpha}-proteobacteria that contains an N-terminal {sigma}-like (SL) domain and a C-terminal receiver domain. Phosphorylation of the receiver domain is known to promote binding of the SL domain to an anti-{sigma} factor. PhyR thus functions as an anti-anti-{sigma} factor in its phosphorylated state. We present genetic evidence that Caulobacter crescentus PhyR is a phosphorylation-dependent stress regulator that functions in the same pathway as {sigma}{sup T} and its anti-{sigma} factor, NepR. Additionally, we report the X-ray crystal structure of PhyR at 1.25 {angstrom} resolution, which provides insight into the mechanism of anti-anti-{sigma} regulation. Direct intramolecular contact between the PhyR receiver and SL domains spans regions {sigma}{sub 2} and {sigma}{sub 4}, likely serving to stabilize the SL domain in a closed conformation. The molecular surface of the receiver domain contacting the SL domain is the structural equivalent of {alpha}4-{beta}5-{alpha}5, which is known to undergo dynamic conformational change upon phosphorylation in a diverse range of receiver proteins. We propose a structural model of PhyR regulation in which receiver phosphorylation destabilizes the intramolecular interaction between SL and receiver domains, thereby permitting regions {sigma}{sub 2} and {sigma}{sub 4} in the SL domain to open about a flexible connector loop and bind anti-{sigma} factor.

  9. The Main Issues to Address in Modeling Plasma Spray Torch Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelas, C.; Trelles, J. P.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of plasma torch operation has advanced greatly in the last 15 years due to a better understanding of the underlying physics, development of commercial, open-source computational fluid dynamics softwares, and access to high performance and cloud computing. However, the operation mode of the electric arc in plasma torches is controlled by dynamic, thermal, electromagnetic, acoustic and chemical phenomena that take place at different scales and whose interactions are not completely understood yet. Even though no single model of plasma torch operation fully addresses these phenomena, most of these models are useful tools for parametric studies, if their use is reinforced by knowledge of torch operation and the model predictions are validated against experimental data. To increase the level of predictability of the current models, several further steps are needed. This study examines the issues remaining to be addressed in the modeling of plasma spray torch operation and the current critical aspects of these.

  10. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment solar exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. R.; Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironmental solar exposure was developed to predict solar exposure to satellite surfaces which may shadow or reflect on one another. This document describes the technical features of the model as well as instructions for the installation and use of the program.

  11. Modeling contractor and company employee behavior in high hazard operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, P.H.; Hanea, D.; Ale, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The recent blow-out and subsequent environmental disaster in the Gulf of Mexico have highlighted a number of serious problems in scientific thinking about safety. Risk models have generally concentrated on technical failures, which are easier to model and for which there are more concrete data. Howe

  12. Modeling contractor and company employee behavior in high hazard operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, P.H.; Hanea, D.; Ale, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The recent blow-out and subsequent environmental disaster in the Gulf of Mexico have highlighted a number of serious problems in scientific thinking about safety. Risk models have generally concentrated on technical failures, which are easier to model and for which there are more concrete data. Howe

  13. Immunity modeling of the lm2902 operational amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op 't Land, Sjoerd; Lafon, Fr´ed´eric; de Daran, Francois; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Drissi, M'hamed; Ramdani, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Component models that predict functional failure are necessary for predicting the immunity of systems to electromagnetic interference (EMI). A method to extract these models using measurements on integrated circuits (ICs) already exists. This measurement method for ICs with single-ended connections

  14. Modeling contractor and company employee behavior in high hazard operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, P.H.; Hanea, D.; Ale, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The recent blow-out and subsequent environmental disaster in the Gulf of Mexico have highlighted a number of serious problems in scientific thinking about safety. Risk models have generally concentrated on technical failures, which are easier to model and for which there are more concrete data.

  15. Model-based design and analysis of glucose isomerization process operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Sven; Kumar Tula, Anjan

    2017-01-01

    reactor is developed. Next, model analysis, model identification and model validation based on available reactor operational data are performed. The reactor model is found to describe accurately important phenomena, such as, reaction kinetics, enzyme decay and internal diffusion of the substrate......The application of model-based methods for design and analysis of operational improvements of an industrial glucose isomerization (GI) process is highlighted. First, a multi-scale mathematical model representing important phenomena encountered in the reaction system of a glucose isomerization...... in the enzymatic pellet as a function of the temperature, thereby confirming that the model is ready for use in design-analysis studies. Operation of the GI process is then analyzed in a single reactor and based on this, the reactor model is used as a building block to represent the operation of a GI reactor plant...

  16. A System Dynamics Approach to Modelling the Degradation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand in A Constructed Wetland Receiving Stormwater Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    conventional treatment plants " are: "Constructed wetland systems (1) are relatively inexpensive to construct and operate; (2) are easy to maintain; (3) provide... macrophytes are divided into free floating and rooted forms. The rooted forms are further subdivided into emergent , floating and submerged classes...to state that "the removal of larger particles protects one of the key roles of emergent aquatic macrophytes in the wetlands which is the provision

  17. The Calculation Model for Operation Cost of Coal Resources Development Based on ANN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海滨

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of analysis and selection of factors influencing operation cost of coal resources development, fuzzy set method and artificial neural network (ANN) were adopted to set up the classification analysis model of coal resources. The collected samples were classified by using this model. Meanwhile, the pattern recognition model for classifying of the coal resources was built according to the factors influencing operation cost. Based on the results achieved above, in the light of the theory of information diffusion, the calculation model for operation cost of coal resources development has been presented and applied in practice, showing that these models are reasonable.

  18. Wilson, fixed point and Neuberger's lattice Dirac operator for the Schwinger model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchioni, F.; Hip, I.; Lang, C. B.

    1998-12-01

    We perform a comparison between different lattice regularizations of the Dirac operator for massless fermions in the framework of the single and two flavor Schwinger model. We consider a) the Wilson-Dirac operator at the critical value of the hopping parameter; b) Neuberger's overlap operator; c) the fixed point operator. We test chiral properties of the spectrum, dispersion relations and rotational invariance of the mesonic bound state propagators.

  19. Linking Geomechanical Models with Observations of Microseismicity during CCS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, J.; Kendall, J.; White, D.

    2012-12-01

    During CO2 injection for the purposes of carbon capture and storage (CCS), injection-induced fracturing of the overburden represents a key risk to storage integrity. Fractures in a caprock provide a pathway along which buoyant CO2 can rise and escape the storage zone. Therefore the ability to link field-scale geomechanical models with field geophysical observations is of paramount importance to guarantee secure CO2 storage. Accurate location of microseismic events identifies where brittle failure has occurred on fracture planes. This is a manifestation of the deformation induced by CO2 injection. As the pore pressure is increased during injection, effective stress is decreased, leading to inflation of the reservoir and deformation of surrounding rocks, which creates microseismicity. The deformation induced by injection can be simulated using finite-element mechanical models. Such a model can be used to predict when and where microseismicity is expected to occur. However, typical elements in a field scale mechanical models have decameter scales, while the rupture size for microseismic events are typically of the order of 1 square meter. This means that mapping modeled stress changes to predictions of microseismic activity can be challenging. Where larger scale faults have been identified, they can be included explicitly in the geomechanical model. Where movement is simulated along these discrete features, it can be assumed that microseismicity will occur. However, microseismic events typically occur on fracture networks that are too small to be simulated explicitly in a field-scale model. Therefore, the likelihood of microseismicity occurring must be estimated within a finite element that does not contain explicitly modeled discontinuities. This can be done in a number of ways, including the utilization of measures such as closeness on the stress state to predetermined failure criteria, either for planes with a defined orientation (the Mohr-Coulomb criteria) for

  20. Semi-stationary subdivision operators in geometric modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the view of operator, a novel uniform subdivision construction method is proposed for free form curve and surface design. This method can give an appropriate manner of parameter change in the subdivision iteration with fewer parameters and better shape control, such as building local revolving surfaces. The convergent property of order 2 subdivision surface is elegantly analyzed using computing techniques of matrix. This method is promised to be valuable in Computer Aided Design and computer graphics, due to the simplicity both in mathematical theory and practical implementation, the similarity to the B-spline curve and surface, G1 continuity, the affine invariability and local flexible control.

  1. Dynamic Bayesian modeling for risk prediction in credit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Our goal is to do risk prediction in credit operations, and as data is collected continuously and reported on a monthly basis, this gives rise to a streaming data classification problem. Our analysis reveals some practical problems that have not previously been thoroughly analyzed in the context...... of streaming data analysis: the class labels are not immediately available and the relevant predictive features and entities under study (in this case the set of customers) may vary over time. In order to address these problems, we propose to use a dynamic classifier with a wrapper feature subset selection...

  2. Experiences of Community-Living Older Adults Receiving Integrated Care Based on the Chronic Care Model : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, Sophie L. W.; Wynia, Klaske; Fokkens, Andrea S.; Slotman, Karin; Kremer, Hubertus P. H.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrated care models aim to solve the problem of fragmented and poorly coordinated care in current healthcare systems. These models aim to be patient-centered by providing continuous and coordinated care and by considering the needs and preferences of patients. The objective of this stu

  3. Building the Bridge between Operations and Outcomes : Modelling and Evaluation of Health Service Provider Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Mahdavi (Mahdi)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The PhD research has two objectives: - To develop generally applicable operational models which allow developing the evidence base for health service operations in provider networks. - To contribute to the evidence base by validating the model through application to hea

  4. Integration of Generic Multi-dimensional Model and Operational Policies for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    A generic multi-dimensional modeling framework for studying batch cooling crystallization processes under generated operational policies is presented. The generic nature of the modeling allows the study of a wide range of chemical systems under different operational scenarios, enabling thereby, t...

  5. Alternative Models of Service, Centralized Machine Operations. Phase II Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Management Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was conducted to determine if the centralization of playback machine operations for the national free library program would be feasible, economical, and desirable. An alternative model of playback machine services was constructed and compared with existing network operations considering both cost and service. The alternative model was…

  6. Towards a Comprehensive Model of Stereotypy: Integrating Operant and Neurobiological Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanovaz, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    The predominant models on the emergence and maintenance of stereotypy in individuals with developmental disabilities are based on operant and neurobiological interpretations of the behavior. Although the proponents of the two models maintain largely independent lines of research, operant and neurobiological interpretations of stereotypy are not…

  7. Activating Global Operating Models: The bridge from organization design to performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Kates

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the concept of activation and discusses its use in the implementation of global operating models by large multinational companies. We argue that five particular activators help set in motion the complex strategies and organizations required by global operating models.

  8. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  9. Light Models of Civilian Support in Blue-Red Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Population 3 2 Civilian Support Social – Cognitive Constructs Perceptions Disposition Moral disengagement Personality Beliefs Grievance How is a...RELEASE Vulnerability Sacrifice Anger Commitment Model Civilian Support 4 3 Perceptions Disposition Moral disengagement Personality Beliefs Grievance • A

  10. Operators for reclassification queries in a temporal multidimensional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Moreno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data warehouse dimensions are usually considered to be static because their schema and data tend not to change; however, both dimension schema and dimension data can change. This paper focuses on a type of dimension data change called reclassificationwhich occurs when a member of a certain level becomes a member of a higher level in the same dimension, e.g. when a product changes category (it is reclassified. This type of change gives rise to the notion of classification period and to a type of query that can be useful for decision-support. For example, What were total chess-set sales during first classification period in Toy category? A set of operators has been proposed to facilitate formulating this type of query and it is shown how to incorporate them in SQL, a familiar database developer language. Our operators’ expressivity is also shown because formulating such queries without using these operators usually leads to complex and non-intuitive solutions.

  11. Environmental Management Model for Road Maintenance Operation Involving Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyono, A. R. H.; Setyawan, A.; Sobriyah; Setiono, P.

    2017-07-01

    Public expectations of Central Java, which is very high on demand fulfillment, especially road infrastructure as outlined in the number of complaints and community expectations tweeter, Short Mail Massage (SMS), e-mail and public reports from various media, Highways Department of Central Java province requires development model of environmental management in the implementation of a routine way by involving the community in order to fulfill the conditions of a representative, may serve road users safely and comfortably. This study used survey method with SEM analysis and SWOT with Latent Independent Variable (X), namely; Public Participation in the regulation, development, construction and supervision of road (PSM); Public behavior in the utilization of the road (PMJ) Provincial Road Service (PJP); Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP); Integrated Management System (SMT) and latent dependent variable (Y) routine maintenance of the provincial road that is integrated with the environmental management system and involve the participation of the community (MML). The result showed the implementation of routine maintenance of road conditions in Central Java province has yet to implement an environmental management by involving the community; Therefore developed environmental management model with the results of H1: Community Participation (PSM) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML); H2: Behavior Society in Jalan Utilization (PMJ) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H3: Provincial Road Service (PJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H4: Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H5: Integrated Management System (SMT) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML). From the analysis obtained formulation model describing the relationship / influence of the independent variables PSM, PMJ, PJP, KJP, and SMT on the dependent variable

  12. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  13. Intrapulmonary posaconazole penetration at the infection site in an immunosuppressed murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis receiving oral prophylactic regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi Tasieh, S.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.; Mouton, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Adequate penetration to the infection/colonization site is crucial to attain optimal efficacy of posaconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus diseases. We evaluated posaconazole exposure in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The posaconazole

  14. NEW MODEL OF A SOLAR WIND AIRPLANE FOR GEOMATIC OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Achachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability for an aircraft to fly during a much extended period of time has become a key issue and a target of research, both in the domain of civilian aviation and unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper describes a new design and evaluating of solar wind aircraft with the objective to assess the impact of a new system design on overall flight crew performance. The required endurance is in the range of some hours in the case of law enforcement, border surveillance, forest fire fighting or power line inspection. However, other applications at high altitudes, such as geomatic operations for delivering geographic information, weather research and forecast, environmental monitoring, would require remaining airborne during days, weeks or even months. The design of GNSS non precision approach procedure for different airports is based on geomatic data.

  15. How Repeated Time To Event (RTTE) modelling of opioid requests after surgery may improve future post-operative pain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Kreilgaard, Mads

    Title: How Repeated Time To Event (RTTE) modelling of opioid requests after surgery may improve future post-operative pain management Author: Rasmus Vestergaard Juul (1) Sten Rasmussen (2) Mads Kreilgaard (1) Ulrika S. H. Simonsson (3) Lona Louring Christrup (1) Trine Meldgaard Lund (1) Institution...... to Event (RTTE) modelling2 approach of repeated opioid request in order to increase the understanding of pain breakthrough patterns in severe surgeries and improve patients’ pain management. Methods: 68 patients (F:45,M:23, Age:76±15) were included from a population receiving surgery after hip fracture...... of surgery specific, drug concentration related, population specific and/or time-varying covariates of opioid requests and pain events. Conclusions: A framework has been developed based on RTTE modelling that may help improve future pain management by 1) Identification of surgery specific patterns in pain...

  16. Friction Model for FEM Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Y. T.; Wagoner, R. H.; Lee, J. K.

    2004-06-01

    In order to find the effect of frictional characteristics, lubricant viscosity, tool geometry, and forming speed on the sheet metal forming, a friction tester was designed and manufactured. Friction tests were performed using drawing oils, various tool radii and forming speeds for aluminum alloy sheets, galvanized steels sheets and cold rolled steel sheets. From the experimental observation, the mathematical friction model considering lubricant viscosity, sheet surface roughness and hardness, punch corner radii, and punch speed is developed. By comparing the punch load found by FEM using the proposed friction model with that of experimental measurement when the steel sheets are formed in 2-D geometry in dry and lubricating conditions, the validity and accuracy of the mathematical friction model are demonstrated.

  17. Effective Operators Within the Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetcu, I; Barrett, B R; Navratil, P; Vary, J P

    2004-11-30

    We implement an effective operator formalism for general one- and two-body operators, obtaining results consistent with the no-core shell model (NCSM) wave functions. The Argonne V8' nucleon-nucleon potential was used in order to obtain realistic wave functions for {sup 4}He, {sup 6}Li and {sup 12}C. In the NCSM formalism, we compute electromagnetic properties using the two-body cluster approximation for the effective operators and obtain results which are sensitive to the range of the bare operator. To illuminate the dependence on the range, we employ a Gaussian two-body operator of variable range, finding weak renormalization of long range operators (e.g., quadrupole) in a fixed model space. This is understood in terms of the two-body cluster approximation which accounts mainly for short-range correlations. Consequently, short range operators, such as the relative kinetic energy, will be well renormalized in the two-body cluster approximation.

  18. Understanding HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: An Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiene, Susan M.; Fisher, William A.; Shuper, Paul A.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Christie, Sarah; MacDonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study applied the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (J. D. Fisher & Fisher, 1992; W. A. Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa’s generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV tr...

  19. Quantitative comparison of mathematical models to measure surface area of canine teeth prepared to receive full veneer crowns in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn eCollins

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed in order to determine if mathematical modeling of the canine teeth in dogs could be utilized to provide an accurate and reliable estimation of crown surface area that could be used in both a research and clinical setting.Materials and methods: Actual surface area (aSA calculations for 32 stone dies of clinical crown preparations were acquired utilizing a tridimensional (3D laser scanner and 3D computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM software applications. These calculations were used as a control. Seventeen unique mathematical models from 8 geometric shapes were used to calculate estimated surface area (eSA of each stone die. Linear association and agreement between eSA and aSA calculations were assessed with multiple statistical methods. Results: All methods of eSA showed a significant linear association with aSA. Five of the mathematical models [right elliptical frustum (H3, right elliptical cone (G3, right pyramidal cone (A3, right circular frustum (F2 and right circular cone (E1] were superior to the other 12 models.Conclusions: The H3 mathematical model based on the right elliptical frustum provided the most accurate estimate of crown surface area of dog teeth. However, H3 requires the use of laser scans and a 3D CAD software program. As a result, this model would be recommended for research applications. The E1 mathematical model was similar in accuracy to H3 and, given it requires only two measurements and a comparatively simple equation for calculation, this method would be recommended for clinical chair-side use.

  20. Molecular Modeling of Estrogen Receptor Using Molecular Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Urmi; Luck, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular modeling is pervasive in the pharmaceutical industry that employs many of our students from Biology, Chemistry and the interdisciplinary majors. To expose our students to this important aspect of their education we have incorporated a set of tutorials in our Biochemistry class. The present article describes one of our tutorials where…

  1. Practice what you preach: Microfinance business models and operational efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.W.B.; Millone, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The microfinance sector is an example of a sector in which firms with different business models coexist. Next to pure for-profit microfinance institutions (MFIs), the sector has room for non-profit organizations, and includes 'social' for-profit firms that aim to maximize a double bot- tom line and

  2. Operational Model for Career Development and Vocational Preparation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Anne L.; Barrett, Samuel L.

    Three California State Department units (vocational education, pupil personnel services, and career education) and two school districts (Fremont Unified and Huntington Beach Union High) established a consortium to develop demonstration sites for model career development and vocational preparation systems and staff development programs. The…

  3. Maximizing the Effectiveness of Leadership Inservice Education: An Operational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Joseph C.

    This paper includes a functional model for upgrading the effectiveness of inservice training for school administrators. It is based on the writer's contention that most inservice programs for administrators do not relate to the leadership concerns of each participant, skills developed in those programs often are not applied to the participant's…

  4. An Examination of Operational Availability in Life Cycle Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Systems. Kenneth E. Marks, H. Garrison Massey, and Brent D. Bradley. Rand No. R-2287-AF. Santa Monica CA: The Rand Corporation, October 1978. AD...AFB OH, September 1982. AD A123045. Bryan, Noreen S.; Jacqueline J. Rosen; and Nancey T. Marland. "A New Life Cycle Cost Model: Flexible, Interactive

  5. Behavior modeling through CHAOS for simulation of dismounted soldier operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubink, E.; Aldershoff, F.; Lotens, W.A.; Woering, A.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges in human behavior modeling for military applications is dealing with all factors that can influence behavior and performance. In a military context, behavior and performance are influenced by the task at hand, the internal (cognitive and physiological) and external

  6. An extensive catalog of operators for the coupled evolution of metamodels and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmannnsdoerfer, M.; Vermolen, S.D.; Wachsmuth, G.

    2010-01-01

    Modeling languages and thus their metamodels are subject to change. When a metamodel is evolved, existing models may no longer conform to it. Manual migration of these models in response to metamodel evolution is tedious and error-prone. To significantly automate model migration, operator-based

  7. Operational advances in ring current modeling using RAM-SCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welling, Daniel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jordanova, Vania K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zaharia, Sorin G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morley, Steven K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-03

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) combines a kinetic model of the ring current with a force-balanced model of the magnetospheric magnetic field to create an inner magnetospheric model that is magnetically self consistent. RAM-SCB produces a wealth of outputs that are valuable to space weather applications. For example, the anisotropic particle distribution of the KeV-energy population calculated by the code is key for predicting surface charging on spacecraft. Furthermore, radiation belt codes stand to benefit substantially from RAM-SCB calculated magnetic field values and plasma wave growth rates - both important for determining the evolution of relativistic electron populations. RAM-SCB is undergoing development to bring these benefits to the space weather community. Data-model validation efforts are underway to assess the performance of the system. 'Virtual Satellite' capability has been added to yield satellite-specific particle distribution and magnetic field output. The code's outer boundary is being expanded to 10 Earth Radii to encompass previously neglected geosynchronous orbits and allow the code to be driven completely by either empirical or first-principles based inputs. These advances are culminating towards a new, real-time version of the code, rtRAM-SCB, that can monitor the inner magnetosphere conditions on both a global and spacecraft-specific level. This paper summarizes these new features as well as the benefits they provide the space weather community.

  8. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  9. Form factors of descendant operators: Resonance identities in the sinh-Gordon model

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkevich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We study the space of local operators in the sinh-Gordon model in the framework of the bootstrap form factor approach. Our final goal is to identify the operators obtained by solving bootstrap equations with those defined in terms of the Lagrangian field. Here we try to identify operators at some very particular points, where the phenomenon of operator resonance takes place. The operator resonance phenomenon being perturbative, nevertheless, results in exact identities between some local operators. By applying an algebraic approach developed earlier for form factors we derive an infinite set of identities between particular descendant and exponential operators in the sinh-Gordon theory, which generalize the quantum equation of motion. We identify the corresponding descendant operators by comparing them with the result of perturbation theory.

  10. Reviewing the Role of Stakeholders in Operational Research: Opportunities for Group Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Stakeholders have always received much attention in system dynamics, especially in the group model building tradition, which emphasizes the deep involvement of a client group in building a system dynamics model. In organizations, stakeholders are gaining more and more attention by managers who try t

  11. Numerical investigation of mass transfer in the flow path of the experimental model of the PGV-1500 steam generator's steam receiving section with two steam nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golibrodo, L. A.; Krutikov, A. A.; Nadinskii, Yu. N.; Nikolaeva, A. V.; Skibin, A. P.; Sotskov, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    The hydrodynamics of working medium in the steam volume model implemented in the experimental setup constructed at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering was simulated for verifying the procedure of calculating the velocity field in the steam space of steam generators used as part of the reactor plants constructed on the basis of water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER). The numerical calculation was implemented in the environment of the STAR-CCM+ software system with its cross verification in the STAR-CD and ANSYS CFX software systems. The performed numerical investigation served as a basis for substantiating the selection of the computation code and parameters for constructing the computer model of the steam receiving device of the PGV-1500 steam generator experimental model, such as the quantization scheme, turbulence model, and mesh model.

  12. Vehicular pollution modeling using the operational street pollution model (OSPM) for Chembur, Mumbai (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awkash; Ketzel, Matthias; Patil, Rashmi S; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Hertel, Ole

    2016-06-01

    Megacities in India such as Mumbai and Delhi are among the most polluted places in the world. In the present study, the widely used operational street pollution model (OSPM) is applied for assessing pollutant loads in the street canyons of Chembur, a suburban area just outside Mumbai city. Chembur is both industrialized and highly congested with vehicles. There are six major street canyons in this area, for which modeling has been carried out for NOx and particulate matter (PM). The vehicle emission factors for Indian cities have been developed by Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) for PM, not specifically for PM10 or PM2.5. The model has been applied for 4 days of winter season and for the whole year to see the difference of effect of meteorology. The urban background concentrations have been obtained from an air quality monitoring station. Results have been compared with measured concentrations from the routine monitoring performed in Mumbai. NOx emissions originate mainly from vehicles which are ground-level sources and are emitting close to where people live. Therefore, those emissions are highly relevant. The modeled NOx concentration compared satisfactorily with observed data. However, this was not the case for PM, most likely because the emission inventory did not contain emission terms due to resuspended particulate matter.

  13. Operational cooling tower model (CTTOOL V1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); LocalDomainServers, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garrett, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT’s) are widely used to remove waste heat from industrial processes, including suspected proliferators of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The temperature of the air being exhausted from the MDCT is proportional to the amount of thermal energy being removed from the process cooling water, although ambient weather conditions and cooling water flow rate must be known or estimated to calculate the rate of thermal energy dissipation (Q). It is theoretically possible to derive MDCT air exhaust temperatures from thermal images taken from a remote sensor. A numerical model of a MDCT is required to translate the air exhaust temperature to a Q. This report describes the MDCT model developed by the Problem Centered Integrated Analysis (PCIA) program that was designed to perform those computational tasks. The PCIA program is a collaborative effort between the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the Northrop-Grumman Corporation (NG) and the Aerospace Corporation (AERO).

  14. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  15. Model operator approach to the Lamb shift calculations in relativistic many-electron atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Shabaev, V M; Yerokhin, V A

    2013-01-01

    A model operator approach to calculations of the QED corrections to energy levels in relativistic many-electron atomic systems is developed. The model Lamb shift operator is represented by a sum of local and nonlocal potentials which are defined using the results of ab initio calculations of the diagonal and nondiagonal matrix elements of the one-loop QED operator with H-like wave functions. The model operator can be easily included in any calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by comparison of the model QED operator results for the Lamb shifts in many-electron atoms and ions with exact QED calculations.

  16. Modeling to Evaluate Coordination and Flexibility in Aluminum Recycling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Tracey; Olivetti, Elsa; Fjeldbo, Snorre; Kirchain, Randolph

    Reprocessing of aluminum production byproducts or dross for use in secondary production presents a particular challenge to the aluminum industry. While use of these non-traditional secondary materials is of interest due to their reduced energy and economic burden over virgin counterparts, these materials necessitate the use of particular furnaces, specialized handling and processing conditions. Therefore, to make use of them firms may pursue use of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product. After reprocessing downstream aluminum remelters could incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges result because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the need to establish long term recycling production plans in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses?

  17. The Challenges of Modeling and Analyzing Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-17

    to be skeptical of systems analyses, computer models, game theories, or doctrines that suggest otherwise.”38 James Clancy and Chuck Crossett expressed...frameworks’ is provided by Clancy and Crossett in which they describe the divergent opinions of ‘technologists’ over ‘strategist’ relating to the... Crossett noted that “the analysts of World War II faced a similar challenge [of] having to create a mathematical underpinning for the physical effects

  18. Applying OWA operator to model group behaviors in uncertain QFD

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    It is a crucial step to derive the priority order of design requirements (DRs) from customer requirements (CRs) in quality function deployment (QFD). However, it is not straightforward to prioritize DRs due to two types of uncertainties: human subjective perception and user variability. This paper proposes an OWA based group decision-making approach to uncertain QFD with an application to a flexible manufacturing system design. The proposed model performs computations solely based on the orde...

  19. Comparison between differently priced devices for digital capture of X-ray films using computed tomography as a gold standard: a multireader-multicase receiver operating characteristic curve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Antonio J; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Aguirre, Diego Andrés

    2011-05-01

    Film digitizers are a specialized technology that is available for scanning X-ray radiographs; however, their cost makes them unaffordable for developing countries. Thus, less expensive alternatives are used. The purpose of this study was to compare three devices for digital capture of X-ray films: a film digitizer (US $15,000), a flatbed scanner (US $1800), and a 10-megapixel digital camera (US $450), in terms of diagnostic accuracy, defined as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and computed tomography as the gold standard. The sample included 136 chest X-ray cases with computed tomography confirmation of the presence or absence of pneumothorax, interstitial opacities, or nodules. The readers were six radiologists who made observations of eight variables for each digital capture of the X-ray films: three main variables to determine the accuracy in the detection of the above-mentioned pathologies, four secondary variables to categorize other pathological classifications, and one variable regarding digital image quality. The receiver operating characteristic curves for each device and pathology were very similar. For the main variables, there was no significant statistical difference in diagnostic accuracy between the devices. For the secondary variables, >84% of cases were correctly classified, even those that were classified with the lowest image quality. High accuracy was determined for the three main variables (0.75 to 0.96), indicating good performance for all tested devices, despite their very different prices. Choosing a device for a teleradiology service should involve additional factors, such as capture time, maintenance concerns, and training requirements.

  20. Cut-HDMR-based fully equivalent operational model for analysis of unreinforced masonry structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Mukherjee; B N Rao; A M Prasad

    2012-10-01

    Mesoscale models are highly competent for understanding behaviour of unreinforced masonry structures. Their only limitation is large computational expense. Fully Equivalent Operational Model forms an equivalent mathematical model to represent a particular phenomenon where explicit relationship between inputs and outputs are unknown. This paper explores the ability of a major variant of High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) technique, namely Cut-HDMR, to construct the most efficient Fully Equivalent Operational Model for nonlinear finite element analysis of mesoscale model of an unreinforced masonry structure. Conclusions are reached on various aspects such as, suitability of interpolation schemes and order of Cut-HDMR approximation.

  1. Evaluation Model of Design for Operation and Architecture of Hierarchical Virtual Simulation for Flight Vehicle Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hu; TIAN Yongliang; ZHANG Chaoying; YIN Jiao; SUN Yijie

    2012-01-01

    In order to take requirements for commercial operations or military missions into better consideration in new flight vehicle design,a tri-hierarchical task classification model of "design for operation" is proposed,which takes basic man-object interaction task,complex collaborative operation and large-scale joint operation into account.The corresponding general architecture of evaluation criteria is also depicted.Then a virtual simulation-based approach to implement the evaluations at three hierarchy levels is mainly analyzed with a detailed example,which validates the feasibility and effectiveness of evaluation architecture.Finally,extending the virtual simulation architecture from design to operation training is discussed.

  2. An optimization model for the operations of steam production in industrial boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Rocco,Cleber Damião; Morabito, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a mixed integer linear programming model is presented to support some of the key decisions in the steam production system with industrial boilers. The model approaches the fuel management decisions (fuel replenishment and its inventory control), boiler operational decisions (start-up, warm-up, and shutdown operations), and which boiler should produce steam. The model adjustments and its validation were carried out through a case study in a large food industry. In face of the go...

  3. A statistical model of operational impacts on the framework of the bridge crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsev, V. Yu; Tolokonnikov, A. S.; Gorynin, A. D.; Reutov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    The technical regulations of the Customs Union demands implementation of the risk analysis of the bridge cranes operation at their design stage. The statistical model has been developed for performance of random calculations of risks, allowing us to model possible operational influences on the bridge crane metal structure in their various combination. The statistical model is practically actualized in the software product automated calculation of risks of failure occurrence of bridge cranes.

  4. Study on ABCD Analysis Technique for Business Models, business strategies, Operating Concepts & Business Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana

    2016-01-01

    Studying the implications of a business model, choosing success strategies, developing viable operational concepts or evolving a functional system, it is important to analyse it in all dimensions. For this purpose, various analysing techniques/frameworks are used. This paper is a discussion on how to use an innovative analysing framework called ABCD model on a given business model, or on a business strategy or a operational concept/idea or business system. Based on four constructs Advantages,...

  5. Improving vacuum gas oil hydrotreating operation via a lumped parameter dynamic simulation modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remesat, D.

    2008-07-01

    Although hydrotreating has become a large part of refining operations for sour crudes, refiners rarely achieve their run lengths and crude throughput objectives for vacuum gas oil (VGO) hydrotreaters. This shortfall in performance can be attributed to crude flow changes, feed compositional changes, sulphur and metals changes, or hydrogen partial pressure changes, all of which reduce the effectiveness of the catalysts that remove sulphur from the crude oil streams. Although some proprietary steady state models exist to indicate performance enhancement during operation, they have not been widely used and it is not certain whether they would be effective in simulating the process with disturbances over the run length of the process. This study used publicly unattainable data gathered from 14 operating hydrotreaters and developed a lumped parameter dynamic model, using both Excel and HYSYS software, for industrial refinery/upgrader VGO hydrotreaters. The model takes proprietary and public steady state hydrotreater models and successfully applies it to a commercial dynamic simulation package. The model tracks changes in intrinsic reaction rate based on catalyst deactivation, wetting efficiency, feed properties and operating conditions to determine operating temperature, outlet sulphur composition and chemical hydrogen consumed. The model simulates local disturbances, and represents the start, middle and end operating zones during hydrotreater run length. This correlative, partially predictive model demonstrates the economic benefits of increasing hydrogen to improve the operation of a hydrotreater by increasing run length and/or improving crude processing.

  6. Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided. PMID:20195441

  7. Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is divided into three sections: (i an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations; (ii a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks; and (iii a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided.

  8. Force Allocation Modeling in Support of Contingency Operations - Demonstration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    a in task t for mission m • Capu = total number of units of type u available for assignment • Cu = cost for each unit u deployed The model to...x^ < Capu for each unit u (3.3) m x^ > 0 integer for each (u, m) pair (3.4) (3.1) represents the objective of minimizing system cost. We...scenario s • Ratsm = minimum requirement of action a in task t for mission m, scenario s 14 • Capu = total number of units of type u available for

  9. Development of a Generalized Explanatory Base Operating Support (GEBOS) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    included by a module that specified the order in which unit capabilities would be decremented. The model would reduce mission capabilities in order of the...6 62559. -O 81949. -;i0 1062509. 4 �. z i, 167011. -:80 3554. 500 41727.50 36798. 7!171. 6 ’C P ADM?1 59. 37 0. :8 ADMIIISTPATION 600 " FPSO ...output of.the linear program module is stored in the data set "BOSLST." The linear programming problem as described in "BOSTMP" has the following

  10. OPTICAL MODEL AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE NEW OFFSET TYPE PARABOLIC CONCENTRATOR WITH TWO TYPES OF SOLAR RECEIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Pavlović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a physical and mathematical model of the new offset type parabolic concentrator and a numerical procedure for predicting its optical performances. Also presented is the process of design and optical ray tracing analysis of a low cost solar concentrator for medium temperature applications. This study develops and applies a new mathematical model for estimating the intercept factor of the solar concentrator based on its geometrical and optical behavior. The solar concentrating system consists of three offset parabolic dish reflectors and a solar thermal absorber at the focus. Two types of absorbers are discussed. One is a flat plate circular absorber and the other a spiral smooth pipe absorber. The simulation results could serve as a useful reference for design and optimization of offset parabolic concentrators.

  11. Surviving mossy cells enlarge and receive more excitatory synaptic input in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Thamattoor, Ajoy K; LeRoy, Christopher; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    Numerous hypotheses of temporal lobe epileptogenesis have been proposed, and several involve hippocampal mossy cells. Building on previous hypotheses we sought to test the possibility that after epileptogenic injuries surviving mossy cells develop into super-connected seizure-generating hub cells. If so, they might require more cellular machinery and consequently have larger somata, elongate their dendrites to receive more synaptic input, and display higher frequencies of miniature excitatory synaptic currents (mEPSCs). To test these possibilities pilocarpine-treated mice were evaluated using GluR2-immunocytochemistry, whole-cell recording, and biocytin-labeling. Epileptic pilocarpine-treated mice displayed substantial loss of GluR2-positive hilar neurons. Somata of surviving neurons were 1.4-times larger than in controls. Biocytin-labeled mossy cells also were larger in epileptic mice, but dendritic length per cell was not significantly different. The average frequency of mEPSCs of mossy cells recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin and bicuculline was 3.2-times higher in epileptic pilocarpine-treated mice as compared to controls. Other parameters of mEPSCs were similar in both groups. Average input resistance of mossy cells in epileptic mice was reduced to 63% of controls, which is consistent with larger somata and would tend to make surviving mossy cells less excitable. Other intrinsic physiological characteristics examined were similar in both groups. Increased excitatory synaptic input is consistent with the hypothesis that surviving mossy cells develop into aberrantly super-connected seizure-generating hub cells, and soma hypertrophy is indirectly consistent with the possibility of axon sprouting. However, no obvious evidence of hyperexcitable intrinsic physiology was found. Furthermore, similar hypertrophy and hyper-connectivity has been reported for other neuron types in the dentate gyrus, suggesting mossy cells are not unique in this regard. Thus

  12. The Mechanism of Company Accounts Receivable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Yamnenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the accounts receivable management is caused by its ability to influence on the filling of the company working capital. Therefore it is necessary to create a specific mechanism for management of accounts receivable in the company. The article analyses the components of the mechanism and the influence of factors that significantly affect the operation. The result of the functioning of the accounts receivable management is to receive funds and to minimize accounts receivable.

  13. Modeling Truncated Loss Data of Operational Risk in E-banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pirouz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Operational risk is an important risk component for financial institutions, especially in E-banking. Large amount of capital that are assigned to decrease this risk are evidence to this subject. One of the most important factors for modeling operational risk to estimate capital charge is loss data collections of banks. But sometimes for reasons like decreasing the costs, banks save only the losses above some determined thresholds at their database. For achieving accurate capital charge, this threshold should be considered in determining capital charge. This paper focuses on modeling truncated loss data above some given threshold. We discuss several statistical methods for modeling truncated data, and suggest the best one for modeling truncated loss data. We have tested our suggested model for some operational loss data samples. Our results indicate that our approach can be useful for increasing accuracy of estimating operational risk capital charge in E- banking.

  14. Expert System Models for Forecasting Forklifts Engagement in a Warehouse Loading Operation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Mirčetić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of forklifts engagement in warehouse loading operations. Two expert system (ES models are created using several machine learning (ML models. Models try to mimic expert decisions while determining the forklifts engagement in the loading operation. Different ML models are evaluated and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and classification and regression trees (CART are chosen as the ones which have shown best results for the research purpose. As a case study, a central warehouse of a beverage company was used. In a beverage distribution chain, the proper engagement of forklifts in a loading operation is crucial for maintaining the defined customer service level. The created ES models represent a new approach for the rationalization of the forklifts usage, particularly for solving the problem of the forklifts engagement incargo loading. They are simple, easy to understand, reliable, and practically applicable tool for deciding on the engagement of the forklifts in a loading operation.

  15. A physical model for low-frequency electromagnetic induction in the near field based on direct interaction between transmitter and receiver electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray T.; Jjunju, Fred P. M.; Young, Iain S.; Taylor, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A physical model of electromagnetic induction is developed which relates directly the forces between electrons in the transmitter and receiver windings of concentric coaxial finite coils in the near-field region. By applying the principle of superposition, the contributions from accelerating electrons in successive current loops are summed, allowing the peak-induced voltage in the receiver to be accurately predicted. Results show good agreement between theory and experiment for various receivers of different radii up to five times that of the transmitter. The limitations of the linear theory of electromagnetic induction are discussed in terms of the non-uniform current distribution caused by the skin effect. In particular, the explanation in terms of electromagnetic energy and Poynting’s theorem is contrasted with a more direct explanation based on variable filament induction across the conductor cross section. As the direct physical model developed herein deals only with forces between discrete current elements, it can be readily adapted to suit different coil geometries and is widely applicable in various fields of research such as near-field communications, antenna design, wireless power transfer, sensor applications and beyond. PMID:27493580

  16. A physical model for low-frequency electromagnetic induction in the near field based on direct interaction between transmitter and receiver electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray T.; Jjunju, Fred P. M.; Young, Iain S.; Taylor, Stephen; Maher, Simon

    2016-07-01

    A physical model of electromagnetic induction is developed which relates directly the forces between electrons in the transmitter and receiver windings of concentric coaxial finite coils in the near-field region. By applying the principle of superposition, the contributions from accelerating electrons in successive current loops are summed, allowing the peak-induced voltage in the receiver to be accurately predicted. Results show good agreement between theory and experiment for various receivers of different radii up to five times that of the transmitter. The limitations of the linear theory of electromagnetic induction are discussed in terms of the non-uniform current distribution caused by the skin effect. In particular, the explanation in terms of electromagnetic energy and Poynting's theorem is contrasted with a more direct explanation based on variable filament induction across the conductor cross section. As the direct physical model developed herein deals only with forces between discrete current elements, it can be readily adapted to suit different coil geometries and is widely applicable in various fields of research such as near-field communications, antenna design, wireless power transfer, sensor applications and beyond.

  17. Model prediction of the operating behavior of a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤辉; 骆仲泱; 倪明江; 岑可法

    2002-01-01

    An improved mathematical model for a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler based on the model developed earlier by the authors was applied to simulate the operation of a 12 MW CFB boiler. The influences of the excess air ratio, primary air ratio, coal particle size distribution, coal properties (ash content and volatile content) and Ca/S ratio on the boiler operation were analyzed. The results showed that the model simulation may be applied to the optimum design and economic operation of the CFB boiler.

  18. Model prediction of the operating behavior of a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤辉; 骆仲泱; 倪明江; 岑可法

    2002-01-01

    An improved mathematical model for a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler baaed on the model developed earlier by the authors was applied to simulate the operation of a 12 MW CFB boiler.The influences of the excess air ratio, primary air ratio, coal particle size distribution, coal properties (ash content and volatile content) and Ca/S ratio on the boiler operation were analyzed. The results showed that the model simulation may be applied to the optimum design and economic operation of the CFB boiler.

  19. Computer-Aided Model Based Analysis for Design and Operation of a Copolymerization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Arenas, Maria Teresa; Sales-Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    The advances in computer science and computational algorithms for process modelling, process simulation, numerical methods and design/synthesis algorithms, makes it advantageous and helpful to employ computer-aided modelling systems and tools for integrated process analysis. This is illustrated....... This will allow analysis of the process behaviour, contribute to a better understanding of the polymerization process, help to avoid unsafe conditions of operation, and to develop operational and optimizing control strategies. In this work, through a computer-aided modeling system ICAS-MoT, two first......, the process design and conditions of operation on the polymer grade and the production rate....

  20. An innovative business model based on the integration of finance and logistics operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Daozhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a new logistics financing model based on the notes receivable. This is a written promise to receive a stated amount of money in future. The article describes the structure and key processes of the model, and analyses the roles of the involved stakeholders. In order to enhance understanding, the article compares the model with a loan financing model, establishes a game model based on logistics enterprise financing, studies the strategies in the process of investment and financing, and concludes by defining its feasible region. This involves comparing the expected net revenues of different stakeholders in the two models. Based on the results, the paper analyses the financing process of a logistics enterprise in Shanghai and determines the optimal financing strategy. This paper is an attempt to improve business innovation in logistics financing and provides a sensible solution for the integrated logistics and finance services. This can effectively improve the stakeholders’ profit.

  1. OMEGA: The operational multiscale environment model with grid adaptivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This review talk describes the OMEGA code, used for weather simulation and the modeling of aerosol transport through the atmosphere. Omega employs a 3D mesh of wedge shaped elements (triangles when viewed from above) that adapt with time. Because wedges are laid out in layers of triangular elements, the scheme can utilize structured storage and differencing techniques along the elevation coordinate, and is thus a hybrid of structured and unstructured methods. The utility of adaptive gridding in this moded, near geographic features such as coastlines, where material properties change discontinuously, is illustrated. Temporal adaptivity was used additionally to track moving internal fronts, such as clouds of aerosol contaminants. The author also discusses limitations specific to this problem, including manipulation of huge data bases and fixed turn-around times. In practice, the latter requires a carefully tuned optimization between accuracy and computation speed.

  2. Exatidão de posicionamento de um receptor GPS, operando sob diferentes coberturas vegetais Evaluation of the accuracy of positioning a GPS receiver operating under different vegetation covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Angulo Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a exatidão de posicionamento planimétrico do receptor GPS Trimble/Pro-XL, operando sob diferentes condições de cobertura vegetal (pastagem, seringueira, eucalipto e pinus, o equipamento foi posicionado alternadamente sobre 6 pontos, locados ao acaso nas áreas de estudo, variando o tempo de permanência (1 , 5 e 10 min mas com a mesma taxa de aquisição de dados (1 s fazendo-se, posteriormente, a correção diferencial (DGPS pós-processada dos dados. Os pontos também tiveram suas coordenadas levantadas pelo método topográfico, segundo a NBR 13133 - Execução de Levantamento Topográfico, para fins de comparação. De acordo com o método empregado e os resultados obtidos, foi possível separar as exatidões de posicionamento planimétrico, conforme o tipo de cobertura vegetal, em dois grupos: sem e com cobertura arbórea confirmando, assim, a interferência do dossel na recepção dos sinais emitidos pelos satélites GPS. O aumento do tempo de permanência melhorou a exatidão de posicionamento planimétrico, o que ratifica a escolha da metodologia de levantamento como sendo fundamental para a obtenção de bons resultados de posicionamento.To evaluate planimetric positioning accuracy of a GPS receiver (Trimble/Pro-XL, operating under different conditions of vegetation cover (pasture, rubber trees, eucalyptus and pine trees, 6 control points were located randomly in the study area. For comparison, their coordinates were first obtained by a conventional surveying method, according to NBR 13133 of Brazilian Surveying Standards. Afterwards, the GPS receiver was positioned on those control points, maintaining the acquisition rate of 1 s while changing the time for 1, 5 and 10 min, the DGPS method was used to correct the positioning coordinate data. According to the methodology applied and the results obtained, it was possible to distinguish planimetric positioning accuracy, according to the vegetation cover, in two groups

  3. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  4. Driver Model of a Powered Wheelchair Operation as a Tool of Theoretical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takuma; Inoue, Takenobu; Shino, Motoki; Kamata, Minoru

    This paper describes the construction of a driver model of a powered wheelchair operation for the understanding of the characteristics of the driver. The main targets of existing researches about driver models are the operation of the automobiles and motorcycles, not a low-speed vehicle such as powered wheelchairs. Therefore, we started by verifying the possibility of modeling the turning operation at a corner of a corridor. At first, we conducted an experiment on a daily powered wheelchair user by using his vehicle. High reproducibility of driving and the driving characteristics for the construction of a driver model were both confirmed from the result of the experiment. Next, experiments with driving simulators were conducted for the collection of quantitative driving data. The parameters of the proposed driver model were identified from experimental results. From the simulations with the proposed driver model and identified parameters, the characteristics of the proposed driver model were analyzed.

  5. The use of the health belief model to assess predictors of intent to receive the novel (2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Venable “Kelly” R.Goode, PharmD, BCPS, FAPhA, FCCP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 Assess participants’ perceptions of severity, risk, and susceptibility to the novel H1N1 influenza virus and/or vaccine, vaccine benefits and barriers, and cues to action and 2 Identify predictors of participants’ intention to receive the novel H1N1 vaccine.Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive studySetting: Local grocery store chain and university in the central Virginia areaParticipants: Convenience sample of adult college students and grocery store patronsIntervention: Participants filled out an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire based upon the Health Belief Model.Main Outcome Measures: Participants’ predictors of intention to receive the novel H1N1 vaccineResults: A total of 664 participants completed a questionnaire. The majority of participants were aged 25-64 years old (66.9%. The majority were female (69.1%, Caucasian (73.7%, and felt at risk for getting sick from the virus (70.3%. Most disagreed that they would die from the virus (68.0%. Participants received novel H1N1 vaccine recommendations from their physicians (28.2%, pharmacists (20.7%, and nurses (16.1%. The majority intended to receive the H1N1 vaccine (58.1%. Participants were significantly more likely to intend to receive the H1N1 vaccine if they had lower scores on the perceived vaccine barriers domain (OR= 0.57, CI: 0.35-0.93. Physicians’ recommendations (OR=0.26, CI: 0.11-0.62 and 2008 seasonal flu vaccination (OR=0.45, CI: 0.24-0.83 were significant predictors of intention to receive the H1N1 vaccine.Conclusions: Most participants felt at risk for getting the novel H1N1 virus and intended to receive the novel H1N1 vaccine. Educating patients about vaccine benefits and increasing healthcare professionals' vaccine recommendations may increase vaccination rates in future pandemics.

  6. An information theory-based approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    This paper proposes a quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators. The aim of this work is to derive the amount of the information processed during a certain control task. The focus will be on i) developing a model for information processing of NPP operators and ii) quantifying the model. To resolve the problems of the previous approaches based on the information theory, i.e. the problems of single channel approaches, we primarily develop the information processing model having multiple stages, which contains information flows. Then the uncertainty of the information is quantified using the Conant's model, a kind of information theory.

  7. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Daniel E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Jeffrey O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nicholson, Andrew D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  8. On the Use of Variability Operations in the V-Modell XT Software Process Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Ternité, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . In this article, we present a study on the feasibility of variability operations to support the development of software process lines in the context of the V-Modell XT. We analyze which variability operations are defined and practically used. We provide an initial catalog of variability operations......Software process lines provide a systematic approach to develop and manage software processes. It defines a reference process containing general process assets, whereas a well-defined customization approach allows process engineers to create new process variants, e.g., by extending or modifying...... as an improvement proposal for other process models. Our findings show that 69 variability operation types are defined across several metamodel versions of which, however, 25 remain unused. The found variability operations allow for systematically modifying the content of process model elements and the process...

  9. Impact of Chemotherapy on Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Receiving Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, Jose G.; Luxton, Gary; Kozak, Margaret M.; Anderson, Eric M.; Hancock, Steven L.; Kapp, Daniel S.; Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine how chemotherapy agents affect radiation dose parameters that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients treated with pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (P-IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We assessed HT in 141 patients who received P-IMRT for anal, gynecologic, rectal, or prostate cancers, 95 of whom received concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were separated into 4 groups: mitomycin (MMC) + 5-fluorouracil (5FU, 37 of 141), platinum ± 5FU (Cis, 32 of 141), 5FU (26 of 141), and P-IMRT alone (46 of 141). The pelvic bone was contoured as a surrogate for pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and divided into subsites: ilium, lower pelvis, and lumbosacral spine (LSS). The volumes of each region receiving 5-40 Gy were calculated. The endpoint for HT was grade ≥3 (HT3+) leukopenia, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Normal tissue complication probability was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Logistic regression was used to analyze association between HT3+ and dosimetric parameters. Results: Twenty-six patients experienced HT3+: 10 of 37 (27%) MMC, 14 of 32 (44%) Cis, 2 of 26 (8%) 5FU, and 0 of 46 P-IMRT. PBM dosimetric parameters were correlated with HT3+ in the MMC group but not in the Cis group. LSS dosimetric parameters were well correlated with HT3+ in both the MMC and Cis groups. Constrained optimization (0model resulted in n=1, m = 0.11, TD{sub 50} = 31 Gy for LSS in the MMC group and n=1, m = 0.27, TD{sub 50} = 35 Gy for LSS in the Cis group. Conclusions: The incidence of HT3+ depends on type of chemotherapy received. Patients receiving P-IMRT ± 5FU have better bone marrow tolerance than those receiving irradiation concurrent with either Cis or MMC. Treatment with MMC has a lower TD{sub 50} and more steeply rising normal tissue complication probability curve compared with treatment with Cis. Dose tolerance of PBM and the LSS subsite may be lower for

  10. Managing Medicare receivables after PIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, L S

    1987-04-01

    The luxury of PIP is gone and managing cash flow will become more important than ever before. The hospital industry has come a long way in the development of automated billing systems and related recordkeeping since PIP was first introduced. The performance of an operations review of the accounts receivable management system should improve the effectiveness and efficiency of operations and significantly improve cash flow.

  11. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  12. DNA for crime investigation: European co-operation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiodorova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The article presents DNA related data exchange mechanism established within the framework of the European Union for the transnational crime investigation. First of all, it provides with the comprehensive overview of legal and practical state of play, pointing out that approved legal basis seeks to ensure legality and reliability in this area by establishing information exchange purposes and competent authorities involved, setting up technical requirements for the DNA analysis and DNA data bases, laying down provisions on accreditation of forensic service providers, foreseeing at least minimum common data protection requirements. Secondly, it reveals that despite being the most exhaustive international regulation on DNA related data exchange among law enforcement and judicial authorities it misses effective data protection mechanism, does not harmonize neither backgrounds for DNA collection in criminal process in general nor storage requirements and that results the variation in categories of subjects related to the crime investigation and included in data bases of different Member States. These gaps make the use of data collected and stored in another Member State vulnerable from the perspective of different rules on evidences' legality within the criminal process. The article also reveals the model's weakness in terms of assessment of its efficiency as statistics gathered for the time being show only number of coincidences (hits) of searched DNA profiles, but not the impact on crime investigation and its results.

  13. The closures of (U+K)-orbits of essentially normal triangular operator models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The (U + K)-orbit of a bounded linear operator T acting on a Hilbert space H is defined as (U + K)(T)={R-1 T R:R is invertible of the form unitary plus compact on H}.In this paper,we first characterize the closure of the (U + K)-orbit of an essentially normal triangular operator T satisfying H={ker(T-λI):λ∈ρ F (T)} and σ p (T*)=ф.After that,we establish certain essentially normal triangular operator models with the form of the direct sums of triangular operators,adjoint of triangular operators and normal operators,show that such operator models generate the same closed (U + K)-orbit if they have the same spectral picture,and describe the closures of the (U + K)-orbits of these operator models.These generalize some known results on the closures of (U + K)-orbits of essentially normal operators,and provide more positive cases to an open conjecture raised by Marcoux as Question 2 in his article "A survey of (U + K)-orbits".

  14. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  15. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  16. 76 FR 8314 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Operation Without Normal Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ..., 2006. The Gulfstream Model GVI airplane will be an all-new, two- engine jet transport airplane with an... traditional designs, the GVI must be designed for operation with the normal sources of engine and auxiliary...; Operation Without Normal Electric Power AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION:...

  17. A MULTI-OBJECTIVE ROBUST OPERATION MODEL FORELECTRONIC MARKET ENABLED SUPPLY CHAIN WITH UNCERTAIN DEMANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiawang XU; Xiaoyuan HUANG; Nina YAN

    2007-01-01

    A multi-objective robust operation model is proposed in this paper for an electronic market enabled supply chain consisting of multi-supplier and multi-customer with uncertain demands.Suppliers in this supply chain provide many kinds of products to different customers directly or through electronic market.Uncertain demands are described as a scenario set with certain probability; the supply chain operation model is constructed by using the robust optimization method based on scenario analyses.The operation model we proposed is a multi-objective programming problem satisfying several conflict objectives,such as meeting the demands of all customers,minimizing the system cost,the availabilities of suppliers' capacities not below a certain level,and robustness of decision to uncertain demands.The results of numerical examples proved that the solution of the model is most conservative; however,it can ensure the robustness of the operation of the supply chain effectively.

  18. Flexible Power System Operations Simulation Model for Assessing Wind Integration: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; O' Malley, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper a model was developed to mimic operator behavior using a combination of security-constrained unit commitment, security-constrained economic dispatch, and automatic generation control programs.

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND INTENSIFICATION OF CONDENSATION GRAVITY FINE AIR FILTER OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shitov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. A problem of mathematical modeling and intensification of operation of the flow thermal diffusion chamber of the condensation gravity filter as one of the most efficient air filter is solved.Results and conclusions. This paper presents an example of the practical application of the model of heat and mass exchange in the thermodiffusion chamber as the main operating element of condensation gravity filter for high-performance air purification due to the generation of supersaturation fields with controlled properties. A criterion for quantitative assessment of purification efficiency in the form of breakthrough function is developed. The typical results of numerical modeling of the operation of the condensation gravity-type filter are presented for the most common case in practice. The possibility of intensification of the filter operation either at the stage of use or at the stage of design is shown based on the proposed approach, obtained models, and calculations.

  20. Flexible Power System Operations Simulation Model for Assessing Wind Integration: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; O' Malley, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper a model was developed to mimic operator behavior using a combination of security-constrained unit commitment, security-constrained economic dispatch, and automatic generation control programs.

  1. Operator Alertness/Workload Assessment Using Stochastic Model-Based Analysis of Myoelectric Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    BASED ANALYSIS OF MYOELECTRIC SIGNALS A. Madni C. Conaway S. Otsubo Y. Chu D" O~~r ’: Prepared For: E - AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH...November 1985 Phase II Interim Report For: so OPERATOR ALERTNESS/WORKLOAD ASSESSMENT USING STOCHASTIC MODEL-BASED ANALYSIS OF MYOELECTRIC SIGNALS A...TITLE (Include Security ClasSification) Operator Alterness/Workload Assessment Using Stochastic Model-Based Analysis of Myoelectric Signals 112

  2. The Regional Special Operations Headquarters: Franchising the NATO Model as a Hedge in Lean Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    1 AIR FORCE FELLOWS AIR UNIVERSITY THE REGIONAL SPECIAL OPERATIONS HEADQUARTERS: FRANCHISING THE NATO MODEL AS A HEDGE IN LEAN...Headquarters: Franchising The NATO Model As A Hedge In Lean Times 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. 3 The Regional Special Operations Headquarters: Franchising the

  3. OPSMODEL, an or-orbit operations simulation modeling tool for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William T.; Wright, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The 'OPSMODEL' operations-analysis and planning tool simulates on-orbit crew operations for the NASA Space Station, furnishing a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of crew activities in various alternative Station configurations while supporting engineering and cost analyses. OPSMODEL is entirely data-driven; the top-down modeling structure of the software allows the user to control both the content and the complexity level of model definition during data base population. Illustrative simulation samples are given.

  4. Using the IRI, the MAGIC model, and the co-located ground-based GPS receivers to study ionospheric solar eclipse and storm signatures on July 22, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Yen; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Lin, Chien-Hung; Sun, Yang-Yi; Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo A.; Kakinami, Yoshihiro

    2012-06-01

    The longest total solar eclipse in the 21st century occurred in Southeast Asia on 22 July 2009 from 00:55 to 04:15 UT, and was accompanied by a moderate magnetic storm starting at 03:00 UT with a D st reduction of -78 nT at 07:00 UT. In this study, we use the ionospheric reference model IRI, the data assimilation model MAGIC, and ground-based GPS receivers to simulate and examine the ionospheric solar eclipse and geomagnetic storm signatures in Taiwan and Japan. Cross-comparisons between the two model results and observations show that IRI fails to simulate the two signatures while MAGIC partially reproduces the storm features. It is essential to include ground-based GPS measurements to improve the IRI performance.

  5. Man-hour Estimation Model based on Standard Operation Unit for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhenggeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In flexible manufacturing system, the estimation of man-hour is a difficult problem because of its production-diversity. To explore a more effective method, this paper tried to estimate man-hour from the perspective of operation`s character by establishing standard operation unit (SOU in this paper. A method of parameterizing the SOU is proposed, and a new man-hour estimation model is established on the basis of SOU. At last, this paper verified the effectiveness of this method by the operation of large-scale welding parts.

  6. 恶性肿瘤患者术后化疗期创伤后成长状况调查%Survey on post traumatic growth of malignant tumor patients receiving post-operative chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪娟; 张平; 宋旭红; 李晓燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective io understand post traumatic growth 01 malignant tumor patients receiving post-operative chemotherapy, and provide evidence for nurses to adopt psychological care to patients with malignant tumor. Methods A total of 230 malignant tumor patients receiving post-operative chemotherapy were investigated in terms of their demographic data and post traumatic growth. Results The total score of Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGD of malignant tumor patients was 67. 33 + 14. 17, with the score of Appreciation of Life being the highest, followed by Spiritual Change, Relating to Others, Personal Strength, and New Possibilities. PTGI score had significant differences between genders, age groups, marital status, residential places, disease conditions, and among varied monthly incomes and courses of disease (P<0. 05, P<0. 01). Conclusion Post traumatic growth in malignant tumor patients receiving post-operative chemotherapy is at moderate level. Gender, ages, social support and condition of illness are precipitating factors of PTG. Nurses should be able to recognize positive mental changes among malignant tumor patients and take individualized psychological measures.%目的 了解恶性肿瘤患者术后化疗期创伤后成长状况,为恶性肿瘤患者术后的心理干预提供依据.方法 对230例恶性肿瘤术后化疗期患者进行一般情况和创伤后成长状况调查,并进行统计分析.结果 恶性肿瘤术后化疗期患者创伤后成长总均分为67.33±14.17,欣赏生活维度条目均分最高,其次是精神改变、人际关系、个人增强,新的可能性均分最低.不同性别、年龄、婚姻状况、居住状况、月收入、病情、病程等患者的创伤后成长评分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 恶性肿瘤术后化疗期患者呈中等程度的创伤后成长水平,性别、年龄、社会支持、病情等为其影响因素.肿瘤患者的护理过程中,要看到患者心理的积极改变,

  7. Multi-Agent Modeling and Simulation Approach for Design and Analysis of MER Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Chin; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A space mission operations system is a complex network of human organizations, information and deep-space network systems and spacecraft hardware. As in other organizations, one of the problems in mission operations is managing the relationship of the mission information systems related to how people actually work (practices). Brahms, a multi-agent modeling and simulation tool, was used to model and simulate NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission work practice. The objective was to investigate the value of work practice modeling for mission operations design. From spring 2002 until winter 2003, a Brahms modeler participated in mission systems design sessions and operations testing for the MER mission held at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). He observed how designers interacted with the Brahms tool. This paper discussed mission system designers' reactions to the simulation output during model validation and the presentation of generated work procedures. This project spurred JPL's interest in the Brahms model, but it was never included as part of the formal mission design process. We discuss why this occurred. Subsequently, we used the MER model to develop a future mission operations concept. Team members were reluctant to use the MER model, even though it appeared to be highly relevant to their effort. We describe some of the tool issues we encountered.

  8. Thermal modeling of a secondary concentrator integrated with an open direct-absorption molten-salt volumetric receiver in a beam-down tower system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Radia; Armstrong, Peter; Grange, Benjamin; Almheiri, Saif; Calvet, Nicolas; Slocum, Alexander; Shamim, Tariq

    2016-05-01

    An upward-facing three-dimensional secondary concentrator, herein termed Final Optical Element (FOE), is designed to be used in a beam-down tower in combination with an open volumetric direct-absorption molten-salt receiver tank acting simultaneously as a thermal energy storage system. It allows reducing thermal losses from the open receiver by decreasing its aperture area while keeping minimal spillage losses. The FOE is exposed to high solar fluxes, a part of which is absorbed by its reflector material, leading to material degradation by overheating. Consequently, the FOE may require active cooling. A thermal model of the FOE under passive cooling mechanism is proposed as a first step to evaluate its sensitivity to some design parameters. Then, it will be used to evaluate the requirements for the active cooling system. The model provides insights on the FOE thermal behavior and highlights the effectiveness of a design modification on passive cooling enhancement. First prototype tests under reduced flux and with no active cooling will be used for model adjustment.

  9. Artificial Immune Systems Metaphor for Agent Based Modeling of Crisis Response Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2010-01-01

    Crisis response requires information intensive efforts utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. This paper presents an Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) metaphor for agent based modeling of crisis response operations. The presented model proposes integration of hybrid set of aspects (multi-agent systems, built-in defensive model of AIS, situation management, and intensity-based learning) for crisis response operations. In addition, the proposed response model is applied on the spread of pandemic influenza in Egypt as a case study.

  10. Progress toward the Determination of Complete Vertex Operators for The IIB Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, Y; Saito, O; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Mizoguchi, Shun'ya; Saito, Osamu

    2006-01-01

    We report on progress in determining the complete form of vertex operators for the IIB matrix model. The exact expressions are obtained for those emitting massless IIB supergravity fields up to sixth order in the light-cone superfield, in which the conjugate gravitino and conjugate two-form vertex operators are newly determined. We also provide a consistency check by computing the kinematical factor of a four-point graviton amplitude in a D-instanton background. We conjecture that the low-energy effective action of the IIB matrix model at large N is given by tree-level supergravity coupled to the vertex operators.

  11. Algorithm To Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) multicomputer operating system functional specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, R.; Stoughton, J.; Som, S.; Obando, R.; Malekpour, M.; Mandala, B.

    1990-01-01

    A functional description of the ATAMM Multicomputer Operating System is presented. ATAMM (Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model) is a marked graph model which describes the implementation of large grained, decomposed algorithms on data flow architectures. AMOS, the ATAMM Multicomputer Operating System, is an operating system which implements the ATAMM rules. A first generation version of AMOS which was developed for the Advanced Development Module (ADM) is described. A second generation version of AMOS being developed for the Generic VHSIC Spaceborne Computer (GVSC) is also presented.

  12. Decision-oriented Usability Evaluation of an Operation Interface: Model and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun; SUN Lin-yan; LI Min

    2012-01-01

    To support multi-factor decision problems about usability evaluation, especially when studies fall short of comparable objects, a fuzzy synthetic evaluation model is explored in this paper. Grey relational analysis (GRA) is brought in the model to calculate weight vectors of the usability factors. And membership functions of a remark vector are constructed in the context of use of the operation interface. The present method is applied in usability evaluation of operation interface and is proved to be effective. The comprehensive usability gradation of the operation interface to good is 0. 616 4 that meets the requirements in practice.

  13. Modelling and operation strategies of DLR's large scale thermocline test facility (TESIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal, Christian; Breidenbach, Nils; Bauer, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    In this work an overview of the TESIS:store thermocline test facility and its current construction status will be given. Based on this, the TESIS:store facility using sensible solid filler material is modelled with a fully transient model, implemented in MATLAB®. Results in terms of the impact of filler site and operation strategies will be presented. While low porosity and small particle diameters for the filler material are beneficial, operation strategy is one key element with potential for optimization. It is shown that plant operators have to ponder between utilization and exergetic efficiency. Different durations of the charging and discharging period enable further potential for optimizations.

  14. Operational freight carrier planning basic concepts, optimization models and advanced memetic algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Schönberger, Jörn

    2005-01-01

    The modern freight carrier business requires a sophisticated automatic decision support in order to ensure the efficiency and reliability and therefore the survival of transport service providers. This book addresses these challenges and provides generic decision models for the short-term operations planning as well as advanced metaheuristics to obtain efficient operation plans. After a thorough analysis of the operations planning in the freight carrier business, decision models are derived. Their suitability is proven within a large number of numerical experiments, in which a new class of hybrid genetic search approaches demonstrate their appropriateness.

  15. Discriminating Threshold of Driving Fatigue Based on the Electroencephalography Sample Entropy by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis%基于ROC曲线的驾驶疲劳脑电样本熵判定阈值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 许士丽; 荣建; 张兴俭

    2013-01-01

    为了获得客观而准确的驾驶疲劳判别阈值,采用驾驶模拟实验研究方法,采集驾驶员在清醒及疲劳状态下的脑电信号,对比分析不同状态下脑电信号的时域特征,选取表征信号复杂程度的样本熵作为驾驶疲劳判别指标,并利用受试者工作特性曲线(receiver operating characteristic curve,ROC)分析方法,确定基于脑电信号样本熵值的驾驶疲劳判别阈值.研究结果表明:脑电信号样本熵值处于区间(0.32,0.71)时,驾驶员处于疲劳过渡时期,可能出现疲劳特征;脑电信号样本熵值小于阈值0.605时,判定驾驶员处于驾驶疲劳状态,准确率为0.95,该值可作为基于脑电信号样本熵的驾驶疲劳判定阈值.%In order to acquire an objective and accurate driving fatigue threshold, electroencephalography (EEG) signals of drivers were collected from driving simulator, and the time-domain characteristics of EGG signals of drivers in sober and mental fatigue states were comparatively analyzed. Considering the different complexity of EEG signals in sober and fatigue states, the sample entropy of EEG signals were calculated to characterize the complexity of signals, and used as the index for identifying driving fatigue. Based on the obtained EGG sample entropy, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was introduced to obtain the discriminating threshold of driving fatigue. The results indicate that when the EEG sample entropy value is between (0.32, 0.71) , the driver is in the transitional period of fatigue, may be in a fatigue state; the sample entropy of less than 0.605 can be identified as the threshold of driving fatigue, and the accuracy is 0.95.

  16. Trajectory-Based Morphological Operators: A Model for Efficient Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Morenilla, Antonio; Pujol, Francisco A.; Molina-Carmona, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, José L.; Pujol, Mar

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical morphology has been an area of intensive research over the last few years. Although many remarkable advances have been achieved throughout these years, there is still a great interest in accelerating morphological operations in order for them to be implemented in real-time systems. In this work, we present a new model for computing mathematical morphology operations, the so-called morphological trajectory model (MTM), in which a morphological filter will be divided into a sequence of basic operations. Then, a trajectory-based morphological operation (such as dilation, and erosion) is defined as the set of points resulting from the ordered application of the instant basic operations. The MTM approach allows working with different structuring elements, such as disks, and from the experiments, it can be extracted that our method is independent of the structuring element size and can be easily applied to industrial systems and high-resolution images. PMID:24892091

  17. A method for aggregating external operating conditions in multi-generation system optimization models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano Viana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, simple method for reducing external operating condition datasets to be used in multi-generation system optimization models. The method, called the Characteristic Operating Pattern (CHOP) method, is a visually-based aggregation method that clusters reference data based...... on parameter values rather than time of occurrence, thereby preserving important information on short-term relations between the relevant operating parameters. This is opposed to commonly used methods where data are averaged over chronological periods (months or years), and extreme conditions are hidden...... in the averaged values. The CHOP method is tested in a case study where the operation of a fictive Danish combined heat and power plant is optimized over a historical 5-year period. The optimization model is solved using the full external operating condition dataset, a reduced dataset obtained using the CHOP...

  18. Modeling Operation Problem of Micro-grids Considering Economical, Technical and Environmental issues as Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Salahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of fossil resources, increasing the production of greenhouse gas emissions and demand growth lead to greater use of distributed energy resources in power system especially in distribution networks. Integrating these resources in order to supply local loads creates a new concept called micro-grid. Optimal operation of micro-grid in the specific time period is one of the most important problems of them. In this paper, the operation problem of micro-grids is modeled considering the economical, technical and environmental issues, as well as uncertainties related to loads, wind speed and solar radiation. The resulting model is a Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, Bisheh village in Iran is considered as a case study. The results showed that considering load curtailment costs, the power losses of the main grid, the penalties of pollutant gasses emissions and the elimination of energy subsides will tremendous impacts on the operation of microgrids. Article History: Received March 12, 2016; Received in revised form June 20, 2016; Accepted July 2nd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Salahi, S., and Bahramara, S. (2016 Modeling Operation Problem of Micro-grids Considering Economical, Technical and Environmental issues as Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 139-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.139-149 

  19. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  20. Operation Modeling of Power Systems Integrated with Large-Scale New Energy Power Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the most current methods of probabilistic power system production simulation, the output characteristics of new energy power generation (NEPG has not been comprehensively considered. In this paper, the power output characteristics of wind power generation and photovoltaic power generation are firstly analyzed based on statistical methods according to their historical operating data. Then the characteristic indexes and the filtering principle of the NEPG historical output scenarios are introduced with the confidence level, and the calculation model of NEPG’s credible capacity is proposed. Based on this, taking the minimum production costs or the best energy-saving and emission-reduction effect as the optimization objective, the power system operation model with large-scale integration of new energy power generation (NEPG is established considering the power balance, the electricity balance and the peak balance. Besides, the constraints of the operating characteristics of different power generation types, the maintenance schedule, the load reservation, the emergency reservation, the water abandonment and the transmitting capacity between different areas are also considered. With the proposed power system operation model, the operation simulations are carried out based on the actual Northwest power grid of China, which resolves the new energy power accommodations considering different system operating conditions. The simulation results well verify the validity of the proposed power system operation model in the accommodation analysis for the power system which is penetrated with large scale NEPG.